Science.gov

Sample records for electronic supplementary op-video

  1. Multicultural Education Supplementary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhon, Rose M.; Dorris, Ronald

    This multicultural education supplementary curriculum provides educators with a means of expressing those human qualities that inspired them to choose their profession: namely, kindness, acceptance, and understanding. It does so by enabling them to identify and meet the diverse racial and cultural backgrounds and needs of their students. Simply, a…

  2. Solar powered biohydrogen production requires specific localization of the hydrogenase† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary Fig. 1–12 and supplementary Table 1. See DOI: 10.1039/c4ee02502d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, Nigel J.; Boehm, Marko; Eckert, Carrie; Mastroianni, Giulia; Spence, Edward M.; Yu, Jianfeng; Nixon, Peter J.; Appel, Jens; Mullineaux, Conrad W.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria contain a bidirectional [NiFe] hydrogenase which transiently produces hydrogen upon exposure of anoxic cells to light, potentially acting as a “valve” releasing excess electrons from the electron transport chain. However, its interaction with the photosynthetic electron transport chain remains unclear. By GFP-tagging the HoxF diaphorase subunit we show that the hydrogenase is thylakoid associated, comprising a population dispersed uniformly through the thylakoids and a subpopulation localized to discrete puncta in the distal thylakoid. Thylakoid localisation of both the HoxH and HoxY hydrogenase subunits is confirmed by immunogold electron microscopy. The diaphorase HoxE subunit is essential for recruitment to the dispersed thylakoid population, potentially anchoring the hydrogenase to the membrane, but aggregation to puncta occurs through a distinct HoxE-independent mechanism. Membrane association does not require NDH-1. Localization is dynamic on a scale of minutes, with anoxia and high light inducing a significant redistribution between these populations in favour of puncta. Since HoxE is essential for access to its electron donor, electron supply to the hydrogenase depends on a physiologically controlled localization, potentially offering a new avenue to enhance photosynthetic hydrogen production by exploiting localization/aggregation signals. PMID:26339289

  3. Supplementary Books on Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Pam; Jackson, Sherri L.; Griggs, Richard A.; Christopher, Andrew N.

    1998-01-01

    Describes 12 critical-thinking books that instructors could use as supplements in psychology courses. Observes that, although the breadth and depth of most of these books limit their use in a one-term introductory course, they fit comfortably into two-term courses. Suggests alternative ways to incorporate supplementary books into the psychology…

  4. Molecular dynamics and charge transport in organic semiconductors: a classical approach to modeling electron transfer† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc04547b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Mayagoitia, Álvaro; Ratcliff, Laura E.; Tretiak, Sergei; Bair, Raymond A.; Gray, Stephen K.; Van Voorhis, Troy; Larsen, Ross E.; Darling, Seth B.

    2017-01-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are a promising carbon-neutral energy conversion technology, with recent improvements pushing power conversion efficiencies over 10%. A major factor limiting OPV performance is inefficiency of charge transport in organic semiconducting materials (OSCs). Due to strong coupling with lattice degrees of freedom, the charges form polarons, localized quasi-particles comprised of charges dressed with phonons. These polarons can be conceptualized as pseudo-atoms with a greater effective mass than a bare charge. We propose that due to this increased mass, polarons can be modeled with Langevin molecular dynamics (LMD), a classical approach with a computational cost much lower than most quantum mechanical methods. Here we present LMD simulations of charge transfer between a pair of fullerene molecules, which commonly serve as electron acceptors in OSCs. We find transfer rates consistent with experimental measurements of charge mobility, suggesting that this method may provide quantitative predictions of efficiency when used to simulate materials on the device scale. Our approach also offers information that is not captured in the overall transfer rate or mobility: in the simulation data, we observe exactly when and why intermolecular transfer events occur. In addition, we demonstrate that these simulations can shed light on the properties of polarons in OSCs. Much remains to be learned about these quasi-particles, and there are no widely accepted methods for calculating properties such as effective mass and friction. Our model offers a promising approach to exploring mass and friction as well as providing insight into the details of polaron transport in OSCs. PMID:28553494

  5. 77 FR 43094 - Public Comment Period Extension for the Final Supplementary Risk Assessment for the Boston...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Risk Assessment for the Boston University (BU) National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories... University (BU) National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories (NEIDL) was published in the Federal... Electronic Access: Copies of the Final Supplementary Risk Assessment for the Boston University National...

  6. 18 CFR 401.122 - Supplementary details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Supplementary details. 401.122 Section 401.122 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions § 401.122 Supplementary details. Forms...

  7. 18 CFR 401.122 - Supplementary details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supplementary details. 401.122 Section 401.122 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions § 401.122 Supplementary details....

  8. 18 CFR 401.122 - Supplementary details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Supplementary details. 401.122 Section 401.122 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions § 401.122 Supplementary details....

  9. 18 CFR 401.122 - Supplementary details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplementary details. 401.122 Section 401.122 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions § 401.122 Supplementary details....

  10. Private Supplementary Tutoring in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Štastný, Vít

    2016-01-01

    The study contributes to the literature on private supplementary tutoring by shedding light on this phenomenon in the Czech Republic. The aim of the paper is to identify the reasons for seeking out private supplementary tutoring and to assess the factors underlying its demand. In the representative sample of 1,265 senior upper-secondary school…

  11. 18 CFR 401.122 - Supplementary details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplementary details. 401.122 Section 401.122 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions § 401.122 Supplementary details. Forms...

  12. Private Supplementary Tutoring in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Štastný, Vít

    2016-01-01

    The study contributes to the literature on private supplementary tutoring by shedding light on this phenomenon in the Czech Republic. The aim of the paper is to identify the reasons for seeking out private supplementary tutoring and to assess the factors underlying its demand. In the representative sample of 1,265 senior upper-secondary school…

  13. 18 CFR 706.405 - Supplementary statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests § 706.405... employment and financial interests shall be reported in a supplementary statement, in the format prescribed... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplementary...

  14. 18 CFR 706.405 - Supplementary statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests § 706.405... employment and financial interests shall be reported in a supplementary statement, in the format prescribed... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supplementary...

  15. Including supplementary elements in a compositional biplot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daunis-i-Estadella, J.; Thió-Henestrosa, S.; Mateu-Figueras, G.

    2011-05-01

    The biplot is a widely and powerful methodology used with multidimensional data sets to describe and display the relationships between observations and variables in an easy way. Compositional data are vectors with positive components, whose sum is constant because they represent a relative contribution of different parts to a whole; due to this property standard biplots cannot be performed with compositional data, instead of a previous transformation of the data is performed. In this paper, we extend the compositional biplot defined by Aitchison and Greenacre (2002), in order to include in the display supplementary elements which are not used in the definition of the compositional biplot. Different types of supplementary elements are considered: supplementary parts of the composition, supplementary continuous variables external to the composition, supplementary categorical variables and supplementary observations. The projection of supplementary parts of the composition is done by means of the equivalence of clr and lr biplots. The other supplementary projections are done by classical methodology. An application example with a real geological data is included.

  16. Supplementary safety system corrosion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.H.; Wiersma, B.J.

    1991-05-21

    This memorandum presents experimental data from electrochemical and immersion tests to support the continued use of two sections of nonconforming steel in the Supplementary Safety System. The Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee met on May 16, 1991 to evaluate materials that had been installed in the SSS. The materials lacked complete Corrosion Evaluation (CE) and/or Certified Mill Test Reports and had been installed during recent modifications (Project S-4332). Items that lacked proper documentation included AISI Type 304 stainless steel (304) instrument tubing (0.375'' OD) associated with the pressure transmitters and a two-foot section of 304 pipe located on the far side of the system downstream of the pneumatic valves. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans were performed on sensitized and solution-annealed 304 samples in as-mixed and acidified Gd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, or ink'', solutions at room temperature to determine the susceptibility of 304 to localized corrosion in this environment. No localized attack was observed on the solution annealed or sensitized 304 in the Gd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solution. These tests revealed no significant differences in the behavior of the sensitized and solution-annealed 304 in gadolinium nitrate solution. Therefore, localized corrosion of the nonconforming components is not anticipated, and the performance of the nonconforming components should not differ from that of corrosion evaluated and certified materials. Previous studies have shown that AISI Type 304L stainless steel (304L) did not pit during a three-month exposure in gadolinium nitrate solutions of pH 2 or 5. These combined results support the continued use of the nonconforming steels until replacement can be made at the next scheduled long shut-down.

  17. Supplementary safety system corrosion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.H.; Wiersma, B.J.

    1991-05-21

    This memorandum presents experimental data from electrochemical and immersion tests to support the continued use of two sections of nonconforming steel in the Supplementary Safety System. The Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee met on May 16, 1991 to evaluate materials that had been installed in the SSS. The materials lacked complete Corrosion Evaluation (CE) and/or Certified Mill Test Reports and had been installed during recent modifications (Project S-4332). Items that lacked proper documentation included AISI Type 304 stainless steel (304) instrument tubing (0.375`` OD) associated with the pressure transmitters and a two-foot section of 304 pipe located on the far side of the system downstream of the pneumatic valves. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans were performed on sensitized and solution-annealed 304 samples in as-mixed and acidified Gd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, or ``ink``, solutions at room temperature to determine the susceptibility of 304 to localized corrosion in this environment. No localized attack was observed on the solution annealed or sensitized 304 in the Gd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solution. These tests revealed no significant differences in the behavior of the sensitized and solution-annealed 304 in gadolinium nitrate solution. Therefore, localized corrosion of the nonconforming components is not anticipated, and the performance of the nonconforming components should not differ from that of corrosion evaluated and certified materials. Previous studies have shown that AISI Type 304L stainless steel (304L) did not pit during a three-month exposure in gadolinium nitrate solutions of pH 2 or 5. These combined results support the continued use of the nonconforming steels until replacement can be made at the next scheduled long shut-down.

  18. Nanofiber spraying method using a supplementary electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, GeunHyung; Kim, WanDoo

    2006-07-01

    Using a supplementary electrode, electrospun poly(ɛ-carprolactone) fibers were deposited on various substrates with different electrical properties. The ability to coat the substrates was independent of the surface electric resistance of the substrates. This was due to the charge reduction of the sprayed fibers, which resulted from passing through the supplementary electrode. The sprayed fibers might find applications in smart textiles, advanced coating technology, and as biomedical wound dressings.

  19. 48 CFR 204.7004 - Supplementary PII numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Supplementary PII numbers... Identification Numbers 204.7004 Supplementary PII numbers. (a) Uses of the supplementary number. Use supplementary numbers with the basic PII number, to identify— (1) Amendments to solicitations; (2) Modifications...

  20. Does supplementary reinforcement of stereotypy facilitate extinction?

    PubMed

    Dozier, Claudia L; Iwata, Brian A; Wilson, David M; Thomason-Sassi, Jessica L; Roscoe, Eileen M

    2013-01-01

    Results of several studies suggest that delivery of supplemental (social) reinforcement for stereotypy might facilitate its subsequent extinction. We examined this possibility with 9 subjects who engaged in stereotypy by including methodological refinements to ensure that (a) subjects' stereotypy was maintained in the absence of social consequences, (b) supplementary reinforcers were highly preferred and were shown to be reinforcers for some behavior, and (c) subjects were exposed to lengthy reinforcement and extinction conditions. In spite of these modifications, only 4 subjects' stereotypy increased when supplementary reinforcement was delivered contingent on stereotypy, and no subject's stereotypy decreased below initial baseline levels when social reinforcement was subsequently withheld. Decreases in stereotypy occurred with the implementation of noncontingent reinforcement. Thus, delivery of supplementary reinforcers either did not increase stereotypy or did not facilitate extinction of stereotypy maintained by automatic reinforcement. We discuss the practical and conceptual bases of these results with respect to our current understanding of function-based interventions.

  1. Quantitative self-powered electrochromic biosensors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc04469g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Pellitero, Miguel Aller; Guimerà, Anton; Kitsara, Maria; Villa, Rosa; Rubio, Camille; Lakard, Boris; Doche, Marie-Laure; Hihn, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Self-powered sensors are analytical devices able to generate their own energy, either from the sample itself or from their surroundings. The conventional approaches rely heavily on silicon-based electronics, which results in increased complexity and cost, and prevents the broader use of these smart systems. Here we show that electrochromic materials can overcome the existing limitations by simplifying device construction and avoiding the need for silicon-based electronics entirely. Electrochromic displays can be built into compact self-powered electrochemical sensors that give quantitative information readable by the naked eye, simply controlling the current path inside them through a combination of specially arranged materials. The concept is validated by a glucose biosensor coupled horizontally to a Prussian blue display designed as a distance-meter proportional to (glucose) concentration. This approach represents a breakthrough for self-powered sensors, and extends the application of electrochromic materials beyond smart windows and displays, into sensing and quantification. PMID:28451316

  2. The photophysics of naphthalene dimers controlled by sulfur bridge oxidation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc01285c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Climent, Clàudia; Barbatti, Mario; Wolf, Michael O.; Bardeen, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we investigate in detail the photophysics of naphthalene dimers covalently linked by a sulfur atom. We explore and rationalize how the oxidation state of the sulfur-bridging atom directly influences the photoluminescence of the dimer by enhancing or depriving its radiative and non-radiative relaxation pathways. In particular, we discuss how oxidation controls the amount of electronic transfer between the naphthalene moieties and the participation of the SOn bridge in the low-lying electronic transitions. We identify the sulfur electron lone-pairs as crucial actors in the non-radiative decay of the excited sulfide and sulfoxide dimers, which are predicted to proceed via a conical intersection (CI). Concretely, two types of CI have been identified for these dimers, which are associated with the photo-induced pyramidal inversion and reverse fragmentation mechanisms found in aryl sulfoxide dimers. The obtained results and conclusions are general enough to be extrapolated to other sulfur-bridged conjugated dimers, therefore proportionating novel strategies in the design of strongly photoluminescent organic molecules with controlled charge transfer. PMID:28959417

  3. Use and mis-use of supplementary material in science publications.

    PubMed

    Pop, Mihai; Salzberg, Steven L

    2015-11-03

    Supplementary material is a ubiquitous feature of scientific articles, particularly in journals that limit the length of the articles. While the judicious use of supplementary material can improve the readability of scientific articles, its excessive use threatens the scientific review process and by extension the integrity of the scientific literature. In many cases supplementary material today is so extensive that it is reviewed superficially or not at all. Furthermore, citations buried within supplementary files rob other scientists of recognition of their contribution to the scientific record. These issues are exacerbated by the lack of guidance on the use of supplementary information from the journals to authors and reviewers. We propose that the removal of artificial length restrictions plus the use of interactive features made possible by modern electronic media can help to alleviate these problems. Many journals, in fact, have already removed article length limitations (as is the case for BMC Bioinformatics and other BioMed Central journals). We hope that the issues raised in our article will encourage publishers and scientists to work together towards a better use of supplementary information in scientific publishing.

  4. 49 CFR 537.8 - Supplementary reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.8 Supplementary reports. (a)(1... semiannual report contained an average fuel economy projection under § 537.7(b)(2) or, if no average fuel economy was projected under that section, under § 537.7(b)(1), that was not less than the...

  5. Supplementary Materials for Academically Gifted English Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jean E.

    1982-01-01

    A list of 26 periodicals for use as supplementary instruction for gifted English students presents information on title, frequency of publication, and on publisher (along with a brief annotation) for publications in six categories: literary anthology; cultural and historical heritage; humor; literary criticism; literary, political, and social…

  6. Agricultural Science I. Supplementary Units. Instructor Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Donna; And Others

    These supplementary units are designed to help students with special needs learn and apply agricultural skills in the areas of animal breeding, animal nutrition, leadership, and power tools. Specific competencies are listed as study questions at the beginning of each of the 10 self-paced and self-contained units. Skill sheets, activity sheets, and…

  7. 49 CFR 537.8 - Supplementary reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.8 Supplementary reports. (a)(1... semiannual report contained an average fuel economy projection under § 537.7(b)(2) or, if no average fuel... average fuel economy standard and who now projects an average fuel economy which is less than the...

  8. 49 CFR 537.8 - Supplementary reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.8 Supplementary reports. (a)(1... semiannual report contained an average fuel economy projection under § 537.7(b)(2) or, if no average fuel... average fuel economy standard and who now projects an average fuel economy which is less than the...

  9. 49 CFR 537.8 - Supplementary reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.8 Supplementary reports. (a)(1... semiannual report contained an average fuel economy projection under § 537.7(b)(2) or, if no average fuel... average fuel economy standard and who now projects an average fuel economy which is less than the...

  10. Machine Shop. Instructor Key. Supplementary Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, Charles; Cole, Phyllis

    These supplementary units are designed to help students with special needs learn and apply machine shop skills. Nine competencies that are difficult for special needs students to grasp or that would help them get a future job in the field were chosen from the regular machine shop curriculum. Specific objectives for these competencies are listed at…

  11. Receipts. Agricultural Record Keeping. Supplementary Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    Eight supplementary units are included in these instructional materials for agricultural recordkeeping: (1) receipts; (2) expenditures; (3) cash flow; (4) inventory; (5) financial statement; (6) business agreements; (7) ownership business agreements; and (8) placement training agreements. Each unit contains an introduction, lesson objectives, and…

  12. 28 CFR 51.39 - Supplementary submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplementary submissions. 51.39 Section 51.39 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Processing of Submissions § 51.39...

  13. Receipts. Agricultural Record Keeping. Supplementary Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    Eight supplementary units are included in these instructional materials for agricultural recordkeeping: (1) receipts; (2) expenditures; (3) cash flow; (4) inventory; (5) financial statement; (6) business agreements; (7) ownership business agreements; and (8) placement training agreements. Each unit contains an introduction, lesson objectives, and…

  14. Mathematics for Junior High School. Supplementary Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is a supplementary SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include sets, projective geometry, open and closed paths, finite…

  15. Machine Shop. Instructor Key. Supplementary Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, Charles; Cole, Phyllis

    These supplementary units are designed to help students with special needs learn and apply machine shop skills. Nine competencies that are difficult for special needs students to grasp or that would help them get a future job in the field were chosen from the regular machine shop curriculum. Specific objectives for these competencies are listed at…

  16. Agricultural Science I. Supplementary Units. Instructor Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Donna; And Others

    These supplementary units are designed to help students with special needs learn and apply agricultural skills in the areas of animal breeding, animal nutrition, leadership, and power tools. Specific competencies are listed as study questions at the beginning of each of the 10 self-paced and self-contained units. Skill sheets, activity sheets, and…

  17. Supplementary Teaching Materials for Business Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulden, Alfred W., Ed.

    This teaching guide for business education contains supplementary instructional materials for the subjects of accounting, business English, business mathematics, career education, consumer education, data processing, and office procedures. The units differ in format and in types of learning activities presented. The learning activity package for…

  18. Improving supplementary feeding in species conservation.

    PubMed

    Ewen, John G; Walker, Leila; Canessa, Stefano; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-04-01

    Supplementary feeding is often a knee-jerk reaction to population declines, and its application is not critically evaluated, leading to polarized views among managers on its usefulness. Here, we advocate a more strategic approach to supplementary feeding so that the choice to use it is clearly justified over, or in combination with, other management actions and the predicted consequences are then critically assessed following implementation. We propose combining methods from a set of specialist disciplines that will allow critical evaluation of the need, benefit, and risks of food supplementation. Through the use of nutritional ecology, population ecology, and structured decision making, conservation managers can make better choices about what and how to feed by estimating consequences on population recovery across a range of possible actions. This structured approach also informs targeted monitoring and more clearly allows supplementary feeding to be integrated in recovery plans and reduces the risk of inefficient decisions. In New Zealand, managers of the endangered Hihi (Notiomystis cincta) often rely on supplementary feeding to support reintroduced populations. On Kapiti island the reintroduced Hihi population has responded well to food supplementation, but the logistics of providing an increasing demand recently outstretched management capacity. To decide whether and how the feeding regime should be revised, managers used a structured decision making approach informed by population responses to alternative feeding regimes. The decision was made to reduce the spatial distribution of feeders and invest saved time in increasing volume of food delivered into a smaller core area. The approach used allowed a transparent and defendable management decision in regard to supplementary feeding, reflecting the multiple objectives of managers and their priorities. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of Society for

  19. Unravelling the pH-dependence of a molecular photocatalytic system for hydrogen production† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01349f Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, Ernest; Gross, Manuela A.; Selim, Shababa

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalytic systems for the reduction of aqueous protons are strongly pH-dependent, but the origin of this dependency is still not fully understood. We have studied the effect of different degrees of acidity on the electron transfer dynamics and catalysis taking place in a homogeneous photocatalytic system composed of a phosphonated ruthenium tris(bipyridine) dye (RuP) and a nickel bis(diphosphine) electrocatalyst (NiP) in an aqueous ascorbic acid solution. Our approach is based on transient absorption spectroscopy studies of the efficiency of photo-reduction of RuP and NiP correlated with pH-dependent photocatalytic H2 production and the degree of catalyst protonation. The influence of these factors results in an observed optimum photoactivity at pH 4.5 for the RuP–NiP system. The electron transfer from photo-reduced RuP to NiP is efficient and independent of the pH value of the medium. At pH <4.5, the efficiency of the system is limited by the yield of RuP photo-reduction by the sacrificial electron donor, ascorbic acid. At pH >4.5, the efficiency of the system is limited by the poor protonation of NiP, which inhibits its ability to reduce protons to hydrogen. We have therefore developed a rational strategy utilising transient absorption spectroscopy combined with bulk pH titration, electrocatalytic and photocatalytic experiments to disentangle the complex pH-dependent activity of the homogenous RuP–NiP photocatalytic system, which can be widely applied to other photocatalytic systems. PMID:28717491

  20. Oxygen evolution on well-characterized mass-selected Ru and RuO2 nanoparticles† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc02685c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Paoli, Elisa A.; Masini, Federico; Frydendal, Rasmus; Deiana, Davide; Schlaup, Christian; Malizia, Mauro; Hansen, Thomas W.; Horch, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen evolution was investigated on model, mass-selected RuO2 nanoparticles in acid, prepared by magnetron sputtering. Our investigations include electrochemical measurements, electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We show that the stability and activity of nanoparticulate RuO2 is highly sensitive to its surface pretreatment. At 0.25 V overpotential, the catalysts show a mass activity of up to 0.6 A mg–1 and a turnover frequency of 0.65 s–1, one order of magnitude higher than the current state-of-the-art. PMID:28553467

  1. Controlling deposition of nanoparticles by tuning surface charge of SiO2 by surface modifications† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6ra22412a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Eklöf, Johnas; Gschneidtner, Tina; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Nygård, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The self-assembly of nanoparticles on substrates is relevant for a variety of applications such as plasmonics, sensing devices and nanometer-sized electronics. We investigate the deposition of 60 nm spherical Au nanoparticles onto silicon dioxide (SiO2) substrates by changing the chemical treatment of the substrate and by that altering the surface charge. The deposition is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) was used to characterize the surface workfunction. The underlying physics involved in the deposition of nanoparticles was described by a model based on Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory combined with random sequential adsorption (RSA). The spatial statistical method Ripley's K-function was used to verify the DLVO–RSA model (ERSA). The statistical results also showed that the adhered particles exhibit a short-range order at distances below ~300 nm. This method can be used in future research to predict the deposition densities of charged nanoparticles onto charged surfaces. PMID:28066544

  2. Radiative cooling of H3O+ and its deuterated isotopologues† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cp04661d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Melnikov, Vladlen V.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    In conjunction with ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for the electronic ground state, we have made a theoretical study of the radiative lifetimes for the hydronium ion H3O+ and its deuterated isotopologues. We compute the ro-vibrational energy levels and their associated wavefunctions together with Einstein coefficients for electric dipole transitions. A detailed analysis of the stability of the ro-vibrational states has been carried out and the longest-living states of the hydronium ions have been identified. We report estimated radiative lifetimes and cooling functions for temperatures <200 K. A number of long-living meta-stable states are identified, capable of population trapping. PMID:27711706

  3. The smallest quaternary ammonium salts with ether groups for high-performance electrochemical double layer capacitors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02755a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Taihee; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Jeonghun; Kim, Jung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) are energy storage devices that have been used for a wide range of electronic applications. In particular, the electrolyte is one of the important components, directly related to the capacitance and stability. Herein, we first report a series of the smallest quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), with ether groups on tails and tetrafluoroborate (BF4) as an anion, for use in EDLCs. To find the optimal structure, various QASs with different sized head groups and ether-containing tail groups were systematically compared. Comparing two nearly identical structures with and without ether groups, QASs with oxygen atoms showed improved capacitance, proving that ions with oxygen atoms move more easily than their counterparts at lower electric fields. Moreover, the ether containing QASs showed low activation energy values of conductivities, leading to smaller IR drops during the charge and discharge processes, resulting in an overall higher capacitance. PMID:28959391

  4. Single-atom catalysts for CO2 electroreduction with significant activity and selectivity improvements† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc03911a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Back, Seoin; Lim, Juhyung; Kim, Na-Young; Kim, Yong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    A single-atom catalyst (SAC) has an electronic structure that is very different from its bulk counterparts, and has shown an unexpectedly high specific activity with a significant reduction in noble metal usage for CO oxidation, fuel cell and hydrogen evolution applications, although physical origins of such performance enhancements are still poorly understood. Herein, by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we for the first time investigate the great potential of single atom catalysts for CO2 electroreduction applications. In particular, we study a single transition metal atom anchored on defective graphene with single or double vacancies, denoted M@sv-Gr or M@dv-Gr, where M = Ag, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Pt, Rh or Ru, as a CO2 reduction catalyst. Many SACs are indeed shown to be highly selective for the CO2 reduction reaction over a competitive H2 evolution reaction due to favorable adsorption of carboxyl (*COOH) or formate (*OCHO) over hydrogen (*H) on the catalysts. On the basis of free energy profiles, we identified several promising candidate materials for different products; Ni@dv-Gr (limiting potential U L = –0.41 V) and Pt@dv-Gr (–0.27 V) for CH3OH production, and Os@dv-Gr (–0.52 V) and Ru@dv-Gr (–0.52 V) for CH4 production. In particular, the Pt@dv-Gr catalyst shows remarkable reduction in the limiting potential for CH3OH production compared to any existing catalysts, synthesized or predicted. To understand the origin of the activity enhancement of SACs, we find that the lack of an atomic ensemble for adsorbate binding and the unique electronic structure of the single atom catalysts as well as orbital interaction play an important role, contributing to binding energies of SACs that deviate considerably from the conventional scaling relation of bulk transition metals. PMID:28451248

  5. Designed multi-stranded heme binding β-sheet peptides in membrane† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc04108b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Areetha; Mahajan, Mukesh; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2016-01-01

    Designed peptides demonstrating well-defined structures and functioning in membrane environment are of significant interest in developing novel proteins for membrane active biological processes including enzymes, electron transfer, ion channels and energy conversion. Heme proteins' ability to carry out multiple functions in nature has inspired the design of several helical heme binding peptides and proteins soluble in water and also recently in membrane. Naturally occurring β-sheet proteins are both water and membrane soluble, and are known to bind heme, however, designed heme binding β-sheet proteins are yet to be reported, plausibly because of the complex folding and difficulty in introducing heme binding sites in the β-sheet structures. Here, we describe the design, NMR structures and biochemical functional characterization of four stranded and six stranded membrane soluble β-sheet peptides that bind heme and di-heme, respectively. The designed peptides contain either DP-G or DP-DA residues for the nucleation of β-turns intended to stabilize multi-stranded β-sheet topologies and ligate heme with bis-His coordination between adjacent antiparallel β-strands. Furthermore, we have optimized a high affinity heme binding pocket, K d ∼ nM range, in the adjacent β-strands by utilizing a series of four stranded β-sheet peptides employing β- and ω-amino acids. We find that there is a progressive increase in cofactor binding affinity in the designed peptides with the alkyl chain length of ω-amino acids. Notably, the six stranded β-sheet peptide binds two molecules of heme in a cooperative fashion. The designed peptides perform peroxidase activity with varying ability and efficiently carried out electron transfer with membrane associated protein cytochrome c. The current study demonstrates the designing of functional β-sheet proteins in a membrane environment and expands the repertoire of heme protein design. PMID:28660027

  6. Reactive oxygen species in iridium-based OER catalysts† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc01860b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Verena; Wrabetz, Sabine; Massué, Cyriac; Velasco Vélez, Juan J.; Arrigo, Rosa; Scherzer, Michael; Piccinin, Simone; Hävecker, Michael; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Schlögl, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Tremendous effort has been devoted towards elucidating the fundamental reasons for the higher activity of hydrated amorphous IrIII/IV oxyhydroxides (IrOx) in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in comparison with their crystalline counterpart, rutile-type IrO2, by focusing on the metal oxidation state. Here we demonstrate that, through an analogy to photosystem II, the nature of this reactive species is not solely a property of the metal but is intimately tied to the electronic structure of oxygen. We use a combination of synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission and absorption spectroscopies, ab initio calculations, and microcalorimetry to show that holes in the O 2p states in amorphous IrOx give rise to a weakly bound oxygen that is extremely susceptible to nucleophilic attack, reacting stoichiometrically with CO already at room temperature. As such, we expect this species to play the critical role of the electrophilic oxygen involved in O–O bond formation in the electrocatalytic OER on IrOx. We propose that the dynamic nature of the Ir framework in amorphous IrOx imparts the flexibility in Ir oxidation state required for the formation of this active electrophilic oxygen. PMID:28042464

  7. A simple approach to obtain hybrid Au-loaded polymeric nanoparticles with a tunable metal load† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06850a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Michel, Edurne; Larrea, Ane; Lahuerta, Celia; Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; Arruebo, Manuel; Santamaría, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    A new strategy to nanoengineer multi-functional polymer–metal hybrid nanostructures is reported. By using this protocol the hurdles of most of the current developments concerning covalent and non-covalent attachment of polymers to preformed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are overcome. The strategy is based on the in situ reduction of metal precursors using the polymeric nanoparticle as a nanoreactor. Gold nanoparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA, are located in the core and shell, respectively. This novel technique enables the production of PLGA NPs smaller than 200 nm that bear either a single encapsulated Au NP or several smaller NPs with tunable sizes and a 100% loading efficiency. In situ reduction of Au ions inside the polymeric NPs was achieved on demand by using heat to activate the reductive effect of citrate ions. In addition, we show that the loading of the resulting Au NPs inside the PLGA NPs is highly dependent on the surfactant used. Electron microscopy, laser irradiation, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy characterization techniques confirm the location of Au nanoparticles. These promising results indicate that these hybrid nanomaterials could be used in theranostic applications or as contrast agents in dark-field imaging and computed tomography. PMID:26612770

  8. Long-term stability and reusability of molecularly imprinted polymers† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMR, BET and elemental analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c6py01853j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Kupai, Jozsef; Razali, Mayamin; Buyuktiryaki, Sibel; Kecili, Rustem

    2017-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted materials are man-made mimics of biological receptors. Their polymer network has recognition sites complementary to a substrate in terms of size, shape and chemical functionality. They have diverse applications in various chemical, biomedical and engineering fields such as solid phase extraction, catalysis, drug delivery, pharmaceutical purification, (bio)sensors, water treatment, membrane separations and proteomics. The stability and reusability of molecularly imprinted polymers (IPs) have crucial roles in developing applications that are reliable, economic and sustainable. In the present article the effect of crosslinkers, functional monomers and conditions for template extraction on the long-term stability and reusability of IPs was systematically investigated. Adsorption capacity, selectivity, morphology and thermal decomposition of eleven different l-phenylalanine methyl ester imprinted polymers were studied to reveal performance loss over 100 adsorption–regeneration cycles. Furthermore, crosslinker and functional monomer specific reversible and irreversible decomposition of imprinted polymers as a result of adsorbent regeneration were investigated through adsorption studies, electron microscopy, N2 adsorption and thermogravimetric analysis. A decomposition mechanism was proposed and revealed using NMR spectroscopy. Solutions to avoid or overcome the limitations of the most common crosslinkers, functional monomers and extraction techniques were proposed and experimentally validated. PMID:28496524

  9. Conductance in a bis-terpyridine based single molecular breadboard circuit† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc03204d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Charu; Suravarapu, Sankarrao; Reber, David; Hong, Wenjing; Wandlowski, Thomas; Lafolet, Frédéric; Broekmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Controlling charge flow in single molecule circuits with multiple electrical contacts and conductance pathways is a much sought after goal in molecular electronics. In this joint experimental and theoretical study, we advance the possibility of creating single molecule breadboard circuits through an analysis of the conductance of a bis-terpyridine based molecule (TP1). The TP1 molecule can adopt multiple conformations through relative rotations of 7 aromatic rings and can attach to electrodes in 61 possible single and multi-terminal configurations through 6 pyridyl groups. Despite this complexity, we show that it is possible to extract well defined conductance features for the TP1 breadboard and assign them rigorously to the underlying constituent circuits. Mechanically controllable break-junction (MCBJ) experiments on the TP1 molecular breadboard show an unprecedented 4 conductance states spanning a range 10 –2 G 0 to 10 –7 G 0. Quantitative theoretical examination of the conductance of TP1 reveals that combinations of 5 types of single terminal 2–5 ring subcircuits are accessed as a function of electrode separation to produce the distinct conductance steps observed in the MCBJ experiments. We estimate the absolute conductance for each single terminal subcircuit and its percentage contribution to the 4 experimentally observed conductance states. We also provide a detailed analysis of the role of quantum interference and thermal fluctuations in modulating conductance within the subcircuits of the TP1 molecular breadboard. Finally, we discuss the possible development of molecular circuit theory and experimental advances necessary for mapping conductance through complex single molecular breadboard circuits in terms of their constituent subcircuits. PMID:28451287

  10. Crystal structure and thermoelectric properties of Sr–Mo substituted CaMnO3: a combined experimental and computational study† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5tc02318a

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, D.; Azough, F.; Combe, E.; Funahashi, R.; Kepaptsoglou, D. M.; Ramasse, Q. M.; Molinari, M.; Yeandel, S. R.; Baran, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    A combination of experimental and computational techniques has been employed to study doping effects in perovskite CaMnO3. High quality Sr–Mo co-substituted CaMnO3 ceramics were prepared by the conventional mixed oxide route. Crystallographic data from X-ray and electron diffraction showed an orthorhombic to tetragonal symmetry change on increasing the Sr content, suggesting that Sr widens the transition temperature in CaMnO3 preventing phase transformation-cracking on cooling after sintering, enabling the fabrication of high density ceramics. Atomically resolved imaging and analysis showed a random distribution of Sr in the A-site of the perovskite structure and revealed a boundary structure of 90° rotational twin boundaries across {101}orthorhombic; the latter are predominant phonon scattering sources to lower the thermal conductivity as suggested by molecular dynamics calculations. The effect of doping on the thermoelectric properties was evaluated. Increasing Sr substitution reduces the Seebeck coefficient but the power factor remains high due to improved densification by Sr substitution. Mo doping generates additional charge carriers due to the presence of Mn3+ in the Mn4+ matrix, reducing electrical resistivity. The major impact of Sr on thermoelectric behaviour is the reduction of the thermal conductivity as shown experimentally and by modelling. Strontium containing ceramics showed thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) values higher than 0.1 at temperatures above 850 K. Ca0.7Sr0.3Mn0.96Mo0.04O3 ceramics exhibit enhanced properties with S 1000K = –180 μV K–1, ρ 1000K = 5 × 10–5 Ωm, k 1000K = 1.8 W m–1 K–1 and ZT ≈ 0.11 at 1000 K. PMID:28496979

  11. Basic and supplementary sensory feedback in handwriting

    PubMed Central

    Danna, Jérémy; Velay, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The mastering of handwriting is so essential in our society that it is important to try to find new methods for facilitating its learning and rehabilitation. The ability to control the graphic movements clearly impacts on the quality of the writing. This control allows both the programming of letter formation before movement execution and the online adjustments during execution, thanks to diverse sensory feedback (FB). New technologies improve existing techniques or enable new methods to supply the writer with real-time computer-assisted FB. The possibilities are numerous and various. Therefore, two main questions arise: (1) What aspect of the movement is concerned and (2) How can we best inform the writer to help them correct their handwriting? In a first step, we report studies on FB naturally used by the writer. The purpose is to determine which information is carried by each sensory modality, how it is used in handwriting control and how this control changes with practice and learning. In a second step, we report studies on supplementary FB provided to the writer to help them to better control and learn how to write. We suggest that, depending on their contents, certain sensory modalities will be more appropriate than others to assist handwriting motor control. We emphasize particularly the relevance of auditory modality as online supplementary FB on handwriting movements. Using real-time supplementary FB to assist in the handwriting process is probably destined for a brilliant future with the growing availability and rapid development of tablets. PMID:25750633

  12. 40 CFR 152.406 - Submission of supplementary data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Submission of supplementary data. 152... supplementary data. Applicants may submit data to supplement pending applications without incurring additional... of supplementary data do not constitute a change in the type of registration action requested. ...

  13. 34 CFR 300.42 - Supplementary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Supplementary aids and services. 300.42 Section 300.42... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.42 Supplementary aids and services. Supplementary aids and services means aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular...

  14. 34 CFR 300.42 - Supplementary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Supplementary aids and services. 300.42 Section 300.42... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.42 Supplementary aids and services. Supplementary aids and services means aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular...

  15. 34 CFR 300.42 - Supplementary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Supplementary aids and services. 300.42 Section 300.42... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.42 Supplementary aids and services. Supplementary aids and services means aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular...

  16. 34 CFR 300.42 - Supplementary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplementary aids and services. 300.42 Section 300.42... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.42 Supplementary aids and services. Supplementary aids and services means aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular...

  17. 34 CFR 300.42 - Supplementary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplementary aids and services. 300.42 Section 300.42... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.42 Supplementary aids and services. Supplementary aids and services means aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular...

  18. 19 CFR 200.735-117 - Supplementary statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Supplementary statements. 200.735-117 Section 200... CONDUCT Provisions Governing Statements of Employment and Financial Interests § 200.735-117 Supplementary... and financial interests shall be reported in a supplementary statement as of June 30 each year. If no...

  19. Spin supplementary conditions for spinning compact binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikóczi, Balázs

    2017-03-01

    We consider different spin supplementary conditions (SSC) for a spinning compact binary with the leading-order spin-orbit (SO) interaction. The Lagrangian of the binary system can be constructed, but it is acceleration-dependent in two cases of SSC. We rewrite the generalized Hamiltonian formalism proposed by Ostrogradsky and compute the conserved quantities and the dissipative part of relative motion during the gravitational radiation of each SSC. We give the orbital elements and observed quantities of the SO dynamics, for instance, the energy and the orbital angular momentum losses and waveforms, and discuss their SSC dependence.

  20. Supplementary Prognostic Variables for Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Giroux, Dorothy; Kennedy, Catherine; Ruffini, Enrico; Cangir, Ayten K.; Rice, David; Asamura, Hisao; Waller, David; Edwards, John; Weder, Walter; Hoffmann, Hans; van Meerbeeck, Jan P.; Rusch, Valerie W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The staging system for malignant pleural mesothelioma is controversial. To revise this system, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Staging Committee developed an international database. This report analyzes prognostic variables in a surgical population, which are supplementary to previously published CORE variables (stage, histology, sex, age, and type of procedure). Methods: Supplementary prognostic variables were studied in three scenarios: (1) all data available, that is, patient pathologically staged and other CORE variables available (2) only clinical staging available along with CORE variables, and (3) only age, sex, histology, and laboratory parameters are known. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan–Meier, prognostic factors by log rank and stepwise Cox regression modeling after elimination of nonsignificant variables. p value less than 0.05 was significant. Results: A total of 2141 patients with best tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stages (pathologic with/without clinical staging) had nonmissing age, sex, histology, and type of surgical procedure. Three prognostic models were defined. Scenario A (all parameters): best pathologic stage, histology, sex, age, type of surgery, adjuvant treatment, white blood cell count (WBC) (≥15.5 or not), and platelets (≥400 k or not) (n = 550). Scenario B (no surgical staging): clinical stage, histology, sex, age, type of surgery, adjuvant treatment, WBC, hemoglobin (<14.6 or not), and platelets (n = 627). Scenario C (limited data): histology, sex, age, WBC, hemoglobin, and platelets (n = 906). Conclusion: Refinement of these models could define not only the appropriate patient preoperatively for best outcomes after cytoreductive surgery but also stratify surgically treated patients after clinical and pathologic staging who do or do not receive adjuvant therapy. PMID:24807157

  1. Improving supplementary feeding in species conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ewen, John G; Walker, Leila; Canessa, Stefano; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary feeding is often a knee-jerk reaction to population declines, and its application is not critically evaluated, leading to polarized views among managers on its usefulness. Here, we advocate a more strategic approach to supplementary feeding so that the choice to use it is clearly justified over, or in combination with, other management actions and the predicted consequences are then critically assessed following implementation. We propose combining methods from a set of specialist disciplines that will allow critical evaluation of the need, benefit, and risks of food supplementation. Through the use of nutritional ecology, population ecology, and structured decision making, conservation managers can make better choices about what and how to feed by estimating consequences on population recovery across a range of possible actions. This structured approach also informs targeted monitoring and more clearly allows supplementary feeding to be integrated in recovery plans and reduces the risk of inefficient decisions. In New Zealand, managers of the endangered Hihi (Notiomystis cincta) often rely on supplementary feeding to support reintroduced populations. On Kapiti island the reintroduced Hihi population has responded well to food supplementation, but the logistics of providing an increasing demand recently outstretched management capacity. To decide whether and how the feeding regime should be revised, managers used a structured decision making approach informed by population responses to alternative feeding regimes. The decision was made to reduce the spatial distribution of feeders and invest saved time in increasing volume of food delivered into a smaller core area. The approach used allowed a transparent and defendable management decision in regard to supplementary feeding, reflecting the multiple objectives of managers and their priorities. Mejoría de la Alimentación Suplementaria en la Conservación de Especies Resumen La alimentaci

  2. ARL Supplementary Statistics, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Les, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents statistics on how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. This report indicates that 109 ARL libraries purchased 32,329,187 electronic books. In 2007-2008, there was a median of 28,319 acquisitions of electronic books by ARL libraries (this includes one institution that…

  3. ARL Supplementary Statistics, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Les, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents statistics on how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. This report indicates that 108 ARL libraries purchased 25,006,758 electronic books. In 2006-2007, there was an ARL median of 243,725 acquisitions of electronic books (this includes one institution that purchased…

  4. Provision, Purpose and Pedagogy in a Bengali Supplementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Sue

    2011-01-01

    This paper, based on the results of a small pilot study of a Bengali supplementary school, discusses the features of the school in relation to other studies of supplementary "mother-tongue" schools and goes on to explore the pedagogy of the school, its relationship with other sites and spaces of learning and the implications of these for…

  5. 22 CFR 1203.735-407 - Supplementary statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Supplementary statements. 1203.735-407 Section 1203.735-407 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests § 1203.735-407 Supplementary...

  6. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplementary showing required. 101.411 Section 101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required. (a...

  7. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplementary showing required. 101.411 Section 101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required. (a...

  8. 75 FR 57813 - Proposed Supplementary Rules on Public Land, Idaho

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Bureau of Land Management Proposed Supplementary Rules on Public Land, Idaho AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Proposed supplementary rules. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM... public lands in Idaho. The BLM is also proposing to prohibit the possession of an open alcoholic...

  9. 22 CFR 1203.735-407 - Supplementary statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supplementary statements. 1203.735-407 Section... RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests § 1203.735-407 Supplementary..., or additions to, the information contained in their statements of employment and financial interests...

  10. Financial Report of Ontario Universities 1995-96. Supplementary Volume.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This supplementary volume has been compiled from submissions prepared by each of the provincially assisted universities and federated and affiliated colleges of Ontario (Canada). This supplementary volume provides data on sources of revenue, including grants from the federal (Canada) government and donations from corporations, foundations,…

  11. 13 CFR 301.6 - Supplementary investment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplementary investment..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.6 Supplementary investment assistance. (a) Pursuant to a request by an...

  12. 13 CFR 301.6 - Supplementary investment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplementary investment..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.6 Supplementary investment assistance. (a) Pursuant to a request by an...

  13. 13 CFR 301.6 - Supplementary investment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplementary investment..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.6 Supplementary investment assistance. (a) Pursuant to a request by an...

  14. 13 CFR 301.6 - Supplementary investment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplementary investment..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.6 Supplementary investment assistance. (a) Pursuant to a request by an...

  15. Immigration and Supplementary Ethnic Schooling: Ukrainian Students in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tereshchenko, Antonina; Grau Cárdenas, Valeska Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Immigration from Eastern European countries to Portugal is a recent phenomenon. Within the last decade, economic migrants from Ukraine, Russia, Romania and Moldova set up a number of supplementary schools across the country. No academic attention has been given to the phenomenon of supplementary ethnic schools in Portugal, whilst there is a…

  16. 17 CFR 210.12-16 - Supplementary insurance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplementary insurance... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-16 Supplementary insurance... life insurance or title insurance. This amount should include premiums from reinsurance assumed, and...

  17. Immigration and Supplementary Ethnic Schooling: Ukrainian Students in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tereshchenko, Antonina; Grau Cárdenas, Valeska Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Immigration from Eastern European countries to Portugal is a recent phenomenon. Within the last decade, economic migrants from Ukraine, Russia, Romania and Moldova set up a number of supplementary schools across the country. No academic attention has been given to the phenomenon of supplementary ethnic schools in Portugal, whilst there is a…

  18. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplementary showing required. 101.411 Section 101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required....

  19. Functional localization of the supplementary motor area.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, Satoru; Anei, Ryogo; Murakami, Noboru; Kamada, Kyousuke

    2014-01-01

    The supplementary motor area (SMA) is a key structure involved in behavioral planning and execution. Although many reports have indicated that SMA is organized somatotopically, its exact organization remains still unclear. This study aimed to functionally map SMA using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and validate the fMRI-SMA by electrocortical stimulation (ECS) and postsurgical symptoms. Total 32 healthy volunteers and 24 patients participated in this study. Motor tasks were right and left finger tapping and language tasks included simple reading, lexical decision for presented words, and verb generating tasks. SPM8 was used to conduct individual and group analyses. In all subjects, the lexical decision task induced the greatest number of active fMRI pixels in SMA. fMRI during the language tasks showed anterior part of SMA compared to finger tapping tasks. We found an overlap spot with all different tasks in posterior part of SMA, which we termed SMA core. Six patients underwent awake craniotomy for ECS mapping for primary regions and SMA. During awake craniotomy, ECS to posterior part of SMA, which might involve the possible SMA core consistently, evoked both speech arrest and flaccid hemiparesis. The SMA mapping suggested posterior part of SMA might play more important roles in any executions, which might involve the SMA core.

  20. Supplementary Guidance for Conducting Health Risk ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a supplement to the EPA Guidelines for the Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures of 1986. The 1986 Guidelines represent the Agency's science policy and are a procedural guide for evaluating data on the health risks from exposures to chemical mixtures. The emphasis is on dose response and risk characterization. The principles and concepts put forth in the Guidelines remain in effect. However, where the Guidelines describe broad principles and include few specific procedures, the present guidance is a supplement that is intended to provide more detail on these principles and their applications.After an overview of the background and scope, this supplementary guidance puts forth the risk assessment paradigm for mixtures. This paradigm begins with problem formulation, then briefly discusses hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure, and risk characterization. The document is organized according to the type of data available. Procedures are described for assessment using data on the mixture of concern, data on a toxicologically similar mixture, and data on the mixture component chemicals. The state of the science varies dramatically for these three approaches. The whole-mixture procedures are most advanced for assessing carcinogenic risk, mainly because of the long use of in vitro mutagenicity tests to indicate carcinogenic potency. In vitro test procedures for noncancer endpoints are still in the pionee

  1. Supplementary feeding restructures urban bird communities.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Josie A; Beggs, Jacqueline R; Jones, Darryl N; Stanley, Margaret C

    2015-05-19

    Food availability is a primary driver of avian population regulation. However, few studies have considered the effects of what is essentially a massive supplementary feeding experiment: the practice of wild bird feeding. Bird feeding has been posited as an important factor influencing the structure of bird communities, especially in urban areas, although experimental evidence to support this is almost entirely lacking. We carried out an 18-mo experimental feeding study at 23 residential properties to investigate the effects of bird feeding on local urban avian assemblages. Our feeding regime was based on predominant urban feeding practices in our region. We used monthly bird surveys to compare avian community composition, species richness, and the densities of local species at feeding and nonfeeding properties. Avian community structure diverged at feeding properties and five of the commonest garden bird species were affected by the experimental feeding regime. Introduced birds particularly benefitted, with dramatic increases observed in the abundances of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis) in particular. We also found evidence of a negative effect on the abundance of a native insectivore, the grey warbler (Gerygone igata). Almost all of the observed changes did not persist once feeding had ceased. Our study directly demonstrates that the human pastime of bird feeding substantially contributes to the structure of avian community in urban areas, potentially altering the balance between native and introduced species.

  2. Supplementary feeding restructures urban bird communities

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Josie A.; Jones, Darryl N.; Stanley, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Food availability is a primary driver of avian population regulation. However, few studies have considered the effects of what is essentially a massive supplementary feeding experiment: the practice of wild bird feeding. Bird feeding has been posited as an important factor influencing the structure of bird communities, especially in urban areas, although experimental evidence to support this is almost entirely lacking. We carried out an 18-mo experimental feeding study at 23 residential properties to investigate the effects of bird feeding on local urban avian assemblages. Our feeding regime was based on predominant urban feeding practices in our region. We used monthly bird surveys to compare avian community composition, species richness, and the densities of local species at feeding and nonfeeding properties. Avian community structure diverged at feeding properties and five of the commonest garden bird species were affected by the experimental feeding regime. Introduced birds particularly benefitted, with dramatic increases observed in the abundances of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis) in particular. We also found evidence of a negative effect on the abundance of a native insectivore, the grey warbler (Gerygone igata). Almost all of the observed changes did not persist once feeding had ceased. Our study directly demonstrates that the human pastime of bird feeding substantially contributes to the structure of avian community in urban areas, potentially altering the balance between native and introduced species. PMID:25941361

  3. ARL Supplementary Statistics, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Blixrud, Julia, Comp.

    This report presents statistics on how ARL (Association of Research Libraries) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. The following tables are included: (1) a summary table of electronic resources and library materials expenditures in ARL university libraries, 1992-93 to 2000-01; (2) summary statistics for university libraries,…

  4. ARL Supplementary Statistics 2002-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents statistics on how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. This report indicates that expenditures for electronic resources account for 25%, on average, of ARL institutions' library materials budgets. ARL libraries reported spending more than $228 million on electronic…

  5. Main Determinants of Supplementary Health Insurance Demand: (Case of Iran).

    PubMed

    Nouraei Motlagh, Soraya; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan; Mahdavi, Ghadir; Ghaderi, Hossein

    2015-04-23

    In the majority of developing countries, the volume of medical insurance services, provided by social insurance organizations is inadequate. Thus, supplementary medical insurance is proposed as a means to address inadequacy of medical insurance. Accordingly, in this article, we attempted to provide the context for expansion of this important branch of insurance through identification of essential factors affecting demand for supplementary medical insurance. In this study, two methods were used to identify essential factors affecting choice of supplementary medical insurance including Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and Bayesian logit. To this end, Excel® software was used to refine data and R® software for estimation. The present study was conducted during 2012, covering all provinces in Iran. Sample size included 18,541 urban households, selected by Statistical Center of Iran using 3-stage cluster sampling approach. In this study, all data required were collected from the Statistical Center of Iran. In 2012, an overall 8.04% of the Iranian population benefited from supplementary medical insurance. Demand for supplementary insurance is a concave function of age of the household head, and peaks in middle-age when savings and income are highest. The present study results showed greater likelihood of demand for supplementary medical insurance in households with better economic status, higher educated heads, female heads, and smaller households with greater expected medical expenses, and household income is the most important factor affecting demand for supplementary medical insurance. Since demand for supplementary medical insurance is hugely influenced by households' economic status, policy-makers in the health sector should devise measures to improve households' economic or financial access to supplementary insurance services, by identifying households in the lower economic deciles, and increasing their financial ability to pay. Moreover, insurance

  6. Main Determinants of Supplementary Health Insurance Demand: (Case of Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Motlagh, Soraya Nouraei; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Mahdavi, Ghadir; Ghaderi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the majority of developing countries, the volume of medical insurance services, provided by social insurance organizations is inadequate. Thus, supplementary medical insurance is proposed as a means to address inadequacy of medical insurance. Accordingly, in this article, we attempted to provide the context for expansion of this important branch of insurance through identification of essential factors affecting demand for supplementary medical insurance. Method: In this study, two methods were used to identify essential factors affecting choice of supplementary medical insurance including Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and Bayesian logit. To this end, Excel® software was used to refine data and R® software for estimation. The present study was conducted during 2012, covering all provinces in Iran. Sample size included 18,541 urban households, selected by Statistical Center of Iran using 3-stage cluster sampling approach. In this study, all data required were collected from the Statistical Center of Iran. Results: In 2012, an overall 8.04% of the Iranian population benefited from supplementary medical insurance. Demand for supplementary insurance is a concave function of age of the household head, and peaks in middle-age when savings and income are highest. The present study results showed greater likelihood of demand for supplementary medical insurance in households with better economic status, higher educated heads, female heads, and smaller households with greater expected medical expenses, and household income is the most important factor affecting demand for supplementary medical insurance. Conclusion: Since demand for supplementary medical insurance is hugely influenced by households’ economic status, policy-makers in the health sector should devise measures to improve households’ economic or financial access to supplementary insurance services, by identifying households in the lower economic deciles, and increasing their

  7. Heterospin biradicals provide insight into molecular conductance and rectification† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1526005 and 1526006. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c7sc00073a Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinyuan; Dangi, Ranjana; Ingersol, Laura; Yang, Jing; Finney, Nathaniel S.; Sommer, Roger D.; Wojtas, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    The correlation of electron transfer with molecular conductance (g: electron transport through single molecules) by Nitzan and others has contributed to a fundamental understanding of single-molecule electronic materials. When an unsymmetric, dipolar molecule spans two electrodes, the possibility exists for different conductance values at equal, but opposite electrode biases. In the device configuration, these molecules serve as rectifiers of the current and the efficiency of the device is given by the rectification ratio (RR = g forward/g reverse). Experimental determination of the RR is challenging since the orientation of the rectifying molecule with respect to the electrodes and with respect to the electrode bias direction is difficult to establish. Thus, while two different values of g can be measured and a RR calculated, one cannot easily assign each conductance value as being aligned with or opposed to the molecular dipole, and calculations are often required to resolve the uncertainty. Herein, we describe the properties of two isomeric, triplet ground state biradical molecules that serve as constant-bias analogs of single-molecule electronic devices. Through established theoretical relationships between g and electronic coupling, H 2, and between H 2 and magnetic exchange coupling, J (g ∝ H 2 ∝ J), we use the ratio of experimental J-values for our two isomers to calculate a RR for an unsymmetric bridge molecule with known geometry relative to the two radical fragments of the molecule and at a spectroscopically-defined potential bias. Our experimental results are compared with device transport calculations.

  8. Electronic properties of the boroxine–gold interface: evidence of ultra-fast charge delocalization† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details about the calculations, further theoretical results, STM images of the thermally annealed TPB monolayer and XPS data analysis procedure are reported. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc05632f Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Toffoli, Daniele; Stredansky, Matus; Feng, Zhijing; Balducci, Gabriele; Furlan, Sara; Stener, Mauro; Ustunel, Hande; Cvetko, Dean; Kladnik, Gregor; Morgante, Alberto; Verdini, Alberto; Dri, Carlo; Comelli, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    We performed a combined experimental and theoretical study of the assembly of phenylboronic acid on the Au(111) surface, which is found to lead to the formation of triphenylboroxines by spontaneous condensation of trimers of molecules. The interface between the boroxine group and the gold surface has been characterized in terms of its electronic properties, revealing the existence of an ultra-fast charge delocalization channel in the proximity of the oxygen atoms of the heterocyclic group. More specifically, the DFT calculations show the presence of an unoccupied electronic state localized on both the oxygen atoms of the adsorbed triphenylboroxine and the gold atoms of the topmost layer. By means of resonant Auger electron spectroscopy, we demonstrate that this interface state represents an ultra-fast charge delocalization channel. Boroxine groups are among the most widely adopted building blocks in the synthesis of covalent organic frameworks on surfaces. Our findings indicate that such systems, typically employed as templates for the growth of organic films, can also act as active interlayers that provide an efficient electronic transport channel bridging the inorganic substrate and organic overlayer. PMID:28580111

  9. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  10. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  11. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  12. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  13. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  14. Supplementary Education as a Resource for Economic Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorshkov, M. K.; Kliucharev, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Supplementary professional education in Russia has grown rapidly, offering training not provided by the state. Further development will require more coordination with both private and state educational institutions, as well as with national and regional educational policies.

  15. Supplementary Education as a Resource for Economic Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorshkov, M. K.; Kliucharev, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Supplementary professional education in Russia has grown rapidly, offering training not provided by the state. Further development will require more coordination with both private and state educational institutions, as well as with national and regional educational policies.

  16. [Supplementary health care regulation and age structure of beneficiaries].

    PubMed

    Stivali, Matheus

    2011-09-01

    The paper exposes the changes in rules of price readjustment of health plans by age thresholds and demographic changes observed between 1998 and 2008. By calculating aging indicators and building population pyramids, it assesses whether the demographic changes coupled with the regulation caused any alteration in young people subscribing to supplementary healthcare plans. The indicators reveal the aging trend of beneficiaries of health plans, especially among those contracted individually, and also that this has not resulted in young people quitting supplementary healthcare plans.

  17. Quantum chemical calculation of electron ionization mass spectra for general organic and inorganic molecules† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: GFN-xTB calculated potential energy surfaces for example coordinates. Additional calculated mass spectra. Computational timing statistics. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc00601b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Ásgeirsson, Vilhjálmur; Bauer, Christoph A.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a fully stand-alone version of the Quantum Chemistry Electron Ionization Mass Spectra (QCEIMS) program [S. Grimme, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2013, 52, 6306] allowing efficient simulations for molecules composed of elements with atomic numbers up to Z = 86. The recently developed extended tight-binding semi-empirical method GFN-xTB has been combined with QCEIMS, thereby eliminating dependencies on third-party electronic structure software. Furthermore, for reasonable calculations of ionization potentials, as required by the method, a second tight-binding variant, IPEA-xTB, is introduced here. This novel combination of methods allows the automatic, fast and reasonably accurate computation of electron ionization mass spectra for structurally different molecules across the periodic table. In order to validate and inspect the transferability of the method, we perform large-scale simulations for some representative organic, organometallic, and main-group inorganic systems. Theoretical spectra for 23 molecules are compared directly to experimental data taken from standard databases. For the first time, realistic quantum chemistry based EI-MS for organometallic systems like ferrocene or copper(ii)acetylacetonate are presented. Compared to previously used semiempirical methods, GFN-xTB is faster, more robust, and yields overall higher quality spectra. The partially analysed theoretical reaction and fragmentation mechanisms are chemically reasonable and reveal in unprecedented detail the extreme complexity of high energy gas phase ion chemistry including complicated rearrangement reactions prior to dissociation. PMID:28959412

  18. Comparative electronic structures of nitrogenase FeMoco and FeVco† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional figures and tables, computational data and information. See DOI: 10.1039/c7dt00128b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Julian A.; Bjornsson, Ragnar; Kowalska, Joanna K.; Lima, Frederico A.; Schlesier, Julia; Sippel, Daniel; Weyhermüller, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    An investigation of the active site cofactors of the molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases (FeMoco and FeVco) was performed using high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. Synthetic heterometallic iron–sulfur cluster models and density functional theory calculations complement the study of the MoFe and VFe holoproteins using both non-resonant and resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy. Spectroscopic data show the presence of direct iron–heterometal bonds, which are found to be weaker in FeVco. Furthermore, the interstitial carbide is found to perturb the electronic structures of the cofactors through highly covalent Fe–C bonding. The implications of these conclusions are discussed in light of the differential reactivity of the molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases towards various substrates. Possible functional roles for both the heterometal and the interstitial carbide are detailed. PMID:28154874

  19. Evidence of Adverse Selection in Iranian Supplementary Health Insurance Market

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Gh; Izadi, Z

    2012-01-01

    Background: Existence or non-existence of adverse selection in insurance market is one of the important cases that have always been considered by insurers. Adverse selection is one of the consequences of asymmetric information. Theory of adverse selection states that high-risk individuals demand the insurance service more than low risk individuals do. Methods: The presence of adverse selection in Iran’s supplementary health insurance market is tested in this paper. The study group consists of 420 practitioner individuals aged 20 to 59. We estimate two logistic regression models in order to determine the effect of individual’s characteristics on decision to purchase health insurance coverage and loss occurrence. Using the correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase health insurance, the adverse selection problem in Iranian supplementary health insurance market is examined. Results: Individuals with higher level of education and income level purchase less supplementary health insurance and make fewer claims than others make and there is positive correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase supplementary health insurance. Conclusion: Our findings prove the evidence of the presence of adverse selection in Iranian supplementary health insurance market. PMID:23113209

  20. Structural and electronic characterisation of π-extended tetrathiafulvalene derivatives as active components in field-effect transistors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, characterization data, XRD single crystal data, computational details and device fabrication. CCDC 1460868 and 1460869. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c6ce01200k Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Antonio; Oxtoby, Neil; Galindo, Sergi; Pfattner, Raphael; Veciana, Jaume; Bromley, Stefan T.

    2016-01-01

    The electronic and structural properties of two tetrathiafulvalene derivatives bearing aromatic benzene rings are reported. Thin film transistors of these materials show p-type characteristics with comparable mobility values. It is found that the rigidification of the molecule is beneficial for reducing the reorganisation energy but also has an unfavorable impact on the electronic structure dimensionality. PMID:27774040

  1. Anisotropic lanthanide-based nano-clusters for imaging applications† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Characterization details for clusters 1–3. CCDC 1450317–1450319. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c6fd00018e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoping; Wang, Shiqing; King, Tyler L.; Kerr, Christopher J.; Blanchet, Clement; Svergun, Dmitri; Pal, Robert; Beeby, Andrew; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Zhang, Lijie

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new class of lanthanide nano-clusters that self-assemble using flexible Schiff base ligands. Cd–Ln and Ni–Ln clusters, [Ln8Cd24(L1)12(OAc)39Cl7(OH)2] (Ln = Nd, Eu), [Eu8Cd24(L1)12(OAc)44], [Ln8Cd24(L2)12(OAc)44] (Ln = Nd, Yb, Sm) and [Nd2Ni4(L3)2(acac)6(NO3)2(OH)2], were constructed using different types of flexible Schiff base ligands. These molecular nano-clusters exhibit anisotropic architectures that differ considerably depending upon the presence of Cd (nano-drum) or Ni (square-like nano-cluster). Structural characterization of the self-assembled particles has been undertaken using crystallography, transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. Comparison of the metric dimensions of the nano-drums shows a consistency of size using these techniques, suggesting that these molecules may share similar structural features in both solid and solution states. Photophysical properties were studied by excitation of the ligand-centered absorption bands in the solid state and in solution, and using confocal microscopy of microspheres loaded with the compounds. The emissive properties of these compounds vary depending upon the combination of lanthanide and Cd or Ni present in these clusters. The results provide new insights into the construction of novel high-nuclearity nano-clusters and offer a promising foundation for the development of new functional nanomaterials. PMID:27430046

  2. Supplementary steam - A viable hydrogen power generation concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. E.; Lee, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Technical and economic aspects of a supplementary steam generation for peaking power applications are discussed. Preliminary designs of the hydrogen/oxygen combustors to be used for such applications are described. The integration of the hydrogen/oxygen steam-generating equipment into a typical coal-fired steam station is studied. The basic steam generation system was designed as a 20 MW supplementary system to be added to the existing 160 MW system. An analysis of the operating and design requirements of the supplementary system is conducted. Estimates were made for additional steam and fuel supply lines and for additional control required to operate the combustors and to integrate the combustor system into the facility.

  3. Supplementary steam - A viable hydrogen power generation concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. E.; Lee, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Technical and economic aspects of a supplementary steam generation for peaking power applications are discussed. Preliminary designs of the hydrogen/oxygen combustors to be used for such applications are described. The integration of the hydrogen/oxygen steam-generating equipment into a typical coal-fired steam station is studied. The basic steam generation system was designed as a 20 MW supplementary system to be added to the existing 160 MW system. An analysis of the operating and design requirements of the supplementary system is conducted. Estimates were made for additional steam and fuel supply lines and for additional control required to operate the combustors and to integrate the combustor system into the facility.

  4. 50 CFR 82.3 - Supplementary information and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 82.3 Section 82.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR GRANTS-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Introduction § 82.3 Supplementary information...

  5. Private Supplementary Tutoring: Motivations and Effects: A Review Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chui, Mary Mugwe

    2016-01-01

    For long, mixed reaction on the importance of supplementary tutorials in Kenyan schools, both primary and secondary, have been expressed by the various stakeholders. While some have argued for them, others have been fully opposed to it and viewed it as an attempt by teachers to exploit parents with the argument that the government pays them to do…

  6. 20 CFR 416.2001 - State supplementary payments; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false State supplementary payments; general. 416.2001 Section 416.2001 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED State Supplementation Provisions; Agreement; Payments §...

  7. 20 CFR 416.2001 - State supplementary payments; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State supplementary payments; general. 416.2001 Section 416.2001 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED State Supplementation Provisions; Agreement; Payments §...

  8. 20 CFR 416.2001 - State supplementary payments; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false State supplementary payments; general. 416.2001 Section 416.2001 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED State Supplementation Provisions; Agreement; Payments §...

  9. 20 CFR 416.2001 - State supplementary payments; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State supplementary payments; general. 416.2001 Section 416.2001 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED State Supplementation Provisions; Agreement; Payments §...

  10. 20 CFR 416.2001 - State supplementary payments; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State supplementary payments; general. 416.2001 Section 416.2001 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED State Supplementation Provisions; Agreement; Payments §...

  11. Attitude toward Enhancing Extensive Listening through Podcasts Supplementary Pack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshaikhi, Dalal; Madini, Abeer Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    To promote independent extensive listening, the aim of this study is to investigate Saudi preparatory level students' and their teachers' perception about podcasts' criteria and contents to include in an extensive supplementary listening pack. An exploratory sequential design was adopted to collect data. The results of the focus group thematic…

  12. Spoken Narrative Assessment: A Supplementary Measure of Children's Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Miranda Kit-Yi; So, Wing Chee

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a spoken narrative (i.e., storytelling) assessment as a supplementary measure of children's creativity. Both spoken and gestural contents of children's spoken narratives were coded to assess their verbal and nonverbal creativity. The psychometric properties of the coding system for the spoken narrative assessment were…

  13. 40 CFR 152.406 - Submission of supplementary data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submission of supplementary data. 152.406 Section 152.406 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Fees § 152.406 Submission of...

  14. 40 CFR 152.406 - Submission of supplementary data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submission of supplementary data. 152.406 Section 152.406 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Fees § 152.406 Submission of...

  15. 40 CFR 152.406 - Submission of supplementary data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of supplementary data. 152.406 Section 152.406 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Fees § 152.406 Submission of...

  16. 20 CFR 416.2098 - Supplementary payment levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... levels described in § 416.2097(a) (i.e., the levels that must be provided in any month after March 1983....2097(d)), for each payment category must be no less than the total State payment for March 1983 for... in excess of the FBR for March 1983. For States that did not make supplementary payments in March...

  17. THE ELECTROMAGNET. A SUPPLEMENTARY READING UNIT IN SCIENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KINNEY, RICHARD; MOBILIZATION FOR YOUTH CURRICULUM STAFF

    A SAMPLE READING UNIT IN SCIENCE IS PRESENTED FOR DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS AT THREE LEVELS OF ABILITY. THE READING LESSON IS COMPLETE WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF ELECTROMAGNETS. FOLLOWING THE SUPPLEMENTARY UNIT ARE THREE SAMPLE OBJECTIVE TESTS FOR THE DIFFERENT ABILITY LEVELS. EACH SET OF QUESTIONS IS DESIGNED BOTH TO TEST KNOWLEDGE OF SCIENCE FACTS…

  18. 14 CFR 23.505 - Supplementary conditions for skiplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplementary conditions for skiplanes. 23.505 Section 23.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... skis free to slide, a limit side force equal to 0.036 times the design maximum weight must be applied...

  19. THE ELECTROMAGNET. A SUPPLEMENTARY READING UNIT IN SCIENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KINNEY, RICHARD; MOBILIZATION FOR YOUTH CURRICULUM STAFF

    A SAMPLE READING UNIT IN SCIENCE IS PRESENTED FOR DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS AT THREE LEVELS OF ABILITY. THE READING LESSON IS COMPLETE WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF ELECTROMAGNETS. FOLLOWING THE SUPPLEMENTARY UNIT ARE THREE SAMPLE OBJECTIVE TESTS FOR THE DIFFERENT ABILITY LEVELS. EACH SET OF QUESTIONS IS DESIGNED BOTH TO TEST KNOWLEDGE OF SCIENCE FACTS…

  20. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: The Complex Number System. SP-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Karl, Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series is designed to make material for the study of topics of special interest to students readily accessible in classroom quantity. Topics covered include operations, standard form, equations, graphs, and conjugates. (MP)

  1. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Radioactive Decay. SP-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ronald J., Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series is designed to make material for the study of topics of special interest to students readily accessible in classroom quantity. Topics covered include the law of decay, relative rate of change, and a general solution. (MP)

  2. Financial Report of Ontario Universities 1996-97. Supplementary Volume.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This volume provides supplementary data to the annual report for 43 provincially assisted universities, colleges, and church-related institutions of higher education in Ontario, Canada. The information includes further details concerning various sources of revenue, including grants from the major funding agencies of the federal government, as well…

  3. Private Supplementary Tutoring among Primary Students in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Samir Ranjan

    2008-01-01

    Using the databases created under "Education Watch", a civil society initiative to monitor primary and basic education in Bangladesh, this paper explores trends, socioeconomic differentials and cost in private supplementary tutoring among primary students and its impact on learning achievement. The rate of primary school students getting…

  4. Exploring the Relationship between Supplementary Schools and "Cohesive Communities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Anthea

    2013-01-01

    The number of supplementary schools in England serving minority communities continues to grow. They are popular with the parents of such communities because they often feel their children are disadvantaged in mainstream schools and not afforded the opportunities or the learning environment that is conducive to their children achieving their full…

  5. Spoken Narrative Assessment: A Supplementary Measure of Children's Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Miranda Kit-Yi; So, Wing Chee

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a spoken narrative (i.e., storytelling) assessment as a supplementary measure of children's creativity. Both spoken and gestural contents of children's spoken narratives were coded to assess their verbal and nonverbal creativity. The psychometric properties of the coding system for the spoken narrative assessment were…

  6. English for Today. Supplementary Pronunciation Drills. Books 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vietnamese American Association, Saigon (Vietnam).

    This volume contains supplementary pronunciation drills for the English for Today program, Books I and II, for Vietnamese speakers. The supplement for Book I contains exercises on the English segmental phonemes in one-word context. Commentary intended for the teacher indicates potential trouble spots for Vietnamese learning English. The supplement…

  7. 13 CFR 301.6 - Supplementary investment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Assistance under this section; and (3) Assists Projects that are otherwise eligible for Investment Assistance... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplementary investment..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND PROPOSAL AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment...

  8. Specifications for Supplementary Classroom Units "Standard Construction" and "Preframed Construction".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Robert B.; And Others

    The standards that should be applied to the construction of supplementary classroom units are discussed in this report. Areas dealt with are--(1) general mechanical and electrical work, (2) concrete, (3) masonry, (4) miscellaneous steel and iron, (5) metal windows, (6) carpentry at site, (7) millwork, (8) acoustic treatment, (9) thermal…

  9. Using Radio Commercials as Supplementary Materials for Teaching Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafernik, Johnnie Johnson; Surguine, Harold

    Radio commercials, used as supplementary materials in the English as a second language class, have the following advantages: (1) they correspond closely to everyday spoken English; (2) they are clear; (3) they are short enough to sustain student interest; (4) the many redundancies in the message enable even the slower student to understand; (5)…

  10. Supplementary Education: The Hidden Curriculum of High Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W., Ed.; Bridglall, Beatrice L., Ed.; Meroe, Aundra Saa, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    In this book, the editors argue that while access to schools that enable and expect academic achievement is a necessary ingredient for the education of students, schools alone may not be sufficient to ensure universally high levels of academic development. Supplemental educational experiences may also be needed. The idea of supplementary education…

  11. Auto Body Repair. Supplementary Units. Instructor Key and Student Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Linda; Muench, James F., Ed.

    These supplementary units are designed to help students with special needs learn and apply auto body repair skills. The material specifically supplements the Auto Body Repair Curriculum Guide (University of Missouri-Columbia 1988), and is intended for instructors serving the occupational needs of various categories of disadvantaged and handicapped…

  12. Supplementary Auditory and Vestibular Stimulation: Effects on Institutionalized Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casler, Lawrence

    1975-01-01

    Supplementary stimulation was supplied for 30 minutes per day for approximately six weeks to 156 normal, full-term institutionalized infants prior to adoption. The Gesell Developmental Schedules were administered regularly (until age 27 months), to determine whether development had been enhanced by the treatment. (JMB)

  13. Specifications for Supplementary Classroom Units, Stressed Skin Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Robert B.; And Others

    Complete outline specifications are given for the construction of supplementary classroom units using stressed skin panels. Sections included are--(1) concrete and related work, (2) masonry, (3) structural and miscellaneous metal, (4) curtain walls and metal windows, (5) carpentry and related work, (6) roofing, sheet metal, and related work, (7)…

  14. 22 CFR 1203.735-407 - Supplementary statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Supplementary statements. 1203.735-407 Section 1203.735-407 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY EMPLOYEE... statements. (a) Employees, as defined in paragraphs (b) and (c) of § 1203.735-401, shall report changes in...

  15. 19 CFR 200.735-117 - Supplementary statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplementary statements. 200.735-117 Section 200.735-117 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND... statements. Changes in, or additions to, the information contained in an employee's statement of employment...

  16. Specifications for Supplementary Classroom Units "Standard Construction" and "Preframed Construction".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Robert B.; And Others

    The standards that should be applied to the construction of supplementary classroom units are discussed in this report. Areas dealt with are--(1) general mechanical and electrical work, (2) concrete, (3) masonry, (4) miscellaneous steel and iron, (5) metal windows, (6) carpentry at site, (7) millwork, (8) acoustic treatment, (9) thermal…

  17. 20 CFR 702.372 - Supplementary compensation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Supplementary compensation orders. 702.372 Section 702.372 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND...

  18. 20 CFR 702.372 - Supplementary compensation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplementary compensation orders. 702.372 Section 702.372 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND...

  19. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Circular Functions. SP-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubisch, Roy, Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series is designed to make material for the study of topics of special interest to students readily accessible in classroom quantity. Topics covered include periodicity, graphs, angles, vectors, formulas, tables, waves, and applications. (MP)

  20. Some Supplementary Methods for the Analysis of the RBANS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, John R.; Garthwaite, Paul H.; Morrice, Nicola; Duff, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Supplementary methods for the analysis of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status are made available, including (a) quantifying the number of abnormally low Index scores and abnormally large differences exhibited by a case and accompanying this with estimates of the percentages of the normative population expected to…

  1. Private Supplementary Tutoring: Comparative Perspectives on Patterns and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Private supplementary tutoring has long been a major phenomenon in parts of East Asia, including Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan. In recent times it has grown dramatically in other parts of Asia and in Africa, Europe and North America. The factors underlying the growth of private tutoring vary, but in all settings it has major…

  2. Student Experience in Blog Use for Supplementary Purposes in Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Adile Askim; Izmirli, Serkan; Sahin-Izmirli, Ozden

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the views of students about blog use for supplementary purposes in courses. Survey research method was applied for the quantitative dimension of the study, and the semi-structured interview technique was used for the qualitative dimension. Regarding the quantitative dimension of the study, the participants…

  3. Teachinq Materials for Spanish. S2: Supplementary Materials and Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centre for Information on Language Teaching, London (England).

    This publication, part of an annotated bibliography of language teaching materials for Spanish, contains supplementary materials and readers with and without a recorded or visual component. It contains a contents list, the annotated entries, an index of authors, editors, compilers and adapters, and a title index. The first section lists…

  4. Glass cullet as a new supplementary cementitious material (SCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzahosseini, Mohammadreza

    Finely ground glass has the potential for pozzolanic reactivity and can serve as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM). Glass reaction kinetics depends on both temperature and glass composition. Uniform composition, amorphous nature, and high silica content of glass make ground glass an ideal material for studying the effects of glass type and particle size on reactivity at different temperature. This study focuses on how three narrow size ranges of clear and green glass cullet, 63--75 mum, 25--38 mum, and smaller than 25 mum, as well as combination of glass types and particle sizes affects the microstructure and performance properties of cementitious systems containing glass cullet as a SCM. Isothermal calorimetry, chemical shrinkage, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), quantitative analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD), and analysis of scanning electron microscope (SEM) images in backscattered (BS) mode were used to quantify the cement reaction kinetics and microstructure. Additionally, compressive strength and water sorptivity experiments were performed on mortar samples to correlate reactivity of cementitious materials containing glass to the performance of cementitious mixtures. A recently-developed modeling platform called "muic the model" was used to simulated pozzolanic reactivity of single type and fraction size and combined types and particle sizes of finely ground glass. Results showed that ground glass exhibits pozzolanic properties, especially when particles of clear and green glass below 25 mum and their combination were used at elevated temperatures, reflecting that glass cullet is a temperature-sensitive SCM. Moreover, glass composition was seen to have a large impact on reactivity. In this study, green glass showed higher reactivity than clear glass. Results also revealed that the simultaneous effect of sizes and types of glass cullet (surface area) on the degree of hydration of glass particles can be accounted for through a linear addition

  5. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report on Supplementary Comparison APMP.M.H-S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongkavitool, Rugkanawan; Hattori, Koichiro; Sanh, Vo; Yen, Lim Gin

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of supplementary comparison APMP.M.H-S1 among four national metrology institutes (NIMT, NMIJ/AIST, VMI and SPRING). The comparison was carried out during October 2004 to January 2005 in order to determine the capability of the primary Rockwell hardness standard, including standard conditions, of each participant, to confirm the accuracy of Rockwell hardness scale C measurement declared by the participant, which includes the effect of each participant's primary indenter and determine the degrees of equivalence of hardness scale measurement in the range 20 HRC to 60 HRC. Furthermore, the comparison was carried out a by common indenter, which was provided by the pilot institute, in order to determine the measurement capability of the participant's primary machine without the influence of the indenter, as a study of scientific purpose. The pilot institute was the National Institute of Metrology (Thailand), NIMT. There were two sets of artifacts for the comparison. Each set was composed of nine hardness blocks: 20 HRC, 25 HRC, 30 HRC, 35 HRC, 40 HRC, 45 HRC, 50 HRC, 55 HRC, 60 HRC. The verification of the participant's primary Rockwell hardness machine was carried out according to ISO6508-3 before making the measurement. The pilot institute made measurements at the beginning and the end of the comparison in order to monitor the stability of the artifacts. The degree of equivalence of each national primary hardness standard was expressed quantitatively by two terms, the deviation from KCRV and the uncertainty of this deviation at a 95% level of confidence. The En parameter was calculated to express the equivalence between the measurements of participants as well. The degree of equivalence between pairs of participating institutes was expressed by the difference of their deviations from the key comparison reference value and the uncertainty of this difference at the 95% level of confidence. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper

  6. Effects of supplementary lighting by natural light for growth of Brassica chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Shih-Chuan; Lee, Hui-Ping; Kao, Shih-Tse; Lu, Ju-Lin

    2016-04-01

    This paper present a model of cultivated chamber with supplementary natural colour light. We investigate the effects of supplementary natural red light and natural blue light on growth of Brassica chinensis under natural white light illumination. After 4 weeks of supplementary colour light treatment, the experiment results shown that the weight of fresh leaf were not affected by supplementary natural blue light. However, those Brassica chinensis were cultivated in the chambers with supplementary natural red light obtained a significant increasing of fresh weight of leaf under both white light illuminate models. The combination of natural white light with supplementary natural red light illumination will be benefits in growth for cultivation and energy saving.

  7. Gait apraxia after bilateral supplementary motor area lesion

    PubMed Central

    Della, S; Francescani, A; Spinnler, H

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed at addressing the issue of the precise nature of gait apraxia and the cerebral dysfunction responsible for it. Methods: The case of a patient, affected by a bilateral infarction limited to a portion of the anterior cerebral artery territory is reported. The patient's ability to walk was formally assessed by means of a new standardised test. Results: Due to an anomaly within the anterior cerebral artery system, the patient's lesion was centred on the supplementary motor regions of both hemispheres. He presented with clear signs of gait apraxia that could not be accounted for by paresis or other neurological deficits. No signs of any other form of apraxia were detected. Conclusions: The clinical profile of the patient and the analysis of 49 cases from previous literature suggest that gait apraxia should be considered a clinical entity in its own right and lesions to the supplementary motor areas are responsible for it. PMID:11784830

  8. Functional and nutritional evaluation of supplementary food formulations.

    PubMed

    Khanam, Anjum; Chikkegowda, Rashmi Kumkum; Swamylingappa, Bhagya

    2013-04-01

    Two type of ready to eat supplementary food formulations were developed by roller drying based on wheat, soy protein concentrate, whey protein concentrate, and green gram flour and were fortified with vitamins and minerals to meet the one third of the Recommended daily allowance (RDA). The supplementary food formulations contained 20-21% protein, 370-390 kcal of energy and 2,300 μg of β-carotene per 100 g serving. The physico-chemical, functional and nutritional characteristics were evaluated. The chemical score indicated that sulphur containing amino acids were the first limiting in both the formulations. The calculated nutritional indices, essential amino acid index, biological value, nutritional index and C-PER were higher for formula II. Rat bioassay showed higher PER (2.3) for formula II compared to formula I (2.1). The bioaccessibility of iron was 23%. Sensory studies indicated that the products were acceptable with a shelf life of 1 year under normal storage condition. However, the formulations were nutritionally better than only cereal based supplementary food formulations available commercially. The product could be served in the form of porridge with water/milk or in the form of small laddu.

  9. Assistive technology and supplementary treatment for individuals with Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lotan, Meir

    2007-06-12

    Rett syndrome (RS) is a neurological disorder, affecting mainly females, caused by MECP2 mutations usually resulting in severe physical disability. Due to the physical challenges faced by the individual with RS and her family, her rehabilitation program should support her throughout different daily activities, contexts, and surroundings. Rehabilitation interventions to reverse physical impairments include exercise of various types and different physical modalities. Nevertheless, in the vast majority of cases, hands-on therapeutic intervention opportunities are available for the client through a minute part of her waking hours. Hence, a supplementary system is required in order to engulf the child with a comprehensive network of support. Supplementary intervention can support physical impairment by introducing adaptive techniques, environmental modifications, and assistive technologies. The therapy program of an individual with RS should include the use of assistive technology when such devices improve the user's performance. The term "supplementary management" relates to the fact that this intervention may be performed by nonprofessionals with the supervision of a qualified therapist. Such an intervention can further support the therapeutic goals of the child, at a time when direct intervention is not supplied. The present article will review the available literature on the topic of assistive technology, incorporating the clinical knowledge of the author in the field of RS.

  10. Impact of Supplementary Feeding on Reproductive Success of White Storks

    PubMed Central

    Hilgartner, Roland; Stahl, Daniel; Zinner, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    European white stork (Ciconia ciconia) populations have been object to several conservation measures such as reintroduction programs, habitat improvement or supplementary feeding in the last decades. Although recent white stork censuses revealed an upward trend of most of the western populations, evaluations of the relative importance of certain conservation measures are still scarce or even lacking. In our study we analyzed the effect of supplementary feeding on the reproductive success of white storks in conjunction with other factors such as weather or nest site characteristics. We present data of 569 breeding events at 80 different nest sites located in variable distances to an artificial feeding site at Affenberg Salem (south-western Germany) collected from 1990–2012. A multilevel Poisson regression revealed that in our study population (1) reproductive success was negatively affected by monthly precipitation in April, May and June, (2) pairs breeding on power poles had a lower reproductive success than pairs breeding on platforms or trees and (3) reproductive success was significantly higher in pairs breeding in close distance to the feeding site. The number of fledglings per nest decreased by 8% per kilometer distance to the feeding site. Our data suggest that supplementary feeding increases fledgling populations which may be a tool to attenuate population losses caused by factors such as habitat deterioration or unfavorable conditions in wintering habitats. PMID:25119566

  11. Impact of supplementary feeding on reproductive success of white storks.

    PubMed

    Hilgartner, Roland; Stahl, Daniel; Zinner, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    European white stork (Ciconia ciconia) populations have been object to several conservation measures such as reintroduction programs, habitat improvement or supplementary feeding in the last decades. Although recent white stork censuses revealed an upward trend of most of the western populations, evaluations of the relative importance of certain conservation measures are still scarce or even lacking. In our study we analyzed the effect of supplementary feeding on the reproductive success of white storks in conjunction with other factors such as weather or nest site characteristics. We present data of 569 breeding events at 80 different nest sites located in variable distances to an artificial feeding site at Affenberg Salem (south-western Germany) collected from 1990-2012. A multilevel Poisson regression revealed that in our study population (1) reproductive success was negatively affected by monthly precipitation in April, May and June, (2) pairs breeding on power poles had a lower reproductive success than pairs breeding on platforms or trees and (3) reproductive success was significantly higher in pairs breeding in close distance to the feeding site. The number of fledglings per nest decreased by 8% per kilometer distance to the feeding site. Our data suggest that supplementary feeding increases fledgling populations which may be a tool to attenuate population losses caused by factors such as habitat deterioration or unfavorable conditions in wintering habitats.

  12. 40 CFR 57.402 - Elements of the supplementary control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Elements of the supplementary control... Elements of the supplementary control system. Each supplementary control system shall contain the following elements: (a) Air quality monitoring network. An approvable SCS shall include the use of appropriate...

  13. 20 CFR 416.2097 - Combined supplementary/SSI payment levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Combined supplementary/SSI payment levels... Combined supplementary/SSI payment levels. (a) Other than the level for residents of Medicaid facilities (see paragraph (d) of this section), the combined supplementary/SSI payment level for each payment...

  14. The Great Boundary Crossing: Perceptions on Training Pharmacists as Supplementary Prescribers in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tann, Jennifer; Blenkinsopp, Alison; Grime, Janet; Evans, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the perceptions of General Medical Practitioners and pharmacist supplementary prescribers of the training provided for qualification as a pharmacist supplementary prescriber, and the experience of pharmacist supplementary prescribers of subsequent continuing professional development in practice. Design: A qualitative study of…

  15. Post-operative Supplementary Motor Area Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Satter, A R; Asif, D S; Zannat, S; Gaddam, S K

    2017-04-01

    The supplementary motor area (SMA-proper) is important for the programming and execution of motor, speech, and other elaborative functions. SMA is frequently involved by brain tumors (particularly WHO grade II gliomas). Surgery in this area can be followed by the 'SMA syndrome', characterised by contralateral akinesia and mutism. We present a case of Falcine meningioma in the region of the right SMA which developed SMA syndrome. Our patient showed complete recovery of neurological function but the process was slow with a specific pattern.

  16. A multi-stimuli responsive switch as a fluorescent molecular analogue of transistors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedures and additional data on the characterization of 1. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc03395k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo, Iluminada; Morais, Sandy; Prats, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    Although the quantum nature of molecules makes them specially suitable for mimicking the operation of digital electronic elements, molecular compounds can also be envisioned to emulate the behavior of analog devices. In this work we report a novel fluorescent three-state switch capable of reproducing the analog response of transistors, an ubiquitous device in modern electronics. Exploiting the redox and thermal sensitivity of this compound, the amplitude of its fluorescence emission can be continuously modulated, in a similar way as the output current in a transistor is amplified by the gate-to-source voltage. PMID:28959394

  17. A carbon–carbon hybrid – immobilizing carbon nanodots onto carbon nanotubes† ‡ †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02728d Click here for additional data file. ‡This article is dedicated to David Schuster on the occasion of his 80th birthday.

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Volker; Margraf, Johannes T.; Clark, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The thrust of this work is to integrate small and uniformly sized carbon nanodots (CNDs) with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) of different diameters as electron donors and electron acceptors, respectively, and to test their synergetic interactions in terms of optoelectronic devices. CNDs (denoted pCNDs, where p indicates pressure) were prepared by pressure-controlled microwave decomposition of citric acid and urea. pCNDs were immobilized on single-walled carbon nanotubes by wrapping the latter with poly(4-vinylbenzyl trimethylamine) (PVBTA), which features positively charged ammonium groups in the backbone. Negatively charged surface groups on the CNDs lead to attractive electrostatic interactions. Ground state interactions between the CNDs and SWCNTs were confirmed by a full-fledged photophysical investigation based on steady-state and time-resolved techniques. As a complement, charge injection into the SWCNTs upon photoexcitation was investigated by ultra-short time-resolved spectroscopy. PMID:28757976

  18. The origin of the ligand-controlled regioselectivity in Rh-catalyzed [(2 + 2) + 2] carbocyclizations: steric vs. stereoelectronic effects† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Computational details, Cartesian coordinates and vibrational frequencies of all optimized structures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02307f Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Crandell, Douglas W.; Mazumder, Shivnath

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations demonstrate that the reversal of regiochemical outcome of the addition for substituted methyl propiolates in the rhodium-catalyzed [(2 + 2) + 2] carbocyclization with PPh3 and (S)-xyl-binap as ligands is both electronically and sterically controlled. For example, the ester functionality polarizes the alkyne π* orbital to favor overlap of the methyl-substituted terminus of the alkyne with the pπ-orbital of the alkenyl fragment of the rhodacycle during alkyne insertion with PPh3 as the ligand. In contrast, the sterically demanding xyl-binap ligand cannot accommodate the analogous alkyne orientation, thereby forcing insertion to occur at the sterically preferred ester terminus, overriding the electronically preferred orientation for alkyne insertion. PMID:28757978

  19. Double C–H bond activation of acetylene by atomic boron in forming aromatic cyclic-HBC2BH in solid neon† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc01399j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Jiwen; Li, Wei; Wu, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    The organo-boron species formed from the reactions of boron atoms with acetylene in solid neon are investigated using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy with isotopic substitutions as well as quantum chemical calculations. Besides the previously reported single C–H bond activation species, a cyclic-HBC2BH diboron species is formed via double C–H bond activation of acetylene. It is characterized to have a closed-shell singlet ground state with planar D 2h symmetry. Bonding analysis indicates that it is a doubly aromatic species involving two delocalized σ electrons and two delocalized π electrons. This finding reveals the very first example of double C–H bond activation of acetylene in forming new organo-boron compounds. PMID:28936331

  20. Aromatic “Redox Tag”-assisted Diels–Alder reactions by electrocatalysis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional figures, tables and general, experimental, theoretical and spectral information. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc02117d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yohei; Yamaguchi, Yusuke; Ozaki, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Electrocatalysis was employed to promote Diels–Alder reactions between electronically mismatched substrates. A catalytic amount of electricity was enough to complete the overall reactions and GC-MS monitoring and CV measurements clearly illustrated the electrocatalytic nature of the reactions, which involve an EC-backward-E mechanism. The electrocatalytic Diels–Alder reactions were rationally designed based on the concept of redox tags. The results were supported by DFT calculations. PMID:28451094

  1. Nanoparticle “switch-on” by tetrazine triggering† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc05118a Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Kevin; Jain, Sarthak

    2016-01-01

    This work describes how a small-molecule chemical trigger, reacting through the mediatory of an inverse electron demand Diels–Alder reaction, results in enhanced cellular uptake and selective nanoparticle disintegration and cargo liberation, via gross polymeric morphological alterations. The power of these responsive nanoparticles is demonstrated through encapsulation of the anti-cancer agent doxorubicin and its triggered release, allowing controlled cell death in response to a small-molecule chemical trigger. PMID:27559829

  2. Pentavalent lanthanide nitride-oxides: NPrO and NPrO– complexes with N≡Pr triple bonds† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc00710h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shu-Xian; Jian, Jiwen; Su, Jing; Wu, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    The neutral molecule NPrO and its anion NPrO– are produced via co-condensation of laser-ablated praseodymium atoms with nitric oxide in a solid neon matrix. Combined infrared spectroscopy and state-of-the-art quantum chemical calculations confirm that both species are pentavalent praseodymium nitride-oxides with linear structures that contain Pr≡N triple bonds and Pr=O double bonds. Electronic structure studies show that the neutral NPrO molecule features a 4f0 electron configuration and a Pr(v) oxidation state similar to that of the isoelectronic PrO2 + ion, while its NPrO– anion possesses a 4f1 electron configuration and a Pr(iv) oxidation state. The neutral NPrO molecule is thus a rare lanthanide nitride-oxide species with a Pr(v) oxidation state, which follows the recent identification of the first Pr(v) oxidation state in the PrO2 + and PrO4 complexes (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2016, 55, 6896). This finding indicates that lanthanide compounds with oxidation states of higher than +IV are richer in chemistry than previously recognized. PMID:28580119

  3. Solar H2 evolution in water with modified diketopyrrolopyrrole dyes immobilised on molecular Co and Ni catalyst–TiO2 hybrids† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, synthetic procedures, additional tables and figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc05219c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Warnan, Julien; Willkomm, Janina; Ng, Jamues N.; Godin, Robert; Prantl, Sebastian; Durrant, James R.

    2017-01-01

    A series of diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) dyes with a terminal phosphonic acid group for attachment to metal oxide surfaces were synthesised and the effect of side chain modification on their properties investigated. The organic photosensitisers feature strong visible light absorption (λ = 400 to 575 nm) and electrochemical and fluorescence studies revealed that the excited state of all dyes provides sufficient driving force for electron injection into the TiO2 conduction band. The performance of the DPP chromophores attached to TiO2 nanoparticles for photocatalytic H2 evolution with co-immobilised molecular Co and Ni catalysts was subsequently studied, resulting in solar fuel generation with a dye-sensitised semiconductor nanoparticle system suspended in water without precious metal components. The performance of the DPP dyes in photocatalysis did not only depend on electronic parameters, but also on properties of the side chain such as polarity, steric hinderance and hydrophobicity as well as the specific experimental conditions and the nature of the sacrificial electron donor. In an aqueous pH 4.5 ascorbic acid solution with a phosphonated DuBois-type Ni catalyst, a DPP-based turnover number (TONDPP) of up to 205 was obtained during UV-free simulated solar light irradiation (100 mW cm–2, AM 1.5G, λ > 420 nm) after 1 day. DPP-sensitised TiO2 nanoparticles were also successfully used in combination with a hydrogenase or platinum instead of the synthetic H2 evolution catalysts and the platinum-based system achieved a TONDPP of up to 2660, which significantly outperforms an analogous system using a phosphonated Ru tris(bipyridine) dye (TONRu = 431). Finally, transient absorption spectroscopy was performed to study interfacial recombination and dye regeneration kinetics revealing that the different performances of the DPP dyes are most likely dictated by the different regeneration efficiencies of the oxidised chromophores. PMID:28451376

  4. A low-crystalline ruthenium nano-layer supported on praseodymium oxide as an active catalyst for ammonia synthesis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed procedures for each method, catalytic performance, STEM-EDX images, detailed characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc02382g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Kazuya; Kawano, Yukiko; Miyahara, Shin-ichiro; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia is a crucial chemical feedstock for fertilizer production and is a potential energy carrier. However, the current method of synthesizing ammonia, the Haber–Bosch process, consumes a great deal of energy. To reduce energy consumption, a process and a substance that can catalyze ammonia synthesis under mild conditions (low temperature and low pressure) are strongly needed. Here we show that Ru/Pr2O3 without any dopant catalyzes ammonia synthesis under mild conditions at 1.8 times the rates reported with other highly active catalysts. Scanning transmission electron micrograph observations and energy dispersive X-ray analyses revealed the formation of low-crystalline nano-layers of ruthenium on the surface of Pr2O3. Furthermore, CO2 temperature-programmed desorption revealed that the catalyst was strongly basic. These unique structural and electronic characteristics are considered to synergistically accelerate the rate-determining step of NH3 synthesis, cleavage of the N 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000

  5. Simulation of the modified K reactor supplementary safety system

    SciTech Connect

    Paik, I.K.; Canas, L.R. ); Peterson, P.F. )

    1991-01-01

    The supplementary safety system (SSS) of the K reactor provides a second line of defense to shut down the reactor if the safety and control rods fail to scram. The SSS was originally designed to inject a neutron poison solution (ink) into the reactor tank via spargers. Recently, concerns arose that the ink inventory might run out before the ink front returned to the moderator during a loss-of-ac-power transient in which the coolant pumps coast down. Thus, a new system has been added to inject additional ink through the pump suctions so that ink will arrive in the core before depletion of the sparger ink. The MODFLOW code was developed to calculate the moderator flow distribution in Savannah River site (SRS) reactors, including the effects of inertia and stratification from buoyancy forces.

  6. Nuclear imaging supplementary to urography in obstructive uropathy

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, J.G.; Singh, A.; O'Callaghan, J.P.

    1980-11-01

    In 50 patients with obstructive uropathy, nuclear imaging supplementary to excretory urography did not improve the detection of obstruction or the determination of the site or etiology of the lesion. However, rapid sequential radionuclide images showed decreased renal perfusion in 64%, more frequently than did an obstructive nephrogram (40%); this finding appeared to occur with more severe degrees of obstruction. Functional impairment of the obstructed kidney was demonstrated more often with /sup 131/I Hippuran (o-iodohippurate sodium) (91%) than with /sub 99m/Tc glucoheptonate (68%) or excretory urography (66%). Neither nuclear nor urographic studies could predict the degree or functional recovery of the kidney until the increased intrapelvic pressure was relieved.

  7. Visual retrieval of known objects using supplementary depth data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śluzek, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    A simple modification of typical content-based visual information retrieval (CBVIR) techniques (e.g. MSER keypoints represented by SIFT descriptors quantized into sufficiently large vocabularies) is discussed and preliminarily evaluated. By using the approximate depths (as the supplementary data) of the detected keypoints, we can significantly improve credibility of keypoint matching so that known objects (i.e. objects for which exemplary images are available in the database) can be detected at low computational costs. Thus, the method can be particularly useful in real-time applications of machine vision systems (e.g. in intelligent robotic devices). The paper presents theoretical model of the method and provides exemplary results for selected scenarios.

  8. A supplementary approach for estimating reaeration rate coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Ramakar; Ojha, C. S. P.; Bhatia, K. K. S.

    2004-01-01

    Different commonly used predictive equations for the reaeration rate coefficient (K2) have been evaluated using 231 data sets obtained from the literature and 576 data sets measured at different reaches of the River Kali in western Uttar Pradesh, India. The data sets include stream/channel velocity, bed slope, flow depth, cross-sectional area and reaeration rate coefficient (K2), obtained from the literature and generated during the field survey of River Kali, and were used to test the applicability of the predictive equations. The K2 values computed from the predictive equations have been compared with the corresponding K2 values measured in streams/channels. The performance of the predictive equations has been evaluated using different error estimation, namely standard error (SE), normal mean error (NME), mean multiplicative error (MME) and coefficient of determination (r2). The results show that the reaeration rate equation developed by Parkhurst and Pomeroy yielded the best agreement, with the values of SE, NME, MME and r2 as 33.387, 4.62, 3.58 and 0.95, respectively, for literature data sets (case 1) and 37.567, 3.57, 2.6 and 0.95, respectively, for all the data sets (literature data sets and River Kali data sets) (case 2). Further, to minimize error estimates and improve correlation between measured and computed reaeration rate coefficients, supplementary predictive equations have been developed based on Froude number criteria and a least-squares algorithm. The supplementary predictive equations have been verified using different error estimates and by comparing measured and computed reaeration rate coefficients for data sets not used in the development of the equations.

  9. Tithonia diversifolia as a Supplementary Feed for Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Rafael Sandin; Terry, Stephanie Amelia; Sacramento, João Paulo; Silveira, Sylvia Rocha e; Bento, Cláudia Braga Pereira; da Silva, Elsa Fernandes; Mantovani, Hilário Cuquetto; da Gama, Marco Antônio Sundfeld; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; Tomich, Thierry Ribeiro; Maurício, Rogério Martins

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Tithonia diversifolia as a supplementary forage on dairy cow performance and methane production. Nine lactating Holstein × Zebu dairy cows (519 ± 53.3 kg of body weight and 66 ± 13.3 d in milk) were paired by milk yield (21.3 ± 2.34 kg/d) and body weight and randomly assigned to three dietary treatments in a Latin square design with 21-d experimental periods (14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for measurements and sample collection). The dietary treatments included the control diet consisting of fresh sugar cane plus concentrate (44:56, % of diet DM), and two treatment diets containing different levels of fresh T. diversifolia (6.5 and 15.4%, DM basis) which partially replaced both sugarcane and concentrates. Methane production was measured using the sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) technique from d 16 to d 21 of each experimental period. Analysis of the gas samples was performed by gas chromatography. The inclusion of T. diversifolia at 15.4% DM had no effects on DM intake, milk production, nitrogen balance or methane production. There was no effect on the concentrations of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk fat (P ≥ 0.28), though individual milk fatty acids were affected. Serum concentrations of glucose, urea nitrogen (BUN), triglycerides, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and cholesterol were unaffected by the dietary treatments (P ≥ 0.13). There was a time (2 and 6 h post-feeding) and dietary treatment effect (P < 0.01) on the acetate to propionate ratio in the rumen. A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the archaeal community showed distinct clustering of the archaea populations for control and treatment diets. Taken together, our results indicate the potential of T. diversifolia as a supplementary forage for dairy cattle in the tropics. PMID:27906983

  10. Regio- and stereospecific rhodium-catalyzed allylic alkylation with an acyl anion equivalent: an approach to acyclic α-ternary β,γ-unsaturated aryl ketones† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc05705e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Ben W. H.; Chae, Jungha; Oliver, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    The regio- and stereospecific rhodium-catalyzed allylic alkylation of secondary allylic carbonates with cyanohydrin pronucleophiles facilitates the direct construction of acyclic α-ternary β,γ-unsaturated aryl ketones. Interestingly, this study illustrates the impact of deaggregating agents on regiocontrol and the electronic nature of the aryl component to suppress olefin isomerization. In addition, we demonstrate that the dimethylamino substituent, which modulates the pK a of the α-ternary β,γ-unsaturated aryl ketone, provides a useful synthetic handle for further functionalization via Kumada cross-coupling of the aryl trimethylammonium salt. Finally, the stereospecific alkylation of a chiral nonracemic secondary allylic carbonate affords the enantioenriched α-ternary aryl ketone, which was employed in a formal synthesis of trichostatic acid to illustrate that the allylic alkylation proceeds with net retention of configuration. PMID:28553542

  11. Thermally-responsive, nonflammable phosphonium ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium metal batteries: operating at 100 degrees celsius† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed ionic liquids synthesis, characterization, conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, battery cycling and those of other compositions; SEM images; energy density calculation. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01518a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, X.; Kavian, R.; Lu, Y.; Hu, Q.; Shao-Horn, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries such as Li ion/Li metal batteries are widely used in the electronics market but the chemical instability of the electrolyte limits their use in more demanding environmental conditions such as in automotive, oil exploration, or mining applications. In this study, a series of alkyl phosphonium ionic liquid electrolyte are described with high thermal stability and solubility for LiTFSI. A lithium metal battery (LMB) containing a tailored phosphonium ionic liquid/LiTFSI electrolyte operates at 100 °C with good specific capacities and cycling stability. Substantial capacity is maintained during 70 cycles or 30 days. Instant on-off battery operation is realized via the significant temperature dependence of the electrolyte material, demonstrating the robustness and potential for use at high temperature. PMID:28757963

  12. Seed-mediated growth of MOF-encapsulated Pd@Ag core–shell nanoparticles: toward advanced room temperature nanocatalysts† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and catalysts characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02925b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liyu; Huang, Binbin; Qiu, Xuan; Wang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of using inner cavities within metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) as templates for the fabrication of tiny metal nanoparticles (NPs) was attempted in this work. An unprecedented design of Pd@Ag core–shell NPs on MOFs via a seed mediated growth strategy is reported and attributed to the presence of activated physisorbed hydrogen atoms on embedded Pd NPs as reducing agents to selectively direct the deposition of Ag onto Pd while minimizing the Ag self-nucleation. The obtained Pd@Ag core–shell NPs exhibited a significant increase in selectivity in the partial hydrogenation of phenylacetylene as compared to their monometallic counterparts, due to the surface dilution and electron modification of the surface Pd sites by Ag deposition. Pd@Ag NPs also possessed an unprecedented high stability and recyclability in the catalytic reactions, related to the nano-confinement effect and the strong metal–support interaction offered by the MOF framework. PMID:28758001

  13. An assessment of silver copper sulfides for photovoltaic applications: theoretical and experimental insights† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6ta03376h Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Savory, Christopher N.; Ganose, Alex M.; Travis, Will; Atri, Ria S.; Palgrave, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    As the worldwide demand for energy increases, low-cost solar cells are being looked to as a solution for the future. To attain this, non-toxic earth-abundant materials are crucial, however cell efficiencies for current materials are limited in many cases. In this article, we examine the two silver copper sulfides AgCuS and Ag3CuS2 as possible solar absorbers using hybrid density functional theory, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, XPS and Hall effect measurements. We show that both compounds demonstrate promising electronic structures and band gaps for high theoretical efficiency solar cells, based on Shockley–Queisser limits. Detailed analysis of their optical properties, however, indicates that only AgCuS should be of interest for PV applications, with a high theoretical efficiency. From this, we also calculate the band alignment of AgCuS against various buffer layers to aid in future device construction. PMID:27774149

  14. Unravelling the electronic structure and dynamics of an isolated molecular rotary motor in the gas-phase† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of molecular motor synthesis and NMR data; geometrical data of optimised structures used in computational chemistry calculations; natural orbitals of the active space used in state-averaged CASSCF calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc01997a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Beekmeyer, Reece; Parkes, Michael A.; Ridgwell, Luke; Riley, Jamie W.; Chen, Jiawen; Feringa, Ben L.; Kerridge, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Light-driven molecular motors derived from chiral overcrowded alkenes are an important class of compounds in which sequential photochemical and thermal rearrangements result in unidirectional rotation of one part of the molecule with respect to another. Here, we employ anion photoelectron spectroscopy to probe the electronic structure and dynamics of a unidirectional molecular rotary motor anion in the gas-phase and quantum chemistry calculations to guide the interpretation of our results. We find that following photoexcitation of the first electronically excited state, the molecule rotates around its axle and some population remains on the excited potential energy surface and some population undergoes internal conversion back to the electronic ground state. These observations are similar to those observed in time-resolved measurements of rotary molecular motors in solution. This work demonstrates the potential of anion photoelectron spectroscopy for studying the electronic structure and dynamics of molecular motors in the gas-phase, provides important benchmarks for theory and improves our fundamental understanding of light-activated molecular rotary motors, which can be used to inform the design of new photoactivated nanoscale devices.

  15. Hierarchical organization and molecular diffusion in gold nanorod/silica supercrystal nanocomposites† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00712k Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hamon, Cyrille; Sanz-Ortiz, Marta N.; Modin, Evgeny; Hill, Eric H.; Scarabelli, Leonardo; Chuvilin, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical organization of gold nanorods was previously obtained on a substrate, allowing precise control over the morphology of the assemblies and macroscale spatial arrangement. Herein, a thorough description of these gold nanorod assemblies and their orientation within supercrystals is presented together with a sol–gel technique to protect the supercrystals with mesoporous silica films. The internal organization of the nanorods in the supercrystals was characterized by combining focused ion beam ablation and scanning electron microscopy. A mesoporous silica layer is grown both over the supercrystals and between the individual lamellae of gold nanorods inside the structure. This not only prevented the detachment of the supercrystal from the substrate in water, but also allowed small molecule analytes to infiltrate the structure. These nanocomposite substrates show superior Raman enhancement in comparison with gold supercrystals without silica owing to improved accessibility of the plasmonic hot spots to analytes. The patterned supercrystal arrays with enhanced optical and mechanical properties obtained in this work show potential for the practical implementation of nanostructured devices in spatially resolved ultradetection of biomarkers and other analytes. PMID:26961684

  16. Membrane properties and anti-bacterial/anti-biofouling activity of polysulfone–graphene oxide composite membranes phase inversed in graphene oxide non-solvent† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6ra25015g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Koseoglu-Imer, Derya Yuksel; Yilmaz-Deveci, Nurmiray; Mijakovic, Ivan; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    A new and facile method for the fabrication of polysulfone–graphene oxide composite membranes is reported, where after casting, phase inversion is carried out with graphene oxide flakes (GO) in a coagulation bath. The membranes were characterized and the morphology was analysed using scanning electron microscopy. A bacterial inhibition ratio of 74.5% was observed with membranes fabricated from a very low concentration of di-water–GO non-solvent (0.048% of GO). The membranes were successfully tested for permeate flux and fouling resistance using activated sludge filtration from an MBR system. The observed trend shows that GO can operate as a protective barrier for membrane pores against the bacterial community. To our knowledge this is the first time where the immersion precipitation mechanism was carried out in a coagulation bath with GO flakes under continuous stirring. Using this method, a very low concentration of GO is required to fabricate membranes with conventional GO composite membrane properties and better selectivity. PMID:28496976

  17. Chemical genetics suggests a critical role for lysyl oxidase in zebrafish notochord morphogenesis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Figure showing the of effect of 5 and 6 on the notochord and experimental details for compounds 2–6. See DOI: 10.1039/b613673g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Carrie; Bartlett, Stephen J.; Gansner, John M.; Wilson, Duncan; He, Ling; Gitlin, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    As a result of a chemical genetic screen for modulators of metalloprotease activity, we report that 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide induces a conspicuous undulating notochord defect in zebrafish embryos, a phenocopy of the leviathan mutant. The location of the chemically-induced wavy notochord correlated with the timing of application, thus defining a narrow chemical sensitivity window during segmentation stages. Microscopic observations revealed that notochord undulations appeared during the phase of notochord cell vacuolation and notochord elongation. Notochord cells become swollen as well as disorganized, while electron microscopy revealed disrupted organization of collagen fibrils in the surrounding sheath. We demonstrate by assay in zebrafish extracts that 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide inhibits lysyl oxidase. Thus, we provide insight into notochord morphogenesis and reveal novel compounds for lysyl oxidase inhibition. Taken together, these data underline the utility of small molecules for elucidating the dynamic mechanisms of early morphogenesis and provide a potential explanation for the recently established role of copper in zebrafish notochord formation. PMID:17216056

  18. Efficient eco-friendly inverted quantum dot sensitized solar cells† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images of QDs, XPS spectra, UV-vis and PL spectra of the sensitized electrodes, details about photophysical characterization and IPCE spectra interpretation. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ta06769c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinhyung; Sajjad, Muhammad T.; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Reiss, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells has demonstrated the possibility of low-cost and efficient photovoltaics. However, the standard device structure based on n-type materials often suffers from slow hole injection rate, which may lead to unbalanced charge transport. We have fabricated efficient p-type (inverted) QD sensitized cells, which combine the advantages of conventional QD cells with p-type dye sensitized configurations. Moreover, p-type QD sensitized cells can be used in highly promising tandem configurations with n-type ones. QDs without toxic Cd and Pb elements and with improved absorption and stability were successfully deposited onto mesoporous NiO electrode showing good coverage and penetration according to morphological analysis. Detailed photophysical charge transfer studies showed that high hole injection rates (108 s–1) observed in such systems are comparable with electron injection in conventional n-type QD assemblies. Inverted solar cells fabricated with various QDs demonstrate excellent power conversion efficiencies of up to 1.25%, which is 4 times higher than the best values for previous inverted QD sensitized cells. Attempts to passivate the surface of the QDs show that traditional methods of reduction of recombination in the QD sensitized cells are not applicable to the inverted architectures. PMID:27478616

  19. Phase stability of the nanolaminates V2Ga2C and (Mo1–xVx)2Ga2C from first-principles calculations† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cp00802j Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Dahlqvist, M.; Alling, B.; Rosen, J.

    2016-01-01

    We here use first-principles calculations to investigate the phase stability of the hypothetical laminated material V2Ga2C and the related alloy (Mo1–xVx)2Ga2C, the latter for a potential parent material for synthesis of (Mo1–xVx)2C, a new two-dimensional material in the family of so called MXenes. We predict that V2Ga2C is thermodynamically stable with respect to all identified competing phases in the ternary V–Ga–C phase diagram. We further calculate the stability of ordered and disordered configurations of Mo and V in (Mo1–xVx)2Ga2C and predict that ordered (Mo1–xVx)2Ga2C for x ≤ 0.25 is stable, with an order–disorder transition temperature of ∼1000 K. Furthermore, (Mo1–xVx)2Ga2C for x = 0.5 and x ≥ 0.75 is suggested to be stable, but only for disordered Mo–V configurations, and only at elevated temperatures. We have also investigated the electronic and elastic properties of V2Ga2C; the calculated bulk, shear, and Young's modulus are 141, 94, and 230 GPa, respectively. PMID:27094754

  20. p-Doping of graphene in hybrid materials with 3,10-diazapicenium dications† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthetic details and additional spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc00533d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Alexandra; Schaub, Tobias A.; Meinhardt, Ute; Thiel, Dominik; Storch, Jan; Církva, Vladimír; Jakubík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    N,N′-Didodecyl-substituted 3,10-diazapicenium salts featuring bromide and hexafluorophosphate counterions have been designed as novel dopants to realize individualized graphene sheets in a series of cutting edge experiments and to intrinsically stabilize them via p-doping. Importantly, electrochemical studies revealed two consecutive irreversible one-electron reductions of the N,N′-didodecyl-substituted 3,10-diazapicenium salts to yield the corresponding radical cation and neutral quinoidal species. Formation of both species was accompanied by characteristic changes in the absorption spectra. The 3,10-diazapicenium bromide was found to be a potent dopant to produce hybrid materials with exfoliated graphene. Microscopy based on AFM and TEM imaging and spectroscopy based on Raman probing corroborated that, upon drying, the hybrid material consists of few layer (5–8 layers) turbostratic graphene sheets that are p-doped. Our findings identify the newly synthesized N,N′-dialkylated 3,10-diazapicenium salts as highly promising candidates for the fabrication of functional graphene materials with tailored properties. PMID:28507723

  1. Co-operative transitions of responsive-polymer coated gold nanoparticles; precision tuning and direct evidence for co-operative aggregation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6tb01336h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Won, Sangho; Phillips, Daniel J.; Walker, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Responsive polymers and polymer-coated nanoparticles have many potential bio-applications with the crucial parameter being the exact temperature where the transition occurs. Chemical modification of hydrophobic/hydrophilic or ligand binding sites has been widely explored as a tool for controlling this transition, but requires the synthesis of many different components to achieve precise control. This study reports an extensive investigation into the use of blending (i.e. mixing) as a powerful tool to modulate the transition temperature of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) coated gold nanoparticles. By simply mixing two nanoparticles of different compositions, precise control over the transition temperature can be imposed. This was shown to be flexible to all possible mixing parameters (different polymers on different particles, different polymers on same particles and different sized particles with identical/different polymers). Evidence of the co-operative aggregation of differently sized nanoparticles (with different cloud points) is shown using transmission electron microscopy; particles with higher cloud points aggregate with those with lower cloud points with homo-aggregates not seen, demonstrating the co-operative behaviour. These interactions, and the opportunities for transition tuning will have implications in the rational design of responsive biomaterials. PMID:27746916

  2. Efficient suppression of back electron/hole recombination in cobalt phosphate surface-modified undoped bismuth vanadate photoanodes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD characterization and SEM images of CoPi-modified and unmodified BiVO4, continuous illumination J–V curves, transient absorption fit results, and transient absorption decays measured as a function of excitation intensities. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ta05826k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yimeng; Le Formal, Florian; Kafizas, Andreas; Pendlebury, Stephanie R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compared for the first time the dynamics of photogenerated holes in BiVO4 photoanodes with and without CoPi surface modification, employing transient absorption and photocurrent measurements on microsecond to second timescales. CoPi surface modification is known to cathodically shift the water oxidation onset potential; however, the reason for this improvement has not until now been fully understood. The transient absorption and photocurrent data were analyzed using a simple kinetic model, which allows quantification of the competition between electron/hole recombination and water oxidation. The results of this model are shown to be in excellent agreement with the measured photocurrent data. We demonstrate that the origin of the improvement of photocurrent onset resulting from CoPi treatment is primarily due to retardation of back electron/hole recombination across the space charge layer; no evidence of catalytic water oxidation via CoPi was observed. PMID:27358733

  3. Oxygen nonstoichiometry and thermodynamic characterization of Zr doped ceria in the 1573–1773 K temperature range† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns and SEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp04916k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2015-01-01

    This work encompasses the thermodynamic characterization and critical evaluation of Zr4+ doped ceria, a promising redox material for the two-step solar thermochemical splitting of H2O and CO2 to H2 and CO. As a case study, we experimentally examine 5 mol% Zr4+ doped ceria and present oxygen nonstoichiometry measurements at elevated temperatures ranging from 1573 K to 1773 K and oxygen partial pressures ranging from 4.50 × 10–3 atm to 2.3 × 10–4 atm, yielding higher reduction extents compared to those of pure ceria under all conditions investigated, especially at the lower temperature range and at higher p O2. In contrast to pure ceria, a simple ideal solution model accounting for the formation of isolated oxygen vacancies and localized electrons accurately describes the defect chemistry. Thermodynamic properties are determined, namely: partial molar enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy. In general, partial molar enthalpy and entropy values of Zr4+ doped ceria are lower. The equilibrium hydrogen yields are subsequently extracted as a function of the redox conditions for dopant concentrations as high as 20%. Although reduction extents increase greatly with dopant concentration, the oxidation of Zr4+ doped ceria is thermodynamically less favorable compared to pure ceria. This leads to substantially larger temperature swings between reduction and oxidation steps, ultimately resulting in lower theoretical solar energy conversion efficiencies compared to ceria under most conditions. In effect, these results point to the importance of considering oxidation thermodynamics in addition to reduction when screening potential redox materials. PMID:25714616

  4. Hydrogen bonding asymmetric star-shape derivative of bile acid leads to supramolecular fibrillar aggregates that wrap into micrometer spheres† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and methods, experimental section, and characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sm01329e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Myllymäki, Teemu T. T.; Yang, Hongjun; Liljeström, Ville; Kostiainen, Mauri A.; Malho, Jani-Markus; Zhu, X. X.

    2016-01-01

    We report that star-shaped molecules with cholic acid cores asymmetrically grafted by low molecular weight polymers with hydrogen bonding end-groups undergo aggregation to nanofibers, which subsequently wrap into micrometer spherical aggregates with low density cores. Therein the facially amphiphilic cholic acid (CA) is functionalized by four flexible allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) side chains, which are terminated with hydrogen bonding 2-ureido-4[1H]pyrimidinone (UPy) end-groups as connected by hexyl spacers, denoted as CA(AGE6-C6H12-UPy)4. This wedge-shaped molecule is expected to allow the formation of a rich variety of solvent-dependent structures due to the complex interplay of interactions, enabled by its polar/nonpolar surface-active structure, the hydrophobicity of the CA in aqueous medium, and the possibility to control hydrogen bonding between UPy molecules by solvent selection. In DMSO, the surfactant-like CA(AGE6-C6H12-UPy)4 self-assembles into nanometer scale micelles, as expected due to its nonpolar CA apexes, solubilized AGE6-C6H12-UPy chains, and suppressed mutual hydrogen bonds between the UPys. Dialysis in water leads to nanofibers with lateral dimensions of 20–50 nm. This is explained by promoted aggregation as the hydrogen bonds between UPy molecules start to become activated, the reduced solvent dispersibility of the AGE-chains, and the hydrophobicity of CA. Finally, in pure water the nanofibers wrap into micrometer spheres having low density cores. In this case, strong complementary hydrogen bonds between UPy molecules of different molecules can form, thus promoting lateral interactions between the nanofibers, as allowed by the hydrophobic hexyl spacers. The wrapping is illustrated by transmission electron microscopy tomographic 3D reconstructions. More generally, we foresee hierarchically structured matter bridging the length scales from molecular to micrometer scale by sequentially triggering supramolecular interactions. PMID:27491728

  5. LC-MS/MS suggests that hole hopping in cytochrome c peroxidase protects its heme from oxidative modification by excess H2O2 † †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc03125k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Kathiresan, Meena

    2017-01-01

    We recently reported that cytochrome c peroxidase (Ccp1) functions as a H2O2 sensor protein when H2O2 levels rise in respiring yeast. The availability of its reducing substrate, ferrocytochrome c (CycII), determines whether Ccp1 acts as a H2O2 sensor or peroxidase. For H2O2 to serve as a signal it must modify its receptor so we employed high-performance LC-MS/MS to investigate in detail the oxidation of Ccp1 by 1, 5 and 10 M eq. of H2O2 in the absence of CycII to prevent peroxidase activity. We observe strictly heme-mediated oxidation, implicating sequential cycles of binding and reduction of H2O2 at Ccp1's heme. This results in the incorporation of ∼20 oxygen atoms predominantly at methionine and tryptophan residues. Extensive intramolecular dityrosine crosslinking involving neighboring residues was uncovered by LC-MS/MS sequencing of the crosslinked peptides. The proximal heme ligand, H175, is converted to oxo-histidine, which labilizes the heme but irreversible heme oxidation is avoided by hole hopping to the polypeptide until oxidation of the catalytic distal H52 in Ccp1 treated with 10 M eq. of H2O2 shuts down heterolytic cleavage of H2O2 at the heme. Mapping of the 24 oxidized residues in Ccp1 reveals that hole hopping from the heme is directed to three polypeptide zones rich in redox-active residues. This unprecedented analysis unveils the remarkable capacity of a polypeptide to direct hole hopping away from its active site, consistent with heme labilization being a key outcome of Ccp1-mediated H2O2 signaling. LC-MS/MS identification of the oxidized residues also exposes the bias of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) detection toward transient radicals with low O2 reactivity. PMID:28451256

  6. Catalac free electron laser

    DOEpatents

    Brau, C.A.; Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.

    1979-12-12

    A catalac free electron laser using a rf linac (catalac) which acts as a catalyst to accelerate an electron beam in an initial pass through the catalac and decelerate the electron beam during a second pass through the catalac is described. During the second pass through the catalac, energy is extracted from the electron beam and transformed to energy of the accelerating fields of the catalac to increase efficiency of the device. Various embodiments disclose the use of post linacs to add electron beam energy extracted by the wiggler and the use of supplementary catalacs to extract energy at various energy peaks produced by the free electron laser wiggler to further enhance efficiency of the catalac free electron laser. The catalac free electron laser can be used in conjunction with a simple resonator, a ring resonator, or as an amplifier in conjunction with a master oscillator laser.

  7. Catalac free electron laser

    DOEpatents

    Brau, Charles A.; Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    A catalac free electron laser using a rf linac (catalac) which acts as a catalyst to accelerate an electron beam in an initial pass through the catalac and decelerate the electron beam during a second pass through the catalac. During the second pass through the catalac, energy is extracted from the electron beam and transformed to energy of the accelerating fields of the catalac to increase efficiency of the device. Various embodiments disclose the use of post linacs to add electron beam energy extracted by the wiggler and the use of supplementary catalacs to extract energy at various energy peaks produced by the free electron laser wiggler to further enhance efficiency of the catalac free electron laser. The catalac free electron laser can be used in conjunction with a simple resonator, a ring resonator or as an amplifier in conjunction with a master oscillator laser.

  8. A hand-made supplementary food for malnourished children.

    PubMed

    Vanelli, Maurizio; Virdis, Raffaele; Contini, Sandro; Corradi, Mara; Cremonini, Giulia; Marchesi, Maddalena; Mele, Alessandra; Monti, Francesca; Pagano, Blandina; Proietti, Ilaria; Savina, Francesca; Verna, Marta; Vitale, Rosa; Zanzucchi, Matteo; Brighenti, Furio; Vittadini, Elena; Del Rio, Daniele; Scazzina, Francesca; Porcu, Andrea

    2014-12-17

    We tested the possibility to prepare a hyperproteic and hyperenergetic supplementary food for malnutrition rehabilitation in children starting from available ingredients in popular markets in Sierra Leone. Twelve residents in Paediatrics from University of Parma, Italy, prepared in a hospital near the capital Freetown with modest technology a mixture of peanut flour, palm oil, milk powder, sugar and vitamins to which they gave the name of "Parma pap". Three hundred and thirty-two malnourished children (mean age 14±6.3 months) who were receiving Feeding Program Supplementations (FPS), were enrolled in the study: 177 participants received randomly FSP portions only (Group 1), and 159 participants were treated with FSP regimen plus a supplement of "Parma pap" (Group 2). Outcomes of the study were computed as WHZ-score increment (Δ value) by subtracting the discharge WHZ-score from the admission WHZ-score. The best Δ-WHZ-scores (>+4) were recorded among participants of Group 2 (64%) rather than in Group 1 (21%; p=0.040). The children receiving FSP portions plus "Parma pap" recovered faster (5.54 week on average) than those treated with FSP regimen only (8.16 on average). The percentage of children who did not recover was higher in Group 1 (25.3%) than in Group 2 (; 13%; p=0.05). A slight positive correlation has been found between WHZ-scores at admission and at the end of the study (r=0.19; p=0.045). During the experience in Sierra Leone we have had the chance to give "Parma pap" to twenty one malnourished children admitted to Xaverian Mission in Makeni, northern Sierra Leone, not taking other supplementary food. Sixteen of these children recovered in 4.9 week on average and five in 6 to 8 weeks. Mean Δ-WHZ-scores ranged between + 1 and + 5. The data from the present study suggest that "Parma pap" could be an effective additional food to FPS regimen in malnutrition recovering. Further researches are needed on the contrary to prove if "Parma pap" could be defined

  9. Optimizing otoscopy competency in audiology students through supplementary otoscopy training.

    PubMed

    Kaf, Wafaa A; Masterson, Caleb G; Dion, Nancy; Berg, Susan L; Abdelhakiem, Mohamed K

    2013-10-01

    Scope of practice in audiology encompasses proficiency in visual inspection of ear canal and tympanic membrane (TM) as well as otoscopy interpretation skills to determine normal versus abnormal conditions of outer and middle ear. Audiology students can develop skills in otoscopy through education and supervised training. Studies have shown that additional otoscopy training increased skills in medical students and general practitioners. However, educational and supervised practices targeting otoscopy competency during audiology graduate coursework are lacking. Also, no studies have attempted to determine otoscopy skills among audiology students. To determine the effectiveness of the otoscopy training model on clinical competency and confidence level of audiology students in performing and interpreting otoscopy. A combination of experimental treatment design with random assignment of treatment and control groups and delayed treatment for control group. Thirty-two first- and second-year audiology graduate students who were enrolled in a pediatric audiology class participated in this study. Students were randomly assigned to the control (n = 16, 14 females) or experimental (n = 16, 14 females) group. Participants in the experimental group received supplementary otoscopy training including didactic otoscopy lectures as well as clinical training using manikin ears. The control group received the same pretest and posttest and then completed a third assessment (posttest 2) after receiving the same training. An evaluation of knowledge and skills regarding otoscopy between groups and time was conducted at three times: (a) pretraining, (b) upon completion of training for the experimental group, (c) upon completion of training by the control group. The evaluation consisted of a written exam, a clinical exam, and a self-perception rating of confidence. Both written exam scores and clinical exam scores (otoscopy manikin) were analyzed via two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs

  10. 75 FR 64717 - Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... nuclear power plant. CIGNL stated its intent to work through these issues and difficulties with a view... Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation AGENCY: Office of the... ``Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation.'' Section...

  11. The Use of Supplementary Materials in English Foreign Language Classes in Ecuadorian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Alexander R.; Camacho, Gina K.; Morocho, Elsa L.; Paredes, Fabián M.; Zúñiga, Alexandra; Pinza, Eliana I.; Toro, Lisset V.; Vargas, Alba B.; Benítez, Carmen D.; Rogers, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated the use of supplementary materials by EFL teachers in Ecuadorian secondary schools. Via the use of teacher interviews (n = 12) it was found that teachers believe the use of supplementary materials increases the motivation of the students, which in-turn improves the learning possibilities of the students. The…

  12. 76 FR 33342 - Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands Managed by the California Desert District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands Managed by the California Desert... offices within the CDD, are issuing Final Supplementary Rules for public lands administered by the BLM...

  13. Identification and Supplementary Instruction for Handicapped Children in a Regular Bilingual Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joyce

    Early identification and supplementary instruction for the Mexican American child who is also handicapped are essential. The purposes of the Ability Development Programs are to identify the child with existing and/or potentially handicapping conditions, to develop and test supplementary materials, and to determine the efficacy of supplementary…

  14. 75 FR 51099 - Final Supplementary Rules for Public Land in Oregon and Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Bureau of Land Management Final Supplementary Rules for Public Land in Oregon and Washington AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Final Supplementary Rules on the BLM lands in Oregon and Washington. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Oregon State Office is proposing Final...

  15. Exploring the Impact of Supplementary Schools on Black and Minority Ethnic Pupils’ Mainstream Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maylor, Uvanney; Rose, Anthea; Minty, Sarah; Ross, Alistair; Issa, Tozun; Kuyok, Kuyok Abol

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a study commissioned by the (then) Department for Children, Schools and Families. The research mapped the provision, and explored the impact, of supplementary schools and aimed specifically to develop further understanding as to how supplementary schools might raise the attainment of Black and Minority Ethnic…

  16. 20 CFR 416.2097 - Combined supplementary/SSI payment levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... category that must be provided in any month after March 1983 (or if a State first made supplementary payments after March 1983, the combined supplementary SSI payment levels in effect the first month the... § 416.2096(b) is the sum of— (1) The SSI Federal benefit rate (FBR) for March 1983 for a recipient with...

  17. 79 FR 36094 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for the Cove Recreation Site, Owyhee County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for the Cove Recreation Site, Owyhee... Conservation Area (NCA) in Owyhee County, Idaho. These supplementary rules are compatible and consistent...

  18. 40 CFR 57.703 - Compliance with the supplementary control system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... control system requirements. 57.703 Section 57.703 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Requirements § 57.703 Compliance with the supplementary control system requirements. This section applies to... shall require immediately upon issuance of the NSO operation of any existing supplementary...

  19. 40 CFR 57.703 - Compliance with the supplementary control system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... control system requirements. 57.703 Section 57.703 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Requirements § 57.703 Compliance with the supplementary control system requirements. This section applies to... shall require immediately upon issuance of the NSO operation of any existing supplementary...

  20. 76 FR 40391 - Final Supplementary Rules on Public Lands in Idaho

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... the BLM in Idaho. These supplementary rules are necessary to protect natural resources and the health... property, these final supplementary rules are necessary to protect natural resources, allow for safe public... the destruction of natural resources and property, and/or serious physical injury or death....

  1. Trends in the Use of Supplementary Materials in Environmental Science Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Jeremy; Sprague, Nancy R.

    2014-01-01

    Our research examined the use of supplementary materials in six environmental science disciplines: atmospheric sciences, biology, fisheries, forestry, geology, and plant sciences. Ten key journals were selected from each of these disciplines and the number of supplementary materials, such as data files or videos, in each issue was noted over a…

  2. 5 CFR 843.308 - Supplementary benefits on death of a retiree.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplementary benefits on death of a... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current and Former Spouse Benefits § 843.308 Supplementary benefits on death of a retiree. (a) Except as...

  3. 5 CFR 843.308 - Supplementary benefits on death of a retiree.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplementary benefits on death of a... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current and Former Spouse Benefits § 843.308 Supplementary benefits on death of a retiree. (a) Except as...

  4. Trends in the Use of Supplementary Materials in Environmental Science Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Jeremy; Sprague, Nancy R.

    2014-01-01

    Our research examined the use of supplementary materials in six environmental science disciplines: atmospheric sciences, biology, fisheries, forestry, geology, and plant sciences. Ten key journals were selected from each of these disciplines and the number of supplementary materials, such as data files or videos, in each issue was noted over a…

  5. 5 CFR 843.308 - Supplementary benefits on death of a retiree.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplementary benefits on death of a... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current and Former Spouse Benefits § 843.308 Supplementary benefits on death of a retiree. (a) Except...

  6. 20 CFR 416.2090 - State funds transferred for supplementary payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Any State which has entered into an agreement with SSA which provides for Federal administration of such State's supplementary payments shall transfer to SSA: (i) An amount of funds equal to SSA's estimate of State supplementary payments for any month which shall be made by SSA on behalf of such State...

  7. 20 CFR 416.2090 - State funds transferred for supplementary payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Any State which has entered into an agreement with SSA which provides for Federal administration of such State's supplementary payments shall transfer to SSA: (i) An amount of funds equal to SSA's estimate of State supplementary payments for any month which shall be made by SSA on behalf of such State...

  8. 20 CFR 416.2090 - State funds transferred for supplementary payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Any State which has entered into an agreement with SSA which provides for Federal administration of such State's supplementary payments shall transfer to SSA: (i) An amount of funds equal to SSA's estimate of State supplementary payments for any month which shall be made by SSA on behalf of such State...

  9. 20 CFR 416.2090 - State funds transferred for supplementary payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Any State which has entered into an agreement with SSA which provides for Federal administration of such State's supplementary payments shall transfer to SSA: (i) An amount of funds equal to SSA's estimate of State supplementary payments for any month which shall be made by SSA on behalf of such State...

  10. Supplementary Tutoring in Trinidad and Tobago: Some Implications for Policy Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Dorian A.; Lochan, Samuel N.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, private supplementary tutoring is a huge business and the practice is expanding rapidly in many regions of the world where it never existed before. In some of these regions it is posing a novel set of challenges for education planners and policy makers. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which supplementary tutoring is…

  11. 75 FR 51986 - Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation AGENCY: Office of the... Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation. Section 934 addresses how the United States will meet its obligations under the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) and, in particular...

  12. Revisiting the polytopal rearrangements in penta-coordinate d7-metallocomplexes: modified Berry pseudorotation, octahedral switch, and butterfly isomerization† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc00703e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Ruckenstein, Eli

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a first-principles theoretical investigation of the polytopal rearrangements and fluxional behavior of five-coordinate d7-transition metal complexes. Our work is primarily based on a potential energy surface analysis of the iron tetracarbonyl hydride radical HFe˙(CO)4. We demonstrate the existence of distorted coordination geometries in this prototypical system and, for the first time, introduce three general rearrangement mechanisms, which account for the non-ideal coordination. The first of these mechanisms constitutes a modified version of the Berry pseudorotation via a square-based pyramidal C 4v transition state that connects two chemically identical edge-bridged tetrahedral stereoisomers of C 2v symmetry. It differs from the classical Berry mechanism, which involves two regular D 3h equilibrium structures and a C 4v transition state. The second mechanism is related to the famous “tetrahedral jump” hypothesis, postulated by Muetterties for a number of d6 HML4 and H2ML4 complexes. Here, our study suggests two fluxional rearrangement pathways via distinct types of C 2v transition states. Both pathways of this mechanism can be described as a single-ligand migration to a vacant position of an “octahedron”, thus interchanging (switching) the apical and basal ligands of the initial quasi-square pyramidal isomer, which is considered as an idealized octahedron with a vacancy. Accordingly, we call this mechanism “octahedral switch”. The third mechanism follows a butterfly-type isomerization featuring a key-angle deformation, and we thus call it “butterfly isomerization”. It connects the quasi-square pyramidal and edge-bridged tetrahedral isomers of HFe˙(CO)4 through a distorted edge-bridged tetrahedral transition state of C s symmetry. Our paper discusses the overall features of the isomers and rearrangement mechanisms as well as their implications. We rationalize the existence of each stationary point through an electronic

  13. Versatile routes for synthesis of diarylamines through acceptorless dehydrogenative aromatization catalysis over supported gold–palladium bimetallic nanoparticles† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc04455g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Kento; Jin, Xiongjie; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2017-01-01

    reactions. The amine dehydrogenation and imine disproportionation reactions are effectively promoted by palladium (not by gold), and the intrinsic catalytic performance of palladium is significantly improved by alloying with gold. One possible explanation of the alloying effect is the formation of electron-poor palladium species that can effectively promote the β-H elimination step in the rate-limiting amine dehydrogenation. PMID:28507665

  14. An ambient stable core-substituted perylene bisimide dianion: isolation and single crystal structure analysis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis, spectroelectrochemistry, UV-vis, electrochemistry, X-ray diffraction, NMR and mass spectra. CCDC 1032959. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4sc03671a Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Sabine; Schmidt, David

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the first example of an isolable, ambient stable perylene bisimide (PBI) dianion which was synthesized by catalytic reduction of a highly electron deficient PBI derivative. The remarkable stability of this unprecedented dianion in air for months facilitated its complete characterization by different methods, including single crystal X-ray analysis. Furthermore, solvent dependent cyclic and square wave voltammetry studies revealed that the formation of PBI dianions is preferred in more polar solvents, whereas the generation of PBI radical anions should be favoured in less polar solvents. PMID:28717450

  15. 75 FR 33898 - Agency Information Collection (VA Loan Electronic Reporting Interface (VALERI) System) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (VA Loan Electronic Reporting Interface (VALERI) System) Activity.... 2900-0021.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: VA Loan Electronic Reporting Interface (VALERI)...

  16. Single crystal structures and theoretical calculations of uranium endohedral metallofullerenes (U@C 2n, 2n = 74, 82) show cage isomer dependent oxidation states for U† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1508508 1508509 1522558. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c7sc01711a Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wenting; Morales-Martínez, Roser; Zhang, Xingxing; Najera, Daniel; Romero, Elkin L.; Metta-Magaña, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Fortea, Antonio; Fortier, Skye

    2017-01-01

    Charge transfer is a general phenomenon observed for all endohedral mono-metallofullerenes. Since the detection of the first endohedral metallofullerene (EMF), La@C82, in 1991, it has always been observed that the oxidation state of a given encapsulated metal is always the same, regardless of the cage size. No crystallographic data exist for any early actinide endohedrals and little is known about the oxidation states for the few compounds that have been reported. Here we report the X-ray structures of three uranium metallofullerenes, U@D 3h-C74, U@C 2(5)-C82 and U@C 2v(9)-C82, and provide theoretical evidence for cage isomer dependent charge transfer states for U. Results from DFT calculations show that U@D 3h-C74 and U@C 2(5)-C82 have tetravalent electronic configurations corresponding to U4+@D 3h-C74 4– and U4+@C 2(5)-C82 4–. Surprisingly, the isomeric U@C 2v(9)-C82 has a trivalent electronic configuration corresponding to U3+@C 2v(9)-C82 3–. These are the first X-ray crystallographic structures of uranium EMFs and this is first observation of metal oxidation state dependence on carbon cage isomerism for mono-EMFs. PMID:28970908

  17. Supplementary Eye Field Encodes Confidence in Decisions Under Risk

    PubMed Central

    So, NaYoung; Stuphorn, Veit

    2016-01-01

    Choices are made with varying degrees of confidence, a cognitive signal representing the subjective belief in the optimality of the choice. Confidence has been mostly studied in the context of perceptual judgments, in which choice accuracy can be measured using objective criteria. Here, we study confidence in subjective value-based decisions. We recorded in the supplementary eye field (SEF) of monkeys performing a gambling task, where they had to use subjective criteria for placing bets. We found neural signals in the SEF that explicitly represent choice confidence independent from reward expectation. This confidence signal appeared after the choice and diminished before the choice outcome. Most of this neuronal activity was negatively correlated with confidence, and was strongest in trials on which the monkey spontaneously withdrew his choice. Such confidence-related activity indicates that the SEF not only guides saccade selection, but also evaluates the likelihood that the choice was optimal. This internal evaluation influences decisions concerning the willingness to bear later costs that follow from the choice or to avoid them. More generally, our findings indicate that choice confidence is an integral component of all forms of decision-making, whether they are based on perceptual evidence or on value estimations. PMID:25750256

  18. The efferent and afferent connections of the supplementary motor area.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, U

    1984-05-21

    The efferent and afferent connections of the supplementary motor area (SMA) were studied in 6 squirrel monkeys using [3H]leucine and horseradish peroxidase, respectively. Efferent projections, common to all leucine-injected animals, were found to the cortical areas 9,8,44,4,2,5,7,24 and 23. Subcortically , efferents were found to the putamen, caudate nucleus, claustrum, the thalamic nuclei reticularis, ventrialis anterior, ventralis lateralis, medialis dorsalis, centralis lateralis, paracentralis , centrum medianum, parafascicularis, centralis superior lateralis, centralis inferior and lateralis posterior, the subthalamic nucleus, field H of Forel, nuel . ruber, reticular formation of midbrain, pons and medulla, the pontine gray and nucl . reticularis tegmenti pontis. Afferent connections exist with the cortical areas 9,8,6,44,4,1,2,5,7, 24 and 23, insula, fronto-parietal operculum and superior temporal sulcus. Subcortical afferent connections exist with the claustrum, nucleus of the diagonal band, nucl . basalis Meynert, basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, the thalamic nuclei ventralis anterior, ventralis lateralis, medialis dorsalis, centralis lateralis, paracentralis , centrum medianum, centralis superior lateralis, centralis inferior, lateralis posterior and pulvinaris , the posterior hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area, nucl . ruber pars parvicellularis , reticular formation of midbrain and pons, locus coeruleus and nucl . centralis superior Bechterew. The projections are discussed with respect to the possible role SMA plays in the voluntary initiation of motor actions.

  19. Electrophysiological and functional connectivity of the human supplementary motor area.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Shalini; Laird, Angela R; Tandon, Nitin; Franklin, Crystal; Lancaster, Jack L; Fox, Peter T

    2012-08-01

    Neuro-imaging methods for detecting functional and structural inter-regional connectivity are in a rapid phase of development. While reports of regional connectivity patterns based on individual methods are becoming common, studies comparing the results of two or more connectivity-mapping methods remain rare. In this study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation during PET imaging (TMS/PET), a stimulation-based method, and meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM), a task-based method to map the connectivity patterns of the supplementary motor area (SMA). Further, we drew upon the behavioral domain meta-data of the BrainMap® database to characterize the behavioral domain specificity of two maps. Both MACM and TMS/PET detected multi-synaptic connectivity patterns, with the MACM-detected connections being more extensive. Both MACM and TMS/PET detected connections belonging to multiple behavioral domains, including action, cognition and perception. Finally, we show that the two connectivity-mapping methods are complementary in that, the MACM informed on the functional nature of SMA connections, while TMS/PET identified brain areas electrophysiologically connected with the SMA. Thus, we demonstrate that integrating multimodal database and imaging techniques can derive comprehensive connectivity maps of brain areas.

  20. Supplementary safety system 1/4 scale testing

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, R.L.; Paik, I.K.

    1993-09-01

    During the course of updating the K-Reactor Safety Analysis Report Chapter 15 in 1990, it was identified that the current Supplementary Safety System (SSS) may not be adequate in protecting the reactor during the process water pump coastdown initiated by a loss of AC power when the safety rods are assumed to fail. A SSS modification project was initiated to add an additional ink injection pathway near the pump suction. In addition, the Department of Energy raised a question on the thermal buoyancy effects on moderator flow pattern and ink dispersion in the moderator space. The development and documentation of a two-dimensional code called MODFLOW was undertaken to describe the problem. This report discusses the results of the moderator flow and ink (Gadolinium Poison Solution - GPS) dispersion tests designed to provide qualified data for validation and benchmarking of the MODFLOW computer code with the secondary objectives being the development of concentration profiles and video footage of simulated GPS dispersion under steady-state and transient flow conditions.

  1. [Evaluation experiences of the supplementary care sector: contributions of integrality].

    PubMed

    da Silva Junior, Aluísio Gomes; Alves, Marcia Guimarães de Mello; Mascarenhas, Monica Tereza Machado; Silva, Valeria Marinho Nascimento; de Carvalho, Luis Cláudio

    2008-01-01

    This work identifies aspects of comprehensiveness in the proposals for healthcare evaluation of the Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar (ANS) in Brazil, and of the National Commitee Quality Assurance (NCQA) in the U.S.A. The investigation was based on a documental analysis of the proposals found in the websites of both institutions in the second semester of 2006. The data were systemized according to pre-established attributes, building an analytical matrix for evaluating the following three dimensions: management practices and service organization; quality of knowledge and of practices of the health workers; and quality of the control practices of the society. In the Brazilian case there was an emphasis on the first and the third dimensions. The evaluation focalized the operators; the health plans were not evaluated. In the American case there was a balance between the three sets of attributes and the evaluation was focused on the health plans. Both proposals measured the satisfaction of the beneficiaries and made the results of the evaluations available in their websites. In conclusion we emphasize the importance of evaluative concepts and approaches for measuring the integrality of private health plan operators in the Brazilian supplementary health sector.

  2. Surveillance of occupational skin disease using the Supplementary Data System.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, M; Thun, M; Morrison, J; Mathias, C G; Halperin, W E

    1988-01-01

    The utility of the Supplementary Data System (SDS) compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) in conducting surveillance of occupational skin disease was evaluated by examining 14,703 workers' compensation cases reported to the SDS for the year 1981. Combined with state employment denominators obtained from the BLS Employment and Earnings Program, rates of illness (cases of dermatitis/10,000 employed) calculated for eight major industrial divisions varied significantly according to the criteria used for reporting cases. Despite quantitative variations in the rate of skin disease that depended on specific reporting criteria, the relative ranking of the major industrial divisions remained unchanged, with highest rates of skin disease consistently found in three major industry divisions: agriculture, manufacturing, and construction. This ranking of major industry divisions by rate of dermatitis corresponded extremely well with rankings generated from the 1981 Annual Survey (Spearman rank correlation = .98, p less than .01). At the two-digit level of the Standard Industrial Classification, the rankings based on the SDS had a 77% rank correlation with those from the Annual Survey. Two-digit SIC codes identified from the top 10 in both sets of rankings included crop and livestock production from the agricultural division and leather products, food products, rubber and plastic products from the manufacturing division.

  3. Supplementary Eye Field Encodes Confidence in Decisions Under Risk.

    PubMed

    So, NaYoung; Stuphorn, Veit

    2016-02-01

    Choices are made with varying degrees of confidence, a cognitive signal representing the subjective belief in the optimality of the choice. Confidence has been mostly studied in the context of perceptual judgments, in which choice accuracy can be measured using objective criteria. Here, we study confidence in subjective value-based decisions. We recorded in the supplementary eye field (SEF) of monkeys performing a gambling task, where they had to use subjective criteria for placing bets. We found neural signals in the SEF that explicitly represent choice confidence independent from reward expectation. This confidence signal appeared after the choice and diminished before the choice outcome. Most of this neuronal activity was negatively correlated with confidence, and was strongest in trials on which the monkey spontaneously withdrew his choice. Such confidence-related activity indicates that the SEF not only guides saccade selection, but also evaluates the likelihood that the choice was optimal. This internal evaluation influences decisions concerning the willingness to bear later costs that follow from the choice or to avoid them. More generally, our findings indicate that choice confidence is an integral component of all forms of decision-making, whether they are based on perceptual evidence or on value estimations.

  4. Colour preferences of UK garden birds at supplementary seed feeders

    PubMed Central

    Rothery, Luke; Scott, Graham W.

    2017-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of garden birds generally has benefits for both bird populations and human wellbeing. Birds have excellent colour vision, and show preferences for food items of particular colours, but research into colour preferences associated with artificial feeders is limited to hummingbirds. Here, we investigated the colour preferences of common UK garden birds foraging at seed-dispensing artificial feeders containing identical food. We presented birds simultaneously with an array of eight differently coloured feeders, and recorded the number of visits made to each colour over 370 30-minute observation periods in the winter of 2014/15. In addition, we surveyed visitors to a garden centre and science festival to determine the colour preferences of likely purchasers of seed feeders. Our results suggest that silver and green feeders were visited by higher numbers of individuals of several common garden bird species, while red and yellow feeders received fewer visits. In contrast, people preferred red, yellow, blue and green feeders. We suggest that green feeders may be simultaneously marketable and attractive to foraging birds. PMID:28212435

  5. Electrophysiological and Functional Connectivity of the Human Supplementary Motor Area

    PubMed Central

    Narayana, Shalini; Laird, Angela R.; Tandon, Nitin; Franklin, Crystal; Lancaster, Jack L.; Fox, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Neuro-imaging methods for detecting functional and structural inter-regional connectivity are in a rapid phase of development. While reports of regional connectivity patterns based on individual methods are becoming common, studies comparing the results of two or more connectivity-mapping methods remain rare. In this study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation during PET imaging (TMS/PET), a stimulation-based method, and meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM), a task-based method to map the connectivity patterns of the supplementary motor area (SMA). Further, we drew upon the behavioral domain meta-data of the BrainMap® database to characterize the behavioral domain specificity of two maps. Both MACM and TMS/PET detected multi-synaptic connectivity patterns, with the MACM-detected connections being more extensive. Both MACM and TMS/PET detected connections belonging to multiple behavioral domains, including action, cognition and perception. Finally, we show that the two connectivity-mapping methods are complementary in that, the MACM informed on the functional nature of SMA connections, while TMS/PET identified brain areas electrophysiologically connected with the SMA. Thus, we demonstrate that integrating multimodal database and imaging techniques can derive comprehensive connectivity maps of brain areas. PMID:22569543

  6. Colour preferences of UK garden birds at supplementary seed feeders.

    PubMed

    Rothery, Luke; Scott, Graham W; Morrell, Lesley J

    2017-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of garden birds generally has benefits for both bird populations and human wellbeing. Birds have excellent colour vision, and show preferences for food items of particular colours, but research into colour preferences associated with artificial feeders is limited to hummingbirds. Here, we investigated the colour preferences of common UK garden birds foraging at seed-dispensing artificial feeders containing identical food. We presented birds simultaneously with an array of eight differently coloured feeders, and recorded the number of visits made to each colour over 370 30-minute observation periods in the winter of 2014/15. In addition, we surveyed visitors to a garden centre and science festival to determine the colour preferences of likely purchasers of seed feeders. Our results suggest that silver and green feeders were visited by higher numbers of individuals of several common garden bird species, while red and yellow feeders received fewer visits. In contrast, people preferred red, yellow, blue and green feeders. We suggest that green feeders may be simultaneously marketable and attractive to foraging birds.

  7. Unexpected antitumorigenic effect of fenbendazole when combined with supplementary vitamins.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ping; Dang, Chi V; Watson, Julie

    2008-11-01

    Diet containing the anthelminthic fenbendazole is used often to treat rodent pinworm infections because it is easy to use and has few reported adverse effects on research. However, during fenbendazole treatment at our institution, an established human lymphoma xenograft model in C.B-17/Icr-prkdcscid/Crl (SCID) mice failed to grow. Further investigation revealed that the fenbendazole had been incorporated into a sterilizable diet supplemented with additional vitamins to compensate for loss during autoclaving, but the diet had not been autoclaved. To assess the role of fenbendazole and supplementary vitamins on tumor suppression, 20 vendor-supplied 4-wk-old SCID mice were assigned to 4 treatment groups: standard diet, diet plus fenbendazole, diet plus vitamins, and diet plus both vitamins and fenbendazole. Diet treatment was initiated 2 wk before subcutaneous flank implantation with 3 x 107 lymphoma cells. Tumor size was measured by caliper at 4-d intervals until the largest tumors reached a calculated volume of 1500 mm3. Neither diet supplemented with vitamins alone nor fenbendazole alone caused altered tumor growth as compared with that of controls. However, the group supplemented with both vitamins and fenbendazole exhibited significant inhibition of tumor growth. The mechanism for this synergy is unknown and deserves further investigation. Fenbendazole should be used with caution during tumor studies because it may interact with other treatments and confound research results.

  8. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report on supplementary comparison APMP.M.P-S2 (bilateral comparison) at a nominal pressure of 0.05 Pa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Pardeep; Abbott, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    A supplementary bilateral comparison was carried out to compare two different pressure standards at a nominal pressure of 0.05 Pa. The two standards used different principles for generating the nominal pressure; one based on the static expansion method (NPL, India), and the other based on the orifice flow or dynamic expansion method (NIST, USA). The transfer standard consisted of a pair of spinning rotor gauges whose accommodation coefficients were measured at a nominal pressure of 0.05 Pa at the two laboratories. The nominal pressure value for the comparison was chosen because (i) it can be easily generated by the respective standards with high accuracy and (ii) it had not been covered in the earlier two key comparisons, namely, CCM.P-K3 and CCM.P-K4, which the two NMIs had participated in. NPLI served as the pilot lab, and provided the stainless steel rotors; each lab used its own thimbles and electronics. The rotors were hand-carried from NPLI to NIST at atmospheric pressure in small, insulation-packed glass vials to prevent the rotors from moving during transit; otherwise no special transit precautions were taken. The pressure value of 0.05 Pa generated by the NPLI and NIST showed good agreement within their combined uncertainties, proving thereby that the two standards were equivalent to each other for the pressure of 0.05 Pa. Main text. To reach the main text of this Paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the APMP, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  9. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report EURAMET.EM-S30 on EURAMET Project 1081: Supplementary comparison of measurements of current transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, Emil; Kumanova, Ginka; Styblíková, Renata; Draxler, Karel; Dierikx, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The supplementary comparison was carried out between CMI, Czech Republic and BIM, NCM Bulgaria in the field of current transformer ratio measurements. The current errors and phase displacement of the traveling standards, current transformers: Tettex 4720, CLA 2.2, CLA 2.2, CLA 3.2, CLB 10, I 523 were determined at 50 Hz, 5 VA burden at unity power factor at ratios: primary (4000, 2000, 1000, 500, 100, 5, 1 and 0.5) A/secondary 5 A. Both participants used their own standard measurement method. The obtained results show good agreement for all of the current ratio error measurements (except for the measurements at 2 kA) and for the current phase displacement measurements (the agreement on several measurement points is marginal). The aim of the comparison was to demonstrate the improvement and extension of the calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) of BIM in this working field and to support the improved CMCs in Appendix C of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA). Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  10. Relative Roles of Grey Squirrels, Supplementary Feeding, and Habitat in Shaping Urban Bird Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Bonnington, Colin; Gaston, Kevin J.; Evans, Karl L.

    2014-01-01

    Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds’ nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK) we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding. PMID:25338062

  11. Supplementary feeding in the care of the wasted HIV infected patient.

    PubMed

    Manary, Mark; Ndekhat, MacDonald; van Oosterhout, Joep J

    2010-06-01

    Wasting and food insecurity are commonly seen in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, and supplementary feeding is often offered in conjunction with ART. Evidence for the effectiveness of such supplementary feeding is scant. A randomised, investigator-blinded, controlled clinical trial of two types of supplementary food, corn/soy blended flour and a ready-to-use peanut butter-based lipid paste, in wasted adults in Blantyre, Malawi is described and the results summarised. A historical control group who did not receive supplementary food is described as well. Provision of about half of the daily energy requirement as a supplementary food for 14 weeks resulted in more rapid restoration of a normal BMI; and the energy-dense, ready-to-use paste was associated with more rapid weight gain than the blended flour. Survival was similar among the 3 groups. The strong association between lower BMI and survival indirectly suggests that there may well be clinical benefit from supplementary feeding in this population. No differences were seen in ART adherence or quality of life with more rapid restoration of BMI. Further research is urgently needed concerning the widespread practice of supplementary feeding in HIV/AIDS care to most effectively utilize this intervention.

  12. Relative roles of grey squirrels, supplementary feeding, and habitat in shaping urban bird assemblages.

    PubMed

    Bonnington, Colin; Gaston, Kevin J; Evans, Karl L

    2014-01-01

    Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds' nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK) we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding.

  13. Therapeutic Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Spinal Cord Injury: A Promising Supplementary Treatment in Future.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Hao; An, Jing; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Bo; Hao, Ding-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological disorder caused by trauma. Pathophysiological events occurring after SCI include acute, subacute, and chronic phases, while complex mechanisms are comprised. As an abundant source of natural drugs, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) attracts much attention in SCI treatment recently. Hence, this review provides an overview of pathophysiology of SCI and TCM application in its therapy. Methods. Information was collected from articles published in peer-reviewed journals via electronic search (PubMed, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and CNKI), as well as from master's dissertations, doctoral dissertations, and Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Results. Both active ingredients and herbs could exert prevention and treatment against SCI, which is linked to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, or antiapoptosis effects. The detailed information of six active natural ingredients (i.e., curcumin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, ligustrazine, quercitrin, and puerarin) and five commonly used herbs (i.e., Danshen, Ginkgo, Ginseng, Notoginseng, and Astragali Radix) was elucidated and summarized. Conclusions. As an important supplementary treatment, TCM may provide benefits in repair of injured spinal cord. With a general consensus that future clinical approaches will be diversified and a combination of multiple strategies, TCM is likely to attract greater attention in SCI treatment.

  14. Therapeutic Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Spinal Cord Injury: A Promising Supplementary Treatment in Future

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Hao; An, Jing; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Bo; Hao, Ding-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological disorder caused by trauma. Pathophysiological events occurring after SCI include acute, subacute, and chronic phases, while complex mechanisms are comprised. As an abundant source of natural drugs, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) attracts much attention in SCI treatment recently. Hence, this review provides an overview of pathophysiology of SCI and TCM application in its therapy. Methods. Information was collected from articles published in peer-reviewed journals via electronic search (PubMed, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and CNKI), as well as from master's dissertations, doctoral dissertations, and Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Results. Both active ingredients and herbs could exert prevention and treatment against SCI, which is linked to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, or antiapoptosis effects. The detailed information of six active natural ingredients (i.e., curcumin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, ligustrazine, quercitrin, and puerarin) and five commonly used herbs (i.e., Danshen, Ginkgo, Ginseng, Notoginseng, and Astragali Radix) was elucidated and summarized. Conclusions. As an important supplementary treatment, TCM may provide benefits in repair of injured spinal cord. With a general consensus that future clinical approaches will be diversified and a combination of multiple strategies, TCM is likely to attract greater attention in SCI treatment. PMID:27118982

  15. Cycloheptatrienyl trianion: an elusive bridge in the search of exchange coupled dinuclear organolanthanide single-molecule magnets† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full synthetic details, crystallography, magnetic properties measurements, and ab initio details. CCDC 1454168–1454171. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c6sc01224h Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Harriman, Katie L. M.; Le Roy, Jennifer J.; Holmberg, Rebecca J.; Korobkov, Ilia

    2017-01-01

    The preparation of η-cyclopentadienyl (η5-C5R5), η-arene (η6-C6R6), and η-cyclooctatetraenyl (η8-C8R8) bridging motifs are common in organometallic chemistry; however, the synthetic preparation of η-cycloheptatrienyl (η7-C7R7) bridging motifs has remained a synthetic challenge in 4f chemistry. To this end, we have developed a synthetic route towards a series of rare dinuclear organolanthanide inverse sandwich complexes containing the elusive η7-C7H7 bridge. Herein, we present the structures and magnetic properties of the lanthanide inverse sandwich complexes [KLn2(C7H7)(N(SiMe3)2)4] (Ln = GdIII (1), DyIII (2), ErIII (3)) and [K(THF)2Er2(C7H7)(N(SiMe3)2)4] (4). These compounds are the first single-molecule magnets (SMMs) to feature this type of bridging motif. Furthermore, η7-C7H7 was found to efficiently promote ferromagnetic exchange interactions between metal ions. Variable temperature dc magnetic susceptibility measurements and subsequent simulations give significant exchange constants of J = +1.384, +1.798, and +3.149 cm–1 and dipolar constants of J = –0.603, –0.601, and –0.475 cm–1 for compounds 2–4, respectively. Frequency dependent ac susceptibility measurements under an applied static field resulted in the observation of dual relaxation processes, and brought forth a greater understanding of the intermolecularly driven process at high frequency. In particular, this type of analysis of compound 3 under 800 Oe elicited an energy barrier of U eff = 58 K. Ab initio calculations were performed in order to understand the nature of magnetic coupling and the origin of slow relaxation of magnetisation. Through these studies, the effect of the amido ancillary ligands on the magnetic axiality of the lanthanide ions was found to be competitive with the crystal field of the η7-C7H7 π-electron cloud. Our findings suggest that the tunability of the dipolar and exchange components of the magnetic interactions lie within the dihedral angle imposed by

  16. Digging supplementary buried channels: investigating the notch architecture within the CCD pixels on ESA's Gaia satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabroke, G. M.; Prod'homme, T.; Murray, N. J.; Crowley, C.; Hopkinson, G.; Brown, A. G. A.; Kohley, R.; Holland, A.

    2013-04-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Gaia satellite has 106 CCD image sensors which will suffer from increased charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) as a result of radiation damage. To aid the mitigation at low signal levels, the CCD design includes supplementary buried channels (SBCs, otherwise known as `notches') within each CCD column. We present the largest published sample of Gaia CCD SBC full well capacity (FWC) laboratory measurements and simulations based on 13 devices. We find that Gaia CCDs manufactured post-2004 have SBCs with FWCs in the upper half of each CCD that are systematically smaller by two orders of magnitude (≤50 electrons) compared to those manufactured pre-2004 (thousands of electrons). Gaia's faint star (13 ≤ G ≤ 20 mag) astrometric performance predictions by Prod'homme et al. and Holl et al. use pre-2004 SBC FWCs as inputs to their simulations. However, all the CCDs already integrated on to the satellite for the 2013 launch are post-2004. SBC FWC measurements are not available for one of our five post-2004 CCDs but the fact that it meets Gaia's image location requirements suggests that it has SBC FWCs similar to pre-2004. It is too late to measure the SBC FWCs onboard the satellite and it is not possible to theoretically predict them. Gaia's faint star astrometric performance predictions depend on knowledge of the onboard SBC FWCs but as these are currently unavailable, it is not known how representative of the whole focal plane the current predictions are. Therefore, we suggest that Gaia's initial in-orbit calibrations should include measurement of the onboard SBC FWCs. We present a potential method to do this. Faint star astrometric performance predictions based on onboard SBC FWCs at the start of the mission would allow satellite operating conditions or CTI software mitigation to be further optimized to improve the scientific return of Gaia.

  17. 17 CFR 210.12-25 - Supplementary profit and loss information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-25 Supplementary profit and loss...)—Account (2)—Amount Column D—Total 1. Legal expenses (including those in connection with any matter...

  18. Evaluating Faculty Workload: An Application of Process Control Charts with Supplementary Run Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, R. S. M.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a method for evaluating faculty workload (measured by time spent in teaching, research, and service) by using process control charts with supplementary run rules that can identify potential overload or underload. (SK)

  19. 24 CFR 200.936 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building products certification program for solid fuel type room heaters and fireplace... Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program for solid fuel... fireplace stoves certified under the HUD Building Products Certification Program shall be...

  20. Supplementary nurse prescribing for patients with skin conditions: a national questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Carey, Nicola; Courtenay, Molly; Burke, Joanna

    2007-07-01

    To examine the prescribing practices of supplementary nurse prescribers (working in both primary and secondary care) who prescribe medicines for patients with skin conditions and the factors that facilitate or inhibit this mode of prescribing. Nurses work in a variety of roles, with varying levels of expertise, are involved in the treatment management of a broad range of skin diseases. Skin conditions are those for which independent nurse prescribers prescribe most frequently. The role of the nurse, limitations of the formulary and inter-professional relationships influence the prescribing practices of these nurses. There is no evidence currently available examining the impact and activity of supplementary nurse prescribing for patients with skin conditions. A convenient sample of 580 nurses who prescribed for skin conditions and were qualified supplementary nurse prescriber, self-completed a written questionnaire. Five hundred and twenty (89.7%) nurses were based in primary care and worked in general practice. Four hundred and thirty-six (75%) held a degree level qualification or higher, 41 (7%) had specialist dermatology training and 512 (88.3%) had more than 10 years postregistration nursing experience. Supplementary prescribing was used by a minority of nurses. Nurses who had specialist dermatology training used this mode of prescribing most frequently. Doctor and pharmacists lack of understanding of supplementary prescribing, lack of peer support and clinical management plans prevented the implementation of this mode of prescribing. Supplementary prescribing is used by a minority of nurses to treat skin conditions. A number of factors prevent nurses from using this mode of prescribing including lack of specialist training and lack of support in practice. Specialist dermatology training, an understanding of supplementary prescribing by the members of the healthcare team, and support in practice are required if supplementary prescribing is to be implemented

  1. 38 CFR 36.4338 - Supplementary administrative action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting... Government are not adversely affected, to relieve undue prejudice to a debtor, holder, or other person, which... mistake and that the interests of the Government are not adversely affected. Provisions of the...

  2. Mechanism of resonant electron emission from the deprotonated GFP chromophore and its biomimetics† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental and computational details, calculated VEEs in anions and radicals, orbitals involved in electronic transitions, detailed discussion of direct and resonant spectral shapes, mechanism of vibrational autodetachment out of S1 above the S1/D0 crossing, impact of the substituents, and coordinates of the optimized structures. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc05529j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Ciarán R. S.; Parkes, Michael A.; Woodhouse, Joanne L.; Zhang, Lijuan; Lewin, Ross; Ward, John M.; Hailes, Helen C.; Andersen, Lars H.

    2017-01-01

    The Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), which is widely used in bioimaging, is known to undergo light-induced redox transformations. Electron transfer is thought to occur resonantly through excited states of its chromophore; however, a detailed understanding of the electron gateway states of the chromophore is still missing. Here, we use photoelectron spectroscopy and high-level quantum chemistry calculations to show that following UV excitation, the ultrafast electron dynamics in the chromophore anion proceeds via an excited shape resonance strongly coupled to the open continuum. The impact of this state is found across the entire 355–315 nm excitation range, from above the first bound–bound transition to below the opening of higher-lying continua. By disentangling the electron dynamics in the photodetachment channels, we provide an important reference for the adiabatic position of the electron gateway state, which is located at 348 nm, and discover the source of the curiously large widths of the photoelectron spectra that have been reported in the literature. By introducing chemical modifications to the GFP chromophore, we show that the detachment threshold and the position of the gateway state, and hence the underlying excited-state dynamics, can be changed systematically. This enables a fine tuning of the intrinsic electron emission properties of the GFP chromophore and has significant implications for its function, suggesting that the biomimetic GFP chromophores are more stable to photooxidation. PMID:28507691

  3. A Supplementary Grading Scale for Selecting Patients with Brain Arteriovenous Malformations for Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Michael T.; Kim, Helen; McCulloch, Charles E.; Mikhak, Bahar; Young, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Patient age, hemorrhagic presentation, nidal diffuseness, and deep perforating artery supply are important factors when selecting patients with brain arteriovenous malformations for surgery. We hypothesized that these factors outside of the Spetzler-Martin grading system could be combined into a simple, supplementary grading system that would accurately predict neurological outcome and refine patient selection. Methods A consecutive, single-surgeon series of 300 patients with AVMs treated microsurgically was analyzed in terms of change between preoperative and final postoperative Modified Rankin Scale scores. Three different multivariable logistic models (full, Spetzler-Martin, and supplementary models) were constructed to test the association of combined predictor variables with the change in MRS score. A simplified supplementary grading system was developed from the data which combined age, hemorrhagic presentation, and diffuseness in a manner analogous to the Spetzler-Martin grading system, with points assigned according to each variable and added together for a supplementary AVM grade. Results Predictive accuracy was highest for the full multivariable model (receiver operating characteristic curve area, 0.78), followed by the supplementary model (0.73), and least for the Spetzler-Martin model (0.66). Predictive accuracy of the simplified supplementary grade was significantly better than that of the Spetzler-Martin grade (P=0.042), with ROC curve areas of 0.73 and 0.65, respectively. The predictive accuracy of the supplementary grade was only slightly less than a full point score with all 7 weighted variables (P=0.364), with areas under the ROC curve of 0.73 and 0.75, respectively. Conclusions This new AVM grading system supplements rather than replaces the well established Spetzler-Martin grading system, and is a better predictor of neurological outcomes after AVM surgery. The supplementary grading scale has high predictive accuracy on its own and

  4. [Dentistry and supplementary health: regulatory framework, health promotion policies and quality of care].

    PubMed

    Garbin, Daniela; Mattevi, Gianina Salton; Carcereri, Daniela Lemos; Caetano, João Carlos

    2013-02-01

    Based on the regulatory framework and an overview of dentistry in supplementary health, this paper discusses the specifics of the dental sector with respect to health promotion policies and quality of health care services proposed by the National Supplementary Health Agency (ANS). The State's activities in supplementary health are based on law 9.656/98, which defines the relations between operators, products and their beneficiaries, and law 9.961/2000, which created the ANS. Concomitantly there was a great increase in dentistry in the private health plan market, because of changes in the practices of the profession. This required the need to know the logic of the organization of the services regarding the assistance provided and the model of care. The ANS develops measures to encourage operators to implement health promotion programs, striving for an integral care model. At the same time, it promotes the qualification policy of supplementary health care, with emphasis on the scope of care, though in dentistry the focus of evaluation is still individual and fragmented care. Indeed, the great challenge of dentistry is making it a public health policy, accessible to all, and the qualification of dental care in supplementary health.

  5. The effects of a web-based supplementary program for facilitating nursing students' basic nursing skills.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Cheng, Hsiu-Rong; Yang, Ya-Shu; Fang, Miao-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an asynchronous Web-based supplementary learning program on the performance of nursing students' basic nursing skills. A posttest quasi-experimental design was used. Students in the intervention group (n = 62) were given login information to access the online program, while the control group (n = 99) was not. Data from both groups were collected before and 4 weeks after the intervention. An objective assessment of basic nursing skills was used to evaluate the level of skill demonstrated by the participants. Results indicate that the Web-based supplementary learning program is effective at strengthening students' basic nursing skills (P = .002). The findings also reveal that students in the intervention group showed higher-than-average satisfaction with the supplementary program (mean, 3.80 [SD, 0.81]). Thus, this Web-based program offers a learning opportunity for nursing students to enhance their skills beyond their formal lectures.

  6. Spatiotemporal Effects of Supplementary Feeding of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) on Artificial Ground Nest Depredation.

    PubMed

    Oja, Ragne; Zilmer, Karoline; Valdmann, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of ungulates, being widely used in game management, may have unwanted consequences. Its role in agricultural damage is well-studied, but few studies have considered the potential for the practice to attract ground nest predators. Our goal was to identify the factors influencing ground nest predation in the vicinity of year-round supplementary feeding sites for wild boar and to characterise their spatiotemporal scope. We conducted two separate artificial ground nest experiments in five different hunting districts in south-eastern Estonia. The quantity of food provided and distance of a nest from the feeding site were the most important factors determining predation risk. Larger quantities of food resulted in higher predation risk, while predation risk responded in a non-linear fashion to distance from the feeding site. Although predation risk eventually decreases if supplementary feeding is ceased for at least four years, recently abandoned feeding sites still pose a high predation risk.

  7. Intra- versus intermolecular electron transfer in radical nucleophilic aromatic substitution of dihalo(hetero)arenes – a tool for estimating π-conjugation in aromatic systems† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and procedures, 1H and 13C NMR data, GC traces and mass spectra. CCDC 1526301 and 1526302. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c7sc00100b Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Janhsen, B.; Daniliuc, C. G.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the application of the double radical nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SRN1) in various dihalogenated, mostly diiodinated, π-conjugated systems as a tool for qualitatively estimating their π-conjugation is described. This approach uses electron delocalisation as a measure of π-conjugation. Electron injection into the π-system is achieved via reaction of an intermediate aryl radical, itself generated from a dihalogenated π-system via SET-reduction of the C–I bond and subsequent reaction with a thiolate anion. The generated arene radical anion can then further react with the second aryl-halogen moiety within the π-system via an intramolecular electron transfer process. The efficiency of this intramolecular electron transfer is related to the π-conjugation of the radical anion. If the π-conjugation within the aromatic unit is weak, the arene radical anion reacts via an intermolecular ET with the starting dihalide. The intramolecular ET process delivers a product of a double SRN1 substitution whereas the intermolecular ET pathway provides a product of a mono- SRN1 substitution. By simple product analysis of mono- versus double substitution, π-conjugation can be qualitatively evaluated. This mechanistic tool is applied to various dihalogenated π-conjugated systems and the results are discussed within the context of π-conjugation. The conjugation mode within the π-system and the length of the aromatic system are varied, and the effect of relative positioning of the two halides within small π-systems is also addressed. PMID:28580099

  8. Startle-induced seizures associated with infantile hemiplegia: implication of the supplementary motor area.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Melinda A; Otsubo, Hiroshi; Iida, Koji; Minassian, Berge A

    2005-03-01

    This case illustrates an uncommon form of symptomatic startle-induced epilepsy associated with infantile hemiplegia. Seizure semiology, neuroimaging and neurophysiological findings support involvement of the supplementary motor area in the generation of this seizure type. We present the case of an 11-year-old girl with an uncommon form of startle-induced seizures, illustrated on video-EEG, against the background of left infantile hemiplegia associated with extensive right hemispheric porencephaly but preserved cognitive functioning. The epileptic focus appears to be in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, with seizure semiology involving the supplementary motor cortex.

  9. Unavailability of online supplementary scientific information from articles published in major journals.

    PubMed

    Evangelou, Evangelos; Trikalinos, Thomas A; Ioannidis, John P A

    2005-12-01

    Printed articles increasingly rely on online supplements to store critical scientific information, but such data may eventually become unavailable. We checked the current availability of online supplementary scientific information published in six top-cited scientific journals (Science, Nature, Cell, New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA). Here we show that in 4.7% and 9.6% of articles with online supplementary material, some of the supplements became unavailable within 2 and 5 years of their publication, respectively.

  10. 78 FR 5816 - Electronic Study Data Submission; Data Standard Support End Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Electronic Study Data Submission; Data Standard Support End... Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Study Data Tabulation Model (SDTM) Implementation....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FDA encourages sponsors to submit standardized study data using...

  11. Sunflower seed hulls as supplementary fuel to coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brudenell, W.N.; Holland, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of biomass as a supplementary fuel to fossil-fuel power plants is gaining increasing attention due to escalating energy costs. The design of a sunflower seed hulls combustion system for an existing lignite-fired power plant is presented in this paper. 5 refs.

  12. Improving Early Reading Skills for Beginning Readers Using an Online Programme as Supplementary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Emily Jehanne; Hughes, John Carl; Beverley, Michael; Hastings, Richard Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Many children fail to acquire basic reading skills. The current evidence base for supplementary reading instruction indicates that explicit, systematic and intensive instruction in the early years for children considered to be "at-risk" of reading difficulties can have significant and preventative effects on reading skills. However,…

  13. SARC Supplementary Tutor Handbook: Supporting Literacy for People with Intellectual/Developmental Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockert, Richard

    This handbook, which is intended for tutors, disability practitioners, and others working with adults with intellectual/developmental disabilities, contains supplementary materials for and about supporting literacy for people with intellectual/developmental challenges. The handbook is a product of the following activities: extensive research of…

  14. 24 CFR 200.936 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplementary specific procedural... stoves. 200.936 Section 200.936 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards §...

  15. 24 CFR 200.952 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplementary specific requirements... treads. 200.952 Section 200.952 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards §...

  16. 24 CFR 200.955 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplementary specific requirements... doors). 200.955 Section 200.955 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards §...

  17. Alleviation SSR and Low Frequency Power Oscillations in Series Compensated Transmission Line using SVC Supplementary Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Narendra

    2016-07-01

    In this work, supplementary sub-synchronous damping controllers (SSDC) are proposed for damping sub-synchronous oscillations in power systems with series compensated transmission lines. Series compensation have extensively been used as effective means of increasing the power transfer capability of a transmission lines and improving transient stability limits of power systems. Series compensation with transmission lines may cause sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). The eigenvalue investigation tool is used to ascertain the existence of SSR. It is shown that the addition of supplementary controller is able to stabilize all unstable modes for T-network model. Eigenvalue investigation and time domain transient simulation of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controllers. The efficacies of the suggested supplementary controllers are compared on the IEEE first benchmark model for computer simulations of SSR by means of time domain simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment. Supplementary SSDC are considered in order to compare effectiveness of SSDC during higher loading in alleviating the small signal stability problem.

  18. Northern Lights: A Curriculum of Minnesota History. Teacher's Edition and Supplementary Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, Rhoda R.; Sandell, Stephen

    This curriculum and supplementary materials give students an overview of life, past and present, in the geographic area known as Minnesota. Since the time and grade level assigned to state studies vary widely among school districts, the volume makes the materials flexible so they can be combined in a variety of ways. The work is directed toward…

  19. Communication, Fine Arts, and Media. Occupational Analyses. Worker Task Lists and Supplementary Information for Selected Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    This publication contains worker task lists and supplementary information for four occupations in the communication, fine arts, and media cluster: (1) graphic designer; (2) newspaper reporter; (3) radio announcer; and (4) recording technologies occupations. The task lists were generated through the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process and/or by…

  20. French I Supplementary Reader (For A-LM One, 1961, Units 9-14).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Linda; Booth, Alice

    Supplementary readings intended for use with the 1961 edition of the "A-LM" French 1 course are compiled in this text. They are specifically designed to accompany Units 9-14. It is suggested that the recombination narratives enable students to become more capable of independent reading. (RL)

  1. Using Supplementary Readings (Short Stories) in Increasing the Conceptual Fluency, the Case of Idioms in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtari, Elahe; Talebinezhad, Mohammed Reza

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to probed whether using supplementary readings (short stories containing idioms) increase conceptual fluency of L2 learners. In line with the goal of the study, first, the researcher selected a sample of 30 female lower-intermediate L2 learners from Sadr Private Language Centre in Isfahan. She selected them based on…

  2. Alleviation SSR and Low Frequency Power Oscillations in Series Compensated Transmission Line using SVC Supplementary Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Narendra

    2017-06-01

    In this work, supplementary sub-synchronous damping controllers (SSDC) are proposed for damping sub-synchronous oscillations in power systems with series compensated transmission lines. Series compensation have extensively been used as effective means of increasing the power transfer capability of a transmission lines and improving transient stability limits of power systems. Series compensation with transmission lines may cause sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). The eigenvalue investigation tool is used to ascertain the existence of SSR. It is shown that the addition of supplementary controller is able to stabilize all unstable modes for T-network model. Eigenvalue investigation and time domain transient simulation of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controllers. The efficacies of the suggested supplementary controllers are compared on the IEEE first benchmark model for computer simulations of SSR by means of time domain simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment. Supplementary SSDC are considered in order to compare effectiveness of SSDC during higher loading in alleviating the small signal stability problem.

  3. Suggestions for Using Supplementary Materials in the Individualization of Intensive Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Bonnie B.

    Suggestions for preparing supplementary materials for use in an individualized second language reading program are made. Newspaper sources can be used as a basis for constructing a learning activity packet with three phases. The prereading phase contains sound-symbol correspondence and vocabulary exercises, structure analysis and/or structure…

  4. Some Supplementary Methods for the Analysis of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, John R.; Garthwaite, Paul H.; Sutherland, David; Borland, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary methods for the analysis of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001) are made available, including (a) quantifying the number of abnormally low achievement scores exhibited by an individual and accompanying this with an estimate of the percentage of the normative population expected to exhibit at…

  5. Locating Black Mixed-Raced Males in the Black Supplementary School Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph-Salisbury, Remi; Andrews, Kehinde

    2017-01-01

    This article draws upon data from semi-structured interviews conducted with black mixed-race males in the UK and the US, to argue that a revival of the black supplementary school movement could play an important role in the education of black mixed-race males. The article contends that a strong identification with blackness, and a concomitant…

  6. ChemEngine: harvesting 3D chemical structures of supplementary data from PDF files.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Vyas, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Digital access to chemical journals resulted in a vast array of molecular information that is now available in the supplementary material files in PDF format. However, extracting this molecular information, generally from a PDF document format is a daunting task. Here we present an approach to harvest 3D molecular data from the supporting information of scientific research articles that are normally available from publisher's resources. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of extracting truly computable molecules from PDF file formats in a fast and efficient manner, we have developed a Java based application, namely ChemEngine. This program recognizes textual patterns from the supplementary data and generates standard molecular structure data (bond matrix, atomic coordinates) that can be subjected to a multitude of computational processes automatically. The methodology has been demonstrated via several case studies on different formats of coordinates data stored in supplementary information files, wherein ChemEngine selectively harvested the atomic coordinates and interpreted them as molecules with high accuracy. The reusability of extracted molecular coordinate data was demonstrated by computing Single Point Energies that were in close agreement with the original computed data provided with the articles. It is envisaged that the methodology will enable large scale conversion of molecular information from supplementary files available in the PDF format into a collection of ready- to- compute molecular data to create an automated workflow for advanced computational processes. Software along with source codes and instructions available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/chemengine/files/?source=navbar.Graphical abstract.

  7. 36 CFR 292.63 - Plan of operations-supplementary requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plan of operations-supplementary requirements. 292.63 Section 292.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Smith River National Recreation Area Locatable Minerals...

  8. 36 CFR 292.63 - Plan of operations-supplementary requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plan of operations-supplementary requirements. 292.63 Section 292.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Smith River National Recreation Area Locatable Minerals...

  9. 36 CFR 292.63 - Plan of operations-supplementary requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plan of operations-supplementary requirements. 292.63 Section 292.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Smith River National Recreation Area Locatable Minerals...

  10. 78 FR 110 - Supplemental Record of Decision; Final Supplementary Risk Assessment for the Boston University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... recognize and report such incidents, thus mitigating the consequences should such a lab accident occur. The... fatalities to lab workers at the three different sites because the laboratory and its operations would be the... selected for detailed analysis in the Final Supplementary Risk Assessment were a needlestick accident,...

  11. 77 FR 47662 - Proposed Supplementary Rules for Public Lands Within the Lower Lake Creek Special Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... has determined that this rule is necessary to provide a safe and healthy environment at the Lake Creek... the BLM's stated intention, which is to promote a safe, clean, healthy environment for visitors to BLM... utilize in promoting a safe and healthy environment for visitors to the site. These supplementary...

  12. 24 CFR 200.943 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the grademarking of lumber. 200... Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the... that the lumber was green or dry at the time of dressing; (7) Indication that the lumber was...

  13. 24 CFR 200.943 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the grademarking of lumber. 200... Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the... that the lumber was green or dry at the time of dressing; (7) Indication that the lumber was...

  14. 24 CFR 200.943 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the grademarking of lumber. 200... Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the... that the lumber was green or dry at the time of dressing; (7) Indication that the lumber was...

  15. 24 CFR 200.943 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the grademarking of lumber. 200... Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the... that the lumber was green or dry at the time of dressing; (7) Indication that the lumber was...

  16. 24 CFR 200.943 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the grademarking of lumber. 200... Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the... that the lumber was green or dry at the time of dressing; (7) Indication that the lumber was...

  17. 78 FR 16614 - Medicare Program; Medicare Hospital Insurance (Part A) and Medicare Supplementary Medical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... Medicare Program; Medicare Hospital Insurance (Part A) and Medicare Supplementary Medical Insurance (Part B... following the denial of a Part A inpatient hospital claim by a Medicare review contractor on the basis that... Inpatient Billing in Hospitals,'' to propose a permanent policy that would apply on a prospective basis...

  18. Subject Bibliography of Supplementary Adult Literacy Materials Purchased through LSCA Title VI Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Library Commission, Jackson.

    This annotated bibliography of supplementary materials for adult literacy students in Mississippi arranges the annotations in the following categories: automobiles; biography; communication skills; consumer information; coping skills; English as a second language; fiction; health, nutrition, and safety; history and government; insurance; job…

  19. Health and Human Services. Occupational Analyses. Worker Task Lists and Supplementary Information for Selected Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    This publication contains worker task lists and supplementary information for eight occupations in the health and human services cluster: (1) criminal justice; (2) protective services; (3) dental assistant; (4) dental hygienist; (5) diagnostic medical sonographer; (6) medical office assistant; (7) fire medic; and (8) parks and recreation manager.…

  20. Google Translate as a Supplementary Tool for Learning Malay: A Case Study at Universiti Sains Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahri, Hossein; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2016-01-01

    The present paper examines the use of Google Translate as a supplementary tool for helping international students at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) to learn and develop their knowledge and skills in learning Bahasa Malaysia (Malay Language). The participants of the study were 16 international students at the School of Languages, Literacies, and…

  1. 81 FR 43631 - Final Supplementary Rules for the Cove Recreation Site, Owyhee County, Idaho

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2016-07-05

    ....HT0000 LXSS020D0000 241A 4500076900] Final Supplementary Rules for the Cove Recreation Site, Owyhee... Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Owyhee County, Idaho. These final...). Originally, public comments were due August 25, 2014. The BLM accepted comments from the Owyhee...

  2. 49 CFR 222.55 - How are new supplementary or alternative safety measures approved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.55 How are new supplementary or alternative safety measures approved? (a) The... at public highway-rail grade crossings. (b) Interested parties may apply for approval from...

  3. 49 CFR 222.55 - How are new supplementary or alternative safety measures approved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.55 How are new supplementary or alternative safety measures approved? (a) The... at public highway-rail grade crossings. (b) Interested parties may apply for approval from...

  4. 49 CFR 222.55 - How are new supplementary or alternative safety measures approved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.55 How are new supplementary or alternative safety measures approved? (a) The... at public highway-rail grade crossings. (b) Interested parties may apply for approval from...

  5. 49 CFR 222.55 - How are new supplementary or alternative safety measures approved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.55 How are new supplementary or alternative safety measures approved? (a) The... at public highway-rail grade crossings. (b) Interested parties may apply for approval from...

  6. 49 CFR 222.55 - How are new supplementary or alternative safety measures approved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.55 How are new supplementary or alternative safety measures approved? (a) The... at public highway-rail grade crossings. (b) Interested parties may apply for approval from...

  7. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: The Complex Number System. Teachers' Commentary. SP-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Karl, Ed.

    This is one in a series of manuals for teachers using SMSG high school supplementary materials. The pamphlet includes commentaries on the sections of the student's booklet, answers to the exercises, and sample test questions. Topics covered include complex numbers, operations, standard form, equations, graphs and conjugates. (MP)

  8. Gender, Community and Education: Cultures of Resistance in Socialist Sunday Schools and Black Supplementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the ways in which gender was articulated and experienced through the construction of children's education in two very different community-led educational initiatives in Britain: turn-of-the-century Socialist Sunday Schools and late-twentieth-century Black Supplementary Schools. Exploration of these historical examples of…

  9. Some Supplementary Methods for the Analysis of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, John R.; Garthwaite, Paul H.; Sutherland, David; Borland, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary methods for the analysis of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001) are made available, including (a) quantifying the number of abnormally low achievement scores exhibited by an individual and accompanying this with an estimate of the percentage of the normative population expected to exhibit at…

  10. 40 CFR 57.703 - Compliance with the supplementary control system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... system and immediately upon the effective date of the NSO the assumption of liability for all violations... control system requirements. 57.703 Section 57.703 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Requirements § 57.703 Compliance with the supplementary control system requirements. This section applies to...

  11. 77 FR 42327 - Proposed Supplementary Rules for the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... Army National Guard for military training since 1953. Within its boundary are approximately 41,200 State, 4,800 private, and 1,600 military acres, and 9,300 acres covered by water. These lands are not... distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government. The proposed supplementary...

  12. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: The Mathematics of Trees and Other Graphs. SP-29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Marian M.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series is designed to make material for the study of topics of special interest to students readily accessible in classroom quantity. Topics covered include planar graphs, chains, and trees. (MP)

  13. Supplementary artificial light to increase egg production of geese under natural lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chin-Meng; Chen, Lih-Ren; Lee, Shuen-Rong; Jea, Yu-Shine; Kao, Jung-Yie

    2009-07-01

    A new supplementary lighting program was designed to increase the egg production of geese under natural light conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the supplementary lighting program on egg production of White Roman geese in an open housing system at the Tropic of Cancer. Forty mature White Roman geese were randomly allocated into two groups (male:female=1:4). The supplementary lighting program with a total daily photoperiod of between 12.0 h and 13.5 h was initiated on 1 November and withdrawn from the experimental group on 30 January. In contrast, the geese in the control group were kept under natural lighting conditions throughout this study. The results showed that the laying peak of the experimental group occurred earlier than normal in the reproductive season and the geese continued laying throughout the breeding season. The geese in the experimental group had 47.6 eggs/goose which was significantly (P<0.05) more than that of the control group having 26.4 eggs/goose. We can conclude that the supplemental lighting method will result in an earlier laying peak of the geese in the breeding season and higher egg production. The supplementary lighting program was able to maximize egg production in geese at the Tropic of Cancer.

  14. Evolving Ecosystems in Education: The Nature and Implications of Private Supplementary Tutoring in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark; Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa

    2015-01-01

    An established literature draws on ecological concepts to analyze interrelationships within education structures and processes, and the impact of shifting balances. Private supplementary tutoring--relatively new in ecosystems of education around the world--is creating significant changes in relationships, particularly as they concern teachers'…

  15. 14 CFR 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. 1300.3 Section 1300.3 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN...

  16. Expatriate Parents and Supplementary Education in Japan: Survival Strategy or Acculturation Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Melodie

    2013-01-01

    The increase in the use of supplementary education, or "juku," in Japan by Japanese families in order to augment their children's chances of success in entering prestigious pre-tertiary and tertiary institutions is documented (Blumenthal in "Asian Surv" 32(5):448-460, 1992; Bray and Lykins in "Shadow education; private…

  17. 47 CFR 74.113 - Supplementary reports with application for renewal of license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplementary reports with application for... data on research and experimentation conducted including the types of transmitting and studio equipment... covered. (4) Power employed, field intensity measurements and visual and aural observations and the...

  18. 24 CFR 200.937 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... following standards, which are incorporated by reference: ANSI Z124.1—(1980)Plastic Bathtub Units ANSI Z124... requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub units, plastic... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards § 200.937 Supplementary specific...

  19. 78 FR 26804 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for Travel Management on Public Lands in Gunnison...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... to 5 E. Tps. 41 N., Rs. 5 and 6 W., unsurveyed. Tps. 42 N, Rs. 3 to 6 W., partly unsurveyed. Tps. 43... would provide two exemptions from the restrictions. One exemption would allow big game hunters to use...? (5) Is the description of the proposed supplementary rules in the ``Discussion of...

  20. Supplementary Professional Education in the Strategies of Working Specialists, 1995 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova, I. P.

    2008-01-01

    Supplementary professional education is a link in the structure of Russian education; there is neither any clear-cut program for its reform nor any visible results. According to the definition that has been adopted, it refers to an education that has been acquired on the basis of a higher or a secondary professional education; it is offered in…

  1. Business Cluster. Occupational Analyses. Worker Task Lists and Supplementary Information for Selected Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    This publication contains worker task lists and supplementary information for five occupations in the business cluster: (1) microcomputer network technology; (2) customer service representative; (3) computer network administrator; (4) computer information systems; and (5) business manager. The task lists were generated through the DACUM…

  2. From Supplementary Education to Professional Education: The Findings of a Sociological Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chekov, M.

    2004-01-01

    To be effective, social policy in the field of education has to be goal directed, systematic, specific, targeted, and well founded; it must be based on an analysis of concrete social information. This article deals with idea of the possibility of conducting professional training in institutions of supplementary education. Here, the author presents…

  3. Database citation in supplementary data linked to Europe PubMed Central full text biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Kafkas, Şenay; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Pi, Xingjun; McEntyre, Johanna R

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present an analysis of data citation practices in full text research articles and their corresponding supplementary data files, made available in the Open Access set of articles from Europe PubMed Central. Our aim is to investigate whether supplementary data files should be considered as a source of information for integrating the literature with biomolecular databases. Using text-mining methods to identify and extract a variety of core biological database accession numbers, we found that the supplemental data files contain many more database citations than the body of the article, and that those citations often take the form of a relatively small number of articles citing large collections of accession numbers in text-based files. Moreover, citation of value-added databases derived from submission databases (such as Pfam, UniProt or Ensembl) is common, demonstrating the reuse of these resources as datasets in themselves. All the database accession numbers extracted from the supplementary data are publicly accessible from http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.11771. Our study suggests that supplementary data should be considered when linking articles with data, in curation pipelines, and in information retrieval tasks in order to make full use of the entire research article. These observations highlight the need to improve the management of supplemental data in general, in order to make this information more discoverable and useful.

  4. 36 CFR 292.63 - Plan of operations-supplementary requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plan of operations-supplementary requirements. 292.63 Section 292.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Smith River National Recreation Area Locatable Minerals...

  5. Oscar's Options: A Supplementary Environmental Education Curriculum. Books 1 and 2 (Combined).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Carole O.; Schwartz, Martha M.

    This two-volume supplementary curriculum is designed for teachers of children grades 4-8. There are eight units overall: (1) national resources; (2) litter; (3) household hazardous wastes; (4) landfills; (5) recycling; (6) incineration; (7) compost; and (8) source reduction. Each unit contains a list of objectives for students, a suggested time…

  6. Oscar's Options: A Supplementary Environmental Education Curriculum. Books 1 and 2 (Combined).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Carole O.; Schwartz, Martha M.

    This two-volume supplementary curriculum is designed for teachers of children grades 4-8. There are eight units overall: (1) national resources; (2) litter; (3) household hazardous wastes; (4) landfills; (5) recycling; (6) incineration; (7) compost; and (8) source reduction. Each unit contains a list of objectives for students, a suggested time…

  7. Expatriate Parents and Supplementary Education in Japan: Survival Strategy or Acculturation Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Melodie

    2013-01-01

    The increase in the use of supplementary education, or "juku," in Japan by Japanese families in order to augment their children's chances of success in entering prestigious pre-tertiary and tertiary institutions is documented (Blumenthal in "Asian Surv" 32(5):448-460, 1992; Bray and Lykins in "Shadow education; private…

  8. 37 CFR 201.5 - Corrections and amplifications of copyright registrations; applications for supplementary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Corrections and amplifications of copyright registrations; applications for supplementary registration. 201.5 Section 201.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND...

  9. 37 CFR 201.5 - Corrections and amplifications of copyright registrations; applications for supplementary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Corrections and amplifications of copyright registrations; applications for supplementary registration. 201.5 Section 201.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND...

  10. 37 CFR 201.5 - Corrections and amplifications of copyright registrations; applications for supplementary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Corrections and amplifications of copyright registrations; applications for supplementary registration. 201.5 Section 201.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND...

  11. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Functions, Circular Functions. Teachers' Commentary. SP-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubisch, Roy, Ed.

    This is one in a series of manuals for teachers using SMSG high school supplementary materials. The pamphlet includes commentaries on the sections of the student's booklet, answers to the exercises, and sample test questions. Topics covered include sets, definition and graph of a function, constant, linear and absolute-value functions,…

  12. Improving Early Reading Skills for Beginning Readers Using an Online Programme as Supplementary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Emily Jehanne; Hughes, John Carl; Beverley, Michael; Hastings, Richard Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Many children fail to acquire basic reading skills. The current evidence base for supplementary reading instruction indicates that explicit, systematic and intensive instruction in the early years for children considered to be "at-risk" of reading difficulties can have significant and preventative effects on reading skills. However,…

  13. 49 CFR 222.53 - What are the requirements for supplementary and alternative safety measures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... alternative safety measures? 222.53 Section 222.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.53 What are the requirements for supplementary and alternative safety measures... be included in a request for FRA approval of a quiet zone under § 222.39(b) of this part are...

  14. Supplementary Modern Mathematics for Grades 1 through 9 - In-Service Course for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Donald; And Others

    This supplementary modern mathematics textbook is to help in-service teachers to broaden their background in mathematical concepts and ideas for grades 1 through 9. This in-service course was written with two basic objectives: (1) to help teachers to become familiar with some of the newer mathematical ideas and concepts for grades 1 through 9, and…

  15. Food and Nutrition Supplementary Resources: A Selective Annotated Bibliography for Elementary Schools, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Child Nutrition Section.

    This selected bibliography provides elementary school educators with a list of books currently in print which provide supplementary resources on food, nutrition and related topics. All books listed were judged factually accurate and suitable for the grade level designated, offering material that would implement, enrich and support elementary…

  16. Evolving Ecosystems in Education: The Nature and Implications of Private Supplementary Tutoring in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark; Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa

    2015-01-01

    An established literature draws on ecological concepts to analyze interrelationships within education structures and processes, and the impact of shifting balances. Private supplementary tutoring--relatively new in ecosystems of education around the world--is creating significant changes in relationships, particularly as they concern teachers'…

  17. Supplementary motor area (SMA) volume is associated with psychotic aberrant motor behaviour of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stegmayer, Katharina; Horn, Helge; Federspiel, Andrea; Razavi, Nadja; Bracht, Tobias; Laimböck, Karin; Strik, Werner; Dierks, Thomas; Wiest, Roland; Müller, Thomas J; Walther, Sebastian

    2014-07-30

    We aimed to investigate whether aberrant motor behavior in schizophrenia was associated with structural alterations in the motor system. Whole brain voxel based morphometry of patients with different severity of motor symptoms identified altered gray matter volume in the supplementary motor area (SMA), a key region of the motor system.

  18. Photovoltaic's silica-rich waste sludge as supplementary cementitious material (SCM)

    SciTech Connect

    Quercia, G.; Putten, J.J.G. van der; Hüsken, G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2013-12-15

    Waste sludge, a solid recovered from wastewater of photovoltaic-industries, composes of agglomerates of nano-particles like SiO{sub 2} and CaCO{sub 3}. This sludge deflocculates in aqueous solutions into nano-particles smaller than 1 μm. Thus, this sludge constitutes a potentially hazardous waste when it is improperly disposed. Due to its high content of amorphous SiO{sub 2}, this sludge has a potential use as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in concrete. In this study the main properties of three different samples of photovoltaic's silica-rich waste sludge (nSS) were physically and chemically characterized. The characterization techniques included: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physical adsorption isotherm (BET method), density by Helium pycnometry, particle size distribution determined by laser light scattering (LLS) and zeta-potential measurements by dynamic light scattering (DLS). In addition, a dispersability study was performed to design stable slurries to be used as liquid additives for the concrete production on site. The effects on the hydration kinetics of cement pastes by the incorporation of nSS in the designed slurries were determined using an isothermal calorimeter. A compressive strength test of standard mortars with 7% of cement replacement was performed to determine the pozzolanic activity of the waste nano-silica sludge. Finally, the hardened system was fully characterized to determine the phase composition. The results demonstrate that the nSS can be utilized as SCM to replace portion of cement in mortars, thereby decreasing the CO{sub 2} footprint and the environmental impact of concrete. -- Highlights: •Three different samples of PV nano-silica sludge (nSS) were fully characterized. •nSS is composed of agglomerates of nano-particles like SiO{sub 2} and CaCO{sub 3}. •Dispersability studies demonstrated that nSS agglomerates are broken to nano

  19. 78 FR 66251 - Electronic Fund Transfers(Regulation E)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1005 RIN 3170-AA33 Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... countries that qualify for an exception in subpart B of Regulation E, which implements the Electronic Fund....consumerfinance.gov/remittances-transfer-rule-amendment-to-regulation-e/ . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The...

  20. Cerebellar Arteriovenous Malformations: Anatomical Subtypes, Surgical Results, and Increased Predictive Accuracy of the Supplementary Grading System

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana; Kim, Helen; Pourmohamad, Tony; Young, William L.; Lawton, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Anatomical diversity amongst cerebellar AVMs calls for a classification that is intuitive and surgically informative. Selection tools like the Spetzler-Martin grading system are designed to work best with cerebral AVMs, but have shortcomings with cerebellar AVMs. Objective To define subtypes of cerebellar AVMs that clarify anatomy and surgical management, determine results according to subtypes, and compare predictive accuracies of Spetzler-Martin and supplementary systems. Methods From a consecutive surgical series of 500 patients, 60 had cerebellar AVMs, 39 had brain stem AVMs and were excluded, and 401 had cerebral AVMs. Results Cerebellar AVM subtypes were: 18 vermian, 13 suboccipital, 12 tentorial, 12 petrosal, and 5 tonsillar. Patients with tonsillar and tentorial AVMs fared best. Cerebellar AVMs presented with hemorrhage more than cerebral AVMs (p<0.001). Cerebellar AVMs were more likely to drain deep (p=0.036) and less likely eloquent (p<0.001). The predictive accuracy of supplementary grade was better than that of Spetzler-Martin grade with cerebellar AVMs (areas under the ROC curve 0.74 and 0.59, respectively). The predictive accuracy of the supplementary system was consistent for cerebral and cerebellar AVMs, whereas that of the Spetzler-Martin system was greater with cerebral AVMs. Conclusion Patients with cerebellar AVMs present with hemorrhage more than patients with cerebral AVMs, justifying an aggressive treatment posture. The supplementary system is better than the Spetzler-Martin system at predicting outcomes after cerebellar AVM resection. Key components of the Spetzler-Martin system, like venous drainage and eloquence, are distorted by cerebellar anatomy in ways that components of the supplementary system are not. PMID:22986595

  1. Cerebellar arteriovenous malformations: anatomic subtypes, surgical results, and increased predictive accuracy of the supplementary grading system.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana; Kim, Helen; Pourmohamad, Tony; Young, William L; Lawton, Michael T

    2012-12-01

    Anatomic diversity among cerebellar arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) calls for a classification that is intuitive and surgically informative. Selection tools like the Spetzler-Martin grading system are designed to work best with cerebral AVMs but have shortcomings with cerebellar AVMs. To define subtypes of cerebellar AVMs that clarify anatomy and surgical management, to determine results according to subtypes, and to compare predictive accuracies of the Spetzler-Martin and supplementary systems. From a consecutive surgical series of 500 patients, 60 had cerebellar AVMs, 39 had brainstem AVMs and were excluded, and 401 had cerebral AVMs. Cerebellar AVM subtypes were as follows: 18 vermian, 13 suboccipital, 12 tentorial, 12 petrosal, and 5 tonsillar. Patients with tonsillar and tentorial AVMs fared best. Cerebellar AVMs presented with hemorrhage more than cerebral AVMs (P < .001). Cerebellar AVMs were more likely to drain deep (P = .04) and less likely to be eloquent (P < .001). The predictive accuracy of the supplementary grade was better than that of the Spetzler-Martin grade with cerebellar AVMs (areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, 0.74 and 0.59, respectively). The predictive accuracy of the supplementary system was consistent for cerebral and cerebellar AVMs, whereas that of the Spetzler-Martin system was greater with cerebral AVMs. Patients with cerebellar AVMs present with hemorrhage more often than patients with cerebral AVMs, justifying an aggressive treatment posture. The supplementary system is better than the Spetzler-Martin system at predicting outcomes after cerebellar AVM resection. Key components of the Spetzler-Martin system such as venous drainage and eloquence are distorted by cerebellar anatomy in ways that components of the supplementary system are not.

  2. Incremental cost-effectiveness of supplementary immunization activities to prevent neonatal tetanus in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Ulla K; Wolfson, Lara J; Quddus, Arshad; Younus, Mohammed; Hafiz, Rehan A

    2004-09-01

    This study aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of supplementary immunization activities to prevent neonatal tetanus in the Loralai district of Pakistan. The supplemental immunization activities were carried out in two phases during 2001-03. A state-transition model was used to estimate the effect of routine vaccination with tetanus toxoid as well as vaccination with tetanus toxoid during supplementary immunization activities. The model follows each woman in the target population from birth until the end of her childbearing years, using age-specific fertility data and vaccination history to determine the number of births at risk for neonatal tetanus. Recently published data on the incidence of neonatal tetanus from Loralai were used to determine the number of cases occurring with and without supplementary immunization activities. Data on the costs of the activities were collected from the UNICEF office in Balochistan and from the Provincial Health Department. Using base-case assumptions we estimated that the supplementary immunization activities would prevent 280 cases of neonatal tetanus and 224 deaths from neonatal tetanus between 2001 and 2034. Implementation of the supplementary activities was relatively inexpensive. The cost per tetanus toxoid dose delivered was 0.40 U.S. dollars. In the base-case analysis the cost per death averted was 117.00 U.S. dollars (95% confidence interval (CI) = 78-205 U.S. dollars) and the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted was 3.61 U.S. dollars (95% Cl = 2.43-6.39 U.S. dollars). Compared with similar analyses of other interventions, the cost per DALY averted is a favourable cost-effectiveness ratio. However, if routine diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination coverage in the Loralai district had been higher (at a coverage rate of about 80%) the cost-effectiveness of the intervention would have been even more favourable, at 2.65 U.S. dollars per DALY averted.

  3. Quantifying and Exploiting the Age Dependence in the Effect of Supplementary Food for Child Undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Lakkam, Milinda; Wager, Stefan; Wise, Paul H.; Wein, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the lack of randomized controlled trials with an intervention-free control arm in the area of child undernutrition, we fit a trivariate model of weight-for-age z score (WAZ), height-for-age z score (HAZ) and diarrhea status to data from an observational study of supplementary feeding (100 kCal/day for children with WAZ ) in 17 Guatemalan communities. Incorporating time lags, intention to treat (i.e., to give supplementary food), seasonality and age interactions, we estimate how the effect of supplementary food on WAZ, HAZ and diarrhea status varies with a child’s age. We find that the effect of supplementary food on all 3 metrics decreases linearly with age from 6 to 20 mo and has little effect after 20 mo. We derive 2 food allocation policies that myopically (i.e., looking ahead 2 mo) minimize either the underweight or stunting severity – i.e., the sum of squared WAZ or HAZ scores for all children with WAZ or HAZ . A simulation study based on the statistical model predicts that the 2 derived policies reduce the underweight severity (averaged over all ages) by 13.6–14.1% and reduce the stunting severity at age 60 mo by 7.1–8.0% relative to the policy currently in use, where all policies have a budget that feeds % of children. While these findings need to be confirmed on additional data sets, it appears that in a low-dose (100 kCal/day) supplementary feeding setting in Guatemala, allocating food primarily to 6–12 mo infants can reduce the severity of underweight and stunting. PMID:24967745

  4. 'It's showed me the skills that he has': pharmacists' and mentors' views on pharmacist supplementary prescribing.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Fran; Parsons, Carole; Hughes, Carmel M

    2010-02-01

    Supplementary prescribing has seen pharmacists assume greater responsibility for prescribing in collaboration with doctors. This study explored the context and experiences, in relation to the practice of supplementary prescribing, of pharmacists and physicians (who acted as their training mentors) at least 12 months after pharmacists had qualified as supplementary prescribers. The setting was primary and secondary healthcare sectors in Northern Ireland. Pharmacists and mentors who had participated in a pre-training study were invited to take part. All pharmacists (n = 47) were invited to participate in focus groups, while mentors (n = 35) were asked to participate in face-to-face semi-structured interviews. The research took place between May 2005 and September 2007. All discussions and interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using constant comparison. Nine pharmacist focus groups were convened (number per group ranging from three to six; total n = 40) and 31 semi-structured interviews with mentors were conducted. The six main themes that emerged were optimal practice setting, professional progression for prescribing pharmacists, outcomes for prescribing pharmacists, mentors and patients, relationships, barriers to implementation and the future of pharmacist prescribing. Where practised, pharmacist prescribing had been accepted, worked best for chronic disease management, was perceived to have reduced doctors' workload and improved continuity of care for patients. However, three-quarters of pharmacists qualified to practise as supplementary prescribers were not actively prescribing, largely due to logistical and organisational barriers rather than inter-professional tensions. Independent prescribing was seen as contentious by mentors, particularly because of the diagnostic element. Supplementary prescribing has been successful where it has been implemented but a number of barriers remain which are preventing the wider acceptance of this practice

  5. 77 FR 75649 - Establishment of Interim Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands Managed by the Carrizo Plain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... immediately and remain in effect until modified or rescinded by the publication of final supplementary rules... Monument, signed April 10, 2010, provides for those supplementary rules to remain in effect. The... replica weapons (such as paintball, airsoft, or war game apparatus) is prohibited on the Monument. The...

  6. Janus gold nanoparticles obtained via spontaneous binary polymer shell segregation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, results of SAXS, UV-vis and DLS for NPs of different core sizes, polymer coatings and in different solvents; details of emulsification using Janus Au NPs; TEM images after silica coating of Janus Au NPs; 3D images of different stained Au NPs. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc10454h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Giner-Casares, Juan J.; Claes, Nathalie; Bals, Sara; Loh, Watson

    2016-01-01

    Janus gold nanoparticles are of high interest because they allow directed self-assembly and display plasmonic properties. We succeeded in coating gold nanoparticles with two different polymers that form a Janus shell. The spontaneous segregation of two immiscible polymers at the surface of the nanoparticles was verified by NOESY NMR and most importantly by electron microscopy analysis in two and three dimensions. The Janus structure is additionally shown to affect the aggregation behavior of the nanoparticles. PMID:26890037

  7. Reversible on-surface wiring of resistive circuits† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental details and STM-BJ data, synthetic procedures, X-ray photoelectron and NMR spectra. Raw data used in figure plots is available at http://zenodo.org (10.5281/zenodo.496177). See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc00599g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Leroux, Yann R.; Hapiot, Philippe; Campos, Luis M.

    2017-01-01

    Whilst most studies in single-molecule electronics involve components first synthesized ex situ, there is also great potential in exploiting chemical transformations to prepare devices in situ. Here, as a first step towards this goal, we conduct reversible reactions on monolayers to make and break covalent bonds between alkanes of different lengths, then measure the conductance of these molecules connected between electrodes using the scanning tunneling microscopy-based break junction (STM-BJ) method. In doing so, we develop the critical methodology required for assembling and disassembling surface-bound single-molecule circuits. We identify effective reaction conditions for surface-bound reagents, and importantly demonstrate that the electronic characteristics of wires created in situ agree with those created ex situ. Finally, we show that the STM-BJ technique is unique in its ability to definitively probe surface reaction yields both on a local (∼50 nm2) and pseudo-global (≥10 mm2) level. This investigation thus highlights a route to the construction and integration of more complex, and ultimately functional, surface-based single-molecule circuitry, as well as advancing a methodology that facilitates studies beyond the reach of traditional ex situ synthetic approaches. PMID:28660061

  8. Synthetically tuneable biomimetic artificial photosynthetic reaction centres that closely resemble the natural system in purple bacteria† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Electrochemistry, fitting of data measured by femtosecond laser flash photolysis, vibrational parameters deduced for the molecular fragments from B3LYP vibrational frequency analysis, and vibrational parameters used in the determination of Franck–Condon factors for charge-transfer processes. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc01076h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sai-Ho; Blake, Iain M.; Larsen, Allan G.; McDonald, James A.; Ohkubo, Kei

    2016-01-01

    Porphyrin-based photosynthetic reaction centre (PRC) mimics, ZnPQ-Q2HP-C60 and MP2Q-Q2HP-C60 (M = Zn or 2H), designed to have a similar special-pair electron donor and similar charge-separation distances, redox processes and photochemical reaction rates to those in the natural PRC from purple bacteria, have been synthesised and extensive photochemical studies performed. Mechanisms of electron-transfer reactions are fully investigated using femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. In benzonitrile, all models show picosecond-timescale charge-separations and the final singlet charge-separations with the microsecond-timescale. The established lifetimes are long compared to other processes in organic solar cells or other organic light harvesting systems. These rigid, synthetically flexible molecules provide the closest mimics to the natural PRC so far synthesised and present a future direction for the design of light harvesters with controllable absorption, redox, and kinetics properties. PMID:27928494

  9. Photoanodic and photocathodic behaviour of La5Ti2CuS5O7 electrodes in the water splitting reaction† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Power spectra of light source, preparation process and SEM images of LTC, schematic of the PT method, UV photoelectron spectroscopy, parameters for calculation, and other experimental procedures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01344e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Guijun; Suzuki, Yohichi; Singh, Rupashree Balia; Iwanaga, Aki; Moriya, Yosuke; Minegishi, Tsutomu; Liu, Jingyuan; Hisatomi, Takashi; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Katayama, Masao; Seki, Kazuhiko; Furube, Akihiro; Yamada, Taro

    2015-01-01

    The particulate semiconductor La5Ti2CuS5O7 (LTC) with a band gap energy of 1.9 eV functioned as either a photocathode or a photoanode when embedded onto Au or Ti metal layers, respectively. By applying an LTC/Au photocathode and LTC/Ti photoanode to, respectively, photoelectrochemical (PEC) water reduction and oxidation concurrently, zero-bias overall water splitting was accomplished under visible light irradiation. The band structures of LTC/Au and LTC/Ti calculated using a semiconductor device simulator (AFORS-HET) confirmed the critical role of the solid/solid junction of the metal back contact in the charge separation and PEC properties of LTC photoelectrodes. The prominently long lifetime of photoexcited charge carriers in LTC, confirmed by transient absorption spectroscopy, allowed the utilization of both photoexcited electrons and holes depending on the band structure at the solid/solid junction. PMID:28717472

  10. Administration frequencies of WAIS-III supplementary and optional subtests of board-certified clinical neuropsychologists.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass, Laura A; Tree, Heather A

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation surveyed board-certified clinical neuropsychologists in four geographic regions of the United States regarding their administration practices of the WAIS-III supplementary subtests (Letter-Number Sequencing, Symbol Search), optional subtest (Object Assembly), and optional procedures (Digit Symbol-Incidental Learning and Digit Symbol-Copy). Approximately 56% of the surveys were returned and usable. Regardless of geographic region, Letter-Number Sequencing and Symbol Search were the most popular of the supplementary/optional components because they were administered more than 70% of the time. The Digit Symbol-Incidental Learning and Digit Symbol-Copy procedures were the second most frequently administered tasks. Object Assembly was the least frequently administered component by practitioners across the four geographic regions.

  11. Competitive Asymmetries in the Use of Supplementary Food by the Endangered Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    PubMed Central

    López-Bao, José V.; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Palomares, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Background As a conservation tool, supplementary feeding programs may be directed to specific individuals or sectors of the target population whose productivity or survival is thought to be limited by food scarcity. However, the use of supplemental food by different sex and age classes has received little attention. We studied individual variation in the access of the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) to supplementary food. Methodology/Principal Findings From 5349 pictures taken with automatic cameras placed in 25 feeding stations, we identified 28 individuals whose sex and age were known. All individuals known to live in areas subjected to supplementation regularly visited feeding stations. Food consumption was not proportional to expected variations in energy demand within sex and age classes. Food consumption by males was higher than by females, and increased with age, in agreement with a despotic distribution. Food consumption also increased with lynx body mass, and this pattern held for individuals sharing the same breeding territories. The access of inferior competitors increased with the number of feeding stations available within lynx territories. Conclusions/Significance All lynx exposed to food supplementation made a regular use of extra food but individuals predicted to be competitively dominant visited stations more frequently than subordinates of the same breeding territory. Our results suggest that insufficient provision of supplementary food could restrict the access of juveniles, or even adult females, to feeding stations. Limited consumption by these target individuals may compromise the efficiency of the supplementary feeding programme at the population level, in endangered species that, as the Iberian lynx, exhibit marked sexual dimorphism in body size. PMID:19898611

  12. Competitive asymmetries in the use of supplementary food by the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    López-Bao, José V; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Palomares, Francisco

    2009-10-28

    As a conservation tool, supplementary feeding programs may be directed to specific individuals or sectors of the target population whose productivity or survival is thought to be limited by food scarcity. However, the use of supplemental food by different sex and age classes has received little attention. We studied individual variation in the access of the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) to supplementary food. From 5349 pictures taken with automatic cameras placed in 25 feeding stations, we identified 28 individuals whose sex and age were known. All individuals known to live in areas subjected to supplementation regularly visited feeding stations. Food consumption was not proportional to expected variations in energy demand within sex and age classes. Food consumption by males was higher than by females, and increased with age, in agreement with a despotic distribution. Food consumption also increased with lynx body mass, and this pattern held for individuals sharing the same breeding territories. The access of inferior competitors increased with the number of feeding stations available within lynx territories. All lynx exposed to food supplementation made a regular use of extra food but individuals predicted to be competitively dominant visited stations more frequently than subordinates of the same breeding territory. Our results suggest that insufficient provision of supplementary food could restrict the access of juveniles, or even adult females, to feeding stations. Limited consumption by these target individuals may compromise the efficiency of the supplementary feeding programme at the population level, in endangered species that, as the Iberian lynx, exhibit marked sexual dimorphism in body size.

  13. Non-paralytic motor disturbances and speech disorders: the role of the supplementary motor area.

    PubMed

    Gelmers, H J

    1983-11-01

    A right-handed patient with a lesion demonstrated by CT to involve the right medial frontal cortex is described. He exhibited a strong contralateral grasp reflex, motor perseveration and the presence of purposeful movements that appeared to be dissociated from conscious volition. In addition, there was a disorder of speech consisting of a lack of spontaneous speech production, with preserved ability to imitate. It is suggested that these disorders are due to damage to the supplementary motor area.

  14. 75 FR 983 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule State Approved Program Revision/Modification Approvals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule State Approved Program Revision/Modification Approvals... announces EPA's approval, under regulations for Cross-Media Electronic Reporting, of the State of...@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting...

  15. 76 FR 15975 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Regulation Authorized Program Revision/Modification Approvals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Regulation Authorized Program Revision/Modification Approvals... announces EPA's approval, under regulations for Cross-Media Electronic Reporting, of the State of Colorado's... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was...

  16. Breast feeding behavior and supplementary food pattern of villagers in Udon Thani Province, northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saowakontha, S; Chantraphosri, V; Kampor, P; Ketkowit, K; Panomratanarak, B; Thaworndunstid, P; Nathapindhu, K

    1995-03-01

    Breast feeding and supplementary food patterns were studied in 3 villages, of Udon Thani Province in Northeast Thailand. All children of 58 mothers were breast fed. Moreover, 42 mothers (72.4%), advised by health workers, fed their children with colostrum. Those who did not give colostrum believed that colostrum may cause diarrhea. Fifty-one (87.9%) children were fed Kaw Yam, northeast native food made out of baked chewed banana and sticky rice, within 1-7 days after birth. The mothers believed that the food will fill the child's stomach, and consequently, her baby will stop to cry. Powder milk was also given to the child as supplementary food. A powder milk had a high social value for the mother and also health worker advised them to feed the children with it. Rice porridge was additionally supplemented at the age of 6-8 months until weaning or, at the time when the child had two front teeth. Child's weaning was forced by applying the nipples with local bitter tasting herb. This study indicates that any health education within a community should be aware of traditional belief and customs of the population. The promotion of proper breast feeding, and the introduction of supplementary food to children should be consider traditional beliefs and combine it with health educational means, which will result in a better adoptability of the villagers to the promotion of adequate infant feeding.

  17. [Surgical treatment of non-lesional supplementary motor area epilepsy: two case reports].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Masaki; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Shamoto, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2009-03-01

    A 37-year-old male and a 12-year-old female presented with non-lesional epilepsy arising from the supplementary motor area in the medial frontal cortex, manifesting as daily brief tonic seizures involving the bilateral extremities, which were intractable to multiple antiepileptic medications. During the seizure, there was no impairment of awareness, and the tonus was always higher in the limbs contralateral to the epileptogenic hemisphere in both patients. Scalp EEG detected midline epileptiform discharges. Three-tesla MR imaging using the FLAIR and short tau inversion recovery sequences, interictal IMP-SPECT, IMZ-SPECT, and FDG-PET detected no focal abnormalities in either patient. Invasive intracranial EEG evaluation was performed using chronically implanted subdural electrodes on the interhemispheric frontoparietal cortices, based mainly on the seizure semiology and the associated EEG findings. Intracranial EEG successfully identified the location of the seizure onset in the supplementary motor area in the medial frontal cortex. Focal cortical resection including the area of seizure onset resulted in freedom from seizures and significant improvement in both patients. Histological study revealed focal cortical dysplasia in both patients. Recognition of the typical seizure semiology is very important in the correct diagnosis and surgical treatment of supplementary motor area epilepsy, especially in the absence of MR imaging lesions.

  18. Apical extrusion of debris by supplementary files used for retreatment: An ex vivo comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Ajinkya M.; Pawar, Mansing; Metzger, Zvi; Thakur, Bhagyashree

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated whether using supplementary files for removing root canal filling residues after ProTaper Universal Retreatment files (RFs) increased the debris extrusion apically. Materials and Methods: Eighty mandibular premolars with single root and canal were instrumented with ProTaper Universal rotary system (SX-F3) and obturated. The samples were divided randomly into four groups (n = 20). Group 1 served as a control; only ProTaper Universal RFs D1–D3 were used, and the extruded debris was weighed. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were the experimental groups, receiving a twofold retreatment protocol: Removal of the bulk, followed by the use of supplementary files. The bulk was removed by RFs, followed by the use of ProTaper NEXT (PTN), WaveOne (WO), and Self-Adjusting File (SAF) for removal of the remaining root filling residues. Debris extruded apically were weighed and compared to the control group. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey's test. Results: All the three experimental groups presented significant difference (P < .01). The post hoc Tukey's test confirmed that Group 4 (SAF) exhibited significantly less (P < .01) debris extrusion between the three groups tested. Conclusion: SAF results in less extrusion of debris when used as supplementary file to remove root-filling residues, compared to WO and PTN. PMID:27099416

  19. Supplementary tutoring in Trinidad and Tobago: Some implications for policy making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, Dorian A.; Lochan, Samuel N.

    2012-06-01

    Globally, private supplementary tutoring is a huge business and the practice is expanding rapidly in many regions of the world where it never existed before. In some of these regions it is posing a novel set of challenges for education planners and policy makers. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which supplementary tutoring is impacting on the goals of the formal education system in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). The participation rate in supplementary tutoring at primary school level in T&T was found to be high (88.2 per cent at Standard Five level), with the majority of the students being privately tutored by their regular school teachers. Their main motivation for taking private tutoring lessons was to try to secure a place in one of the few elite secondary schools in the country. The authors of this paper admit that there is no quick solution to the problem, especially if it is understood as a part of the process of cultural change. They contend that the key to breaking the elitist tradition lies in modifying public understanding about education and convincing parents and citizens at large that a wide range of options and opportunities exists outside the narrow confines of the old colonial economy and the old colonial schools.

  20. Role of macrophyte and effect of supplementary aeration in up-flow constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Oon, Yoong-Ling; Ong, Soon-An; Ho, Li-Ngee; Wong, Yee-Shian; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Oon, Yoong-Sin; Lehl, Harvinder Kaur; Thung, Wei-Eng; Nordin, Noradiba

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the role of plant (Elodea nuttallii) and effect of supplementary aeration on wastewater treatment and bioelectricity generation in an up-flow constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell (UFCW-MFC). Aeration rates were varied from 1900 to 0mL/min and a control reactor was operated without supplementary aeration. 600mL/min was the optimum aeration flow rate to achieve highest energy recovery as the oxygen was sufficient to use as terminal electron acceptor for electrical current generation. The maximum voltage output, power density, normalized energy recovery and Coulombic efficiency were 545.77±25mV, 184.75±7.50mW/m(3), 204.49W/kg COD, 1.29W/m(3) and 10.28%, respectively. The variation of aeration flow rates influenced the NO3(-) and NH4(+) removal differently as nitrification and denitrification involved conflicting requirement. In terms of wastewater treatment performance, at 60mL/min aeration rate, UFCW-MFC achieved 50 and 81% of NO3(-) and NH4(+) removal, respectively. E. nuttallii enhanced nitrification by 17% and significantly contributed to bioelectricity generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Discovery of low energy pathways to metal-mediated B 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 N bond reduction guided by computation and experiment† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Spectral and electrochemical data and computational details. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02348c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Tyler J.

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes a combination of DFT calculations and experiments to assess the reduction of borazines (B–N heterocycles) by η6-coordination to Cr(CO)3 or [Mn(CO)3]+ fragments. The energy requirements for borazine reduction are established as well as the extent to which coordination of borazine to a transition metal influences hydride affinity, basicity, and subsequent reduction steps at the coordinated borazine molecule. Borazine binding to M(CO)3 fragments decreases the thermodynamic hydricity by >30 kcal mol–1, allowing it to easily accept a hydride. These hydricity criteria were used to guide the selection of appropriate reagents for borazine dearomatization. Reduction was achieved with an H2-derived hydride source, and importantly, a pathway which proceeds through a single electron reduction and H-atom transfer reaction, mediated by anthraquinone was uncovered. The latter transformation was also carried out electrochemically, at relatively positive potentials by comparison to all prior reports, thus establishing an important proof of concept for any future electrochemical BN bond reduction. PMID:28757986

  2. Flat-on ambipolar triphenylamine/C60 nano-stacks formed from the self-organization of a pyramid-sphere-shaped amphiphile† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: 1H and 13C NMR spectra, TGA, DSC, XRD, simulated ED patterns, UV-Vis spectra, reduction and oxidation cyclic voltammetry curves. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc04242a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wei-Wei; Huang, Chi-Feng; Wu, Kuan-Yi; Wu, San-Lien; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheng, Yen-Ju

    2016-01-01

    A giant amphiphile, which is constructed with an amorphous nano-pyramid (triphenylamine, TPA) and a crystalline nano-sphere (C60), was synthesized. Structural characterization indicates that this pyramid-sphere-shaped amphiphile (TPA–C60) forms a solvent-induced ordered phase, in which the two constituent units self-assemble into alternating stacks of two-dimensional (2D) TPA and C60 nano-sheets. Due to the complexity of the molecular structure and the amorphous nature of the nano-pyramid, phase formation was driven by intermolecular C60–C60 interactions and the ordered phase could not be reformed from the TPA–C60 melt. Oriented crystal arrays of TPA–C60, which contain flat-on TPA/C60 nano-stacks, can be obtained via a PDMS-assisted crystallization (PAC) technique. The flat-on dual-channel supramolecular structure of TPA–C60 delivered ambipolar and balanced charge-transport characteristics with an average μ e of 2.11 × 10–4 cm2 V–1 s–1 and μ h of 3.37 × 10–4 cm2 V–1 s–1. The anisotropic charge-transport ability of the pyramid-sphere-shaped amphiphile was further understood based on the lattice structure and the lattice orientation of TPA–C60 revealed from electron diffraction analyses. PMID:28660054

  3. Counting vacancies and nitrogen-vacancy centers in detonation nanodiamond† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: (1) DND synthesis; (2) HRTEM and EELS characterization methods; (3) EELS simulation method; (4) supporting figures of EELS simulations; (5) soft-X-ray K-edge spectra of the DND; and (6) ab initio N-V center modeling method. See DOI: 10.1039/C6NR01888B Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Amanda S.; Dwyer, Christian; Boothroyd, Chris B.; Hocking, Rosalie K.; Ōsawa, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Detonation nanodiamond particles (DND) contain highly-stable nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centers, making it important for quantum-optical and biotechnology applications. However, due to the small particle size, the N-V concentrations are believed to be intrinsically very low, spawning efforts to understand the formation of N-V centers and vacancies, and increase their concentration. Here we show that vacancies in DND can be detected and quantified using simulation-aided electron energy loss spectroscopy. Despite the small particle size, we find that vacancies exist at concentrations of about 1 at%. Based on this experimental finding, we use ab initio calculations to predict that about one fifth of vacancies in DND form N-V centers. The ability to directly detect and quantify vacancies in DND, and predict the corresponding N-V formation probability, has a significant impact to those emerging technologies where higher concentrations and better dispersion of N-V centres are critically required. PMID:27147128

  4. Conducting polymer PPy nanowire-based triboelectric nanogenerator and its application for self-powered electrochemical cathodic protection† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Microscope images, OCP variation and Tafel curves of Q235 carbon steel which is connected to the cathodic protection system driven by W-TENG are reported here. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc02562e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Siwen; Zheng, Youbin; Liang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    As a new type of energy harvesting device, the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) can convert almost all kinds of mechanical energy into electricity based on the coupling of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Here, a novel TENG is constructed with a conducting polymer polypyrrole nanowire (PPy NW) electrode, which is prepared by an electrochemical polymerization method with anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as the template. The PPy NW-based TENG shows high output performance with a maximum short circuit current density of 23.4 mA m–2 and output voltage of 351 V, which can light 372 commercial red LEDs. Moreover, a self-powered anticorrosion system powered by the PPy NW-based TENG is designed, which can provide extra electrons to inject into the surface of the protected metals, forming effective impressed current cathodic protection by harvesting mechanical energy or wind energy. This smart device has potential applications for protecting metals from corrosion in daily life, industrial production and ocean exploration by harvesting the energies in the ambient environment. PMID:28451105

  5. Structural basis of head to head polyketide fusion by CorB† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Result of the feeding experiments, synthesis of 1 including 1H NMR and 13C NMR, sequence analysis, X-ray data statistics, topology plot, structure comparison, density representation, primer sequences and strains and plasmids. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02488a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Zocher, Georg; Vilstrup, Joachim; Heine, Daniel; Hallab, Asis; Goralski, Emilie; Hertweck, Christian; Stahl, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Corallopyronin A is a polyketide derived from the myxobacterium Corallococcus coralloides with potent antibiotic features. The gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of corallopyronin A has been described recently, and it was proposed that CorB acts as a ketosynthase to interconnect two polyketide chains in a rare head-to-head condensation reaction. We determined the structure of CorB, the interconnecting polyketide synthase, to high resolution and found that CorB displays a thiolase fold. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the catalytic triad consisting of a cysteine, a histidine and an asparagine is crucial for catalysis, and that this triad shares similarities with the triad found in HMG-CoA synthases. We synthesized a substrate mimic to derivatize purified CorB and confirmed substrate attachment by ESI-MS. Structural analysis of the complex yielded an electron density-based model for the polyketide chain and showed that the unusually wide, T-shaped active site is able to accommodate two polyketides simultaneously. Our structural analysis provides a platform for understanding the unusual head-to-head polyketide-interconnecting reaction catalyzed by CorB. PMID:28757960

  6. Relation of supplementary feeding to resumptions of menstruation and ovulation in lactating postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Qiu, Yi

    2007-05-20

    Resumption of menstrual cycles is one of the indicators for restoration of reproductive capability in postpartum women. However, menstruation does not necessarily mean that ovulation has taken place. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of supplementary feeding to return of menstruation and ovulation after delivery. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from 101 breastfeeding mothers. The following elements were analyzed: age, education level, breastfeeding practice, time of return of menstruation, contraceptive practice, and starting time of supplementary feeding during the lactation at intervals of 6 weeks to 18 months after delivery. The ovulation was continuously monitored by ultrasonography and basal body temperature (BBT) measurement. By ultrasonography, 53 of the 101 women (52.5%) had the first ovulation (follicle > 1.8 cm in diameter) within 154 days after delivery on average, among whom 11 (10.9%, 11/101) had restoration of ovulation within 4 months and 42 (41.6%, 42/101) had it after 4 months. In women with follicles > 1.8 cm in diameter (n = 53), the menstruation resumed (138 +/- 84) days after delivery, and the supplementary feeding was started at (4.0 +/- 1.1) months, which were significantly earlier than those in the women with follicular diameter < 1.7 cm (n = 48; (293 +/- 88) days, (5.1 +/- 1.3) months; t = 9.003, P < 0.01 and t = 4.566, P < 0.01). In the women with follicles < 1.8 cm in diameter, 30 had return of menstruation before the end of ultrasonographic monitoring, while only 8 in the women with follicular diameter < 1.7 cm had menstrual resumption at the same time (chi(2) = 16.91, P < 0.01). The starting time of supplementary feeding was positively correlated with the time of the restoration of menstruation (n = 100, r = 0.4764, P < 0.01) and first ovulation after delivery (n = 53, r = 0.5554, P < 0.01). In this series, no woman had pregnancy within 18 months postpartum. Supplementary feeding can affect the restoration of

  7. Incremental cost-effectiveness of supplementary immunization activities to prevent neonatal tetanus in Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Ulla K.; Wolfson, Lara J.; Quddus, Arshad; Younus, Mohammed; Hafiz, Rehan A.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of supplementary immunization activities to prevent neonatal tetanus in the Loralai district of Pakistan. The supplemental immunization activities were carried out in two phases during 2001-03. METHODS: A state-transition model was used to estimate the effect of routine vaccination with tetanus toxoid as well as vaccination with tetanus toxoid during supplementary immunization activities.The model follows each woman in the target population from birth until the end of her childbearing years, using age-specific fertility data and vaccination history to determine the number of births at risk for neonatal tetanus. Recently published data on the incidence of neonatal tetanus from Loralai were used to determine the number of cases occurring with and without supplementary immunization activities. Data on the costs of the activities were collected from the UNICEF office in Balochistan and from the Provincial Health Department. FINDINGS: Using base-case assumptions we estimated that the supplementary immunization activities would prevent 280 cases of neonatal tetanus and 224 deaths from neonatal tetanus between 2001 and 2034. Implementation of the supplementary activities was relatively inexpensive. The cost per tetanus toxoid dose delivered was 0.40 U.S. dollars. In the base-case analysis the cost per death averted was 117.00 U.S. dollars (95% confidence interval (CI) = 78-205 U.S. dollars) and the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted was 3.61 U.S. dollars (95% Cl = 2.43-6.39 U.S. dollars). CONCLUSION: Compared with similar analyses of other interventions, the cost per DALY averted is a favourable cost-effectiveness ratio. However, if routine diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination coverage in the Loralai district had been higher (at a coverage rate of about 80%) the cost-effectiveness of the intervention would have been even more favourable, at 2.65 U.S. dollars per DALY averted

  8. Small endohedral metallofullerenes: exploration of the structure and growth mechanism in the Ti@C2n (2n = 26–50) family† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: additional figures of energy profiles, detailed information about the Car–Parrinello simulations (including two movies) and optimized geometries for the most representative structures. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc02268h Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Mulet-Gas, Marc; Abella, Laura; Dunk, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the smallest fullerene, C28, was recently reported using gas phase experiments combined with high-resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry. An internally located group IV metal stabilizes the highly strained non-IPR C28 cage by charge transfer (IPR = isolated pentagon rule). Ti@C44 also appeared as a prominent peak in the mass spectra, and U@C28 was demonstrated to form by a bottom-up growth mechanism. We report here a computational analysis using standard DFT calculations and Car–Parrinello MD simulations for the family of the titled compounds, aiming to identify the optimal cage for each endohedral fullerene and to unravel key aspects of the intriguing growth mechanisms of fullerenes. We show that all the optimal isomers from C26 to C50 are linked by a simple C2 insertion, with the exception of a few carbon cages that require an additional C2 rearrangement. The ingestion of a C2 unit is always an exergonic/exothermic process that can occur through a rather simple mechanism, with the most energetically demanding step corresponding to the closure of the carbon cage. The large formation abundance observed in mass spectra for Ti@C28 and Ti@C44 can be explained by the special electronic properties of these cages and their higher relative stabilities with respect to C2 reactivity. We further verify that extrusion of C atoms from an already closed fullerene is much more energetically demanding than forming the fullerene by a bottom-up mechanism. Independent of the formation mechanism, the present investigations strongly support that, among all the possible isomers, the most stable, smaller non-IPR carbon cages are formed, a conclusion that is also valid for medium and large cages. PMID:28936315

  9. A computational triage approach to the synthesis of novel difluorocyclopentenes and fluorinated cycloheptadienes using thermal rearrangements† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Computational methodology, Cartesian coordinates for intermediates and transition states, synthetic procedures and characterisation spectra for novel compounds and further discussion on points highlighted in the text. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc01289b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Orr, David; Harrison, Zoë A.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations have been used for the effective triage of substituent effects on difluorinated vinylcyclopropane precursors and their ability to undergo vinyl cyclopropane rearrangements (VCPR). Groups which effectively stabilised radicals, specifically heteroarenes, were found to result in the lowest energy barriers. Ten novel precursors were synthesised to test the accuracy of computational predictions; the most reactive species which contained heteroarenes underwent thermal rearrangements at room temperature to afford novel difluorocyclopentenes and fluorinated benzocycloheptadienes through competing VCPR and [3,3]-rearrangement pathways, respectively. More controlled rearrangement of ethyl 3-(1′(2′2′-difluoro-3′-benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)cyclopropyl)propenoate (22) allowed these competing pathways to be monitored at the same time and activation energies for both reactions were determined; E a(VCPR) = (23.4 ± 0.2) kcal mol–1 and E a([3,3]) = (24.9 ± 0.3) kcal mol–1. Comparing our calculated activation energies with these parameters showed that no single method stood out as the most accurate for predicting barrier heights; (U)M05-2X/6-31+G* methodology remained the best for VCPR but M06-2X/6-31G* was better for the [3,3]-rearrangement. The consistency observed with (U)B3LYP/6-31G* calculations meant that it came closest to a universal method for dealing with these systems. The developed computational design model correctly predicted the observed selectivity of rearrangement pathways for both our system and literature compounds. PMID:28451092

  10. Bottom-up on-crystal in-chip formation of a conducting salt and a view of its restructuring: from organic insulator to conducting “switch” through microfluidic manipulation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional AFM images and I/V curves from the conducting AFM, SEM and EDX measurements. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00203f Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Paradinas, Markos; Bailo, Elena; Rodriguez-Trujillo, Romen; Pfattner, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    The chemical modification of an immobilized single crystal in a fluid cell is reported, whereby a material with switching functions is generated in situ by generating a chemical reagent in the flow. Crystals of the insulating organic crystal of TCNQ (tetracyanoquinodimethane) were grown in a microfluidic channel and were trapped using a pneumatic valve, a nascent technique for materials manipulation. They were subsequently reduced using solution-deposited silver to provide a conducting material in situ by a heterogeneous reaction. Removal of the new material from the chip proved it to be the silver salt of reduced TCNQ. Uniquely, conducting atomic force microscope (CAFM) studies show three regions in the solid. The localized original neutral organic material crystal is shown to be an insulator but to produce areas with Ohmic conducting characteristics after reduction. This inhomogeneous doping provides an opportunity for probing electrical materials properties side by side. Measurements with the CAFM witness this conducting material where the TCNQ is fully transformed to the silver salt. Additionally, an intermediate phase is observed that exhibits bipolar resistive switching typical of programmable resistive memories. Raman microscopy proves the conversion of the material in specific regions and clearly defines the intermediate phase region that could be responsible for the switching effect in related materials. This kind of “on crystal chemistry” exploiting immobilization and masking by a pneumatic clamp in a microfluidic channel shows how material can be selectively converted to give different functionalities in the same material piece, even though it is not a single crystal to single crystal conversion, and beckons exploitation for the preparation of systems relevant for molecular electronics as well as other areas where chemical manipulation of single crystals could be beneficial. PMID:28706708

  11. Tunable thermodynamic activity of LaxSr1–xMnyAl1–yO3–δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1) perovskites for solar thermochemical fuel synthesis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Computational details, comprehensive XRD analyses, oxygen nonstoichiometry measurements and thermodynamic characterization of the perovskites. See DOI: 10.1039/c6ta06644e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Ezbiri, M.; Takacs, M.; Theiler, D.; Steinfeld, A.

    2017-01-01

    Nonstoichiometric metal oxides with variable valence are attractive redox materials for thermochemical and electrochemical fuel processing. To guide the design of advanced redox materials for solar-driven splitting of CO2 and/or H2O to produce CO and/or H2 (syngas), we investigate the equilibrium thermodynamics of the LaxSr1–xMnyAl1–yO3–δ perovskite family (0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1) and La0.6Ca0.4Mn0.8Al0.2O3–δ, and compare them to those of CeO2 as the baseline. Oxygen nonstoichiometry measurements from 1573 to 1773 K and from 0.206 to 180 mbar O2 show a tunable reduction extent, increasing with increasing Sr content. Maximal nonstoichiometry of 0.32 is established with La0.2Sr0.8Mn0.8Al0.2O3–δ at 1773 K and 2.37 mbar O2. As a trend, we find that oxygen capacities are most sensitive to the A-cation composition. Partial molar enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy changes for oxide reduction are extracted from the experimental data using defect models for Mn4+/Mn3+ and Mn3+/Mn2+ redox couples. We find that perovskites exhibit typically decreasing enthalpy changes with increasing nonstoichiometries. This desirable characteristic is most pronounced by La0.6Sr0.4Mn0.4Al0.6O3–δ, rendering it attractive for CO2 and H2O splitting. Generally, perovskites show lower enthalpy and entropy changes than ceria, resulting in more favorable reduction but less favorable oxidation equilibria. The energy penalties due to larger temperature swings and excess oxidants are discussed in particular. Using electronic structure theory, we conclude with a practical methodology estimating thermodynamic activity to rationally design perovskites with variable stoichiometry and valence. PMID:28580143

  12. Effect of supplementary zinc on body mass index, pulmonary function and hospitalization in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ataee, Pedram; Najafi, Mehri; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Aflatounian, Majid; Mahmoudi, Maryam; Khodadad, Ahmad; Farahmand, Fatemeh; Motamed, Farzaneh; Fallahi, Glolam Hossein; Kalantari, Najmoddin; Soheili, Habib; Modarresi, Vajiheh; Modarresi, Mozhgan Sabbaghian; Rezaei, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Zinc deficiency, which is common in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), can lead to several complications that may increase the number of hospital admissions in this group of patients. As supplementary zinc can prevent such complications, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of supplementary zinc on body mass index (BMI), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and number of hospitalizations in CF patients. In this study, 30 children with CF, who were referred to the Digestive Diseases Clinic of the Children's Medical Center in Tehran, were enrolled. Supplementary zinc of 2 mg/kg per day was administered to all patients. Serum level of zinc, alkaline phosphatase, and albumin as well as BMI, FEV1, and number of hospitalizations were compared before and after zinc administration. Height (p<0.001), weight (p<0.001) and BMI (p=0.001) were significantly increased after zinc, while the number of hospitalizations was significantly decreased (p=0.023). In contrast to patients with normal pulmonary function tests who received supplement therapy, BMI was not increased in those with abnormal pulmonary function after supplementary zinc. Supplementary zinc can increase BMI in CF patients, mostly in those with normal pulmonary function. While supplementary zinc may decrease the number of hospitalizations, other factors can also influence the hospitalization number.

  13. Investigation of the Downwelling LW Differences Between the Niamey AMF Main and Supplementary Sites

    SciTech Connect

    CN Long; P Gotseff; EG Dutton

    2008-04-01

    The overall average downwelling longwave (LW) measured at the Niamey supplementary facility (S1) is 6-8 Wm-2 less than that measured by the two instruments located at the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) main (N1) site. Examination of all other data available at both sites does not reveal any overarching differences that suggest this should be the case. However, examination of the pyrgeometer case and dome temperatures do suggest that the S1 values are also anomalously low, which in turn would explain the downwelling LW anomaly since the LW is calculated using these temperatures. Our recommendation then is to normalize the S1 data to the average N1 value by applying an adjustment factor to the S1 downwelling pyrgeometer case and dome temperatures (in Kelvin), then recalculating the downwelling LW values. The adjustment factor (0.00305) has been determined as that factor that brings the overall average S1 LWdn to agree with the overall average of the two N1 LWdn data series. We note that there is no reason to expect that the two site averages would actually be exactly equal to one another, and thus our recommendation is viewed as likely moving the S1 data in the right direction and by normalizing to the N1 average will help facilitate more meaningful temporal variability studies at least. It is also strongly recommended that for all future AMF deployments where supplementary sites will also be deployed, that the supplementary instrument systems (complete) be assembled as they will be operated in the field and run for at least a few days beside the corresponding AMF main site instruments, both at the beginning and end of the AMF field campaign. This is absolutely crucial so that all the measurements can be compared pre- and post-experiment to properly relate these measurements and systems, and to detect measurement anomalies such as those discussed in this report.

  14. Literature mining of genetic variants for curation: quantifying the importance of supplementary material.

    PubMed

    Jimeno Yepes, Antonio; Verspoor, Karin

    2014-01-01

    A major focus of modern biological research is the understanding of how genomic variation relates to disease. Although there are significant ongoing efforts to capture this understanding in curated resources, much of the information remains locked in unstructured sources, in particular, the scientific literature. Thus, there have been several text mining systems developed to target extraction of mutations and other genetic variation from the literature. We have performed the first study of the use of text mining for the recovery of genetic variants curated directly from the literature. We consider two curated databases, COSMIC (Catalogue Of Somatic Mutations In Cancer) and InSiGHT (International Society for Gastro-intestinal Hereditary Tumours), that contain explicit links to the source literature for each included mutation. Our analysis shows that the recall of the mutations catalogued in the databases using a text mining tool is very low, despite the well-established good performance of the tool and even when the full text of the associated article is available for processing. We demonstrate that this discrepancy can be explained by considering the supplementary material linked to the published articles, not previously considered by text mining tools. Although it is anecdotally known that supplementary material contains 'all of the information', and some researchers have speculated about the role of supplementary material (Schenck et al. Extraction of genetic mutations associated with cancer from public literature. J Health Med Inform 2012;S2:2.), our analysis substantiates the significant extent to which this material is critical. Our results highlight the need for literature mining tools to consider not only the narrative content of a publication but also the full set of material related to a publication.

  15. Analysis of the potential use of major refuse-derived fuels in Jordan as supplementary fuel.

    PubMed

    Alsheyab, Mohammad A T; Schingnitz, Daniel; Al-Shawabkeh, Ali F; Kusch, Sigrid

    2013-08-01

    The increasing energy demand in Jordan, compounded with the country's limited natural resources as well as its dependence on importing fuel oil from neighboring countries, makes it indispensible to search for alternative fuels. The objective of this study is to analyze the potential use of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) as a supplementary fuel in Jordan, for this purpose. Nine of the major RDFs generated in Jordan were chosen for this study: wastewater sludge, oil refinery sludge, olive oil husk, olive oil residue, chicken farm waste, sheep farm waste, used cooking oil, used oil, and waste tires. The energy content was measured for each one and the results were verified using five different empirical elemental analyses. Results of measuring and calculating the higher heating value (HHV) of the samples showed that used oil had the highest potential as an alternative fuel at 45.36 MJ/kg and the residual olive waste had the lowest heating content at 5.02 MJ/kg. Results also showed that there was a good agreement between the measured and calculated values. The calculating models showed that there was a positive correlation between the HHV and C% and negative correlation between HHV and ash%. Further research is planned to be conducted into the implementation of the concept of waste to energy in the Jordanian industrial sector. It has been necessary to measure the higher heating value (HHV) of different types of RDFs in Jordan to estimate their potential use as supplementary fuels. The amounts generated per year in Jordan are a crucial factor to make it feasible to use these. Used oil, used cooking oil, and waste tires could be the most promising supplementary fuels.

  16. Monitoring polio supplementary immunization activities using an automated short text messaging system in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Murtaza, A; Khoja, S; Zaidi, AK; Ali, SA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Problem Polio remains endemic in many areas of Pakistan, including large urban centres such as Karachi. Approach During each of seven supplementary immunization activities against polio in Karachi, mobile phone numbers of the caregivers of a random sample of eligible children were obtained. A computer-based system was developed to send two questions – as short message service (SMS) texts – automatically to each number after the immunization activity: “Did the vaccinator visit your house?” and “Did the enrolled child in your household receive oral polio vaccine?” Persistent non-responders were phoned directly by an investigator. Local setting A cluster sampling technique was used to select representative samples of the caregivers of young children in Karachi in general and of such caregivers in three of the six “high-risk” districts of the city where polio cases were detected in 2011. Relevant changes In most of the supplementary immunization activities investigated, vaccine coverages estimated using the SMS system were very similar to those estimated by interviewing by phone those caregivers who never responded to the SMS messages. In the high-risk districts investigated, coverages estimated using the SMS system were also similar to those recorded – using lot quality assurance sampling – by the World Health Organization. Lessons learnt For the monitoring of coverage in supplementary immunization activities, automated SMS-based systems appear to be an attractive and relatively inexpensive option. Further research is needed to determine if coverage data collected by SMS-based systems provide estimates that are sufficiently accurate. Such systems may be useful in other large-scale immunization campaigns. PMID:24700982

  17. Posttherapeutic Cure Criteria in Chagas' Disease: Conventional Serology followed by Supplementary Serological, Parasitological, and Molecular Tests

    PubMed Central

    Silva, A. R.; Do Bem, V. A. L.; Bahia, M. T.; Martins-Filho, O. A.; Dias, J. C. P.; Albajar-Viñas, P.; Torres, R. M.; Lana, M.

    2012-01-01

    We performed a critical study of conventional serology, followed by supplementary serological, parasitological, and molecular tests, to assess the response to etiologic treatment of Chagas' disease. A group of 94 Chagas' disease patients treated with benznidazole at least 10 years earlier were evaluated from the laboratory and clinical points of view. When conventional serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], indirect immunofluorescence [IIF], and indirect hemagglutination [IHA]) and classic criteria (consistent results with any two of the three tests) or more rigorous criteria (consistent results from the three tests) were used, 10.6% and 8.5% of patients were considered treated and cured (TC) by classic and rigorous criteria, respectively. Patients were then evaluated using supplementary (recombinant ELISA and Trypanosoma cruzi excreted-secreted antigen blotting [TESA-blot]), parasitological (hemoculture), and molecular (PCR) tests. The results of recombinant ELISA were similar to those with the rigorous criterion (three consistent test results). The TESA-blot group showed a higher percentage (21.3%) of negative results than the groups defined by either cure criterion. Hemoculture and PCR gave negative results for all treated and cured (TC) patients, regardless of the criterion used. Recombinant ELISA and TESA-blot tests showed negative results for 70% and 87.5% of the patients categorized as TC by the classic and three-test criteria, respectively. For patients with discordant conventional serology, the supplementary serological and molecular tests were the decisive factor in determining therapeutic failure. Clinical evaluation showed that 62.5% of TC patients presented with the indeterminate form of the disease. Additionally, treated patients with negative TESA-blot results should be reevaluated later with all methodologies used here to verify whether TESA-blot is a reliable way to determine early parasitological cure of Chagas' disease. PMID

  18. Supplementary breast ultrasound screening in Asian women with negative but dense mammograms-a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Leong, Lester C H; Gogna, Apoorva; Pant, Rita; Ng, Fook Cheong; Sim, Llewellyn S J

    2012-10-01

    Dense breasts are common in Asian women and they limit the sensitivity of mammography. This study evaluates the performance of supplementary breast ultrasound screening in Asian women with dense mammograms. The study was approved by the hospital's Institutional Review Board. A prospective clinical trial was performed between September 2002 and November 2004. Asymptomatic Asian women with negative and dense mammograms were offered supplementary ultrasound screening for breast cancer. Ultrasound assessment was categorised as U1 to U4. U1 and U2 cases were recommended routine interval screening mammography. U3 cases were recommended follow-up ultrasound in 6 months and routine interval screening mammography and U4 cases were recommended biopsy. One hundred and forty-one women with mean age of 45.1 years were enrolled into the study. Mean scan time was 13.0 minutes (± 5.6 minutes) for bilateral vs 11.0 minutes (± 1.4 minutes) for unilateral scans. There were 10 patients and 14 patients in the in the U3 and U4 categories, respectively. Two U4 category patients were diagnosed with malignancy-a-6 mm ductal carcinoma-in-situ and a 13- mm invasive ductal carcinoma. The breast cancer detection rate was 1.4%. Sensitivity and specifi city were 100% (2/2) and 88.5% (92/104) respectively. The positive predictive value was 14.3% (2/14) and the negative predictive value was 100% (92/92). This pilot study reveals the usefulness of supplementary ultrasound screening in detecting early stage mammographically and clinically occult breast cancers in Asian women with dense breasts. A larger long-term study is, however, needed to assess its feasibility and impact on breast cancer prognosis.

  19. Disinfecting oval-shaped root canals: effectiveness of different supplementary approaches.

    PubMed

    Alves, Flávio R F; Almeida, Bernardo M; Neves, Mônica A S; Moreno, Jaime O; Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2011-04-01

    This study compared the ability of different approaches to supplement the antibacterial effects of chemomechanical preparation in oval-shaped root canals. Long oval canals from extracted teeth infected with Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) were chemomechanically prepared up to a 40/04 rotary BioRaCe instrument using 2.5% NaOCl irrigation and then subjected to two supplementary protocols. In the passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI)/chlorhexidine (CHX) group, canals were subjected to PUI for the activation of NaOCl followed by a final rinse with 0.2% CHX digluconate solution. In the Hedström group, canals received additional Hedström filing directed towards the buccal and lingual canal recesses. Bacteriological samples were taken before and after preparation, after PUI or Hedström instrumentation, and after CHX final rinsing. Chemomechanical preparation and the supplementary steps promoted a highly significant bacterial reduction (P < .001). Quantitative (reduction in levels) and qualitative (frequency of negative cultures) analyses showed that PUI alone or Hedström filing did not significantly increase bacterial reduction (P > .05). Further rinsing with CHX also failed to significantly increase bacterial elimination when compared with post-PUI samples. However, the cumulative antibacterial effects of PUI and CHX final rinse were effective in significantly reducing bacterial counts to levels below those achieved after preparation (P = .03). This combined PUI/CHX approach also resulted in a significant increase in the incidence of negative cultures (P = .04). Findings suggest that there may be a benefit of using the PUI for the activation of NaOCl followed by a final rinse with CHX as supplementary steps in the treatment of infected oval-shaped root canals. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Literature mining of genetic variants for curation: quantifying the importance of supplementary material

    PubMed Central

    Jimeno Yepes, Antonio; Verspoor, Karin

    2014-01-01

    A major focus of modern biological research is the understanding of how genomic variation relates to disease. Although there are significant ongoing efforts to capture this understanding in curated resources, much of the information remains locked in unstructured sources, in particular, the scientific literature. Thus, there have been several text mining systems developed to target extraction of mutations and other genetic variation from the literature. We have performed the first study of the use of text mining for the recovery of genetic variants curated directly from the literature. We consider two curated databases, COSMIC (Catalogue Of Somatic Mutations In Cancer) and InSiGHT (International Society for Gastro-intestinal Hereditary Tumours), that contain explicit links to the source literature for each included mutation. Our analysis shows that the recall of the mutations catalogued in the databases using a text mining tool is very low, despite the well-established good performance of the tool and even when the full text of the associated article is available for processing. We demonstrate that this discrepancy can be explained by considering the supplementary material linked to the published articles, not previously considered by text mining tools. Although it is anecdotally known that supplementary material contains ‘all of the information’, and some researchers have speculated about the role of supplementary material (Schenck et al. Extraction of genetic mutations associated with cancer from public literature. J Health Med Inform 2012;S2:2.), our analysis substantiates the significant extent to which this material is critical. Our results highlight the need for literature mining tools to consider not only the narrative content of a publication but also the full set of material related to a publication. PMID:24520105

  1. Is supplementary feeding in gardens a driver of evolutionary change in a migratory bird species?

    PubMed

    Plummer, Kate E; Siriwardena, Gavin M; Conway, Greg J; Risely, Kate; Toms, Mike P

    2015-12-01

    Human activities are causing rapid environmental change at a global scale. Urbanization is responsible for some of the most extreme human-altered habitats and is a known driver of evolutionary change, but evidence and understanding of these processes is limited. Here, we investigate the potential underlying mechanisms contributing to the contemporary evolution of migration behaviour in the Eurasian blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla). Blackcaps from central Europe have been wintering in urban areas of Britain with increasing frequency over the past 60 years, rather than migrating south to the Mediterranean. It has been hypothesized that the popularization of providing supplementary foods for wild birds within Britain may have influenced this marked migratory change, but quantifying the selective forces shaping evolutionary changes remains challenging. Using a long-term national scale data set, we examine both the spatial distribution and interannual variation in blackcap wintering behaviour in Britain in relation to supplementary food availability and local climate. Over a 12-year period, we show that blackcaps are becoming increasingly associated with the provision of supplementary foods in British gardens, and that the reliability of bird food supplies is influencing their winter distribution at a national scale. In addition, local climatic temperatures and broader scale weather variation are also important determinants of blackcap wintering patterns once they arrive in Britain. Based on our findings, we conclude that a synergistic effect of increased availability of feeding resources, in the form of garden bird food, coupled with climatic amelioration, has enabled a successful new wintering population to become established in Britain. As global biodiversity is threatened by human-induced environmental change, this study presents new and timely evidence of the role human activities can play in shaping evolutionary trajectories.

  2. Supplementary calcium ameliorates ammonium toxicity by improving water status in agriculturally important species.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gómez, Elvia; Valdez-Aguilar, Luis A; Cartmill, Donita L; Cartmill, Andrew D; Alia-Tajacal, Irán

    2015-09-02

    Fertilization of agricultural plants with ammonium [Formula: see text] is often desirable because it is less susceptible to leaching than nitrate [Formula: see text] reducing environmental pollution, risk to human health and economic loss. However, a number of important agricultural species exhibit a reduction in growth when fertilized with [Formula: see text] and increasing the tolerance to [Formula: see text] may be of importance for the establishment of sustainable agricultural systems. The present study explored the feasibility of using calcium (Ca) to increase the tolerance of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) to [Formula: see text] fertilization. Although [Formula: see text] at proportions ≥25 % of total nitrogen (N) decreased leaf dry mass (DM), supplementary Ca ameliorated this decrease. Increasing [Formula: see text] resulted in decreased root hydraulic conductance (Lo) and root water content (RWC), suggesting that water uptake by roots was impaired. The [Formula: see text]-induced reductions in Lo and RWC were mitigated by supplementary Ca. Ammonium induced increased damage to the cell membranes through lipid peroxidation, causing increased electrolyte leakage; Ca did not reduce lipid peroxidation and resulted in increased electrolyte leakage, suggesting that the beneficial effects of Ca on the tolerance to [Formula: see text] may be more of a reflection on its effect on the water status of the plant. Bell pepper plants that received [Formula: see text] had a low concentration of [Formula: see text] in the roots but a high concentration in the leaves, probably due to the high nitrate reductase activity observed. Ammonium nutrition depressed the uptake of potassium, Ca and magnesium, while increasing that of phosphorus. The results obtained in the present study indicate that [Formula: see text] caused growth reduction, nutrient imbalance, membrane integrity impairment, increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and affected water relations. Supplementary Ca

  3. Supplementary calcium ameliorates ammonium toxicity by improving water status in agriculturally important species

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Gómez, Elvia; Valdez-Aguilar, Luis A.; Cartmill, Donita L.; Cartmill, Andrew D.; Alia-Tajacal, Irán

    2015-01-01

    Fertilization of agricultural plants with ammonium (NH4+) is often desirable because it is less susceptible to leaching than nitrate (NO3−), reducing environmental pollution, risk to human health and economic loss. However, a number of important agricultural species exhibit a reduction in growth when fertilized with NH4+, and increasing the tolerance to NH4+ may be of importance for the establishment of sustainable agricultural systems. The present study explored the feasibility of using calcium (Ca) to increase the tolerance of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) to NH4+ fertilization. Although NH4+ at proportions ≥25 % of total nitrogen (N) decreased leaf dry mass (DM), supplementary Ca ameliorated this decrease. Increasing NH4+ resulted in decreased root hydraulic conductance (Lo) and root water content (RWC), suggesting that water uptake by roots was impaired. The NH4+-induced reductions in Lo and RWC were mitigated by supplementary Ca. Ammonium induced increased damage to the cell membranes through lipid peroxidation, causing increased electrolyte leakage; Ca did not reduce lipid peroxidation and resulted in increased electrolyte leakage, suggesting that the beneficial effects of Ca on the tolerance to NH4+ may be more of a reflection on its effect on the water status of the plant. Bell pepper plants that received NO3−N had a low concentration of NH4+ in the roots but a high concentration in the leaves, probably due to the high nitrate reductase activity observed. Ammonium nutrition depressed the uptake of potassium, Ca and magnesium, while increasing that of phosphorus. The results obtained in the present study indicate that NH4+ caused growth reduction, nutrient imbalance, membrane integrity impairment, increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and affected water relations. Supplementary Ca partially restored growth of leaves by improving root Lo and water relations, and our results suggest that it may be used as a tool to increase the tolerance to NH4

  4. Supplementary Golay pair for range side lobe suppression in dual-frequency tissue harmonic imaging.

    PubMed

    Shen, Che-Chou; Wu, Chi; Peng, Jun-Kai

    2015-02-01

    In dual-frequency (DF) harmonic imaging, the second harmonic signal at second harmonic (2f0) frequency and the inter-modulation harmonic signal at fundamental (f0) frequency are simultaneously imaged for spectral compounding. When the phase-encoded Golay pair is utilized to improve the harmonic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), however, the DF imaging suffers from range side lobe artifacts due to spectral cross-talk with other harmonic components at DC and third harmonic (3f0) frequency. In this study, a supplementary Golay pair is developed to suppress the range side lobes in combination with the original Golay pair. Since the phase code of the DC interference cannot be manipulated, the supplementary Golay is designed to reverse the polarity of the 3f0 interference and the f0 signal while keeping the 2f0 signal unchanged. For 2f0 imaging, the echo summation of the supplementary and the original Golay can cancel the 3f0 interference. On the contrary, the echo difference between the two Golay pairs can eliminate the DC interference for f0 imaging. Hydrophone measurements indicate that the range side lobe level (RSLL) increases with the signal bandwidth of DF harmonic imaging. By using the combination of the two Golay pairs, the achievable suppression of RSLL can be 3 and 14 dB, respectively for the f0 and 2f0 harmonic signal. B-mode phantom imaging also verifies the presence of range side lobe artifacts when only the original Golay pair is utilized. In combination with the supplementary Golay pair, the artifacts are effectively suppressed. The corresponding range side lobe magnitude reduces by about 8 dB in 2f0 imaging but remains unchanged in f0 imaging. Meanwhile, the harmonic SNR improves by 8-10 dB and the contrast-to-noise ratio of harmonic image increases from about 1 to 1.2 by spectral compounding. For DF tissue harmonic imaging, the spectral cross-talk in Golay excitation results in severe range side lobe artifacts. To restore the image quality, two particular

  5. Allocation of supplementary aeration stations in the Chicago waterway system for dissolved oxygen improvement.

    PubMed

    Alp, Emre; Melching, Charles S

    2011-06-01

    The Chicago Waterway System (CWS), used mainly for commercial and recreational navigation and for urban drainage, is a 122.8 km branching network of navigable waterways controlled by hydraulic structures. The CWS receives pollutant loads from 3 of the largest wastewater treatment plants in the world, nearly 240 gravity Combined Sewer Overflows (CSO), 3 CSO pumping stations, direct diversions from Lake Michigan, and eleven tributary streams or drainage areas. Even though treatment plant effluent concentrations meet the applicable standards and most reaches of the CWS meet the applicable water quality standards, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) standards are not met in the CWS during some periods. A Use Attainability Analysis was initiated to evaluate what water quality standards can be achieved in the CWS. The UAA team identified several DO improvement alternatives including new supplementary aeration stations. Because of the dynamic nature of the CWS, the DUFLOW model that is capable of simulating hydraulics and water quality processes under unsteady-flow conditions was used to evaluate the effectiveness of new supplementary aeration stations. This paper details the use of the DUFLOW model to size and locate supplementary aeration stations. In order to determine the size and location of supplemental aeration stations, 90% compliance with a 5 mg/l DO standard was used as a planning target. The simulations showed that a total of four new supplementary aeration stations with oxygen supply capacities ranging from 30 to 80 g/s would be sufficient to meet the proposed target DO concentration for the North Branch and South Branch of the Chicago River. There are several aeration technologies, two of which are already being used in the CWS, available and the UAA team determined that the total capital costs of the alternatives range from $35.5 to $89.9 million with annual operations and maintenance costs ranging from $554,000 to $2.14 million. Supplemental aeration stations have been

  6. The potential premium range of risk-rating in competitive markets for supplementary health insurance.

    PubMed

    Paolucci, Francesco; Prinsze, Femmeke; Stam, Pieter J A; van de Ven, Wynand P M M

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we simulate several scenarios of the potential premium range for voluntary (supplementary) health insurance, covering benefits which might be excluded from mandatory health insurance (MI). Our findings show that, by adding risk-factors, the minimum premium decreases and the maximum increases. The magnitude of the premium range is especially substantial for benefits such as medical devices and drugs. When removing benefits from MI policymakers should be aware of the implications for the potential reduction of affordability of voluntary health insurance coverage in a competitive market.

  7. Cortical silent period following TMS in a patient with supplementary sensorimotor area seizures.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Venturi, Alessandro; Ausserer, Harald; Ladurner, Günther; Tezzon, Frediano

    2008-01-01

    The cortical silent period (CSP) following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was evaluated in a patient with a dysembrioplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET) in the lateral portion of the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG) who suffered from supplementary sensorimotor area (SSMA) seizures. CSP duration was shortened on the affected side. Ipsilateral alterations of motor cortex excitability with TMS in epileptogenic DNET located outside the PMA argue in favour of cortico-cortical connections to primary motor cortex from SSMA. This functional connectivity should be taken into consideration to better understand the pathophysiology of ictal motor manifestations.

  8. 75 FR 51707 - Electronic Funds Transfer of Depository Taxes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ..., 40, and 301 [REG-153340-09] RIN 1545-BJ13 Electronic Funds Transfer of Depository Taxes AGENCY... hearing. SUMMARY: This document contains proposed regulations relating to Federal tax deposits (FTDs) by...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background This document contains proposed amendments to the Income Tax...

  9. The Efficacy of Electronic Telecommunications in Fostering Interpersonal Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Fu-Yun

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study conducted at a university in Taiwan that explored the effectiveness of electronic mail as a supplementary aid to instruction and as a communication link between students and between students and instructors in fostering interpersonal relationships. Examines student attitudes toward the instructor, group-mates, and other…

  10. EURAMET supplementary comparison of the personal dose equivalent quantity for photon radiation: EURAMET.RI(I)-S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankerhold, U.; Hupe, O.

    2012-01-01

    Comparison measurements among primary standard facilities are required to achieve quality assurance in the realization and transfer of the quantity of personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), for photon radiation by national standards laboratories. Although some bilateral comparisons for this quantity had already taken place, in May 2003 the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation [CCRI(I)] decided that a EUROMET supplementary comparison would be appropriate and that primary standards laboratories from other Regional Metrology Organizations could participate. The first comparison of the radiation protection quantity Hp(10) with low energy x-rays started in January 2004 and was completed in December 2007. The comparison was piloted by the PTB as EUROMET project No. 738 known also as EUROMET.RI(I)-S5. The operation and results of the comparison are reported here. The transfer instrument consisted of a secondary standard ionization chamber and a complete electronic measuring device. The response of this transfer instrument in various photon reference fields (N-15 and 0°, N-20 and 45°, N-30 and 75°, N-60 and 0°, N-120 and 0°, radiation quality according to ISO 4037-1:1996 [1]) was compared. Measurements were made by participants in 17 countries: Austria, France, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and by one international organization. The results obtained by most of the participants are consistent with the stated uncertainties. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Hallett, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that CD with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amygdala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated 2-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Eleven CD patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula, and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system, which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation.

  12. Estimation of the supplementary axial wall stress generated at peak flow by an arterial stenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doriot, Pierre-André

    2003-01-01

    Mechanical stresses in arterial walls are known to be implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. While shear stress and circumferential stress have received a lot of attention, axial stress has not. Yet, stenoses can be intuitively expected to produce a supplementary axial stress during flow systole in the region immediately proximal to the constriction cone. In this paper, a model for the estimation of this effect is presented, and ten numerical examples are computed. These examples show that the cyclic increase in axial stress can be quite considerable in severe stenoses (typically 120% or more of the normal stress value). This result is in best agreement with the known mechanical or morphological risk factors of stenosis progression and restenosis (hypertension, elevated pulse pressure, degree of stenosis, stenosis geometry, residual stenosis, etc). The supplementary axial stress generated by a stenosis might create the damages in the endothelium and in the elastic membranes which potentiate the action of the other risk factors (hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, etc). It could thus be an important cause of stenosis progression and of restenosis.

  13. Competitive interaction in plant populations exposed to supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Fox, Fred M; Caldwell, Martyn M

    1978-01-01

    Changes in plant growth and competitive balance between pairs of competing species were documented as a result of supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation (principally in the 290-315 nm waveband) under field conditions. This component of the terrestrial solar spectrum would be intensified if the atmospheric ozone layer were reduced. A method for calculating and statistically analyzing relative crowding coefficients was developed and used to evaluate the competitive status of the species pairs sown in a modified replacement series. The effect of the supplementary UV-B irradiance was generally detrimental to plant growth, and was reflected in decreased leaf area, biomass, height and density as well as changes in competitive balance for various species. For some species, interspecific competition apparently accentuated the effect of the UV-B radiation, while more intense intraspecific competition may have had the same effect for other species. A few species when grown in a situation of more severe mutual interspecific competition exhibited enhanced growth under the UV-B radiation treatment. This, however, was usually associated with a detrimental effect of the radiation on its competitor and thus was likely the result of its improved competitive circumstance rather than a beneficial physiological effect of the radiation.

  14. Winter range expansion of a hummingbird is associated with urbanization and supplementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Greig, Emma I; Wood, Eric M; Bonter, David N

    2017-04-12

    Anthropogenic changes to the landscape and climate cause novel ecological and evolutionary pressures, leading to potentially dramatic changes in the distribution of biodiversity. Warm winter temperatures can shift species' distributions to regions that were previously uninhabitable. Further, urbanization and supplementary feeding may facilitate range expansions and potentially reduce migration tendency. Here we explore how these factors interact to cause non-uniform effects across a species's range. Using 17 years of data from the citizen science programme Project FeederWatch, we examined the relationships between urbanization, winter temperatures and the availability of supplementary food (i.e. artificial nectar) on the winter range expansion (more than 700 km northward in the past two decades) of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna). We found that Anna's hummingbirds have colonized colder locations over time, were more likely to colonize sites with higher housing density and were more likely to visit feeders in the expanded range compared to the historical range. Additionally, their range expansion mirrored a corresponding increase over time in the tendency of people to provide nectar feeders in the expanded range. This work illustrates how humans may alter the distribution and potentially the migratory behaviour of species through landscape and resource modification. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Controlling your impulses: electrical stimulation of the human supplementary motor complex prevents impulsive errors.

    PubMed

    Spieser, Laure; van den Wildenberg, Wery; Hasbroucq, Thierry; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Burle, Borís

    2015-02-18

    To err is human. However, an inappropriate urge does not always result in error. Impulsive errors thus entail both a motor system capture by an urge to act and a failed inhibition of that impulse. Here we show that neuromodulatory electrical stimulation of the supplementary motor complex in healthy humans leaves action urges unchanged but prevents them from turning into overt errors. Subjects performed a choice reaction-time task known to trigger impulsive responses, leading to fast errors that can be revealed by analyzing accuracy as a function of poststimulus time. Yet, such fast errors are only the tip of the iceberg: electromyography (EMG) revealed fast subthreshold muscle activation in the incorrect response hand in an even larger proportion of overtly correct trials, revealing covert response impulses not discernible in overt behavior. Analyzing both overt and covert response tendencies enables to gauge the ability to prevent these incorrect impulses from turning into overt action errors. Hyperpolarizing the supplementary motor complex using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) preserves action impulses but prevents their behavioral expression. This new combination of detailed behavioral, EMG, and tDCS techniques clarifies the neurophysiology of impulse control, and may point to avenues for improving impulse control deficits in various neurologic and psychiatric disorders.

  16. Final report on the regional supplementary comparison APMP.AUV.A-S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plangsangmas, Virat; Leeudomwong, Surat; Scott, Andrew; Zhong, Bo; Huang, Yuchung

    2014-01-01

    A regional supplementary comparison APMP.AUV.A-S1 has been carried out for the measurement of sound pressure level, frequency and total distortion of a multi-frequency sound calibrator. The role of the Pilot laboratory was undertaken by the National Institute of Metrology (Thailand) (NIMT). The multi-frequency sound calibrator was circulated through thirteen National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). Two NMIs were added to the original time schedule after starting the circulation. The measurements took place between September 2008 and July 2010. This report includes the measurement results from all the participants. Supplementary Comparison Reference Values (SCRVs) have been determined from the results. Deviations from the SCRVs are mostly within declared expanded uncertainties. It has been found that a term for the inherent instability in this type of device needs to be included in any uncertainty budget, and a recommended minimum value of this has been given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  17. Supplementary comparison EURAMET.L-S25 (#1354) comparison of pocket type laser distance measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Emilio; Mar Pérez, M.; Ruíz, Juan A.; Matus, Michael; Kotte, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Supplementary comparison of distance measurements using pocket-type laser instruments (EDMs), following the previous comparison EURAMET.L-S20. Originally proposed by the CEM (ES) as a bilateral comparison with BEV (AT), after the open call made at the 2014 EURAMET TC-L meeting, VSL (NL) joined the comparison too. Registered as supplementary comparison EURAMET.L-S25 with CEM acting as coordinator and pilot laboratory. Transfer devices were two Leica DISTO EDMs, being the measurands the distances from the rear part of the EDMs to a target plate situated at 0.3 m and every 5 m until covering a range of 50 m. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. Lower Motor Neuron Findings after Upper Motor Neuron Injury: Insights from Postoperative Supplementary Motor Area Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Florman, Jeffrey E.; Duffau, Hugues; Rughani, Anand I.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertonia and hyperreflexia are classically described responses to upper motor neuron injury. However, acute hypotonia and areflexia with motor deficit are hallmark findings after many central nervous system insults such as acute stroke and spinal shock. Historic theories to explain these contradictory findings have implicated a number of potential mechanisms mostly relying on the loss of descending corticospinal input as the underlying etiology. Unfortunately, these simple descriptions consistently fail to adequately explain the pathophysiology and connectivity leading to acute hyporeflexia and delayed hyperreflexia that result from such insult. This article highlights the common observation of acute hyporeflexia after central nervous system insults and explores the underlying anatomy and physiology. Further, evidence for the underlying connectivity is presented and implicates the dominant role of supraspinal inhibitory influence originating in the supplementary motor area descending through the corticospinal tracts. Unlike traditional explanations, this theory more adequately explains the findings of postoperative supplementary motor area syndrome in which hyporeflexia motor deficit is observed acutely in the face of intact primary motor cortex connections to the spinal cord. Further, the proposed connectivity can be generalized to help explain other insults including stroke, atonic seizures, and spinal shock. PMID:23508473

  19. Molecular microbiological evaluation of passive ultrasonic activation as a supplementary disinfecting step: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Simone S M; Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N; Carmo, Flávia L; Leite, Deborah C A; Ferreira, Dennis C; Rachid, Caio T C; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2013-02-01

    This in vivo study used molecular microbiology methods to evaluate the effects of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) as a supplementary disinfecting step after root canal preparation. Samples were taken from 10 necrotic root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis before (S1) and after rotary nickel-titanium instrumentation using 2.5% NaOCl as the irrigant (S2) and then after PUI for NaOCl activation (S3). The parameters examined included the incidence of positive broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for bacterial presence, the impact on bacterial diversity evaluated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), the quantitative bacterial reduction determined by real-time PCR, and the identification of persistent species by clone library analysis. All S1 samples were positive for bacteria in all tests. Treatment procedures were significantly effective in reducing the incidence of positive results for bacteria, the number of bacterial cells (infectious bioburden), and the bacterial diversity (number of species and abundance). However, the supplementary PUI approach did not succeed in significantly enhancing disinfection beyond that achieved by chemomechanical preparation. Several bacterial species/phylotypes were identified in post-treatment samples that were positive for bacteria. Findings from this clinical study including a small sample size suggest that PUI can be ineffective in significantly improving disinfection of the main root canal after chemomechanical procedures. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Supplementary absolute differential cross sections for the excitation of atomic hydrogen's n=3 and 4 levels by electron impact

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, Christopher J.; Shyn, Tong W.; Grafe, Alan

    2004-05-01

    We have conducted measurements of absolute differential cross sections for the excitation of hydrogen atoms to their n=3(3S+3P+3D) and 4(4S+4P+4D+4F) levels. A modulated, crossed-beam method was employed, and the impact energies were 40 and 60 eV. Comparison of our results with those of others is quite favorable.

  1. Final report on EURAMET.QM-S9/1212: Supplementary comparison of analytical capabilities for synthetic natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valková, M.; Mirt, M.; Beranek, J.; Bárta, M.; Žamberova, I.; van der Veen, A. M. H.; Ziel, P. R.; Augusto, C. R.; Ribeiro, C. C.; Teixeira, D. C. G. S.; Oudwater, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The EURAMET supplementary comparison EURAMET.QM-S9 involves standard gas mixtures of synthetic natural gas. It is similar to key comparison CCQM-K16 (2001-2002). Analysed were gas mixtures of synthetic natural gas containing nitrogen, carbon dioxide and the alkanes up to hexane with a total of 10 components. Four laboratories (CMI, Czech Republic; INMETRO, Brazil; SMU, Slovakia; and VSL, The Netherlands) participated in this supplementary comparison. All of the participants, except CMI, have established facilities for natural gas analysis, and have existing claims for their Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) for natural gas mixtures. The agreement of the results in this supplementary comparison is very good. All the results with their reported uncertainties are in agreement with the reference values for all the participants. SMU and VSL participated in the key comparison CCQM-K16. VSL obtained very good results in both the supplementary comparison and the CCQM-K16 comparison. SMU obtained better results in the supplementary comparison than in CCQM-K16. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM.

  2. Supplementary biotin decreases tibial bone weight, density and strength in riboflavin-deficient starter diets for turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Hocking, P M; Stevenson, E; Beard, P M

    2013-01-01

    1. Growth and skeletal responses to different dietary concentrations of riboflavin and biotin were compared in turkey poults from hatch to 21 d of age. The birds were fed on a turkey starter diet with different concentrations of supplementary riboflavin (0, 20 and 40 mg/kg) and biotin (0, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg) in a factorial design. 2. Poults fed on diets with no supplementary riboflavin had poor gait scores, decreased times to sit and higher rates of culling compared to poults fed on the control diet (20 mg riboflavin and 0.3 mg biotin/kg [corrected] diet). Histologically, riboflavin deficiency was associated with a peripheral neuropathy similar to that described previously in chicks and, unexpectedly, in growth plate abnormalities. 3. Tibiae of poults fed on the control diet were larger, more dense, stronger and stiffer than the diets with no supplementary riboflavin. 4. Increasing supplementary biotin in poults fed on diets with no supplementary riboflavin was associated with a decrease in tibia weight, density, strength and stiffness. 5. The results demonstrated that riboflavin deficiency in fast-growing turkey poults was associated with growth retardation, growth plate disturbance and peripheral nerve dysfunction leading to an inability to walk.

  3. Interaction of "supplementary" scintigraphic indicators of ischemia and stress electrocardiography in the diagnosis of multivessel coronary disease.

    PubMed

    Canhasi, B; Dae, M; Botvinick, E; Lanzer, P; Schechtmann, N; Faulkner, D; O'Connell, W; Schiller, N

    1985-09-01

    Lung uptake, ventricular cavitary dilation and basal myocardial uptake represent abnormalities that have been associated with myocardial ischemia on stress thallium-201 images, but that are supplementary to the conventional assessment of perfusion distribution. These "supplementary" indicators of ischemia were related to the coronary distribution of perfusion abnormalities, the results of electrocardiographic stress testing and to the findings on coronary angiography in 73 patients. Forty patients had multivessel coronary disease; 19 of these had three vessel disease. Perfusion abnormalities were seen in 39 of these 40 patients but were indicative of multivessel coronary disease in only 28 and of three vessel disease in only 6. However, supplementary indicators were present in 33 of 40 patients with multivessel disease and in 15 of 19 with three vessel disease. Furthermore, they were seen in 16 of 22 patients with multivessel disease in whom conventional perfusion abnormalities underestimated the extent of disease, but in only 4 of 12 patients in whom the extent of disease was overestimated. The presence of either perfusion abnormalities in a multivessel distribution or supplementary indicators identified 38 (95%) of 40 patients with multivessel disease. A markedly positive electrocardiographic treadmill test was a less sensitive indicator of multivessel disease, appearing in only 15 of 40 patients. However, it was present in only 4 of 33 patients without multivessel coronary disease and was more specific for that diagnosis than were supplementary scintigraphic indicators (88 versus 67%, p less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. 77 FR 13123 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Ohio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Ohio AGENCY..., seeh.karen@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic...

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  6. 76 FR 24020 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  7. 77 FR 37039 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Delaware

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 119 (Wednesday, June 20, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 37039] [FR Doc No: 2012-15019] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9690-6] Cross-Media Electronic Reporting...@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting...

  8. 76 FR 76971 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Indiana

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  9. 76 FR 46798 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approvals, Commonwealth of Kentucky

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  11. 77 FR 37038 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 119 (Wednesday, June 20, 2012)] [Notices] [Pages 37038-37039] [FR Doc No: 2012-15048] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9690-5] Cross-Media Electronic Reporting...@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting...

  12. 78 FR 35030 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Nevada

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Nevada AGENCY... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

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  14. 76 FR 25334 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Maryland

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

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  15. 76 FR 76971 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Arkansas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Arkansas AGENCY... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR)...

  16. 76 FR 77533 - Mandatory Electronic Filing for Cable Special Relief Petitions and Cable Show Cause Petitions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

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  17. 78 FR 12132 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

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  18. Use of a Supplementary Internet Based Education Program Improves Sleep Literacy in College Psychology Students

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Stuart F.; Anderson, Janis L.; Hodge, Gordon K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge regarding the importance of sleep in health and performance and good sleep hygiene practices is low, especially among adolescents and young adults. It is important to improve sleep literacy. Introductory psychology is one of the most highly enrolled courses at colleges and universities. This study tested the impact of an Internet-based learning module on improving sleep literacy in this venue. Methods: An Internet-based supplementary learning module containing sleep physiology and hygiene information was developed using content from the Harvard Medical School sleep educational website http://www.understandingsleep.org. Access to the module was provided as an extra credit activity for 2 of 4 sections (Supplemental Sleep, SS, N = 889) of an introductory college psychology course during their standard instruction on sleep and dreaming. The remaining 2 sections (Standard Instruction, SI, N = 878) only were encouraged to visit the website without further direction. Level of knowledge was assessed before and after availability to the module/website and at the end of the semester. Students were asked to complete a survey at the end of the semester inquiring whether they made any changes in their sleep behaviors. Results: Two hundred fifty students participated in the extra credit activity and had data available at all testing points. Students in the SS Group had a significant improvement in sleep knowledge test scores after interacting with the website in comparison to the SI group (19.41 ± 3.15 vs. 17.94 ± 3.08, p < 0.001). This difference persisted, although at a lower level, at the end of the semester. In addition, 55.9% of the SS group versus 45.1% of the SI group indicated that they made changes in their sleep habits after participation in the extra credit sleep activity (p < 0.01). The most common change was a more consistent wake time. Conclusion: Use of a supplementary internet-based sleep learning module has the potential to enhance

  19. Methyl viologen-templated zinc gallophosphate zeolitic material with dual photo-/thermochromism and tuneable photovoltaic activity† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Crystal data and structure refinement; thermal ellipsoids; 3D channel system, tiling structure, LC-HRMS, solid-state 13C NMR, liquid 13C NMR, PXRD, TG, EPR. CCDC 1008498. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00291e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junbiao; Tao, Chunyao; Li, Yi

    2015-01-01

    A novel zinc gallophosphate zeolitic material |(C12H14N2)4F1.33|[Ga13.33Zn6.67(PO4)20] (denoted as JU101) has been prepared by using in situ generated methyl viologen (MV) as the template. The framework of JU101 features two building units including an unprecedented fused d6r and a novel [412·64·82·102] cavity. The connection of these two building units forms a 3D intersecting pore system containing 8-rings along the [010] direction, and 10-rings along the [001] and [100] directions. The MV-templated JU101 zeolitic material offers a new type of electron transfer system, which endows the material with interesting photochromism, thermochromism, and tuneable photovoltaic activity in response to light and heating. Importantly, JU101 shows an extended photochromism range from UV to visible light, high thermal stability, as well as a long-lived charge-separated state for potential application in solar energy conversion. PMID:28706675

  20. Reversible solvatomagnetic switching in a single-ion magnet from an entatic state† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Preparation methods and physical characterization data. Crystallographic refinement and computational details. Additional figures (Fig. S1–S12) and tables (Tables S1–S5). CCDC 952077 and 938463. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c6sc05188j Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, J.; Viciano-Chumillas, M.; Castro, I.; Amorós, P.; Déniz, M.; Ruiz-Pérez, C.; Yuste-Vivas, C.; Krzystek, J.; Julve, M.; Lloret, F.

    2017-01-01

    A vast impact on molecular nanoscience can be achieved using simple transition metal complexes as dynamic chemical systems to perform specific and selective tasks under the control of an external stimulus that switches “ON” and “OFF” their electronic properties. While the interest in single-ion magnets (SIMs) lies in their potential applications in information storage and quantum computing, the switching of their slow magnetic relaxation associated with host–guest processes is insufficiently explored. Herein, we report a unique example of a mononuclear cobalt(ii) complex in which geometrical constraints are the cause of easy and reversible water coordination and its release. As a result, a reversible and selective colour and SIM behaviour switch occurs between a “slow-relaxing” deep red anhydrous material (compound 1) and its “fast-relaxing” orange hydrated form (compound 2). The combination of this optical and magnetic switching in this new class of vapochromic and thermochromic SIMs offers fascinating possibilities for designing multifunctional molecular materials. PMID:28580105

  1. 2,2′-Bipyridyl formation from 2-arylpyridines through bimetallic diyttrium intermediate† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details for the synthesis and characterization of Y complexes, 1H NMR spectrum of the deuterium labelling experiment, and crystal data for 3e (CCDC 1409167), 4a (CCDC 1048580), 4b (CCDC 1048581), 4c (CCDC 1048582), 6a (CCDC 1048583), 6c (CCDC 1048584) and 6d (CCDC 1048585). For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01599e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Yu; Nagae, Haruki; Sumiya, Shiki; Rochat, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    An alkylyttrium complex supported by an N,N′-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)ethylenediamido ligand, (ArNCH2CH2NAr)Y(CH2SiMe3)(THF)2 (1, Ar = 2,6-iPr2C6H3), activated an ortho-phenyl C–H bond of 2-phenylpyridine (2a) to form a (2-pyridylphenyl)yttrium complex (3a) containing a five-membered metallacycle. Subsequently, a unique C(sp2)–C(sp2) coupling of 2-phenylpyridine proceeded through a bimetallic yttrium intermediate, derived from an intramolecular shift of the yttrium center to an ortho-position of the pyridine ring in 3a, to yield a bimetallic yttrium complex (4a) bridged by two-electron reduced 6,6′-diphenyl-2,2′-bipyridyl. Aryl substituents at the ortho-position of the pyridine ring were key in order to destabilize the μ,κ2-(C,N)-pyridyldiyttrium intermediate prior to the C(sp2)–C(sp2) bond formation. PMID:28757942

  2. Direct application of west coast geothermal resources in a wet corn milling plant supplementary analyses and information dissemination. Final report, addendum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-19

    In an extension to the scope of the previous studies, supplementary analyses were to be performed for both plants which would assess the economics of geothermal energy if coal had been the primary fuel rather than oil and gas. The studies include: supplementary analysis for a coal fired wet corn milling plant, supplementary analysis for an East Coast frozen food plant with coal fired boilers, and information dissemination activities.

  3. Structural diversity of halocarbonyl molybdenum and tungsten PNP pincer complexes through ligand modifications† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Complete crystallographic data and technical details in CIF format for 5a, 5b·1.5CH2Cl2, 6a·CDCl3, 7a, 8a and 10. Atomic coordinates for all DFT optimized structures. CCDC 1478552–1478557. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c6dt02251k Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, Sara R. M. M.; Stöger, Berthold; Pittenauer, Ernst; Allmaier, Günter; Veiros, Luis F.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a comparative study of a series of halocarbonyl Mo(ii) and W(ii) complexes of the types [M(PNP)(CO)3X]X and [M(PNP)(CO)2X2] (M = Mo, W; X = I, Br), featuring PNP pincer ligands based on a 2,6-diaminopyridine scaffold. The complexes were prepared and fully characterized. The syntheses of these complexes were accomplished by treatment of [M(PNP)(CO)3] with stoichiometric amounts of I2 and Br2, respectively. The modification of the 2,6-diaminopyridine scaffold by introducing NMe and NPh instead of NH spacers with concomitant modification of the phosphine moieties changed the steric and electronic properties of the PNP ligand significantly. While in the case of NH linkers exclusively cationic seven-coordinate complexes of the type [M(PNP)(CO)3X]+ were obtained with NMe and NPh spacers neutral seven-coordinate complexes of the type [M(PNP)(CO)2X2] were afforded. In the case of the latter, when the reaction is performed in the presence of CO also [M(PNP)(CO)3X]+ complexes are formed which slowly lose CO to give [M(PNP)(CO)2X2]. The halocarbonyl tungsten chemistry parallels that of molybdenum. The only exception is molybdenum in conjunction with the PNPMe-iPr ligand, where the coordinatively unsaturated complex [Mo(PNPMe-iPr)(CO)X2] is formed. DFT mechanistic studies reveal that the seven-coordinate complexes should be the thermodynamic as well as the kinetic products. Since [Mo(PNPMe-iPr)(CO)X2] is the observed product it suggests that the reaction follows an alternative path. Structures of representative complexes were determined by X-ray single crystal analyses. PMID:27513832

  4. Substitution of supplementary subtests for core subtests on composite reliability of WAIS--IV Indexes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass, Laura A

    2010-02-01

    The effects of replacing core subtests with supplementary subtests on composite-score reliabilities were evaluated for the WAIS-IV Indexes. Composite score reliabilities and SEMs (i.e., confidence intervals around obtained scores) are provided for the 13 unique Index scores calculated following the subtest substitution guidelines of Wechsler in 2008. In all instances, unique Index composite-score reliabilities were comparable to their respective core Index score composite reliabilities, and measurement error never increased by more than 1 point. Using the standard Verbal Comprehension Index and Perceptual Reasoning Index and the unique subtest combinations for the Working Memory and Processing Speed indexes, which have the lowest composite-score reliabilities, decreased Full Scale composite reliability by .01, while the associated confidence interval of +/- 6 represents an increase in measurement error of 1 IQ point.

  5. Comprehension by older people of medication information with or without supplementary pharmaceutical pictograms.

    PubMed

    Ng, Annie W Y; Chan, Alan H S; Ho, Vincy W S

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the benefits of pharmaceutical pictograms for improving comprehension of medication information for older people. Fifty Hong Kong Chinese older people completed a medical information comprehension task for five drugs. Participants in the control group were presented with text labels while those in the experimental group were given the text labels plus supplementary pharmaceutical pictograms, and then all reported their understanding of the medication information conveyed. Lower educated older people had poorer understanding of medication information. The addition of pharmaceutical pictograms significantly improved the comprehension of medication information for older people. The majority of older people tested with pictograms favored adding pictograms to text and thought the pictograms were useful for conveying medical information rather than using written text alone. The findings suggested that pharmaceutical and health care professionals should include pharmaceutical pictograms on labels to better convey instructions on medication to older people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hemispheric Asymmetry of Supplementary Motor Area Proper: A Functional Connectivity Study of the Motor Network.

    PubMed

    Dinomais, Mickael; Chinier, Eva; Richard, Isabelle; Ricalens, Emmanuel; Aubé, Christophe; N'Guyen The Tich, Sylvie; Ter Minassian, Aram

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral asymmetry is a common feature of human functions. However, there are discrepancies in the literature about functional hemispheric asymmetries in the supplementary motor area (SMA), specifically in the posterior part (SMA-proper). We used resting state functional connectivity MRI to investigate the left-right asymmetries of the functional networks associated with primary motor cortex (M1) and SMA-proper using a "seed"-based correlation analysis in 30 healthy right-handed subjects. We showed that left M1 was more connected with areas involved in the motor system than right M1, and that right SMA-proper had more functional connections than its left counterpart. Our results are in agreement with a leftward asymmetry for M1 connectivity, whereas there is a rightward asymmetry of the SMA-proper connectivity.

  7. Supplementary motor area seizures: propagation pathways as studied with invasive recordings.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, C; Flint, R; Tuxhorn, I; Van Ness, P C; Kosalko, J; Olbrich, A; Almer, G; Novak, K; Lüders, H O

    1996-02-01

    We studied propagation of epileptic discharges in five patients with supplementary motor area (SMA) seizures with subdural grid electrodes implanted over the dorsolateral frontal neocortex and in the interhemispheric fissure. We found that both interictal and ictal epileptic discharges occurred synchronously in the SMA and the primary cortex. The actively involved electrodes were separated by silent electrodes. The time lag between the SMA and the primary motor cortex averaged 25 msec for interictal and 100 msec for ictal discharges. Cortical stimulations of the affected electrodes showed motor effects in corresponding body parts. All patients underwent resections of the EEG onset zone within the SMA while sparing the primary motor cortex and experienced a significant (>90%) reduction of seizure frequency. We conclude that epileptic activity is propagated between the SMA and the primary motor cortex by a somatotopically organized monosynaptic pathway.

  8. Toward a CIE supplementary system of photometry: brightness at any level including mesopic vision.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Ken

    2006-05-01

    Photometry for brightness at any level including mesopic vision is described on the basis of the work conducted towards the development of a Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) supplementary system of photometry in CIE technical committees. Several critical items in developing such a system are discussed: (1) how to scale brightness using the concept of equivalent luminance; (2) the basic vision model of brightness perception; (3) a description of the chromatic contribution to brightness at the photopic as well as at the mesopic level; (4) formulation of an adaptation coefficient for rod-cone interaction. A possible photometric model for brightness is described based on these considerations, together with a quantitative evaluation of the model using experimental data.

  9. Utilization of ventilation air methane as a supplementary fuel at a circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler.

    PubMed

    You, Changfu; Xu, Xuchang

    2008-04-01

    Ventilation air methane (VAM) accounts for 60-80% of the total emissions from coal mining activities in China, which is of serious greenhouse gas concerns as well as a waste of valuable fuel sources. This contribution evaluates the use of the VAM utilization methods as a supplementary fuel at a circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler. The paper describes the system design and discusses some potential technical challenges such as methane oxidation rate, corrosion, and efficiency. Laboratory experimentation has shown that the VAM can be burnt completely in circulated fluidized bed furnaces, and the VAM oxidation does not obviously affect the boiler operation when the methane concentration is less than 0.6%. The VAM decreased the incomplete combustion loss for the circulating fluidized bed combustion furnace. The economic benefit from the coal saving insures that the proposed system is more economically feasible.

  10. Supplementary feeding affects the breeding behaviour of male European treefrogs (Hyla arborea)

    PubMed Central

    Meuche, Ivonne; Grafe, T Ulmar

    2009-01-01

    Background We investigated the effects of energetic constraints on the breeding behaviour of male European treefrogs Hyla arborea and how calling males allocated additional energy supplied by feeding experiments. Results Presence in the chorus was energetically costly indicated by both fed and unfed males losing weight. Males that were supplied with additional energy did not show longer chorus tenure. Instead, fed males returned sooner to the chorus. Additionally, fed males called more often than control males, a novel response for anurans. A significantly higher calling rate was noted from males even 31 nights after supplementary feeding. Conclusion This strategy of allocating additional energy reserves to increasing calling rate is beneficial given the preference of female hylids for males calling at high rates and a female's ability to detect small incremental increases in calling rate. PMID:19128468

  11. Health promotion in supplementary health care: outsourcing, microregulation and implications for care.

    PubMed

    Silva, Kênia Lara; Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Rodrigues, Andreza Trevenzoli; Araújo, Fernanda Lopes; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura Franco; Duarte, Elysângela Dittz

    2015-01-01

    to analyze health promotion programs in the supplementary health care. This was a multiple case study with a qualitative approach whose data were obtained from interviews with coordinators of providers contracted by the corporations of health insurance plans in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. The data were submitted to Critical Discourse Analysis. Home care has been described as the main action in the field of health promotion transferred to the providers, followed by management of patients and cases, and the health education.groups. The existence of health promotion principles is questionable in all programs. Outsourcing is marked by a process with a division between cost and care management. Implications of this process occur within admission and interventions on the needs of the beneficiaries. Statements revealed rationalization of cost, restructuring of work, and reproduction of the dominant logic of capital accumulation by the health insurance companies.

  12. Supplementary comparison EURAMET.L-S22, calibration of gauge blocks by mechanical comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Andrew; Lillepea, Lauri; Matus, Michael; Prieto, Emilio; Ačko, Bojan; Svendsmark Hansen, Maria; Turner, Paul; Testa, Nicola; Daoud, Anouar; Montassar, Chekir; Švedova, Larisa; Hald, Jan; Gaidamovičiūtė, Lilijana; Bajic, Gordana

    2017-01-01

    In October 2012, the EURAMET Technical Committee for Length, TC-L, decided upon a supplementary comparison on gauge block measurements by mechanical comparison, numbered EURAMET.L-S22, with the Danish Technological Institute (DTI) as the pilot laboratory, assisted by NPL (Andrew Lewis), which would provide a link to CCL-K1. The comparison was registered in February 2013, artefact circulation starts in June 2013 and ended in September 2014. Eight gauge blocks were calibrated using a five point measurement. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Franz Kossmat - Subdivision of the Variscan Mountains - a translation of the German text with supplementary notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhold, Guido

    2017-04-01

    This work is in honour of Franz Kossmat (1871-1938) and his esteemed paper the Gliederung des varistischen Gebirgsbaues published 1927 in Abhandlungen des Sächsischen Geologischen Landesamts, Volume 1, pages 1 to 39. It constitutes the foundation of the general subdivision of the Central European Variscides into several geotectonic zones and the idea of large-scale nappe transport of individual units. In the English translation presented here an attempt is made to provide a readable text, which should still reflect Kossmat's style but would also be readable for a non-German speaking community either working in the Variscan Mountains or having specific interests in historical aspects of geosciences. Supplementary notes provide information about Kossmat's life and the content of the text. Kossmat's work is a superb example of how important geological fieldwork and mapping are for progress in geoscientific research.

  14. (Un)available upon request: field experiment on researchers' willingness to share supplementary materials.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Michal; Reuben, Ernesto

    2012-05-01

    This article reports results of a field experiment in which two hundred e-mails were sent to authors of recent articles in economics that had promised to send the interested reader supplementary material, such as alternative econometric specifications, "upon request." The e-mails were sent either by a researcher affiliated at Columbia University, New York or the University of Warsaw, Poland; furthermore, the authors' position (assistant professor) was specified in half the e-mails only. Overall, 64% of the approached authors responded to our message, of which two thirds (44% of the entire sample) delivered the requested materials. The frequency and speed of responding and delivering were very weakly affected by the position and affiliation of the sender. Gender or affiliation of the author, number of citations or journal impact factor or the type of object in question seemed to make no difference. However, authors of published articles were much more likely to share than authors of working papers.

  15. Insights from the supplementary motor area syndrome in balancing movement initiation and inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Potgieser, A. R. E.; de Jong, B. M.; Wagemakers, M.; Hoving, E. W.; Groen, R. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome is a characteristic neurosurgical syndrome that can occur after unilateral resection of the SMA. Clinical symptoms may vary from none to a global akinesia, predominantly on the contralateral side, with preserved muscle strength and mutism. A remarkable feature is that these symptoms completely resolve within weeks to months, leaving only a disturbance in alternating bimanual movements. In this review we give an overview of the old and new insights from the SMA syndrome and extrapolate these findings to seemingly unrelated diseases and symptoms such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and tics. Furthermore, we integrate findings from lesion, stimulation and functional imaging studies to provide insight in the motor function of the SMA. PMID:25506324

  16. Fundamental Electronic Structure Characteristics and Mechanical Behavior of Aerospace Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Cr and Mo phases with Energy (eV) oxygen impurities, both substitutional and interstitial Figure 11: Electronic densities of states for positions...Meeting, March 12-16, 2006, San Antonio, TX. 17. "First-principles study of the Hume-Rothery electron concentration rule in AI-Cu- ( Fe ,Ru)- Si 1/1-cubic...unlimited 13 . SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 20080502074 14. ABSTRACT To fulfill the great potential of intermetallic alloys for high temperature structural

  17. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder

    PubMed Central

    Voon, V; Brezing, C; Gallea, C; Hallett, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Conversion disorder is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that conversion disorder with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amgydala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Methods Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated two-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Results Eleven conversion disorder patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Conclusion We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation. PMID:21935985

  18. Unforeseen Effects of Supplementary Feeding: Ungulate Baiting Sites as Hotspots for Ground-Nest Predation

    PubMed Central

    Selva, Nuria; Berezowska-Cnota, Teresa; Elguero-Claramunt, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity and magnitude of food provision to wildlife, our understanding of its ecological effects and conservation implications is very limited. Supplementary feeding of ungulates, still one of the main paradigms of game management in Europe, occurs in natural areas on an enormous scale. We investigated the indirect effects of this practice on nest predation risk in the Polish Eastern Carpathians (Bieszczady Mountains). We hypothesized that the predators attracted to ungulate baiting sites would also forage for alternative prey nearby, increasing the nest predation risk for ground-nesting birds in the vicinity. We conducted a paired experiment by placing artificial nests (N = 120) in feeding and control sites (N = 12) at different distances from the ungulate feeding site. We also documented the use of three ungulate feeding sites by potential nest predators with automatic cameras. The proportion of depredated nests was 30% higher in the vicinity of feeding sites than at control sites (65%±31.5 vs 35%±32.1). The probability of a nest being depredated significantly increased with time and at shorter distances from the feeding site. We predicted that the area within 1-km distance from the feeding site would have a high risk (>0.5) of nest predation. We recorded 13 species of potential ground-nest predators at ungulate baiting sites. Most frequent were Eurasian jays Garrulus glandarius, mice and voles Muroidea, ravens Corvus corax, brown bears Ursus arctos, and wild boar Sus scrofa. Nest predators made most use of supplementary feeding sites (82% pictures with predators vs 8% with ungulates, the target group). Our study alerts of the impacts of ungulate feeding on alternative prey; this is of special concern when affecting protected species. We urge for a sensible management of ungulate feeding, which considers potential indirect effects on other species and the spatial and temporal components of food provision. PMID:24599216

  19. Comparison of vertical-flow constructed wetlands with and without supplementary aeration treating decentralized domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liandong; Takala, Josu; Hiltunen, Erkki; Li, Zhaohua; Kristianto, Yohanes

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are efficient in reducing excessive contamination from wastewaters. However, oxygen inside CW beds is frequently low especially when substrate clogging problems appear after long-term operation, and this may become a limited factor for the treatment of wastewaters. Aimed at dealing with the issue of a low oxygen content in CW systems, two laboratory-scale vertical-flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) with and without an aeration device (called VFCW-a and VFCW-c, respectively) were designed in this study to test the contribution of supplementary aeration to the treatment of decentralized domestic wastewater. Results showed that under the intermittent operation of about 45 days, two VFCW units were successfully started up by using activated sludge as seed sludge. Compared to VFCW-c, VFCW-a had a better resistance ability to organic shock loads and its removal function could be effectively recovered within a short period after the introduction of organic shock loads. Under intermittent operation with a 12 h idling time, the ideal hydraulic retention time (HRT) of VFCW-a was 42 h, about 6 h shorter than that of VFCW-c. Likewise, under intermittent operation with 42 h HRT, the ideal idling time of VFCW-a was 12 h, still about 6 h shorter than that of VFCW-c. Under intermittent operation with HRT-42 h and an idling time of 12 h, SS, COD, TN and TP removal efficiencies in VFCW-a could reach 81.2%, 85%, 89.9% and 77.9%, respectively. The VFCW unit with supplementary aeration is an efficient innovation for the treatment of decentralized domestic wastewater.

  20. Supplementary home biofeedback improves quality of life in younger patients with fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Lynne; Sloots, Kathryn; Nowak, Madeleine; Ho, Yik-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biofeedback is a scarce, resource-intensive clinical therapy. It is used to treat patients with bowel problems, including fecal incontinence (FI), who fail to respond to simple dietary advice, medication, or pelvic floor exercises. Populations are aging and younger cohorts use technology in managing their health, affording FI self-management opportunities. Does supplementary home-based biofeedback improve FI and quality of life (QOL)? Seventy-five incontinent participants (12 male), mean age 61.1 years, consented to participate. Thirty-nine patients (5 male) were randomized to the standard biofeedback protocol plus daily home use of a Peritron perineometer (intervention) and 36 patients (7 male) to the standard biofeedback protocol (control). On completion of the study each perineometer exercise session was rated for technique by 2 raters, blinded to the patient and order of sessions. With the exception of Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale lifestyle improvement (intervention--9.1% vs. controls--0.3%, P=0.026) and embarrassment improvement (intervention--50.0% vs. controls--18.3%, P=0.026), supplementary home biofeedback did not result in greater clinical improvement for the intervention group as a whole. However, on stratification around the mean age, continence and QOL of younger people in the intervention group were significantly better than those of their control counterparts. Graphed perineometer sessions demonstrated high compliance and improvement in exercise technique. Perineometers provided reassurance, motivation, and an exercise reminder ensuring that confidence was achieved quickly. Home biofeedback was acceptable and well tolerated by all users. Younger participants significantly benefited from using this technology.

  1. Unforeseen effects of supplementary feeding: ungulate baiting sites as hotspots for ground-nest predation.

    PubMed

    Selva, Nuria; Berezowska-Cnota, Teresa; Elguero-Claramunt, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity and magnitude of food provision to wildlife, our understanding of its ecological effects and conservation implications is very limited. Supplementary feeding of ungulates, still one of the main paradigms of game management in Europe, occurs in natural areas on an enormous scale. We investigated the indirect effects of this practice on nest predation risk in the Polish Eastern Carpathians (Bieszczady Mountains). We hypothesized that the predators attracted to ungulate baiting sites would also forage for alternative prey nearby, increasing the nest predation risk for ground-nesting birds in the vicinity. We conducted a paired experiment by placing artificial nests (N=120) in feeding and control sites (N=12) at different distances from the ungulate feeding site. We also documented the use of three ungulate feeding sites by potential nest predators with automatic cameras. The proportion of depredated nests was 30% higher in the vicinity of feeding sites than at control sites (65%± 31.5 vs 35%± 32.1). The probability of a nest being depredated significantly increased with time and at shorter distances from the feeding site. We predicted that the area within 1-km distance from the feeding site would have a high risk (>0.5) of nest predation. We recorded 13 species of potential ground-nest predators at ungulate baiting sites. Most frequent were Eurasian jays Garrulus glandarius, mice and voles Muroidea, ravens Corvus corax, brown bears Ursus arctos, and wild boar Sus scrofa. Nest predators made most use of supplementary feeding sites (82% pictures with predators vs 8% with ungulates, the target group). Our study alerts of the impacts of ungulate feeding on alternative prey; this is of special concern when affecting protected species. We urge for a sensible management of ungulate feeding, which considers potential indirect effects on other species and the spatial and temporal components of food provision.

  2. Substituing supplementary subtests for core subtests on reliability of WISC-IV Indexes and Full Scale IQ.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass, Laura A

    2006-02-01

    The effects of replacing core subtests with supplementary subtests on composite score reliabilities were evaluated for the WISC-IV Indexes and Full Scale IQ. When Wechsler's guidelines are followed, i.e., only one substitution for each Index; no more than two substitutions from different Indexes when assessing the Full Scale IQ, summary score reliabilities remain high, and measurement error, as defined by confidence intervals around obtained scores, never increases by more than 1 index score point. In three instances, substitution of a supplementary subtest for a core subtest actually increased the reliabilities and decreased the amount of associated measurement error.

  3. Dynamic aphasia following low-grade glioma surgery near the supplementary motor area: a selective spontaneous speech deficit.

    PubMed

    Satoer, Djaina; Kloet, Alfred; Vincent, Arnaud; Dirven, Clemens; Visch-Brink, Evy

    2014-01-01

    We describe a patient (KO) with reduced spontaneous speech, resembling dynamic aphasia, after awake glioma surgery in the proximity of the supplementary motor area. Naming, repetition, and comprehension were intact. He was tested with an extensive neuropsychological test-battery and a protocol for dynamic aphasia at 1 year. He presented with postoperative reduced spontaneous speech and selective executive function deficits. Most language recovery took place at 3 months postoperatively, whereas the executive functions improved between 3 months and 1 year. Results suggest that resection near the supplementary motor area could increase the risk of cognitive disturbances at long term, especially language.

  4. Evaluation Report for the ESEA Title III Project, South Bronx Multi-Purpose Supplementary Educational Center (SOMPSEC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Robert D.

    This is a report of an evaluation of the South Bronx Multi-Purpose Supplementary Educational Center (SOMPSEC). The primary objectives of SOMPSEC, funded under Title III, Elementary and Secondary Education Act were: (1) to enhance the self-image of minority-group students, (2) to encourage development of their artistic talent, and (3) to increase…

  5. Ethnicity, Religion, and Academic Preparedness: A Comparative Analysis of Chinese Supplementary Secular Schools and Nonsecular Church-Affiliated Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Little academic attention has been given to the supplementary education experience of immigrant students in the Canadian research literature, especially in a non-English speaking context such as Quebec. Yet these schools are important for understanding the influence of ethnicity as well as religion on the academic preparedness and social…

  6. 75 FR 26981 - Notice of Establishment of Interim Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands Managed by the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... rules as interim final supplementary rules. The rules related to hunting and target shooting will help prevent accidental shooting-related injuries and fatalities in areas with high recreational use or in... apply to all lands managed by the Mother Lode Field Office: Target shooting and hunting (in...

  7. 75 FR 43200 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for Public Lands in Colorado: Public Lands Administered by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... rules address off-road vehicle use, mountain bike use, and recreational target shooting. DATES: Please... restrictions. The shooting restrictions in these supplementary rules do not apply to hunting with a state... engage in recreational target shooting on public lands in the Methodist Mountain area south of Salida...

  8. Phare Special Preparatory Programme for the European Social Fund: A Composite Report on the National, Supplementary and Local Seminars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document reports on phases 2 and 3 of the Phare Special Preparatory Programme for the European Social Fund (SPP-ESF), which involved national, supplementary, and local seminars to assess the following countries' needs for assistance from the ESF: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, the Slovak…

  9. The Madison Project Presents Materials for a Supplementary Mathematics Program for Grades 2 Through 8, Newsletter No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert B.

    This pamphlet from The Madison Project announces the release of films and other materials for a supplementary mathematics program for grades 2 through 8, and for a course in ninth grade algebra. These materials are designed to be used in conjunction with the regular school program in arithmetic and mathematics. Among the films available are (1) A…

  10. What Does It Mean to Be a Girl? Teachers' Representations of Gender in Supplementary Reading Materials for South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dentith, Audrey M.; Sailors, Misty; Sethusha, Mantsose

    2016-01-01

    Education reform, including methods to create greater gender equality, is an ongoing process in post-Apartheid South Africa. Using an African feminism theoretical framework and a critical content analysis approach, we examined the representation of female characters in a subset of supplementary reading titles created under an international…

  11. Nutritional status of Malawian adults on antiretroviral therapy 1 year after supplementary feeding in the first 3 months of therapy.

    PubMed

    Ndekha, Macdonald; van Oosterhout, Joep J G; Saloojee, Haroon; Pettifor, John; Manary, Mark

    2009-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for 3 months with a greater body mass index (BMI) as a result of supplementary feeding with ready-to-use fortified spread would maintain a higher BMI 9 months after the feeding ended. Two cohorts of wasted adults with AIDS, after 12 months of ART and 3 months of supplementary feeding with either ready-to-use fortified spread, an energy dense lipid paste; or corn/soy blended flour, were assessed for clinical and anthropometric status, quality of life, and ART adherence after 3 and 9 months. 336 ART patients participated: 162 who had received ready-to-use fortified spread and 174 who had received corn/soy blended flour. 9 months after stopping food supplements, both groups had a similar BMI, fat-free body mass, hospitalization rate and mortality. Binary logistic regression modelling showed that lower BMI, lower CD4 count, and older age at baseline were associated with a higher risk of death (odds ratio for BMI = 0.63, 95% CI 0.47-0.79). Adherence to the ART regimen and quality of life were similar in both cohorts. While supplementary feeding with ready-to-use fortified spread can ameliorate the BMI, an established risk factor for mortality, this effect is sustained only during the time of the intervention. Supplementary feeding of wasted patients for longer than 3 months should be investigated.

  12. Comparison of the amount of apical debris extrusion associated with different retreatment systems and supplementary file application during retreatment process.

    PubMed

    Çiçek, Ersan; Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Koçak, Sibel; Sağlam, Baran Can

    2016-01-01

    The type of instrument affects the amount of debris extruded. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of retreatment systems and supplementary file application on the amount of apical debris extrusion. Forty-eight extracted mandibular premolars with a single canal and similar length were selected. The root canals were prepared with the ProTaper Universal system with a torque-controlled engine. The root canals were dried and were obturated using Gutta-percha and sealer. The specimens were randomly divided into four equal groups according to the retreatment procedures (Group 1, Mtwo retreatment files; Group 2, Mtwo retreatment files + Mtwo rotary file #30 supplementary file; Group 3, ProTaper Universal retreatment (PTUR) files; and Group 4, PTUR files + ProTaper F3 supplementary file). The extruded debris during instrumentation were collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The amount of apically extruded debris was calculated by subtracting the initial weight of the tube from the final weight. Three consecutive weights were obtained for each tube. No statistically significant difference was found in the amount of apically extruded debris between Groups 1 and 3 (P = 0.590). A significant difference was observed between Groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.05), and between Groups 3 and 4 (P < 0.05). The use of supplementary file significantly increased the amount of apically extruded debris.

  13. 75 FR 38540 - Notice of Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands in Colorado: McInnis Canyons National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... small portion of the Black Ridge Canyons Wilderness (5,200 acres) extends into Grand County, Utah. The... Canyons National Conservation Area AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Final Supplementary Rules. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Grand Junction Field Office (GJFO) is...

  14. 77 FR 67391 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules on Public Land in Water Canyon, Humboldt County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Management (BLM) is proposing supplementary rules relating to camping, the discharge of firearms, and the use.... Limit camping within Zone 1 of the Water Canyon Recreation Area to no more than 3 consecutive nights in.... Limiting the length of camping would increase the opportunities for multiple community residents to...

  15. 75 FR 30850 - Final Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Final Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana... limits for camping and the storage of personal property on undeveloped public lands managed by the BLM in... camping on undeveloped BLM- administered public lands throughout Montana, North Dakota, and South...

  16. The Effectiveness of Classroom-Based Supplementary Video Presentations in Supporting Emergent Literacy Development in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadik, Alaa M.; Badr, Khadeja

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of supplementary video presentations in supporting young children's emergent literacy development. Videos were produced by teachers using prototype software developed specifically for the purpose of this study. The software obtains media content from a variety of resources and devices, including webcam,…

  17. 76 FR 43706 - Final Supplementary Rules To Require the Use of Certified Noxious-Weed-Free Forage and Straw on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Final Supplementary Rules To Require the Use of Certified Noxious-Weed-Free... straw on BLM-administered land in Idaho to use certified noxious-weed-free forage and straw. Restoration, rehabilitation, and stabilization projects also will be required to use weed-free straw bales and mulch for...

  18. 40 CFR 57.205 - Submission of supplementary information upon relaxation of an SO2 SIP emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... upon relaxation of an SO2 SIP emission limitation. 57.205 Section 57.205 Protection of Environment... Application and the NSO Process § 57.205 Submission of supplementary information upon relaxation of an SO2 SIP emission limitation. (a) In the event an SO2 SIP limit is relaxed subsequent to EPA approval or issuance...

  19. 40 CFR 57.205 - Submission of supplementary information upon relaxation of an SO2 SIP emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... upon relaxation of an SO2 SIP emission limitation. 57.205 Section 57.205 Protection of Environment... Application and the NSO Process § 57.205 Submission of supplementary information upon relaxation of an SO2 SIP emission limitation. (a) In the event an SO2 SIP limit is relaxed subsequent to EPA approval or issuance...

  20. 40 CFR 57.205 - Submission of supplementary information upon relaxation of an SO2 SIP emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... upon relaxation of an SO2 SIP emission limitation. 57.205 Section 57.205 Protection of Environment... Application and the NSO Process § 57.205 Submission of supplementary information upon relaxation of an SO2 SIP emission limitation. (a) In the event an SO2 SIP limit is relaxed subsequent to EPA approval or issuance...

  1. 40 CFR 57.205 - Submission of supplementary information upon relaxation of an SO2 SIP emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... upon relaxation of an SO2 SIP emission limitation. 57.205 Section 57.205 Protection of Environment... Application and the NSO Process § 57.205 Submission of supplementary information upon relaxation of an SO2 SIP emission limitation. (a) In the event an SO2 SIP limit is relaxed subsequent to EPA approval or issuance...

  2. 40 CFR 57.205 - Submission of supplementary information upon relaxation of an SO2 SIP emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... upon relaxation of an SO2 SIP emission limitation. 57.205 Section 57.205 Protection of Environment... Application and the NSO Process § 57.205 Submission of supplementary information upon relaxation of an SO2 SIP emission limitation. (a) In the event an SO2 SIP limit is relaxed subsequent to EPA approval or issuance...

  3. Supplementary Services for Handicapped Students Health Education Paraprofessionals Program. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert; And Others

    In 1981-82, the Health Education Paraprofessionals program of the New York City Public Schools Division of Special Education provided supplementary instruction in hygiene and self care, and outreach services to 335 severely handicapped students, aged 5 to 21. Of the program participants, 292 received training in toilet habits and self care, and…

  4. Academic Freedom and Tenure: Savannah College of Art and Design. A Supplementary Report on a Censured Administration. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a supplementary report on the Savannah College of Art and Design (SCAD) censure. Placement of the Savannah College of Art and Design on the Association's censure list, by the 1993 annual meeting, followed from the SCAD administration's dismissal of two faculty members without having demonstrated cause, thereby denying them…

  5. A Study of Teacher Training at Sixth-Cycle Teacher Corps Projects. Volume 3, Supplementary Statistical Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, David D.; And Others

    This document is Volume 3 of the report on the first phase of a two-phase longitudinal study of the Teacher Corps program being conducted by Pacific Training and Technical Assistance Corporation. It contains supplementary material, usually statistical tables or technical material, which supports Volume 1, the main volume of the report (see ED 098…

  6. Comparison of the amount of apical debris extrusion associated with different retreatment systems and supplementary file application during retreatment process

    PubMed Central

    Çiçek, Ersan; Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Koçak, Sibel; Sağlam, Baran Can

    2016-01-01

    Background: The type of instrument affects the amount of debris extruded. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of retreatment systems and supplementary file application on the amount of apical debris extrusion. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight extracted mandibular premolars with a single canal and similar length were selected. The root canals were prepared with the ProTaper Universal system with a torque-controlled engine. The root canals were dried and were obturated using Gutta-percha and sealer. The specimens were randomly divided into four equal groups according to the retreatment procedures (Group 1, Mtwo retreatment files; Group 2, Mtwo retreatment files + Mtwo rotary file #30 supplementary file; Group 3, ProTaper Universal retreatment (PTUR) files; and Group 4, PTUR files + ProTaper F3 supplementary file). The extruded debris during instrumentation were collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The amount of apically extruded debris was calculated by subtracting the initial weight of the tube from the final weight. Three consecutive weights were obtained for each tube. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in the amount of apically extruded debris between Groups 1 and 3 (P = 0.590). A significant difference was observed between Groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.05), and between Groups 3 and 4 (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The use of supplementary file significantly increased the amount of apically extruded debris. PMID:27563185

  7. 76 FR 62824 - Notice of Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands in Colorado: Bangs Canyon Special Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Advisory Group formed and convened a series of public meetings, working group meetings, and field trips to... supplementary rules. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Grand Junction Field Office (GJFO) is.... ADDRESSES: You may send inquiries to the Bureau of Land Management, Grand Junction Field Office, 2815 H Road...

  8. "Boring and Stressful" or "Ideal" Learning Spaces? Pupils' Constructions of Teaching and Learning in Chinese Supplementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; Francis, Becky; Mau, Ada

    2009-01-01

    Chinese supplementary schools have been accused of having "old-fashioned" and ineffective teaching methods, with most teaching being undertaken by "unqualified" volunteer parent teachers. But how do pupils themselves interpret and experience the complementary school setting and to what extent do they feel it affects their…

  9. Community-Sponsored Jewish Supplementary High Schools: Implications for Catholic School Closings and Mergers in the Archdiocese of Philadelphia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Ilene

    This study assesses community-sponsored Jewish supplementary high schools, and its implications were analyzed and applied to proposed closings and mergers among Catholic schools in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania). Data were gathered via administration of a questionnaire, follow-up interviews, an examination of published articles and reports and…

  10. Academic Freedom and Tenure: Savannah College of Art and Design. A Supplementary Report on a Censured Administration. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a supplementary report on the Savannah College of Art and Design (SCAD) censure. Placement of the Savannah College of Art and Design on the Association's censure list, by the 1993 annual meeting, followed from the SCAD administration's dismissal of two faculty members without having demonstrated cause, thereby denying them…

  11. What Does It Mean to Be a Girl? Teachers' Representations of Gender in Supplementary Reading Materials for South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dentith, Audrey M.; Sailors, Misty; Sethusha, Mantsose

    2016-01-01

    Education reform, including methods to create greater gender equality, is an ongoing process in post-Apartheid South Africa. Using an African feminism theoretical framework and a critical content analysis approach, we examined the representation of female characters in a subset of supplementary reading titles created under an international…

  12. Using Supplementary Video in Multimedia Instruction as a Teaching Tool to Increase Efficiency of Learning and Quality of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubojevic, Milos; Vaskovic, Vojkan; Stankovic, Srecko; Vaskovic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to investigate efficiency of use of supplementary video content in multimedia teaching. Integrating video clips in multimedia lecture presentations may increase students' perception of important information and motivation for learning. Because of that, students can better understand and remember key points of…

  13. 76 FR 7162 - Supplementary Examination Guidelines for Determining Compliance With 35 U.S.C. 112 and for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ...These supplementary guidelines are intended to assist United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office) personnel in the examination of claims in patent applications for compliance with 35 U.S.C. 112, second paragraph, which requires that claims particularly point out and distinctly claim the subject matter that applicant regards as his or her invention. In addition, supplemental information......

  14. Ethnicity, Religion, and Academic Preparedness: A Comparative Analysis of Chinese Supplementary Secular Schools and Nonsecular Church-Affiliated Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Little academic attention has been given to the supplementary education experience of immigrant students in the Canadian research literature, especially in a non-English speaking context such as Quebec. Yet these schools are important for understanding the influence of ethnicity as well as religion on the academic preparedness and social…

  15. Online Supplementary ADP Learning Controller Design and Application to Power System Frequency Control With Large-Scale Wind Energy Integration.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wentao; Liu, Feng; Si, Jennie; He, Dawei; Harley, Ronald; Mei, Shengwei

    2016-08-01

    The emergence of smart grids has posed great challenges to traditional power system control given the multitude of new risk factors. This paper proposes an online supplementary learning controller (OSLC) design method to compensate the traditional power system controllers for coping with the dynamic power grid. The proposed OSLC is a supplementary controller based on approximate dynamic programming, which works alongside an existing power system controller. By introducing an action-dependent cost function as the optimization objective, the proposed OSLC is a nonidentifier-based method to provide an online optimal control adaptively as measurement data become available. The online learning of the OSLC enjoys the policy-search efficiency during policy iteration and the data efficiency of the least squares method. For the proposed OSLC, the stability of the controlled system during learning, the monotonic nature of the performance measure of the iterative supplementary controller, and the convergence of the iterative supplementary controller are proved. Furthermore, the efficacy of the proposed OSLC is demonstrated in a challenging power system frequency control problem in the presence of high penetration of wind generation.

  16. Use of a supplementary internet based education program improves sleep literacy in college psychology students.

    PubMed

    Quan, Stuart F; Anderson, Janis L; Hodge, Gordon K

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge regarding the importance of sleep in health and performance and good sleep hygiene practices is low, especially among adolescents and young adults. It is important to improve sleep literacy. Introductory psychology is one of the most highly enrolled courses at colleges and universities. This study tested the impact of an Internet-based learning module on improving sleep literacy in this venue. An Internet-based supplementary learning module containing sleep physiology and hygiene information was developed using content from the Harvard Medical School sleep educational website http://www.understandingsleep.org. Access to the module was provided as an extra credit activity for 2 of 4 sections (Supplemental Sleep, SS, N = 889) of an introductory college psychology course during their standard instruction on sleep and dreaming. The remaining 2 sections (Standard Instruction, SI, N = 878) only were encouraged to visit the website without further direction. Level of knowledge was assessed before and after availability to the module/website and at the end of the semester. Students were asked to complete a survey at the end of the semester inquiring whether they made any changes in their sleep behaviors. Two hundred fifty students participated in the extra credit activity and had data available at all testing points. Students in the SS Group had a significant improvement in sleep knowledge test scores after interacting with the website in comparison to the SI group (19.41 ± 3.15 vs. 17.94 ± 3.08, p < 0.001). This difference persisted, although at a lower level, at the end of the semester. In addition, 55.9% of the SS group versus 45.1% of the SI group indicated that they made changes in their sleep habits after participation in the extra credit sleep activity (p < 0.01). The most common change was a more consistent wake time. Use of a supplementary internet-based sleep learning module has the potential to enhance sleep literacy and change behavior among

  17. A review of measles supplementary immunization activities and the implications for Pacific Island countries and territories.

    PubMed

    Clements, C John; Soakai, Taniela Sunia; Sadr-Azodi, Nahad

    2017-02-01

    Standard measles control strategies include achieving high levels of measles vaccine coverage using routine delivery systems, supplemented by mass immunization campaigns as needed to close population immunity gaps. Areas covered: This review looks at how supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) have contributed to measles control globally, and asks whether such a strategy has a place in Pacific Islands today. Expert commentary: Very high coverage with two doses of measles vaccine seems to be the optimal strategy for controlling measles. By 2015, all but two Pacific Islands had introduced a second dose in the routine schedule; however, a number of countries have not yet reached high coverage with their second dose. The literature and the country reviews reported here suggest that a high coverage SIA combined with one dose of measles vaccine given in the routine system will also do the job. The arguments for and against the use of SIAs are complex, but it is clear that to be effective, SIAs need to be well designed to meet specific needs, must be carried out effectively and safely with very high coverage, and should, when possible, carry with them other public health interventions to make them even more cost-effective.

  18. Underestimates of unintentional firearm fatalities: comparing Supplementary Homicide Report data with the National Vital Statistics System

    PubMed Central

    Barber, C; Hemenway, D; Hochstadt, J; Azrael, D

    2002-01-01

    Objective: A growing body of evidence suggests that the nation's vital statistics system undercounts unintentional firearm deaths that are not self inflicted. This issue was examined by comparing how unintentional firearm injuries identified in police Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) data were coded in the National Vital Statistics System. Methods: National Vital Statistics System data are based on death certificates and divide firearm fatalities into six subcategories: homicide, suicide, accident, legal intervention, war operations, and undetermined. SHRs are completed by local police departments as part of the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports program. The SHR divides homicides into two categories: "murder and non-negligent manslaughter" (type A) and "negligent manslaughter" (type B). Type B shooting deaths are those that are inflicted by another person and that a police investigation determined were inflicted unintentionally, as in a child killing a playmate after mistaking a gun for a toy. In 1997, the SHR classified 168 shooting victims this way. Using probabilistic matching, 140 of these victims were linked to their death certificate records. Results: Among the 140 linked cases, 75% were recorded on the death certificate as homicides and only 23% as accidents. Conclusion: Official data from the National Vital Statistics System almost certainly undercount firearm accidents when the victim is shot by another person. PMID:12226128

  19. Functional MRI evaluation of supplementary motor area language dominance in right- and left-handed subjects.

    PubMed

    Dalacorte, Amauri; Portuguez, Mirna Wetters; Maurer das Neves, Carlos Magno; Anes, Maurício; Dacosta, Jaderson Costa

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging technique widely used in the evaluation of the brain function that provides images with high temporal and spatial resolution. Investigation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) function is critical in the pre-surgical evaluation of neurological patients, since marked individual differences and complex overlapping with adjacent cortical areas exist, and it is important to spare the SMA from lesions when adjacent cortical tissue is surgically removed. We used fMRI to assess the activity of SMA in six right-handed and six left-handed healthy volunteers when a task requiring silent repetition of a series of words was given. Brain activation areas in each of the subjects were localized according to the standard Talairach coordinate space, and the individual voxels for each map were compared after 3D sagittal images were created and SMA was delimited. Quantitative analysis of hemispheric and bilateral SMA activation was described as mean ± standard deviation of hot points/total points. The results show that the language task induced bilateral SMA activation. Left SMA activation was significantly higher than right SMA activation in both right-handed and left-handed subjects.

  20. Disrupting the supplementary motor area makes physical effort appear less effortful.

    PubMed

    Zénon, Alexandre; Sidibé, Mariam; Olivier, Etienne

    2015-06-10

    The perception of physical effort is relatively unaffected by the suppression of sensory afferences, indicating that this function relies mostly on the processing of the central motor command. Neural signals in the supplementary motor area (SMA) correlate with the intensity of effort, suggesting that the motor signal involved in effort perception could originate from this area, but experimental evidence supporting this view is still lacking. Here, we tested this hypothesis by disrupting neural activity in SMA, in primary motor cortex (M1), or in a control site by means of continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation, while measuring effort perception during grip forces of different intensities. After each grip force exertion, participants had the opportunity to either accept or refuse to replicate the same effort for varying amounts of reward. In addition to the subjective rating of perceived exertion, effort perception was estimated on the basis of the acceptance rate, the effort replication accuracy, the influence of the effort exerted in trial t on trial t+1, and pupil dilation. We found that disruption of SMA activity, but not of M1, led to a consistent decrease in effort perception, whatever the measure used to assess it. Accordingly, we modeled effort perception in a structural equation model and found that only SMA disruption led to a significant alteration of effort perception. These findings indicate that effort perception relies on the processing of a signal originating from motor-related neural circuits upstream of M1 and that SMA is a key node of this network.

  1. Three supplementary methods for analyzing cytotoxicity of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Li, Yuxia; Li, Bingjuan; Mao, Yan; Wu, Xun; Zou, Xiaohua; Gao, Peng; Yan, Hexin; Yang, Dan; Ling, Yan; Chen, Huipeng

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strain and a major food-borne pathogen, causing severe disease in humans worldwide. Multiple sensitive, accurate, and quantitative methods are needed to provide a comprehensive analysis of cell damage caused by O157:H7. However, the current, universally adopted methods for O157:H7 virulence assessment fail to investigate the interactive effects of O157:H7 and its host cells, neglect the effects of infection of host cells by O157:H7, and fail to comprehensively and accurately reflect the true pathogenicity of O157:H7. In this study, three different accurate, sensitive, and quantifiable methods were supplementary to provide standard operating procedures to analyze the cytotoxicity of O157:H7. This set of methods can be applied to toxicity studies of newly discovered O157:H7 clinical isolates and used to study how a clinical isolate's toxicity correlates with its pathogenicity. These methods can also be used in future studies of latent virulence factors and to explore the pathogenic mechanisms of O157:H7.

  2. Microsurgical and Tractographic Anatomy of the Supplementary Motor Area Complex in Humans.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Baran; Yagmurlu, Kaan; Middlebrooks, Erik H; Karadag, Ali; Ovalioglu, Talat Cem; Jagadeesan, Bharathi; Sandhu, Gauravjot; Tanriover, Necmettin; Grande, Andrew W

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the microsurgical anatomy of the fiber tract connections of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-SMA, and examine its potential functional role with reference to clinical trials in the literature. Ten postmortem formalin-fixed human brains (20 sides) and 1 cadaveric head were prepared following Klingler's method. The fiber dissection was performed in a stepwise fashion, from lateral to medial and also from medial to lateral, under an operating microscope, with 3D images captured at each stage. Our findings were supported by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging tractography in 2 healthy subjects. The connections of the SMA complex, composed of the pre-SMA and the SMA proper, are composed of short "U" association fibers and the superior longitudinal fasciculus I, cingulum, claustrocortical fibers, callosal fibers, corticospinal tract, frontal aslant tract, and frontostriatal tract. The claustrocortical fibers may play an important role in the integration of motor, language, and limbic functions of the SMA complex. The frontostriatal tract connects the pre-SMA to the putamen and caudate nucleus, and also forms parts of both the internal capsule and the dorsal external capsule. The SMA complex has numerous connections throughout the cerebrum. An understanding of these connections is important for presurgical planning for lesions in the frontal lobe and helps explain symptoms related to SMA injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. American Indian/Alaskan Native grandparents raising grandchildren: findings from the Census 2000 Supplementary Survey.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Minkler, Meredith

    2005-04-01

    This article documents the prevalence and national profile of American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) grandparents who are raising their grandchildren, based on data from the American Community Survey/Census 2000 Supplementary Survey. In 2000 there were estimated to be nearly 53,000 AI/AN grandparent caregivers age 45 and older in the United States. Almost half of the caregiving grandparents had been raising a grandchild for five years or longer. The findings reveal a portrait of grandparents committed to raising their grandchildren despite the fact that many were living in extreme poverty, with ill health, and with limited resources and services. One-third of grandparent caregivers were living below the poverty line, and only one-quarter of these were receiving public assistance. Even when compared with their noncaregiving AI/AN peers, grandparents raising grandchildren were disproportionately female, poor, living with a functional disability, and living in overcrowded conditions. Implications for social work practice are presented and recommendations for policy and research are discussed.

  4. Intracortical microstimulation of supplementary eye field impairs ability of monkeys to make serially ordered saccades

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Carl R.

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the supplementary eye field (SEF) of the macaque monkey exhibit rank selectivity, firing differentially as a function of the phase attained during the performance of a task requiring the execution of saccades to a series of objects in fixed order. The activity of these neurons is commonly thought to represent ordinal position in the service of serial-order performance. However, there is little evidence causally linking neuronal activity in the SEF to sequential behavior. To explore the role of the SEF in serial-order performance, we delivered intracortical microstimulation while monkeys performed a task requiring them to make saccades to three objects in a fixed order on each trial. Microstimulation, considered on average across all SEF sites and all phases of the trial, affected saccadic kinematics. In particular, it prolonged the reaction time, increased the peak velocity, and slightly increased the amplitude of saccades. In addition, it interfered with the monkeys' ability to select the target appropriate to a given phase of the trial. The pattern of the errors was such as would be expected if microstimulation shifted the neural representation of ordinal position toward a later phase of the trial. PMID:24453278

  5. Can vector control play a useful supplementary role against bancroftian filariasis?

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, C. A.; Mohammed, K.; Kisumku, U.; Curtis, C. F.

    1999-01-01

    A single campaign of mass treatment for bancroftian filariasis with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in Makunduchi, a town in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, combined with elimination of mosquito breeding in pit latrines with polystyrene beads was followed by a progressive decline over a 5-year period in the microfilarial rate from 49% to 3%. Evidence that vector control had contributed to this long-term decline was obtained by comparison with another town, Moga, where a DEC campaign was used without vector control and where resurgence of microfilariae could be observed 3-6 years after the campaign. In Zanzibar town, treatment of 3844 wet pit latrines and cesspits with polystyrene beads reduced the adult mosquito population in houses by about 65%. Supplementary treatment of open drains and marshes with Bacillus sphaericus produced little or no additional reduction compared to a sector of the town where only pit treatment with polystyrene was carried out. The cost and effort of achieving the 65% reduction in mosquito population could hardly be justified for its impact on filariasis alone, but its noticeable impact on biting nuisance might help to gain community support for an integrated programme. PMID:10083712

  6. [Nutritional quality of pigeon pea protein, immature and ripe, and its supplementary value for cereals].

    PubMed

    Bressani, R; Gómez-Brenes, R A; Elías, L G

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine the differences which could exist between immature and mature pigeon pea in gross chemical composition and protein quality, raw and cooked, as well as their respective supplementary value to rice, and to mature and immature corn and sorghum. The chemical composition data showed only small differences in proximate composition between the mature and immature grain. The cooking process did not affect chemical composition. Based on the FAO/WHO amino acid reference pattern, immature pigeon pea was more deficient in threonine than mature pigeon pea, which was limiting in valine. Both grains were limiting in sulfur amino acids. The protein quality of the immature grain was higher than that of the mature grain, and both responded positively to cooking, suggesting the presence of antiphysiological substances in both. Amino acid supplementation studies demonstrated that both the immature and mature grain responded to methionine addition, the first limiting amino acid, and to tryptophan, the second limiting amino acid. The effects were more marked when samples were cooked. Both types of grains were good supplements to rice, when added in amounts of 10-20%. Mature pigeon peas supplemented relatively well the proteins of sorghum, immature and mature corn, at the 20, 30 and 20% levels, respectively. The differences found could be explained on the basis of the amino acids limiting cereal grains and pigeon peas protein.

  7. Supplementary comparison EURAMET.L-S24 on involute gear standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniel, K.; Chanthawong, N.; Eastman, N.; Frazer, R.; Kupko, V.; Osawa, S.; Xue, Z.

    2014-01-01

    At its meeting in 2007, the EURAMET TC-Length decided to run an intercomparison of involute gear standards as a regional comparison with non-European involvement. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany (PTB) was identified as the pilot laboratory, responsible for planning, organizing and analyzing the comparison. In all, seven participants from China, Germany, Japan, Thailand, Ukraine, United Kingdom and USA were asked to measure three different gear standards specialized for profile, helix and pitch measurements. The measurements started mid 2008 and were finished at the end of 2010. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The comparison was registered as the supplementary comparison EURAMET.L-S24. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL WG-MRA, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. Hemispheric asymmetry in supplementary motor area connectivity during unilateral finger movements.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Baxter P; Carew, John D; Meyerand, M Elizabeth

    2004-06-01

    Studies of unilateral finger movement in right-handed subjects have shown asymmetrical patterns of activation in primary motor cortex. Some studies have measured a similar asymmetry in the supplementary motor area (SMA), but others have not. To shed more light on the symmetry of function in the SMA, we used path analysis of functional MRI data to investigate effective connectivity during a unilateral finger movement task. We observed a slight asymmetry in task activation: left SMA was equally active during movement of either hand, while right SMA was more active for left-hand movement, suggesting a dominant role of left SMA. In addition, we tested for a corresponding asymmetry in the influence of SMA on sensorimotor cortex (SMC) using a path model based on the well-established principle that SMA is involved in motor control and SMC in execution. We observed that the influence of left SMA on left SMC increased during right-hand movement, and the influence of left SMA on right SMC increased during left-hand movement. However, there was no significant hand-dependent change in the influences of the right SMA. This asymmetry in connectivity implies that left SMA does play a dominant role in unilateral movements of either hand in right handers. The experiment also provides a basis for further studies of motor system connectivity in healthy or patient populations.

  9. Supplementary feeding of wild birds indirectly affects ground beetle populations in suburban gardens.

    PubMed

    Orros, Melanie E; Thomas, Rebecca L; Holloway, Graham J; Fellowes, Mark D E

    Supplementary feeding of wild birds by domestic garden-holders is a globally widespread and popular form of human-wildlife interaction, particularly in urban areas. Vast amounts of energy are thus being added to garden ecosystems. However, the potential indirect effects of this activity on non-avian species have been little studied to date, with the only two previous studies taking place under experimentally manipulated conditions. Here we present the first evidence of a localised depletive effect of wild bird feeding on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in suburban gardens under the usual feeding patterns of the garden-holders. We trapped significantly fewer ground beetles directly under bird-feeding stations than in matched areas of habitat away from feeders. Video analysis also revealed significantly higher activity by ground-foraging birds under the feeding stations than in the control areas. Small mammal trapping revealed no evidence that these species differ in abundance between gardens with and without bird feeders. We therefore suggest that local increases in ground-foraging activity by bird species whose diets encompass arthropods as well as seed material are responsible for the reduction in ground beetle numbers. Our work therefore illustrates that providing food for wild birds can have indirect negative effects on palatable prey species under typical conditions.

  10. Decoding Accuracy in Supplementary Motor Cortex Correlates with Perceptual Sensitivity to Tactile Roughness

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junsuk; Chung, Yoon Gi; Park, Jang-Yeon; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Wallraven, Christian; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual sensitivity to tactile roughness varies across individuals for the same degree of roughness. A number of neurophysiological studies have investigated the neural substrates of tactile roughness perception, but the neural processing underlying the strong individual differences in perceptual roughness sensitivity remains unknown. In this study, we explored the human brain activation patterns associated with the behavioral discriminability of surface texture roughness using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). First, a whole-brain searchlight multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) was used to find brain regions from which we could decode roughness information. The searchlight MVPA revealed four brain regions showing significant decoding results: the supplementary motor area (SMA), contralateral postcentral gyrus (S1), and superior portion of the bilateral temporal pole (STP). Next, we evaluated the behavioral roughness discrimination sensitivity of each individual using the just-noticeable difference (JND) and correlated this with the decoding accuracy in each of the four regions. We found that only the SMA showed a significant correlation between neuronal decoding accuracy and JND across individuals; Participants with a smaller JND (i.e., better discrimination ability) exhibited higher decoding accuracy from their voxel response patterns in the SMA. Our findings suggest that multivariate voxel response patterns presented in the SMA represent individual perceptual sensitivity to tactile roughness and people with greater perceptual sensitivity to tactile roughness are likely to have more distinct neural representations of different roughness levels in their SMA. PMID:26067832

  11. Gastrointestinal nematodes of moose (Alces alces) in relation to supplementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Milner, Jos M; Wedul, Sari J; Laaksonen, Sauli; Oksanen, Antti

    2013-01-01

    Winter supplementary feeding of wildlife is controversial because it may promote parasite and disease transmission by host aggregation. We investigated the effect of winter supplemental feeding of Scandinavian moose (Alces alces) on gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection in two counties of southern Norway by comparing fecal egg counts of moose using, and not using, feeding stations between January 2007 and March 2010. We identified three different GI nematodes based on egg morphology. All three were found in Hedmark county while in Telemark county we found only Trichuris sp. (prevalence 33%). Prevalence of Trichostrongylidae (65%) and Nematodirus sp. (26%) in Hedmark was not affected by feeding station use. However, the probability of infection varied significantly between years sampled (Trichostrongylidae) and age class (Nematodirus sp.). Fecal egg counts (FEC), a proxy for intensity of infection, of Trichostrongylidae were higher in the year when winter weather conditions were more challenging and prevalence was higher, and decreased with increasing body mass. Adult moose had higher FECs than did juvenile moose, and female juveniles had lower abundances than did male juveniles. Use of feeding stations did not affect probability of infection with any of the nematodes or intensity of infection with Trichostrongylidae. We discuss our findings in terms of parasite life histories and recommend that parasitologic surveillance be included in the monitoring of feeding programs.

  12. Resection extent of the supplementary motor area and post-operative neurological deficits in glioma surgery.

    PubMed

    Ibe, Yoko; Tosaka, Masahiko; Horiguchi, Keishi; Sugawara, Kenichi; Miyagishima, Takaaki; Hirato, Masafumi; Yoshimoto, Yuhei

    2016-06-01

    Objective The supplementary motor area (SMA) is important for the prediction of post-operative symptoms after surgical resection of gliomas. We investigated the relationships between clinical factors and the resection range of SMA gliomas, and the post-operative neurological symptoms. Methods We retrospectively studied 18 consecutive surgeries for gliomas involving the SMA proper performed in 13 patients. Seven cases were recurrence of the tumour. Clinical factors and details of specific resection of the SMA proper (resection of posterior part, medial wall) and cingulate motor area (CMA) were examined. Results Eight cases suffered new post-operative neurological deficits. Six of these eight cases had transient deficits. Permanent deficits persisted in two cases with partial weakness or paresis, after rapid improvement of post-operative global weakness or hemiplegia, respectively. The risk of post-operative neurological deficits was not associated with the resection of the posterior part of the SMA proper or the CMA, but was associated with resection of the medial wall of the SMA proper. Surgery for recurrent tumour was associated with post-operative neurological deficits. The medial wall was frequently resected in recurrent cases. Discussion The frequency of post-operative neurological symptoms, including SMA syndrome, may be higher after resection of the medial wall of the SMA proper compared with the resection of only the lateral surface of the SMA proper.

  13. Supplementary eye field during visual search: Salience, cognitive control, and performance monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Braden A.; Weigand, Pauline K.; Schall, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    How supplementary eye field (SEF) contributes to visual search is unknown. Inputs from cortical and subcortical structures known to represent visual salience suggest that SEF may serve as an additional node in this network. This hypothesis was tested by recording action potentials and local field potentials (LFP) in two monkeys performing an efficient pop-out visual search task. Target selection modulation, tuning width, and response magnitude of spikes and LFP in SEF were compared with those in frontal eye field. Surprisingly, only ~2% of SEF neurons and ~8% of SEF LFP sites selected the location of the search target. The absence of salience in SEF may be due to an absence of appropriate visual afferents, which suggests that these inputs are a necessary anatomical feature of areas representing salience. We also tested whether SEF contributes to overcoming the automatic tendency to respond to a primed color when the target identity switches during priming of pop-out. Very few SEF neurons or LFP sites modulated in association with performance deficits following target switches. However, a subset of SEF neurons and LFP exhibited strong modulation following erroneous saccades to a distractor. Altogether, these results suggest that SEF plays a limited role in controlling ongoing visual search behavior, but may play a larger role in monitoring search performance. PMID:22836261

  14. Performance Monitoring Local Field Potentials in the Medial Frontal Cortex of Primates: Supplementary Eye Field

    PubMed Central

    Emeric, Erik E.; Leslie, Melanie; Pouget, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We describe intracranial local field potentials (LFPs) recorded in the supplementary eye field (SEF) of macaque monkeys performing a saccade countermanding task. The most prominent feature at 90% of the sites was a negative-going polarization evoked by a contralateral visual target. At roughly 50% of sites a negative-going polarization was observed preceding saccades, but in stop signal trials this polarization was not modulated in a manner sufficient to control saccade initiation. When saccades were canceled in stop signal trials, LFP modulation increased with the inferred magnitude of response conflict derived from the coactivation of gaze-shifting and gaze-holding neurons. At 30% of sites, a pronounced negative-going polarization occurred after errors. This negative polarity did not appear in unrewarded correct trials. Variations of response time with trial history were not related to any features of the LFP. The results provide new evidence that error-related and conflict-related but not feedback-related signals are conveyed by the LFP in the macaque SEF and are important for identifying the generator of the error-related negativity. PMID:20660423

  15. Some supplementary methods for the analysis of WAIS-IV index scores in neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Crawford, John R; Garthwaite, Paul H; Longman, R Stewart; Batty, Abigail M

    2012-09-01

    To develop supplementary methods for the analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) in neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric. The following methods are made available: (a) provision of traditional confidence intervals (CIs) on index scores, (b) expression of the endpoints of CIs as percentile ranks; (c) quantification of the number of abnormally low index scores exhibited by a case and accompanying estimate of the percentage of the normative population expected to exhibit at least this number of low scores; (d) quantification of the reliability and abnormality of index score deviations from an individual's index score mean (thereby offering an alternative to the pairwise approach to index score comparisons available in the WAIS-IV manual); (e) provision of CIs on an individual's deviation scores or pairwise difference scores, (f) estimation of the percentage of the normative population expected to exhibit at least as many abnormal deviations or abnormal pairwise differences as a case; and (g) calculation of a case's Mahalanobis distance index (MDI), thereby providing a multivariate estimate of the overall abnormality of an index score profile. With the exception of the MDI, all the methods can be applied using tables provided in this paper. However, for ease and speed of application, and to reduce the possibility of clerical error, all the methods have also been implemented in a computer program. The methods are useful for neuropsychological interpretation of the WAIS-IV. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Time-specific contribution of the supplementary motor area to intermanual transfer of procedural knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Perez, MA; Tanaka, S; Wise, SP; Willingham, DT; Cohen, LG

    2008-01-01

    The supplementary motor area (SMA) makes a crucial contribution to intermanual transfer: the ability to use one hand to perform a skill practiced and learned with the other hand. However, the timing of this contribution relative to movement remains unknown. Here, 33 healthy volunteers performed a 12-item sequence in the serial reaction time task (SRTT). During training, each participant responded to a sequence of visual cues presented at 1 Hz by pressing one of 4 keys with their right hand. The measure of intermanual transfer was response time (RT) during repetition of the trained sequence with the left hand, which was at rest during learning. Participants were divided into 3 groups, which did not differ in their learning rates or amounts. In 2 groups, 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) induced transient virtual lesions of the SMA during training, either 100 ms before each cue (the premovement group) or during each key press (the movement group). The third group received sham stimulation (the sham group). After training with the right hand, RTs for performance with the left (transfer) hand were longer for the premovement group than for the movement or sham groups. Thus SMA’s most crucial contribution to intermanual transfer occurs in the interval between movements, when the memory of a prior movement plays a role in encoding specific sequences. These results provide insight into frontal-lobe contributions to procedural knowledge. PMID:18815252

  17. Cost-benefit analyses of supplementary measles immunisation in the highly immunized population of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hayman, D T S; Marshall, J C; French, N P; Carpenter, T E; Roberts, M G; Kiedrzynski, T

    2017-09-05

    As endemic measles is eliminated from countries through increased immunisation, the economic benefits of enhanced immunisation programs may come into question. New Zealand has suffered from outbreaks after measles introductions from abroad and we use it as a model system to understand the benefits of catch up immunisation in highly immunised populations. We provide cost-benefit analyses for measles supplementary immunisation in New Zealand. We model outbreaks based on estimates of the basic reproduction number in the vaccinated population (Rv, the number of secondary infections in a partially immunised population), based on the number of immunologically-naïve people at district and national levels, considering both pre- and post-catch up vaccination scenarios. Our analyses suggest that measles Rv often includes or exceeds one (0.18-3.92) despite high levels of population immunity. We calculate the cost of the first 187 confirmed and probable measles cases in 2014 to be over NZ$1 million (∼US$864,200) due to earnings lost, case management and hospitalization costs. The benefit-cost ratio analyses suggest additional vaccination beyond routine childhood immunisation is economically efficient. Supplemental vaccination-related costs are required to exceed approximately US$66 to US$1877 per person, depending on different scenarios, before supplemental vaccination is economically inefficient. Thus, our analysis suggests additional immunisation beyond childhood programs to target naïve individuals is economically beneficial even when childhood immunisation rates are high. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex ratio and fledging success of supplementary-fed Tengmalm's owl broods.

    PubMed

    Hörnfeldt, B; Hipkiss, T; Fridolfsson, A K; Eklund, U; Ellegren, H

    2000-02-01

    A nest box population of Tengmalm's owls (Aegolius funereus) in northern Sweden was studied to investigate the effects of extra food on the sex ratio between hatching and fledging in this sexually size-dimorphic species. The brood size and brood sex ratio of supplementary-fed and control broods were compared. Newly hatched nestlings were blood sampled and sexed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the sex-linked CHD1Z and CHD1W genes. The brood sex ratio at hatching was strongly male biased (65%); this was also the case in broods where all eggs hatched (72%). There was no relationship between hatch order and sex ratio, and hatching sex ratio did not vary significantly with laying date. Brood size decreased between hatching and fledging, but did not differ between fed and control broods at either stage. Brood sex ratio did not differ between hatching and fledging, and fledging sex ratio did not differ between fed and control broods. It was concluded that, at least during the year in which the study was carried out, feeding had no effect on brood reduction, and that male and female nestlings did not show any differential mortality. The mechanisms behind the male-biased sex ratio at hatching, and any possible adaptive reasons for it, are not known.

  19. Evening primose oil and fish oil are ineffective as supplementary treatment of bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Stenius-Aarniala, B; Aro, A; Hakulinen, A; Ahola, I; Seppälä, E; Vapaatalo, H

    1989-06-01

    The effect of daily dietary supplementation with 15 to 20 mL of evening primrose seed oil or fish oil was assessed by comparison with olive oil as placebo in a cross-over study in 29 asthmatics. During 10 weeks of each regimen, the patients kept record of symptoms, peak expiratory flow rates and medication. Plasma and urine TxB2, PGE2, PGF2 alpha and 6 keto-PGF1 alpha and plasma fatty acid composition of plasma cholesterol esters were measured at the end of each treatment period. There were no differences between regimes with regard to peak flow rates, symptoms, or drug consumption. Plasma PGE2 levels increased during the fish oil treatment but there were no changes in other prostanoids in plasma or urine. The fatty acid pattern of plasma cholesterol esters showed significant differences between the supplementation periods. We conclude that moderate doses of evening primrose oil or fish oil are ineffective as a supplementary treatment of bronchial asthma.

  20. Supplementary Motor Area exerts Proactive and Reactive Control of Arm Movements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaomo; Scangos, Katherine Wilson; Stuphorn, Veit

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive behavior requires the ability to flexibly control actions. This can occur either proactively to anticipate task requirements, or reactively in response to sudden changes. Here we report neuronal activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA) that is correlated with both forms of behavioral control. Single and multi-unit activity and intracranial local field potentials (LFP) were recorded in macaque monkeys during a stop signal task, which elicits both proactive and reactive behavioral control. The LFP power in high (60-150 Hz) and low (25-40 Hz) frequency bands was significantly correlated with arm movement reaction time, starting before target onset. Multi- and single unit activity also showed a significant regression with reaction time. In addition, LFPs, multi- and single unit activity changed their activity level depending on the trial history, mirroring adjustments on the behavioral level. Together, these findings indicate that neuronal activity in the SMA exerts proactive control of arm movements by adjusting the level of motor readiness. On trials when the monkeys successfully canceled arm movements in response to an unforeseen stop signal, the LFP power particularly in a low (10-50 Hz) frequency range increased early enough to be causally related to the inhibition of the arm movement on those trials. This indicated that neuronal activity in the SMA is also involved in response inhibition in reaction to sudden task changes. Our findings indicate therefore that SMA plays a role in the proactive control of motor readiness and the reactive inhibition of unwanted movements. PMID:21048123

  1. Pyrococcus Furiosus Genome Supplementary Data from the Adams Laboratory at the University of Georgia

    DOE Data Explorer

    Adams, Michael W.W.; Weinberg, Michael V.; Schut, Gerrit J.; Brehm, Scott; Datta, Susmitta; Zhou, J.

    The research in the Adams Laboratory focuses on the physiology of hyperthermophilic organisms with an emphasis on metal-containing enzymes in the hyperthermophilic marine archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. Three of the many articles from this University of Georgia lab have supplementary materials that are available on the Adams Lab website. All three sets of data are Open Reading Frames (ORFs) used for DNA microarray experiments and the changes in signal intensities. The full citations for the three articles are: 1) Weinberg, M. V., Schut, G. J., Brehm, S., Datta, S. and Adams, M. W. W. (2005) Cold shock of a hyperthermophilic archaeon: Pyrococcus furiosus exhibits multiple responses to a suboptimal growth temperature with a key role for membrane-bound glycoproteins. J Bacteriol. 187, 336-348; 2) Schut, G. J., Brehm, S. D., Datta, S. and Adams, M. W. W. (2003) "Whole genome DNA microarray analysis of a hyperthermophile and an archaeon: Pyrococcus furiosus grown on carbohydrates or peptides" J. Bacteriol. 185, 3935-3947; Schut, G. J., Zhou, J. and Adams, M. W. W. (2001) "DNA microarray analysis of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus evidence for a new type of sulfur-reducing enzyme" J. Bacteriol. 183, 7027-7036. Note that these articles are copyrighted by the Journal of Bacteriology.

  2. [Supplementary services used as marketing tools in the competition among private practice doctors].

    PubMed

    Meurers, Horst

    2009-01-01

    What is the relation between additional healthcare services, marketing and competition among office-based physicians? The best and truly effective marketing strategy is a satisfied patient recommending his doctor's services to others. Hence, good marketing starts with a convincing service concept, not just with advertising. More and more frequently patients ask for supplementary health service offerings. Additional services tailored to individual practices--e.g., in the field of nutrition, sports, fitness, wellness, aesthetics--meet the patients' demands, but at the same time they provide a competitive advantage over the ordinary medical practice. And what is more, these additional healthcare services have a nice side effect: they earn an additional income which is not unwelcome in times of decreasing revenues from the public healthcare system. The much sought-after potential for additional services and income can be achieved by offering commercial medical services, e.g., the sale of healthcare products. The coexistence of the doctor's commercial and non-commercial medical services is admissible as long as certain rules of professional conduct and tax laws are followed.

  3. A mechanism for decision rule discrimination by supplementary eye field neurons.

    PubMed

    Ray, Supriya; Heinen, Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    A decision to select an action from alternatives is often guided by rules that flexibly map sensory inputs to motor outputs when certain conditions are satisfied. However, the neural mechanisms underlying rule-based decision making remain poorly understood. Two complementary types of neurons in the supplementary eye field (SEF) of macaques have been identified that modulate activity differentially to interpret rules in an ocular go-nogo task, which stipulates that the animal either visually pursue a moving object if it intersects a visible zone ('go'), or maintain fixation if it does not ('nogo'). These neurons discriminate between go and nogo rule-states by increasing activity to signal their preferred (agonist) rule-state and decreasing activity to signal their non-preferred (antagonist) rule-state. In the current study, we found that SEF neurons decrease activity in anticipation of the antagonist rule-state, and do so more rapidly when the rule-state is easier to predict. This rapid decrease in activity could underlie a process of elimination in which trajectories that do not invoke the preferred rule-state receive no further computational resources. Furthermore, discrimination between difficult and easy trials in the antagonist rule-state occurs prior to when discrimination within the agonist rule-state occurs. A winner-take-all like model that incorporates a pair of mutually inhibited integrators to accumulate evidence in favor of either the decision to pursue or the decision to continue fixation accounts for the observed neural phenomena.

  4. Contrasting the roles of the supplementary and frontal eye fields in ocular decision making.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shun-Nan; Heinen, Stephen

    2014-06-15

    Single-unit recording in monkeys and functional imaging of the human frontal lobe indicate that the supplementary eye field (SEF) and the frontal eye field (FEF) are involved in ocular decision making. To test whether these structures have distinct roles in decision making, single-neuron activity was recorded from each structure while monkeys executed an ocular go/nogo task. The task rule is to pursue a moving target if it intersects a visible square or "go zone." We found that most SEF neurons showed differential go/nogo activity during the delay period, before the target intersected the go zone (delay period), whereas most FEF neurons did so after target intersection, during the period in which the movement was executed (movement period). Choice probability (CP) for SEF neurons was high in the delay period but decreased in the movement period, whereas for FEF neurons it was low in the delay period and increased in the movement period. Directional selectivity of SEF neurons was low throughout the trial, whereas that of FEF neurons was highest in the delay period, decreasing later in the trial. Increasing task difficulty led to later discrimination between go and nogo in both structures and lower CP in the SEF, but it did not affect CP in the FEF. The results suggest that the SEF interprets the task rule early but is less involved in executing the motor decision than is the FEF and that these two areas collaborate dynamically to execute ocular decisions.

  5. Supplementary diet components of little auk chicks in two contrasting regions on the West Spitsbergen coast.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, Rafał; Gluchowska, Marta; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Jakubas, Dariusz; Karnovsky, Nina J; Walkusz, Wojciech; Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Błachowiak-Samołyk, Katarzyna

    The complete diet composition structure of the most numerous planktivorous sea bird, little auk (Alle alle), in the European Arctic, is still not fully recognized. Although regular constituents of little auk chick diets, the copepods, Calanus glacialis and C. finmarchicus have been previously relatively well described, more taxa were frequent ingredients of the bird's meals. Therefore, the role of the little auks supplementary diet components (SDCs) at two colonies in the Svalbard Archipelago, Hornsund and Magdalenefjorden, in 2007-2009, is a main subject of this comparative study. Because the SDCs often consisted of scarce but large zooplankters, this investigation was focused on biomass as a proxy of the SDCs' energy input. Although the total biomass of the food delivered to chicks in both colonies was similar, in Magdalenefjorden, the proportion of SDCs was twice that found in Hornsund. The main SDCs in Hornsund were Decapoda larvae (with predominating Pagurus pubescens) and Thysanoessa inermis, whereas the main SDCs in Magdalenefjorden were C. hyperboreus and Apherusa glacialis. Previous investigations, which indicated lipid richness of SDCs, together with our ecological results from the colonies, suggest that this category might play a compensatory role in little auk chick diets. The ability to forage on diverse taxa may help the birds to adapt to ongoing Arctic ecosystem changes.

  6. Effectiveness of Using Computer-Assisted Supplementary Instruction for Teaching the Mole Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalçinalp, Serpil; Geban, Ömer; Özkan, Ilker

    This study examined the effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), used as a problem-solving supplement to classroom instruction, on students' understanding of chemical formulas and mole concept, their attitudes toward chemistry subjects, and CAI. The objective was to assess the effectiveness of CAI over recitation hours when both teaching methods were used as a supplement to the traditional chemistry instruction. We randomly selected two classes in a secondary school. Each teaching strategy was randomly assigned to one class. The experimental group received supplementary instruction delivered via CAI, while the control group received similar instruction through recitation hours. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and t-test. It was found that the students who used the CAI accompanied with lectures scored significantly higher than those who attended recitation hours, in terms of school subject achievement in chemistry and attitudes toward chemistry subjects. In addition, there was a significant improvement in the attitudes of students in the experimental group toward the use of computers in a chemistry course. There was no significant difference between the performances of females versus males in each treatment group.Received: 26 April 1994; Revised: 6 April 1995;

  7. Decoding Accuracy in Supplementary Motor Cortex Correlates with Perceptual Sensitivity to Tactile Roughness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junsuk; Chung, Yoon Gi; Park, Jang-Yeon; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Wallraven, Christian; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual sensitivity to tactile roughness varies across individuals for the same degree of roughness. A number of neurophysiological studies have investigated the neural substrates of tactile roughness perception, but the neural processing underlying the strong individual differences in perceptual roughness sensitivity remains unknown. In this study, we explored the human brain activation patterns associated with the behavioral discriminability of surface texture roughness using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). First, a whole-brain searchlight multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) was used to find brain regions from which we could decode roughness information. The searchlight MVPA revealed four brain regions showing significant decoding results: the supplementary motor area (SMA), contralateral postcentral gyrus (S1), and superior portion of the bilateral temporal pole (STP). Next, we evaluated the behavioral roughness discrimination sensitivity of each individual using the just-noticeable difference (JND) and correlated this with the decoding accuracy in each of the four regions. We found that only the SMA showed a significant correlation between neuronal decoding accuracy and JND across individuals; Participants with a smaller JND (i.e., better discrimination ability) exhibited higher decoding accuracy from their voxel response patterns in the SMA. Our findings suggest that multivariate voxel response patterns presented in the SMA represent individual perceptual sensitivity to tactile roughness and people with greater perceptual sensitivity to tactile roughness are likely to have more distinct neural representations of different roughness levels in their SMA.

  8. Optimising single-visit disinfection with supplementary approaches: a quest for predictability.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N

    2011-12-01

    Reduction of the bacterial populations to levels compatible with periradicular tissue healing is the primary microbiological goal of the endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. New systems and substances have been proposed to improve root canal disinfection either by replacing conventional chemomechanical procedures or by supplementing their effects. This review focuses on supplementary approaches for optimised single-visit disinfection (OSD). The main OSD strategies reviewed include: final rinse with chlorhexidine, MTAD or iodine potassium iodide; sonic or ultrasonic activation of NaOCl; and photodynamic therapy. It is concluded that some OSD approaches may have the potential to improve disinfection in a single visit, but most of the results so far represent low-level evidence. There is no consistent clinical evidence showing that any of these OSD approaches can predictably reduce the bacterial bioburden in infected root canals to levels significantly below that achieved by chemomechanical procedures and to the point of eliminating the need for an antimicrobial inter-appointment medication. Therefore, while expediting disinfection is a goal that has been pursued, there is a need for the currently proposed protocols to be consistently evaluated for clinical effectiveness or new ones to be devised and tested before OSD is considered a predictable approach. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2011 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  9. Role of Supplementary Eye Field in Saccade Initiation: Executive, Not Direct, Control

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joshua W.; Schall, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the activity of neurons in the supplementary eye field (SEF) is sufficient to control saccade initiation in macaque monkeys performing a saccade countermanding (stop signal) task. As previously observed, many neurons in the SEF increase the discharge rate before saccade initiation. However, when saccades are canceled in response to a stop signal, effectively no neurons with presaccadic activity display discharge rate modulation early enough to contribute to saccade cancellation. Moreover, SEF neurons do not exhibit a specific threshold discharge rate that could trigger saccade initiation. Yet, we observed more subtle relations between SEF activation and saccade production. The activity of numerous SEF neurons was correlated with response time and varied with sequential adjustments in response latency. Trials in which monkeys canceled or produced a saccade in a stop signal trial were distinguished by a modest difference in discharge rate of these SEF neurons before stop signal or target presentation. These findings indicate that neurons in the SEF, in contrast to counterparts in the frontal eye field and superior colliculus, do not contribute directly and immediately to the initiation of visually guided saccades. However the SEF may proactively regulate saccade production by biasing the balance between gaze-holding and gaze-shifting based on prior performance and anticipated task requirements. PMID:19939963

  10. Traditional Chinese infant supplementary medical foods given by mothers in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Sung, R Y; Lui, S; Lo, L; Leung, S S; Davies, D P

    1988-01-01

    Chinese mothers living in Hong Kong are used to giving their babies special medicinal food to strengthen the infant's internal defences and to restore the body's harmonious state. However since the majority of registered doctors are trained in the Western pharmacological tradition it is difficult for them to comprehend the concepts and idioms of this practice. This paper set out to investigate the frequency and varieties of medicinal foods given to 166 Chinese infants during the first 30 months after birth. One hundred and forty seven babies were given medicinal foods at some stage. The frequency of their administration varied from weekly to once or twice per month. The most popular medicinal food was "Job's tears" and the most widely administered compound herb preparations were milk preparation solution, flower teas and various cool teas. The potential pharmacological effects of these medicinal foods were searched from a Chinese medicines computerized database and found to be principally anti-inflammatory, bacteriostatic, diuretic and appetite stimulant. This study contributed a better appreciation of the popularity of infant supplementary medicinal foods in Hong Kong and the rationale for their use.

  11. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report on COOMET.L-S6: Comparison of standards of evolvent surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimir Semenovich, Kupko

    2010-01-01

    TThe COOMET Project No 314/UA/04, 'Comparison of the involute surface standards', KCDB Reference COOMET.L-S6, was organized by TC 1.5 'Length and Angle' of COOMET. This supplementary comparison started in September 2004 and finished in July 2007. It was piloted by the National Scientific Centre 'Institute of Metrology', Kharkov, Ukraine, and VNIIMS, Russia, participated in the comparison. The comparison standard of NSC 'Institute of Metrology' was carried to the place of the comparison (VNIIMS) by NCS IM attendant specialists as personal baggage, where it was measured by reference to the VNIIMS measuring instrument of parameters of evolvent surfaces, VNIIMS ZMC-550. The pilot laboratory processed the data for estimating measurement result differences between the measuring instruments of NSC IM and VNIIMS. The following parameters were determined: deviation from profile form, deviation from profile position and full profile error. The conclusion is that the equivalence of the reference installations for parameter measurements of involute surfaces of NSC 'Institute of Metrology', Ukraine, and of VNIIMS, Russia, is sufficient and constitutes an appropriate basis for mutual recognition of measurement results. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by COOMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  12. Supplementary comparison EURAMET.L-S23 (#1269) high precision roundness measurement by error separation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Emilio; Muñoz, Rafael; Arce, Aelio A.; Bergmans, Rob; Kotte, Gerard; Holmberg, Maria; Svendsmark, Maria; Toftegaard, Jens Bo; Astrua, Milena; Pisani, Marco; Saraiva, Fernanda; Eusebio, Liliana; Nouira, Hichem; Salgado, José A.

    2017-01-01

    At its meeting in October 2012, the EURAMET Technical Committee for Length, EURAMET TC-L, decided that a key comparison on high precision roundness measurement by multi-step method shall be carried out with CEM acting as the pilot laboratory. The roundness standards to be calibrated were chosen to be a glass hemisphere with a diameter of about 50 mm and a sphere with a diameter of about 30 mm. A goal of the key comparisons for topics in dimensional metrology is to demonstrate the equivalence of routine calibration services offered by NMIs to clients, as listed in appendix C of the Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA). To this end, participants in this comparison agreed to use the same apparatus and methods as routinely applied to client artefacts. The comparison was registered in March 2013 as Project EURAMET 1269 and at KCDB as supplementary comparison EURAMET.L-S23.2013. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. TMS of supplementary motor area (SMA) facilitates mental rotation performance: Evidence for sequence processing in SMA.

    PubMed

    Cona, G; Marino, G; Semenza, C

    2017-02-01

    In the present study we applied online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) bursts at 10Hz to the supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary motor cortex to test whether these regions are causally involved in mental rotation. Furthermore, in order to investigate what is the specific role played by SMA and primary motor cortex, two mental rotation tasks were used, which included pictures of hands and abstract objects, respectively. While primary motor cortex stimulation did not affect mental rotation performance, SMA stimulation improved the performance in the task with object stimuli, and only for the pairs of stimuli that had higher angular disparity between each other (i.e., 100° and 150°). The finding that the effect of SMA stimulation was modulated by the amount of spatial orientation information indicates that SMA is causally involved in the very act of mental rotation. More specifically, we propose that SMA mediates domain-general sequence processes, likely required to accumulate and integrate information that are, in this context, spatial. The possible physiological mechanisms underlying the facilitation of performance due to SMA stimulation are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Report on the CCT Supplementary Comparison S1 of Infrared Spectral Normal Emittance/Emissivity.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Leonard; Wilthan, B; Monte, Christian; Hollandt, Jörg; Hameury, Jacques; Filtz, Jean-Remy; Girard, Ferruccio; Battuello, Mauro; Ishii, Juntaro

    2016-01-01

    The National Measurement Institutes (NMIs) of the United States, Germany, France, Italy and Japan, have joined in an inter-laboratory comparison of their infrared spectral emittance scales. This action is part of a series of supplementary inter-laboratory comparisons (including thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity) sponsored by the Consultative Committee on Thermometry (CCT) Task Group on Thermophysical Quantities (TG-ThQ). The objective of this collaborative work is to strengthen the major operative National Measurement Institutes' infrared spectral emittance scales and consequently the consistency of radiative properties measurements carried out worldwide. The comparison has been performed over a spectral range of 2 μm to 14 μm, and a temperature range from 23 °C to 800 °C. Artefacts included in the comparison are potential standards: oxidized inconel, boron nitride, and silicon carbide. The measurement instrumentation and techniques used for emittance scales are unique for each NMI, including the temperature ranges covered as well as the artefact sizes required. For example, all three common types of spectral instruments are represented: dispersive grating monochromator, Fourier transform and filter-based spectrometers. More than 2000 data points (combinations of material, wavelength and temperature) were compared. Ninety-eight percent (98%) of the data points were in agreement, with differences to weighted mean values less than the expanded uncertainties calculated from the individual NMI uncertainties and uncertainties related to the comparison process.

  15. Report on the CCT Supplementary Comparison S1 of Infrared Spectral Normal Emittance/Emissivity

    PubMed Central

    Hanssen, Leonard; Wilthan, B.; Monte, Christian; Hollandt, Jörg; Hameury, Jacques; Filtz, Jean-Remy; Girard, Ferruccio; Battuello, Mauro; Ishii, Juntaro

    2016-01-01

    The National Measurement Institutes (NMIs) of the United States, Germany, France, Italy and Japan, have joined in an inter-laboratory comparison of their infrared spectral emittance scales. This action is part of a series of supplementary inter-laboratory comparisons (including thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity) sponsored by the Consultative Committee on Thermometry (CCT) Task Group on Thermophysical Quantities (TG-ThQ). The objective of this collaborative work is to strengthen the major operative National Measurement Institutes’ infrared spectral emittance scales and consequently the consistency of radiative properties measurements carried out worldwide. The comparison has been performed over a spectral range of 2 μm to 14 μm, and a temperature range from 23 °C to 800 °C. Artefacts included in the comparison are potential standards: oxidized inconel, boron nitride, and silicon carbide. The measurement instrumentation and techniques used for emittance scales are unique for each NMI, including the temperature ranges covered as well as the artefact sizes required. For example, all three common types of spectral instruments are represented: dispersive grating monochromator, Fourier transform and filter-based spectrometers. More than 2000 data points (combinations of material, wavelength and temperature) were compared. Ninety-eight percent (98%) of the data points were in agreement, with differences to weighted mean values less than the expanded uncertainties calculated from the individual NMI uncertainties and uncertainties related to the comparison process. PMID:28239193

  16. Electronic Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed to ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics on ...

  17. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: EUROMET.L-S10 Comparison of squareness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokros, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    The idea of performing a comparison of squareness resulted from the need to review the MRA Appendix C, Category 90° square. At its meeting in October 1999 (in Prague) it was decided upon a first comparison of squareness measurements in the framework of EUROMET, numbered #570, starting in 2000, with the Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU) as the pilot laboratory. During the preparation stage of the project, it was agreed that it should be submitted as a EUROMET supplementary comparison in the framework of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of the Metre Convention and would boost confidence in calibration and measurement certificates issued by the participating national metrology institutes. The aim of the comparison of squareness measurement was to compare and verify the declared calibration measurement capabilities of participating laboratories and to investigate the effect of systematic influences in the measurement process and their elimination. Eleven NMIs from the EUROMET region carried out this project. Two standards were calibrated: granite squareness standard of rectangular shape, cylindrical squareness standard of steel with marked positions for the profile lines. The following parameters had to be calibrated: granite squareness standard: interior angle γB between two lines AB and AC (envelope - LS regression) fitted through the measured profiles, and/or granite squareness standard: interior angle γLS between two LS regression lines AB and AC fitted through the measured profiles, cylindrical squareness standard: interior angles γ0°, γ90°, γ180°, γ270° between the LS regression line fitted through the measurement profiles at 0°, 90°, 180°, 270° and the envelope plane of the basis (resting on a surface plate), local LS straightness deviation for all measured profiles (2 and 4) of both standards. The results of the comparison are the deviations of profiles and angles measured by the individual NMIs from the reference values. These resulted

  18. American Bar Association Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases: implications for social work.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-04-01

    When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to produce the "Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases" to promote the exceptional competence and diligence required when the consequence is life or death. This article summarizes the "Supplementary Guidelines," with implications for social work practice--that is, professional responsibility, competence, interviewing skill, knowledge of behavioral and mental impairment, records review, life history compilation, data interpretation, witness support, law-related knowledge, and testimony. The social work, which is scrutinized in a court of law, requires cultural competence, diverse oral and written communication skills, diligence, and the highest ethical standards.

  19. Design of wide-area time-delay supplementary controller for interconnected Network based on Hamilton function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailati, G.; Hu, Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    The transient stability of interconnected network with supplementary time-delay controller for generator excitations and static var compensator (SVC) has been investigated in this paper. Firstly, a delay-dependent stability criterion based on Hamilton function method is derived, and the criterion is in term of matrix inequalities. Secondly, a nonlinear time-delay Hamilton function model of interconnected network with SVCs is constructed. Thirdly, the wide-area time-delay supplementary controller (WATSC) for the interconnected network is designed and converted into the form of Hamiltonian system. The delay-dependent stability of the closed-loop power system is analysed. The gains of the WATSC are determined by using the theoretical analysis results. It is effective for the designed WATSC installed in the 16- machine, 68-bus power system for damping the inter-area modes. Then simulation results show that the method of the controller is effective.

  20. A selected controlled trial of supplementary vitamin E for treatment of muscle cramps in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    El-Hennawy, Adel S; Zaib, Salwat

    2010-01-01

    Muscle cramps are not uncommon complications of hemodialysis (HD) treatments and lead to early termination of HD sessions and are therefore a significant cause of under-dialysis. The etiology of cramps in dialysis patients remains a matter of debate. Many reports suggested that vitamin E (vit. E) may be effective for the prevention of HD-associated cramps. We decided to perform a selected controlled trial of supplementary vit. E for treatment of patients on HD who experience frequent attacks during and between HD sessions. The goal was to compare the number of attacks of muscle cramps with the patient's baseline over a specific period of time. In this study, 19 HD patients were randomly selected of different age groups and ethnicity. Patient must have had at least 60 attacks of muscle cramps during and between HD sessions over a 12-week period. All selected patients received vit. E at a dose of 400 international units daily for 12 weeks, and the number of attacks of muscle cramps was recorded. The frequency of muscle cramps decreased significantly during vit. E therapy, and, at the end of the trial, vit. E led to cramp reductions of 68.3%. The reduction in number of attacks of muscle cramps had no significant correlation with age, sex, etiology of end-stage renal disease, serum electrolytes, or HD duration, and it showed a statistically positive correlation (P = 0.0001) with vit. E therapy. No vit. E-related adverse effects were encountered during the trial. Short-term treatment with vit. E is safe and effective in reducing number of attacks of muscle cramps in HD patients, as shown in our study.