Science.gov

Sample records for electronic tree inventory

  1. An Electronic Tree Inventory for Arboriculture Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Roger J.; Allen, Tony J.; Sherkat, Nasser; Bellett-Travers, Marcus D.

    The integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology into mobile devices provides them with an awareness of their physical location. This geospatial context can be employed in a wide range of applications including locating nearby places of interest as well as guiding emergency services to incidents. In this research, a GPS-enabled Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) is used to create a computerised tree inventory for the management of arboriculture. Using the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), GPS information and arboreal image data are sent to a web-server. An office-based PC running customised Geographical Information Software (GIS) then automatically retrieves the GPS tagged image data for display and analysis purposes. The resulting application allows an expert user to view the condition of individual trees in greater detail than is possible using remotely sensed imagery.

  2. Urban park tree inventories

    Treesearch

    Joe R. McBride; David J. Nowak

    1989-01-01

    A survey of published reports on urban park tree inventories in the United States and the United Kingdom reveal two types of inventories: (1) Tree Location Inventories and (2) Generalized Information Inventories. Tree location inventories permit managers to relocate specific park trees, along with providing individual tree characteristics and condition data. In...

  3. A Guide to Street Tree Inventory Software

    Treesearch

    Gene A. Olig; Robert W. Miller

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to serve as a reference and guide for urban forestry professionals in the selection of a street tree inventory software program. The programs described include only those that are commercially available. The increasing demand for street tree inventory software follows a trend towards a more computerized society and the increasing...

  4. Big trees in the southern forest inventory

    Treesearch

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; Thomas J. Brandeis

    2010-01-01

    Big trees fascinate people worldwide, inspiring respect, awe, and oftentimes, even controversy. This paper uses a modified version of American Forests’ Big Trees Measuring Guide point system (May 1990) to rank trees sampled between January of 1998 and September of 2007 on over 89,000 plots by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Inventory and...

  5. Modeling Missing Remeasurement Tree Heights in Forest Inventory Data

    Treesearch

    Raymond M. Sheffield; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2005-01-01

    Missing tree heights are often problematic in compiling forest inventory remeasurement data. Heights for cut and mortality trees are usually not available; calculations of removal or mortality volumes must utilize either a modeled height at the time of tree death or the height assigned to the tree at a previous remeasurement. Less often, tree heights are not available...

  6. Modeling missing remeasurement tree heights in forest inventory data

    Treesearch

    Raymond M. Sheffield; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2002-01-01

    Missing tree heights are often problematic in compiling forest inventory renleasureinent data. Heights for cut and niortality trees are usually not available; calculations of removal or mortality volumes must utilize either a modeled height at the time of tree death or the height assigned to the tree at a previous remeasurement. Less often, tree heights are not...

  7. Agarwood-planted tree inventory in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turjaman, Maman; Hidayat, Asep

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia has as a country that has a high diversity of agarwood-producing trees (APT) species compared to other countries in Asia. Unfortunately, the populations of APT species have declined significantly. The purpose of this study was to record and maps the agarwood-planted trees in Indonesia as a baseline for future management of this species. The questioners were distributed to 31 of provinces in Indonesia. The feedback came from 21 prefectures (67.7%), consisting from 121 regencies (36.6%) those in detail came from 579 district, 1,257 villages and 4,757 farmers group. The major of APT species planted by farmer groups are Aquilaria malaccensis, A. microcarpa, and Gyrinops versteegii. The potency of APT in Indonesia is 3.4 million trees, consisting from 0.2 million tree with DBH > 20 cm and 3.2 million tree with DBH < 20 cm. The highest APT in Indonesia is located in Central Kalimantan (24.7%) followed by North Sumatera (17.9%). The prediction of agarwood products and its derivate will be obtained in 2020 with economic value might be reached 1.6 trillion rupiahs if the inoculation technique used the standard procedure recommended by FORDA. These results showed how huge the potential of APT will be developed in the future.

  8. An exhaustive inventory of coniferous trees in an agricultural landscape

    PubMed Central

    Rousselet, Jérôme; Roques, Alain; Garcia, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Various species of forest trees are commonly used for ornamental purposes and are therefore frequently found in non-forest ecosystems. These trees constitute a significant component of the trees outside forests (TOF). Although increasingly recognized as prominent feature of agricultural lands and built-up areas, not much is known, however, about TOF since they are generally absent from forest inventories. New information In the present study, we focus on the coniferous tree species that constitute potential hosts for a forest defoliator, the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa Den. & Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae). We carried out an exhaustive inventory of all pines (Pinus spp.), cedars (Cedrus spp.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in a 22 × 22 km study window located in the open-field region of Beauce in the centre of France. We recorded a total of 3834 individuals or small groups host trees corresponding a density of 7.9 occurrences per 100 ha. We provide the spatial coordinates of the points without differentiation between tree species. PMID:25733964

  9. An exhaustive inventory of coniferous trees in an agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Rousselet, Jérôme; Roques, Alain; Garcia, Jacques; Rossi, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Various species of forest trees are commonly used for ornamental purposes and are therefore frequently found in non-forest ecosystems. These trees constitute a significant component of the trees outside forests (TOF). Although increasingly recognized as prominent feature of agricultural lands and built-up areas, not much is known, however, about TOF since they are generally absent from forest inventories. In the present study, we focus on the coniferous tree species that constitute potential hosts for a forest defoliator, the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoeapityocampa Den. & Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae). We carried out an exhaustive inventory of all pines (Pinus spp.), cedars (Cedrus spp.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsugamenziesii) in a 22 × 22 km study window located in the open-field region of Beauce in the centre of France. We recorded a total of 3834 individuals or small groups host trees corresponding a density of 7.9 occurrences per 100 ha. We provide the spatial coordinates of the points without differentiation between tree species.

  10. An inventory of trees in Dublin city centre.

    PubMed

    Ningal, Tine; Mills, Gerald; Smithwick, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    While urban areas are often considered to be comprised chiefly of artificial surfaces, they can contain a substantial portion of green space and a great diversity of natural habitats. These spaces include public parks, private gardens and street trees, all of which can provide valuable environmental services, such as improved air quality. Trees play a particular role in cities as they are often placed along roadsides and in the median strip of busy streets. As such they regulate access to sunshine, restrict airflow, provide shelter, scavenge air pollutants and manage noise at the street level. A tree planting policy can be an important part of a broader environmental strategy aimed at improving the quality of life in urban areas but this requires up-to-date knowledge of the current tree stock, which does not exist for Dublin. This article presents an inventory of trees in Dublin's city centre, defined as the area between the Grand and Royal canals. The results show that there are over 10,000 trees in the study area representing a density of 684 trees km-2 or one tree to approximately every 50 residents of the city centre. The tree canopy extent when in full foliage was nearly 1 km2 in extent or 6% of the study area. A more detailed analysis of those trees planted along streets shows little species variation but clear distinction in the sizes of trees, which is indicative of the age of planting. These data are used to estimate the carbon stored in Dublin's trees.

  11. Indigenous Community Tree Inventory: Assessment of Data Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi, M. F.; Idris, N. H.; Din, A. H. M.; Osman, M. J.; Idris, N. H.; Ishak, M. H. I.

    2016-09-01

    The citizen science program to supplement authoritative data in tree inventory has been well implemented in various countries. However, there is a lack of study that assesses correctness and accuracy of tree data supplied by citizens. This paper addresses the issue of tree data quality supplied by semi-literate indigenous group. The aim of this paper is to assess the correctness of attributes (tree species name, height and diameter at breast height) and the accuracy of tree horizontal positioning data supplied by indigenous people. The accuracy of the tree horizontal position recorded by GNSS-enable smart phone was found to have a RMSE value of ± 8m which is not suitable to accurately locate individual tree position in tropical rainforest such as the Royal Belum State Park. Consequently, the tree species names contributed by indigenous people were only 20 to 30 percent correct as compared with the reference data. However, the combination of indigenous respondents comprising of different ages, experience and knowledge working in a group influence less attribute error in data entry and increase the use of free text rather than audio methods. The indigenous community has a big potential to engage with scientific study due to their local knowledge with the research area, however intensive training must be given to empower their skills and several challenges need to be addressed.

  12. Electronics Principles Inventory, Sheppard Technical Training Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    AD-A219 935 ( ) UNITED STATES AIR FORCE DTC. E 1- EE -, ... , S MAR 3 0 1990 01% ELECTRONICS PRINCIPLES INVENTORY SHEPPARD TECHNICAL TRAINING CENTER...studies provide valuable informa- tion for curriculum development or validation in terms of percent members requiring a range of electronics principles knowledge

  13. Electronic Principles Inventory, Lowry Technical Training Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    y/ UNITED STATES AIR FORCE DTIC oAR 19 0D N N ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES INVENTORY LOWRY TECHNICAL TRAINING CENTER AFPT 90-EPI-825 MARCH 1990 OCCUPATIONAL...PREFACE This report presents the results of an Air Force Electronic Principles survey of 37 selected Air Force specialties. Authority for conducting...Electronic Principles (EP) surveys is contained in AFR 35-2. Results presented in this report are part of an EP survey of 81 Air Force specialties. This

  14. Inventorying trees in agricultural landscapes: toward an accounting of working trees

    Treesearch

    Carol H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall; Michele M. Schoeneberger

    2005-01-01

    Agroforestry plantings and other trees intentionally established in rural and urban areas are emerging as innovative managemnt options for addressing resource issues and achieving landscape-level goals, An understanding of the contributions from these and future plantings would provide critical information to policy and program developers, and a comprehensive inventory...

  15. Utility of tree crown condition indicators to predict tree survival using remeasured Forest Inventory and Analysis data

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Jim Steinman; KaDonna C. Randolph

    2012-01-01

    The condition of tree crowns is an important indicator of tree and forest health. Crown conditions have been evaluated during surveys of Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Phase 3 (P3) plots since 1999. In this study, remeasured data from 39,357 trees in the northern United States were used to assess the probability of survival among various tree species using the...

  16. A Structured Light Sensor System for Tree Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Chiun-Hong; Zemek, Michael C.

    2000-01-01

    Tree Inventory is referred to measurement and estimation of marketable wood volume in a piece of land or forest for purposes such as investment or for loan applications. Exist techniques rely on trained surveyor conducting measurements manually using simple optical or mechanical devices, and hence are time consuming subjective and error prone. The advance of computer vision techniques makes it possible to conduct automatic measurements that are more efficient, objective and reliable. This paper describes 3D measurements of tree diameters using a uniquely designed ensemble of two line laser emitters rigidly mounted on a video camera. The proposed laser camera system relies on a fixed distance between two parallel laser planes and projections of laser lines to calculate tree diameters. Performance of the laser camera system is further enhanced by fusion of information induced from structured lighting and that contained in video images. Comparison will be made between the laser camera sensor system and a stereo vision system previously developed for measurements of tree diameters.

  17. Inventory methods for trees in nonforest areas in the Great Plains States

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Lister; Charles T. Scott; Steven. Rasmussen

    2012-01-01

    The US Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects information on trees in areas that meet its definition of forest. However, the inventory excludes trees in areas that do not meet this definition, such as those found in urban areas, in isolated patches, in areas with sparse or predominantly herbaceous vegetation, in narrow strips (e.g.,...

  18. Integrating LIDAR and forest inventories to fill the trees outside forests data gap

    Treesearch

    Kristofer D. Johnson; Richard Birdsey; Jason Cole; Anu Swatantran; Jarlath O' Neil-Dunne; Ralph Dubayah; Andrew. Lister

    2015-01-01

    Forest inventories are commonly used to estimate total tree biomass of forest land even though they are not traditionally designed to measure biomass of trees outside forests (TOF). The consequence may be an inaccurate representation of all of the aboveground biomass, which propagates error to the outputs of spatial and process models that rely on the inventory data....

  19. Inventory of trees in nonforest areas in the Great Plains states

    Treesearch

    Andrew Lister; Chip Scott; Steve Rasmussen

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects information on trees in areas that meet its definition of forest. However, the inventory excludes trees in areas that do not meet this definition, such as those found in isolated patches, in areas with sparse or predominantly herbaceous vegetation, in narrow strips (e.g., shelterbelts...

  20. Species Composition of Down Dead and Standing Live Trees: Implications for Forest Inventory Analysis

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; Linda Nagel

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of species composition in most forest inventory analysis relies solely on standing live tree information characterized by current forest type. With the implementation of the third phase of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program, the species composition of down dead trees, otherwise termed coarse...

  1. New Tree-Classification System Used by the Southern Forest Inventory and Analysis Unit

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May; John S. Vissage; D. Vince Few

    1990-01-01

    Trees at USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Inventory and Analysis, sample locations are classified as growing stock or cull based on their ability to produce sawlogs. The old and new classification systems are compared, and the impacts of the new system on the reporting of tree volumes are illustrated with inventory data from north Alabama.

  2. Unlocking the forest inventory data: relating individual tree performance to unmeasured environmental factors

    Treesearch

    Jeremy W. Lichstein; Jonathan Dushoff; Kiona Ogle; Anping Chen; Drew W. Purves; John P. Caspersen; Stephen W. Pacala

    2010-01-01

    Geographically extensive forest inventories, such as the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program, contain millions of individual tree growth and mortality records that could be used to develop broad-scale models of forest dynamics. A limitation of inventory data, however, is that individual-level measurements of light (L) and other...

  3. Electronics principles inventory, Sheppard Technical Training Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-02-01

    Data are provided on the electronic principles (EP) used by airmen in 13 Air Force Specialties (AFSs) with initial training at Sheppard Technical Training Center (TTC). The USAF Electronic Principles Inventory (AFPT 90-EPI-825) was administered to random samples of fully qualified job incumbents representing the 13 AFSs in this report. The data were collected from March 1987 to September 1988. Although there is no specific regulatory guidance on the use of EPO data, the survey data lends itself to the use of cutoff scores for deciding which EPI items to include in centralized training for each AFSC. Once the training needs of the individual AFSCs have been determined, the possibility for consolidated EP training can be considered.

  4. Effects of Measurement Errors on Individual Tree Stem Volume Estimates for the Austrian National Forest Inventory

    Treesearch

    Ambros Berger; Thomas Gschwantner; Ronald E. McRoberts; Klemens. Schadauer

    2014-01-01

    National forest inventories typically estimate individual tree volumes using models that rely on measurements of predictor variables such as tree height and diameter, both of which are subject to measurement error. The aim of this study was to quantify the impacts of these measurement errors on the uncertainty of the model-based tree stem volume estimates. The impacts...

  5. Geospatial Technologies and i-Tree Echo Inventory for Predicting Climate Change on Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriharan, S.; Robinson, L.; Ghariban, N.; Comar, M.; Pope, B.; Frey, G.

    2015-12-01

    Urban forests can be useful both in mitigating climate change and in helping cities adapt to higher temperatures and other impacts of climate change. Understanding and managing the impacts of climate change on the urban forest trees and natural communities will help us maintain their environmental, cultural, and economic benefits. Tree Inventory can provide important information on tree species, height, crown width, overall condition, health and maintenance needs. This presentation will demonstrate that a trees database system is necessary for developing a sustainable urban tree program. Virginia State University (VSU) campus benefits from large number and diversity of trees that are helping us by cleaning the air, retaining water, and providing shade on the buildings to reduce energy cost. The objectives of this study were to develop campus inventory of the trees, identify the tree species, map the locations of the trees with user-friendly tools such as i-Tree Eco and geospatial technologies by assessing the cost/benefit of employing student labor for training and ground validation of the results, and help campus landscape managers implement adaptive responses to climate change impacts. Data was collected on the location, species, and size of trees by using i-Tree urban forestry analysis software. This data was transferred to i-Tree inventory system for demonstrating types of trees, diameter of the trees, height of the trees, and vintage of the trees. The study site was mapped by collecting waypoints with GPS (Global Positioning System) at the trees and uploading these waypoints in ArcMap. The results of this study showed that: (i) students make good field crews, (ii) if more trees were placed in the proper area, the heating and cooling costs will reduce, and (iii) trees database system is necessary for planning, designing, planting, and maintenance, and removal of campus trees Research sponsored by the NIFA Grant, "Urban Forestry Management" (2012-38821-20153).

  6. Methods and equations for estimating aboveground volume, biomass, and carbon for trees in the U.S. forest inventory, 2010

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; Linda S. Heath; Grant M. Domke; Michael C. Nichols

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program uses numerous models and associated coefficients to estimate aboveground volume, biomass, and carbon for live and standing dead trees for most tree species in forests of the United States. The tree attribute models are coupled with FIA's national inventory of sampled trees to produce estimates of...

  7. Integration of ecological indices in the multivariate evaluation of an urban inventory of street trees

    Treesearch

    J. Grabinsky; A. Aldama; A. Chacalo; H. J. Vazquez

    2000-01-01

    Inventory data of Mexico City's street trees were studied using classical statistical arboricultural and ecological statistical approaches. Multivariate techniques were applied to both. Results did not differ substantially and were complementary. It was possible to reduce inventory data and to group species, boroughs, blocks, and variables.

  8. A practical modification of horizontal line sampling for snag and cavity tree inventory

    Treesearch

    M. J. Ducey; G. J. Jordan; J. H. Gove; H. T. Valentine

    2002-01-01

    Snags and cavity trees are important structural features in forests, but they are often sparsely distributed, making efficient inventories problematic. We present a straightforward modification of horizontal line sampling designed to facilitate inventory of these features while remaining compatible with commonly employed sampling methods for the living overstory. The...

  9. Building the Forest Inventory and Analysis Tree-Ring Data set

    Treesearch

    Robert J. DeRose; John D. Shaw; James N. Long

    2017-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IW-FIA) program measures forestland conditions at great extent with relatively high spatial resolution, including the collection of tree-ring data. We describe the development of an unprecedented spatial tree-ring data set for the IW-FIA that enhances the baseline plot data by incorporating ring-width increment measured...

  10. Detecting change in advance tree regeneration using forest inventory data: the implications of type II error

    Treesearch

    James A. Westfall; William H. McWilliams

    2012-01-01

    Achieving adequate and desirable forest regeneration is necessary for maintaining native tree species and forest composition. Advance tree seedling and sapling regeneration is the basis of the next stand and serves as an indicator of future composition. The Pennsylvania Regeneration Study was implemented statewide to monitor regeneration on a subset of Forest Inventory...

  11. A life cycle greenhouse gas inventory of a tree production system

    Treesearch

    Alissa Kendall; E. Gregory McPherson

    2012-01-01

    PurposeThis study provides a detailed, process-based life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory of an ornamental tree production system for urban forestry. The success of large-scale tree planting initiatives for climate protection depends on projects being net sinks for CO2 over their entire life cycle....

  12. Using inventory data to determine the impact of drought on tree mortality

    Treesearch

    Greg C. Liknes; Christopher W. Woodall; Charles H. Perry

    2012-01-01

    Drought has been the subject of numerous recent studies that hint at an acceleration of tree mortality due to climate change. In particular, a recent global survey of tree mortality events implicates drought as the cause of quaking aspen mortality in Minnesota, USA in 2007. In this study, data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the USDA Forest Service...

  13. Tree migration detection through comparisons of historic and current forest inventories

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; Christopher M. Oswalt; James A. Westfall; Charles H. Perry; Mark N. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Changes in tree species distributions are a potential impact of climate change on forest ecosystems. The examination of tree species shifts in forests of the eastern United States largely has been limited to modeling activities with little empirical analysis of long-term forest inventory datasets. The goal of this study was to compare historic and current spatial...

  14. Data quality in citizen science urban tree inventories

    Treesearch

    Lara A. Roman; Bryant C. Scharenbroch; Johan P.A. Ostberg; Lee S. Mueller; Jason G. Henning; Andrew K. Koeser; Jessica R. Sanders; Daniel R. Betz; Rebecca C. Jordan

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science has been gaining popularity in ecological research and resource management in general and in urban forestry specifically. As municipalities and nonprofits engage volunteers in tree data collection, it is critical to understand data quality. We investigated observation error by comparing street tree data collected by experts to data collected by less...

  15. An inventory of multipurpose avenue trees of urban Chandigarh, India

    Treesearch

    R. K. Kohli; H. P. Singh; Daizy R. Batish

    2000-01-01

    Trees in urban ecosystems play a very significant role in environmental protection by checking air and noise pollutants, abating wind, and handling many other functions, in India, Chandigarh is the most modern and environmentally safe city and qualifies to be called a GREEN CITY because of its rich tree component. This is so in spite of its high population density,...

  16. Diameter distribution estimation with laser scanning based multisource single tree inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankare, Ville; Liang, Xinlian; Vastaranta, Mikko; Yu, Xiaowei; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-10-01

    Tree detection and tree species recognition are bottlenecks of the airborne remote sensing-based single tree inventories. The effect of these factors in forest attribute estimation can be reduced if airborne measurements are aided with tree mapping information that is collected from the ground. The main objective here was to demonstrate the use of terrestrial laser scanning-derived (TLS) tree maps in aiding airborne laser scanning-based (ALS) single tree inventory (multisource single tree inventory, MS-STI) and its capability in predicting diameter distribution in various forest conditions. Automatic measurement of TLS point clouds provided the tree maps and the required reference information from the tree attributes. The study area was located in Evo, Finland, and the reference data was acquired from 27 different sample plots with varying forest conditions. The workflow of MS-STI included: (1) creation of automatic tree map from TLS point clouds, (2) automatic diameter at breast height (DBH) measurement from TLS point clouds, (3) individual tree detection (ITD) based on ALS, (4) matching the ITD segments to the field-measured reference, (5) ALS point cloud metric extraction from the single tree segments and (6) DBH estimation based on the derived metrics. MS-STI proved to be accurate and efficient method for DBH estimation and predicting diameter distribution. The overall accuracy (root mean squared error, RMSE) of the DBH was 36.9 mm. Results showed that the DBH accuracy decreased if the tree density (trees/ha) increased. The highest accuracies were found in old-growth forests (tree densities less than 500 stems/ha). MS-STI resulted in the best accuracies regarding Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.)-dominated forests (RMSE of 29.9 mm). Diameter distributions were predicted with low error indices, thereby resulting in a good fit compared to the reference. Based on the results, diameter distribution estimation with MS-STI is highly dependent on the forest

  17. Estimating tree species richness from forest inventory plot data

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2007-01-01

    Montreal Process Criterion 1, Conservation of Biological Diversity, expresses species diversity in terms of number of forest dependent species. Species richness, defined as the total number of species present, is a common metric for analyzing species diversity. A crucial difficulty in estimating species richness from sample data obtained from sources such as inventory...

  18. 78 FR 52860 - Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... to report non- trade-secret Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) forms to EPA using electronic software provided by the Agency. Electronic reporting of TRI forms provides numerous benefits, including making it...-population of many form elements, decreasing the cost to EPA of processing forms, and providing TRI...

  19. Using the PDD Behavior Inventory as a Level 2 Screener: A Classification and Regression Trees Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ira L.; Liu, Xudong; Hudson, Melissa; Gillis, Jennifer; Cavalari, Rachel N. S.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Gardner, Judith M.

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve discrimination accuracy between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and similar neurodevelopmental disorders, a data mining procedure, Classification and Regression Trees (CART), was used on a large multi-site sample of PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) forms on children with and without ASD. Discrimination accuracy exceeded 80%,…

  20. LIDAR forest inventory with single-tree, double- and single-phase procedures

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Parker; David L. Evans

    2009-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data at 0.5- to 2-m postings were used with doublesample, stratified inventory procedures involving single-tree attribute relationships in mixed, natural, and planted species stands to yield sampling errors (one-half the confidence interval expressed as a percentage of the mean) ranging from ±2.1 percent to ±11.5...

  1. Assessing tree species assemblages in highly disturbed Puerto Rican karst landscapes using forest inventory data

    Treesearch

    Thomas James Brandeis

    2006-01-01

    Tree species assemblages described by landscape-scale forest inventory data both agreed and differed from those described by intensive, site specific studies in Puerto Rico's highly disturbed northern karst belt. Species assemblages found on hill tops (typified by Tabebuia heterophylla or Bursera simaruba with ...

  2. Assessing tree species assemblages in highly disturbed Puerto Rican karst landscapes using forest inventory data.

    Treesearch

    Thomas James Brandeis

    2006-01-01

    Tree species assemblages described by landscape-scale forest inventory data both agreed and differed from those described by intensive, site specific studies in Puerto Rico’s highly disturbed northern karst belt. Species assemblages found on hill tops (typified by Tabebuia heterophylla or Bursera simaruba with Coccoloba diversifolia, Licaria parvifolia, and Drypetes...

  3. The AFIS tree growth model for updating annual forest inventories in Minnesota

    Treesearch

    Margaret R. Holdaway

    2000-01-01

    As the Forest Service moves towards annual inventories, states may use model predictions of growth to update unmeasured plots. A tree growth model (AFIS) based on the scaled Weibull function and using the average-adjusted model form is presented. Annual diameter growth for four species was modeled using undisturbed plots from Minnesota's Aspen-Birch and Northern...

  4. Using the PDD Behavior Inventory as a Level 2 Screener: A Classification and Regression Trees Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ira L.; Liu, Xudong; Hudson, Melissa; Gillis, Jennifer; Cavalari, Rachel N. S.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Gardner, Judith M.

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve discrimination accuracy between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and similar neurodevelopmental disorders, a data mining procedure, Classification and Regression Trees (CART), was used on a large multi-site sample of PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) forms on children with and without ASD. Discrimination accuracy exceeded 80%,…

  5. Grading of Parameters for Urban Tree Inventories by City Officials, Arborists, and Academics Using the Delphi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Östberg, Johan; Delshammar, Tim; Wiström, Björn; Nielsen, Anders Busse

    2013-03-01

    Tree inventories are expensive to conduct and update, so every inventory carried out must be maximized. However, increasing the number of constituent parameters increases the cost of performing and updating the inventory, illustrating the need for careful parameter selection. This article reports the results of a systematic expert rating of tree inventories aiming to quantify the relative importance of each parameter. Using the Delphi method, panels comprising city officials, arborists, and academics rated a total of 148 parameters. The total mean score, the top ranking parameters, which can serve as a guide for decision-making at practical level and for standardization of tree inventories, were: Scientific name of the tree species and genera, Vitality, Coordinates, Hazard class, and Identification number. The study also examined whether the different responsibilities and usage of urban tree databases among organizations and people engaged in urban tree inventories affected their prioritization. The results revealed noticeable dissimilarities in the ranking of parameters between the panels, underlining the need for collaboration between the research community and those commissioning, administrating, and conducting inventories. Only by applying such a transdisciplinary approach to parameter selection can urban tree inventories be strengthened and made more relevant.

  6. Analysis of growth trend changes for 51 temperate tree species using Korea national forest inventory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Moon, M.; Park, J.; Cho, S.; Kim, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Individual tree growth rates can be affected by various factors such as species, soil fertility, stand development stage, disturbance, and climate etc. To estimate the effect of changes in tree growth rate on the structure and functionality of forest ecosystem in the future, we analyzed the change of species-specific growth trends using the fifth Korea national forest inventory data, which was collected from 2006 to 2010. The ring samples of average tree were collected from nationwide inventory plots and the total number of individual tree ring series was 69,128 covering 185 tree species. Among those, fifty one species with more than 100 tree ring series were used for our analysis. For growth-trend analysis, standardized regional curves of individual species growth were generated from three forest zone in South Korea; subarctic, cool temperate, warm temperate forest zone. Then individual tree ring series was indexed by dividing the growth of the tree by expected growth from standardized regional curves. Then the ratio of all tree ring series were aligned by year and the Spearman's correlation coefficient of each species was calculated. The results show that most of species had increasing growth rates as forests developed after Korean war. For the last thirty years, 67.3% of species including Quercus spp. and Zelkova serrata had positive growth trends, on the other hand, 11.5% of species including Pinus spp. showed negative growth trends probably due to the changes in successional stages in Korean forests and climate change. These trends also vary with climate zone and species. For examples, Pinus densiflora, which showed negative growth trend overall, had steep negative growth trends in boreal and temperate zone, whereas it showed no specific trend in sub-tropical climate zone. Our trend analysis on 51 temperate tree species growth will be essential to predict the temperate forests species change for the this century.

  7. A System to Derive Optimal Tree Diameter Increment Models from the Eastwide Forest Inventory Data Base (EFIDB)

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg

    2002-01-01

    This article is an introduction to the computer software used by the Potential Relative Increment (PRI) approach to optimal tree diameter growth modeling. These DOS programs extract qualified tree and plot data from the Eastwide Forest Inventory Data Base (EFIDB), calculate relative tree increment, sort for the highest relative increments by diameter class, and...

  8. Recent changes in the estimation of standing dead tree biomass and carbon stocks in the U.S. forest inventory

    Treesearch

    Grant M. Domke; Christopher W. Woodall; James E. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, standing dead tree biomass and carbon (C) has been estimated as a function of live tree growing stock volume in the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program. Traditional estimates of standing dead tree biomass/C attributes were based on merchantability standards that did not reflect density reductions or structural loss due to...

  9. Sampling procedures for inventory of commercial volume tree species in Amazon Forest.

    PubMed

    Netto, Sylvio P; Pelissari, Allan L; Cysneiros, Vinicius C; Bonazza, Marcelo; Sanquetta, Carlos R

    2017-01-01

    The spatial distribution of tropical tree species can affect the consistency of the estimators in commercial forest inventories, therefore, appropriate sampling procedures are required to survey species with different spatial patterns in the Amazon Forest. For this, the present study aims to evaluate the conventional sampling procedures and introduce the adaptive cluster sampling for volumetric inventories of Amazonian tree species, considering the hypotheses that the density, the spatial distribution and the zero-plots affect the consistency of the estimators, and that the adaptive cluster sampling allows to obtain more accurate volumetric estimation. We use data from a census carried out in Jamari National Forest, Brazil, where trees with diameters equal to or higher than 40 cm were measured in 1,355 plots. Species with different spatial patterns were selected and sampled with simple random sampling, systematic sampling, linear cluster sampling and adaptive cluster sampling, whereby the accuracy of the volumetric estimation and presence of zero-plots were evaluated. The sampling procedures applied to species were affected by the low density of trees and the large number of zero-plots, wherein the adaptive clusters allowed concentrating the sampling effort in plots with trees and, thus, agglutinating more representative samples to estimate the commercial volume.

  10. Integrating LIDAR and forest inventories to fill the trees outside forests data gap.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kristofer D; Birdsey, Richard; Cole, Jason; Swatantran, Anu; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath; Dubayah, Ralph; Lister, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Forest inventories are commonly used to estimate total tree biomass of forest land even though they are not traditionally designed to measure biomass of trees outside forests (TOF). The consequence may be an inaccurate representation of all of the aboveground biomass, which propagates error to the outputs of spatial and process models that rely on the inventory data. An ideal approach to fill this data gap would be to integrate TOF measurements within a traditional forest inventory for a parsimonious estimate of total tree biomass. In this study, Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data were used to predict biomass of TOF in all "nonforest" Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots in the state of Maryland. To validate the LIDAR-based biomass predictions, a field crew was sent to measure TOF on nonforest plots in three Maryland counties, revealing close agreement at both the plot and county scales between the two estimates. Total tree biomass in Maryland increased by 25.5 Tg, or 15.6%, when biomass of TOF were included. In two counties (Carroll and Howard), there was a 47% increase. In contrast, counties located further away from the interstate highway corridor showed only a modest increase in biomass when TOF were added because nonforest conditions were less common in those areas. The advantage of this approach for estimating biomass of TOF is that it is compatible with, and explicitly separates TOF biomass from, forest biomass already measured by FIA crews. By predicting biomass of TOF at actual FIA plots, this approach is directly compatible with traditionally reported FIA forest biomass, providing a framework for other states to follow, and should improve carbon reporting and modeling activities in Maryland.

  11. National Tree Climbing Guide [2015 Electronic Edition

    Treesearch

    Jerry Berdeen; Burnham Chamberlain; Teryl Grubb; Art Henderson; Brock Mayo; Manfred Mielke; Kathryn Purcell; Dennis Ringnes; Marc Roberts; Donna Stubbs; Micah Thorning

    2015-01-01

    The Forest Service Tree Climbing Program provides direction that protects Forest Service employees while ascending, descending, and working aloft in trees by establishing national direction based on recognized industry standards, procedures and practices. Climbing and working in trees demands specialized equipment and skills. The potential for a serious injury or fatal...

  12. Inventorying trees in agricultural landscapes: towards an accounting of working trees

    Treesearch

    C. H. Perry; C. W. Woodall; M.M. Schoeneberger

    2005-01-01

    Agroforestry plantings and other trees intentionally established in rural and urban areas are emerging as innovative management options for addressing resource issues and achieving landscape-level goals. An understanding of the contributions from these and future plantings would provide critical information to policy and program developers, and a comprehensive...

  13. SWAT (Student Weekend Arborist Team): A Model for Land Grant Institutions and Cooperative Extension Systems to Conduct Street Tree Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowett, F.D.; Bassuk, N.L.

    2012-01-01

    SWAT (Student Weekend Arborist Team) is a program affiliated with Cornell University and Extension founded to conduct street tree inventories in New York State communities with 10,000 residents or fewer, a group of communities underserved in community forestry planning. Between 2002 and 2010, SWAT conducted 40 inventories, and data from these…

  14. SWAT (Student Weekend Arborist Team): A Model for Land Grant Institutions and Cooperative Extension Systems to Conduct Street Tree Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowett, F.D.; Bassuk, N.L.

    2012-01-01

    SWAT (Student Weekend Arborist Team) is a program affiliated with Cornell University and Extension founded to conduct street tree inventories in New York State communities with 10,000 residents or fewer, a group of communities underserved in community forestry planning. Between 2002 and 2010, SWAT conducted 40 inventories, and data from these…

  15. Feasibility of high-density climate reconstruction based on Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) collected tree-ring data

    Treesearch

    R. Justin DeRose; Shih-Yu Wang; John D. Shaw

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a novel tree-ring dataset, with unparalleled spatial density, for use as a climate proxy. Ancillary Douglas fir and pinyon pine tree-ring data collected by the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA data) were subjected to a series of tests to determine their feasibility as climate proxies. First, temporal coherence between...

  16. Applying survival analysis to a large-scale forest inventory for assessment of tree mortality in Minnesota

    Treesearch

    C.W. Woodall; P.L. Grambsch; W. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Tree mortality has traditionally been assessed in forest inventories through summaries of mortality by location, species, and causal agents. Although these methods have historically constituted the majority of tree mortality summarizations, they have had limited use in assessing mortality trends and dynamics. This study proposed a novel method of applying survival...

  17. RE-Powering’s Electronic Decision Tree

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Developed by US EPA's RE-Powering America's Land Initiative, the RE-Powering Decision Trees tool guides interested parties through a process to screen sites for their suitability for solar photovoltaics or wind installations

  18. A stem-map model for predicting tree canopy cover of Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots

    Treesearch

    Chris Toney; John D. Shaw; Mark D. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Tree canopy cover is an important stand characteristic that affects understory light, fuel moisture, decomposition rates, wind speed, and wildlife habitat. Canopy cover also is a component of most definitions of forest land used by US and international agencies. The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program currently does not provide a national...

  19. Assessing the effect of snow/water obstructions on the measurement of tree seedlings in a large-scale temperate forest inventory

    Treesearch

    C.W. Woodall; J.A. Westfall; K. Zhu; D.J. Johnson

    2013-01-01

    National-scale forest inventories have endeavoured to include holistic measurements of forest health inclusive of attributes such as downed dead wood and tree regeneration that occur in the forest understory. Inventories may require year-round measurement of inventory plots with some of these measurements being affected by seasonal obstructions (e.g. snowpacks and...

  20. Estimates of biomass in logging residue and standing residual inventory following tree-harvest activity on timberland acres in the southern region

    Treesearch

    Roger C. Conner; Tony G. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This report provides estimates of biomass (green tons) in logging residue and standing residual inventory on timberland acres with evidence of tree cutting. Biomass as defined by Forest Inventory and Analysis is the aboveground dry weight of wood in the bole and limbs of live trees ≥ 1-inch diameter at breast height (d.b.h.), and excludes tree foliage, seedlings, and...

  1. Detecting change in advance tree regeneration using forest inventory data: the implications of type II error.

    PubMed

    Westfall, James A; McWilliams, William H

    2012-09-01

    Achieving adequate and desirable forest regeneration is necessary for maintaining native tree species and forest composition. Advance tree seedling and sapling regeneration is the basis of the next stand and serves as an indicator of future composition. The Pennsylvania Regeneration Study was implemented statewide to monitor regeneration on a subset of Forest Inventory and Analysis plots measured by the U.S. Forest Service. As management techniques are implemented to improve advance regeneration, assessments of the change in the forest resource are needed. When the primary focus is on detecting change, hypothesis tests should have small type II (β) error rates. However, most analyses are based on minimizing type I (α) error rates and type II error rates can be quite large. When type II error rates are high, actual improvements in regeneration can remain undetected and the methods that brought these improvements may be deemed ineffective. The difficulty in detecting significant change in advance regeneration when small type I error rates are given priority is illustrated. For statewide assessments, power (1-β) to detect changes in proportion of area having adequate advance regeneration is relatively weak (≤0.5) when the change is smaller than 0.05. For evaluations conducted at smaller spatial scales, such as wildlife management units, the reduced sample size results in only marginal power even when relatively large changes (≥0.20) in area proportion occur. For fixed sample sizes, analysts can consider accepting larger type I error rates to increase the probability of detecting change (smaller type II error rates) when it occurs, such that management methods that positively affect regeneration can be identified.

  2. Automatic Tracking Radar Career Ladder, AFSC-303X3. Electronics Principles Inventory (EPI).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    81 UNCLASSIFIED NL mhhmI/I/II///IEEIIIIEIIIIIEE EIIIIEEEEIIIII UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ELECTRONICS PRINCIPLES INVENTORY (EPI),., / b AUTOMATIC...presents the preliminary results of an Air Force Electronics Principles Survey of the Automatic Tracking Radar career ladder (AFSC 303X3). The project was...undertaken at the request of Mr. James R. Haupt, Training Manager, Keesler AFB, MS. Authority for conducting electronics principles inventories is

  3. A dataset on the inventory of coniferous urban trees in the city of Orléans (France).

    PubMed

    Rossi, J-P; Imbault, V; Lamant, T; Rousselet, J

    2016-12-01

    The dataset supplied in this article provides the spatial location and the species composition of urban trees belonging to three coniferous genera (Pinus, Cedrus and Pseudotsuga) inventoried in 5 districts of the city of Orléans (France). A total of 9321 trees were georeferenced. The most abundant species was the black pine Pinus nigra for which a total of 2420 trees were observed. Other common species were the scots pine P. sylvestris, the Douglas-fir Pseudotsuga menziesii and different species of the genus Cedrus. The data supplied in this article are related to "A citywide survey of the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa spatial distribution in Orléans (France)" by J.-P. Rossi, V. Imbault, T. Lamant, J. Rousselet,) [3].

  4. Watershed Merge Tree Classification for Electron Microscopy Image Segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, TIng; Jurrus, Elizabeth R.; Seyedhosseini, Mojtaba; Ellisman, Mark; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2012-11-11

    Automated segmentation of electron microscopy (EM) images is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a novel method that utilizes a hierarchical structure and boundary classification for 2D neuron segmentation. With a membrane detection probability map, a watershed merge tree is built for the representation of hierarchical region merging from the watershed algorithm. A boundary classifier is learned with non-local image features to predict each potential merge in the tree, upon which merge decisions are made with consistency constraints in the sense of optimization to acquire the final segmentation. Independent of classifiers and decision strategies, our approach proposes a general framework for efficient hierarchical segmentation with statistical learning. We demonstrate that our method leads to a substantial improvement in segmentation accuracy.

  5. A life cycle carbon dioxide inventory of the Million Trees Los Angeles Program

    Treesearch

    E. Gregory McPherson; Alissa Kendall

    2014-01-01

    PurposeThis study seeks to answer the question, “Will the Million Trees LA (Million Trees Los Angeles, MTLA) program be a carbon dioxide (CO2) sink or source?” Because there has never been a full accounting of CO2 emissions, it is unclear if urban tree planting initiatives (TPIs) are likely to be...

  6. FIA Quality Assurance Program: Evaluation of a Tree Matching Algorithm for Paired Forest Inventory Data

    Treesearch

    James E. Pollard; James A. Westfall; Paul A. Patterson; David L. Gartner

    2005-01-01

    The quality of Forest Inventory and Analysis inventory data can be documented by having quality assurance crews remeasure plots originally measured by field crews within 2 to 3 weeks of the initial measurement, and assessing the difference between the original and remeasured data. Estimates of measurement uncertainty for the data are generated using paired data...

  7. Use of USDA forest inventory and analysis data to assess oak tree health in Minnesota

    Treesearch

    Kathryn W. Kromroy; Jennifer Juzwik; Paul D. Castillo

    2003-01-01

    As a precursor to a regional assessment for the Upper Midwest, three variables were examined as measures of oak health in Minnesota between 1974 and 1990 using USDA Forest Service Inventory and Analysis data. Mortality was 6 percent in the 1986-1990 inventory based on numbers of dead oaks per total oaks on plots with...

  8. Long-term tree inventory data from mountain forest plots in France.

    PubMed

    Fuhr, Marc; Cordonnier, Thomas; Courbaud, Benoît; Kunstler, Georges; Mermin, Eric; Riond, Catherine; Tardif, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    We present repeated tree measurement data from 63 permanent plots in mountain forests in France. Plot elevations range from 800 (lower limit of the montane belt) to 1942 m above sea level (subalpine belt). Forests mainly consist of pure or mixed stands dominated by European beech (Fagus sylvatica), Silver fir (Abies alba), and Norway spruce (Picea abies), in association with various broadleaved species at low elevation and with Arolla pine (Pinus cembra) at high elevation. The plot network includes 23 plots in stands that have not been managed for the last 40 years (at least) and 40 plots in plots managed according to an uneven-aged system with single-tree or small-group selection cutting. Plot sizes range from 0.2 to 1.9 ha. Plots were installed from 1994 to 2004 and remeasured two to five times during the 1994-2015 period. During the first census (installation), living trees more than 7.5 cm in dbh were identified, their diameter at breast height (dbh) was measured and their social status (strata) noted. Trees were spatially located, either with x, y, and z coordinates (40 plots) or within 0.25-ha square subplots (23 plots). In addition, in a subset of plots (58 plots), tree heights and tree crown dimensions were measured on a subset of trees and dead standing trees and stumps were included in the census. Remeasurements after installation include live tree diameters (including recruited trees), tree status (living, damaged, dead, stump), and for a subset of trees, height. At the time of establishment of the plots, plot densities range from 181 to 1328 stems/ha and plot basal areas range from 13.6 to 81.3 m(2) /ha. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Influence of tree spatial pattern and sample plot type and size on inventory

    Treesearch

    John-Pascall Berrill; Kevin L. O' Hara

    2012-01-01

    Sampling with different plot types and sizes was simulated using tree location maps and data collected in three even-aged coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) stands selected to represent uniform, random, and clumped spatial patterns of tree locations. Fixed-radius circular plots, belt transects, and variable-radius plots were installed by...

  10. Forest inventory predictions from individual tree crowns: regression modeling within a sample framework

    Treesearch

    James W. Flewelling

    2009-01-01

    Remotely sensed data can be used to make digital maps showing individual tree crowns (ITC) for entire forests. Attributes of the ITCs may include area, shape, height, and color. The crown map is sampled in a way that provides an unbiased linkage between ITCs and identifiable trees measured on the ground. Methods of avoiding edge bias are given. In an example from a...

  11. Improving Crop Classification Techniques Using Optical Remote Sensing Imagery, High-Resolution Agriculture Resource Inventory Shapefiles and Decision Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnychuk, A. L.; Berg, A. A.; Sweeney, S.

    2010-12-01

    Recognition of anthropogenic effects of land use management practices on bodies of water is important for remediating and preventing eutrophication. In the case of Lake Simcoe, Ontario the main surrounding landuse is agriculture. To better manage the nutrient flow into the lake, knowledge of the management of the agricultural land is important. For this basin, a comprehensive agricultural resource inventory is required for assessment of policy and for input into water quality management and assessment tools. Supervised decision tree classification schemes, used in many previous applications, have yielded reliable classifications in agricultural land-use systems. However, when using these classification techniques the user is confronted with numerous data sources. In this study we use a large inventory of optical satellite image products (Landsat, AWiFS, SPOT and MODIS) and ancillary data sources (temporal MODIS-NDVI product signatures, digital elevation models and soil maps) at various spatial and temporal resolutions in a decision tree classification scheme. The sensitivity of the classification accuracy to various products is assessed to identify optimal data sources for classifying crop systems.

  12. 77 FR 13061 - Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... electronic reporting requirement would be for the few facilities that submit trade secret TRI information (including sanitized and unsanitized information), who would continue to submit their trade secret reporting... submitted TRI data. For trade secret submissions, EPA would still accept revisions or withdrawals...

  13. Inventory Control. Easily Made Electronic Device for Conductivity Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadek, Frank J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes how to construct an electronic device to be used in conductivity experiments using a 35 millimeter film canister, nine volt battery replacement snaps, a 200-300 ohm resistor, and a light-emitting diode. Provides a diagram and photographs of the device. (TW)

  14. Inventory Control. Easily Made Electronic Device for Conductivity Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadek, Frank J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes how to construct an electronic device to be used in conductivity experiments using a 35 millimeter film canister, nine volt battery replacement snaps, a 200-300 ohm resistor, and a light-emitting diode. Provides a diagram and photographs of the device. (TW)

  15. Gridded snow water equivalent reconstruction for Utah using Forest Inventory and Analysis tree-ring data

    Treesearch

    Daniel Barandiaran; S.-Y. Simon Wang; R. Justin DeRose

    2017-01-01

    Snowpack observations in the Intermountain West are sparse and short, making them difficult for use in depicting past variability and extremes. This study presents a reconstruction of April 1 snow water equivalent (SWE) for the period of 1850–1989 using increment cores collected by the U.S. Forest Service, Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis program (FIA). In...

  16. Using a remote sensing-based, percent tree cover map to enhance forest inventory estimation

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Greg C. Liknes; Grant M. Domke

    2014-01-01

    For most national forest inventories, the variables of primary interest to users are forest area and growing stock volume. The precision of estimates of parameters related to these variables can be increased using remotely sensed auxiliary variables, often in combination with stratified estimators. However, acquisition and processing of large amounts of remotely sensed...

  17. Estimating the number of tree species in forest populations using current vegetation survey and forest inventory and analysis approximation plots and grid intensities

    Treesearch

    Hans T. Schreuder; Jin-Mann S. Lin; John Teply

    2000-01-01

    We estimate number of tree species in National Forest populations using the nonparametric estimator. Data from the Current Vegetation Survey (CVS) of Region 6 of the USDA Forest Service were used to estimate the number of tree species with a plot close in size to the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot and the actual CVS plot for the 5.5 km FIA grid and the 2.7 km...

  18. A European inventory of common electronic health record data elements for clinical trial feasibility.

    PubMed

    Doods, Justin; Botteri, Florence; Dugas, Martin; Fritz, Fleur

    2014-01-10

    Clinical studies are a necessity for new medications and therapies. Many studies, however, struggle to meet their recruitment numbers in time or have problems in meeting them at all. With increasing numbers of electronic health records (EHRs) in hospitals, huge databanks emerge that could be utilized to support research. The Innovative Medicine Initiative (IMI) funded project 'Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research' (EHR4CR) created a standardized and homogenous inventory of data elements to support research by utilizing EHRs. Our aim was to develop a Data Inventory that contains elements required for site feasibility analysis. The Data Inventory was created in an iterative, consensus driven approach, by a group of up to 30 people consisting of pharmaceutical experts and informatics specialists. An initial list was subsequently expanded by data elements of simplified eligibility criteria from clinical trial protocols. Each element was manually reviewed by pharmaceutical experts and standard definitions were identified and added. To verify their availability, data exports of the source systems at eleven university hospitals throughout Europe were conducted and evaluated. The Data Inventory consists of 75 data elements that, on the one hand are frequently used in clinical studies, and on the other hand are available in European EHR systems. Rankings of data elements were created from the results of the data exports. In addition a sub-list was created with 21 data elements that were separated from the Data Inventory because of their low usage in routine documentation. The data elements in the Data Inventory were identified with the knowledge of domain experts from pharmaceutical companies. Currently, not all information that is frequently used in site feasibility is documented in routine patient care.

  19. A European inventory of common electronic health record data elements for clinical trial feasibility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical studies are a necessity for new medications and therapies. Many studies, however, struggle to meet their recruitment numbers in time or have problems in meeting them at all. With increasing numbers of electronic health records (EHRs) in hospitals, huge databanks emerge that could be utilized to support research. The Innovative Medicine Initiative (IMI) funded project ‘Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research’ (EHR4CR) created a standardized and homogenous inventory of data elements to support research by utilizing EHRs. Our aim was to develop a Data Inventory that contains elements required for site feasibility analysis. Methods The Data Inventory was created in an iterative, consensus driven approach, by a group of up to 30 people consisting of pharmaceutical experts and informatics specialists. An initial list was subsequently expanded by data elements of simplified eligibility criteria from clinical trial protocols. Each element was manually reviewed by pharmaceutical experts and standard definitions were identified and added. To verify their availability, data exports of the source systems at eleven university hospitals throughout Europe were conducted and evaluated. Results The Data Inventory consists of 75 data elements that, on the one hand are frequently used in clinical studies, and on the other hand are available in European EHR systems. Rankings of data elements were created from the results of the data exports. In addition a sub-list was created with 21 data elements that were separated from the Data Inventory because of their low usage in routine documentation. Conclusion The data elements in the Data Inventory were identified with the knowledge of domain experts from pharmaceutical companies. Currently, not all information that is frequently used in site feasibility is documented in routine patient care. PMID:24410735

  20. GuiaTreeKey, a multi-access electronic key to identify tree genera in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Julien; Brousseau, Louise; Baraloto, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The tropical rainforest of Amazonia is one of the most species-rich ecosystems on earth, with an estimated 16000 tree species. Due to this high diversity, botanical identification of trees in the Amazon is difficult, even to genus, often requiring the assistance of parataxonomists or taxonomic specialists. Advances in informatics tools offer a promising opportunity to develop user-friendly electronic keys to improve Amazonian tree identification. Here, we introduce an original multi-access electronic key for the identification of 389 tree genera occurring in French Guiana terra-firme forests, based on a set of 79 morphological characters related to vegetative, floral and fruit characters. Its purpose is to help Amazonian tree identification and to support the dissemination of botanical knowledge to non-specialists, including forest workers, students and researchers from other scientific disciplines. The electronic key is accessible with the free access software Xper², and the database is publicly available on figshare: https://figshare.com/s/75d890b7d707e0ffc9bf (doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.2682550). PMID:27698572

  1. Aircraft Control and Warning (AC & W) Radar Career Ladder AFSC 303X2. Electronics Principles Inventory (EPI).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    UNCLASSIFIED N EEEh EE-E I flffl~f~fl.flfllflf i. UNITED STATES AIR FORCE NMI ELECTRONICS PRINCIPLES INVENTORY (EPI), -AIRCRAFT CONTROL AND WARNING (AC & W...Air Force Electronics Principles Survey of the Aircraft Control and Warning (AC & W) Radar career ladder (AFSC 303X2). The project was undertaken at the...request of Mr. James R. Haupt, Training Manager, Keesler AFB, MS. Authority for con- ducting electronics principles inventories is contained in AER

  2. Challenging process to make the Lateglacial tree-ring chronologies from Europe absolute - an inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Klaus Felix; Friedrich, Michael; Miramont, Cécile; Kromer, Bernd; Sgier, Mario; Schaub, Matthias; Boeren, Ilse; Remmele, Sabine; Talamo, Sahra; Guibal, Frédéric; Sivan, Olivier

    2012-03-01

    Here we present the entire range of Lateglacial tree-ring chronologies from Switzerland, Germany, France, covering the Lateglacial north and west of the Alps without interruption as well as finds from northern Italy, complemented by a 14C data set of the Swiss chronologies. Geographical expansion of cross-matched European Lateglacial chronologies, limits and prospects of teleconnection between remote sites and extension of the absolute tree-ring chronology are discussed. High frequency signals and long-term fluctuations are revealed by the ring-width data sets of the newly constructed Swiss Late-glacial Master Chronology (SWILM) as well as the Central European Lateglacial Master Chronology (CELM) spanning 1606 years. They agree well with the characteristics of Boelling/Alleroed (GI-1) and the transition into Younger Dryas (GS-1). The regional chronologies of Central Europe may provide improved interconnection to other terrestrial or marine high-resolution archives. Nevertheless the breakthrough to a continuous absolute chronology back to Boelling (GI-1e) has not yet been achieved. A gap remains, even though it is covered by several floating chronologies from France and Switzerland.

  3. Characterizing individual particles on tree leaves using computer automated scanning electron microscopy

    Treesearch

    D. L. Johnson; D. J. Nowak; V. A. Jouraeva

    1999-01-01

    Leaves from twenty-three deciduous tree species and five conifer species were collected within a limited geographic range (1 km radius) and evaluated for possible application of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis techniques of individual particle analysis (IPA). The goal was to identify tree species with leaves suitable for the automated...

  4. Towards the harmonization between National Forest Inventory and Forest Condition Monitoring. Consistency of plot allocation and effect of tree selection methods on sample statistics in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Patrizia; Di Cosmo, Lucio; Cenni, Enrico; Pompei, Enrico; Ferretti, Marco

    2013-07-01

    In the frame of a process aiming at harmonizing National Forest Inventory (NFI) and ICP Forests Level I Forest Condition Monitoring (FCM) in Italy, we investigated (a) the long-term consistency between FCM sample points (a subsample of the first NFI, 1985, NFI_1) and recent forest area estimates (after the second NFI, 2005, NFI_2) and (b) the effect of tree selection method (tree-based or plot-based) on sample composition and defoliation statistics. The two investigations were carried out on 261 and 252 FCM sites, respectively. Results show that some individual forest categories (larch and stone pine, Norway spruce, other coniferous, beech, temperate oaks and cork oak forests) are over-represented and others (hornbeam and hophornbeam, other deciduous broadleaved and holm oak forests) are under-represented in the FCM sample. This is probably due to a change in forest cover, which has increased by 1,559,200 ha from 1985 to 2005. In case of shift from a tree-based to a plot-based selection method, 3,130 (46.7%) of the original 6,703 sample trees will be abandoned, and 1,473 new trees will be selected. The balance between exclusion of former sample trees and inclusion of new ones will be particularly unfavourable for conifers (with only 16.4% of excluded trees replaced by new ones) and less for deciduous broadleaves (with 63.5% of excluded trees replaced). The total number of tree species surveyed will not be impacted, while the number of trees per species will, and the resulting (plot-based) sample composition will have a much larger frequency of deciduous broadleaved trees. The newly selected trees have-in general-smaller diameter at breast height (DBH) and defoliation scores. Given the larger rate of turnover, the deciduous broadleaved part of the sample will be more impacted. Our results suggest that both a revision of FCM network to account for forest area change and a plot-based approach to permit statistical inference and avoid bias in the tree sample

  5. Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  6. Estimating root collar diameter growth for multi-stem western woodland tree species on remeasured forest inventory and analysis plots

    Treesearch

    Michael T. Thompson; Maggie. Toone

    2012-01-01

    Tree diameter growth models are widely used in many forestry applications, often to predict tree size at a future point in time. Also, there are instances where projections of past diameters are needed. An individual tree model has been developed to estimate diameter growth of multi-stem woodland tree species where the diameter is measured at root collar. The model was...

  7. The use of aerial photographs and angle-gauge sampling of tree crown diameters for forest inventories

    Treesearch

    Lawrence R. Gering; Dennis M. May; Kurt B. Teuber

    1990-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis unit of the Southern Forest Experiment Station is charged with conducting continuous inventories of the forest resources of the Midsouth.Techniques that offer innovative approaches for improving the efficiency of these inventories are in demand.One new approach for estimating the density of forest stands involves the derivation of a...

  8. Tree-level imputation techniques to estimate current plot-level attributes in the Pacific Northwest using paneled inventory data

    Treesearch

    Bianca Eskelson; Temesgen Hailemariam; Tara Barrett

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis program (FIA) of the US Forest Service conducts a nationwide annual inventory. One panel (20% or 10% of all plots in the eastern and western United States, respectively) is measured each year. The precision of the estimates for any given year from one panel is low, and the moving average (MA), which is considered to be the default...

  9. Electronic Inventory Systems and Barcode Technology: Impact on Pharmacy Technical Accuracy and Error Liability

    PubMed Central

    Oldland, Alan R.; May, Sondra K.; Barber, Gerard R.; Stolpman, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the effects associated with sequential implementation of electronic medication storage and inventory systems and product verification devices on pharmacy technical accuracy and rates of potential medication dispensing errors in an academic medical center. Methods: During four 28-day periods of observation, pharmacists recorded all technical errors identified at the final visual check of pharmaceuticals prior to dispensing. Technical filling errors involving deviations from order-specific selection of product, dosage form, strength, or quantity were documented when dispensing medications using (a) a conventional unit dose (UD) drug distribution system, (b) an electronic storage and inventory system utilizing automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) within the pharmacy, (c) ADCs combined with barcode (BC) verification, and (d) ADCs and BC verification utilized with changes in product labeling and individualized personnel training in systems application. Results: Using a conventional UD system, the overall incidence of technical error was 0.157% (24/15,271). Following implementation of ADCs, the comparative overall incidence of technical error was 0.135% (10/7,379; P = .841). Following implementation of BC scanning, the comparative overall incidence of technical error was 0.137% (27/19,708; P = .729). Subsequent changes in product labeling and intensified staff training in the use of BC systems was associated with a decrease in the rate of technical error to 0.050% (13/26,200; P = .002). Conclusions: Pharmacy ADCs and BC systems provide complementary effects that improve technical accuracy and reduce the incidence of potential medication dispensing errors if this technology is used with comprehensive personnel training. PMID:25684799

  10. Electronic inventory systems and barcode technology: impact on pharmacy technical accuracy and error liability.

    PubMed

    Oldland, Alan R; Golightly, Larry K; May, Sondra K; Barber, Gerard R; Stolpman, Nancy M

    2015-01-01

    To measure the effects associated with sequential implementation of electronic medication storage and inventory systems and product verification devices on pharmacy technical accuracy and rates of potential medication dispensing errors in an academic medical center. During four 28-day periods of observation, pharmacists recorded all technical errors identified at the final visual check of pharmaceuticals prior to dispensing. Technical filling errors involving deviations from order-specific selection of product, dosage form, strength, or quantity were documented when dispensing medications using (a) a conventional unit dose (UD) drug distribution system, (b) an electronic storage and inventory system utilizing automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) within the pharmacy, (c) ADCs combined with barcode (BC) verification, and (d) ADCs and BC verification utilized with changes in product labeling and individualized personnel training in systems application. Using a conventional UD system, the overall incidence of technical error was 0.157% (24/15,271). Following implementation of ADCs, the comparative overall incidence of technical error was 0.135% (10/7,379; P = .841). Following implementation of BC scanning, the comparative overall incidence of technical error was 0.137% (27/19,708; P = .729). Subsequent changes in product labeling and intensified staff training in the use of BC systems was associated with a decrease in the rate of technical error to 0.050% (13/26,200; P = .002). Pharmacy ADCs and BC systems provide complementary effects that improve technical accuracy and reduce the incidence of potential medication dispensing errors if this technology is used with comprehensive personnel training.

  11. Molecular decision trees realized by ultrafast electronic spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fresch, Barbara; Hiluf, Dawit; Collini, Elisabetta; Levine, R. D.; Remacle, F.

    2013-01-01

    The outcome of a light–matter interaction depends on both the state of matter and the state of light. It is thus a natural setting for implementing bilinear classical logic. A description of the state of a time-varying system requires measuring an (ideally complete) set of time-dependent observables. Typically, this is prohibitive, but in weak-field spectroscopy we can move toward this goal because only a finite number of levels are accessible. Recent progress in nonlinear spectroscopies means that nontrivial measurements can be implemented and thereby give rise to interesting logic schemes where the outputs are functions of the observables. Lie algebra offers a natural tool for generating the outcome of the bilinear light–matter interaction. We show how to synthesize these ideas by explicitly discussing three-photon spectroscopy of a bichromophoric molecule for which there are four accessible states. Switching logic would use the on–off occupancies of these four states as outcomes. Here, we explore the use of all 16 observables that define the time-evolving state of the bichromophoric system. The bilinear laser–system interaction with the three pulses of the setup of a 2D photon echo spectroscopy experiment can be used to generate a rich parallel logic that corresponds to the implementation of a molecular decision tree. Our simulations allow relaxation by weak coupling to the environment, which adds to the complexity of the logic operations. PMID:24043793

  12. Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Henri

    2016-11-01

    An algebraic formalism, developed with V. Glaser and R. Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large category of space-times.

  13. Inventory-based sensitivity analysis of the Large Tree Diameter Growth Submodel of the Southern Variant of the FVS

    Treesearch

    Giorgio Vacchiano; John D. Shaw; R. Justin DeRose; James N. Long

    2008-01-01

    Diameter increment is an important variable in modeling tree growth. Most facets of predicted tree development are dependent in part on diameter or diameter increment, the most commonly measured stand variable. The behavior of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) largely relies on the performance of the diameter increment model and the subsequent use of predicted dbh...

  14. Project CAPTURE: using forest inventory and analysis data to prioritize tree species for conservation, management, and restoration

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara S. Crane; William W. Hargrove

    2015-01-01

    A variety of threats, most importantly climate change and insect and disease infestation, will increase the likelihood that forest tree species could experience population-level extirpation or species-level extinction during the next century. Project CAPTURE (Conservation Assessment and Prioritization of Forest Trees Under Risk of Extirpation) is a cooperative effort...

  15. Tree Size Inequality Reduces Forest Productivity: An Analysis Combining Inventory Data for Ten European Species and a Light Competition Model.

    PubMed

    Bourdier, Thomas; Cordonnier, Thomas; Kunstler, Georges; Piedallu, Christian; Lagarrigues, Guillaume; Courbaud, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Plant structural diversity is usually considered as beneficial for ecosystem functioning. For instance, numerous studies have reported positive species diversity-productivity relationships in plant communities. However, other aspects of structural diversity such as individual size inequality have been far less investigated. In forests, tree size inequality impacts directly tree growth and asymmetric competition, but consequences on forest productivity are still indeterminate. In addition, the effect of tree size inequality on productivity is likely to vary with species shade-tolerance, a key ecological characteristic controlling asymmetric competition and light resource acquisition. Using plot data from the French National Geographic Agency, we studied the response of stand productivity to size inequality for ten forest species differing in shade tolerance. We fitted a basal area stand production model that included abiotic factors, stand density, stand development stage and a tree size inequality index. Then, using a forest dynamics model we explored whether mechanisms of light interception and light use efficiency could explain the tree size inequality effect observed for three of the ten species studied. Size inequality negatively affected basal area increment for seven out of the ten species investigated. However, this effect was not related to the shade tolerance of these species. According to the model simulations, the negative tree size inequality effect could result both from reduced total stand light interception and reduced light use efficiency. Our results demonstrate that negative relationships between size inequality and productivity may be the rule in tree populations. The lack of effect of shade tolerance indicates compensatory mechanisms between effect on light availability and response to light availability. Such a pattern deserves further investigations for mixed forests where complementarity effects between species are involved. When studying the

  16. Tree Size Inequality Reduces Forest Productivity: An Analysis Combining Inventory Data for Ten European Species and a Light Competition Model

    PubMed Central

    Bourdier, Thomas; Cordonnier, Thomas; Kunstler, Georges; Piedallu, Christian; Lagarrigues, Guillaume; Courbaud, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Plant structural diversity is usually considered as beneficial for ecosystem functioning. For instance, numerous studies have reported positive species diversity-productivity relationships in plant communities. However, other aspects of structural diversity such as individual size inequality have been far less investigated. In forests, tree size inequality impacts directly tree growth and asymmetric competition, but consequences on forest productivity are still indeterminate. In addition, the effect of tree size inequality on productivity is likely to vary with species shade-tolerance, a key ecological characteristic controlling asymmetric competition and light resource acquisition. Using plot data from the French National Geographic Agency, we studied the response of stand productivity to size inequality for ten forest species differing in shade tolerance. We fitted a basal area stand production model that included abiotic factors, stand density, stand development stage and a tree size inequality index. Then, using a forest dynamics model we explored whether mechanisms of light interception and light use efficiency could explain the tree size inequality effect observed for three of the ten species studied. Size inequality negatively affected basal area increment for seven out of the ten species investigated. However, this effect was not related to the shade tolerance of these species. According to the model simulations, the negative tree size inequality effect could result both from reduced total stand light interception and reduced light use efficiency. Our results demonstrate that negative relationships between size inequality and productivity may be the rule in tree populations. The lack of effect of shade tolerance indicates compensatory mechanisms between effect on light availability and response to light availability. Such a pattern deserves further investigations for mixed forests where complementarity effects between species are involved. When studying the

  17. Investigating Forest Inventory and Analysis-collected tree-ring data from Utah as a proxy for historical climate

    Treesearch

    R. Justin DeRose; W. Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang; John D. Shaw

    2012-01-01

    Increment cores collected as part of the periodic inventory in the Intermountain West were examined for their potential to represent growth and be a proxy for climate (precipitation) over a large region (Utah). Standardized and crossdated time-series created from pinyon pine (n=249) and Douglas-fir (n=274) increment cores displayed spatiotemporal patterns in growth...

  18. Citrus Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Florida's Charlotte County Property Appraiser is using an aerial color infrared mapping system for inventorying citrus trees for valuation purposes. The ACIR system has significantly reduced the time and manpower required for appraisal. Aerial photographs are taken and interpreted by a video system which makes it possible to detect changes from previous years. Potential problems can be identified. KSC's TU Office has awarded a contract to the Citrus Research and Education Center to adapt a prototype system which would automatically count trees and report totals.

  19. Inventorying and Monitoring of Tropical Dry Forests Tree Diversity in Jalisco, Mexico Using a Geographical Information System

    Treesearch

    Efren Hernandez-Alvarez; Dieter R. Pelz; Carlos Rodriguez Franco

    2006-01-01

    Tropical dry forests in Mexico are an outstanding natural resource, due to the large surface area they cover. This ecosystem can be found from Baja California Norte to Chiapas on the eastern coast of the country. On the Gulf of Mexico side it grows from Tamaulipas to Yucatan. This is an ecosystem that is home to a wide diversity of plants, which include 114 tree...

  20. Mammal Inventory of the Mojave Network Parks-Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Manzanar National Historic Site, and Mojave National Preserve

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drost, Charles A.; Hart, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the results of a mammal inventory study of National Park Service units in the Mojave Desert Network, including Death Valley National Park, Joshua Tree National Park, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Manzanar National Historic Site, and Mojave National Preserve. Fieldwork for the inventory focused on small mammals, primarily rodents and bats. Fieldwork for terrestrial small mammals used trapping with Sherman and Tomahawk small- and medium-sized mammal traps, along with visual surveys for diurnal species. The majority of sampling for terrestrial small mammals was carried out in 2002 and 2003. Methods used in field surveys for bats included mist-netting at tanks and other water bodies, along with acoustic surveys using Anabat. Most of the bat survey work was conducted in 2003. Because of extremely dry conditions in the first two survey years (and associated low mammal numbers), we extended field sampling into 2004, following a relatively wet winter. In addition to field sampling, we also reviewed, evaluated, and summarized museum and literature records of mammal species for all of the Park units. We documented a total of 59 mammal species as present at Death Valley National Park, with an additional five species that we consider of probable occurrence. At Joshua Tree, we also documented 50 species, and an additional four 'probable' species. At Lake Mead National Recreation Area, 57 mammal species have been positively documented, with 10 additional probable species. Manzanar National Historic Site had not been previously surveyed. We documented 19 mammal species at Manzanar, with an additional 11 probable species. Mojave National Preserve had not had a comprehensive list previously, either. There are now a total of 50 mammal species documented at Mojave, with three additional probable species. Of these totals, 23 occurrences are new at individual park units (positively documented for the first time), with most of these being at Manzanar

  1. The role of pre-field operations at four forest inventory units: We can see the trees, not just the forest

    Treesearch

    Sara A. Goeking; Greg C. Liknes

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program attempts to inventory all forested lands throughout the United States. Each of the four FIA units has developed a process to minimize inventory costs by refraining from visiting those plots in the national inventory grid that are undoubtedly nonforest. We refer to this process as pre-field operations. Until recently, the...

  2. Enhancement mechanism of field electron emission properties in hybrid carbon nanotubes with tree- and wing-like features

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, G.M.; Yang, C.C.; Xu, Q.; Zheng, W.T.; Li, S.

    2009-12-15

    In this work, the tree-like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with branches of different diameters and the wing-like CNTs with graphitic-sheets of different densities were synthesized by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The nanostructures of the as-prepared hybrid carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The structural dependence of field electron emission (FEE) property was also investigated. It is found that both of the tree- and wing-like CNTs exhibit a lower turn-on field and higher emission current density than the pristine CNTs, which can be ascribed to the effects of branch size, crystal orientation, and graphitic-sheet density. - Graphical abstract: Tree-like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with branches and the wing-like CNTs with graphitic-sheets were synthesized by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The structural dependence of field electron emission property was also investigated.

  3. Scanning electron microscopic study of the splenic vascular casts in common tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Bamroongwong, S; Somana, R; Rojananeungnit, S; Chunhabundit, P; Rattanachaikunsopon, P

    1991-01-01

    Splenic vascular casts of the common tree shrew, Tupaia glis, were constructed with Batson's No. 17 plastic mixture and studied with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fifteen adult animals of both sexes, weighing between 120 and 180 g were used. Under ether anaesthesia, each animal was injected with 0.05 ml heparin intracardially; the right atrium was cut open and then 250 ml of 0.9% NaCl, followed by 50 ml of 10% neutral formalin, (in four animals) was injected through the left ventricle. Plastic mixture was injected through the same opening. After complete polymerization of the plastic, the spleen and surrounding tissues were removed and macerated in 40% KOH. The air-dried casts were then coated with carbon and gold before viewing and photographing under SEM at 15 kV. It was found that the splenic arteries penetrated deep into the organ before they divided into trabecular arteries and divided again into central arterioles. Each central arteriole sent out 15 to 30 radiating arterioles, called penicillar arterioles, and further divided into smaller vessels entering the marginal zone and red pulp. In this area each arteriole continued directly into either marginal or red pulp sinusoids. The sinusoids emptied into pulp venules which joined to form trabecular veins. Most of the trabecular veins travelled to the cortical area underneath the splenic capsule before approaching the hilum, where they finally drained into splenic and short gastric veins. It is likely that the spleen of the common tree shrew has a closed circulation.

  4. Different effects of light irradiation on the photosynthetic electron transport chain during apple tree leaf dehydration.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengmin; Ma, Fengwang

    2012-06-01

    Effects of light irradiation on the photosynthetic electron transport chain between P680 and P700 in apple tree leaves was probed with chlorophyll a fluorescence transient and 820 nm transmission measurements during dehydration under different light intensities. The results showed that light accelerated the leaf water-loss rate during dehydration. Leaf dehydration lowered the maximum quantum yield of PSII and the far-red light induced maximal transmission change at 820 nm, but increased the relative variable fluorescence intensity at J-step, especially under increasing irradiation conditions. During leaf dehydration, irradiation lowered the relative variable fluorescence intensity at I-step. At the beginning of leaf dehydration, moderate light accelerated the leaf water-loss rate and then lowered the maximal light-trapping efficiency of P₆₈₀. Upon further dehydration under moderate light or dehydration under high light, light accelerated the water-loss rate and also directly decreased the maximal light-trapping efficiency of P680. The more significant decrease in the exchange capacity of plastoquinones at the Q(B) site was mainly attributed to the faster water-loss rate under moderate light than in the dark. Under high light, irradiation also directly lowered the capacity. The reoxidation of PQH₂ in the dehydrated leaves was enhanced by the light irradiation. The rapidly decreased contents of P700 + plastocyanin were mainly attributed to the faster water-loss rate under light conditions in contrast with that in the dark. The different effects of light irradiations on the photosynthetic electron transport chain might be involved in the acclimation of apple tree leaves to dehydration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 2677 - Request Facilities To Report Toxics Release Inventory Information Electronically or Complete Fill...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... prevent some inadvertent transcription errors from entering the TRI database. Specifically, to incorporate... into an electronic database. Transcription errors can inadvertently occur during this process;...

  6. Evaluation of a portable MOS electronic nose to detect root rots in shade tree species

    Treesearch

    Manuela Baietto; Letizia Pozzi; Alphus Dan Wilson; Daniele. Bassi

    2013-01-01

    The early detection of wood decays in high-value standing trees is very important in urban areas because mitigating control measures must be implemented long before tree failures result in property damage or injuries to citizens. Adverse urban environments increase physiological stresses in trees, causing greater susceptibility to attacks by pathogenic decay fungi. The...

  7. Implications of weather-induced tree mortality on forest carbon dynamics based on remeasured forest inventory plots in the Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, A. V.; Chambers, J. Q.

    2011-12-01

    Forest tree mortality plays an important role in the global carbon budget through so-called 'background' mortality rates and larger, less frequent mortality events. The actual mortality turnover rates of forest biomass are not well understood and can vary with forest type, stand characteristics, and environmental conditions. Different agents, such as fire, insects, disease, and weather, operate on different time scales and have different effects on ecosystems. These differences make it difficult, but important, to determine a continuum of return frequencies for agent-specific mortality, especially when making projections of forest carbon balance. Some regional and global ecosystem models include a separate fire component to account for burn emissions, but events such as hurricanes can also influence carbon dynamics and are not simulated. Thus, the effects of potential changes in hurricane frequency and intensity over time would not be captured by existing models. Furthermore, many regional and global ecosystem models assume a single, non-fire mortality rate for all forests, which likely introduces bias to projections of forest carbon balance. Using the United States Forest Service (USFS) Forest Inventory Analysis DataBase (FIADB) we estimated historic (~1970 - 2010) mortality rates for Eastern United States forests. We present spatially-explicit estimates of total mortality and of agent-specific mortality due to insects, disease, fire, weather, and harvest. These estimates show that uniform mortality rates in ecosystem models might be improved if varied spatially. The relative contribution of weather-induced mortality indicates that it results from smaller, more frequent events in addition to the effects of more extreme events such as hurricanes. Evidence of relatively high, hurricane-induced mortality suggests that the effects of extreme weather events should be explicitly modeled.

  8. Tree-level equivalence between a Lorentz-violating extension of QED and its dual model in electron-electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniolo, Giuliano R.; Fargnoli, H. G.; Brito, L. C. T.; Scarpelli, A. P. Baêta

    2017-02-01

    S-matrix amplitudes for the electron-electron scattering are calculated in order to verify the physical equivalence between two Lorentz-breaking dual models. We begin with an extended Quantum Electrodynamics which incorporates CPT-even Lorentz-violating kinetic and mass terms. Then, in a process of gauge embedding, its gauge-invariant dual model is obtained. The physical equivalence of the two models is established at tree level in the electron-electron scattering and the unpolarized cross section is calculated up to second order in the Lorentz-violating parameter.

  9. Visualization of micromorphology of leaf epicuticular waxes of the rubber tree Ficus elastica by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo

    2008-10-01

    Ultrastructural aspects of leaf epicuticular waxes were investigated in Ficus elastica by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Glossy leaves of the rubber tree were collected and subjected to different regimes of specimen preparation for surface observations. F. elastica leaves were hypostomatic and stomata were surrounded with a cuticular thickening that formed a rim. The most prominent epicuticular wax structures of F. elastica leaves included granules and platelets. Without fixation and metal coating, epicuticular wax structures could be discerned on the leaf surface by low-vacuum (ca. 7 Pa) scanning electron microscopy. In terms of delineation and retention of the structures, the combination of vapor fixation by glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide with subsequent gold coating provided the most satisfactory results, as evidenced by high resolution and sharp protrusions of epicuticular waxes. However, erosion of epicuticular wax edges was noted in the immersion fixed leaves, showing less elongated platelets, less distinct wax edges, and granule cracking. These results suggest that the vapor fixation procedure for demonstrating three-dimensional epicuticular wax structures would facilitate characterization of diverse types of waxes. Instances were noted where epicuticular waxes grew over neighboring epidermal ridges and occluded stomata. In cross sections, epicuticular waxes were observed above the cuticle proper and ranged approximately from 100 nm to 500 nm in thickness. The native leaf epicuticular waxes had many layers of different electron density that were oriented parallel to each other and parallel or perpendicular to the cuticle surface, implying strata of crystal growth. Such retention of native epicuticular wax structures could be achieved through the use of acrylic resin treated with less harsh dehydrants and mild heat polymerization, alleviating wax extraction during specimen preparations.

  10. A nearest-neighbor imputation approach to mapping tree species over large areas using forest inventory plots and moderate resolution raster data

    Treesearch

    B. Tyler Wilson; Andrew J. Lister; Rachel I. Riemann

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes an efficient approach for mapping multiple individual tree species over large spatial domains. The method integrates vegetation phenology derived from MODIS imagery and raster data describing relevant environmental parameters with extensive field plot data of tree species basal area to create maps of tree species abundance and distribution at a 250-...

  11. Timber inventory using Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    The results of recent efforts to apply Landsat MSS imagery, in concert with topological maps, to forestry timber inventories via the FOCIS program are reported. FOCIS (Forests Classification and Inventory System) was defined for inventorying the lumber volume of coniferous tree types in rugged terrain regions. Data from four bands serve as input for unsupervised clustering and iterative labeling of the elevation, slope angle, and subregions of interest. Simulated photographic maps are generated which serve as overlays for regular maps for assessing timber harvests and sales goals. Sample procedures followed in mapping the Eldorado region forests in the Sierra Nevada mountains are discussed.

  12. Emissions Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes the role of emission inventories in the air quality management process, a description of how emission inventories are developed, and where U.S. emission inventory information can be found.

  13. Using inventory-based tree-ring data as a proxy for historical climate: Investigating the Pacific decadal oscillation and teleconnections

    Treesearch

    J. DeRose; S. Wang; J. Shaw

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service started to archive approximately 11 000 increment cores collected in the Interior West states during the periodic inventories of the 1980s and 1990s. The two primary goals for use of the data were to provide a plot-linked database of radial growth to be used for growth...

  14. If a Tree Dies in a Forest will it be Reflected in a Forest Carbon Inventory? Quantifying the Effect of Disturbance on U.S. Forest Carbon Stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodall, C. W.; Domke, G.; Westfall, J.; Perry, C.; Oswalt, C. M.; Smith, J.; Patel-Weynand, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service is charged with the responsibility of monitoring forest ecosystem attributes, such as carbon (C) stocks, across the U.S. Given the role of both natural and anthropocentric disturbance on forest C stocks across a range of spatial scales and intensity (e.g., stand-level canopy gaps to major hurricane), quantifying the statistical power of the FIA inventory to detect disturbance and resulting implications for climate change hypothesis testing and C cycle impacts is paramount. Our study evaluates the statistical power of the FIA inventory to detect C stock change, distribution of disturbance events over time, and implications for C accounting/dynamics.

  15. Canopy cover estimates for individual tree attributes

    Treesearch

    James A. Westfall; Randall S. Morin

    2012-01-01

    In most forest inventory data, it is not feasible to estimate the canopy coverage of trees having certain characteristics due to the lack of information on crown size. In this study, data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program was used to assign crown sizes to individual trees using published crown width models. This process effectively links trees to...

  16. Using publically available forest inventory data in climate-based modes of tree species distribution: Examining effects of true versus altered location coordinates

    Treesearch

    Jacob Gibson; Gretchen Moisen; Tracey Frescino; Thomas C. Edwards

    2013-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) were built with US Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) publicly available plot coordinates, which are altered for plot security purposes, and compared with SDMs built with true plot coordinates. Six species endemic to the western US, including four junipers (Juniperus deppeana var. deppeana, J. monosperma, J. occidentalis, J....

  17. Field efficiency and bias of snag inventory methods

    Treesearch

    Robert S. Kenning; Mark J. Ducey; John C. Brissette; Jeffery H. Gove

    2005-01-01

    Snags and cavity trees are important components of forests, but can be difficult to inventory precisely and are not always included in inventories because of limited resources. We tested the application of N-tree distance sampling as a time-saving snag sampling method and compared N-tree distance sampling to fixed-area sampling and modified horizontal line sampling in...

  18. Live tree carbon stock equivalence of fire and fuels extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator and Forest Inventory and Analysis approaches

    Treesearch

    James E. Smith; Coeli M. Hoover

    2017-01-01

    The carbon reports in the Fire and Fuels Extension (FFE) to the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) provide two alternate approaches to carbon estimates for live trees (Rebain 2010). These are (1) the FFE biomass algorithms, which are volumebased biomass equations, and (2) the Jenkins allometric equations (Jenkins and others 2003), which are diameter based. Here, we...

  19. Adrenal microvascularization in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) as revealed by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Thongpila, S; Rojananeungnit, S; Chunhabundit, P; Cherdchu, C; Samritthong, A; Somana, R

    1998-01-01

    The blood supply of the adrenal gland in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) was studied by use of transmission electron microscopy and vascular corrosion cast/scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was found that the gland receives its blood supply from branches of the inferior phrenic, aorta and renal arteries. Upon reaching the gland, these arteries divide into cortical and medullary arteries. The cortical arteries give rise to the subcapsular capillary plexuses which partially enclose the clusters of cells in the zona glomerulosa (ZG) and appear as lobular-like microvascular networks before running among the cellular cords in the zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona reticularis (ZR). It was noted that the capillaries in ZG and ZR are with more anastomoses than those in the ZF. Capillaries from the ZR become the sinusoidal capillaries in the adrenal medulla before proceeding to the peripheral radicles of the central vein. The medullary arteries penetrate the adrenal cortex and occasionally give off small branches to supply the inner cortex, especially the ZR. Their main branches break up into small or conventional capillaries in the adrenal medulla. These capillaries drain the blood into the peripheral radicles of the central vein and medullary collecting veins which proceed further into a very large central vein. The present findings illustrate that the adrenal medulla receives two blood supplies that yield somewhat different influences upon the adrenal medulla. The portal blood vessel could not be illustrated in the tree shrew adrenal gland.

  20. Inventory Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Known as MRO for Maintenance, Repair and Operating supplies, Tropicana Products, Inc.'s automated inventory management system is an adaptation of the Shuttle Inventory Management System (SIMS) developed by NASA to assure adequate supply of every item used in support of the Space Shuttle. The Tropicana version monitors inventory control, purchasing receiving and departmental costs for eight major areas of the company's operation.

  1. Resource Inventories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Center for Special Education Technology.

    The series of "Resource Inventories" is designed to encourage wider use of available information and services in the field of special education technology. A resource inventory is provided for each of 46 states of the United States. Each inventory includes directory information on public and private agencies and organizations that offer…

  2. Microvascularization of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) superior cervical ganglion studied by vascular corrosion cast with scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chunhabundit, P; Thongpila, S; Mingsakul, T; Somana, R

    1993-01-01

    Microvascularization of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) was investigated by the vascular-corrosion-cast technique in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the SCG of the tree shrew is a highly vascularized organ. It receives arterial blood from branches of the external and common carotid arteries which enter the rostral and caudal portions of the ganglion. These arteries give rise to a subcapsular capillary plexus before branching off to form a group of densely packed intraganglionic capillaries. Moreover, the intraganglionic capillaries tend to follow a tortuous course that is essentially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the ganglion, and they form anastomoses with each other. In addition, the intraganglionic capillaries are also connected to a subcapsular capillary plexus. The capillaries of the SCG converge into venules and collecting veins which subsequently drain rostrally and caudally into the systemic veins. However, neither a pattern of blood vessels resembling glomeruli nor a portal-like intraganglionic microcirculation was observed.

  3. Atlas of relations between climatic parameters and distributions of important trees and shrubs in North America—Modern data for climatic estimation from vegetation inventories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Robert S.; Anderson, Katherine H.; Pelltier, Richard T.; Strickland, Laura E.; Shafer, Sarah L.; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Vegetation inventories (plant taxa present in a vegetation assemblage at a given site) can be used to estimate climatic parameters based on the identification of the range of a given parameter where all taxa in an assemblage overlap ("Mutual Climatic Range"). For the reconstruction of past climates from fossil or subfossil plant assemblages, we assembled the data necessary for such analyses for 530 woody plant taxa and eight climatic parameters in North America. Here we present examples of how these data can be used to obtain paleoclimatic estimates from botanical data in a straightforward, simple, and robust fashion. We also include matrices of climate parameter versus occurrence or nonoccurrence of the individual taxa. These relations are depicted graphically as histograms of the population distributions of the occurrences of a given taxon plotted against a given climatic parameter. This provides a new method for quantification of paleoclimatic parameters from fossil plant assemblages.

  4. Pilot Inventory of FIA plots traditionally called `nonforest'

    Treesearch

    Rachel Riemann

    2003-01-01

    Forest-inventory data were collected on plots defined as ?nonforest? by the USDA Forest Service?s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) unit. Nonforest plots may have trees on them, but they do not fit FIA?s definition of forest because the area covered by trees is too small, too sparsely populated by trees, too narrow (e.g., trees between fields or in the middle of a...

  5. An electronic flow control system for a variable-rate tree sprayer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Precise modulation of nozzle flow rates is a critical measure to achieve variable-rate spray applications. An electronic flow rate control system accommodating with microprocessors and pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled solenoid valves was designed to manipulate the output of spray nozzles inde...

  6. Aerosol deposition doses in the human respiratory tree of electronic cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Manigrasso, Maurizio; Buonanno, Giorgio; Fuoco, Fernanda Carmen; Stabile, Luca; Avino, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Aerosols from eight e-cigarettes at different nicotine levels and flavoring were characterized as particle number size distributions in the range 5.6-560 nm by FMPS and CPC. Results were used to provided osimetry estimates applying the MMPD model.Particle number concentrations varied between 3.26 x 10(9) and 4.09 x 10(9) part cm(-3) for e-liquids without nicotine and between 5.08 x 10(9) and 5.29 x 10(9) part cm(-3) for e-liquids with nicotine. No flavor effects were detected on particle concentration data. Particle size distributions were unimodal with modes between 107-165 nm and 165-255 nm, for number and volume metrics, respectively. Averagely, 6.25 x 10(10) particles were deposited in respiratory tree after a single puff. Highest deposition densities and mean layer thickness of e-cigarette liquid on the lung epithelium were estimated at lobar bronchi. Our study shows that e-cigarette aerosol is source of high particle dose in respiratory system, from 23%to 35% of the daily dose of a no-smoking individual.

  7. Diameter Growth Models for Inventory Applications

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Christopher W. Woodall; Veronica C. Lessard; Margaret R. Holdaway

    2002-01-01

    Distant-independent, individual-tree, diametar growth models were constructed to update information for forest inventory plots measured in previous years. The models are nonlinear in the parameters and were calibrated weighted nonlinear least squares techniques and forest inventory plot data. Analyses of residuals indicated that model predictions compare favorably to...

  8. Minnesota's forest statistics, 1987: an inventory update.

    Treesearch

    Jerold T. Hahn; W. Brad Smith

    1987-01-01

    The Minnesota 1987 inventory update, derived by using tree growth models, reports 13.5 million acres of timberland, a decline of less than 1% since 1977. This bulletin presents findings from the inventory update in tables detailing timer land area, volume, and biomass.

  9. Where are the Black Walnut Trees in Missouri? 1995.

    Treesearch

    J. Michael Vasievich; Neal P. Kingsley

    1995-01-01

    Walnut trees are well distributed and relatively abundant in Missouri according to the most recent forest inventory completed in 1989. The forest inventory (Hahn 1991) reports that 7.3 billion trees were found on Missouri timberlands and that 1 in 100 were black walnuts. Digging into the Eastwide Forest Inventory Data Base (Hansen et al. 1992) provides more...

  10. A stand-alone tree demography and landscape structure module for Earth system models: integration with inventory data from temperate and boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverd, V.; Smith, B.; Nieradzik, L. P.; Briggs, P. R.

    2014-08-01

    Poorly constrained rates of biomass turnover are a key limitation of Earth system models (ESMs). In light of this, we recently proposed a new approach encoded in a model called Populations-Order-Physiology (POP), for the simulation of woody ecosystem stand dynamics, demography and disturbance-mediated heterogeneity. POP is suitable for continental to global applications and designed for coupling to the terrestrial ecosystem component of any ESM. POP bridges the gap between first-generation dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) with simple large-area parameterisations of woody biomass (typically used in current ESMs) and complex second-generation DVMs that explicitly simulate demographic processes and landscape heterogeneity of forests. The key simplification in the POP approach, compared with second-generation DVMs, is to compute physiological processes such as assimilation at grid-scale (with CABLE (Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange) or a similar land surface model), but to partition the grid-scale biomass increment among age classes defined at sub-grid-scale, each subject to its own dynamics. POP was successfully demonstrated along a savanna transect in northern Australia, replicating the effects of strong rainfall and fire disturbance gradients on observed stand productivity and structure. Here, we extend the application of POP to wide-ranging temporal and boreal forests, employing paired observations of stem biomass and density from forest inventory data to calibrate model parameters governing stand demography and biomass evolution. The calibrated POP model is then coupled to the CABLE land surface model, and the combined model (CABLE-POP) is evaluated against leaf-stem allometry observations from forest stands ranging in age from 3 to 200 year. Results indicate that simulated biomass pools conform well with observed allometry. We conclude that POP represents an ecologically plausible and efficient alternative to large-area parameterisations of woody

  11. Inventory control.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roger

    2004-09-01

    By establishing clear inventory ordering targets and following the guidelines outlined in this column, the staff member handling the process will understand the high and low levels of inventory control and be able to maintain an accurate system. Inventory control represents approximately 6 to 8 percent of practice purchasing. The main goal of the advice in this column is not to reduce the cost, unless there is waste involved, but rather to establish a process that allows the practice to purchase supplies on a regular basis, avoid mistakes and maintain a steady expense level.

  12. Sustained Diurnal Stimulation of Cyclic Electron Flow in Two Tropical Tree Species Erythrophleum guineense and Khaya ivorensis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Hu, Hong; Cao, Kun-Fang; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    The photosystem II (PSII) activity of C3 plants is usually inhibited at noon associated with high light but can be repaired fast in the afternoon. However, the diurnal variation of photosystem I (PSI) activity is unknown. Although, cyclic electron flow (CEF) has been documented as an important mechanism for photosynthesis, the diurnal variation of CEF in sun leaves is little known. We determined the diurnal changes in PSI and PSII activities, light energy dissipation in PSII and the P700 redox state in two tropical tree species Erythrophleum guineense and Khaya ivorensis grown in an open field. The PSI activity (as indicated by the maximum quantity of photo-oxidizable P700) was maintained stable during the daytime. CEF was strongly activated under high light at noon, accompanying with high levels of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and PSI oxidation ratio. In the afternoon, CEF was maintained at a relatively high level under low light, which was accompanied with low levels of NPQ and P700 oxidation ratio. These results indicated that CEF was flexibly modulated during daytime under fluctuating light conditions. Under high light at noon, CEF-dependent generation of proton gradient across the thylakoid membranes (ΔpH) mainly contributed to photoprotection for PSI and PSII. By comparison, at low light in the afternoon, the CEF-dependent formation of ΔpH may be important for PSII repair via an additional ATP synthesis. PMID:27486473

  13. Anomalous dismeter distribution shifts estimated from FIA inventories through time

    Treesearch

    Francis A. Roesch; Paul C. Van Deusen

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade, the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) has replaced regionally autonomous, periodic, state-wide forest inventories using various probability proportional to tree size sampling designs with a nationally consistent annual forest inventory design utilizing systematically spaced clusters...

  14. Mechanism of action of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Staphylococcus aureus determined by time-kill, lysis, leakage, and salt tolerance assays and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Carson, Christine F; Mee, Brian J; Riley, Thomas V

    2002-06-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The mechanisms of action of tea tree oil and three of its components, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha-terpineol, against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 were investigated. Treatment with these agents at their MICs and two times their MICs, particularly treatment with terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol, reduced the viability of S. aureus. None of the agents caused lysis, as determined by measurement of the optical density at 620 nm, although cells became disproportionately sensitive to subsequent autolysis. Loss of 260-nm-absorbing material occurred after treatment with concentrations equivalent to the MIC, particularly after treatment with 1,8-cineole and alpha-terpineol. S. aureus organisms treated with tea tree oil or its components at the MIC or two times the MIC showed a significant loss of tolerance to NaCl. When the agents were tested at one-half the MIC, only 1,8-cineole significantly reduced the tolerance of S. aureus to NaCl. Electron microscopy of terpinen-4-ol-treated cells showed the formation of mesosomes and the loss of cytoplasmic contents. The predisposition to lysis, the loss of 260-nm-absorbing material, the loss of tolerance to NaCl, and the altered morphology seen by electron microscopy all suggest that tea tree oil and its components compromise the cytoplasmic membrane.

  15. Street tree pruning and removal needs

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak

    1990-01-01

    Street tree pruning and removal needs were examined for 11 species from inventory data collected in 11 cities in the North Central and Northeastern United States. The needs ranged from predominantly no pruning and routine pruning of small trees to safety pruning and removal of large trees. Species were ranked in terms of overall pruning and removal urgency, with London...

  16. Hypophyseal angioarchitecture of common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) revealed by scanning electron microscopy study of vascular corrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Sudwan, P; Chunhabundit, P; Bamroongwong, S; Rattanachaikunsopon, P; Somana, R

    1991-11-01

    The vascular corrosion cast technique in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for the study of pituitary microvascularization in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis). The pituitary vascular casts were obtained by infusion of low viscosity methyl methacrylate plastic (Batson's no.17) mixture. It was found that the blood supplies to the pituitary complex were from branches of the circle of Willis and could be divided into two groups. The first group consisted of two to four superior hypophyseal arteries (SHAs) branching off from the internal carotid artery supplying each half of the median eminence (ME), infundibular stalk (IS), and pars distalis (PD). The SHAs supplying the ME branched into internal and external capillary plexi. The internal plexus had a larger capillary size (approximately 15 microns in diameter), was deeper in position, and had denser and more complex capillary loops than those in the external plexus. The capillaries of the external plexus were approximately 10 microns in diameter. The two plexi drained into 15-20 hypophyseal portal veins (HPVs) which were located mainly along the ventral and ventrolateral surfaces of the IS before breaking up into large capillaries (approximately 18 microns in diameter) with an anteroposterior arrangement within the PD. The second group consisted of one inferior hypophyseal artery (IHA) on each side branching off from the internal carotid artery. These arteries gave off branches to pierce the dorsolateral and ventrolateral aspects of infundibular process (IP) before branching off to form a capillary network. They also gave rise to radiating capillaries to supply the pars intermedia (PI) surrounding the cortical area of the IP. The hypophyseal cleft separating the PI from the PD was clearly seen with very few blood vessels. The capillaries in both PD and IP joined to form confluent hypophyseal veins draining the blood into the cavernous sinus.

  17. Mortality rates associated with crown health for eastern forest tree species

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; KaDonna C. Randolph; Jim. Steinman

    2015-01-01

    The condition of tree crowns is an important indicator of tree and forest health. Crown conditions have been evaluated during inventories of the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program since 1999. In this study, remeasured data from 55,013 trees on 2616 FIA plots in the eastern USA were used to assess the probability of survival among various tree...

  18. Monitoring nontimber forest products using forest inventory data: an example with slippery elm bark

    Treesearch

    Jobriath S. Kauffman; Stephen P. Prisley; James L. Chamberlain

    2015-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysi (FIA) program collects data on a wealth of variables related to trees in forests. Some of these trees produce nontimber forest products (NTFPs) (e.g., fruit, bark and sap) that are harvested for culinary, decorative, building, and medicinal purposes. At least 11 tree species inventoried by FIA are valued for their...

  19. A probability approach to sawtimber tree-value projections

    Treesearch

    Roger E. McCay; Paul S. DeBald; Paul S. DeBald

    1973-01-01

    The authors present a method for projecting hardwood sawtimber tree values, using tree-development probabilities based on continuous forest inventory (CFI) data and describe some ways to use the resulting value projections to assemble management-planning information.

  20. Electron inventory, kinetic assignment (E(n)), structure, and bonding of nitrogenase turnover intermediates with C2H2 and CO.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-In; Sørlie, Morten; Christiansen, Jason; Yang, Tran-Chin; Shao, Junlong; Dean, Dennis R; Hales, Brian J; Hoffman, Brian M

    2005-11-16

    Improved 1H ENDOR data from the S(EPR1) intermediate formed during turnover of the nitrogenase alpha-195Gln MoFe protein with C2(1,2)H2 in (1,2)H2O buffers, taken in context with the recent study of the intermediate formed from propargyl alcohol, indicate that S(EPR1) is a product complex, likely with C2H4 bound as a ferracycle to a single Fe of the FeMo-cofactor active site. 35 GHz CW and Mims pulsed 57Fe ENDOR of 57Fe-enriched S(EPR1) cofactor indicates that it exhibits the same valencies as those of the CO-bound cofactor of the lo-CO intermediate formed during turnover with CO, [Mo4+, Fe3+, Fe6(2+), S9(2-)(d43)](+1), reduced by m = 2 electrons relative to the resting-state cofactor. Consideration of 57Fe hyperfine coupling in S(EPR1) and lo-CO leads to a picture in which CO bridges two Fe of lo-CO, while the C2H4 of S(EPR1) binds to one of these. To correlate these and other intermediates with Lowe-Thorneley (LT) kinetic schemes for substrate reduction, we introduce the concept of an "electron inventory". It partitions the number of electrons a MoFe protein intermediate has accepted from the Fe protein (n) into the number transmitted to the substrate (s), the number that remain on the intermediate cofactor (m), and the additional number delivered to the cofactor from the P clusters (p): n = m + s - p (with p = 0 here). The cofactors of lo-CO and S(EPR1) both are reduced by m = 2 electrons, but the intermediates are not at the same LT reduction stage (E(n)): (n = 2; m = 2, s = 0) for lo-CO; (n = 4; s = 2, m = 2) for S(EPR1). This is the first proposed correlation of an LT E(n) kinetic state with a well-defined chemical state of the enzyme.

  1. Inventory management.

    PubMed

    Devine, D V; Sher, G D; Reesink, H W; Panzer, S; Hetzel, P A S; Wong, J K; Horvath, M; Leitner, G C; Schennach, H; Nussbaumer, W; Genoe, K; Cioffi, J M; Givisiez, F N; Rogerson, M; Howe, D; Delage, G; Sarappa, C; Charbonneau; Fu, Y; Sarlija, D; Vuk, T; Strauss Patko, M; Balija, M; Jukić, I; Ali, A; Auvinen, M-K; Jaakonsalo, E; Cazenave, J-P; Waller, C; Kientz, D; David, B; Walther-Wenke, G; Heiden, M; Lin, C K; Tsoi, W C; Lee, C K; Barotine-Toth, K; Sawant, R B; Murphy, W; Quirke, B; Bowler, P; Shinar, E; Yahalom, V; Aprili, G; Piccoli, P; Gandini, G; Tadokaro, K; Nadarajan, V S; de Kort, W; Jansen, N; Flanagan, P; Forsberg, P-O; Hervig, T; Letowska, M; Lachert, E; Dudziak, K; Antoniewicz-Papis, J; de Olim, G; Nascimento, F; Hindawi, S; Teo, D; Reddy, R; Scholtz, J; Swanevelder, R; Rovira, L P; Sauleda, S; Carasa, M A V; Vaquero, M P; Ania, M A; Gulliksson, H; Holdsworth, S; Cotton, S; Howell, C; Baldwin, C; Cusick, R M; Geele, G A; Paden, C; McEvoy, P; Gottschall, J L; McLaughlin, L S; Benjamin, R J; Eder, A; Draper, N L; AuBuchon, J P; León de González, G

    2010-04-01

    A critical aspect of blood transfusion is the timely provision of high quality blood products. This task remains a significant challenge for many blood services and blood systems reflecting the difficulty of balancing the recruitment of sufficient donors, the optimal utilization of the donor's gift, the increasing safety related restrictions on blood donation, a growing menu of specialized blood products and an ever-growing imperative to increase the efficiency of blood product provision from a cost perspective. As our industry now faces questions about our standard practices including whether or not the age of blood has a negative impact on recipients, it is timely to take a look at our collective inventory management practices. This International Forum represents an effort to get a snap shot of inventory management practices around the world, and to understand the range of different products provided for patients. In addition to sharing current inventory management practices, this Forum is intended to foster an exchange of ideas around where we see our field moving with respect to various issues including specialty products, new technologies, and reducing recipient risk from blood transfusion products.

  2. A framework for reporting tree cover attributes in agricultural landscapes

    Treesearch

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Greg C. Liknes

    2012-01-01

    The definition of forest land used by the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis program includes area, width, and density requirements. These requirements frequently exclude from the inventory any trees occupyingnarrow riparian corridors or linear tree plantings (e.g., windbreaks and shelterbelts). With recent attention being paid to such topics as bio-...

  3. Adjustments to forest inventory and analysis estimates of 2001 saw-log volumes for Kentucky

    Treesearch

    Stanley J. Zarnoch; Jeffery A. Turner

    2005-01-01

    The 2001 Kentucky Forest Inventory and Analysis survey overestimated hardwood saw-log volume in tree grade 1. This occurred because 2001 field crews classified too many trees as grade 1 trees. Data collected by quality assurance crews were used to generate two types of adjustments, one based on the proportion of trees misclassified and the other on the proportion of...

  4. A tree biomass and carbon estimation system

    Treesearch

    Emily B. Schultz; Thomas G. Matney; Donald L. Grebner

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate forest management decisions for the developing woody biofuel and carbon credit markets require inventory and growth-and-yield systems reporting component tree dry weight biomass estimates. We have developed an integrated growth-and-yield and biomass/carbon calculator. The objective was to provide Mississippi’s State inventory system with bioenergy economic...

  5. Citrus Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An aerial color infrared (CIR) mapping system developed by Kennedy Space Center enables Florida's Charlotte County to accurately appraise its citrus groves while reducing appraisal costs. The technology was further advanced by development of a dual video system making it possible to simultaneously view images of the same area and detect changes. An image analysis system automatically surveys and photo interprets grove images as well as automatically counts trees and reports totals. The system, which saves both time and money, has potential beyond citrus grove valuation.

  6. National Forest Health Monitoring Program Maryland and Massachusetts Street Tree Monitoring Pilot Projects

    Treesearch

    Buckelew Cumming Anne; Daniel Twardus; William Smith

    2006-01-01

    Urban forests have many components: park trees, small woodlands, riparian buffers, street trees, and others. While some communities conduct city-wide inventories of street tree populations, there has been no comprehensive, statewide sampling to characterize the structure, health, and function of street tree populations. A statewide Street Tree Monitoring pilot study...

  7. Inventory Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrum, David L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an electronic thermometer using a precision temperature sensor (includes detailed schematic of circuits) and inexpensive ring holders for round-bottomed flasks. Also describes a method for reducing funnel breakage. (JN)

  8. Inventory Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrum, David L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an electronic thermometer using a precision temperature sensor (includes detailed schematic of circuits) and inexpensive ring holders for round-bottomed flasks. Also describes a method for reducing funnel breakage. (JN)

  9. Using FIA inventory plot data to assess NTFP production possibilities

    Treesearch

    Jobriath Kauffman; James Chamberlain; Stephen. Prisley

    2015-01-01

    The US Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects data on a wealth of variables related to trees and understory species in forests. Some of these trees and plants produce non-timber forest products (NTFPs; e.g., seeds, fruit, bark, sap, roots) that are harvested for their culinary and medicinal values. As example, the cones of Pinus...

  10. Batch reporting of forest inventory statistics using the EVALIDator

    Treesearch

    Patrick D. Miles

    2015-01-01

    The EVALIDator Web application, developed in 2007, provides estimates and sampling errors of forest statistics (e.g., forest area, number of trees, tree biomass) from data stored in the Forest Inventory and Analysis database. In response to user demand, new features have been added to the EVALIDator. The most recent additions are 1) the ability to generate multiple...

  11. Million Trees Los Angeles: Carbon dioxide sink or source?

    Treesearch

    E.G. McPherson; A. Kendall; S. Albers

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to answer the question, 'Will the Million Trees LA (MTLA) programme be a CO2 sink or source?' Using surveys, interviews, field sampling and computer simulation of tree growth and survival over a 40-year period, we developed the first process-based life cycle inventory of CO2 for a large tree...

  12. A new tree classification system for southern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; Daniel A. Jr. Skojac

    2008-01-01

    A new tree classification system for southern hardwoods is described. The new system is based on the Putnam tree classification system, originally developed by Putnam et al., 1960, Management ond inventory of southern hardwoods, Agriculture Handbook 181, US For. Sew., Washington, DC, which consists of four tree classes: (1) preferred growing stock, (2) reserve growing...

  13. The zero inflation of standing dead tree carbon stocks

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; David W. MacFarlane

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees in numerous forest ecosystem attributes/processes such as carbon (C) stocks, the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees in 1999. Modeled estimates of standing dead tree C stocks are currently used as the official C stock estimates for the...

  14. An estimate of the number of tropical tree species

    Treesearch

    J. W. Ferry Slik; Victor Arroyo-Rodriguez; Shin-Ichiro and others. Aiba

    2015-01-01

    The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, we use a fitted value of Fishers alpha and an approximate pantropical stem...

  15. A general method for baseline-removal in ultrafast electron powder diffraction data using the dual-tree complex wavelet transform

    PubMed Central

    René de Cotret, Laurent P.; Siwick, Bradley J.

    2016-01-01

    The general problem of background subtraction in ultrafast electron powder diffraction (UEPD) is presented with a focus on the diffraction patterns obtained from materials of moderately complex structure which contain many overlapping peaks and effectively no scattering vector regions that can be considered exclusively background. We compare the performance of background subtraction algorithms based on discrete and dual-tree complex (DTCWT) wavelet transforms when applied to simulated UEPD data on the M1–R phase transition in VO2 with a time-varying background. We find that the DTCWT approach is capable of extracting intensities that are accurate to better than 2% across the whole range of scattering vector simulated, effectively independent of delay time. A Python package is available. PMID:28083543

  16. Further development of a set of low sensitivity detectors for the measurement of nuclear radiation for application in Transient Radiation Effects on Electronics (TREE) research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, K.; Clifford, T.; Mason, S.; Webb, W.; Noulty, R. A.; Ing, H.

    1991-03-01

    A miniaturized version of the neutron bubble spectrometer capable of measuring high neutron doses (approx. 100 rads) is being developed for the requirements of the Transient Radiation Effects on Electronics (TREE) program. Four specific detectors having neutron energy thresholds of 10, 100, 1000, and 2500 keV have been prepared. These detectors are capable of measuring neutron spectral information at small localized areas. They have been calibrated and the results of measurements at Aberdeen Proving Ground and Royal Military College (Kingston, Ontario) are given. Also included is an assessment of the method of homogeneous nucleation as a viable approach to the making of miniature droplets and the building of improved Rh foil spectrometer. Recommendations are made regarding additional research needs.

  17. Carcinogenicity of 2,2'-dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitrosamine in the tree shrew (Tupaia glis): light and electron microscopic features of pulmonary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Rao, M S; Reddy, J K

    1980-10-01

    The carcinogenic effect of 2,2'-dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitrosamine (DHPN) was examined in the primitive primate, tree shrew (Tupaia glis). DHPN was administered at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight sc once a week for 80 weeks. Between 65 and 102 weeks, 8 of 9 males given DHPN (89%) and 11 of 14 females given DHPN (78%) developed pulmonary adenomas. In 2 DHPN-treated males, in addition to adenomas, bronchioalveolar carcinomas were observed. Transmission electron microscopic examination of pulmonary adenomas from 4 DHPN-treated animals showed that Clara cells were the main components of these tumors. In addition to pulmonary tumors, 9% of the DHPN-treated animals developed squamous cell carcinomas of the skin and hepatocellular carcinomas. None of the 6 controls, which received olive oil alone, developed any tumors.

  18. Forest inventory-based estimation of carbon stocks and flux in California forests in 1990.

    Treesearch

    Jeremy S. Fried; Xiaoping. Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of forest carbon stores and flux for California circa 1990 were modeled from forest inventory data in support of California’s legislatively mandated greenhouse gas inventory. Reliable estimates of live-tree carbon stores and flux on timberlands outside of national forest could be calculated from periodic inventory data collected in the 1980s and 1990s;...

  19. Modifying Taper-Derived Merchantable Height Estimates to Account for Tree Characteristics

    Treesearch

    James A. Westfall

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Forest Inventory and Analysis program (NE-FIA) is developing regionwide tree-taper equations. Unlike most previous work on modeling tree form, this effort necessarily includes a wide array of tree species. For some species, branching patterns can produce undesirable tree form that reduces the merchantable...

  20. Complementing forest inventory data with information from unmanned aerial vehicle imagery and photogrammetry

    Treesearch

    Nikolay S. Strigul; Demetrios Gatziolis; Jean F. Liénard; Andre. Vogs

    2015-01-01

    Although a prerequisite for an accurate assessment of tree competition, growth, and morphological plasticity, measurements conducive to three-dimensional (3D) representations of individual trees are seldom part of forest inventory operations. This is in part because until recently our ability to measure the dimensionality, spatial arrangement, and shape of trees and...

  1. Repeated measures from FIA data facilitates analysis across spatial scales of tree growth responses to nitrogen deposition from individual trees to whole ecoregions

    Treesearch

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Kevin J. Horn; R. Quinn Thomas; Linda H. Pardo; Erica A.H. Smithwick; Doug Baldwin; Gregory B. Lawrence; Scott W. Bailey; Sabine Braun; Christopher M. Clark; Mark Fenn; Annika Nordin; Jennifer N. Phelan; Paul G. Schaberg; Sam St. Clair; Richard Warby; Shaun Watmough; Steven S. Perakis

    2015-01-01

    The abundance of temporally and spatially consistent Forest Inventory and Analysis data facilitates hierarchical/multilevel analysis to investigate factors affecting tree growth, scaling from plot-level to continental scales. Herein we use FIA tree and soil inventories in conjunction with various spatial climate and soils data to estimate species-specific responses of...

  2. Science Inventory | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Science Inventory is a searchable database of research products primarily from EPA's Office of Research and Development. Science Inventory records provide descriptions of the product, contact information, and links to available printed material or websites.

  3. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  4. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  5. Science Inventory | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Science Inventory is a searchable database of research products primarily from EPA's Office of Research and Development. Science Inventory records provide descriptions of the product, contact information, and links to available printed material or websites.

  6. A tool to determine crown and plot canopy transparency for forest inventory and analysis phase 3 plots using digital photographs

    Treesearch

    Matthew F. Winn; Philip A. Araman

    2012-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects crown foliage transparency estimates for individual trees on Phase 3 (P3) inventory plots. The FIA crown foliage estimate is obtained from a pair of perpendicular side views of the tree. Researchers with the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station have developed a computer program that...

  7. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical study on the innervation of the pineal gland of the tree shrew (Tupaia glis), with special reference to peptidergic synaptic junctions with pinealocytes.

    PubMed

    Kado, M; Yoshida, A; Hira, Y; Sakai, Y; Matsushima, S

    1999-09-25

    Conventional and immunocytochemical, light- and electron-microscopic studies on the innervation of the pineal gland of the tree shrew (Tupaia glis) were made. Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactive fibers, which were abundantly distributed in the gland, disappeared almost completely after superior cervical ganglionectomy, suggesting that these fibers are mostly postganglionic sympathetic fibers. By contrast, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive fibers, which were less numerous than NPY-fibers, remained in considerable numbers in ganglionectomized animals, indicating the innervation of TH-positive fibers from extrasympathetic sources. Bundles of substance P (SP)- or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive fibers, entering the gland at its distal end, were left intact after ganglionectomy. SP-fibers were numerous, but CGRP-fibers were scarce in the gland. SP-immunoreactive fibers were myelinated and nonmyelinated, and were regarded as peripheral fibers because of the presence of a Schwann cell sheath. NPY- and SP-immunoreactive fibers and endings were mainly localized in the pineal parenchyma. NPY-immunoreactive endings synapsed frequently, and SP-positive ones did less frequently, with the cell bodies of pinealocytes. The results suggest that NPY and SP directly control the activity of pinealocytes. Sections stained for myelin showed that thick and less thick bundles of myelinated fibers entered the gland by way of the habenular and posterior commissures, respectively. Under the electron microscope, the bundles were found to contain also unmyelinated fibers. A considerable number of nerve endings synapsing with the cell bodies of pinealocytes remained in ganglionectomized animals; these endings were not immunoreactive for TH or SP. Such synaptic endings may be the terminals of commissural fibers.

  8. Talking Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  9. Talking Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  10. Tree Amigos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Environmental Study, Grand Rapids, MI.

    Tree Amigos is a special cross-cultural program that uses trees as a common bond to bring the people of the Americas together in unique partnerships to preserve and protect the shared global environment. It is a tangible program that embodies the philosophy that individuals, acting together, can make a difference. This resource book contains…

  11. Increasing the Efficiency of LiDAR Based Forest Inventories: A Novel Approach for Integrating Variable Radius Inventory Plots with LiDAR Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowski, M. J.; Fekety, P.; Silva, C. A.; Hudak, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    LiDAR data are increasingly applied to support forest inventory and assessment across a variety of spatial scales. Typically this is achieved by integrating LiDAR data with forest inventory collected at fixed radius forest inventory plots. A well-designed forest inventory, one that covers the full range of structural and compositional variation across the forest of interest, is costly especially when collecting fixed radius plot data. Variable radius plots offer an alternative inventory protocol that is more efficient in terms of both time and money. However, integrating variable radius plot data with LiDAR data is problematic because the plots have unknown sizes that vary with variation in tree size. This leads to a spatial mismatch between LiDAR metrics (e.g., mean height, canopy cover, density, etc.) and plot data, which ultimately translates into errors in LiDAR derived forest inventory predictions. We propose and evaluate and novel approach for integrating variable radius plot data into a LiDAR based forest inventories in two different forest systems, one in the inland northwest and another in the northern lakes states of the USA. The novel approach calculates LiDAR metrics by weighting the point cloud proportional to return height, mimicking the way in which variable radius plot data weights tree measurements by tree size. This could increase inventory sampling efficiency, allowing for the collection of a greater number of inventory plots, and ultimately improve the performance of LiDAR based inventories.

  12. Investigation into calculating tree biomass and carbon in the FIADB using a biomass expansion factor approach

    Treesearch

    Linda S. Heath; Mark Hansen; James E. Smith; Patrick D. Miles; Brad W. Smith

    2009-01-01

    The official U.S. forest carbon inventories (U.S. EPA 2008) have relied on tree biomass estimates that utilize diameter based prediction equations from Jenkins and others (2003), coupled with U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) sample tree measurements and forest area estimates. However, these biomass prediction equations are not the equations used...

  13. Stocking, Forest Type, and Stand Size Class - The Southern Forest Inventory and Analysis Unit's Calculation of Three Important Stand Descriptors

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1990-01-01

    The procedures by which the Southern Forest Inventory and Analysis unit calculates stocking from tree data collected on inventory sample plots are described in this report. Stocking is then used to ascertain two other important stand descriptors: forest type and stand size class. Inventory data for three plots from the recently completed 1989 Tennessee survey are used...

  14. From Models to Measurements: Comparing Downed Dead Wood Carbon Stock Estimates in the U.S. Forest Inventory

    Treesearch

    Grant M. Domke; Christopher W. Woodall; Brian F. Walters; James E. Smith

    2013-01-01

    The inventory and monitoring of coarse woody debris (CWD) carbon (C) stocks is an essential component of any comprehensive National Greenhouse Gas Inventory (NGHGI). Due to the expense and difficulty associated with conducting field inventories of CWD pools, CWD C stocks are often modeled as a function of more commonly measured stand attributes such as live tree C...

  15. The potential of UAV laser scanning in forest inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Di; Hollaus, Markus; Pfeifer, Norbert; Bronner, Günther

    2017-04-01

    Forest management, harvest operation, ecological conservation and relevant decision making need information from inventories. Conventionally, forest inventories were carried out mainly from field measurements with simple tools, and from field samples. Several vital tree attributes such as diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, and species were collected at individual tree level. Various other attributes then can be inferred. For example, stem curve (i.e., taper function) can be interpolated by mathematical functions. The relation of different components of trees is often estimated by allometric functions based on DBH, tree height or other parameters of interest. In addition, these attributes are often aggregated to plot-level. For deriving taper functions for individual plots the required field measurements would be too expensive and therefore, the available taper functions are based on few sample trees. Recent advancements of remote sensing techniques, especially terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) showed promising potential in forest inventories. It acquires millions of 3D points, which enables fast determination of forest attributes in an automatic manner. Some additional attributes that cannot be directly measured in traditional field inventories such as stem curve and volume, even ecologically related parameters such as leaf area index (LAI) can be estimated with high precision. The deficiencies of the employment of TLS in forests include limited terrain accessibility, area coverage, and visibility in top canopy layer. On the other hand, the next geospatial frontier, UAV-borne Laser Scanning (ULS) is emerging as a candidate for forest inventories. The high density and accuracy of ULS data enable the modeling of individual tree with fine details up to branch level. In addition to its plot or transect level coverage, it achieves a high level of completeness with respect to the top canopy layer. Therefore, it generates a high potential especially in

  16. Where are the Walnut Trees in Minnesota? 1995.

    Treesearch

    J. Michael Vasievich; Neal P. Kingsley

    1995-01-01

    The forests of each state are inventoried by the USDA-Forest Service and the state?s forestry agency on a periodic basis. In the Midwest, the North Central Forest Experiment Station coordinates the inventory. The job takes a long time-- sometimes several years from start to finish -- because lots of trees are measured on lots of plots. For example, during the last...

  17. Landscape-scale parameterization of a tree-level forest growth model: a k-nearest neighbor imputation approach incorporating LiDAR data

    Treesearch

    Michael J. Falkowski; Andrew T. Hudak; Nicholas L. Crookston; Paul E. Gessler; Edward H. Uebler; Alistair M. S. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable forest management requires timely, detailed forest inventory data across large areas, which is difficult to obtain via traditional forest inventory techniques. This study evaluated k-nearest neighbor imputation models incorporating LiDAR data to predict tree-level inventory data (individual tree height, diameter at breast height, and...

  18. An alternative method for estimating crown characteristics of urban trees using digital photographs

    Treesearch

    Matthew F. Winn; Philip A. Araman

    2012-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program has concluded that statewide urban forest inventories are feasible based on a series of pilot studies initiated in 2001. However, much of the tree crown data collected during inventories are based on visual inspection and therefore highly subjective. In order to objectively determine the crown...

  19. Interactive inventory monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan M. (Inventor); Udoh, Usen E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring present location and/or present status of a target inventory item, where the inventory items are located on one or more inventory shelves or other inventory receptacles that communicate with an inventory base station through use of responders such as RFIDs. A user operates a hand held interrogation and display (IAD) module that communicates with, or is part of, the base station, to provide an initial inquiry. Information on location(s) of the target inventory item is also indicated visibly and/or audibly on the receptacle(s) for the user. Status information includes an assessment of operation readiness and a time, if known, that the specified inventory item or class was last removed or examined or modified. Presentation of a user access level may be required for access to the target inventory item. Another embodiment provides inventory information for a stack as a sight-impaired or hearing-impaired person passes adjacent to that stack.

  20. Tree cavity estimation and verification in the Missouri Ozarks

    Treesearch

    Randy G. Jensen; John M. Kabrick; Eric K. Zenner

    2002-01-01

    Missouri forest management guidelines require that cavity trees and snags be provided for wildlife. Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) timber inventories provided opportunities to determine if cavity tree and snag densities in a mature second-growth oak-hickory-pine forest meet forest management guidelines, to evaluate the effects of the first-entry...

  1. Forest composition of Maine: an analysis using number of trees

    Treesearch

    Douglas S. Powell

    1985-01-01

    Number-of-trees data compiled by the USDA Forest Service from three periodic statewide inventories of Maine's forest resources are used to analyze the composition of the state's timberland in terms of species, tree class, and size. Conditions are compared and contrasted for periods from 1959 to 1971 to 1982 across different regions and counties of the state....

  2. Optimal tree increment models for the Northeastern United Statesq

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg

    2003-01-01

    used the potential relative increment (PRI) methodology to develop optimal tree diameter growth models for the Northeastern United States. Thirty species from the Eastwide Forest Inventory Database yielded 69,676 individuals, which were then reduced to fast-growing subsets for PRI analysis. For instance, only 14 individuals from the greater than 6,300-tree eastern...

  3. Optimal Tree Increment Models for the Northeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg

    2005-01-01

    I used the potential relative increment (PRI) methodology to develop optimal tree diameter growth models for the Northeastern United States. Thirty species from the Eastwide Forest Inventory Database yielded 69,676 individuals, which were then reduced to fast-growing subsets for PRI analysis. For instance, only 14 individuals from the greater than 6,300-tree eastern...

  4. Diameter Growth, Survival, and Volume Estimates for Missouri Trees

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; W. Brad Smith

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of more than 20,000 Missouri trees were summarized by species and diameter class into tables of mean annual diameter growth, annual probability of survival, net cubic foot volume, and net board foot volume. In the absence of better forecasting techniques, this information can be utilized to project short-term changes for Missouri trees, inventory plots,...

  5. Tree crown conditions in Missouri, 2000-2003

    Treesearch

    KaDonna C. Randolph; W. Keith Moser

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program uses visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes three FIA tree crown condition indicators (crown dieback, crown density, and foliage transparency) and sapling crown vigor measured in Missouri between 2000...

  6. A practical approach to assessing structure, function, and value of street tree populations in small communities

    Treesearch

    S.E. Maco; E.G. McPherson

    2003-01-01

    This study demonstrates an approach to quantify the structure, benefits, and costs of street tree populations in resource-limited communities without tree inventories. Using the city of Davis, California, U.S., as a model, existing data on the benefits and costs of municipal trees were applied to the results of a sample inventory of the city’s public and private street...

  7. Comparing landslide inventory maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Mirco; Ardizzone, Francesca; Cardinali, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto; Reichenbach, Paola

    Landslide inventory maps are effective and easily understandable products for both experts, such as geomorphologists, and for non experts, including decision-makers, planners, and civil defense managers. Landslide inventories are essential to understand the evolution of landscapes, and to ascertain landslide susceptibility and hazard. Despite landslide maps being compiled every year in the word at different scales, limited efforts are made to critically compare landslide maps prepared using different techniques or by different investigators. Based on the experience gained in 20 years of landslide mapping in Italy, and on the limited literature on landslide inventory assessment, we propose a general framework for the quantitative comparison of landslide inventory maps. To test the proposed framework we exploit three inventory maps. The first map is a reconnaissance landslide inventory prepared for the Umbria region, in central Italy. The second map is a detailed geomorphological landslide map, also prepared for the Umbria region. The third map is a multi-temporal landslide inventory compiled for the Collazzone area, in central Umbria. Results of the experiment allow for establishing how well the individual inventories describe the location, type and abundance of landslides, to what extent the landslide maps can be used to determine the frequency-area statistics of the slope failures, and the significance of the inventory maps as predictors of landslide susceptibility. We further use the results obtained in the Collazzone area to estimate the quality and completeness of the two regional landslide inventory maps, and to outline general advantages and limitations of the techniques used to complete the inventories.

  8. RPA tree-level database users guide

    Treesearch

    Patrick D. Miles; Scott A. Pugh; Brad Smith; Sonja N. Oswalt

    2014-01-01

    The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974 calls for a periodic assessment of the Nation's renewable resources. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service supports the RPA effort by providing information on the forest resources of the United States. The RPA tree-level database (RPAtreeDB) was generated...

  9. Harvesting small trees for bio-energy

    Treesearch

    John Klepac; Robert Rummer; Jason Thompson

    2011-01-01

    A conventional whole-tree logging operation consisting of 4-wheeled and 3-wheeled saw-head feller-bunchers, two grapple skidders and a chipper that produces dirty chips was monitored across several stands and machine performance evaluated. Stands were inventoried to determine density, volume, and basal area per acre and will be used to relate machine performance to...

  10. Recent Technical Changes to the United States Forest Carbon Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodall, C. W.; Smith, J.; Domke, G. M.; Healey, S. P.; Coulston, J.; Gray, A.

    2013-12-01

    A national system of field inventory plots is the primary data source for the annual assessment of US forest carbon (C) stocks and stock-change to meet reporting requirements under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The inventory data and their role in carbon reporting continue to evolve. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service is charged with conducting the field inventory of US forest C. The FIA program employs remotely sensed imagery to define forest and nonforest plots which are systematically distributed approximately every 2,428 ha across the conterminous US. More than 125,000 plots in the current field inventory have at least one forested condition where field crews measure tree- and site-level attributes (e.g., diameter and tree height) at regular temporal intervals. A subset of forested plots is measured for additional variables related to forest non-tree C pools (e.g., downed woody materials, understory vegetation, and soils). The FIA program does not directly measure forest C stocks. Instead, a combination of empirically derived C estimates (e.g., standing live and dead trees) and models (e.g., forest floor C stocks related to stand age and forest type) are used to estimate forest C stocks. A series of recent refinements in FIA estimation procedures have replaced some of the purely modeled forest C stock estimates (e.g., downed dead wood) with estimates based on direct measurements from the national field inventory. Results indicated that models of non-live tree C pools differ significantly from field-based estimates at the plot-level but demonstrate only slight divergences of total C estimates at the national scale. The results of these studies in the context of forest carbon accounting and future refinements are discussed.

  11. Preschool Connected Speech Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJohnson, Albert; And Others

    This speech inventory developed for a study of aurally handicapped preschool children (see TM 001 129) provides information on intonation patterns in connected speech. The inventory consists of a list of phrases and simple sentences accompanied by pictorial clues. The test is individually administered by a teacher-examiner who presents the spoken…

  12. Integrated inventory and monitoring

    Treesearch

    George Lightner; Hans T. Schreuder; Barry Bollenbacher; Kerry McMenus

    2001-01-01

    Understanding and inventorying our ecological systems is key to addressing how issues, questions, and management actions will affect the composition, structure, and function of these systems. Taking an ecological systems approach to the inventory and monitoring framework, is one which we feel will allow answers to currently identified management questions and new ones...

  13. The Preschool Interest Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugg, Mary E.; Wood, Sue Sims

    The Preschool Interest Inventory (PSII) has been developed to meet the need for an informal measure of the interests, play behaviors, and communication skills of young children between the ages of 2 and 6 years, particularly those exhibiting delays in language development. The first step in the Inventory process is the Caregiver Interview. In the…

  14. Structure, function and value of street trees in California, USA

    Treesearch

    E. Gregory McPherson; Natalie van Doorn; John de Goede

    2016-01-01

    This study compiled recent inventory data from 929,823 street trees in 50 cities to determine trends in tree number and density, identify priority investments and create baseline data against which the efficacy of future practices can be evaluated. The number of street trees increased from 5.9 million in 1988 to 9.1 million in 2014, about one for every four residents....

  15. Statistics and quality assurance for the Northern Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis Program, 2016

    Treesearch

    Dale D. Gormanson; Scott A. Pugh; Charles J. Barnett; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Paul A. Sowers; Jim Westfall

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects sample plot data on all forest ownerships across the United States. FIA's primary objective is to determine the extent, condition, volume, growth, and use of trees on the Nation's forest land through a comprehensive inventory and analysis of the Nation's forest resources. The...

  16. Increased uniformity by planting clones will likely have a minimal effect on inventory costs

    Treesearch

    Curtis L. VanderSchaaf; Dean W. Coble; David B. South

    2012-01-01

    When conducting inventories, reducing variability among tree diameters, heights, and ultimately volumes or biomass, can reduce the number of points/plots needed to obtain a desired level of precision. We present a simple analysis examining the potential reduction in discounted inventory costs when stand variability is decreased (via improved genetics and intensive...

  17. Volume equations for the Northern Research Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis Program as of 2010

    Treesearch

    Patrick D. Miles; Andrew D. Hill

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects sample plot data on all forest ownerships across the United States. This report documents the methodology used to estimate live-tree gross, net, and sound volume for the 24 States inventoried by the Northern Research Station's (NRS) FIA unit. Sound volume is of particular interest...

  18. Audubon Tree Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Trees," a leaders' guide, and a large tree chart with 37 colored pictures. The student reader reviews several aspects of trees: a definition of a tree; where and how trees grow; flowers, pollination and seed production; how trees make their food; how to recognize trees; seasonal changes;…

  19. Audubon Tree Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Trees," a leaders' guide, and a large tree chart with 37 colored pictures. The student reader reviews several aspects of trees: a definition of a tree; where and how trees grow; flowers, pollination and seed production; how trees make their food; how to recognize trees; seasonal changes;…

  20. Managing Air Quality - Emissions Inventories

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes the role of emission inventories in the air quality management process, a description of how emission inventories are developed, and where U.S. emission inventory information can be found.

  1. Differences in Computed Individual-Tree Volumes Caused by Differences in Field Measurements

    Treesearch

    James A. Westfall

    2008-01-01

    Individual-tree volumes are primarily predicted using volume equations that rely on measured tree attributes. In the northeastern United States, the Forest Inventory and Analysis program determines tree volume using dbh, bole height, proportion of cull, and species information. These measurements are subject to variability due to a host of factors. The sensitivity of...

  2. Trends over time in tree and seedling phylogenetic diversity indicate regional differences in forest biodiversity change

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    Changing climate conditions may impact the short-term ability of forest tree species to regenerate in many locations. In the longer term, tree species may be unable to persist in some locations while they become established in new places. Over both time frames, forest tree biodiversity may change in unexpected ways. Using repeated inventory measurements five years...

  3. Distribution of cavity trees in midwesternold-growth and second-growth forests

    Treesearch

    Zhaofei Fan; Stephen R. Shifley; Martin A. Spetich; Frank R., III Thompson; David R. Larsen

    2003-01-01

    We used classification and regression tree analysis to determine the primary variables associated with the occurrence of cavity trees and the hierarchical structure among those variables. We applied that information to develop logistic models predicting cavity tree probability as a function of diameter, species group, and decay class. Inventories of cavity abundance in...

  4. Distribution of cavity trees in midwestern old-growth and second-growth forests

    Treesearch

    Zhaofei Fan; Stephen R. Shifley; Martin A. Spetich; Frank R. Thompson; David R. Larsen

    2003-01-01

    We used classification and regression tree analysis to determine the primary variables associated with the occurrence of cavity trees and the hierarchical structure among those variables. We applied that information to develop logistic models predicting cavity tree probability as a function of diameter, species group, and decay class. Inventories of cavity abundance in...

  5. Estimating cavity tree abundance using nearest neighbor imputation methods for western Oregon and Washington forests

    Treesearch

    Hailemariam Temesgen; Tara M. Barrett; Greg Latta

    2008-01-01

    Cavity trees contribute to diverse forest structure and wildlife habitat. For a given stand, the size and density of cavity trees indicate its diversity, complexity, and suitability for wildlife habitat. Size and density of cavity trees vary with stand age, density, and structure. Using Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data collected in western Oregon and western...

  6. Testing for change in structural elements of forest inventories

    Treesearch

    Melinda Vokoun; David Wear; Robert. Abt

    2009-01-01

    In this article we develop a methodology to test for changes in the underlying relationships between measures of forest productivity (structural elements) and site characteristics, herein referred to as structural changes, using standard forest inventories. Changes in measures of forest growing stock volume and number of trees for both...

  7. Dead wood inventory and assessment in South Korea

    Treesearch

    Jong-Su Yim; Rae Hyun Kim; Sun-Jeong Lee; Yeongmo. Son

    2015-01-01

    Dead wood (DW) plays a critical role not only in maintaining biodiversity but also in stocking carbon under UNFCCC. From the 5th national forest inventory (NFI5; 2006-2010) in South Korea, field data relevant to the DW including standing and downed dead trees by four decay class, etc. were collected. Based on the NFI5 data,...

  8. Conducting tests for statistically significant differences using forest inventory data

    Treesearch

    James A. Westfall; Scott A. Pugh; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Many forest inventory and monitoring programs are based on a sample of ground plots from which estimates of forest resources are derived. In addition to evaluating metrics such as number of trees or amount of cubic wood volume, it is often desirable to make comparisons between resource attributes. To properly conduct statistical tests for differences, it is imperative...

  9. The components of change for an annual forest inventory design

    Treesearch

    Francis A. Roesch

    2007-01-01

    The sample design of the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) with respect to a three-dimensional population (forest area X time) of tree attributes is formally defined and evaluated. The definitions for both the traditional components of growth, as presented by Meyer (1953, Forest Mensuration), and a discrete analog to the time...

  10. Northwest plant names and symbols for ecosystem inventory and analysis.

    Treesearch

    G.A. Garrison; J.M. Skovlin; C.E. Poulton; A.H. Winward

    1976-01-01

    This paper is basically an alpha code and name listing of forest and rangeland grasses, sedges, rushes, forbs, shrubs, and trees of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. The code expedites recording of vegetation inventory data and is especially useful to those processing their data by contemporary computer systems. Editorial and secretarial personnel will find the name and...

  11. Inventory of Commercial Hardwoods in the High Sierra

    Treesearch

    Norman H. Pillsbury; George L. McCaskill

    1991-01-01

    A hardwood resources assessment was completed for the Sierra Economic Development District in the north central Sierra Nevada. The assessment included the development of a tree grading system for the major hardwood species in the area, an inventory of the hardwood resources, and recommendations for hardwood management. Hardwood volumes of total wood available for...

  12. Interactive Inventory Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garud, Sumedha

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring present location and/or present status of a target inventory item, where the inventory items are located on one or more inventory shelves or other inventory receptacles that communicate with an inventory base station through use of responders such as RFIDs. A user operates a hand held interrogation and display (lAD) module that communicates with, or is part of the base station to provide an initial inquiry. lnformation on location(s) of the larget invenlory item is also indicated visibly and/or audibly on the receptacle(s) for the user. Status information includes an assessment of operation readiness and a time, if known, that the specified inventory item or class was last removed or examined or modified. Presentation of a user access level may be required for access to the target inventgory item. Another embodiment provides inventory informatin for a stack as a sight-impaired or hearing-impaired person adjacent to that stack.

  13. Tree harvesting

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    Short rotation intensive culture tree plantations have been a major part of biomass energy concepts since the beginning. One aspect receiving less attention than it deserves is harvesting. This article describes an method of harvesting somewhere between agricultural mowing machines and huge feller-bunchers of the pulpwood and lumber industries.

  14. Tree Mortality

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  15. Tree mortality

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2013-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality can also be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  16. Tree mortality

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2013-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forests in a region is made up of older, senescent stands.

  17. Quantifying allometric model uncertainty for plot-level live tree biomass stocks with a data-driven, hierarchical framework

    Treesearch

    Brian J. Clough; Matthew B. Russell; Grant M. Domke; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    Accurate uncertainty assessments of plot-level live tree biomass stocks are an important precursor to estimating uncertainty in annual national greenhouse gas inventories (NGHGIs) developed from forest inventory data. However, current approaches employed within the United States’ NGHGI do not specifically incorporate methods to address error in tree-scale biomass...

  18. Using Forest Inventory and Analysis data to model plant-climate relationships

    Treesearch

    Nicholas L. Crookston; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Marcus V. Warwell

    2007-01-01

    Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data from 11 Western conterminous States were used to (1) estimate and map the climatic profiles of tree species and (2) explore how to include climate variables in individual tree growth equations used in the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). On the first front, we found the FIA data to be useful as training data in Breiman's...

  19. D.B.H. and Survival Analysis: A New Methodology for Assessing Forest Inventory Mortality

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; Patricia L. Grambsch; William Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Tree mortality has typically been assessed in Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) studies through summaries of mortality by location, species, and causal agents. Although these methods have historically been used for most of FIA's tree mortality analyses, they are inadequate for robust assessment of mortality trends and dynamics. To offer a new method of analyzing...

  20. Searching for American chestnut: the estimation of rare species attributes in a national forest inventory

    Treesearch

    Francis A. Roesch; William H. McWilliams

    2007-01-01

    American chestnut, once a dominant tree species in forests of the Northeastern United States, has become extremely rare. It is so rare, in fact, that on completion of 80 percent of the plot measurements of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service's most recent inventory in Pennsylvania, only 33 American chestnut trees with a diameter at breast height !Y 1...

  1. Searching for American chestnut: the estimation of rare species attributes in a national forest inventory

    Treesearch

    Francis A. Roesch; William H. McWilliams

    2005-01-01

    American chestnut, once a dominant tree species in forests of the Northeastern United States, has become extremely rare. It is so rare, in fact, that on completion of 80 percent of the plot measurements of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service's most recent inventory in Pennsylvania, only 33 American chestnut trees with a diameter at breast height 2: 1...

  2. Inventory count strategies.

    PubMed

    Springer, W H

    1996-02-01

    An important principle of accounting is that asset inventory needs to be correctly valued to ensure that the financial statements of the institution are accurate. Errors is recording the value of ending inventory in one fiscal year result in errors to published financial statements for that year as well as the subsequent fiscal year. Therefore, it is important that accurate physical counts be periodically taken. It is equally important that any system being used to generate inventory valuation, reordering or management reports be based on consistently accurate on-hand balances. At the foundation of conducting an accurate physical count of an inventory is a comprehensive understanding of the process coupled with a written plan. This article presents a guideline of the physical count processes involved in a traditional double-count approach.

  3. Health protection well inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, J.

    1989-03-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells contained in Health Protection (HP) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Plan (SRP) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRL research wells.

  4. Shuttle Inventory Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Inventory Management System (SIMS) consists of series of integrated support programs providing supply support for both Shuttle program and Kennedy Space Center base opeations SIMS controls all supply activities and requirements from single point. Programs written in COBOL.

  5. Shuttle Inventory Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Inventory Management System (SIMS) consists of series of integrated support programs providing supply support for both Shuttle program and Kennedy Space Center base opeations SIMS controls all supply activities and requirements from single point. Programs written in COBOL.

  6. Software Document Inventory Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merwarth, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    Program offers ways to file and locate sources of reference. DOCLIB system consists of two parts to serve needs of two type of users: general user and librarian. DOCLIB systems provides user with interactive, menudriven document inventory capability.

  7. Tree Nut Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Luncheon Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Tree Nut Allergies Tree nut allergy is one of ... with tree nuts during manufacturing and processing. Avoiding Tree Nuts The federal Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer ...

  8. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  9. The adult children of alcoholics trauma inventory.

    PubMed

    Mackrill, Thomas; Hesse, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The Adult Children of Alcoholics Trauma Inventory (ACATI) registers variations in the recalled experience of growing up with problem drinkers. The ACATI includes measures of the duration and severity of parental alcohol-use-related problems, the drinking parents' behavior when intoxicated and sober, physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and environmental factors. The ACATI correlated well with the Family Tree Questionnaire and showed excellent 14-day test-retest reliability for most variables. The test-retest was carried out in 2009 at a counseling service for young adults from families with alcohol-use-related problems in Denmark (N = 49).

  10. Technical Tree Climbing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Peter

    Tree climbing offers a safe, inexpensive adventure sport that can be performed almost anywhere. Using standard procedures practiced in tree surgery or rock climbing, almost any tree can be climbed. Tree climbing provides challenge and adventure as well as a vigorous upper-body workout. Tree Climbers International classifies trees using a system…

  11. Exotic trees.

    PubMed

    Burda, Z; Erdmann, J; Petersson, B; Wattenberg, M

    2003-02-01

    We discuss the scaling properties of free branched polymers. The scaling behavior of the model is classified by the Hausdorff dimensions for the internal geometry, d(L) and d(H), and for the external one, D(L) and D(H). The dimensions d(H) and D(H) characterize the behavior for long distances, while d(L) and D(L) for short distances. We show that the internal Hausdorff dimension is d(L)=2 for generic and scale-free trees, contrary to d(H), which is known to be equal to 2 for generic trees and to vary between 2 and infinity for scale-free trees. We show that the external Hausdorff dimension D(H) is directly related to the internal one as D(H)=alphad(H), where alpha is the stability index of the embedding weights for the nearest-vertex interactions. The index is alpha=2 for weights from the Gaussian domain of attraction and 0

  12. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  13. Methods of inventory control.

    PubMed

    Lindley, C; Mackowiak, J

    1985-01-01

    Various methods for controlling inventory are described, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. The open-to-buy (OTB) budget method limits purchases to a specific amount of funds available for purchasing pharmaceuticals during a specified period. The emphasis of the OTB method is financial control of the pharmacy inventory. Although it is useful in monitoring and adjusting the dollar value of the inventory, it should be combined with other methods for a total inventory control system. The primary emphasis of the short-list method is to provide accurate and timely inventory information to the person responsible for order placement. The short list identifies the items that are in short supply. It is the most common feedback and control mechanism in use, but it is best suited for settings where duplicate or reserve stock is maintained and monitored by more rigorous methods. The main objective of the minimum and maximum method is to determine when and how much to order of each item. It also provides limited dollar control. The major disadvantage of this method is the time it requires to establish the minimum and maximum levels and to update them regularly to reflect changes in demand. The stock record card method is used to record information on the movement of goods in and out of the storage area. Stock cards can also be used to monitor inventory levels and facilitate order initiation. It is probably the optimum method to be used alone. The most effective system of inventory control is one employing a combination of these methods tailored to meet the institution's needs and available resources.

  14. What Makes a Tree a Tree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on trees, focusing on the parts of trees and how they differ from other plants; (2) eight activities; and (3) ready-to-copy pages dealing with tree identification and tree rings. Activities include objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)

  15. Trees are good, but…

    Treesearch

    E.G. McPherson; F. Ferrini

    2010-01-01

    We know that “trees are good,” and most people believe this to be true. But if this is so, why are so many trees neglected, and so many tree wells empty? An individual’s attitude toward trees may result from their firsthand encounters with specific trees. Understanding how attitudes about trees are shaped, particularly aversion to trees, is critical to the business of...

  16. Prosthetic inventory management.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, P; Seipel, C; Juers, A

    2001-01-01

    An improved approach to inventory management in the Operating Theatre has been initiated at Princess Alexandra Hospital. A Clinical Resource Co-ordinator (CRC) position was created to provide access to expertise in purchasing and materials management at the clinical level. A review of existing inventory management practices conducted by the CRC revealed reporting inadequacies, lack of product specialisation and inadequate control over pricing, stock levels and product usage. Through liaison with key stakeholders, a competitive tendering process was introduced which resulted in a standing offer arrangement being installed for three specialty orthopaedic areas. Outcomes of this arrangement are discussed. The importance of raising the area of prosthetic inventory management for debate in the Australian literature is also highlighted.

  17. National Emission Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Emission Inventory contains measured, modeled, and estimated data for emissions of all known source categories in the US (stationary sources, fires, light duty vehicles and trucks, Heavy duty engines, Motorcycles, ATVs, non-road engines and equipment, locomotives, aircraft, and marine vessels). The statutory authority leading to the collection of this information comes from Title II, Part A of the Clean Air Act.Substance classes include CAPs, HAPs, and some GHG data.Data included in the National Emission Inventory is collected annually, Air Pollutant Trends Data is made available annually, and an National Emissions Inventory of air emissions of both Criteria and Hazardous air pollutants from all air emissions sources is prepared every three years.

  18. Quantitative measurements of inventory control.

    PubMed

    Noel, M W

    1984-11-01

    The use of quantitative measurements for improving inventory management efficiency in hospital pharmacy is reviewed. Proper management of the pharmacy inventory affects the financial operation of the entire hospital. Problems associated with maintaining inadequate or excessive inventory investment are discussed, and the use of inventory valuation and turnover rate for assessing inventory control efficiency is described. Frequency of order placement has an important effect on inventory turnover, carrying costs, and ordering costs. Use of the ABC system of inventory classification for identifying products constituting the majority of inventory dollar investment is outlined, and the economic order value concept is explained. With increasing regulations aimed at controlling hospital costs, pharmacy managers must seek every possible means to improve efficiency. Reducing the amount of money obligated to inventory can substantially improve the financial position of the hospital without requiring a reduction in personnel or quality of service.

  19. Electronic Principles Inventory, Keesler Technical Training Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    344 x 3 5Ř".4" 50006 aIŘ Ř -W a’.4.1- C 0) -4~5 Y 2 ""D55 50a0 C 41 0"-4 4 .4 a -W0-414 Ř L.Ř a 1 4. FA COA " 4 w.0. 4 .4 N 41.0൴ .4 1.- L൴N 0...0 0 I1 0 I 0 0t (A .0 4- 0+ 0 I ’A ISO . - 4. 01 0 I Z L 0404 I -NL "D f I Im IA L 4 4.1 Z ID I 1U IS 0 I w*.4 ŔCL ’C I 1C UC z I 100 04 c ’£0 .e...IL IV6 C.0 06 M I𔃺 *14 04 IAv 0oo L :L0S 0 6 I0 IL IL .1 1 L0 LL. 0 4 U4 I.’ O L2 o~~~4 ISO U... 6 4,E 6 .. usIL4 . L 1 - .4 I 4 L 40C.0 . L *𔃺Z V

  20. Electronic Principles Inventory, Keesler Technical Training Center.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    34 . A. N A. cc N- W 7 65 . DAk 61 1.aJ N W La I a a .% 6L6WII. 4 h . 0 . a a h. WIa." an &. I A. In to. an ’a n .. ’- a . N1aEaAN mcA -9.AW.....~n.AAAAAa...a w 0 0 x 4 09 I 0 (6. e1 56 Zi .. .. 2. w 49 19 Js-Z9 PZ I" Z e. 0 cc g: o Z x. Z~~a ct 0 4 f0 6.P (a LO~ A 4 1.6hj.Z J Z Z =1 U X X LAU eW 4Am VI t...0 m u -a. ..4- A a _j m 0a.aI.a _a. 20 U 0. ai ok -0 LaU ~ a -1 6.1 p. a.z .1o 0 ww 6 JO . UU NU _j _j zo 1:3 w. Z4 -’ 0wa _j .yW - N Lo _j Z ’a-.j . 0

  1. The LANL Physical Inventory Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pompeo, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The LANL physical inventory program (statistically based) provides assurance that the inventory is represented to the defined confidence levels. In addition, it establishes a benchmark to prove that the inventory is accurately stated. The LANL's Physical Inventory Program for nuclear materials requires the performance of periodic physical inventories and special inventories of nuclear material. The Inventory Program also requires the reconciliation of inventory measurements with previously established nuclear material accountability values. This inventory program applies to all material balance areas (MBAs) and is designed in accordance with DOE order 474.1, 'Nuclear Material Control and Accountability'. The program uses a graded approach for performing physical inventories with primary emphasis placed on Categories I and II quantities of special nuclear material. This paper describes the essential elements of the LANL Physical Inventory Program. In addition, the inter-dependency of the Inventory Program with respect to other LANL MC&A Programs is discussed. This paper, by outlining the elements and approach of a site-specific physical inventory program assists safeguards practitioners in the design of related physical inventory programs.

  2. Inventory-driven costs.

    PubMed

    Callioni, Gianpaolo; de Montgros, Xavier; Slagmulder, Regine; Van Wassenhove, Luk N; Wright, Linda

    2005-03-01

    In the 199os, Hewlett-Packard's PC business was struggling to turn a dollar, despite the company's success in winning market share. By 1997, margins on its PCs were as thin as a silicon wafer, and some product lines hadn't turned a profit since 1993. The problem had everything to do with the PC industry's notoriously short product cycles and brutal product and component price deflation. A common rule of thumb was that the value of a fully assembled PC decreased 1% a week. In such an environment, inventory costs become critical. But not just the inventory costs companies traditionally track, HP found, after a thorough review of the problem. The standard "holding cost of inventory"--the capital and physical costs of inventory--accounted for only about 10% of HP's inventory costs. The greater risks, it turned out, resided in four other, essentially hidden costs, which stemmed from mismatches between demand and supply: Component devaluation costs for components still held in production; Price protection costs incurred when product prices drop on the goods distributors still have on their shelves; Product return costs that have to be absorbed when distributors return and receive refunds on overstock items, and; Obsolescence costs for products still unsold when new models are introduced. By developing metrics to track those costs in a consistent way throughout the PC division, HP has found it can manage its supply chains with much more sophistication. Gone are the days of across-the-board measures such as,"Everyone must cut inventories by 20% by the end of the year," which usually resulted in a flurry of cookie-cutter lean production and just-in-time initiatives. Now, each product group is free to choose the supply chain configuration that best suits its needs. Other companies can follow HP's example.

  3. A Space Physics Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldwin, M. B.; Doxas, I.

    2006-12-01

    A Space Physics concept inventory project has been begun using a large lecture Introduction to Space Weather General Education course for non-science majors at UCLA. Students submit brief 150-250 word essays prior to material be discussed in class through Eds Tool-web-based system developed at the University of Colorado under the Biology Concept Inventory project. Eds Tool enables science education specialists to identify key concepts within the essays and classify them based on their occurrence and type. Initial results based on a class of 74 students taught Winter 2006 show common misconceptions found in understanding intro astronomy occur in Space Physics. This includes confusion between the heliosphere, solar system, galaxy and universe (students often use these terms interchangeably). Space Physics specific misconceptions include confusion between the IMF spiral pattern and the radially flowing solar wind (students often have the idea that the solar wind flows along IMF field lines, instead of the solar wind and IMF flowing out together and hence describe the radial solar wind flow as spiral). Students also have misconceptions regarding multiple step physical mechanisms such as the flow of energy from the solar wind into the Earth's ionosphere through currents or the cause of the aurora. Students will often simplify these processes into a one-step process (solar wind electrons flow directly along the Earth's field line to cause the aurora). This talk will describe our methodology and initial results.

  4. On tree intensity estimation for forest inventories: Some statistical issues.

    PubMed

    Comas, Carlos; Mateu, Jorge; Delicado, Pedro

    2011-11-01

    The effect of the plot shape, number of subplots and their spatial arrangement on the sample variance for spatially explicit point populations is analysed for a simple intensity estimator. We derive the sample variance and covariance for sampling designs involving more than one subplot. Some numerical approximations are also presented. If a clustered point pattern has to be sampled, the best strategy to reduce the sample variance is to consider as many rectangular subplots as possible, for a prescribed total sample area, distributed over a grid. In contrast, if a regular point pattern is to be sampled, then a single circular subplot should be considered. If we assume that the point configuration is Poisson, then we can consider any subplot shape and spatial distribution ensuring no overlapping between the subplots. A case study in forestry is considered to assess the validity of our results.

  5. Trees in the Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Richard; Forbatha, Ann

    1982-01-01

    Strategies for using trees in classroom instruction are provided. Includes: (1) activities (such as tree identification, mapping, measuring tree height/width); (2) list of asthetic, architectural, engineering, climate, and wildlife functions of trees; (3) tree discussion questions; and (4) references. (JN)

  6. Simple street tree sampling

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  7. Community Tree Planting Guide

    Treesearch

    Katie Himanga; Douglas Jones; Jean Miller; Janette Monear; Gail Steinman; Katherine Widin

    2001-01-01

    Tree Trust has been helping people plant trees in their communities since 1976. Our goal is to educate people about the importance of trees in their community and guide them through the process of successful tree-planting projects. Franklin Delano Roosevelt once said ?to exist as a nation, to prosper as a state, and to live as a people, we must have trees?....

  8. Relationships between the attributes of standing live and dead down trees in forests of the Lake States

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; Linda Nagel

    2007-01-01

    Refining the understanding of the relationship between a stand's standing live and down dead trees in terms of size, density, and biomass attributes may aid efforts to predict fuel loadings based on standing tree attributes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare down dead and standing live tree attributes (size, density, and biomass) for inventory...

  9. The improvement of precision for estimating the abundance of standing dead trees using auxiliary information under the FIA pot design

    Treesearch

    Hong Su An; David W. MacFarlane; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    Standing dead trees are an important component of forest ecosystems. However, reliable estimates of standing dead tree population parameters can be difficult to obtain due to their low abundance and spatial and temporal variation. After 1999, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program began collecting data for standing dead trees at the Phase 2 stage of sampling....

  10. TWO PAPERS ON ADAPTIVE INVENTORY CONTROL.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    INVENTORY CONTROL , ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS), (*DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING, INVENTORY CONTROL ), OPTIMIZATION, COSTS, RANDOM VARIABLES, SAMPLING, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, INVENTORY CONTROL , STOCHASTIC PROCESSES, DECISION THEORY

  11. Inventory Control and Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mason

    1981-01-01

    An inventory control system stimulates competitive bidding, resulting in the best price for an item. Other cost savings can be achieved by specifying prepayment of freight charges by the successful bidder, seeking standardization of products, and purchasing jointly with nearby municipalities and school districts. (Author/MLF)

  12. "Leader Attributes Inventory" Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jerome, Jr.; And Others

    This manual, which is designed to assist potential users of the Leader Attributes Inventory (LAI) and individuals studying leadership and its measurement, presents the rationale and psychometric characteristics of the LAI and guidelines for using it. Described in chapter 1 are the context in which the LAI was developed and the conceptualization of…

  13. Explosive inventory program

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, L.A.; Taylor, R.S.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes the computer program used at the Tonopah Test Range to maintain the explosive inventory. The program, which uses dBASE III or dBASE III Plus and runs on an IBM PC or compatible, has the capabilities to update (add or subtract) items, edit or delete, append, and generate various reports.

  14. Ecological Inventory Exemplars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobsey, Dick, Ed.

    The document contains 20 ecological inventories (developed at the University of Minnesota and the University of Alberta) to help severely disabled students learn functional living skills. The ecological approach is designed to uncover the functions critical for success in specific environments which the student frequently encounters. Matching the…

  15. Inventorying recreation use

    Treesearch

    George A. James

    1971-01-01

    Part I is a general discussion about the estimation of recreation use, with descriptions of selected sampling techniques for estimating recreation use on a wide variety of different sites and areas. Part II is a brief discussion of an operational computer oriented information system designed and developed by the USDA Forest Service to fully utilize the inventories of...

  16. Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory

    Treesearch

    Thomas Malone; Jingjing Liang; Edmond C. Packee

    2009-01-01

    The Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory (CAFI) is a comprehensive database of boreal forest conditions and dynamics in Alaska. The CAFI consists of field-gathered information from numerous permanent sample plots distributed across interior and south-central Alaska including the Kenai Peninsula. The CAFI currently has 570 permanent sample plots on 190 sites...

  17. Mass Producing Concept Inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin-Doxas, K.; Klymkowsky, M.; Doxas, I.

    2005-12-01

    Concept Inventories are research based assessment instruments which derive their validity and reliability from well researched distracters that represent students' dominant misconceptions in the field. They have formed the backbone of research based reform efforts in Physics by providing valid, reliable common assessment instruments with which to evaluate different teaching approaches and materials, and many disciplines are in the process of developing large numbers of Concept Inventories for their own subject areas. Unfortunately, Concept Inventories are labour and time intensive, with instruments taking anywhere from 2-8 years to develop, and correspondingly high price tags. The time and cost is directly related to the fact that valid, reliable instruments require mapping the dominant misconceptions in a field, which is usually a time consuming and labour intensive task. This paper will describe how we use Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) with unsupervised clustering of the LSA vectors to identify and classify misconceptions in various science disciplines, considerably speeding up the process of misconception discovery and classification. The paper will present results from Astronomy and Biology, and will describe current efforts to develop a Concept Inventory for Space Physics.

  18. Nebraska's second forest inventory.

    Treesearch

    Gerhard K. Raile

    1986-01-01

    The second inventory of the timber resource of Nebraska shows a 25% decline in commercial forest area and a 23% gain in growing-stock volume between 1955 and 1983. Text and statistics are presented on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, biomass, and future timber supply.

  19. Digital Collections Inventory Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClung, Patricia A.

    This report is intended to inform and stimulate discussion on digital library programs as well as the potential usefulness, scope, and desired features of future inventories of online digital collections. It describes a joint project by the Commission on Preservation and Access and the Council on Library Resources to determine the extent to which…

  20. Pricing and Inventory Policies,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The purpose of the research was to explore the feasibility of using profit rather than cost as the criteria for solving several traditional inventory...systems. The motivation for profit optimization is basic to theory of the firm. The underlying equation for this research is: Profit = Sales

  1. The Bayesian Inventory Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    Bayesian Approach to Demand Estimation and Inventory Provisioning," Naval Research Logistics Quarterly. Vol 20, 1973, (p607-624). 4 DeGroot , Morris H...page is blank APPENDIX A SUFFICIENT STATISTICS A convenient reference for moat of this material is DeGroot (41. Su-pose that we are sampling from a

  2. Cluster Interest Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Douglas

    The Cluster Interest Inventory is designed to familiarize students with representative occupations in 13 career clusters: (1) agribusiness and natural resources, (2) business marketing, and office occupations, (3) communications and media, (4) consumer and homemaker, (5) fine arts and humanities, (6) health, (7) manufacturing and processing, (8)…

  3. Inventory Control and Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mason

    1981-01-01

    An inventory control system stimulates competitive bidding, resulting in the best price for an item. Other cost savings can be achieved by specifying prepayment of freight charges by the successful bidder, seeking standardization of products, and purchasing jointly with nearby municipalities and school districts. (Author/MLF)

  4. Resource Materials Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Cynthia

    1986-01-01

    Lists and describes nine print materials--inventories, guides, check sheets--dealing with economic and emotional stress at both the rural family and rural community levels. Lists and describes six films/videotapes showing impact of the rural crisis on students/schools, churches, and families. Cites publication/print dates mainly from 1984-1985.…

  5. Seafarers Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.

    This 60-item, multiple-choice Seafarers Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in marine vocational classes (grades 9-12) to measure a student's knowledge of information that "seafarers" should know. Items measure knowledge of various aspects of boating operation, weather, safety, winds, and oceanography. Steps in the construction of…

  6. Student Attitude Inventory - 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Gerald M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

    This 42-item Student Attitude Inventory (SAI) was administered to entering college freshmen at the University of Illinois (see TM 001 015). The SAI items are divided into nine categories on the basis of content as follows: voting behavior, drug usage, financial, Viet Nam war, education, religious behavior, pollution, housing, and alienation. A…

  7. Natural vegetation inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    Unique characteristics of ERTS imagery can be used to inventory natural vegetation. While satellite images can seldom be interpreted and identified directly in terms of vegetation types, such types can be inferred by interpretation of physical terrain features and through an understanding of the ecology of the vegetation.

  8. THE PRESCHOOL INVENTORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CALDWELL, BETTYE M.; SOULE, DONALD

    THE PRESCHOOL INVENTORY BEGAN AS AN ANSWER TO THE NEED FOR SOME TYPE OF INSTRUMENT THAT WOULD PROVIDE AN INDICATION OF HOW MUCH A DISADVANTAGED CHILD, PRIOR TO HIS INTRODUCTION TO HEAD START, HAD ACHIEVED IN AREAS REGARDED AS NECESSARY FOUNDATIONS FOR SUBSEQUENT SUCCESS IN SCHOOL. MEASURING BASIC INTELLIGENCE WAS NOT THE GOAL. RATHER, THE…

  9. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  10. Materials inventory management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Materials Inventory Management Manual (NHB 4100.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 USC 2473). It sets forth policy, performance standards, and procedures governing the acquisition, management and use of materials. This Manual is effective upon receipt.

  11. Kansas forest inventory, 1981.

    Treesearch

    John S. Jr. Spencer; John K. Strickler; William J. Moyer

    1984-01-01

    The third inventory of the timber resource of Kansas shows a 1.4% increase in commercial forest area and a 42% gain in growing-stock volume between 1965 and 1980. Text and statistics are presented on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, biomass, and future timber supply.

  12. Student Attitude Inventory - 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Gerald M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

    This 42-item Student Attitude Inventory (SAI) was administered to entering college freshmen at the University of Illinois (see TM 001 015). The SAI items are divided into nine categories on the basis of content as follows: voting behavior, drug usage, financial, Viet Nam war, education, religious behavior, pollution, housing, and alienation. A…

  13. Wisconsin's fourth forest inventory: area.

    Treesearch

    W. Brad Smith

    1986-01-01

    In 1983, the fourth Wisconsin forest inventory found 14.8 million acres of commercial forest land, an increase of nearly 2% since 1968. This bulletin analyzes findings from the inventory and presents detailed tables of forest area.

  14. Mortality rates associated with crown health for eastern forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Morin, Randall S; Randolph, KaDonna C; Steinman, Jim

    2015-03-01

    The condition of tree crowns is an important indicator of tree and forest health. Crown conditions have been evaluated during inventories of the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program since 1999. In this study, remeasured data from 55,013 trees on 2616 FIA plots in the eastern USA were used to assess the probability of survival among various tree species using the suite of FIA crown condition variables. Logistic regression procedures were employed to develop models for predicting tree survival. Results of the regression analyses indicated that crown dieback was the most important crown condition variable for predicting tree survival for all species combined and for many of the 15 individual species in the study. The logistic models were generally successful in representing recent tree mortality responses to multiyear infestations of beech bark disease and hemlock woolly adelgid. Although our models are only applicable to trees growing in a forest setting, the utility of models that predict impending tree mortality goes beyond forest inventory or traditional forestry growth and yield models and includes any application where managers need to assess tree health or predict tree mortality including urban forest, recreation, wildlife, and pest management.

  15. Integrating RFID technique to design mobile handheld inventory management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yo-Ping; Yen, Wei; Chen, Shih-Chung

    2008-04-01

    An RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system is proposed in this paper. Differing from the manual inventory management method, the proposed system works on the personal digital assistant (PDA) with an RFID reader. The system identifies electronic tags on the properties and checks the property information in the back-end database server through a ubiquitous wireless network. The system also provides a set of functions to manage the back-end inventory database and assigns different levels of access privilege according to various user categories. In the back-end database server, to prevent improper or illegal accesses, the server not only stores the inventory database and user privilege information, but also keeps track of the user activities in the server including the login and logout time and location, the records of database accessing, and every modification of the tables. Some experimental results are presented to verify the applicability of the integrated RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system.

  16. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  17. Training Tree Transducers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    trees (similar to the role played by the finite- state acceptor FSA for strings). We describe the version (equivalent to TSG ( Schabes , 1990)) where...strictly contained in tree sets of tree adjoining gram- mars (Joshi and Schabes , 1997). 4 Extended-LHS Tree Transducers (xR) Section 1 informally described...changes without modifying the training procedure, as long as we stick to tree automata. 10 Related Work Tree substitution grammars or TSG ( Schabes , 1990

  18. Inventory Systems Laboratory. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naddor, Eliezer

    Four computer programs to aid students in understanding inventory systems, constructing mathematical inventory models, and developing optimal decision rules are presented. The program series allows a user to set input levels, simulates the behavior of major variables in inventory systems, and provides performance measures as output. Inventory…

  19. A Discrete Scatterer Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Trees by DaHan Liao Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOTICES Disclaimers The findings...for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees by DaHan Liao Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  20. Distribution and extent of tree mortality in North Central hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    J. Michael Vasievich; Sharon L. Hobrla; Mark H. Hansen

    1997-01-01

    Forest inventory data shows that biophysical agents and human causes account for annual losses of more than a half-billion ft³ of timber in North Central hardwood forests. This paper reports on an analysis of forest inventory data to determine the extent and distribution of tree mortality in four forest types - Aspen-Birch, Elm-Ash-Cottonwood, Maple-Beech-...

  1. Detroit River habitat inventory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.

    2003-01-01

    This inventory complements a previous survey of habitat in Ontario waters of the Detroit River (OMNR,1993). It is a starting point for balanced and sustained use of the river for natural resource conservation and economic development. The objectives of the inventory were to: (1) locate candidate sites for protection and restoration of fish and wildlife habitat in Michigan waters of the Detroit River; (2) describe the ownership and size of each site, as well as its potential for habitat protection and restoration; and (3) subjectively assess the extent to which existing habitat along the river is productive of fish and wildlife and protected from land uses that have degraded or destroyed such habitat.

  2. Managing the inventory control system.

    PubMed

    Daniels, C E

    1985-02-01

    The four functions of management--planning, organizing, directing, and controlling--are described in relation to the hospital pharmacy inventory control system. Planning includes the development of inventory system objectives and identification of the resources needed to complete them. Organizing requires the manager to decide on the best method of grouping system activities and resources to complete the objectives in order of priority. Directing is a continual activity that involves obtaining optimal performance from the inventory system resources available. Controlling consists of regulation and verification of inventory system activities. The effective inventory system manager integrates planning, organizing, directing, and controlling in a continuous cycle.

  3. Task Inventory Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    statements). Since the instructions do not contain a large number of technical words, fewer are rated "unfamiliar" and the difficulty level declines ...ing ability among the general population of the United States. The trends prevalent in the civilian population are bound to permeate the rank and...inventory instructions and items is presumably more common within this segment of the Marine population . TABLE 11 56 MEAN SCORES ON THE ATTITUDE SURVEY

  4. Categorizing ideas about trees: a tree of trees.

    PubMed

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a "tree of trees." Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like "cladists" and "pheneticists" are recovered but others are not: "gradists" are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here "grade theoreticians." We propose new interesting categories like the "buffonian school," the "metaphoricians," and those using "strictly genealogical classifications." We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization.

  5. Tree Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Peter R.

    2004-09-01

    Nature often replicates her processes at different scales of space and time in differing media. Here a tree-trunk cross section I am preparing for a dendrochronological display at the Battle Creek Cypress Swamp Nature Sanctuary (Calvert County, Maryland) dried and cracked in a way that replicates practically all the planform features found along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge (see Figure 1). The left-lateral offset of saw marks, contrasting with the right-lateral ``rift'' offset, even illustrates the distinction between transcurrent (strike-slip) and transform faults, the latter only recognized as a geologic feature, by J. Tuzo Wilson, in 1965. However, wood cracking is but one of many examples of natural processes that replicate one or several elements of lithospheric plate tectonics. Many of these examples occur in everyday venues and thus make great teaching aids, ``teachable'' from primary school to university levels. Plate tectonics, the dominant process of Earth geology, also occurs in miniature on the surface of some lava lakes, and as ``ice plate tectonics'' on our frozen seas and lakes. Ice tectonics also happens at larger spatial and temporal scales on the Jovian moons Europa and perhaps Ganymede. Tabletop plate tectonics, in which a molten-paraffin ``asthenosphere'' is surfaced by a skin of congealing wax ``plates,'' first replicated Mid-Oceanic Ridge type seafloor spreading more than three decades ago. A seismologist (J. Brune, personal communication, 2004) discovered wax plate tectonics by casually and serendipitously pulling a stick across a container of molten wax his wife and daughters had used in making candles. Brune and his student D. Oldenburg followed up and mirabile dictu published the results in Science (178, 301-304).

  6. Urban tree growth modeling

    Treesearch

    E. Gregory McPherson; Paula J. Peper

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes three long-term tree growth studies conducted to evaluate tree performance because repeated measurements of the same trees produce critical data for growth model calibration and validation. Several empirical and process-based approaches to modeling tree growth are reviewed. Modeling is more advanced in the fields of forestry and...

  7. Keeping trees as assets

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Landscape trees have real value and contribute to making livable communities. Making the most of that value requires providing trees with the proper care and attention. As potentially large and long-lived organisms, trees benefit from commitment to regular care that respects the natural tree system. This system captures, transforms, and uses energy to survive, grow,...

  8. The Needs of Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Amy E.; Cooper, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Tree rings can be used not only to look at plant growth, but also to make connections between plant growth and resource availability. In this lesson, students in 2nd-4th grades use role-play to become familiar with basic requirements of trees and how availability of those resources is related to tree ring sizes and tree growth. These concepts can…

  9. The Needs of Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Amy E.; Cooper, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Tree rings can be used not only to look at plant growth, but also to make connections between plant growth and resource availability. In this lesson, students in 2nd-4th grades use role-play to become familiar with basic requirements of trees and how availability of those resources is related to tree ring sizes and tree growth. These concepts can…

  10. An urban forest-inventory-and-analysis investigation in Oregon and Washington

    Treesearch

    Jacob L. Strunk; John R. Mills; Paul Ries; Hailemariam Temesgen; Lacey Jeroue

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program recently inventoried trees on 257 sample plots in the urbanized areas of Oregon and Washington. Plots were located on the standard grid (≈1 plot/2428 ha) and installed with the 4-subplot footprint (≈.067 ha with 4 circular subplots). Using these data, we examined: 1) use of...

  11. Impact of ecological and socioeconomic determinants on the spread of tallow tree in southern forest lands

    Treesearch

    Yuan Tan; Joseph Z. Fan; Christopher M. Oswalt

    2010-01-01

    Based on USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database, relationships between the presence of tallow tree and related driving variables including forest landscape metrics, stand and site conditions, as well as natural and anthropogenic disturbances were analyzed for the southern states infested by tallow trees. Of the 9,966 re-measured FIA plots in...

  12. Descriptive statistics of tree crown condition in California, Oregon, and Washington

    Treesearch

    KaDonna C. Randolph; Sally J. Campbell; Glenn Christensen

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program uses visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes four tree crown condition indicators (crown dieback, crown density, foliage transparency, and sapling crown vigor) measured in California, Oregon, and Washington between 1996 and 1999....

  13. Equations to convert compacted crown ratio to uncompacted crown ratio for trees in the Interior West

    Treesearch

    Chris Toney; Matthew C. Reeves

    2009-01-01

    Crown ratio is the proportion of total tree length supporting live foliage. Inventory programs of the US Forest Service generally define crown ratio in terms of compacted or uncompacted measurements. Measurement of compacted crown ratio (CCR) involves envisioning the transfer of lower branches of trees with asymmetric crowns to fill holes in the upper portion of the...

  14. Role of sprouts in regeneration of a whole-tree clearcut in central hardwoods of Connecticut

    Treesearch

    C.W. Martin; L.M. Tritton

    1991-01-01

    Stump sprouts were the single most important type of regeneration in a central hardwood forest in Connecticut during the first 5 years after whole-tree clearcuttting. Herbs, shrubs, tree seedlings, and stump sprouts were inventoried using stratified permanent plots on a 6-ha watershed during the first, third, and fifth years after harvest.

  15. A nonparametric analysis of plot basal area growth using tree based models

    Treesearch

    G. L. Gadbury; H. K. lyer; H. T. Schreuder; C. Y. Ueng

    1997-01-01

    Tree based statistical models can be used to investigate data structure and predict future observations. We used nonparametric and nonlinear models to reexamine the data sets on tree growth used by Bechtold et al. (1991) and Ruark et al. (1991). The growth data were collected by Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) teams from 1962 to 1972 (4th cycle) and 1972 to 1982 (...

  16. Tree age, disturbance history, and carbon stocks and fluxes in subalpine Rocky Mountain forests

    Treesearch

    J.B. Bradford; R.A. Birdsey; L.A. Joyce; M.G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Forest carbon stocks and fluxes vary with forest age, and relationships with forest age are often used to estimate fluxes for regional or national carbon inventories. Two methods are commonly used to estimate forest age: observed tree age or time since a known disturbance. To clarify the relationships between tree age, time since disturbance and forest carbon storage...

  17. A comparison of tree crown condition in areas with and without gypsy moth activity

    Treesearch

    KaDonna C. Randolph

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the crown condition of trees within and outside areas of gypsy moth defoliation in Virginia via hypothesis tests of mean differences for five U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis phase 3 crown condition indicators. Significant differences were found between the trees located within and outside gypsy moth...

  18. A rigorous assessment of tree height measurements obtained using airborne LIDAR and conventional field methods.

    Treesearch

    Hans-Erik Andersen; Stephen E. Reutebuch; Robert J. McGaughey

    2006-01-01

    Tree height is an important variable in forest inventory programs but is typically time-consuming and costly to measure in the field using conventional techniques. Airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) provides individual tree height measurements that are highly correlated with field-derived measurements, but the imprecision of conventional field techniques does...

  19. Assessing canopy cover over streets and sidewalks in street tree populations

    Treesearch

    S.E. Maco; E.G. McPherson

    2002-01-01

    Total canopy cover and canopy cover over street and sidewalk surfaces were estimated for street trees in Davis, California, U.S. Calculations were made using simple trigonometric equations based on the results of a sample inventory. Canopy cover from public trees over streets and sidewalks varied between 4% and 46% by city zone, averaging 14% citywide. Consideration of...

  20. An empirical, hierarchical typology of tree species assemblages for assessing forest dynamics under global change scenarios

    Treesearch

    Jennifer K. Costanza; John W. Coulston; David N. Wear

    2017-01-01

    The composition of tree species occurring in a forest is important and can be affected by global change drivers such as climate change. To inform assessment and projection of global change impacts at broad extents, we used hierarchical cluster analysis and over 120,000 recent forest inventory plots to empirically define forest tree assemblages across the U.S., and...

  1. Estimates of live-tree carbon stores in the Pacific Northwest are sensitive to model selection

    Treesearch

    Susanna L. Melson; Mark E. Harmon; Jeremy S. Fried; James B. Domingo

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of live-tree carbon stores are influenced by numerous uncertainties. One of them is model-selection uncertainty: one has to choose among multiple empirical equations and conversion factors that can be plausibly justified as locally applicable to calculate the carbon store from inventory measurements such as tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH)....

  2. Relating FIA data to habitat classifications via tree-based models of canopy cover

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Nelson; Brian G. Tavernia; Chris Toney; Brian F. Walters

    2012-01-01

    Wildlife species-habitat matrices are used to relate lists of species with abundance of their habitats. The Forest Inventory and Analysis Program provides data on forest composition and structure, but these attributes may not correspond directly with definitions of wildlife habitats. We used FIA tree data and tree crown diameter models to estimate canopy cover, from...

  3. Assessing the stability of tree ranges and influence of disturbance in eastern US forests

    Treesearch

    C.W. Woodall; K. Zhu; J.A. Westfall; C.M. Oswalt; A.W. D' Amato; B.F. Walters; H.E. Lintz

    2013-01-01

    Shifts in tree species ranges may occur due to global climate change, which in turn may be exacerbated by natural disturbance events. Within the context of global climate change, developing techniques to monitor tree range dynamics as affected by natural disturbances may enable mitigation/adaptation of projected impacts. Using a forest inventory across the eastern U.S...

  4. Abundance and Size Distribution of Cavity Trees in Second-Growth and Old-Growth Central Hardwood Forests

    Treesearch

    Zhaofei Fan; Stephen R. Shifley; Martin A. Spetich; Frank R. Thompson III; David R. Larsen

    2005-01-01

    In central hardwood forests, mean cavity-tree abundance increases with increasing standsize class (seedling/sapling, pole, sawtimber, old-growth). However, within a size class, the number of cavity trees is highly variable among 0.1-ha inventory plots. Plots in young stands are most likely to have no cavity trees, but some plots may have more than 50 cavity trees/ha....

  5. Abundance and size distribution of cavity trees in second-growth and old-growth central hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Zhaofei Fan; Stephen R. Shifley; Martin A. Spetich; Frank R. Thompson; David R. Larsen

    2005-01-01

    In central hardwood forests, mean cavity-tree abundance increases with increasing standsize class (seedling/sapling, pole, sawtimber, old-growth). However, within a size class, the number of cavity trees is highly variable among 0.1-ha inventory plots. Plots in young stands are most likely to have no cavity trees, but some plots may have more than 50 cavity trees/ha....

  6. Tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Hartford, Orville; Zug, Kathryn A

    2005-09-01

    Tea tree oil is a popular ingredient in many over-the-counter healthcare and cosmetic products. With the explosion of the natural and alternative medicine industry, more and more people are using products containing tea tree oil. This article reviews basic information about tea tree oil and contact allergy, including sources of tea tree oil, chemical composition, potential cross reactions, reported cases of allergic contact dermatitis, allergenic compounds in tea tree oil, practical patch testing information, and preventive measures.

  7. Tree Data (TD)

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Tree Data (TD) methods are used to sample individual live and dead trees on a fixed-area plot to estimate tree density, size, and age class distributions before and after fire in order to assess tree survival and mortality rates. This method can also be used to sample individual shrubs if they are over 4.5 ft tall. When trees are larger than the user-specified...

  8. Army Inventory Management: Inventory and Physical Security Problems Continue.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    DOD management may not have complete and accurate infor- mation for making many important inventory decisions. P8ee 2 GAO/NSiAD4ui I Invmuwy Momkapmt...of earlier transactions and are not counted as adjustments for reporting purposes. GAO believes that all adjustments should be reported. GAO found...Indicator GAo inventoried a statistical sample of 330 items and found that the inventory records for about 56 percent of the items were inaccurate

  9. A Sustainability Initiative to Quantify Carbon Sequestration by Campus Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Over 3,900 trees on a university campus were inventoried by an instructor-led team of geography undergraduates in order to quantify the carbon sequestration associated with biomass growth. The setting of the project is described, together with its logistics, methodology, outcomes, and benefits. This hands-on project provided a team of students…

  10. Analysis of forest naturalness and tree mortality patterns in Estonia

    Treesearch

    J.A. Stanturf

    2009-01-01

    New methods for evaluating structural properties of stands and individual tree mortality within forests are needed to enhance biodiversity assessment in forest inventories. One approach is to assess the degree of naturalness in a forest. We assessed forest naturalness by examining patterns and causes of mortality and deadwood amount and...

  11. Estimation of Total Tree Height from Renewable Resources Evaluation Data

    Treesearch

    Charles E. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Many ecological, biological, and genetic studies use the measurement of total tree height. Until recently, the Southern Forest Experiment Station's inventory procedures through Renewable Resources Evaluation (RRE) have not included total height measurements. This note provides equations to estimate total height based on other RRE measurements.

  12. Regional variation in Caribbean dry forest tree species composition

    Treesearch

    Janet Franklin; Julie Ripplinger; Ethan H. Freid; Humfredo Marcano-Vega; David W. Steadman

    2015-01-01

    How does tree species composition vary in relation to geographical and environmental gradients in a globally rare tropical/subtropical broadleaf dry forest community in the Caribbean? We analyzed data from 153 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots from Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), along with 42 plots that we sampled in the Bahamian Archipelago (...

  13. A Sustainability Initiative to Quantify Carbon Sequestration by Campus Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Over 3,900 trees on a university campus were inventoried by an instructor-led team of geography undergraduates in order to quantify the carbon sequestration associated with biomass growth. The setting of the project is described, together with its logistics, methodology, outcomes, and benefits. This hands-on project provided a team of students…

  14. Measuring Tree Seedlings and Associated Understory Vegetation in Pennsylvania's Forests

    Treesearch

    William H. McWilliams; Todd W. Bowersox; Patrick H. Brose; Daniel A. Devlin; James C. Finley; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Steve Horsley; Susan L. King; Brian M. LaPoint; Tonya W. Lister; Larry H. McCormick; Gary W. Miller; Charles T. Scott; Harry Steele; Kim C. Steiner; Susan L. Stout; James A. Westfall; Robert L. White

    2005-01-01

    The Northeastern Research Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis (NE-FIA) unit is conducting the Pennsylvania Regeneration Study (PRS) to evaluate composition and abundance of tree seedlings and associated vegetation. Sampling methods for the PRS were tested and developed in a pilot study to determine the appropriate number of 2-m microplots needed to capture...

  15. Development of a digital camera tree evaluation system

    Treesearch

    Neil Clark; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Within the Strategic Plan for Forest Inventory and Monitoring (USDA Forest Service 1998), there is a call to "conduct applied research in the use of [advanced technology] towards the end of increasing the operational efficiency and effectiveness of our program". The digital camera tree evaluation system is part of that research, aimed at decreasing field...

  16. Northeastern FIA Tree Taper Study: Current Status and Future Work

    Treesearch

    James A. Westfall; Charles T. Scott

    2005-01-01

    The northeastern unit of the Forest Inventory and Analysis program (NE-FIA) is engaged in an ongoing project to develop regionwide tree taper equations. Sampling intensity is based on NE-FIA plot data and is stratified by species, diameter class, and height class. To date, modeling research has been aimed largely at evaluating existing model forms (and hybrids thereof...

  17. Software for Managing Inventory of Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, John; Savage, Scott; Thomas, Shirman

    2003-01-01

    The Flight Hardware Support Request System (FHSRS) is a computer program that relieves engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of most of the non-engineering administrative burden of managing an inventory of flight hardware. The FHSRS can also be adapted to perform similar functions for other organizations. The FHSRS affords a combination of capabilities, including those formerly provided by three separate programs in purchasing, inventorying, and inspecting hardware. The FHSRS provides a Web-based interface with a server computer that supports a relational database of inventory; electronic routing of requests and approvals; and electronic documentation from initial request through implementation of quality criteria, acquisition, receipt, inspection, storage, and final issue of flight materials and components. The database lists both hardware acquired for current projects and residual hardware from previous projects. The increased visibility of residual flight components provided by the FHSRS has dramatically improved the re-utilization of materials in lieu of new procurements, resulting in a cost savings of over $1.7 million. The FHSRS includes subprograms for manipulating the data in the database, informing of the status of a request or an item of hardware, and searching the database on any physical or other technical characteristic of a component or material. The software structure forces normalization of the data to facilitate inquiries and searches for which users have entered mixed or inconsistent values.

  18. 76 FR 2924 - Notice of Availability of the FY2010 Inventory of Service Contracts for the National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... SAFETY BOARD Notice of Availability of the FY2010 Inventory of Service Contracts for the National... Consolidated Appropriations Act, Public Law 111-175, the NTSB announces the availability of the FY2010 inventory of service contracts. ADDRESSES: The inventory is available electronically on the following Web...

  19. Tree canopy biodiversity in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park: ecological and developmental observations of a new myxomycete species of Diachea.

    PubMed

    Keller, Harold W; Skrabal, Melissa; Eliasson, Uno H; Gaither, Thomas W

    2004-01-01

    A survey and inventory of tree canopy bio-diversity for cryptogams (myxomycetes, macrofungi, mosses, liverworts, lichens and ferns) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park resulted in the discovery of an undescribed myxomycete species. This taxon is classified in the order Physarales, family Di-dymiaceae and genus Diachea. A combination of morphological characteristics distinguishes Diachea arboricola H.W. Keller & M. Skrabal sp. nov. from all other species in the genus: peridium iridescent gold to silvery gray; stalk reddish orange above and whitish below, filled with crystals; capillitial threads stiff, dichotomously branched and arising from the tip of the columella; spore ornamentation uniformly covering the entire spore surface, appearing spiny with light microscopy, with scanning electron microscopy as vertical processes with capitate, clustered, spike-like tips. This type of spore ornamentation has not been found in any other Diachea species. Diachea arboricola is known only from the tree canopy, ranging in height from roughly 3 to 21 m, on three tree species, Fraxinus americana, Juniperus virginiana and Quercus alba. Observations of plasmodial growth and fruiting body development are described based on moist chamber cultures. Tree canopy observations in situ suggest that the plasmodium of this species migrates over extensive vertical areas of tree bark. Ecological factors are discussed that include pH of bark substrata. The species description is based on abundant sporangia from 17 different collections. A key to the species of Diachea is provided to aid in the identification of this taxon.

  20. Site index equations and mean annual increment equations for Pacific Northwest Research Station forest inventory and analysis inventories, 1985-2001.

    Treesearch

    Erica J. Hanson; David L. Azuma; Bruce A. Hiserote

    2003-01-01

    Site index equations and mean annual increment equations used by the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program at the Portland Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. The equations are for 24 tree species in California, Oregon, and Washington.

  1. Differences between standing and downed dead tree wood density reduction factors: A comparison across decay classes and tree species

    Treesearch

    Mark E. Harmon; Christopher W. Woodall; Becky Fasth; Jay Sexton; Misha. Yatkov

    2011-01-01

    Woody detritus or dead wood is an important part of forest ecosystems and has become a routine facet of forest monitoring and inventory. Biomass and carbon estimates of dead wood depend on knowledge of species- and decay class-specifi c density or density reduction factors. While some progress has been made in determining these parameters for dead and downed trees (DD...

  2. Tree biomass in the Swiss landscape: nationwide modelling for improved accounting for forest and non-forest trees.

    PubMed

    Price, B; Gomez, A; Mathys, L; Gardi, O; Schellenberger, A; Ginzler, C; Thürig, E

    2017-03-01

    Trees outside forest (TOF) can perform a variety of social, economic and ecological functions including carbon sequestration. However, detailed quantification of tree biomass is usually limited to forest areas. Taking advantage of structural information available from stereo aerial imagery and airborne laser scanning (ALS), this research models tree biomass using national forest inventory data and linear least-square regression and applies the model both inside and outside of forest to create a nationwide model for tree biomass (above ground and below ground). Validation of the tree biomass model against TOF data within settlement areas shows relatively low model performance (R (2) of 0.44) but still a considerable improvement on current biomass estimates used for greenhouse gas inventory and carbon accounting. We demonstrate an efficient and easily implementable approach to modelling tree biomass across a large heterogeneous nationwide area. The model offers significant opportunity for improved estimates on land use combination categories (CC) where tree biomass has either not been included or only roughly estimated until now. The ALS biomass model also offers the advantage of providing greater spatial resolution and greater within CC spatial variability compared to the current nationwide estimates.

  3. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.D.

    1998-08-14

    Miscellaneous streams discharging to the soil column on the Hanford Site are subject to requirements of several milestones identified in Consent Order No. DE 9INM-177 (Ecology and DOE 1991). The Plan and Schedule for Disposition and Regulatory Compliance for Miscellaneous Stream (DOE/RL-93-94) provides a plan and schedule for the disposition of miscellaneous streams to satisfy one of the Section 6.0 requirements of the Consent Order. One of the commitments (Activity 6-2.2) established in the plan and schedule is to annually update, the miscellaneous streams inventory. This document constitutes the 1998 revision of the miscellaneous streams inventory. Miscellaneous stream discharges were grouped into four permitting categories (Table 1). The first miscellaneous streams Permit (ST 4508) was issued May 30, 1997, to cover wastewater discharges from hydrotesting, maintenance, and construction activities. The second miscellaneous streams Permit (ST4509) covers discharges from cooling water and condensate discharges. The third permit application for category three waste streams was eliminated by recategorizing waste streams into an existing miscellaneous streams permit or eliminating stream discharges. Elimination of the third categorical permit application was approved by Ecology in January 1997 (Ecology 1997). The fourth permit application, to cover storm water, is due to Ecology in September 1998. Table 1 provides a history of the miscellaneous streams permitting activities.

  4. Inventory auditing: a manufacturing perspective.

    PubMed

    Swartley, J A; Hall, J D

    1990-08-01

    Despite the mystery that usually surrounds the annual audit program, its plan is easy to understand if you learn the basic concerns of the auditor. A five-step inventory audit plan usually consists of proving that the inventory exists, is completely represented, belongs to the firm, is properly valued, and is properly classified. To develop the inventory audit plan, an auditor must verify a firm's system of internal controls, in addition to verifying management's financial assertions by obtaining evidence about them. The time, cost, and frequency of the inventory audit with even the best plans may vary because of changing factors.

  5. Six ways to reduce inventory.

    PubMed

    Lunn, T

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to help you reduce the inventory in your operation. We will accomplish that task by discussing six specific methods that companies have used successfully to reduce their inventory. One common attribute of these successes is that they also build teamwork among the people. Every business operation today is concerned with methods to improve customer service. The real trick is to accomplish that task without increasing inventory. We are all concerned with improving our skills at keeping inventory low.

  6. There's Life in Hazard Trees

    Treesearch

    Mary Torsello; Toni McLellan

    The goals of hazard tree management programs are to maximize public safety and maintain a healthy sustainable tree resource. Although hazard tree management frequently targets removal of trees or parts of trees that attract wildlife, it can take into account a diversity of tree values. With just a little extra planning, hazard tree management can be highly beneficial...

  7. Do trees fall downhill? Relationship between treefall direction and slope-aspect and wind in eight old-growth oak stands in the central hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    James S. Rentch

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between direction of treefall and slope-aspect, and prevailing wind in eight old-growth stands where single-tree canopy gaps characterize the dominant disturbance regime. All live and downed trees were inventoried in 0.45-ha sample plots. To determine crown asymmetry, crown sizes of live trees were measured along two perpendicular...

  8. Accounting for density reduction and structural loss in standing dead trees: Implications for forest biomass and carbon stock estimates in the United States

    Treesearch

    Grant M. Domke; Christopher W. Woodall; James E. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Standing dead trees are one component of forest ecosystem dead wood carbon (C) pools, whose national stock is estimated by the U.S. as required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Historically, standing dead tree C has been estimated as a function of live tree growing stock volume in the U.S.'s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Initiated...

  9. Fault-Tree Compiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Fault-Tree Compiler (FTC) program, is software tool used to calculate probability of top event in fault tree. Gates of five different types allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language easy to understand and use. In addition, program supports hierarchical fault-tree definition feature, which simplifies tree-description process and reduces execution time. Set of programs created forming basis for reliability-analysis workstation: SURE, ASSIST, PAWS/STEM, and FTC fault-tree tool (LAR-14586). Written in PASCAL, ANSI-compliant C language, and FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

  10. Categorizing Ideas about Trees: A Tree of Trees

    PubMed Central

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a “tree of trees.” Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like “cladists” and “pheneticists” are recovered but others are not: “gradists” are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here “grade theoreticians.” We propose new interesting categories like the “buffonian school,” the “metaphoricians,” and those using “strictly genealogical classifications.” We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization. PMID:23950877

  11. Controlling Inventory: Real-World Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thomas G.; Özgün-Koca, S. Asli; Chelst, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Amazon, Walmart, and other large-scale retailers owe their success partly to efficient inventory management. For such firms, holding too little inventory risks losing sales, whereas holding idle inventory wastes money. Therefore profits hinge on the inventory level chosen. In this activity, students investigate a simplified inventory-control…

  12. 27 CFR 19.312 - Physical inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physical inventories. 19... Inventories § 19.312 Physical inventories. A proprietor must take a physical inventory of the spirits and... quarter. A proprietor must record the results of the inventory as provided in subpart V of this part...

  13. Controlling Inventory: Real-World Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thomas G.; Özgün-Koca, S. Asli; Chelst, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Amazon, Walmart, and other large-scale retailers owe their success partly to efficient inventory management. For such firms, holding too little inventory risks losing sales, whereas holding idle inventory wastes money. Therefore profits hinge on the inventory level chosen. In this activity, students investigate a simplified inventory-control…

  14. Slow growth rates of Amazonian trees: consequences for carbon cycling.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Simone; Trumbore, Susan; Camargo, Plinio B; Selhorst, Diogo; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Higuchi, Niro; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2005-12-20

    Quantifying age structure and tree growth rate of Amazonian forests is essential for understanding their role in the carbon cycle. Here, we use radiocarbon dating and direct measurement of diameter increment to document unexpectedly slow growth rates for trees from three locations spanning the Brazilian Amazon basin. Central Amazon trees, averaging only approximately 1 mm/year diameter increment, grow half as fast as those from areas with more seasonal rainfall to the east and west. Slow growth rates mean that trees can attain great ages; across our sites we estimate 17-50% of trees with diameter >10 cm have ages exceeding 300 years. Whereas a few emergent trees that make up a large portion of the biomass grow faster, small trees that are more abundant grow slowly and attain ages of hundreds of years. The mean age of carbon in living trees (60-110 years) is within the range of or slightly longer than the mean residence time calculated from C inventory divided by annual C allocation to wood growth (40-100 years). Faster C turnover is observed in stands with overall higher rates of diameter increment and a larger fraction of the biomass in large, fast-growing trees. As a consequence, forests can recover biomass relatively quickly after disturbance, whereas recovering species composition may take many centuries. Carbon cycle models that apply a single turnover time for carbon in forest biomass do not account for variations in life strategy and therefore may overestimate the carbon sequestration potential of Amazon forests.

  15. National Wetlands Inventory products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    control. These predominantly wet areas, or wetlands as they are commonly called, now represent only about 5 percent of the land surface of the lower 48 States. Out of 221 million acres of wetlands that once existed in the conterminous United States, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) estimates that only about 103.3 million acres remain. Each year, development, drainage, and agriculture eliminate another 290,000 acres-an area a little less than half the size of Rhode Island. From the 1950's to the 1970's, conversion of wetlands to farmland caused 87 percent of all wetland losses. The FWS has long recognized the importance of America's wetlands because they form breeding and wintering grounds for great numbers of migratory birds. In 1977, the FWS began the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI), a systematic effort to classify and map America's remaining wetlands.

  16. Indian scales and inventories

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines. PMID:21836709

  17. National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM) is a free, desktop computer application developed by EPA to help you develop estimates of current and future emission inventories for on-road motor vehicles and nonroad equipment. To learn more search the archive

  18. Task Analysis Inventories. Series II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Carl E.

    This second in a series of task analysis inventories contains checklists of work performed in twenty-two occupations. Each inventory is a comprehensive list of work activities, responsibilities, educational courses, machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used and the products produced or services rendered in a designated occupational area. The…

  19. Inventory behavior at remote sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, William C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An operations research study was conducted concerning inventory behavior on the space station. Historical data from the Space Shuttle was used. The results demonstrated a high logistics burden if Space Shuttle reliability technology were to be applied without modification to space station design (which it was not). Effects of rapid resupply and on board repair capabilities on inventory behavior were investigated.

  20. Student-Life Stress Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    The reliability of the Student-Life Stress Inventory of B. M. Gadzella (1991) was studied. The inventory consists of 51 items listed in 9 sections indicating different types of stressors (frustrations, conflicts, pressures, changes, and self-imposed stressors) and reactions to the stressors (physiological, emotional, behavioral, and cognitive) as…

  1. Some aspects of inventory integration

    Treesearch

    Jerry Leech

    2000-01-01

    Integrating such disparate topics as are covered by this conference is daunting, because to do it well requires in-depth expertise of many complex technical methodologies. Based on experiences in Asia and Australia, it is suggested that there can never be one inventory design or one planning system, it will increasingly be necessary to implement specialized inventories...

  2. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY WORKSHOP & ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes the NARSTO activities related to emission inventories in 2003-2005. The NARSTO Particulate Matter Assessment, issued in 2003, identified emission inventories as one of the critical elements of the air quality program which needs improvement if it i...

  3. The Geist Picture Interest Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Harold

    The purposes of this inventory are to: 1) assess quantitatively eleven male and twelve female general interest areas; 2) identify motivating forces behind occupational choice; 3) provide an interest inventory for working with those having limited verbal abilities; 4) provide possible additional information through projective uses; 5) further…

  4. Automation of Space Inventory Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong; Wagner, Raymond; Barton, Richard; Gifford, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the utilization of automated space-based inventory management through handheld RFID readers and BioNet Middleware. The contents include: 1) Space-Based INventory Management; 2) Real-Time RFID Location and Tracking; 3) Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) RFID; and 4) BioNet Middleware.

  5. Southeast Alaska forests: inventory highlights.

    Treesearch

    Sally Campbell; Willem W.S. van Hees; Bert. Mead

    2004-01-01

    This publication presents highlights of a recent southeast Alaska inventory and analysis conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (USDA Forest Service). Southeast Alaska has about 22.9 million acres, of which two-thirds are vegetated. Almost 11 million acres are forest land and about 4 million acres have nonforest...

  6. Maine's annual inventory: state perspectives

    Treesearch

    Kenneth M. Laustsen

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, Maine became the first northeastern state to begin implementing the USDA Forest Service's annual inventory system as directed by PL 105- 185, the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998. The Maine Forest Service, in collaboration with Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the Northeastern Research Station of the USDA Forest...

  7. Computer program determines inventory size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaspar, H.

    1966-01-01

    FORTRAN 4 computer program calculates optimum size of a small inventory of relatively complex or expensive items. This program can be used in situations where the initial cost of purchase is large or when there is a need for a balanced inventory on a short production run.

  8. Environmental protection well inventory (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, J.L.

    1990-03-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells contained in Environment Protection Department (EPD) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. All wells listed in this inventory are monitoring wells unless otherwise indicated.

  9. Tree Classification Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the IND Tree Package to prospective users. IND does supervised learning using classification trees. This learning task is a basic tool used in the development of diagnosis, monitoring and expert systems. The IND Tree Package was developed as part of a NASA project to semi-automate the development of data analysis and modelling algorithms using artificial intelligence techniques. The IND Tree Package integrates features from CART and C4 with newer Bayesian and minimum encoding methods for growing classification trees and graphs. The IND Tree Package also provides an experimental control suite on top. The newer features give improved probability estimates often required in diagnostic and screening tasks. The package comes with a manual, Unix 'man' entries, and a guide to tree methods and research. The IND Tree Package is implemented in C under Unix and was beta-tested at university and commercial research laboratories in the United States.

  10. Evolution of tree nutrition.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Andrews, Mitchell

    2010-09-01

    Using a broad definition of trees, the evolutionary origins of trees in a nutritional context is considered using data from the fossil record and molecular phylogeny. Trees are first known from the Late Devonian about 380 million years ago, originated polyphyletically at the pteridophyte grade of organization; the earliest gymnosperms were trees, and trees are polyphyletic in the angiosperms. Nutrient transporters, assimilatory pathways, homoiohydry (cuticle, intercellular gas spaces, stomata, endohydric water transport systems including xylem and phloem-like tissue) and arbuscular mycorrhizas preceded the origin of trees. Nutritional innovations that began uniquely in trees were the seed habit and, certainly (but not necessarily uniquely) in trees, ectomycorrhizas, cyanobacterial, actinorhizal and rhizobial (Parasponia, some legumes) diazotrophic symbioses and cluster roots.

  11. Rx for wounded trees

    Treesearch

    Hal Marx

    1976-01-01

    This booklet offers guidelines on how to care for trees to keep them healthy and to protect them from wounds. It also prescribes ways to prevent, recognize, and minimize damage by decay that most often sets in after tree wounding.

  12. Advantages and limitations of anticipating laboratory test results from regression- and tree-based rules derived from electronic health-record data.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Fahim; Theisen-Toupal, Jesse C; Arnaout, Ramy

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory testing is the single highest-volume medical activity, making it useful to ask how well one can anticipate whether a given test result will be high, low, or within the reference interval ("normal"). We analyzed 10 years of electronic health records--a total of 69.4 million blood tests--to see how well standard rule-mining techniques can anticipate test results based on patient age and gender, recent diagnoses, and recent laboratory test results. We evaluated rules according to their positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV) and area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (ROC AUCs). Using a stringent cutoff of PPV and/or NPV≥0.95, standard techniques yield few rules for sendout tests but several for in-house tests, mostly for repeat laboratory tests that are part of the complete blood count and basic metabolic panel. Most rules were clinically and pathophysiologically plausible, and several seemed clinically useful for informing pre-test probability of a given result. But overall, rules were unlikely to be able to function as a general substitute for actually ordering a test. Improving laboratory utilization will likely require different input data and/or alternative methods.

  13. Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

    This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

  14. Illumination Under Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N

    2002-08-19

    This paper is a survey of the author's work on illumination and shadows under trees, including the effects of sky illumination, sun penumbras, scattering in a misty atmosphere below the trees, and multiple scattering and transmission between leaves. It also describes a hierarchical image-based rendering method for trees.

  15. Winter Birch Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  16. Decoding tree DNA

    Treesearch

    M. Thompson Conkle

    1986-01-01

    Check the laboratory reports after your next physical. You'll find information on a number of biochemical processes. Procedures like those used in the medical sciences are yielding valuable information about genetic differences among trees and tree pests. New procedures that provide ways to isolate and move genes are advancing progress in tree improvement. These...

  17. Diary of a Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srulowitz, Frances

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity to develop students' skills of observation and recordkeeping by studying the growth of a tree's leaves during the spring. Children monitor the growth of 11 tress over a 2-month period, draw pictures of the tree at different stages of growth, and write diaries of the tree's growth. (MDH)

  18. The Wish Tree Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sarah DeWitt

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in implementing a Wish Tree project in her school in an effort to bring the school community together with a positive art-making experience during a potentially stressful time. The concept of a wish tree is simple: plant a tree; provide tags and pencils for writing wishes; and encourage everyone to…

  19. The Wish Tree Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sarah DeWitt

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in implementing a Wish Tree project in her school in an effort to bring the school community together with a positive art-making experience during a potentially stressful time. The concept of a wish tree is simple: plant a tree; provide tags and pencils for writing wishes; and encourage everyone to…

  20. Winter Birch Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  1. 48 CFR 245.606 - Inventory schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventory schedules. 245.606 Section 245.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Contractor Inventory 245.606 Inventory schedules....

  2. Air Emissions Inventories

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides access to emissions data, regulations and guidance, electronic system access, resources and tools to support trends analysis, regional, and local scale air quality modeling, regulatory impact assessments.

  3. Merging National Forest and National Forest Health Inventories to Obtain an Integrated Forest Resource Inventory – Experiences from Bavaria, Slovenia and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Kovač, Marko; Bauer, Arthur; Ståhl, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds, Material and Methods To meet the demands of sustainable forest management and international commitments, European nations have designed a variety of forest-monitoring systems for specific needs. While the majority of countries are committed to independent, single-purpose inventorying, a minority of countries have merged their single-purpose forest inventory systems into integrated forest resource inventories. The statistical efficiencies of the Bavarian, Slovene and Swedish integrated forest resource inventory designs are investigated with the various statistical parameters of the variables of growing stock volume, shares of damaged trees, and deadwood volume. The parameters are derived by using the estimators for the given inventory designs. The required sample sizes are derived via the general formula for non-stratified independent samples and via statistical power analyses. The cost effectiveness of the designs is compared via two simple cost effectiveness ratios. Results In terms of precision, the most illustrative parameters of the variables are relative standard errors; their values range between 1% and 3% if the variables’ variations are low (s%<80%) and are higher in the case of higher variations. A comparison of the actual and required sample sizes shows that the actual sample sizes were deliberately set high to provide precise estimates for the majority of variables and strata. In turn, the successive inventories are statistically efficient, because they allow detecting the mean changes of variables with powers higher than 90%; the highest precision is attained for the changes of growing stock volume and the lowest for the changes of the shares of damaged trees. Two indicators of cost effectiveness also show that the time input spent for measuring one variable decreases with the complexity of inventories. Conclusion There is an increasing need for credible information on forest resources to be used for decision making and national and

  4. Merging national forest and national forest health inventories to obtain an integrated forest resource inventory--experiences from Bavaria, Slovenia and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kovač, Marko; Bauer, Arthur; Ståhl, Göran

    2014-01-01

    To meet the demands of sustainable forest management and international commitments, European nations have designed a variety of forest-monitoring systems for specific needs. While the majority of countries are committed to independent, single-purpose inventorying, a minority of countries have merged their single-purpose forest inventory systems into integrated forest resource inventories. The statistical efficiencies of the Bavarian, Slovene and Swedish integrated forest resource inventory designs are investigated with the various statistical parameters of the variables of growing stock volume, shares of damaged trees, and deadwood volume. The parameters are derived by using the estimators for the given inventory designs. The required sample sizes are derived via the general formula for non-stratified independent samples and via statistical power analyses. The cost effectiveness of the designs is compared via two simple cost effectiveness ratios. In terms of precision, the most illustrative parameters of the variables are relative standard errors; their values range between 1% and 3% if the variables' variations are low (s%<80%) and are higher in the case of higher variations. A comparison of the actual and required sample sizes shows that the actual sample sizes were deliberately set high to provide precise estimates for the majority of variables and strata. In turn, the successive inventories are statistically efficient, because they allow detecting the mean changes of variables with powers higher than 90%; the highest precision is attained for the changes of growing stock volume and the lowest for the changes of the shares of damaged trees. Two indicators of cost effectiveness also show that the time input spent for measuring one variable decreases with the complexity of inventories. There is an increasing need for credible information on forest resources to be used for decision making and national and international policy making. Such information can be cost

  5. Characterizing forest vegetation of the Tanana Valley: what can forest inventory and analysis deliver?

    Treesearch

    Bethany Schulz

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation profile data were collected as part of a forest inventory project in the Tanana Valley in interior Alaska, providing a means of characterizing the forest vegetation. The black spruce forest type was most common, followed by Alaska paper birch, and white spruce, quaking aspen, and balsam poplar. For individual tree species, black spruce was recorded on 68...

  6. Even-Aged Management and Landslide Inventory, Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino County, California

    Treesearch

    Julie A. Bawcom

    2007-01-01

    Tree removal associated with clearcutting in a coastal redwood forest does not alone initiate numerous shallow landslides that deliver large quantities of sediment to watercourses. landslide inventory focused on the relationship between vegetation removal in predominantly second-growth redwood forest and shallow landslides. Deep-seated dormant landslide features were...

  7. Using Forest Service forest inventory and analysis data to estimate regional oak decline and oak mortality

    Treesearch

    Kathryn W. Kromroy; Jennifer Juzwik; Paul Castillo; Mark H. Hansen

    2008-01-01

    Damage and mortality data are collected as part of the US Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) ongoing assessments of the nation's timberlands. The usefulness and value of FIA tree data in assessing historical levels of oak decline and oak mortality were investigated for seven Midwestern states. The data were collected during two periodic...

  8. Conterminous U.S. and Alaska Forest Type Mapping Using Forest Inventory and Analysis Data

    Treesearch

    B. Ruefenacht; M.V. Finco; M.D. Nelson; R. Czaplewski; E.H. Helmer; J. A. Blackard; G.R. Holden; A.J. Lister; D. Salajanu; D. Weyermann; K. Winterberger

    2008-01-01

    Classification-trees were used to model forest type groups and forest types for the conterminous United States and Alaska. The predictor data were a geospatial data set with a spatial resolution of 250 m developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS). The response data were plot data from the USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Overall...

  9. Determining stocking, forest type and stand-size class from forest inventory data

    Treesearch

    Mark H. Hansen; Jerold T. Hahn

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures used by North Central Forest Experiment Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis Work Unit (NCFIA) in determining stocking, forest type, and stand-size class. The stocking procedure assigns a portion of the stocking to individual trees measured on NCFIA 10-point field plots. Stand size and forest type are determined as functions...

  10. Level 2 Screening with the PDD Behavior Inventory: Subgroup Profiles and Implications for Differential Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ira L.; Liu, Xudong; Hudson, Melissa; Gillis, Jennifer; Cavalari, Rachel N. S.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Gardner, Judith M.

    2017-01-01

    The PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) has recently been shown, in a large multisite study, to discriminate well between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other groups when its scores were examined using a machine learning tool, Classification and Regression Trees (CART). Discrimination was good for toddlers, preschoolers, and school-age children;…

  11. Considerations in Forest Growth Estimation Between Two Measurements of Mapped Forest Inventory Plots

    Treesearch

    Michael T. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Several aspects of the enhanced Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program?s national plot design complicate change estimation. The design incorporates up to three separate plot sizes (microplot, subplot, and macroplot) to sample trees of different sizes. Because multiple plot sizes are involved, change estimators designed for polyareal plot sampling, such as those...

  12. K-nearest neighbor imputation of forest inventory variables in New Hampshire

    Treesearch

    Andrew Lister; Michael Hoppus; Raymond L. Czaplewski

    2005-01-01

    The k-nearest neighbor (kNN) method was used to map stand volume for a mosaic of 4 Landsat scenes covering the state of New Hampshire. Data for gross cubic foot volume and trees per acre were summarized from USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots and used as training for kNN. Six bands of...

  13. Inventory shows extent of non-native invasive plants in Minnesota forests

    Treesearch

    W. Keith Moser; Mark D. Nelson; Mark H. Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Readers are no doubt aware of the impact that non-native invasive plants (NNIP) present to Minnesota's ecosystems. The U.S. Forest Service's Northern Research Station (NRS) Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program is studying what determines where these plants are found, including forest type, tree density, disturbance, productivity, and topography.

  14. Updating Indiana Annual Forest Inventory and Analysis Plot Data Using Eastern Broadleaf Forest Diameter Growth Models

    Treesearch

    Veronica C. Lessard

    2001-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the North Central Research Station (NCRS), USDA Forest Service, has developed nonlinear, individual-tree, distance-independent annual diameter growth models. The models are calibrated for species groups and formulated as the product of an average diameter growth component and a modifier component. The regional models...

  15. Composite estimation for forest inventories using multiple value groups and strata

    Treesearch

    Michael S. Williams; Ken A. Cormier

    1996-01-01

    Due to economic and political pressures placed on timber production, information from timber inventories needs to be broken down into information on particular value groups, which are groupings based on individual tree characteristics. Thus estimates of totals and variances need to be computed for individual value groups, all value groups combined, and any collection...

  16. Distributed Contour Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther H.

    2014-03-31

    Topological techniques provide robust tools for data analysis. They are used, for example, for feature extraction, for data de-noising, and for comparison of data sets. This chapter concerns contour trees, a topological descriptor that records the connectivity of the isosurfaces of scalar functions. These trees are fundamental to analysis and visualization of physical phenomena modeled by real-valued measurements. We study the parallel analysis of contour trees. After describing a particular representation of a contour tree, called local{global representation, we illustrate how di erent problems that rely on contour trees can be solved in parallel with minimal communication.

  17. Growth of a Pine Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  18. Growth of a Pine Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  19. Individual tree crown delineation using localized contour tree method and airborne LiDAR data in coniferous forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bin; Yu, Bailang; Wu, Qiusheng; Huang, Yan; Chen, Zuoqi; Wu, Jianping

    2016-10-01

    Individual tree crown delineation is of great importance for forest inventory and management. The increasing availability of high-resolution airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data makes it possible to delineate the crown structure of individual trees and deduce their geometric properties with high accuracy. In this study, we developed an automated segmentation method that is able to fully utilize high-resolution LiDAR data for detecting, extracting, and characterizing individual tree crowns with a multitude of geometric and topological properties. The proposed approach captures topological structure of forest and quantifies topological relationships of tree crowns by using a graph theory-based localized contour tree method, and finally segments individual tree crowns by analogy of recognizing hills from a topographic map. This approach consists of five key technical components: (1) derivation of canopy height model from airborne LiDAR data; (2) generation of contours based on the canopy height model; (3) extraction of hierarchical structures of tree crowns using the localized contour tree method; (4) delineation of individual tree crowns by segmenting hierarchical crown structure; and (5) calculation of geometric and topological properties of individual trees. We applied our new method to the Medicine Bow National Forest in the southwest of Laramie, Wyoming and the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest in the central portion of the Cascade Range of Oregon, U.S. The results reveal that the overall accuracy of individual tree crown delineation for the two study areas achieved 94.21% and 75.07%, respectively. Our method holds great potential for segmenting individual tree crowns under various forest conditions. Furthermore, the geometric and topological attributes derived from our method provide comprehensive and essential information for forest management.

  20. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  1. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    SciTech Connect

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order. The Consent Order lists the regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. The RL provided the US Congress a Plan and Schedule to discontinue disposal of contaminated liquid effluent into the soil column on the Hanford Site. The plan and schedule document contained a strategy for the implementation of alternative treatment and disposal systems. This strategy included prioritizing the streams into two phases. The Phase 1 streams were considered to be higher priority than the Phase 2 streams. The actions recommended for the Phase 1 and 2 streams in the two reports were incorporated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluents streams identified within the Consent Order that are discharged to the ground but are not categorized as Phase 1 or Phase 2 Streams. This document consists of an inventory of the liquid effluent streams being discharged into the Hanford soil column.

  2. National Wetlands Inventory products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    Marshes, swamps, ponds, and bogs are teeming biological nurseries for migratory birds, fish, and aquatic plants. They also provide natural flood and erosion control. These predominantly wet areas, or wetlands as they are commonly called, now represent only about 5 percent of the land surface of the lower 48 States. Out of 221 million acres of wetlands that once existed in the conterminous United States, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) estimates that only about 103.3 million acres remain. Each year, development, drainage, and agriculture eliminate another 290,000 acres - an area a little less than half the size of Rhode Island. From the 1950's to the 1970's, conversion of wetlands to farmland caused 87 percent of all wetland losses. The FWS has long recognized the importance of America's wetlands because they form breeding and wintering grounds for great numbers of migratory birds. In 1977, the FWS began the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI), a systematic effort to classify and map America's remaining wetlands.

  3. DIMA quick start, database for inventory, monitoring and assessment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Database for Inventory, Monitoring and Assessment (DIMA) is a highly-customized Microsoft Access database for collecting data electronically in the field and for organizing, storing and reporting those data for monitoring and assessment. While DIMA can be used for any number of different monito...

  4. Tree height–diameter allometry across the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between tree height and diameter is fundamental in determining community and ecosystem structure as well as estimates of biomass and carbon storage. Yet our understanding of how tree allometry relates to climate and whole organismal function is limited. We used the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program database to determine height–diameter allometries of 2,976,937 individuals of 293 tree species across the United States. The shape of the allometric relationship was determined by comparing linear and nonlinear functional forms. Mixed-effects models were used to test for allometric differences due to climate and floristic (between angiosperms and gymnosperms) and functional groups (leaf habit and shade tolerance). Tree allometry significantly differed across the United States largely because of climate. Temperature, and to some extent precipitation, in part explained tree allometric variation. The magnitude of allometric variation due to climate, however, had a phylogenetic signal. Specifically, angiosperm allometry was more sensitive to differences in temperature compared to gymnosperms. Most notably, angiosperm height was more negatively influenced by increasing temperature variability, whereas gymnosperm height was negatively influenced by decreasing precipitation and increasing altitude. There was little evidence to suggest that shade tolerance influenced tree allometry except for very shade-intolerant trees which were taller for any given diameter. Tree allometry is plastic rather than fixed and scaling parameters vary around predicted central tendencies. This allometric variation provides insight into life-history strategies, phylogenetic history, and environmental limitations at biogeographical scales. PMID:25859325

  5. An estimate of the number of tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Slik, J W Ferry; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Alves, Luciana F; Ashton, Peter; Balvanera, Patricia; Bastian, Meredith L; Bellingham, Peter J; van den Berg, Eduardo; Bernacci, Luis; da Conceição Bispo, Polyanna; Blanc, Lilian; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Boeckx, Pascal; Bongers, Frans; Boyle, Brad; Bradford, Matt; Brearley, Francis Q; Breuer-Ndoundou Hockemba, Mireille; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Calderado Leal Matos, Darley; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel; Catharino, Eduardo L M; Chai, Shauna-Lee; Chen, Yukai; Colwell, Robert K; Chazdon, Robin L; Robin, Chazdon L; Clark, Connie; Clark, David B; Clark, Deborah A; Culmsee, Heike; Damas, Kipiro; Dattaraja, Handanakere S; Dauby, Gilles; Davidar, Priya; DeWalt, Saara J; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Duque, Alvaro; Durigan, Giselda; Eichhorn, Karl A O; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Eler, Eduardo; Ewango, Corneille; Farwig, Nina; Feeley, Kenneth J; Ferreira, Leandro; Field, Richard; de Oliveira Filho, Ary T; Fletcher, Christine; Forshed, Olle; Franco, Geraldo; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Gillespie, Thomas; Gillet, Jean-François; Amarnath, Giriraj; Griffith, Daniel M; Grogan, James; Gunatilleke, Nimal; Harris, David; Harrison, Rhett; Hector, Andy; Homeier, Jürgen; Imai, Nobuo; Itoh, Akira; Jansen, Patrick A; Joly, Carlos A; de Jong, Bernardus H J; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Kelly, Daniel L; Kenfack, David; Kessler, Michael; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Kooyman, Robert; Larney, Eileen; Laumonier, Yves; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F; Lawes, Michael J; Amaral, Ieda Leao do; Letcher, Susan G; Lindsell, Jeremy; Lu, Xinghui; Mansor, Asyraf; Marjokorpi, Antti; Martin, Emanuel H; Meilby, Henrik; Melo, Felipe P L; Metcalfe, Daniel J; Medjibe, Vincent P; Metzger, Jean Paul; Millet, Jerome; Mohandass, D; Montero, Juan C; de Morisson Valeriano, Márcio; Mugerwa, Badru; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Nilus, Reuben; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Onrizal; Page, Navendu; Parolin, Pia; Parren, Marc; Parthasarathy, Narayanaswamy; Paudel, Ekananda; Permana, Andrea; Piedade, Maria T F; Pitman, Nigel C A; Poorter, Lourens; Poulsen, Axel D; Poulsen, John; Powers, Jennifer; Prasad, Rama C; Puyravaud, Jean-Philippe; Razafimahaimodison, Jean-Claude; Reitsma, Jan; Dos Santos, João Roberto; Roberto Spironello, Wilson; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Rozak, Andes Hamuraby; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Rutishauser, Ervan; Saiter, Felipe; Saner, Philippe; Santos, Braulio A; Santos, Fernanda; Sarker, Swapan K; Satdichanh, Manichanh; Schmitt, Christine B; Schöngart, Jochen; Schulze, Mark; Suganuma, Marcio S; Sheil, Douglas; da Silva Pinheiro, Eduardo; Sist, Plinio; Stevart, Tariq; Sukumar, Raman; Sun, I-Fang; Sunderland, Terry; Sunderand, Terry; Suresh, H S; Suzuki, Eizi; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Tang, Jangwei; Targhetta, Natália; Theilade, Ida; Thomas, Duncan W; Tchouto, Peguy; Hurtado, Johanna; Valencia, Renato; van Valkenburg, Johan L C H; Van Do, Tran; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Verbeeck, Hans; Adekunle, Victor; Vieira, Simone A; Webb, Campbell O; Whitfeld, Timothy; Wich, Serge A; Williams, John; Wittmann, Florian; Wöll, Hannsjoerg; Yang, Xiaobo; Adou Yao, C Yves; Yap, Sandra L; Yoneda, Tsuyoshi; Zahawi, Rakan A; Zakaria, Rahmad; Zang, Runguo; de Assis, Rafael L; Garcia Luize, Bruno; Venticinque, Eduardo M

    2015-06-16

    The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, we use a fitted value of Fisher's alpha and an approximate pantropical stem total to estimate the minimum number of tropical forest tree species to fall between ∼ 40,000 and ∼ 53,000, i.e., at the high end of previous estimates. Contrary to common assumption, the Indo-Pacific region was found to be as species-rich as the Neotropics, with both regions having a minimum of ∼ 19,000-25,000 tree species. Continental Africa is relatively depauperate with a minimum of ∼ 4,500-6,000 tree species. Very few species are shared among the African, American, and the Indo-Pacific regions. We provide a methodological framework for estimating species richness in trees that may help refine species richness estimates of tree-dependent taxa.

  6. An estimate of the number of tropical tree species

    PubMed Central

    Slik, J. W. Ferry; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Alves, Luciana F.; Ashton, Peter; Balvanera, Patricia; Bastian, Meredith L.; Bellingham, Peter J.; van den Berg, Eduardo; Bernacci, Luis; da Conceição Bispo, Polyanna; Blanc, Lilian; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Boeckx, Pascal; Bongers, Frans; Boyle, Brad; Bradford, Matt; Brearley, Francis Q.; Breuer-Ndoundou Hockemba, Mireille; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Calderado Leal Matos, Darley; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel; Catharino, Eduardo L. M.; Chai, Shauna-Lee; Chen, Yukai; Colwell, Robert K.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Clark, Connie; Clark, David B.; Clark, Deborah A.; Culmsee, Heike; Damas, Kipiro; Dattaraja, Handanakere S.; Dauby, Gilles; Davidar, Priya; DeWalt, Saara J.; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Duque, Alvaro; Durigan, Giselda; Eichhorn, Karl A. O.; Eisenlohr, Pedro V.; Eler, Eduardo; Ewango, Corneille; Farwig, Nina; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Ferreira, Leandro; Field, Richard; de Oliveira Filho, Ary T.; Fletcher, Christine; Forshed, Olle; Franco, Geraldo; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Gillespie, Thomas; Gillet, Jean-François; Amarnath, Giriraj; Griffith, Daniel M.; Grogan, James; Gunatilleke, Nimal; Harris, David; Harrison, Rhett; Hector, Andy; Homeier, Jürgen; Imai, Nobuo; Itoh, Akira; Jansen, Patrick A.; Joly, Carlos A.; de Jong, Bernardus H. J.; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Kelly, Daniel L.; Kenfack, David; Kessler, Michael; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Kooyman, Robert; Larney, Eileen; Laumonier, Yves; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F.; Lawes, Michael J.; do Amaral, Ieda Leao; Letcher, Susan G.; Lindsell, Jeremy; Lu, Xinghui; Mansor, Asyraf; Marjokorpi, Antti; Martin, Emanuel H.; Meilby, Henrik; Melo, Felipe P. L.; Metcalfe, Daniel J.; Medjibe, Vincent P.; Metzger, Jean Paul; Millet, Jerome; Mohandass, D.; Montero, Juan C.; de Morisson Valeriano, Márcio; Mugerwa, Badru; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Nilus, Reuben; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Onrizal; Page, Navendu; Parolin, Pia; Parren, Marc; Parthasarathy, Narayanaswamy; Paudel, Ekananda; Permana, Andrea; Piedade, Maria T. F.; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Poorter, Lourens; Poulsen, Axel D.; Poulsen, John; Powers, Jennifer; Prasad, Rama C.; Puyravaud, Jean-Philippe; Razafimahaimodison, Jean-Claude; Reitsma, Jan; dos Santos, João Roberto; Roberto Spironello, Wilson; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Rozak, Andes Hamuraby; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Rutishauser, Ervan; Saiter, Felipe; Saner, Philippe; Santos, Braulio A.; Santos, Fernanda; Sarker, Swapan K.; Satdichanh, Manichanh; Schmitt, Christine B.; Schöngart, Jochen; Schulze, Mark; Suganuma, Marcio S.; Sheil, Douglas; da Silva Pinheiro, Eduardo; Sist, Plinio; Stevart, Tariq; Sukumar, Raman; Sun, I.-Fang; Sunderland, Terry; Suresh, H. S.; Suzuki, Eizi; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Tang, Jangwei; Targhetta, Natália; Theilade, Ida; Thomas, Duncan W.; Tchouto, Peguy; Hurtado, Johanna; Valencia, Renato; van Valkenburg, Johan L. C. H.; Van Do, Tran; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Verbeeck, Hans; Adekunle, Victor; Vieira, Simone A.; Webb, Campbell O.; Whitfeld, Timothy; Wich, Serge A.; Williams, John; Wittmann, Florian; Wöll, Hannsjoerg; Yang, Xiaobo; Adou Yao, C. Yves; Yap, Sandra L.; Yoneda, Tsuyoshi; Zahawi, Rakan A.; Zakaria, Rahmad; Zang, Runguo; de Assis, Rafael L.; Garcia Luize, Bruno; Venticinque, Eduardo M.

    2015-01-01

    The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, we use a fitted value of Fisher’s alpha and an approximate pantropical stem total to estimate the minimum number of tropical forest tree species to fall between ∼40,000 and ∼53,000, i.e., at the high end of previous estimates. Contrary to common assumption, the Indo-Pacific region was found to be as species-rich as the Neotropics, with both regions having a minimum of ∼19,000–25,000 tree species. Continental Africa is relatively depauperate with a minimum of ∼4,500–6,000 tree species. Very few species are shared among the African, American, and the Indo-Pacific regions. We provide a methodological framework for estimating species richness in trees that may help refine species richness estimates of tree-dependent taxa. PMID:26034279

  7. Comparing Productivity Simulated with Inventory Data Using Different Modelling Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopf, M.; Pietsch, S. A.; Hasenauer, H.

    2009-04-01

    The Lime Stone National Park in Austria was established in 1997 to protect sensible lime stone soils from degradation due to heavy forest management. Since 1997 the management activities were successively reduced and standing volume and coarse woody debris (CWD) increased and degraded soils began to recover. One option to study the rehabilitation process towards natural virgin forest state is the use of modelling technology. In this study we will test two different modelling approaches for their applicability to Lime Stone National Park. We will compare standing tree volume simulated resulting from (i) the individual tree growth model MOSES, and (ii) the species and management sensitive adaptation of the biogeochemical-mechanistic model Biome-BGC. The results from the two models are compared with filed observations form repeated permanent forest inventory plots of the Lime Stone National Park in Austria. The simulated CWD predictions of the BGC-model were compared with dead wood measurements (standing and lying dead wood) recorded at the permanent inventory plots. The inventory was established between 1994 and 1996 and remeasured from 2004 to 2005. For this analysis 40 plots of this inventory were selected which comprise the required dead wood components and are dominated by a single tree species. First we used the distance dependant individual tree growth model MOSES to derive the standing timber and the amount of mortality per hectare. MOSES is initialized with the inventory data at plot establishment and each sampling plot is treated as forest stand. The Biome-BGC is a process based biogeochemical model with extensions for Austrian tree species, a self initialization and a forest management tool. The initialization for the actual simulations with the BGC model was done as follows: We first used spin up runs to derive a balanced forest vegetation, similar to an undisturbed forest. Next we considered the management history of the past centuries (heavy clear cuts

  8. Reducing Uncertainty and Increasing Consistency: Recent Technical Improvements to the 2015 United States Forest Carbon Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodall, C. W.; Domke, G. M.; Coulston, J.

    2014-12-01

    A national system of field inventory plots is the primary data source for the annual assessment of US forest carbon (C) stocks and stock-change to meet reporting requirements under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The inventory data and their role in national carbon reporting continue to evolve. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service is charged with conducting the field inventory of US forest C. The FIA program employs remotely sensed imagery to define forest and nonforest plots which are systematically distributed approximately every 2,428 ha across the conterminous US. More than 125,000 plots in the current field inventory have at least one forested condition where field crews measure tree- and site-level attributes (e.g., diameter and tree height) at regular temporal intervals. A subset of forested plots is measured for additional variables related to forest non-tree C pools (e.g., downed woody materials, understory vegetation, and soils). The FIA program does not directly measure forest C stocks. Instead, a combination of empirically derived C estimates (e.g., standing live and dead trees) and models (e.g., understory C stocks related to stand age and forest type) are used to estimate forest C stocks. A series of recent refinements in FIA estimation procedures have sought to reduce the uncertainty associated with the national C inventory by: 1) refining forest floor C estimates with in situ data, 2) updating the live belowground and understory C pools modeling approaches, 3) refining objective delineations between woodland and forest land uses, and 4) revising managed land delineations. The results of these studies in the context of forest C accounting and future refinements are discussed in the context of UNFCCC reporting.

  9. Imputation of individual longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) tree attributes from field and LiDAR data

    Treesearch

    Carlos A. Silva; Andrew T. Hudak; Lee A. Vierling; E. Louise Loudermilk; Joseph J. O' Brien; J. Kevin Hiers; Steve B. Jack; Carlos Gonzalez-Benecke; Heezin Lee; Michael J. Falkowski; Anahita Khosravipour

    2016-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) has demonstrated potential for forest inventory at the individual-tree level. The aim in this study was to predict individual-tree height (Ht; m), basal area (BA; m2), and stem volume (V; m3...

  10. Descriptive statistics of tree crown condition in the Southern United States and impacts on data analysis and interpretation

    Treesearch

    KaDonna C. Randolph

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) utilizes visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes and discusses distributions of three FIA crown condition indicators (crown density, crown dieback, and foliage transparency) for trees in the Southern...

  11. Building generalized tree mass/volume component models for improved estimation of forest stocks and utilization potential

    Treesearch

    David W. MacFarlane

    2015-01-01

    Accurately assessing forest biomass potential is contingent upon having accurate tree biomass models to translate data from forest inventories. Building generality into these models is especially important when they are to be applied over large spatial domains, such as regional, national and international scales. Here, new, generalized whole-tree mass / volume...

  12. Gaps in sampling and limitations to tree biomass estimation: a review of past sampling efforts over the past 50 years

    Treesearch

    Aaron Weiskittel; Jereme Frank; James Westfall; David Walker; Phil Radtke; David Affleck; David. Macfarlane

    2015-01-01

    Tree biomass models are widely used but differ due to variation in the quality and quantity of data used in their development. We reviewed over 250 biomass studies and categorized them by species, location, sampled diameter distribution, and sample size. Overall, less than half of the tree species in Forest Inventory and Analysis database (FIADB) are without a...

  13. Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS) estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vegetation and nitric oxide (NO) emission from soils. Recent BEIS development has been restricted to the SMOKE system

  14. Utilizing the Advisor Perception Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jerry

    1985-01-01

    In order to help assess the effectiveness of the academic advising system at Houston Baptist University, an "Advisor Perception Inventory" was used to add information to the computer data bank. The two summary reports generated are discussed. (MLW)

  15. TSCA Inventory Policy and Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A list of numerous policy statements and guidance documents on how to identify certain chemical substances for the purpose of assigning unique and unambiguous descriptions tor each substance listed on the Inventory.

  16. European Environmental Test Facility Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovitch, A.

    2004-08-01

    For providing the European industry with a tool enabling to identify and locate suitable test facilities, the ESA will establish and maintain a Web-based European inventory of environmental test facilities. The European Space Agency is operating a Test Centre at ESTEC Noordwijk. It is the unique place in Europe, which is geared to verify very large spacecraft. Environmental testing of systems, subsystems and components can be performed at many places all over Europe. Therefore, the inventory aims at identifying all companies/organizations active in environmental testing and inventorying their facilities as well as their main technical features and capabilities. A questionnaire will be submitted to all companies and organizations active in environmental testing in Europe and willing to appear in this inventory.

  17. The Finnish national forest inventory

    Treesearch

    Erkki Tomppo

    2009-01-01

    The National Forest Inventory (NFI) of Finland has produced large-area forest resource information since the beginning of 1920s (Ilvessalo 1927). When the 10th inventory (NFI10) started in 2004, the design was changed and the rotation shortened to 5 years. Measurements are done in the entire country each year through measuring one-fifth of the plots. About one-fifth of...

  18. Perishable inventory theory: a review.

    PubMed

    Nahmias, S

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the relevant literature on the problem of determining suitable ordering policies for both fixed life perishable inventory, and inventory subject to continuous exponential decay. We consider both deterministic and stochastic demand for single and multiple products. Both optimal and suboptimal order policies are discussed. In addition, a brief review of the application of these models to blood bank management is included. The review concludes with a discussion of some of the interesting open research questions in the area.

  19. The discovery of the Amazonian tree flora with an updated checklist of all known tree taxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Steege, Hans; Vaessen, Rens W.; Cárdenas-López, Dairon; Sabatier, Daniel; Antonelli, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Salomão, Rafael P.

    2016-07-01

    Amazonia is the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth, and the debate over how many tree species grow there remains contentious. Here we provide a checklist of all tree species collected to date, and describe spatial and temporal trends in data accumulation. We report 530,025 unique collections of trees in Amazonia, dating between 1707 and 2015, for a total of 11,676 species in 1225 genera and 140 families. These figures support recent estimates of 16,000 total Amazonian tree species based on ecological plot data from the Amazonian Tree Diversity Network. Botanical collection in Amazonia is characterized by three major peaks, centred around 1840, 1920, and 1980, which are associated with flora projects and the establishment of inventory plots. Most collections were made in the 20th century. The number of collections has increased exponentially, but shows a slowdown in the last two decades. We find that a species’ range size is a better predictor of the number of times it has been collected than the species’ estimated basin-wide population size. Finding, describing, and documenting the distribution of the remaining species will require coordinated efforts at under-collected sites.

  20. The discovery of the Amazonian tree flora with an updated checklist of all known tree taxa.

    PubMed

    Ter Steege, Hans; Vaessen, Rens W; Cárdenas-López, Dairon; Sabatier, Daniel; Antonelli, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Pitman, Nigel C A; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Salomão, Rafael P

    2016-07-13

    Amazonia is the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth, and the debate over how many tree species grow there remains contentious. Here we provide a checklist of all tree species collected to date, and describe spatial and temporal trends in data accumulation. We report 530,025 unique collections of trees in Amazonia, dating between 1707 and 2015, for a total of 11,676 species in 1225 genera and 140 families. These figures support recent estimates of 16,000 total Amazonian tree species based on ecological plot data from the Amazonian Tree Diversity Network. Botanical collection in Amazonia is characterized by three major peaks, centred around 1840, 1920, and 1980, which are associated with flora projects and the establishment of inventory plots. Most collections were made in the 20th century. The number of collections has increased exponentially, but shows a slowdown in the last two decades. We find that a species' range size is a better predictor of the number of times it has been collected than the species' estimated basin-wide population size. Finding, describing, and documenting the distribution of the remaining species will require coordinated efforts at under-collected sites.

  1. The discovery of the Amazonian tree flora with an updated checklist of all known tree taxa

    PubMed Central

    ter Steege, Hans; Vaessen, Rens W.; Cárdenas-López, Dairon; Sabatier, Daniel; Antonelli, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Salomão, Rafael P.

    2016-01-01

    Amazonia is the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth, and the debate over how many tree species grow there remains contentious. Here we provide a checklist of all tree species collected to date, and describe spatial and temporal trends in data accumulation. We report 530,025 unique collections of trees in Amazonia, dating between 1707 and 2015, for a total of 11,676 species in 1225 genera and 140 families. These figures support recent estimates of 16,000 total Amazonian tree species based on ecological plot data from the Amazonian Tree Diversity Network. Botanical collection in Amazonia is characterized by three major peaks, centred around 1840, 1920, and 1980, which are associated with flora projects and the establishment of inventory plots. Most collections were made in the 20th century. The number of collections has increased exponentially, but shows a slowdown in the last two decades. We find that a species’ range size is a better predictor of the number of times it has been collected than the species’ estimated basin-wide population size. Finding, describing, and documenting the distribution of the remaining species will require coordinated efforts at under-collected sites. PMID:27406027

  2. NEW 3D TECHNIQUES FOR RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION OF CHEMICAL INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    New three-dimensional quantitative structure activity (3-D QSAR) techniques for prioritizing chemical inventories for endocrine activity will be presented. The Common Reactivity Pattern (COREPA) approach permits identification of common steric and/or electronic patterns associate...

  3. Patterns of thinking about phylogenetic trees: A study of student learning and the potential of tree thinking to improve comprehension of biological concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naegle, Erin

    . Chapter 2 explores the construction, validity, and reliability of a tree thinking concept inventory. Concept inventories are research based instruments that diagnose faulty reasoning among students. Such inventories are tools for improving teaching and learning of concepts. Test scores indicate that tree thinking misconceptions are held by novice and intermediate biology students. Finally, Chapter 3 presents a tree thinking rubric. The rubric aids teachers in selecting and improving introductory tree thinking learning exercises that address students' tree thinking misconceptions.

  4. Analyzing Forest Inventory Data from Geo-Located Photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toivanen, Timo; Tergujeff, Renne; Andersson, Kaj; Molinier, Matthieu; Häme, Tuomas

    2015-04-01

    Forests are widely monitored using a variety of remote sensing data and techniques. Remote sensing offers benefits compared to traditional in-situ forest inventories made by experts. One of the main benefits is that the number of ground reference plots can be significantly reduced. Remote sensing of forests can provide reduced costs and time requirement compared to full forest inventories. The availability of ground reference data has been a bottleneck in remote sensing analysis over wide forested areas, as the acquisition of this data is an expensive and slow process. In this paper we present a tool for estimating forest inventory data from geo-located photographs. The tool can be used to estimate in-situ forest inventory data including estimated biomass, tree species, tree height and diameter. The collected in-situ forest measurements can be utilized as a ground reference material for spaceborne or airborne remote sensing data analysis. The GPS based location information with measured forest data makes it possible to introduce measurements easily as in-situ reference data. The central projection geometry of digital photographs allows the use of the relascope principle [1] to measure the basal area of stems per area unit, a variable very closely associated with tree biomass. Relascope is applied all over the world for forest inventory. Experiments with independent ground reference data have shown that in-situ data analysed from photographs can be utilised as reference data for satellite image analysis. The concept was validated by comparing mobile measurements with 54 independent ground reference plots from the Hyytiälä forest research station in Finland [2]. Citizen scientists could provide the manpower for analysing photographs from forests on a global level and support researchers working on tasks related to forests. This low-cost solution can also increase the coverage of forest management plans, particularly in regions where possibilities to invest on

  5. 27 CFR 40.523 - Inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventories. 40.523... Inventories. Every manufacturer of processed tobacco must provide a true and accurate inventory on TTB F 5210.9 in accordance with instructions for the form. The manufacturer must make such an inventory at...

  6. 27 CFR 19.353 - Storage inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage inventories. 19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage Inventories § 19.353 Storage inventories. Each warehouseman shall take a physical inventory of all spirits and wines held in the storage...

  7. 10 CFR 39.37 - Physical inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Physical inventory. 39.37 Section 39.37 Energy NUCLEAR... inventory. Each licensee shall conduct a semi-annual physical inventory to account for all licensed material received and possessed under the license. The licensee shall retain records of the inventory for 3...

  8. 27 CFR 40.201 - Inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 40.201... PROCESSED TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Inventories and Reports § 40.201 Inventories. Every manufacturer of tobacco products shall make true and accurate inventories on Form...

  9. 27 CFR 20.170 - Physical inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physical inventory. 20.170... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Inventory and Records § 20.170 Physical inventory. Once in each... physical inventory of each formula of new and recovered specially denatured spirits. (Approved by...

  10. 27 CFR 20.170 - Physical inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physical inventory. 20.170... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Inventory and Records § 20.170 Physical inventory. Once in each... physical inventory of each formula of new and recovered specially denatured spirits. (Approved by...

  11. 27 CFR 40.201 - Inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventories. 40.201... PROCESSED TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Inventories and Reports § 40.201 Inventories. Every manufacturer of tobacco products shall make true and accurate inventories on Form...

  12. 10 CFR 39.37 - Physical inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical inventory. 39.37 Section 39.37 Energy NUCLEAR... inventory. Each licensee shall conduct a semi-annual physical inventory to account for all licensed material received and possessed under the license. The licensee shall retain records of the inventory for 3...

  13. 27 CFR 19.981 - Inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 19.981... Spirits § 19.981 Inventories. Proprietors shall take actual physical inventory of all spirits (including... § 19.988. The results of the inventory shall be posted in the applicable records required by §...

  14. 27 CFR 40.523 - Inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 40.523... Inventories. Every manufacturer of processed tobacco must provide a true and accurate inventory on TTB F 5210.9 in accordance with instructions for the form. The manufacturer must make such an inventory at...

  15. Projecting Timber Inventory at the Product Level

    Treesearch

    Lawrence Teeter; Xiaoping Zhou

    1999-01-01

    Current timber inventory projections generally lack information on inventory by product classes. Most models available for inventory projection and linked to supply analyses are limited to projecting aggregate softwood and hardwood. The research presented describes a methodology for distributing the volume on each FIA (USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis...

  16. Base-age invariance and inventory projections

    Treesearch

    C. J. Cieszewski; R. L. Bailey; B. E. Borders; G. H. Brister; B. D. Shiver

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important functions of forest inventory is to facilitate management decisions towards forest sustainability based on inventory projections into the future. Therefore, most forest inventories are used for predicting future states of the forests, in modern forestry the most common methods used in inventory projections are based on implicit functions...

  17. Applying ligands profiling using multiple extended electron distribution based field templates and feature trees similarity searching in the discovery of new generation of urea-based antineoplastic kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dokla, Eman M; Mahmoud, Amr H; Elsayed, Mohamed S A; El-Khatib, Ahmed H; Linscheid, Michael W; Abouzid, Khaled A

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive computational procedure for the discovery of novel urea-based antineoplastic kinase inhibitors while focusing on diversification of both chemotype and selectivity pattern. It presents a systematic structural analysis of the different binding motifs of urea-based kinase inhibitors and the corresponding configurations of the kinase enzymes. The computational model depends on simultaneous application of two protocols. The first protocol applies multiple consecutive validated virtual screening filters including SMARTS, support vector-machine model (ROC = 0.98), Bayesian model (ROC = 0.86) and structure-based pharmacophore filters based on urea-based kinase inhibitors complexes retrieved from literature. This is followed by hits profiling against different extended electron distribution (XED) based field templates representing different kinase targets. The second protocol enables cancericidal activity verification by using the algorithm of feature trees (Ftrees) similarity searching against NCI database. Being a proof-of-concept study, this combined procedure was experimentally validated by its utilization in developing a novel series of urea-based derivatives of strong anticancer activity. This new series is based on 3-benzylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-one scaffold which has interesting chemical feasibility and wide diversification capability. Antineoplastic activity of this series was assayed in vitro against NCI 60 tumor-cell lines showing very strong inhibition of GI(50) as low as 0.9 uM. Additionally, its mechanism was unleashed using KINEX™ protein kinase microarray-based small molecule inhibitor profiling platform and cell cycle analysis showing a peculiar selectivity pattern against Zap70, c-src, Mink1, csk and MeKK2 kinases. Interestingly, it showed activity on syk kinase confirming the recent studies finding of the high activity of diphenyl urea containing compounds against this kinase. Allover, the new series, which is based on

  18. Dependency Tree Annotation Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    This report presents Dependency Tree Editor (DTE), a software system built as part of a Science and Engineering Apprentice Program (SEAP) summer...internship. The system supports interactive visualization and editing of dependency trees ???a formalism frequently used in computational linguistics to...formats, and it provides numerous options for customizing how dependency trees are displayed. Built entirely in Java, it can run on a wide range of platforms.

  19. Tree genetics and improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Bey, C.F.; Houston, D.B.; Dinus, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Tree improvement is a complex science and a multifaceted art. Tree improvement is most valuable when integrated within land-management programs. Major efforts are currently geared to developing improved seed for reforestation programs. Progeny testing is now a routine part of tree-improvement programs. Topics such as advanced-generation breeding, shortened generations, resistance breeding, and control of cone and seed insects are being given priority. Activity continues in basic research, involving genetic engineering, tissue culture, and population theory.

  20. Modeling individual tree survial

    Treesearch

    Quang V. Cao

    2016-01-01

    Information provided by growth and yield models is the basis for forest managers to make decisions on how to manage their forests. Among different types of growth models, whole-stand models offer predictions at stand level, whereas individual-tree models give detailed information at tree level. The well-known logistic regression is commonly used to predict tree...

  1. MetaTree: augmented reality narrative explorations of urban forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Ruth; Margolis, Todd; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath; Mendelowitz, Eitan

    2012-03-01

    As cities world-wide adopt and implement reforestation initiatives to plant millions of trees in urban areas, they are engaging in what is essentially a massive ecological and social experiment. Existing air-borne, space-borne, and fieldbased imaging and inventory mechanisms fail to provide key information on urban tree ecology that is crucial to informing management, policy, and supporting citizen initiatives for the planting and stewardship of trees. The shortcomings of the current approaches include: spatial and temporal resolution, poor vantage point, cost constraints and biological metric limitations. Collectively, this limits their effectiveness as real-time inventory and monitoring tools. Novel methods for imaging and monitoring the status of these emerging urban forests and encouraging their ongoing stewardship by the public are required to ensure their success. This art-science collaboration proposes to re-envision citizens' relationship with urban spaces by foregrounding urban trees in relation to local architectural features and simultaneously creating new methods for urban forest monitoring. We explore creating a shift from overhead imaging or field-based tree survey data acquisition methods to continuous, ongoing monitoring by citizen scientists as part of a mobile augmented reality experience. We consider the possibilities of this experience as a medium for interacting with and visualizing urban forestry data and for creating cultural engagement with urban ecology.

  2. Tree Species Classification By Multiseasonal High Resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elatawneh, Alata; Wallner, Adelheid; Straub, Christoph; Schneider, Thomas; Knoke, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Accurate forest tree species mapping is a fundamental issue for sustainable forest management and planning. Forest tree species mapping with the means of remote sensing data is still a topic to be investigated. The Bavaria state institute of forestry is investigating the potential of using digital aerial images for forest management purposes. However, using aerial images is still cost- and time-consuming, in addition to their acquisition restrictions. The new space-born sensor generations such as, RapidEye, with a very high temporal resolution, offering multiseasonal data have the potential to improve the forest tree species mapping. In this study, we investigated the potential of multiseasonal RapidEye data for mapping tree species in a Mid European forest in Southern Germany. The RapidEye data of level A3 were collected on ten different dates in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. For data analysis, a model was developed, which combines the Spectral Angle Mapper technique with a 10-fold- cross-validation. The analysis succeeded to differentiate four tree species; Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus). The model success was evaluated using digital aerial images acquired in the year 2009 and inventory point records from 2008/09 inventory. Model results of the multiseasonal RapidEye data analysis achieved an overall accuracy of 76%. However, the success of the model was evaluated only for all the identified species and not for the individual.

  3. TREE Preferred Procedures, Selected Electronic Parts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-31

    the temperature rise is independent of thickness. The three important elements of a thin calorimeter are the absorber, the temperature sensor , and...as thin semiconductor chips (Si, Ge). The temperature sensor should represent a small perturbation on the ab- sorber. A thermocouple satisfies this...Calorimeters A thin calorimeter determines the dose by measuring the temperature rise in a small sample of known material. Converting the temperature rise to

  4. arb_tree_32

    SciTech Connect

    Bavykin, Sergey; Alferov, Oleg

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this program is to generate probes specific for the group of sequences that belong to a given phylogenetic node. For each node of the input tree, this program selects probes that are positive for all sequences that belong to this node and negative for all that doesn't. The program uses condensed tree for probe representation to save computer memory. As a result of calculation, the program prints lists for each node from the tree. Input file formats: FASTA for sequence database and ARB tree for phylogenetic organization of nodes. Output file format: text file.

  5. Fragmentation of random trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalay, Ziya; Ben-Naim, Eli

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the fragmentation of a random recursive tree by repeated removal of nodes, resulting in a forest of disjoint trees. The initial tree is generated by sequentially attaching new nodes to randomly chosen existing nodes until the tree contains N nodes. As nodes are removed, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely a forest. We study the statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest. In the limit N --> ∞ , we find that the system is characterized by a single parameter: the fraction of remaining nodes m. We obtain analytically the size density ϕs of trees of size s, which has a power-law tail ϕs ~s-α , with exponent α = 1 + 1 / m . Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, producing an unusual scaling exponent that increases continuously with time. Furthermore, we investigate the fragment size distribution in a growing tree, where nodes are added as well as removed, and find that the distribution for this case is much narrower.

  6. Species integrity in trees.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel; Baack, Eric J

    2014-09-01

    From California sequoia, to Australian eucalyptus, to the outstanding diversity of Amazonian forests, trees are fundamental to many processes in ecology and evolution. Trees define the communities that they inhabit, are host to a multiplicity of other organisms and can determine the ecological dynamics of other plants and animals. Trees are also at the heart of major patterns of biodiversity such as the latitudinal gradient of species diversity and thus are important systems for studying the origin of new plant species. Although the role of trees in community assembly and ecological succession is partially understood, the origin of tree diversity remains largely opaque. For instance, the relative importance of differing habitats and phenologies as barriers to hybridization between closely related species is still largely uncharacterized in trees. Consequently, we know very little about the origin of trees species and their integrity. Similarly, studies on the interplay between speciation and tree community assembly are in their infancy and so are studies on how processes like forest maturation modifies the context in which reproductive isolation evolves. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Lindtke et al. (2014) and Lagache et al. (2014) overcome some traditional difficulties in studying mating systems and sexual isolation in the iconic oaks and poplars, providing novel insights about the integrity of tree species and on how ecology leads to variation in selection on reproductive isolation over time and space. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Quantum decision tree classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Songfeng; Braunstein, Samuel L.

    2013-11-01

    We study the quantum version of a decision tree classifier to fill the gap between quantum computation and machine learning. The quantum entropy impurity criterion which is used to determine which node should be split is presented in the paper. By using the quantum fidelity measure between two quantum states, we cluster the training data into subclasses so that the quantum decision tree can manipulate quantum states. We also propose algorithms constructing the quantum decision tree and searching for a target class over the tree for a new quantum object.

  8. Patterns and Drivers of Tree Mortality in Iberian Forests: Climatic Effects Are Modified by Competition

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Lines, Emily R.; Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena; Zavala, Miguel A.; Coomes, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Tree mortality is a key process underlying forest dynamics and community assembly. Understanding how tree mortality is driven by simultaneous drivers is needed to evaluate potential effects of climate change on forest composition. Using repeat-measure information from c. 400,000 trees from the Spanish Forest Inventory, we quantified the relative importance of tree size, competition, climate and edaphic conditions on tree mortality of 11 species, and explored the combined effect of climate and competition. Tree mortality was affected by all of these multiple drivers, especially tree size and asymmetric competition, and strong interactions between climate and competition were found. All species showed L-shaped mortality patterns (i.e. showed decreasing mortality with tree size), but pines were more sensitive to asymmetric competition than broadleaved species. Among climatic variables, the negative effect of temperature on tree mortality was much larger than the effect of precipitation. Moreover, the effect of climate (mean annual temperature and annual precipitation) on tree mortality was aggravated at high competition levels for all species, but especially for broadleaved species. The significant interaction between climate and competition on tree mortality indicated that global change in Mediterranean regions, causing hotter and drier conditions and denser stands, could lead to profound effects on forest structure and composition. Therefore, to evaluate the potential effects of climatic change on tree mortality, forest structure must be considered, since two systems of similar composition but different structure could radically differ in their response to climatic conditions. PMID:23451096

  9. Tree growth and competition in an old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden: influence of tree spatial patterning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraver, Shawn; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar; Jönsson, Mari; Esseen, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    Question: What factors best characterize tree competitive environments in this structurally diverse old-growth forest, and do these factors vary spatially within and among stands? Location: Old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden. Methods: Using long-term, mapped permanent plot data augmented with dendrochronological analyses, we evaluated the effect of neighbourhood competition on focal tree growth by means of standard competition indices, each modified to include various metrics of trees size, neighbour mortality weighting (for neighbours that died during the inventory period), and within-neighbourhood tree clustering. Candidate models were evaluated using mixed-model linear regression analyses, with mean basal area increment as the response variable. We then analysed stand-level spatial patterns of competition indices and growth rates (via kriging) to determine if the relationship between these patterns could further elucidate factors influencing tree growth. Results: Inter-tree competition clearly affected growth rates, with crown volume being the size metric most strongly influencing the neighbourhood competitive environment. Including neighbour tree mortality weightings in models only slightly improved descriptions of competitive interactions. Although the within-neighbourhood clustering index did not improve model predictions, competition intensity was influenced by the underlying stand-level tree spatial arrangement: stand-level clustering locally intensified competition and reduced tree growth, whereas in the absence of such clustering, inter-tree competition played a lesser role in constraining tree growth. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that competition continues to influence forest processes and structures in an old-growth system that has not experienced major disturbances for at least two centuries. The finding that the underlying tree spatial pattern influenced the competitive environment suggests caution in interpreting traditional tree

  10. Methodologies for Estimating Forest Carbon Stocks From Annual Forest Inventory Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, C. H.; Woodall, C. W.; Amacher, M. C.

    2005-12-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program performs an annual forest inventory that includes measurements of down woody material and soil quality. These measurements are taken on a systematic nation-wide grid of approximately 125,000 plots where each one may represent up to 38,850 ha of forest. Between ten to twenty percent of these plots are measured every year. Tree measurements include species, height, and diameter at breast height. Carbon content of live tree biomass is estimated with carbon conversion constants. Down woody material carbon stocks (coarse and fine woody debris) are estimated using line intercept transects and carbon conversion constants. The soil quality indicator includes volumetric sampling of the forest floor and the collection of mineral soil cores representing depth increments of 0 - 10 cm and 10 - 20 cm. Carbon content of the soil samples is determined by dry combustion. We combined tree, down woody material, and soil measurements collected over three years (2001 - 2003) to evaluate current methodologies for estimating the total carbon sequestered in forests of the United States. Carbon storage by pool is roughly ranked as follows: standing tree biomass > 0 - 10 cm mineral soil > 10 - 20 cm mineral soil > coarse woody debris > the forest floor ~ fine woody debris. The tree measurements actually occur on a denser sampling network than either the down woody material or soil measurements. Addition research is underway to determine effective methodologies for estimating the carbon estimates from these two stocks at all tree measurement locations.

  11. Assessing and Improving Student Understanding of Tree-Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummer, Tyler A.

    Evolution is the unifying theory of biology. The importance of understanding evolution by those who study the origins, diversification and diversity life cannot be overstated. Because of its importance, in addition to a scientific study of evolution, many researchers have spent time studying the acceptance and the teaching of evolution. Phylogenetic Systematics is the field of study developed to understand the evolutionary history of organisms, traits, and genes. Tree-thinking is the term by which we identify concepts related to the evolutionary history of organisms. It is vital that those who undertake a study of biology be able to understand and interpret what information these phylogenies are meant to convey. In this project, we evaluated the current impact a traditional study of biology has on the misconceptions students hold by assessing tree-thinking in freshman biology students to those nearing the end of their studies. We found that the impact of studying biology was varied with some misconceptions changing significantly while others persisted. Despite the importance of tree-thinking no appropriately developed concept inventory exists to measure student understanding of these important concepts. We developed a concept inventory capable of filling this important need and provide evidence to support its use among undergraduate students. Finally, we developed and modified activities as well as courses based on best practices to improve teaching and learning of tree-thinking and organismal diversity. We accomplished this by focusing on two key questions. First, how do we best introduce students to tree-thinking and second does tree-thinking as a course theme enhance student understanding of not only tree-thinking but also organismal diversity. We found important evidence suggesting that introducing students to tree-thinking via building evolutionary trees was less successful than introducing the concept via tree interpretation and may have in fact introduced or

  12. Are trees long-lived?

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Trees and tree care can capture the best of people's motivations and intentions. Trees are living memorials that help communities heal at sites of national tragedy, such as Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center. We mark the places of important historical events by the trees that grew nearby even if the original tree, such as the Charter Oak in Connecticut or...

  13. Derivation of Forest Inventory Parameters for Carbon Estimation Using Terrestrial LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Kalwar, Om Prakash; Hussin, Yousif A.; Weir, Michael J. C.; Karna, Yogendra K.

    2016-06-01

    This research was conducted to derive forest sample plot inventory parameters from terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) for estimating above ground biomass (AGB)/carbon stocks in primary tropical rain forest. Inventory parameters of all sampled trees within circular plots of 500 m2 were collected from field observations while T-LiDAR data were acquired through multiple scanning using Reigl VZ-400 scanner. Pre-processing and registration of multiple scans were done in RSCAN PRO software. Point cloud constructing individual sampled tree was extracted and tree inventory parameters (diameter at breast height-DBH and tree height) were measured manually. AGB/carbon stocks were estimated using Chave et al., (2005) allometric equation. An average 80 % of sampled trees were detected from point cloud of the plots. The average of plots values of R2 and RMSE for manually measured DBHs were 0.95, 2.7 cm respectively. Similarly, the average of plots values of R2 and RMSE for manually measured trees heights were 0.77, 2.96 m respectively. The average value of AGB/carbon stocks estimated from field measurements and T-LiDAR manually derived DBHs and trees heights were 286 Mg ha-1 and 134 Mg ha-1; and 278 M ha-1 and 130 Mg ha-1 respectively. The R2 values for the estimated AGB and AGC were both 0.93 and corresponding RMSE values were 42.4 Mg ha-1 and 19.9 Mg ha-1 respectively. AGB and AGC were estimated with 14.8 % accuracy.

  14. An additive edge correction for the influence potential of trees.

    PubMed

    Kühlmann-Berenzon, S; Heikkinen, J; Särkkä, A

    2005-08-01

    The influence potential on a quadrat (IPQ) is an index for measuring the ecological effect that trees have on understory vegetation observed in a quadrat of a plot. IPQ is defined as the sum of the effect of every trees in the plot, where the effect depends on the size of the tree and the distance between the tree and the quadrat. Since only the trees in the plot have been observed and not the trees outside the plot, the true IPQ may be underestimated. Existing edge corrections are not appropriate for this case. We propose a correction that consists of adding the expected IPQ due to effects of trees outside the plot to the observed IPQ. The expectation is obtained by applying the Campbell theorem for stationary marked point processes. Data from the 1985-86 National Forest Inventory of Finland was used to calculate IPQ for six quadrats systematically allocated to each of 1240 plots. The implementation of the correction for this data is described. The distributions of IPQ with and without the correction proved the existence of edge effects and the effectiveness of the correction to eliminate the bias. This method has the potential to be applied to other additive functions.

  15. TreeCmp: Comparison of Trees in Polynomial Time

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanowicz, Damian; Giaro, Krzysztof; Wróbel, Borys

    2012-01-01

    When a phylogenetic reconstruction does not result in one tree but in several, tree metrics permit finding out how far the reconstructed trees are from one another. They also permit to assess the accuracy of a reconstruction if a true tree is known. TreeCmp implements eight metrics that can be calculated in polynomial time for arbitrary (not only bifurcating) trees: four for unrooted (Matching Split metric, which we have recently proposed, Robinson-Foulds, Path Difference, Quartet) and four for rooted trees (Matching Cluster, Robinson-Foulds cluster, Nodal Splitted and Triple). TreeCmp is the first implementation of Matching Split/Cluster metrics and the first efficient and convenient implementation of Nodal Splitted. It allows to compare relatively large trees. We provide an example of the application of TreeCmp to compare the accuracy of ten approaches to phylogenetic reconstruction with trees up to 5000 external nodes, using a measure of accuracy based on normalized similarity between trees.

  16. Trees in Our Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on how trees have influenced human history and how trees affect people today; (2) four activities dealing with these topics; and (3) a ready-to-copy page related to paper and plastics. Activities include an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)

  17. Tree nut oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  18. Structural Equation Model Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  19. The tree BVOC index

    Treesearch

    J.R. Simpson; E.G. McPherson

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes...

  20. Fragmentation of random trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalay, Z.; Ben-Naim, E.

    2015-01-01

    We study fragmentation of a random recursive tree into a forest by repeated removal of nodes. The initial tree consists of N nodes and it is generated by sequential addition of nodes with each new node attaching to a randomly-selected existing node. As nodes are removed from the tree, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely, a forest. We study statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest, and find that the fraction of remaining nodes m characterizes the system in the limit N\\to ∞ . We obtain analytically the size density {{φ }s} of trees of size s. The size density has power-law tail {{φ }s}˜ {{s}-α } with exponent α =1+\\frac{1}{m}. Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, and the fragmentation process is unusual in that exponent α increases continuously with time. We also extend our analysis to the case where nodes are added as well as removed, and obtain the asymptotic size density for growing trees.

  1. A tree hurts, too

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Forest Experiment Station

    1973-01-01

    This booklet outlines what happens most of the time as decay develops in a living tree. The drawings are designed to give an accurate general presentation of the decay process by focusing only on the major portions of an extremely complex process that involves the interactions among microorganisms, environmental factors, and the tree. The better we understand these...

  2. TRANSPLANTING SHADE TREES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    THIS RESOURCE MATERIAL FOR USE IN HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS. THE OBJECTIVE IS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS IN TRANSPLANTING SHADE TREES. THE MAJOR SECTION TITLES ARE STATED AS PROBLEMS -- (1) HOW SHOULD I PREPARE A TREE FOR MOVING,…

  3. Moon tree ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-03

    Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise stands with Rosemary Roosa, daughter of late Apollo 14 astronaut Stuart Roosa, beside a 'moon tree' planted at the INFINITY science center on Feb. 3, 2011. The moon tree is a descendent of seeds carried into space by Stuart Roosa on the Apollo 14 mission in 1971.

  4. Reclamation: what about trees

    SciTech Connect

    Kolar, C.A.; Ashby, W.C.

    1982-07-01

    A five-year research programme was started in 1978 in the Botany Department of Southern Illinois University to evaluate the effect of reclamation practices on tree survival and growth. The project was initiated as a direct result of reports from Illinois and Indiana of tree-planting failures on mined lands reclaimed to current regulation standards.

  5. The Flame Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Lewis's own experiences living in Indonesia are fertile ground for telling "a ripping good story," one found in "The Flame Tree." He hopes people will enjoy the tale and appreciate the differences of an unfamiliar culture. The excerpt from "The Flame Tree" will reel readers in quickly.

  6. Trees in Our Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on how trees have influenced human history and how trees affect people today; (2) four activities dealing with these topics; and (3) a ready-to-copy page related to paper and plastics. Activities include an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)

  7. Trees Are Terrific!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. Contents are organized into the following sections: (1) "What Makes a Tree a Tree?," including…

  8. Tree planting in reclamation

    Treesearch

    Glen G. Kizer

    1980-01-01

    While fifteen years ago we depended on trees as the primary tool of reclamation, today regulators, based on soil loss studies, have determined that trees are not sufficient to prevent erosion by themselves. This is particularly true during the first 10-15 years after mining. While ten (10) years ago most permits listed forest as a postmining land use, today only ten (...

  9. Trees Are Terrific!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. Contents are organized into the following sections: (1) "What Makes a Tree a Tree?," including…

  10. Tree Topology Estimation.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Rolando; Tomasi, Carlo; Schmidler, Scott C; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-08-01

    Tree-like structures are fundamental in nature, and it is often useful to reconstruct the topology of a tree - what connects to what - from a two-dimensional image of it. However, the projected branches often cross in the image: the tree projects to a planar graph, and the inverse problem of reconstructing the topology of the tree from that of the graph is ill-posed. We regularize this problem with a generative, parametric tree-growth model. Under this model, reconstruction is possible in linear time if one knows the direction of each edge in the graph - which edge endpoint is closer to the root of the tree - but becomes NP-hard if the directions are not known. For the latter case, we present a heuristic search algorithm to estimate the most likely topology of a rooted, three-dimensional tree from a single two-dimensional image. Experimental results on retinal vessel, plant root, and synthetic tree data sets show that our methodology is both accurate and efficient.

  11. Structural Equation Model Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  12. Grading hardwood trees

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Brisbin

    1989-01-01

    Tree grading provides a way to evaluate the quality characteristics and value of standing hardwood trees. This is important because the differences in price between high-quality and low-quality end products can be very large. Since hardwood timber varies greatly in quality and value among species, within species, and even within specific geographic areas, timber...

  13. Tree biology and dendrochemistry

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    1996-01-01

    Dendrochemistry, the interpretation of elemental analysis of dated tree rings, can provide a temporal record of environmental change. Using the dendrochemical record requires an understanding of tree biology. In this review, we pose four questions concerning assumptions that underlie recent dendrochemical research: 1) Does the chemical composition of the wood directly...

  14. CSI for Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Darrin L.; Hanson, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The circles and patterns in a tree's stem tell a story, but that story can be a mystery. Interpreting the story of tree rings provides a way to heighten the natural curiosity of students and help them gain insight into the interaction of elements in the environment. It also represents a wonderful opportunity to incorporate the nature of science.…

  15. Individual tree control

    Treesearch

    Harvey A. Holt

    1989-01-01

    Controlling individual unwanted trees in forest stands is a readily accepted method for improving the value of future harvests. The practice is especially important in mixed hardwood forests where species differ considerably in value and within species individual trees differ in quality. Individual stem control is a mechanical or chemical weeding operation that...

  16. CSI for Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Darrin L.; Hanson, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The circles and patterns in a tree's stem tell a story, but that story can be a mystery. Interpreting the story of tree rings provides a way to heighten the natural curiosity of students and help them gain insight into the interaction of elements in the environment. It also represents a wonderful opportunity to incorporate the nature of science.…

  17. Growing Up a Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on how trees reproduce, what they need to survive, and where they grow; (2) six activities dealing with these topics; and (3) a ready-to-copy page showing trees around the world. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)

  18. Trees for Mother Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Sandy

    1993-01-01

    Describes Trees for Mother Earth, a program in which secondary students raise funds to buy fruit trees to plant during visits to the Navajo Reservation. Benefits include developing feelings of self-worth among participants, promoting cultural exchange and understanding, and encouraging self-sufficiency among the Navajo. (LP)

  19. California tree seed zones

    Treesearch

    John M. Buck; Ronald S. Adams; Jerrold Cone; M. Thompson Conkle; William J. Libby; Cecil J. Eden; Michel J. Knight

    1970-01-01

    California forest tree seed zones were established originally by Fowells (1946), with revisions proposed by Roy (1963) and Schubert (1966). The Forest Tree Seed Committee of the Northern California Section, Society of American Foresters, has revised the original zones and updated the recording system described in the earlier reports. Fowells' (1946) Research Note...

  20. Tree growth visualization

    Treesearch

    L. Linsen; B.J. Karis; E.G. McPherson; B. Hamann

    2005-01-01

    In computer graphics, models describing the fractal branching structure of trees typically exploit the modularity of tree structures. The models are based on local production rules, which are applied iteratively and simultaneously to create a complex branching system. The objective is to generate three-dimensional scenes of often many realistic- looking and non-...

  1. Where are the Black Walnut Trees in Ohio? 1996.

    Treesearch

    J. Michael Vasievich; Neal P. Kingsley

    1996-01-01

    Production of high-quality hardwoods is important in Ohio and black walnut ranks as one of the most valuable tree species in the State along with cherry, white and red oak, and ash. Ohio has more walnut growing stock volume than any other state, according to the most recently completed forest inventories in the East. The fourth and most recent measurement of Ohio?s...

  2. Sensor concentrator unit for the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System

    SciTech Connect

    Nodine, R.N.; Lenarduzzi, R.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the use and operation of the sensor concentrator in the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS). The CAVIS electronically verifies the presence of items of stored special nuclear material (SNM). US Department of Energy orders require that stored SNM be inventoried periodically to provide assurance that the material is secure. Currently this inventory is a highly manual activity, requiring personnel to enter the storage vaults. Using a CAVIS allows the frequency of physical inventories to be significantly reduced, resulting in substantial cost savings, increased security, and improved safety. The electronic inventory of stored SNM requires two different types of sensors for each item. The two sensors measure different parameters of the item, usually weight and gamma rays. A CAVIS is constructed using four basic system components: sensors, sensor concentrators, a data collection unit, and a database/user interface unit. One sensor concentrator supports the inventory of up to 20 items (40 sensors) and continuously takes readings from the item sensors. On request the sensor concentrator outputs the most recent sensor readings to the data collection unit. The information transfer takes place over a RS485 communications link. The data collection unit supports from 1 to 120 sensor concentrators (1 to 2,400 items) and is referred to as the Sensor Polling and Configuration System (SPCS). The SPCS is connected by a secure Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network to the database/user interface unit, which is referred to as the Graphical Facility Information Center (GraFIC). A CAVIS containing more than 2,400 items is supported by connecting additional SPCS units to the GraFIC.

  3. IND - THE IND DECISION TREE PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, W.

    1994-01-01

    A common approach to supervised classification and prediction in artificial intelligence and statistical pattern recognition is the use of decision trees. A tree is "grown" from data using a recursive partitioning algorithm to create a tree which has good prediction of classes on new data. Standard algorithms are CART (by Breiman Friedman, Olshen and Stone) and ID3 and its successor C4 (by Quinlan). As well as reimplementing parts of these algorithms and offering experimental control suites, IND also introduces Bayesian and MML methods and more sophisticated search in growing trees. These produce more accurate class probability estimates that are important in applications like diagnosis. IND is applicable to most data sets consisting of independent instances, each described by a fixed length vector of attribute values. An attribute value may be a number, one of a set of attribute specific symbols, or it may be omitted. One of the attributes is delegated the "target" and IND grows trees to predict the target. Prediction can then be done on new data or the decision tree printed out for inspection. IND provides a range of features and styles with convenience for the casual user as well as fine-tuning for the advanced user or those interested in research. IND can be operated in a CART-like mode (but without regression trees, surrogate splits or multivariate splits), and in a mode like the early version of C4. Advanced features allow more extensive search, interactive control and display of tree growing, and Bayesian and MML algorithms for tree pruning and smoothing. These often produce more accurate class probability estimates at the leaves. IND also comes with a comprehensive experimental control suite. IND consists of four basic kinds of routines: data manipulation routines, tree generation routines, tree testing routines, and tree display routines. The data manipulation routines are used to partition a single large data set into smaller training and test sets. The

  4. IND - THE IND DECISION TREE PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, W.

    1994-01-01

    A common approach to supervised classification and prediction in artificial intelligence and statistical pattern recognition is the use of decision trees. A tree is "grown" from data using a recursive partitioning algorithm to create a tree which has good prediction of classes on new data. Standard algorithms are CART (by Breiman Friedman, Olshen and Stone) and ID3 and its successor C4 (by Quinlan). As well as reimplementing parts of these algorithms and offering experimental control suites, IND also introduces Bayesian and MML methods and more sophisticated search in growing trees. These produce more accurate class probability estimates that are important in applications like diagnosis. IND is applicable to most data sets consisting of independent instances, each described by a fixed length vector of attribute values. An attribute value may be a number, one of a set of attribute specific symbols, or it may be omitted. One of the attributes is delegated the "target" and IND grows trees to predict the target. Prediction can then be done on new data or the decision tree printed out for inspection. IND provides a range of features and styles with convenience for the casual user as well as fine-tuning for the advanced user or those interested in research. IND can be operated in a CART-like mode (but without regression trees, surrogate splits or multivariate splits), and in a mode like the early version of C4. Advanced features allow more extensive search, interactive control and display of tree growing, and Bayesian and MML algorithms for tree pruning and smoothing. These often produce more accurate class probability estimates at the leaves. IND also comes with a comprehensive experimental control suite. IND consists of four basic kinds of routines: data manipulation routines, tree generation routines, tree testing routines, and tree display routines. The data manipulation routines are used to partition a single large data set into smaller training and test sets. The

  5. Book Out! An Inventory Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panait, Claudia M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Library is a science and engineering research library providing the most current books, journals, CD-ROM's and documents to support the study of aeronautics, space propulsion and power, communications technology, materials and structures and microgravity science. The GRC technical library also supports the research and development efforts of all scientists and engineers on site via full text electronic files, literature searching, technical reports, etc. As an intern in the NASA Glenn Library, I attempt to support these objectives through efficiently and effectively fulfilling the assignment that was given to me. The assignment that was relegated to me was to catalog National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, NASA Technical Documents into NASA Galaxie. This process consists of holdings being added to existing Galaxie records, upgrades and editing done to the bibliographic records when needed, adding URL's into Galaxie when they were missing from the record. NASA ASAP and Digidoc was used to locate URL's of PDF's that were not in Galaxie. A spreadsheet of documents with no URL's were maintained. Also, a subject channel of web, fill-text, paid and free, journal and other subject specific pages were developed and expanded fiom current content of intranet pages. To expand upon the second half of my assignment, I was given the project of taking inventory of the library s book collection. I kept record of the books that were not accounted for on a master list I was given to work fiom and submitted them for correction and addition. I also made sure the books were placed in the appropriate order and made corrections to any discrepancies that existed between the master list and what was on the shelf. Upon completion of this assignment, I will have verified that 21,113 books were in the correct location, order and have the correct corresponding serial number and barcode. In conclusion, as of this date I have input around 750 documents into NASA Galaxie

  6. Book Out! An Inventory Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panait, Claudia M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Library is a science and engineering research library providing the most current books, journals, CD-ROM's and documents to support the study of aeronautics, space propulsion and power, communications technology, materials and structures and microgravity science. The GRC technical library also supports the research and development efforts of all scientists and engineers on site via full text electronic files, literature searching, technical reports, etc. As an intern in the NASA Glenn Library, I attempt to support these objectives through efficiently and effectively fulfilling the assignment that was given to me. The assignment that was relegated to me was to catalog National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, NASA Technical Documents into NASA Galaxie. This process consists of holdings being added to existing Galaxie records, upgrades and editing done to the bibliographic records when needed, adding URL's into Galaxie when they were missing from the record. NASA ASAP and Digidoc was used to locate URL's of PDF's that were not in Galaxie. A spreadsheet of documents with no URL's were maintained. Also, a subject channel of web, fill-text, paid and free, journal and other subject specific pages were developed and expanded fiom current content of intranet pages. To expand upon the second half of my assignment, I was given the project of taking inventory of the library s book collection. I kept record of the books that were not accounted for on a master list I was given to work fiom and submitted them for correction and addition. I also made sure the books were placed in the appropriate order and made corrections to any discrepancies that existed between the master list and what was on the shelf. Upon completion of this assignment, I will have verified that 21,113 books were in the correct location, order and have the correct corresponding serial number and barcode. In conclusion, as of this date I have input around 750 documents into NASA Galaxie

  7. Project Learning Tree (Corporate Propaganda Tree).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Mike

    This document contains a critical analysis of Project Learning Tree (PLT). PLT was developed and distributed in the mid-1970s. It consists of 2 activity guides, one for grades K-6 with 89 activities and another for grades 7-12 with 88 activities. The program also provides free workshops for teachers and others. The analysis of PLT includes the…

  8. From Family Trees to Decision Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trobian, Helen R.

    This paper is a preliminary inquiry by a non-mathematician into graphic methods of sequential planning and ways in which hierarchical analysis and tree structures can be helpful in developing interest in the use of mathematical modeling in the search for creative solutions to real-life problems. Highlights include a discussion of hierarchical…

  9. Pacific Northwest Resources Inventory Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resource Inventory Demonstration project is designed to demonstrate to users from state and local agencies in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho the cost effective role that Landsat derived information can play in natural resource planning and management when properly supported by ground and aircraft data. The project has been organized into five main phases: (1) maps and overlays, (2) early digital image analysis, (3) demonstration of applications using interactive image analysis, (4) Landsat products and land resources information systems, and (5) documentation. The demonstration project has been applied to Washington forestry, water inventory in southern Idaho, and monitoring of tansy ragwort in western Oregon.

  10. An Individual Tree Detection Algorithm for Dense Deciduous Forests with Spreading Branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, G.

    2015-12-01

    Individual tree information derived from LiDAR may have the potential to assist forest inventory and improve the assessment of forest structure and composition for sustainable forest management. The algorithms developed for individual tree detection are commonly focusing on finding tree tops to allocation the tree positions. However, the spreading branches (cylinder crowns) in deciduous forests cause such kind of algorithms work less effectively on dense canopy. This research applies a machine learning algorithm, mean shift, to position individual trees based on the density of LiDAR point could instead of detecting tree tops. The study site locates in a dense oak forest in Indiana, US. The selection of mean shift kernels is discussed. The constant and dynamic bandwidths of mean shit algorithms are applied and compared.

  11. Predicting tree species presence and basal area in Utah: A comparison of stochastic gradient boosting, generalized additive models, and tree-based methods

    Treesearch

    Gretchen G. Moisen; Elizabeth A. Freeman; Jock A. Blackard; Tracey S. Frescino; Niklaus E. Zimmermann; Thomas C. Edwards

    2006-01-01

    Many efforts are underway to produce broad-scale forest attribute maps by modelling forest class and structure variables collected in forest inventories as functions of satellite-based and biophysical information. Typically, variants of classification and regression trees implemented in Rulequest's© See5 and Cubist (for binary and continuous responses,...

  12. Applying Ligands Profiling Using Multiple Extended Electron Distribution Based Field Templates and Feature Trees Similarity Searching in the Discovery of New Generation of Urea-Based Antineoplastic Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dokla, Eman M.; Mahmoud, Amr H.; Elsayed, Mohamed S. A.; El-Khatib, Ahmed H.; Linscheid, Michael W.; Abouzid, Khaled A.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive computational procedure for the discovery of novel urea-based antineoplastic kinase inhibitors while focusing on diversification of both chemotype and selectivity pattern. It presents a systematic structural analysis of the different binding motifs of urea-based kinase inhibitors and the corresponding configurations of the kinase enzymes. The computational model depends on simultaneous application of two protocols. The first protocol applies multiple consecutive validated virtual screening filters including SMARTS, support vector-machine model (ROC = 0.98), Bayesian model (ROC = 0.86) and structure-based pharmacophore filters based on urea-based kinase inhibitors complexes retrieved from literature. This is followed by hits profiling against different extended electron distribution (XED) based field templates representing different kinase targets. The second protocol enables cancericidal activity verification by using the algorithm of feature trees (Ftrees) similarity searching against NCI database. Being a proof-of-concept study, this combined procedure was experimentally validated by its utilization in developing a novel series of urea-based derivatives of strong anticancer activity. This new series is based on 3-benzylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-one scaffold which has interesting chemical feasibility and wide diversification capability. Antineoplastic activity of this series was assayed in vitro against NCI 60 tumor-cell lines showing very strong inhibition of GI50 as low as 0.9 uM. Additionally, its mechanism was unleashed using KINEX™ protein kinase microarray-based small molecule inhibitor profiling platform and cell cycle analysis showing a peculiar selectivity pattern against Zap70, c-src, Mink1, csk and MeKK2 kinases. Interestingly, it showed activity on syk kinase confirming the recent studies finding of the high activity of diphenyl urea containing compounds against this kinase. Allover, the new series, which is

  13. Lazy decision trees

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, J.H.; Yun, Yeogirl; Kohavi, R.

    1996-12-31

    Lazy learning algorithms, exemplified by nearest-neighbor algorithms, do not induce a concise hypothesis from a given training set; the inductive process is delayed until a test instance is given. Algorithms for constructing decision trees, such as C4.5, ID3, and CART create a single {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} decision tree during the training phase, and this tree is then used to classify test instances. The tests at the nodes of the constructed tree are good on average, but there may be better tests for classifying a specific instance. We propose a lazy decision tree algorithm-LazyDT-that conceptually constructs the {open_quotes}best{close_quote} decision tree for each test instance. In practice, only a path needs to be constructed, and a caching scheme makes the algorithm fast. The algorithm is robust with respect to missing values without resorting to the complicated methods usually seen in induction of decision trees. Experiments on real and artificial problems are presented.

  14. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom L

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  15. Fragmentation trees reloaded.

    PubMed

    Böcker, Sebastian; Dührkop, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Untargeted metabolomics commonly uses liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to measure abundances of metabolites; subsequent tandem mass spectrometry is used to derive information about individual compounds. One of the bottlenecks in this experimental setup is the interpretation of fragmentation spectra to accurately and efficiently identify compounds. Fragmentation trees have become a powerful tool for the interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry data of small molecules. These trees are determined from the data using combinatorial optimization, and aim at explaining the experimental data via fragmentation cascades. Fragmentation tree computation does not require spectral or structural databases. To obtain biochemically meaningful trees, one needs an elaborate optimization function (scoring). We present a new scoring for computing fragmentation trees, transforming the combinatorial optimization into a Maximum A Posteriori estimator. We demonstrate the superiority of the new scoring for two tasks: both for the de novo identification of molecular formulas of unknown compounds, and for searching a database for structurally similar compounds, our method SIRIUS 3, performs significantly better than the previous version of our method, as well as other methods for this task. SIRIUS 3 can be a part of an untargeted metabolomics workflow, allowing researchers to investigate unknowns using automated computational methods.Graphical abstractWe present a new scoring for computing fragmentation trees from tandem mass spectrometry data based on Bayesian statistics. The best scoring fragmentation tree most likely explains the molecular formula of the measured parent ion.

  16. Identification of Amazonian Trees with DNA Barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Mailyn Adriana; Baraloto, Christopher; Engel, Julien; Mori, Scott A.; Pétronelli, Pascal; Riéra, Bernard; Roger, Aurélien; Thébaud, Christophe; Chave, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    Background Large-scale plant diversity inventories are critical to develop informed conservation strategies. However, the workload required for classic taxonomic surveys remains high and is particularly problematic for megadiverse tropical forests. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a comprehensive census of all trees in two hectares of a tropical forest in French Guiana, we examined whether plant DNA barcoding could contribute to increasing the quality and the pace of tropical plant biodiversity surveys. Of the eight plant DNA markers we tested (rbcLa, rpoC1, rpoB, matK, ycf5, trnL, psbA-trnH, ITS), matK and ITS had a low rate of sequencing success. More critically, none of the plastid markers achieved a rate of correct plant identification greater than 70%, either alone or combined. The performance of all barcoding markers was noticeably low in few species-rich clades, such as the Laureae, and the Sapotaceae. A field test of the approach enabled us to detect 130 molecular operational taxonomic units in a sample of 252 juvenile trees. Including molecular markers increased the identification rate of juveniles from 72% (morphology alone) to 96% (morphology and molecular) of the individuals assigned to a known tree taxon. Conclusion/Significance We conclude that while DNA barcoding is an invaluable tool for detecting errors in identifications and for identifying plants at juvenile stages, its limited ability to identify collections will constrain the practical implementation of DNA-based tropical plant biodiversity programs. PMID:19834612

  17. New system delivers better inventory control

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    Detailed knowledge of inventory on-hand is a big advantage enjoyed by oil companies that possess and operate their own storage and loading terminals is another. Using independent public terminals has advantages too, but a precise up-to-the-minute accounting of what`s happening at each terminal generally isn`t one of them. Thanks to a new electronic information system called Galahad, an oil or chemical company using the public terminals owned and operated by GATX Terminals Corp. doesn`t have to wait for a report by someone else to find out how much, or what kind, of product is in its storage tanks. Shortly after a tank truck pulls away from the loadrack with a cargo of gasoline, fuel oil or whatever, all the necessary information about that transaction is available to the oil company.

  18. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  19. Learning classification trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1991-01-01

    Algorithms for learning classification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. How a tree learning algorithm can be derived from Bayesian decision theory is outlined. This introduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule turns out to be similar to Quinlan's information gain splitting rule, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan's C4 and Breiman et al. Cart show the full Bayesian algorithm is consistently as good, or more accurate than these other approaches though at a computational price.

  20. Evolutionary tree reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Kanefsky, Bob

    1990-01-01

    It is described how Minimum Description Length (MDL) can be applied to the problem of DNA and protein evolutionary tree reconstruction. If there is a set of mutations that transform a common ancestor into a set of the known sequences, and this description is shorter than the information to encode the known sequences directly, then strong evidence for an evolutionary relationship has been found. A heuristic algorithm is described that searches for the simplest tree (smallest MDL) that finds close to optimal trees on the test data. Various ways of extending the MDL theory to more complex evolutionary relationships are discussed.

  1. Developing an Action Concept Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for…

  2. Automated Interactive Storeroom Inventory System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Albert L.; Hess, Larry G.

    1989-01-01

    The inventory system designed for six storerooms in three buildings at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's School of Chemical Sciences replaced an issue-slip and transactions record system with barcode technology. Data collection error reductions have been significant, making it easier to determine stock levels and plan purchases.…

  3. Resource Inventories and Government Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Efrain

    Resource inventories are an important part of the data base to be handled in the planning process, both for theoretical analysis and design and for effective implementation. The classes of resources which must be investigated as an essential basis for modern planning include: (1) natural resources, (2) human resources, (3) physical capital and (4)…

  4. Forest Inventory Mapmaker Users Guide

    Treesearch

    Patrick D. Miles

    2001-01-01

    The Forest Inventory Mapmaker Web application (http://www.ncrs.fs.fed.us/4801/fiadb/) provides users with the ability to easily generate tables and shaded maps. The goal of this manual is to present the basic concepts of the Web application to the user and to reinforce these concepts through the use of tutorials.

  5. Sourcing Life Cycle Inventory Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection and validation of quality lifecycle inventory (LCI) data can be the most difficult and time-consuming aspect of developing a life cycle assessment (LCA). Large amounts of process and production data are needed to complete the LCI. For many studies, the LCA analyst ...

  6. Children's Perception of Support Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Robert H.

    The Children's Perception of Support Inventory (CPSI) which assesses the extent to which children perceive their families and peer networks as understanding, responsive, and supportive is described. This measure was constructed (1) to differentiate children on family and peer-support scales and to demonstrate the relationship between the…

  7. Developing an Action Concept Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for…

  8. CAP Self-Inventory Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet of Self-Inventory Cards is one of the 14 components of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program (see note), a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are…

  9. Sourcing Life Cycle Inventory Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection and validation of quality lifecycle inventory (LCI) data can be the most difficult and time-consuming aspect of developing a life cycle assessment (LCA). Large amounts of process and production data are needed to complete the LCI. For many studies, the LCA analyst ...

  10. Global National Qualifications Framework Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornavold, Jens; Pevec-Grm, Slava; Graham, Michael; Deij, Arjen; Singh, Madhu; Charkoun, Borhène; Agrawal, Shivani

    2013-01-01

    This publication is a global, country-by-country, inventory of National Qualifications Frameworks (NQFs). It is a copublication, prepared by two EU agencies, the European Training Foundation (ETF) and the Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop); and UNESCO's Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) and the Section for TVET at…

  11. Narratives Validate Communicative Development Inventories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Marten

    2001-01-01

    Explores the criterion-related validity of the Swedish version of the Communicative Development Inventories--Words & Sentences (SECDI-W&S). In two follow-up procedures, SECDI-W&S was used to assess vocabulary and grammar skills in 32 children. Overall results confirm that the criterion-related validity of the SECDI is sound. (Author/VWL)

  12. Work Temperament Inventory and Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Brian; Brookings, Jeffrey

    This manual is a guide to the Work Temperament Inventory (WTI), a self-report measure of 12 work temperaments that were originally identified and defined by the U.S. Department of Labor. The WTI consists of 134 items requiring a simple "like" or "dislike" response and a reading level of seventh grade. It can be completed in 15…

  13. RFID Technology for Inventory Management

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is leveraging the use and application of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to a variety of markets. Tagging and tracking of individual items for inventory control is revealing rich rewards through increased time efficiency and reduced human intervention.

  14. RFID Technology for Inventory Management

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is leveraging the use and application of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to a variety of markets. Tagging and tracking of individual items for inventory control is revealing rich rewards through increased time efficiency and reduced human intervention.

  15. Slow growth rates of Amazonian trees: Consequences for carbon cycling

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Simone; Trumbore, Susan; Camargo, Plinio B.; Selhorst, Diogo; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Higuchi, Niro; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Quantifying age structure and tree growth rate of Amazonian forests is essential for understanding their role in the carbon cycle. Here, we use radiocarbon dating and direct measurement of diameter increment to document unexpectedly slow growth rates for trees from three locations spanning the Brazilian Amazon basin. Central Amazon trees, averaging only ≈1mm/year diameter increment, grow half as fast as those from areas with more seasonal rainfall to the east and west. Slow growth rates mean that trees can attain great ages; across our sites we estimate 17-50% of trees with diameter >10 cm have ages exceeding 300 years. Whereas a few emergent trees that make up a large portion of the biomass grow faster, small trees that are more abundant grow slowly and attain ages of hundreds of years. The mean age of carbon in living trees (60-110 years) is within the range of or slightly longer than the mean residence time calculated from C inventory divided by annual C allocation to wood growth (40-100 years). Faster C turnover is observed in stands with overall higher rates of diameter increment and a larger fraction of the biomass in large, fast-growing trees. As a consequence, forests can recover biomass relatively quickly after disturbance, whereas recovering species composition may take many centuries. Carbon cycle models that apply a single turnover time for carbon in forest biomass do not account for variations in life strategy and therefore may overestimate the carbon sequestration potential of Amazon forests. PMID:16339903

  16. Palm Tree Detection Using Circular Autocorrelation of Polar Shape Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manandhar, A.; Hoegner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    Palm trees play an important role as they are widely used in a variety of products including oil and bio-fuel. Increasing demand and growing cultivation have created a necessity in planned farming and the monitoring different aspects like inventory keeping, health, size etc. The large cultivation regions of palm trees motivate the use of remote sensing to produce such data. This study proposes an object detection methodology on the aerial images, using shape feature for detecting and counting palm trees, which can support an inventory. The study uses circular autocorrelation of the polar shape matrix representation of an image, as the shape feature, and the linear support vector machine to standardize and reduce dimensions of the feature. Finally, the study uses local maximum detection algorithm on the spatial distribution of standardized feature to detect palm trees. The method was applied to 8 images chosen from different tough scenarios and it performed on average with an accuracy of 84% and 76.1%, despite being subjected to different challenging conditions in the chosen test images.

  17. Constructing a biodiversity terminological inventory.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nhung T H; Soto, Axel J; Kontonatsios, Georgios; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2017-01-01

    The increasing growth of literature in biodiversity presents challenges to users who need to discover pertinent information in an efficient and timely manner. In response, text mining techniques offer solutions by facilitating the automated discovery of knowledge from large textual data. An important step in text mining is the recognition of concepts via their linguistic realisation, i.e., terms. However, a given concept may be referred to in text using various synonyms or term variants, making search systems likely to overlook documents mentioning less known variants, which are albeit relevant to a query term. Domain-specific terminological resources, which include term variants, synonyms and related terms, are thus important in supporting semantic search over large textual archives. This article describes the use of text mining methods for the automatic construction of a large-scale biodiversity term inventory. The inventory consists of names of species, amongst which naming variations are prevalent. We apply a number of distributional semantic techniques on all of the titles in the Biodiversity Heritage Library, to compute semantic similarity between species names and support the automated construction of the resource. With the construction of our biodiversity term inventory, we demonstrate that distributional semantic models are able to identify semantically similar names that are not yet recorded in existing taxonomies. Such methods can thus be used to update existing taxonomies semi-automatically by deriving semantically related taxonomic names from a text corpus and allowing expert curators to validate them. We also evaluate our inventory as a means to improve search by facilitating automatic query expansion. Specifically, we developed a visual search interface that suggests semantically related species names, which are available in our inventory but not always in other repositories, to incorporate into the search query. An assessment of the interface by

  18. Trees of trees: an approach to comparing multiple alternative phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Nye, Tom M W

    2008-10-01

    Phylogenetic analysis very commonly produces several alternative trees for a given fixed set of taxa. For example, different sets of orthologous genes may be analyzed, or the analysis may sample from a distribution of probable trees. This article describes an approach to comparing and visualizing multiple alternative phylogenies via the idea of a "tree of trees" or "meta-tree." A meta-tree clusters phylogenies with similar topologies together in the same way that a phylogeny clusters species with similar DNA sequences. Leaf nodes on a meta-tree correspond to the original set of phylogenies given by some analysis, whereas interior nodes correspond to certain consensus topologies. The construction of meta-trees is motivated by analogy with construction of a most parsimonious tree for DNA data, but instead of using DNA letters, in a meta-tree the characters are partitions or splits of the set of taxa. An efficient algorithm for meta-tree construction is described that makes use of a known relationship between the majority consensus and parsimony in terms of gain and loss of splits. To illustrate these ideas meta-trees are constructed for two datasets: a set of gene trees for species of yeast and trees from a bootstrap analysis of a set of gene trees in ray-finned fish. A software tool for constructing meta-trees and comparing alternative phylogenies is available online, and the source code can be obtained from the author.

  19. 40 CFR 52.2350 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... material. The 1990 ozone base year emission inventory requirement of section 182(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act... City and Utah County as revisions to the Utah State Implementation Plan. These inventories address...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2350 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... material. The 1990 ozone base year emission inventory requirement of section 182(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act... City and Utah County as revisions to the Utah State Implementation Plan. These inventories address...