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Sample records for electronic warfare test

  1. Cyber warfare and electronic warfare integration in the operational environment of the future: cyber electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askin, Osman; Irmak, Riza; Avsever, Mustafa

    2015-05-01

    For the states with advanced technology, effective use of electronic warfare and cyber warfare will be the main determining factor of winning a war in the future's operational environment. The developed states will be able to finalize the struggles they have entered with a minimum of human casualties and minimum cost thanks to high-tech. Considering the increasing number of world economic problems, the development of human rights and humanitarian law it is easy to understand the importance of minimum cost and minimum loss of human. In this paper, cyber warfare and electronic warfare concepts are examined in conjunction with the historical development and the relationship between them is explained. Finally, assessments were carried out about the use of cyber electronic warfare in the coming years.

  2. Trends in electro-optical electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Carl R.; Grasso, Robert; Pledger, Jack; Murarka, Naveen

    2012-09-01

    Protection of military aircraft from hostile threats is paramount to ensure the survivability of aircrews, platforms, and mission success. While the threat environment continues to become more complex, shrinking defense budgets places new challenges on the development of electronic warfare (EW) systems. This paper presents the trends in electro-optical EW system development including 1) features, 2) affordability, 3) open architecture, 4) multi-functionality, 5) integrated avionics survivability equipment, and 6) enabling technologies for sensors, and optical sources. While these system attributes are not new, they have grown in importance in the design of EW systems. And, if treated correctly can have a beneficial symbiotic relationship to each other and to the airframe they support.

  3. Stealth and the changing role of electronic warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Way, G.W. )

    1992-08-01

    The advantages of stealth in a combat environment and how electronic warfare has changed to complement stealth survivability and improve combat effectiveness is presented. Attention is given to providing better pilot-situation awareness using passive sensors, multispectral in design, that do not emit energy.

  4. Passive front-ends for wideband millimeter wave electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jastram, Nathan Joseph

    This thesis presents the analysis, design and measurements of novel passive front ends of interest to millimeter wave electronic warfare systems. However, emerging threats in the millimeter waves (18 GHz and above) has led to a push for new systems capable of addressing these threats. At these frequencies, traditional techniques of design and fabrication are challenging due to small size, limited bandwidth and losses. The use of surface micromachining technology for wideband direction finding with multiple element antenna arrays for electronic support is demonstrated. A wideband tapered slot antenna is first designed and measured as an array element for the subsequent arrays. Both 18--36 GHz and 75--110 GHz amplitude only and amplitude/phase two element direction finding front ends are designed and measured. The design of arrays using Butler matrix and Rotman lens beamformers for greater than two element direction finding over W band and beyond using is also presented. The design of a dual polarized high power capable front end for electronic attack over an 18--45 GHz band is presented. To combine two polarizations into the same radiating aperture, an orthomode transducer (OMT) based upon a new double ridge waveguide cross section is developed. To provide greater flexibility in needed performance characteristics, several different turnstile junction matching sections are tested. A modular horn section is proposed to address flexible and ever changing operational requirements, and is designed for performance criteria such as constant gain, beamwidth, etc. A multi-section branch guide coupler and low loss Rotman lens based upon the proposed cross section are also developed. Prototyping methods for the herein designed millimeter wave electronic warfare front ends are investigated. Specifically, both printed circuit board (PCB) prototyping of micromachined systems and 3D printing of conventionally machined horns are presented. A 4--8 GHz two element array with

  5. Electronic warfare in the year 2000 and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Herskovitz, S.B.

    1991-09-01

    The advantages of a design philosophy emphasizing integrated EW and integrated avionics are detailed. The discussion covers the hierarchy of EW system architecture, evolution of integrated systems, federated architecture, and transition to integrated systems. The performance of the joint surveillance target attack radar system during the operation Desert Storm is examined as an example of the integration approach. Finally, the future directions of electronic warfare systems are outlined. 6 refs.

  6. Gallium arsenide enhances digital signal processing in electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, B.; Apte, D.

    1985-07-01

    The higher electron mobility and velocity of GaAs digital signal processing IC devices for electronic warfare (EW) allow operation times that are several times faster than those of ICs based on silicon. Particular benefits are foreseen for the response time and broadband capability of ECM systems. Many data manipulation methods can be implemented in emitter-coupled logic (ECL) GaAs devices, and digital GaAs RF memories are noted to show great promise for improved ECM system performance while encompassing microwave frequency and chirp signal synthesis, repeater jamming, and multiple false target generation. EW digital frequency synthesizers are especially in need of GaAS IC technology, since bandwidth and resolution have been limited by ECL technology to about 250 MHz.

  7. Fiber optics and opto-electronics for radar and electronic warfare applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J. J.

    1987-02-01

    Fiber optics and integrated optic circuits have various applications for radar and electronic warfare systems. Examples such as phased array, radar netting, deceptive jammer, and maximum entropy adaptive filter are presented in this paper. Some of the fiber optic and opto-electronic functional devices and building blocks for signal/data processing are also described.

  8. Naval electronic warfare simulation for effectiveness assessment and softkill programmability facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lançon, F.

    2011-06-01

    The Anti-ship Missile (ASM) threat to be faced by ships will become more diverse and difficult. Intelligence, rules of engagement constraints, fast reaction-time for effective softkill solution require specific tools to design Electronic Warfare (EW) systems and to integrate it onboard ship. SAGEM Company provides decoy launcher system [1] and its associated Naval Electronic Warfare Simulation tool (NEWS) to permit softkill effectiveness analysis for anti-ship missile defence. NEWS tool generates virtual environment for missile-ship engagement and counter-measure simulator over a wide spectrum: RF, IR, EO. It integrates EW Command & Control (EWC2) process which is implemented in decoy launcher system and performs Monte-Carlo batch processing to evaluate softkill effectiveness in different engagement situations. NEWS is designed to allow immediate EWC2 process integration from simulation to real decoy launcher system. By design, it allows the final operator to be able to program, test and integrate its own EWC2 module and EW library onboard, so intelligence of each user is protected and evolution of threat can be taken into account through EW library update. The objectives of NEWS tool are also to define a methodology for trial definition and trial data reduction. Growth potential would permit to design new concept for EWC2 programmability and real time effectiveness estimation in EW system. This tool can also be used for operator training purpose. This paper presents the architecture design, the softkill programmability facility concept and the flexibility for onboard integration on ship. The concept of this operationally focused simulation, which is to use only one tool for design, development, trial validation and operational use, will be demonstrated.

  9. Operational advantages of using Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) in the battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasar, Nurgul; Yasar, Fatih M.; Topcu, Yucel

    2012-06-01

    While cyberspace is emerging as a new battlefield, conventional Electronic Warfare (EW) methods and applications are likely to change. Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) concept which merges cyberspace capabilities with traditional EW methods, is a new and enhanced form of the electronic attack. In this study, cyberspace domain of the battlefield is emphazised and the feasibility of integrating Cyber Warfare (CW) concept into EW measures is researched. The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis method is used to state the operational advantages of using CEW concept in the battlefield. The operational advantages of CEW are assessed by means of its effects on adversary air defense systems, communication networks and information systems. Outstanding technological and operational difficulties are pointed out as well. As a result, a comparison of CEW concept and conventional EW applications is presented. It is concluded that, utilization of CEW concept is feasible at the battlefield and it may yield important operational advantages. Even though the computers of developed military systems are less complex than normal computers, they are not subjected to cyber threats since they are closed systems. This concept intends to show that these closed systems are also open to the cyber threats. As a result of the SWOT analysis, CEW concept provides Air Forces to be used in cyber operations effectively. On the other hand, since its Collateral Damage Criteria (CDC) is low, the usage of cyber electronic attack systems seems to grow up.

  10. Three-dimensional visualization and control of electronic warfare (EW) payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, Patricia; Tremper, David; Cortesi, Roger

    2008-04-01

    The proliferation of unmanned vehicles carrying tactical payloads in the battle-space has accelerated the need for user-friendly visualization with graphical interfaces to provide remote command and control. Often these platforms and payloads receive their control functions from command centers located half a world away via satellite communications. Operators require situational awareness tools capable of graphically presenting the remote battlefield asset positions and collected sensor data. Often these systems use 2D software mapping tools in conjunction with video for real time situational awareness. The Special Projects Group (SPG) in the Tactical Electronic Warfare Division of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory has been developing an operator control interface called the Jammer Control Station (JCS) to provide 3D battle-space visualization with built-in, remote EW payload command and control (C2) capabilities. The JCS interface presents the operator with graphic depictions of both the platforms' states and the RF environment. Text based messaging between the JCS and the EW payload reduces the impact of the system on the available bandwidth. This paper will discuss the use of the SIMDIS 3-D visualization tool as a real-time command and control interface for electronic warfare (EW) payloads.

  11. A review of current and future components for electronic warfare receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. H.; Grant, P. M.

    1981-05-01

    This paper addresses the role of conventional and new components in passive electronic warfare (EW) receivers. The various areas of EW are defined before restricting the discussion predominantly to the radar intercept problem at microwave frequencies. The operational parameters of conventional components are then reviewed including the multiplexer; crystal video, instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM), and scanning superheterodyne receivers. The significance of modularity, digital control, and hybrid combinations of components is highlighted. A brief description follows of the operational Cutlass EW equipment. New components based on surface-acoustic waves (SAW) and acoustooptic (AO) Bragg cells are then presented and their particular importance in channelized receivers, IFM's, and microscan receivers noted. Finally, a number of conclusions are drawn covering likely trends in EW receivers and the need for continuing development of large-scale integrated (LSI) circuits for signal sorting and overall digital management.

  12. Transmissivity and storage coefficient estimates from slug tests, Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fiore, Alex R.

    2014-01-01

    Slug tests were conducted on 56 observation wells open to bedrock at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in West Trenton, New Jersey. Aquifer transmissivity (T) and storage coefficient (S) values for most wells were estimated from slug-test data using the Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos method. Test data from three wells exhibited fast, underdamped water-level responses and were analyzed with the Butler high-K method. The range of T at NAWC was approximately 0.07 to 10,000 square feet per day. At 11 wells, water levels did not change measurably after 20 minutes following slug insertion; transmissivity at these 11 wells was estimated to be less than 0.07 square feet per day. The range of S was approximately 10-10 to 0.01, the mode being 10-10. Water-level responses for tests at three wells fit poorly to the type curves of both methods, indicating that these methods were not appropriate for adequately estimating T and S from those data.

  13. Application of high-temperature superconducting thin-film devices to electro-optical and electronic warfare systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, B. G.

    1990-02-01

    This report gives an assessment of the impact of high-temperature superconductivity on applications in electro-optical and electronic warfare. Prior art in low-temperature superconductivity provides many examples of potential applications. It is essential that the feasibility of developing and using specific high-temperature superconducting devices, such as radiation detectors and passive microwave components, be determined before significant systems investment occurs. Research and development activities at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory aimed at implementing such thin-film devices are underway.

  14. Mortality follow-up of veterans who participated in military chemical and biological warfare agent testing between 1962 and 1972.

    PubMed

    Kang, Han K; Bullman, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Between 1962 and 1972, several thousand U.S. Navy personnel participated in Project SHAD (Shipboard Hazard and Defense). These tests potentially exposed participants to either active chemical or biological warfare agents or their simulants. This study examined mortality risk associated with participating in SHAD tests by comparing the cause-specific mortality of 4927 SHAD veterans to that of 10,927 other Navy veterans. Compared to other Navy veterans, SHAD veterans had an increased risk of overall mortality, which was due primarily to heart disease deaths.

  15. The future of land warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, C.

    1987-01-01

    Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

  16. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

    PubMed Central

    Beeston, John

    1953-01-01

    The use of biological agents as controlled weapons of war is practical although uncertain. Three types of agents are feasible, including pathogenic organisms and biological pests, toxins, and synthetic hormones regulating plant growth. These agents may be chosen for selective effects varying from prolonged incipient illness to death of plants, man and domestic animals. For specific preventive and control measures required to combat these situations, there must be careful and detailed planning. The nucleus of such a program is available within the existing framework of public health activities. Additional research and expansion of established activities in time of attack are necessary parts of biological warfare defense. PMID:13059641

  17. Development of portable mass spectrometer with electron cyclotron resonance ion source for detection of chemical warfare agents in air.

    PubMed

    Urabe, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Michiko; Sato, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    A portable mass spectrometer with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (miniECRIS-MS) was developed. It was used for in situ monitoring of trace amounts of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in atmospheric air. Instrumental construction and parameters were optimized to realize a fast response, high sensitivity, and a small body size. Three types of CWAs, i.e., phosgene, mustard gas, and hydrogen cyanide were examined to check if the mass spectrometer was able to detect characteristic elements and atomic groups. From the results, it was found that CWAs were effectively ionized in the miniECRIS-MS, and their specific signals could be discerned over the background signals of air. In phosgene, the signals of the 35Cl+ and 37Cl+ ions were clearly observed with high dose-response relationships in the parts-per-billion level, which could lead to the quantitative on-site analysis of CWAs. A parts-per-million level of mustard gas, which was far lower than its lethal dosage (LCt50), was successfully detected with a high signal-stability of the plasma ion source. It was also found that the chemical forms of CWAs ionized in the plasma, i.e., monoatomic ions, fragment ions, and molecular ions, could be detected, thereby enabling the effective identification of the target CWAs. Despite the disadvantages associated with miniaturization, the overall performance (sensitivity and response time) of the miniECRIS-MS in detecting CWAs exceeded those of sector-type ECRIS-MS, showing its potential for on-site detection in the future. PMID:24211802

  18. Development of portable mass spectrometer with electron cyclotron resonance ion source for detection of chemical warfare agents in air.

    PubMed

    Urabe, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Michiko; Sato, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    A portable mass spectrometer with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (miniECRIS-MS) was developed. It was used for in situ monitoring of trace amounts of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in atmospheric air. Instrumental construction and parameters were optimized to realize a fast response, high sensitivity, and a small body size. Three types of CWAs, i.e., phosgene, mustard gas, and hydrogen cyanide were examined to check if the mass spectrometer was able to detect characteristic elements and atomic groups. From the results, it was found that CWAs were effectively ionized in the miniECRIS-MS, and their specific signals could be discerned over the background signals of air. In phosgene, the signals of the 35Cl+ and 37Cl+ ions were clearly observed with high dose-response relationships in the parts-per-billion level, which could lead to the quantitative on-site analysis of CWAs. A parts-per-million level of mustard gas, which was far lower than its lethal dosage (LCt50), was successfully detected with a high signal-stability of the plasma ion source. It was also found that the chemical forms of CWAs ionized in the plasma, i.e., monoatomic ions, fragment ions, and molecular ions, could be detected, thereby enabling the effective identification of the target CWAs. Despite the disadvantages associated with miniaturization, the overall performance (sensitivity and response time) of the miniECRIS-MS in detecting CWAs exceeded those of sector-type ECRIS-MS, showing its potential for on-site detection in the future.

  19. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  20. Space Electronic Test Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Rodney D.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Power and Propulsion Test Engineering Branch at NASA Glenn Research center has the important duty of controlling electronic test engineering services. These services include test planning and early assessment of Space projects, management and/or technical support required to safely and effectively prepare the article and facility for testing, operation of test facilities, and validation/delivery of data to customer. The Space Electronic Test Engineering Branch is assigned electronic test engineering responsibility for the GRC Space Simulation, Microgravity, Cryogenic, and Combustion Test Facilities. While working with the Space Power and Propulsion Test Engineering Branch I am working on several different assignments. My primary assignment deals with an electrical hardware unit known as Sunny Boy. Sunny Boy is a DC load Bank that is designed for solar arrays in which it is used to convert DC power form the solar arrays into AC power at 60 hertz to pump back into the electricity grid. However, there are some researchers who decided that they would like to use the Sunny Boy unit in a space simulation as a DC load bank for a space shuttle or even the International Space Station hardware. In order to do so I must create a communication link between a computer and the Sunny Boy unit so that I can preset a few of the limits (such power, set & constant voltage levels) that Sunny Boy will need to operate using the applied DC load. Apart from this assignment I am also working on a hi-tech circuit that I need to have built at a researcher s request. This is a high voltage analog to digital circuit that will be used to record data from space ion propulsion rocket booster tests. The problem that makes building this circuit so difficult is that it contains high voltage we must find a way to lower the voltage signal before the data is transferred into the computer to be read. The solution to this problem was to transport the signal using infrared light which will lower

  1. The role of rewards in motivating participation in simple warfare.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard W

    2013-12-01

    In the absence of explicit punitive sanctions, why do individuals voluntarily participate in intergroup warfare when doing so incurs a mortality risk? Here we consider the motivation of individuals for participating in warfare. We hypothesize that in addition to other considerations, individuals are incentivized by the possibility of rewards. We test a prediction of this "cultural rewards war-risk hypothesis" with ethnographic literature on warfare in small-scale societies. We find that a greater number of benefits from warfare is associated with a higher rate of death from conflict. This provides preliminary support for the relationship between rewards and participation in warfare.

  2. Detecting biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun; Walt, David R

    2005-10-01

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array.

  3. Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

  4. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TESTING OF ENZYMATIC TEST KITS FOR WARFARE AGENTS AND PESTICIDES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enzymatic test kits, generally designed to be handheld and portable, detect the presence of chemical agents, carbamate pesticides, and/or organophosphate pesticides by relying on the reaction of the cholinesterase enzyme. Under normal conditions, the enzyme reacts as expected wi...

  5. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-07-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  6. Biological warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  7. Electronic test circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.A.

    1992-12-31

    Circuitry for testing the ability of an intermediate range nuclear instrument to detect and measure a constant current and a periodic current pulse. The invention simulates the resistance and capacitance of the signal connection of a nuclear instrument ion chamber detector and interconnecting cable. An LED flasher/oscillator illuminates an LED at a periodic rate established by a timing capacitor and circuitry internal to the flasher/oscillator. When the LED is on, a periodic current pulse is applied to the instrument. When the LED is off, a constant current is applied. An inductor opposes battery current flow when the LED is on.

  8. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  9. The Physics of Warfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…

  10. Electronic dummy for acoustical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, B. B.; Di Mattia, A. L.; Rosencheck, A. J.; Stern, M.; Torick, E. L.

    1967-01-01

    Electronic Dummy /ED/ used for acoustical testing represents the average male torso from the Xiphoid process upward and includes an acoustic replica of the human head. This head simulates natural flesh, and has an artificial voice and artificial ears that measure sound pressures at the eardrum or the entrance to the ear canal.

  11. The Physics of Warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-03-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics isn't always abstract. It is true that the examples and applications in this warfare class practically wrote themselves, but I wanted more for my students. I wanted them to embrace the iterative nature of scientific understanding. I wanted them to yearn for the breakthroughs that lead to paradigm shifts. I wanted them to demand experimental verification of each novel idea. This paper discusses the formation and implementation of a conceptual physics course, full of in-class demonstrations and solidly rooted in the context of humankind's ever-evolving methods of waging war.

  12. The effect of chemical warfare on respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and their reversibility 23-25 years after exposure.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mrteza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Zabihi, Narges Amel; Boskabady, Marzie

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary complications due to mustard gas exposure range from no effect to severe bronchial stenosis. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and respiratory symptoms in chemical war victims were studied 23-25 years after exposure to sulfur mustard (SM). Respiratory symptoms were evaluated in a sample of 142 chemical war victims and 120 control subjects with similar age from the general population using a questionnaire including questions on respiratory symptoms in the past year. PFT values were also measured in chemical war victims before and 15 min after the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol and baseline PFT in controls. All chemical war victims (100%) reported respiratory symptoms. Wheezing (66.19%), cough (64.78%), and chest tightness (54.4%) were the most common symptoms and only 15.5% of chemical war victims reported sputum (p < 0.01 for sputum and p < 0.001 for other symptoms compared with control group). In addition, 49.3% of chemical war victims had wheeze in chest examination, which were significantly higher than control group (p < 0.001). The severity of respiratory symptoms was also significantly higher than control subjects (p < 0.05 for sputum and p < 0.001 for other symptoms). All the PFT values were also significantly lower in chemical war victims than that in control subjects (p < 0.001 for all cases). In addition, all the PFT values improved significantly after the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol (p < 0.05-p < 0.001). These results showed that chemical war victims, 23-25 years after exposure to chemical warfare have higher frequencies and severity of respiratory symptoms. PFT values were also significantly reduced among chemical war victims, which showed reversibility due to the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol.

  13. Results of borehole geophysical logging and hydraulic tests conducted in Area D supply wells, former US Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Grazul, Kevin E.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging, aquifer tests, and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in four supply wells at the former U.S. Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in Warminster, PA to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of borehole flow, and effect of pumping on nearby wells. The study was conducted as part of an ongoing evaluation of ground-water contamination at the NAWC. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point resistance, fluid resistivity, and fluid temperature logs and borehole television surveys were run in the supply wells, which range in depth from 242 to 560 ft (feet). Acoustic borehole televiewer and borehole deviation logs were run in two of the wells. The direction and rate of borehole-fluid movement under non-pumping conditions were measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter. The logs were used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine probable zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and determine the depth to set packers. An aquifer test was conducted in each well to determine open-hole specific capacity and the effect of pumping the open borehole on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities ranged from 0.21 to 1.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in each well to determine depth-discrete specific capacities and to determine the effect of pumping an individual fracture or fracture zone on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities of individual fractures and fracture zones ranged from 0 to 2.3 (gal/min)/ft. Most fractures identified as water-producing or water-receiving zones by borehole geophysical methods produced water when isolated and pumped. All hydrologically active fractures below 250 ft below land surface were identified as water-receiving zones and produced little water when isolated and pumped. In the two wells greater then 540 ft deep, downward borehole flow to the deep water-receiving fractures is caused by a large

  14. Electron gun test report. [shock and vibration tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Shock and vibration tests were performed to determine the electron optical properties of the electron gun. The test procedure included complete mechanical inspection including a dimensional check of all critical parts. Electrical inspection involved tests for dielectric strengths and element to element leakage resistance. All test circuits and equipment for each test are specified in the test plan.

  15. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S; Chauhan, S; D'Cruz, R; Faruqi, S; Singh, K K; Varma, S; Singh, M; Karthik, V

    2008-09-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA's) are defined as any chemical substance whose toxic properties are utilised to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare and associated military operations. Chemical agents have been used in war since times immemorial, but their use reached a peak during World War I. During World War II only the Germans used them in the infamous gas chambers. Since then these have been intermittently used both in war and acts of terrorisms. Many countries have stockpiles of these agents. There has been a legislative effort worldwide to ban the use of CWA's under the chemical weapons convention which came into force in 1997. However the manufacture of these agents cannot be completely prohibited as some of them have potential industrial uses. Moreover despite the remedial measures taken so far and worldwide condemnation, the ease of manufacturing these agents and effectiveness during combat or small scale terrorist operations still make them a powerful weapon to reckon with. These agents are classified according to mechanism of toxicity in humans into blister agents, nerve agents, asphyxiants, choking agents and incapacitating/behavior altering agents. Some of these agents can be as devastating as a nuclear bomb. In addition to immediate injuries caused by chemical agents, some of them are associated with long term morbidities and psychological problems. In this review we will discuss briefly about the historical background, properties, manufacture techniques and industrial uses, mechanism of toxicity, clinical features of exposure and pharmacological management of casualties caused by chemical agents. PMID:21783898

  16. Information warfare analysis capability

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, J.

    1998-11-18

    With the rapid growth of global computing and communications, information security is a critical issue in all national infrastructure protection discussions. The purpose of our LDRD project-the Information Operations, Warfare, and Assurance (IOWA) initiative-is to advance the enabling core technologies of this field. Special emphasis is placed on computer networks and telecommunication systems. During FY 1998, we developed (1) techniques for identifying the topology of large, complex computer networks, (2) data representation models for these systems, (3) high-performance methods for visualizing the resulting complex models, (4) automated analysis methods for processing large network representations, (5) specialized search techniques for isolating vulnerabilities, (6) a foundation for simulating network operation, and (7) an assessment methodology for determining the consequences of system component failure or disruption.

  17. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    SciTech Connect

    Letendre, Kenneth; Abbott, Robert G.

    2011-11-01

    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  18. Performance Testing in Electronic Technology. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Bert; Pedersen, Joe F.

    This set of 21 performance tests in electronics technology was developed on the basis of a review of commercial and noncommercial instructional materials dealing with electronics technology. The tests, which were reviewed by a group of community college instructors and an advisory committee for electronics technology, address the following…

  19. Computer-Assisted Performance Evaluation for Navy Anti-Air Warfare Training: Concepts, Methods, and Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesler, David J.

    An improved general methodological approach for the development of computer-assisted evaluation of trainee performance in the computer-based simulation environment is formulated in this report. The report focuses on the Tactical Advanced Combat Direction and Electronic Warfare system (TACDEW) at the Fleet Anti-Air Warfare Training Center at San…

  20. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; D.L. Chichester; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey

    2008-08-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a Cf-252 isotopic neutron source, but recently a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Electronic Neutron Generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  1. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Material and High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

    2009-03-10

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a {sup 252}Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  2. RHIC electron lens test bench diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, D.; Beebe, E.; Fischer, W.; Gu, X.; Hamdi, K.; Hock, J.; Liu, C.; Miller, T.; Pikin, A.; Thieberger, P.

    2011-05-16

    An Electron Lens (E-Lens) system will be installed in RHIC to increase luminosity by counteracting the head-on beam-beam interaction. The proton beam collisions at the RHIC experimental locations will introduce a tune spread due to a difference of tune shifts between small and large amplitude particles. A low energy electron beam will be used to improve luminosity and lifetime of the colliding beams by reducing the betatron tune shift and spread. In preparation for the Electron Lens installation next year, a test bench facility will be used to gain experience with many sub-systems. This paper will discuss the diagnostics related to measuring the electron beam parameters.

  3. Electronic materials testing in commercial aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Dieter

    A device for the electronic testing of materials used in commercial aircraft engines is described. The instrument can be used for ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, and nonferromagnetic metallic materials, and it functions either optically or acoustically. The design of the device is described and technical data are given. The device operates under the principle of controlled self-inductivity. Its mode of operation is described.

  4. [Test of an electronic fissure caries detector].

    PubMed

    Pieper, K; Visser, H; Hülsmann, M; Wahner, M

    1990-11-01

    The reliability of an electronic detector for caries in pits and fissures was tested by means of physical measurements, histological sections and clinical evaluation. The device measures the ohmic resistance of the tooth, technical data are given. First we compared measurements and histological sections of teeth due for extraction. The results indicated a high sensitivity of the device for caries, false positive diagnoses did not occur. Based on this, a clinical evaluation on 179 teeth was performed. Under practical conditions the sensitivity of the electronic detector (0.77) was lower than in the first part of the study; conventional diagnosis revealed more carious lesions in dentine (sensitivity: 0.82).

  5. MTI compact electronic meter testing program

    SciTech Connect

    O`Rourke, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    MTI has completed an extensive test program to ensure a new compact electronic gas meter meets all specifications and standards customarily employed by the U.S. gas industry. Thirty (30) test plans were developed to cover all American National Standards Institute (ANSI) performance requirements. (1) The prototype meters have met or exceeded the ANSI B109.1 standards. (2) The prototype meters have demonstrated the feasibility of GRI`s decision to seek a compact meter for early market entry. (3) Several leading U.S. utilities have participated in sponsoring the project and have expressed keen interest in field testing the compact meter. (4) American Meter Company (AMC), the predominant U.S. meter manufacturer, has participated in the sponsorship and testing of the compact meter and has formed a joint venture with Select Corporation to bring the meter to the U.S. and world-wide marketplace. (5) The meter generates the necessary electronic output for either telephonic or radio based automatic meter reading (AMR). The pre-production meters for the North American market are being fabricated currently by AMC. Following their completion, an extensive field test program will take place. Three hundred units will be installed at ten to fifteen utilities and tested for a period of up to one year.

  6. Electronics systems test laboratory testing of shuttle communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. J.; Bromley, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    Shuttle communications and tracking systems space to space and space to ground compatibility and performance evaluations are conducted in the NASA Johnson Space Center Electronics Systems Test Laboratory (ESTL). This evaluation is accomplished through systems verification/certification tests using orbiter communications hardware in conjunction with other shuttle communications and tracking external elements to evaluate end to end system compatibility and to verify/certify that overall system performance meets program requirements before manned flight usage. In this role, the ESTL serves as a multielement major ground test facility. The ESTL capability and program concept are discussed. The system test philosophy for the complex communications channels is described in terms of the major phases. Results of space to space and space to ground systems tests are presented. Several examples of the ESTL's unique capabilities to locate and help resolve potential problems are discussed in detail.

  7. Analytic tools for information warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Vandewart, R.L.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    Information warfare and system surety (tradeoffs between system functionality, security, safety, reliability, cost, usability) have many mechanisms in common. Sandia`s experience has shown that an information system must be assessed from a {ital system} perspective in order to adequately identify and mitigate the risks present in the system. While some tools are available to help in this work, the process is largely manual. An integrated, extensible set of assessment tools would help the surety analyst. This paper describes one approach to surety assessment used at Sandia, identifies the difficulties in this process, and proposes a set of features desirable in an automated environment to support this process.

  8. Alternative Test Methods for Electronic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette

    2004-01-01

    It is common practice within NASA to test electronic parts at the manufacturing lot level to demonstrate, statistically, that parts from the lot tested will not fail in service using generic application conditions. The test methods and the generic application conditions used have been developed over the years through cooperation between NASA, DoD, and industry in order to establish a common set of standard practices. These common practices, found in MIL-STD-883, MIL-STD-750, military part specifications, EEE-INST-002, and other guidelines are preferred because they are considered to be effective and repeatable and their results are usually straightforward to interpret. These practices can sometimes be unavailable to some NASA projects due to special application conditions that must be addressed, such as schedule constraints, cost constraints, logistical constraints, or advances in the technology that make the historical standards an inappropriate choice for establishing part performance and reliability. Alternate methods have begun to emerge and to be used by NASA programs to test parts individually or as part of a system, especially when standard lot tests cannot be applied. Four alternate screening methods will be discussed in this paper: Highly accelerated life test (HALT), forward voltage drop tests for evaluating wire-bond integrity, burn-in options during or after highly accelerated stress test (HAST), and board-level qualification.

  9. Testing gyrokinetic simulations of electron turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, C.; DeBoo, J. C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Schmitz, L.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Wang, G.; White, A. E.; Austin, M. E.; Doyle, E. J.; Peebles, W. A.; Petty, C. C.; Zeng, L.; Candy, J.

    2012-06-01

    An extensive set of tests comparing gyrokinetic predictions of temperature-gradient driven electron turbulence to power balance transport analyses and fluctuation measurements are presented. These tests use data from an L-mode validation study on the DIII-D tokamak (Luxon 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 614) in which the local value of a/L_{T_e } =-(a/T_e )(dT_e /dr) is varied by modulated electron cyclotron heating; the GYRO code (Candy and Waltz 2003 J. Comput. Phys. 186 545) is used to make the gyrokinetic predictions. Using a variety of novel measures, both local and global nonlinear simulations are shown to predict key characteristics of the electron energy flux Qe and long-wavelength (low-k) Te fluctuations, but systematically underpredict (by roughly a factor of two) the ion energy flux Qi. A new synthetic diagnostic for comparison to intermediate wavelength Doppler backscattering measurements is presented, and used to compare simulation predictions against experiment. In contrast to the agreement observed in the low-k Te fluctuation comparisons, little agreement is found between the predicted and measured intermediate-k density fluctuation responses. The results presented in this paper significantly expand upon those previously reported in DeBoo et al (2010 Phys. Plasmas 17 056105), comparing transport and multiple turbulence predictions from numerically converged local and global simulations for all four experimental heating configurations (instead of only fluxes and low-k Te fluctuations for one condition) to measurements and power balance analyses.

  10. The electronic counting arm movement test (eCAM test).

    PubMed

    Bodranghien, Florian; Martin, Claire; Ansay, Caroline; Camut, Stephane; Busegnies, Yves; Manto, Mario

    2015-06-01

    A novel transportable electronic platform aiming to characterize the performance of successive fast vertical visually guided pointing movements toward two fixed targets (eCAM test: electronic counting arm movement test) is described and one validation test is presented. This platform is based on an Arduino(®) micro-controller and a Processing(®) routine. It records both the pointing performance (number of clicks) and the elapsed time between two successive pointing movements. Using this novel platform, we studied the effects of functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied on the dominant upper limb in 15 healthy volunteers (mean age ± SD: 22.3 ± 4.3 years; 5 males/10 females). The following muscles were stimulated: flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), biceps brachii (BB), and triceps brachii (TB). The intensities of the stimulation were 2 and 3 mA above the sensory threshold (ST). Movement times were lesser when performed against gravity and pointing performance improved with FES. We provide the first demonstration that low-intensity FES impacts on motor performances during successive vertical goal-directed pointing movements under visual guidance. The eCAM test is currently the sole electronic tool to assess quickly and easily the performances of successive vertical pointing movements. Future potential applications include, in particular, the follow-up of the effects of neurorehabilitation of neurological/neurosurgical disorders associated with hand-eye incoordination, the functional evaluation of upper limb prosthesis or orthosis, and the analysis of the effects of FES in central or peripheral nervous system disorders.

  11. Identification of chemical warfare agents from vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hisayuki; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagoya, Tomoki; Ikeda, Toru; Kurimata, Naoko; Unoke, Shohei; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    A field-portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Hapsite ER system) was evaluated for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the vapor phase. The system consisted of Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler (trapping time: 3s(-1)min), a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column capable of raising temperatures up to 200°C, a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump for data acquisition, and a personal computer for data analysis. Sample vapors containing as little as 22μg sarin (GB), 100μg soman (GD), 210μg tabun (GA), 55μg cyclohexylsarin (GF), 4.8μg sulfur mustard, 390μg nitrogen mustard 1, 140μg of nitrogen mustard 2, 130μg nitrogen mustard 3, 120μg of 2-chloroacetophenone and 990μg of chloropicrin per cubic meter could be confirmed after Tri-Bed micro-concentration (for 1min) and automated AMDIS search within 12min. Using manual deconvolution by background subtraction of neighboring regions on the extracted ion chromatograms, the above-mentioned CWAs could be confirmed at lower concentration levels. The memory effects were also examined and we found that blister agents showed significantly more carry-over than nerve agents. Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the detection of GB and GD, raising the concentration limits for confirmation in the presence of gasoline by both AMDIS search and manual deconvolution; however, GA and GF were not subject to interference by gasoline. Lewisite 1, and o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile could also be confirmed by gas chromatography, but it was hard to quantify them. Vapors of phosgene, chlorine, and cyanogen chloride could be confirmed by direct mass spectrometric detection at concentration levels higher than 2, 140, and 10mg/m(3) respectively, by bypassing the micro-concentration trap and gas chromatographic separation. PMID:26118803

  12. Identification of chemical warfare agents from vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hisayuki; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagoya, Tomoki; Ikeda, Toru; Kurimata, Naoko; Unoke, Shohei; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    A field-portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Hapsite ER system) was evaluated for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the vapor phase. The system consisted of Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler (trapping time: 3s(-1)min), a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column capable of raising temperatures up to 200°C, a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump for data acquisition, and a personal computer for data analysis. Sample vapors containing as little as 22μg sarin (GB), 100μg soman (GD), 210μg tabun (GA), 55μg cyclohexylsarin (GF), 4.8μg sulfur mustard, 390μg nitrogen mustard 1, 140μg of nitrogen mustard 2, 130μg nitrogen mustard 3, 120μg of 2-chloroacetophenone and 990μg of chloropicrin per cubic meter could be confirmed after Tri-Bed micro-concentration (for 1min) and automated AMDIS search within 12min. Using manual deconvolution by background subtraction of neighboring regions on the extracted ion chromatograms, the above-mentioned CWAs could be confirmed at lower concentration levels. The memory effects were also examined and we found that blister agents showed significantly more carry-over than nerve agents. Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the detection of GB and GD, raising the concentration limits for confirmation in the presence of gasoline by both AMDIS search and manual deconvolution; however, GA and GF were not subject to interference by gasoline. Lewisite 1, and o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile could also be confirmed by gas chromatography, but it was hard to quantify them. Vapors of phosgene, chlorine, and cyanogen chloride could be confirmed by direct mass spectrometric detection at concentration levels higher than 2, 140, and 10mg/m(3) respectively, by bypassing the micro-concentration trap and gas chromatographic separation.

  13. Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Merriweather, R.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Watson, A.P.

    1992-07-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such as wood, masonry and gypsum wall board. Persistent agents such as VX or mustard are particularly problematic. The report which follows documents a measurement protocol developed in a scoping investigation characterizing the permeation of chemical warfare agent simulants [diisopropylmethyl phosphonate (DIMP) for warfare agent GB, dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP) for warfare agent VX and chlorethylethyl sulfide (CEES) for warfare agent sulfur mustard] through several, common porous, construction materials. The ``porous media`` selected for examination were wood, brick, cinder block, and gypsum wall board. Simulants were tested rather than actual warfare agents because of their low toxicity, commercial availability, and the lack of surety capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present work is considered a protocol for confirmation testing with ``live`` agents.

  14. Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Merriweather, R.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Watson, A.P.

    1992-07-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such as wood, masonry and gypsum wall board. Persistent agents such as VX or mustard are particularly problematic. The report which follows documents a measurement protocol developed in a scoping investigation characterizing the permeation of chemical warfare agent simulants (diisopropylmethyl phosphonate (DIMP) for warfare agent GB, dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP) for warfare agent VX and chlorethylethyl sulfide (CEES) for warfare agent sulfur mustard) through several, common porous, construction materials. The porous media'' selected for examination were wood, brick, cinder block, and gypsum wall board. Simulants were tested rather than actual warfare agents because of their low toxicity, commercial availability, and the lack of surety capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present work is considered a protocol for confirmation testing with live'' agents.

  15. [Psychology and psychopathology of information warfare].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia; Shamreĭ; Goncharenko, A Iu; Ovchinnikov, B V; Chermianin, S V

    2014-06-01

    Tension of information warfare as a form of modern war has a global character nowadays. Topicality of research of psychological reaction peculiarities and psychopathology phenomena developing during information warfare is determined by necessity of scientific development of the effective means of diagnosis and prophylaxis of these phenomena. The article is devoted to analytical review of modern articles about aim, goals and methods of information warfare, covering some signs of manipulative influence on people's mind. Authors set forward opinion about possible psychological peculiarities and psychopathological consequences of targeted aggressive information influence and also suggest some methods against this influence.

  16. Test report: Electron-proton spectrometer qualification test unit, qualification test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Qualification tests of the electron-proton spectrometer test unit are presented. The tests conducted were: (1) functional, (2) thermal/vacuum, (3) electromagnetic interference, (4) acoustic, (5) shock, (6) vibration, and (7) humidity. Results of each type of test are presented in the form of data sheets.

  17. Molecular scale electronics: syntheses and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinerth, William A.; Jones, LeRoy, II; Burgin, Timothy P.; Zhou, Chong-wu; Muller, C. J.; Deshpande, M. R.; Reed, Mark A.; Tour, James M.

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes four significant breakthroughs in the syntheses and testing of molecular scale electronic devices. The 16-mer of oligo(2-dodecylphenylene ethynylene) was prepared on Merrifields resin using the iterative divergent/convergent approach which significantly streamlines the preparation of this molecular scale wire. The formation of self-assembled monolayers and multilayers on gold surfaces of rigid rod conjugated oligomers that have thiol, 0957-4484/9/3/016/img11-dithiol, thioacetyl, or 0957-4484/9/3/016/img11-dithioacetyl end groups have been studied. The direct observation of charge transport through molecules of benzene-1, 4-dithiol, which have been self-assembled onto two facing gold electrodes, has been achieved. Finally, we report initial studies into what effect varying the molecular alligator clip has on the molecule scale wire's conductivity.

  18. Cross-institute evaluations of inhibitor-resistant PCR reagents for direct testing of aerosol and blood samples containing biological warfare agent DNA.

    PubMed

    Minogue, Timothy D; Rachwal, Phillip A; Trombley Hall, Adrienne; Koehler, Jeffery W; Weller, Simon A

    2014-02-01

    Rapid pathogen detection is crucial for the timely introduction of therapeutics. Two groups (one in the United Kingdom and one in the United States) independently evaluated inhibitor-resistant PCR reagents for the direct testing of substrates. In the United Kingdom, a multiplexed Bacillus anthracis (target) and Bacillus subtilis (internal-control) PCR was used to evaluate 4 reagents against 5 PCR inhibitors and down-selected the TaqMan Fast Virus 1-Step master mix (Life Technologies Inc.). In the United States, four real-time PCR assays (targeting B. anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV], and Orthopoxvirus spp.) were used to evaluate 5 reagents (plus the Fast Virus master mix) against buffer, blood, and soil samples and down-selected the KAPA Blood Direct master mix (KAPA Biosystems Inc.) with added Platinum Taq (Life Technologies). The down-selected reagents underwent further testing. In the United Kingdom experiments, both reagents were tested against seven contrived aerosol collector samples containing B. anthracis Ames DNA and B. subtilis spores from a commercial formulation (BioBall). In PCR assays with reaction mixtures containing 40% crude sample, an airfield-collected sample induced inhibition of the B. subtilis PCR with the KAPA reagent and complete failure of both PCRs with the Fast Virus reagent. However, both reagents allowed successful PCR for all other samples-which inhibited PCRs with a non-inhibitor-resistant reagent. In the United States, a cross-assay limit-of-detection (LoD) study in blood was conducted. The KAPA Blood Direct reagent allowed the detection of agent DNA (by four PCRs) at higher concentrations of blood in the reaction mixture (2.5%) than the Fast Virus reagent (0.5%), although LoDs differed between assays and reagent combinations. Across both groups, the KAPA Blood Direct reagent was determined to be the optimal reagent for inhibition relief in PCR.

  19. Cross-Institute Evaluations of Inhibitor-Resistant PCR Reagents for Direct Testing of Aerosol and Blood Samples Containing Biological Warfare Agent DNA

    PubMed Central

    Minogue, Timothy D.; Rachwal, Phillip A.; Trombley Hall, Adrienne; Koehler, Jeffery W.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid pathogen detection is crucial for the timely introduction of therapeutics. Two groups (one in the United Kingdom and one in the United States) independently evaluated inhibitor-resistant PCR reagents for the direct testing of substrates. In the United Kingdom, a multiplexed Bacillus anthracis (target) and Bacillus subtilis (internal-control) PCR was used to evaluate 4 reagents against 5 PCR inhibitors and down-selected the TaqMan Fast Virus 1-Step master mix (Life Technologies Inc.). In the United States, four real-time PCR assays (targeting B. anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV], and Orthopoxvirus spp.) were used to evaluate 5 reagents (plus the Fast Virus master mix) against buffer, blood, and soil samples and down-selected the KAPA Blood Direct master mix (KAPA Biosystems Inc.) with added Platinum Taq (Life Technologies). The down-selected reagents underwent further testing. In the United Kingdom experiments, both reagents were tested against seven contrived aerosol collector samples containing B. anthracis Ames DNA and B. subtilis spores from a commercial formulation (BioBall). In PCR assays with reaction mixtures containing 40% crude sample, an airfield-collected sample induced inhibition of the B. subtilis PCR with the KAPA reagent and complete failure of both PCRs with the Fast Virus reagent. However, both reagents allowed successful PCR for all other samples—which inhibited PCRs with a non-inhibitor-resistant reagent. In the United States, a cross-assay limit-of-detection (LoD) study in blood was conducted. The KAPA Blood Direct reagent allowed the detection of agent DNA (by four PCRs) at higher concentrations of blood in the reaction mixture (2.5%) than the Fast Virus reagent (0.5%), although LoDs differed between assays and reagent combinations. Across both groups, the KAPA Blood Direct reagent was determined to be the optimal reagent for inhibition relief in PCR. PMID:24334660

  20. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    PubMed

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks.

  1. [The history of biological warfare].

    PubMed

    Cohen, Amir; Robenshtok, Eyal; Rotman, Eran; Sagi, Rami

    2002-05-01

    Selected events in the history of biological weapons are highlighted to increase the physician's awareness of this crucial threat. The deliberate use of biological substances originated in antiquity and has pervaded the history of human wars throughout time until the 21th century. The history of biological warfare is difficult to assess because of a number of confounding factors. These include the difficulty in verification of allegation, the use of the threat of this weapon for propaganda purposes, the lack of microbiological or epidemiological data, and the incidence of natural occurring endemic or epidemic diseases during hostilities. Although it may be problematic to verify at times, the use of such weapons has not been limited to national armies or militia. Frustrated civilians, terrorists and even physicians have used biological substances to promote their interests. Today, the biological threat has become more serious. It's potency, cost-effectiveness, and the ability to manufacture and deploy it with little sophistication, or under the semblance of legitimate commercial endeavors, will ensure that biological weapons remain a constant threat to human health.

  2. Biological warfare--an emerging threat.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Reshma; Shukla, S K; Dharmani, S; Gandhi, A

    2004-09-01

    As we approach the 21st century, there is an increasing worldwide awareness and threat regarding the use of biological warfare agents both for war and terrorist attack. Biological agents include microorganisms or biological toxins that are used to produce death in humans, animals and plants. They are characterized by low visibility, high potency, substantial accessibility and relatively easy delivery. Biological warfare agents are unconventional weapons that can be delivered by unconventional means like aerosol sprays, food and water contamination, conventional explosive munitions or by covert injections. Because of their concealed delivery, easy transportation and difficult identification they are readily adaptable for terrorist operations or to gain political advantages. The detection of such attack requires recognition of the clinical syndromes associated with various biological warfare agents. Diagnosis can be made on clinical grounds and on investigations. Protective measures can be taken against biological warfare agents. These should be implemented early (if warning is received) or later (once suspicion of agent use is made). After the confirmation of diagnosis emergency medical treatment and decontamination are performed in rapid sequence. Patients are then evacuated and specific therapy is given according to the agent involved. Appropriate emergency department and hospital response could significantly limit the morbidity and mortality of biological warfare agents.

  3. Maneuver Warfare revisited: a plea for balance

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, M,R.

    1986-04-01

    This paper is a plea for balance in the current pursuit of understanding of the concept and the teaching of Maneuver Warfare. It specifically addresses the need for a more-complete analysis of some of the more-common historical examples commonly offered as examples of the supremecy of Maneuver Warfare. The paper in no way disagrees with the desirability of conducting the kinds of operations associated with the ill-defined concepts offered by advocates of Maneuver Warfare but suggests that the desirable results of historical battles may be too readily ascribed to the dynamic, offensive actions of the victorious side. Secondly, the paper points out the lack of utility and applicability of some common buzzwords being used in today's Army. Specifically assailed is the concept of turning within a decision cycle. The paper describes the reasons that this commonly used phrase has little applicability to ground warfare. Finally, the paper mentions the tendency for the Maneuver Warfare camp to cloud discussion of doctrine in a kind of intellectualism and elitism that has no use in forming the necessary consensus demanded by doctrine.

  4. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Chamber Characteristics Test

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jaehoon; White, Andy; Park, Seongtae; Hahn, Changhie; Baldeloma, Edwin; Tran, Nam; McIntire, Austin; Soha, Aria; /Fermilab

    2011-01-11

    Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) have been used in many HEP experiments as tracking detectors. They are sensitive to X-rays which allows use beyond that of HEP. The UTA High Energy group has been working on using GEMs as the sensitive gap detector in a DHCAL for the ILC. The physics goals at the ILC put a stringent requirement on detector performance. Especially the precision required for jet mass and positions demands an unprecedented jet energy resolution to hadronic calorimeters. A solution to meet this requirement is using the Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA). In order for PFA to work well, high calorimeter granularity is necessary. Previous studies based on GEANT simulations using GEM DHCAL gave confidence on the performance of GEM in the sensitive gap in a sampling calorimeter and its use as a DHCAL in PFA. The UTA HEP team has built several GEM prototype chambers, including the current 30cm x 30cm chamber integrated with the SLAC-developed 64 channel kPiX analog readout chip. This chamber has been tested on the bench using radioactive sources and cosmic ray muons. In order to have fuller understanding of various chamber characteristics, the experiments plan to expose 1-3 GEM chambers of dimension 35cm x 35cm x 5cm with 1cm x 1cm pad granularity with 64 channel 2-D simultaneous readout using the kPiX chip. In this experiment the experiments pan to measure MiP signal height, chamber absolute efficiencies, chamber gain versus high voltage across the GEM gap, the uniformity of the chamber across the 8cm x 8cm area, cross talk and its distance dependence to the triggered pad, chamber rate capabilities, and the maximum pad occupancy rate.

  5. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    PubMed

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks. PMID:24890710

  6. Tissue-based water quality biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-05-27

    A water quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent includes: a cell; apparatus for introducing water into the cell and discharging water from the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms in water; a fluorometer for measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms drawn into the cell; and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the fluorometer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the water.

  7. Environmental mimics of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Claborn, David M

    2004-12-01

    There are several natural and artificial factors that mimic the effects of chemical warfare agents, thereby causing unwarranted alarm and confusion on the battlefield. Symptoms associated with chemical warfare include paralysis, muscle tremors, heavy salivation, severe burns, blistering, and corrosive skin injuries among others. Similar symptoms can be produced from a variety of environmental sources, artificial and natural. This article reviews several published and unpublished examples of environmental factors that produce syndromes similar to those caused by these agents. Examples of such mimics include pesticides, blistering exudates from insects and plants, various types of bites, and naturally occurring diseases. The potential for confusion caused by these factors is discussed and means of discriminating between warfare agents and naturally occurring events are identified. Recommendations for the use of this information and for needed research are also discussed. PMID:15646185

  8. Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Applications: Joint Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothgeb, Matt; Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of the Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Applications project is to evaluate and test pretreatments not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  9. Remote sensing of chemical warfare agent by CO2 -lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiko, Pavel P.; Smirnov, Sergey S.

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of remote sensing of chemical warfare agent by differential absorption method were analyzed. The CO2 - laser emission lines suitable for sounding of chemical warfare agent with provision for disturbing absorptions by water vapor were choose. The detection range of chemical warfare agents was estimated for a lidar based on CO2 - laser The other factors influencing upon echolocation range were analyzed.

  10. Electronic Systems Test Laboratory (ESTL) User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ESTL. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  11. Test Writing Made Simple: Generate Tests and Worksheets Electronically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodish, Erica

    1986-01-01

    Describes capabilities of test and worksheet generator software; discusses features to consider when evaluating the software for purchase; and presents reviews of eight test and worksheet generators: P.D.Q., Testmaster, Easy Quiz Maker, EA Mathematics Worksheet Generator, Mathematics Worksheet Generator, Earth Science Test Maker, Individualized…

  12. The Handicap Principle, Strategic Information Warfare and the Paradox of Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Zhanshan; Sheldon, Frederick T; Krings, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The term asymmetric threat (or warfare) often refers to tactics utilized by countries, terrorist groups, or individuals to carry out attacks on a superior opponent while trying to avoid direct confrontation. Information warfare is sometimes also referred to as a type of asymmetric warfare perhaps due to its asymmetry in terms of cost and efficacy. Obviously, there are differences and commonalities between two types of asymmetric warfare. One major difference lies in the goal to avoid confrontation and one commonality is the asymmetry. Regardless, the unique properties surrounding asymmetric warfare warrant a strategic-level study. Despite enormous studies conducted in the last decade, a consensus on the strategy a nation state should take to deal with asymmetric threat seems still intriguing. In this article, we try to shed some light on the issue from the handicap principle in the context of information warfare. The Handicap principle was first proposed by Zahavi (1975) to explain the honesty or reliability of animal communication signals. He argued that in a signaling system such as one used in mate selection, a superior male is able to signal with a highly developed "handicap" to demonstrate its quality, and the handicap serves "as a kind of (quality) test imposed on the individual" (Zahavi 1975, Searcy and Nowicki 2005). The underlying thread that inspires us for the attempt to establish a connection between the two apparently unrelated areas is the observation that competition, communication and cooperation (3C), which are three fundamental processes in nature and against which natural selection optimize living things, may also make sense in human society. Furthermore, any communication networks, whether it is biological networks (such as animal communication networks) or computer networks (such as the Internet) must be reasonably reliable (honest in the case of animal signaling) to fulfill its missions for transmitting and receiving messages. The strategic

  13. Intelligence, Information Technology, and Information Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Philip H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the use of information technology for intelligence and information warfare in the context of national security and reviews the status of clandestine collection. Discusses hacking, human agent collection, signal interception, covert action, counterintelligence and security, and communications between intelligence producers and consumers…

  14. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  15. Magazine Coverage of Issues of Nuclear Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Dwight William

    To see whether the subject matter of magazines of general circulation and the subject matter of public concern coincide, a study examined the volume of coverage of United States-Soviet relations, communism, and issues of nuclear warfare between the two nations in twentieth century popular magazines. The "Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature" in…

  16. QCD tests in electron-positron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, T.

    1995-11-01

    Recent results on QCD tests at the Z{sup o} resonance are described. Measurements of Color factor ratios, and studies of final state photon radiation are performed by the LEP experiments. QCD tests using a longitudinally polarized beam are reported by the SLD experiment.

  17. IMPROVED TEST METHODS FOR ELECTRONIC AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to develop a fractional filtration efficiency test protocol for residential electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) that avoids the limitations of the ASHRAE 52.2 method. Specifically, the objectives were to a) determine the change in efficiency that ...

  18. PERMANENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to permit EPA/ORD's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to collaborate together to test the permanence of biological and chemical warfare agents in municipal solid waste landfills. Research into ...

  19. Nondestructive Testing and Inspection Using Electron Linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, William A.

    2012-06-01

    This chapter focuses on the role of electron accelerators that produce X-rays in NDT applications and emphasizes topics of interest to those using accelerator-based inspection products. In addition, it highlights the developments in digital detector technology that have become the precursor to more sophisticated digital radiography and computed tomography applications as well as the emerging security inspection market. Because the demand for accelerators for cargo inspection has vastly exceeded all other industrial NDT applications, this market segment, its special requirements, and future trends are comprehensively discussed. Accelerator systems that are specifically designed to produce neutrons can also be used for some of the same applications, but these are covered in Chapter 6.

  20. Tests of QCD with polarized electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel, T.J.; SLD Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    We present three measurements that exploit the highly-polarized incident electrons of the SLC facility to probe QCD and the hadronization process. We observe preliminary evidence for leading particle production in hadronic decays of the Zo to light-quark pairs. In a high-purity sample of quark jets, the momentum spectra of p, A0, and K(-) are harder than those of p(bar), A(bar)0, and K(+), supporting the hypothesis that faster particles in jets are more likely to carry the primary quark or antiquark of the jet. Second, we present an improved limit on jet handedness, which seeks to measure the transport of quark spin through the hadronization process. Finally, we search for a correlation of the three jet event orientation with the Zo spin direction, which would indicate new physics beyond the Standard model.

  1. Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

    1999-05-27

    The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and

  2. Electronic test instrumentation and techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The uses of test equipment and techniques used in space research and development programs are discussed. Modifications and adaptations to enlarge the scope of usefulness or divert the basic uses to alternate applications are analyzed. The items of equipment which have been of benefit to professional personnel in the enlargement and improvement of quality control capabilities are identified. Items which have been simplified or made more accurate in conducting measurements are described.

  3. Oxidative decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents using L-Gel.

    PubMed

    Raber, Ellen; McGuire, Raymond

    2002-08-01

    A decontamination method has been developed using a single reagent that is effective both against chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents. The new reagent, "L-Gel", consists of an aqueous solution of a mild commercial oxidizer, Oxone, together with a commercial fumed silica gelling agent, Cab-O-Sil EH-5. L-Gel is non-toxic, environmentally friendly, relatively non-corrosive, maximizes contact time because of its thixotropic nature, clings to walls and ceilings, and does not harm carpets or painted surfaces. The new reagent also addresses the most demanding requirements for decontamination in the civilian sector, including availability, low maintenance, ease of application and deployment by a variety of dispersal mechanisms, minimal training and acceptable expense. Experiments to test the effectiveness of L-Gel were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and independently at four other locations. L-Gel was tested against all classes of chemical warfare agents and against various biological warfare agent surrogates, including spore-forming bacteria and non-virulent strains of real biological agents. Testing showed that L-Gel is as effective against chemical agents and biological materials, including spores, as the best military decontaminants.

  4. Biological Warfare: Implications for Antimicrobial Use.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Ethan; Levi, Itzhak

    2002-02-01

    Biological warfare is intended to incapacitate a large number of individuals at a single exposure, creating epidemic-type disease, death, and social chaos. The organisms with potential for immediate use as bacteriologic weapons are Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Yersinia pestis, and Vibrio cholera, all necessitating antibiotic therapy for a cure. It is reasonable, therefore, to assume that a biological attack, or even a hoax, would requiure thousands of individuals over a large area to begin antibiotic therapy. Issues such as antibiotic availability, logistical problems in antibiotic distribution, development of drug resistance, side effects influencing the individual, and adverse effects on the community due to the impact of mass therapy on the ecology, make biological warfare the most apocalyptic scenario for the creation of a "postantibiotic era." PMID:11853654

  5. Considering the Consequences of Space Warfare in the Geosynchronous Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Caroline

    2008-04-01

    Today in the United States there is a rejuvenated push for space weapons and the restraint that was exercised regarding the military use of space during the Cold War is notably absent. This talk aims to demonstrate that space is an unacceptable arena for warfare based on the notion that fragment-generating attacks in space could cause irreparable damage to the hundreds of satellites orbiting the Earth, particularly in the invaluable geosynchronous region. In an effort to highlight the drawbacks of space weapons, a simulation entitled GeoPell modelled the consequences of a kinetic energy ``pellet cluster'' attack initiated at the geostationary altitude. The worst-case estimate predicted by GeoPell indicated that within two years of placing the cluster of one million pellets into a retrograde geostationary orbit and subsequently dispersing the pellets with a bursting charge, almost every geosynchronous satellite would be destroyed. Thus, the technical consequences of this hypothetical space attack suggest space weapons and warfare should be avoided due to the detrimental effects such weapons would have on the orbital environment. Cooperative restraint-based measures, possibly in the form of a ban on space weapons testing and deployment, are necessary to salvage the final frontier.

  6. DETAIL VIEW OF ELECTRONICS TEST AREA, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF ELECTRONICS TEST AREA, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. 1N12, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  7. Entomological terrorism: a tactic in assymmetrical warfare.

    PubMed

    Monthei, Derek; Mueller, Scott; Lockwood, Jeffrey; Debboun, Mustapha

    2010-01-01

    The current operational environment presents military forces with enemies that use unconventional warfare to achieve their goals. Although the US government has dedicated significant resources to address threats of bioterrorism, the adaptive nature of our adversaries necessitates additional emphasis on bioterrorism awareness amongst military health professionals. This article provides an overview of three categories of entomological terrorism and examples from each category with a risk assessment.

  8. Electron Microburst Energy Dispersion Derived by Test Particle Simulation Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Parks, G. K.; Park, Y.; Tsurutani, B.

    2011-12-01

    Electron microbursts, energetic electron precipitation having duration less than 1 sec, have been thought to be generated by chorus wave and electron interactions. While the coincidence of chorus and microburst occurrence supports the wave-particle interaction theory, more crucial evidences have not been observed to explain the origin of microbursts. We think one of the observational evidences could be energy dispersion of microbursts. During chorus waves propagate along magnetic field, the resonance condition should be satisfied at different magnetic latitude for different energy electrons because chorus waves are coherent waves having narrow frequency band and electron microbursts have wide energy range, at least several hundreds KeV. If we observed electron microbursts at low altitude, the arrival time of different energy electrons should make unique energy dispersion structures. In order to observe the energy dispersion, we need a detector having fast time resolution and wide energy range. Our study is focused on defining the time resolution and energy range required to measure microburst energy dispersion. We performed test particles simulation interacting with simple coherent waves like chorus waves. By the wave-particle interaction, energetic electrons (test particles) changed pitch angles and some electrons were detected with energy dispersion at 600 km. We assumed a detector measuring microbursts at the altitude of 600 km. These results provide useful information in designing electron detectors for the future mission.

  9. Fitness costs of warfare for women.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Michelle Scalise

    2014-12-01

    Research to date has focused on fitness costs that coalitional aggression imposes on men and how these may have shaped male cognitive design. This study investigated whether warfare may have shaped female cognitive design by identifying fitness costs that lethal raiding imposes on women and determining how widespread these fitness costs are across a sample of forager and forager-horticulturalist societies. To this end, archaeological and ethnographic accounts of lethal raiding were used to generate a list of fitness costs suffered by women in warfare. Five costs were identified: woman killed, woman captured, offspring killed, mate killed/captured, and adult male kin killed/captured. A cross-cultural sample of forager and forager-horticulturalist oral traditions was then surveyed for the presence of these costs. Results suggest that lethal raiding has recurrently imposed fitness costs on women, and that female cognitive design bears reexamination in terms of the motivational and decision-making mechanisms that may have evolved in response to them. This study differs from previous studies of lethal raiding by addressing the lack of comparative research on the fitness costs of warfare for women, by examining a wider range of fitness costs, and by using oral tradition as a database.

  10. Warfare-related secondary anterior cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Rasouli, Hamid Reza; Ebrahimi, Azin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cranial bone defects secondary to global war cranial defects pose a unique reconstructive challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of alloplastic reconstructions of cranial bone with titanium mesh and fat graft after warfare-related cranial trauma. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five patients at the plastic and reconstructive surgery ward of our hospital underwent anterior cranioplasty with titanium mesh with or without fat grafts from lower abdominal wall. Inclusion criteria were anterior cranial bone defect due to warfare injuries, the mean age of these patients was 31 years (range, 23–48 years). Ninety-five percent were male, and 5% were female. Average follow-up was 12 months. Fat grafts were used to help obliterate endocranial dead spaces. Results: Twenty-five patients (71%) had more than 0.5 cm dead space under cranial defects, and we used fat graft under the titanium mesh. The majority groups of patients (80%) were injured as a result of previous explosive device blasts with or without neurosurgical procedures in the past. The average patient age was 31 years, and 95% of patients were male. The mean anterior cranial defect size was 6 cm × 8 cm, and there were no wound infection or flap necrosis after operations. Conclusion: We recommend this procedure (titanium mesh with or without fat graft) for warfare injured cranial defects in secondary anterior cranial reconstructions. Fat grafts eliminates dead space and reduce secondary complications. PMID:27563609

  11. Electronic accelerator pedal optimal design of intelligent test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Quailing; Lin, Min; Guo, Bin; Luo, Zai

    2010-12-01

    Developed an intelligent test system for the electronic accelerator pedal, and optimized it. The system uses the three-dimensional motion platform driven by servo motor to realize to control the movement of the electronic accelerator pedal automatically and uses the least squares method to optimize the data for the electronic accelerator pedal which is integrated with linear Hall sensors. Carried on the test experiment to the double electric potential signal output electron accelerator pedal and the results show that the system has excellent dynamic and static performance, and the change of motor parameters and load disturbances has strong robustness. Performance indicators have reached the Euro III emission standard configuration of the electronic accelerator pedal and the new technical requirements.

  12. Testing methods and techniques: Testing electrical and electronic devices: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The methods, techniques, and devices used in testing various electrical and electronic apparatus are presented. The items described range from semiconductor package leak detectors to automatic circuit analyzer and antenna simulators for system checkout. In many cases the approaches can result in considerable cost savings and improved quality control. The testing of various electronic components, assemblies, and systems; the testing of various electrical devices; and the testing of cables and connectors are explained.

  13. Electronics. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This document contains 519 criterion-referenced multiple choice and true or false test items for a course in electronics. The test item bank is designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) and the Vocational Administrative Management System (VAMS) in Missouri. The items are grouped into 15 units covering the…

  14. Statistical process control testing of electronic security equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, D.W.; Spencer, D.D.

    1994-06-01

    Statistical Process Control testing of manufacturing processes began back in the 1940`s with the development of Process Control Charts by Dr. Walter A. Shewart. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an application of the SPC method for performance testing of electronic security equipment. This paper documents the evaluation of this testing methodology applied to electronic security equipment and an associated laptop computer-based system for obtaining and analyzing the test data. Sandia developed this SPC sensor performance testing method primarily for use on portal metal detectors, but, has evaluated it for testing of an exterior intrusion detection sensor and other electronic security devices. This method is an alternative to the traditional binomial (alarm or no-alarm) performance testing. The limited amount of information in binomial data drives the number of tests necessary to meet regulatory requirements to unnecessarily high levels. For example, a requirement of a 0.85 probability of detection with a 90% confidence requires a minimum of 19 alarms out of 19 trials. By extracting and analyzing measurement (variables) data whenever possible instead of the more typical binomial data, the user becomes more informed about equipment health with fewer tests (as low as five per periodic evaluation).

  15. Future Opportunities for Advancing Glucose Test Device Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brian R; Young, Teresa L; Joyce, Margaret K; Kennedy, Spencer I; Atashbar, Massood Z

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in the field of printed electronics can be applied to the field of diabetes testing. A brief history and some new developments in printed electronics components applicable to personal test devices, including circuitry, batteries, transmission devices, displays, and sensors, are presented. Low-cost, thin, and lightweight materials containing printed circuits with energy storage or harvest capability and reactive/display centers, made using new printing/imaging technologies, are ideal for incorporation into personal-use medical devices such as glucose test meters. Semicontinuous rotogravure printing, which utilizes flexible substrates and polymeric, metallic, and/or nano “ink” composite materials to effect rapidly produced, lower-cost printed electronics, is showing promise. Continuing research advancing substrate, “ink,” and continuous processing development presents the opportunity for research collaboration with medical device designers. PMID:22027300

  16. Future opportunities for advancing glucose test device electronics.

    PubMed

    Young, Brian R; Young, Teresa L; Joyce, Margaret K; Kennedy, Spencer I; Atashbar, Massood Z

    2011-09-01

    Advancements in the field of printed electronics can be applied to the field of diabetes testing. A brief history and some new developments in printed electronics components applicable to personal test devices, including circuitry, batteries, transmission devices, displays, and sensors, are presented. Low-cost, thin, and lightweight materials containing printed circuits with energy storage or harvest capability and reactive/display centers, made using new printing/imaging technologies, are ideal for incorporation into personal-use medical devices such as glucose test meters. Semicontinuous rotogravure printing, which utilizes flexible substrates and polymeric, metallic, and/or nano "ink" composite materials to effect rapidly produced, lower-cost printed electronics, is showing promise. Continuing research advancing substrate, "ink," and continuous processing development presents the opportunity for research collaboration with medical device designers.

  17. Biological warfare in the littorals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.W.

    1997-05-01

    Biological warfare (BW) has emerged as a significant threat to military operations and is particularly challenging at the operational level of warfare in a littoral environment. There are compelling reasons why an operational commander should be concerned about BW: global proliferation of biotechnology and biological weapons capabilities; suitability of BW for disrupting force projection across the littorals; and the vulnerability of American, allied and coalition forces to BW. The threat of facing an adversary capable and willing to use biological weapons will influence the commander`s application of the operational art across the six operational functions. Degradation of operational tempo, effects of psychological responses among the force, and stress on the organizational structure may challenge the command and control process. Operational intelligence will demand robust integration of technical analysis, intentions and warnings, meteorological information, and medical intelligence. The maneuver and movement processes will be taxed to function effectively when ports and airfields offer such lucrative BW targets. Biological weapons may dictate the location of operational fires assets as well as the make-up of the target lists. Operational logistics assumes great importance in the medical functions, decontamination processes, and troop replacement and unit reconstitution. Operational protection encompasses nearly every aspect of BW defense and will demand a balance between what is necessary and what is possible to protect. As daunting as the challenges appear, the operational-level commander has at his disposal many tools necessary to prepare for biological warfare in the littorals. Ultimately, the commander must convince his force, his allies, and his enemies that the command can fight effectively in a BW environment, on land and sea.

  18. Apollo experience report: Electronic systems test program accomplishments and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohnesorge, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    A chronological record is presented of the Electronic Systems Test Program from its conception in May 1963 to December 1969. The original concept of the program, which was primarily a spacecraft/Manned Space Flight Network communications system compatibility and performance evaluation, is described. The evolution of these concepts to include various levels of test detail, as well as systems level design verification testing, is discussed. Actual implementation of these concepts is presented, and the facility to support the program is described. Test results are given, and significant contributions to the lunar landing mission are underlined. Plans for modifying the facility and the concepts, based on Apollo experience, are proposed.

  19. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents.

  20. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis. PMID:19122437

  1. PROFILE: Chemical Warfare Materiel: Unique Regulatory Issues.

    PubMed

    Etnier; King; Watson

    2000-04-01

    / The US Army manages an extensive program of environmental restoration that is carried out primarily under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), which establishes response authority for cleanup of inactive waste sites. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates the management and cleanup of hazardous materials at active hazardous waste facilities. Based on the definitions found in these acts, and corresponding promulgated regulations, environmental media contaminated with chemical warfare materiel (CWM) can be regulated as CERCLA "pollutants or contaminants" but do not appear to be regulated either as CERCLA hazardous substances or RCRA hazardous wastes.In those states that have not included CWM as hazardous materials in their RCRA programs, the RCRA requirements for management of hazardous waste would not strictly apply to any of the CWM. The Army has historically implemented procedures requiring that chemical warfare agents be managed as RCRA hazardous waste regardless of the concentration, physical form, or configuration of the agent. Such application of strict hazardous waste requirements to management of potentially nonhazardous CWM can result in remedial costs well out of proportion to potential human health and environmental benefits. Recent development of chronic toxicity values for the CWM has opened the door for development of cleanup and waste management standards for waste streams or media containing small residual amounts of CWM. Implementation of this health-based approach to management of CWM remediation wastes may, in part, help to reduce potentially unnecessary hazardous waste management costs for the nonhazardous CWM.

  2. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  3. PROFILE: Chemical Warfare Materiel: Unique Regulatory Issues.

    PubMed

    Etnier; King; Watson

    2000-04-01

    / The US Army manages an extensive program of environmental restoration that is carried out primarily under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), which establishes response authority for cleanup of inactive waste sites. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates the management and cleanup of hazardous materials at active hazardous waste facilities. Based on the definitions found in these acts, and corresponding promulgated regulations, environmental media contaminated with chemical warfare materiel (CWM) can be regulated as CERCLA "pollutants or contaminants" but do not appear to be regulated either as CERCLA hazardous substances or RCRA hazardous wastes.In those states that have not included CWM as hazardous materials in their RCRA programs, the RCRA requirements for management of hazardous waste would not strictly apply to any of the CWM. The Army has historically implemented procedures requiring that chemical warfare agents be managed as RCRA hazardous waste regardless of the concentration, physical form, or configuration of the agent. Such application of strict hazardous waste requirements to management of potentially nonhazardous CWM can result in remedial costs well out of proportion to potential human health and environmental benefits. Recent development of chronic toxicity values for the CWM has opened the door for development of cleanup and waste management standards for waste streams or media containing small residual amounts of CWM. Implementation of this health-based approach to management of CWM remediation wastes may, in part, help to reduce potentially unnecessary hazardous waste management costs for the nonhazardous CWM. PMID:10667941

  4. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents. PMID:16111798

  5. 77 FR 60679 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Navy Training and Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... or protected information. An electronic copy of the Navy's application may be obtained by writing to... Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for AFTT was made available to the public on May 11, 2012 (77 FR 27742... Ranges Complexes); the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Newport Testing Range; the Virginia...

  6. First test of BNL electron beam ion source with high current density electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, Alexander Alessi, James G. Beebe, Edward N.; Shornikov, Andrey; Mertzig, Robert; Wenander, Fredrik; Scrivens, Richard

    2015-01-09

    A new electron gun with electrostatic compression has been installed at the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) Test Stand at BNL. This is a collaborative effort by BNL and CERN teams with a common goal to study an EBIS with electron beam current up to 10 A, current density up to 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} and energy more than 50 keV. Intensive and pure beams of heavy highly charged ions with mass-to-charge ratio < 4.5 are requested by many heavy ion research facilities including NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL and HIE-ISOLDE at CERN. With a multiampere electron gun, the EBIS should be capable of delivering highly charged ions for both RHIC facility applications at BNL and for ISOLDE experiments at CERN. Details of the electron gun simulations and design, and the Test EBIS electrostatic and magnetostatic structures with the new electron gun are presented. The experimental results of the electron beam transmission are given.

  7. Testing aspects of advanced coherent electron cooling technique

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.; Jing, Y.; Pinayev, I.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Ratner, D.

    2015-05-03

    An advanced version of the Coherent-electron Cooling (CeC) based on the micro-bunching instability was proposed. This approach promises significant increase in the bandwidth of the CeC system and, therefore, significant shortening of cooling time in high-energy hadron colliders. In this paper we present our plans of simulating and testing the key aspects of this proposed technique using the set-up of the coherent-electron-cooling proof-of-principle experiment at BNL.

  8. 10 MeV Electron Beam Test Using Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, C. H.; Kim, I. G.; Park, S. T.; Kim, W. J.; Yoo, D. S.; Moon, B. S.; Ha, S. Y.; Ahn, B. J.; Ha, Y. J.; Jung, C. Y.; Jung, S. H.; Cho, B. H.; Lee, B. C.; Han, Y. H.; Chung, C. E.; Li, J.; White, A. P.; Yu, J.

    2006-10-01

    10 MeV electron beam has been tested using a single channel double gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector constructed by Changwon National University and a multi-channel double GEM chamber by the University of Texas at Arlington. It has been demonstrated that both detectors are able to detect signals generated by high energy electrons as well as x-rays. By analyzing the chamber output signals captured by oscilloscope, it is believed that the x-ray was produced by bremsstrahlung while electrons were decelerating in a 2 mm lead plate. The time profile of the KAERI's 10 MeV electron beam bunches was determined based on the calculated angular distribution of electrons by multiple scattering in the lead plate. Furthermore, the spatial electron density distribution has been extrapolated by using the time profile. The effective gain of the GEM chamber has been estimated by analyzing the measured output currents of the chamber. It is important that the time and spatial profiles of the high energy electron beam could be determined using GEM detectors, which suggests that GEM might have an application as a calorimeter for a large scale accelerator. Details of experimental procedure will be discussed.

  9. Testing general relativity with laser accelerated electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gergely, L. A.; Harko, T.

    2012-07-09

    Electron accelerations of the order of 10{sup 21} g obtained by laser fields open up the possibility of experimentally testing one of the cornerstones of general relativity, the weak equivalence principle, which states that the local effects of a gravitational field are indistinguishable from those sensed by a properly accelerated observer in flat space-time. We illustrate how this can be done by solving the Einstein equations in vacuum and integrating the geodesic equations of motion for a uniformly accelerated particle.

  10. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Networked enabled sensors for the future soldier in urban warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Clive L.; Robinson, Colin

    2004-11-01

    In Urban Warfare, the enemy is at close range; snipers are almost always present; stress is extremely high; and the opposing force is frequently indistinguishable from the civilian population. On-going events in the Middle East and the general rise in world-wide terrorism has shown that small cells of "terrorist" forces are able to inflict severe developments in Urban Warfare sensors and their possible role.

  13. An update on testing of CFC alternatives for electronics manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Higbie, E.

    1995-12-31

    The Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility (EMPF) is a U.S. Navy Center of Excellence tasked to do research in electronics manufacturing. The EMPF has performed extensive research on various cleaning materials and processes for printed circuit board assemblers. The flagship of the EMPF cleaning projects has been a joint effort with other Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits (IPC) to find alternatives to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based solvents for cleaning electronics. The group established a 3-phase test plan that is used to evaluate new alternative materials and processes. Phase 1 characterizes the cleaning ability of a CFC-based solvent and establishes the cleanliness results as a benchmark to which alternative candidates are compared. Phase 2 uses the same manufacturing processes and procedures that were established in Phase 1, changing only the cleaning process to the alternative candidate. Phase 3 examines the potential use of alternative manufacturing processes such as, water soluble fluxes with aqueous cleaning, low residue fluxes with no cleaning and Controlled Atmosphere Soldering (CAS) using adipic and formic acids as a {open_quotes}flux{close_quotes} with no cleaning. This paper is an update on the ongoing study and description of some of the alternative processes.

  14. Collimated Photo-Electron Gun (CPEG) Development for Spaceflight Applications: Electronics Design and Preliminary Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, A.; Everding, D.; Krause, L. H.

    2012-12-01

    In previous decades, active space experiments have been conducted with electron beams generate artificial aurora, trace magnetic field lines, and stimulate Very Low Frequency (VLF) emissions. A new electron source called the collimated photo-electron gun (CPEG) is presently under development for spaceflight applications. High-energy Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are used to photo-eject electrons off a target material, and these photoelectrons are then focused into a beam using electrostatic lenses. The beam electron energy is controlled by the voltage on the lenses, and the electron flux is controlled by the brightness of the LEDs. The LEDs require a narrow range of both voltage and current setpoints, and thus must be pulse-width modulated at a high frequency to control the brightness. Because the lens and target voltages must be kept at fixed ratio to ensure a laminar beam, the target is powered by a voltage-controlled current source. An Arduino is used to provide command and data handling for the electron gun and the telemetry interface with the host spacecraft. To measure the current flowing to the target, an instrumentation amplifier boosts the voltage from a current-viewing resistor and feeds this voltage to one of the analog inputs of the Arduino. The LEDs are powered using a highly-specialized integrated circuit designed for sourcing high-power LEDs: The LM3500-21. The detailed design and preliminary results of the calibration of the electronics will be presented with this paper. The CPEG is presently under consideration for numerous flight opportunities, and a prototype is scheduled for environmental and functional testing in the fourth quarter of 2012.

  15. The Impacts of Modern Warfare on Freshwater Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Robert A.

    2011-11-01

    There is increasing recognition and concern regarding the impacts of modern industrial warfare on the environment. Freshwater ecosystems are perhaps the most vulnerable to warfare-related impacts, which is of concern given that they provide so many essential environmental resources and services to society. Despite this, there has been little work to establish and quantify the types of impacts (both negative and positive) that warfare may have on such systems. This paper firstly highlights why rivers and lakes may be susceptible to warfare-related impacts, before synthesizing the available literature to explore the following main themes: intensification of wartime resource acquisition, use of water as an offensive or defensive weapon, direct and indirect effects of explosive ordnance, increased pollution, introduction of invasive alien species, and positive ecological impacts. This is then followed by a discussion of the implications of such impacts in relation to future warfare, including a consideration of the efficacy of existing legal instruments to protect the environment during conflict, and the trend for war to become more localized and `informal', and therefore less regulated. Finally, the paper identifies key research foci for understanding and mitigating the effects of warfare on freshwater ecosystems.

  16. The Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents in the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith; Munro, Nancy B; Watson, Annetta Paule; King, J.; Hauschild, Veronique

    2007-05-01

    Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition has been totally revised since the successful first edition and expanded to about three times the length, with many new chapters and much more in-depth consideration of all the topics. The chapters have been written by distinguished international experts in various aspects of chemical warfare agents and edited by an experienced team to produce a clear review of the field. The book now contains a wealth of material on the mechanisms of action of the major chemical warfare agents, including the nerve agent cyclosarin, formally considered to be of secondary importance, as well as ricin and abrin. Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition discusses the physico-chemical properties of chemical warfare agents, their dispersion and fate in the environment, their toxicology and management of their effects on humans, decontamination and protective equipment. New chapters cover the experience gained after the use of sarin to attack travelers on the Tokyo subway and how to deal with the outcome of the deployment of riot control agents such as CS gas. This book provides a comprehensive review of chemical warfare agents, assessing all available evidence regarding the medical, technical and legal aspects of their use. It is an invaluable reference work for physicians, public health planners, regulators and any other professionals involved in this field.

  17. The impacts of modern warfare on freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Francis, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    There is increasing recognition and concern regarding the impacts of modern industrial warfare on the environment. Freshwater ecosystems are perhaps the most vulnerable to warfare-related impacts, which is of concern given that they provide so many essential environmental resources and services to society. Despite this, there has been little work to establish and quantify the types of impacts (both negative and positive) that warfare may have on such systems. This paper firstly highlights why rivers and lakes may be susceptible to warfare-related impacts, before synthesizing the available literature to explore the following main themes: intensification of wartime resource acquisition, use of water as an offensive or defensive weapon, direct and indirect effects of explosive ordnance, increased pollution, introduction of invasive alien species, and positive ecological impacts. This is then followed by a discussion of the implications of such impacts in relation to future warfare, including a consideration of the efficacy of existing legal instruments to protect the environment during conflict, and the trend for war to become more localized and 'informal', and therefore less regulated. Finally, the paper identifies key research foci for understanding and mitigating the effects of warfare on freshwater ecosystems.

  18. Note: Simulation and test of a strip source electron gun.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Munawar; Islam, G U; Misbah, I; Iqbal, O; Zhou, Z

    2014-06-01

    We present simulation and test of an indirectly heated strip source electron beam gun assembly using Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) electron beam trajectory program. The beam is now sharply focused with 3.04 mm diameter in the post anode region at 15.9 mm. The measured emission current and emission density were 1.12 A and 1.15 A/cm(2), respectively, that corresponds to power density of 11.5 kW/cm(2), at 10 kV acceleration potential. The simulated results were compared with then and now experiments and found in agreement. The gun is without any biasing, electrostatic and magnetic fields; hence simple and inexpensive. Moreover, it is now more powerful and is useful for accelerators technology due to high emission and low emittance parameters. PMID:24985870

  19. Note: Simulation and test of a strip source electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Munawar; Islam, G. U.; Misbah, I.; Iqbal, O.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-06-15

    We present simulation and test of an indirectly heated strip source electron beam gun assembly using Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) electron beam trajectory program. The beam is now sharply focused with 3.04 mm diameter in the post anode region at 15.9 mm. The measured emission current and emission density were 1.12 A and 1.15 A/cm{sup 2}, respectively, that corresponds to power density of 11.5 kW/cm{sup 2}, at 10 kV acceleration potential. The simulated results were compared with then and now experiments and found in agreement. The gun is without any biasing, electrostatic and magnetic fields; hence simple and inexpensive. Moreover, it is now more powerful and is useful for accelerators technology due to high emission and low emittance parameters.

  20. Note: Simulation and test of a strip source electron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Munawar; Islam, G. U.; Misbah, I.; Iqbal, O.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-06-01

    We present simulation and test of an indirectly heated strip source electron beam gun assembly using Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) electron beam trajectory program. The beam is now sharply focused with 3.04 mm diameter in the post anode region at 15.9 mm. The measured emission current and emission density were 1.12 A and 1.15 A/cm2, respectively, that corresponds to power density of 11.5 kW/cm2, at 10 kV acceleration potential. The simulated results were compared with then and now experiments and found in agreement. The gun is without any biasing, electrostatic and magnetic fields; hence simple and inexpensive. Moreover, it is now more powerful and is useful for accelerators technology due to high emission and low emittance parameters.

  1. Note: Simulation and test of a strip source electron gun.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Munawar; Islam, G U; Misbah, I; Iqbal, O; Zhou, Z

    2014-06-01

    We present simulation and test of an indirectly heated strip source electron beam gun assembly using Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) electron beam trajectory program. The beam is now sharply focused with 3.04 mm diameter in the post anode region at 15.9 mm. The measured emission current and emission density were 1.12 A and 1.15 A/cm(2), respectively, that corresponds to power density of 11.5 kW/cm(2), at 10 kV acceleration potential. The simulated results were compared with then and now experiments and found in agreement. The gun is without any biasing, electrostatic and magnetic fields; hence simple and inexpensive. Moreover, it is now more powerful and is useful for accelerators technology due to high emission and low emittance parameters.

  2. Modeling the transport of chemical warfare agents and simulants in polymeric substrates for reactive decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearl, Thomas; Mantooth, Brent; Varady, Mark; Willis, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Chemical warfare agent simulants are often used for environmental testing in place of highly toxic agents. This work sets the foundation for modeling decontamination of absorbing polymeric materials with the focus on determining relationships between agents and simulants. The correlations of agents to simulants must consider the three way interactions in the chemical-material-decontaminant system where transport and reaction occur in polymer materials. To this end, diffusion modeling of the subsurface transport of simulants and live chemical warfare agents was conducted for various polymer systems (e.g., paint coatings) with and without reaction pathways with applied decontamination. The models utilized 1D and 2D finite difference diffusion and reaction models to simulate absorption and reaction in the polymers, and subsequent flux of the chemicals out of the polymers. Experimental data including vapor flux measurements and dynamic contact angle measurements were used to determine model input parameters. Through modeling, an understanding of the relationship of simulant to live chemical warfare agent was established, focusing on vapor emission of agents and simulants from materials.

  3. Electron microscopy of life-tested semiconductor laser diodes

    PubMed

    Vanzi; Bonfiglio; Magistrali; Salmini

    2000-06-01

    Electron Microscopy on life-tested 980 nm SL SQW InGaAs/AlGaAs laser diodes is able to find and analyze lattice defects responsible for the detected failures. Anyway, the origin and evolution of those defects remains questionable. Only the comparative analysis of life-test measurements, EBIC-FIB/TEM images, and charge-transport physics is able to point out a coherent framework for complete decoding of the failure kinetics. Minority-carrier diffusion and their enhanced recombination at defective lattice points are indicated, as the energy supply required for defect reaction and growth. The rules of charge diffusion drive both the reaction model, the interpretation of EBIC images and the expected electrical and optical effects. Strain release at the ultimate propagation of defects into the strained InGaAs quantum layer is then easily related to the final state of the failed devices.

  4. Application of silicon piezoresistive stress test chips in electronic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yida

    In this work, both special (100) and (111) silicon test chips containing an array of optimized piezoresistive stress sensor rosettes have been successfully applied within several electronic packaging configurations. Unlike (100) silicon test chips, (111) silicon test chips are able to measure the complete stress state on the die surface. After calibration and characterization of the test chips, they were packaged into various assemblies. The post packaging resistances of the sensors were then recorded at room temperature, as a function of temperature excursion, and during long term packaging reliability qualification tests (thermal cycling and thermal aging). The stresses on the die surface were calculated using the measured resistance changes and the appropriate theoretical equations. For comparison purposes, three-dimensional nonlinear finite element simulations of the packaging processes were also performed, and the stress predictions were correlated with the experimental test chip data. AAA2 (100) silicon test chips containing optimized four element dual polarity rosettes have been applied within 44 pin Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC) packages and 240 pin Quad Flat Packs (QFP's). In these plastic package experiments, comparison of the stress levels induced by various molding compounds was emphasized. Advanced (111) silicon test chips (BMW-1 or BMW-2) comprising an array of optimized eight-element dual polarity piezoresistive sensor rosettes were encapsulated in 240 pin QFP's, 160 pin QFP's, Chip on Board (COB) packages, and 281 pin ceramic Pin Grid Array (PGA) packages. In addition to molding compound evaluations, BMW-1 test chips encapsulated in 240 pin QFP's were used to detect the presence of delaminations between the die surface and the encapsulant. In the wire bonded COB package studies, die surface stress evaluations were conducted after die attachment, and throughout the cure cycle of the liquid encapsulant. The stresses were also studied as a

  5. [Decontamination of chemical warfare agents by photocatalysis].

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Tsutomu; Mera, Nobuaki; Sano, Taizo; Negishi, Nobuaki; Takeuchi, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Photocatalysis has been widely applied to solar-energy conversion and environmental purification. Photocatalyst, typically titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), produces active oxygen species under irradiation of ultraviolet light, and can decompose not only conventional pollutants but also different types of hazardous substances at mild conditions. We have recently started the study of photocatalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under collaboration with the National Research Institute of Police Science. This article reviews environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis, decontamination methods for CWAs, and previous photocatalytic studies applied to CWA degradation, together with some of our results obtained with CWAs and their simulant compounds. The data indicate that photocatalysis, which may not always give a striking power, certainly helps detoxification of such hazardous compounds. Unfortunately, there are not enough data obtained with real CWAs due to the difficulty in handling. We will add more scientific data using CWAs in the near future to develop useful decontamination systems that can reduce the damage caused by possible terrorism. PMID:19122438

  6. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Barras, V; Greub, G

    2014-06-01

    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later.

  7. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith; Watson, Annetta Paule; Hauschild, Veronique; Munro, Nancy B; King, J.

    2007-02-01

    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

  8. Electron microscopy and in situ testing of mechanical deformation of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiong; Zhu, Jing

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, the electron diffraction technique to determine the helicity and atomic structure of carbon nanotubes is reviewed, as well as different mechanical test methods, tensile test, bending test, compression test and vibration test of carbon nanotubes by in situ electron microscopy are summarized while the relationship between mechanical properties and structures revealed by experiments is addressed. Except for these, the electric current and electron beam irradiation effect and some other novel electron microscopy experiments are also incorporated.

  9. Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) containment and mitigation subtask.

    SciTech Connect

    Wente, William Baker

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this subtask of the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Design project was to demonstrate mitigation technologies for radiological material dispersal and to assist planners with incorporation of the technologies into a concept of operations. The High Consequence Assessment and Technology department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has studied aqueous foam's ability to mitigate the effects of an explosively disseminated radiological dispersal device (RDD). These benefits include particle capture of respirable radiological particles, attenuation of blast overpressure, and reduction of plume buoyancy. To better convey the aqueous foam attributes, SNL conducted a study using the Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion model, comparing the effects of a mitigated and unmitigated explosive RDD release. Results from this study compared health effects and land contamination between the two scenarios in terms of distances of effect, population exposure, and remediation costs. Incorporating aqueous foam technology, SNL created a conceptual design for a stationary containment area to be located at a facility entrance with equipment that could minimize the effects from the detonation of a vehicle transported RDD. The containment design was evaluated against several criteria, including mitigation ability (both respirable and large fragment particle capture as well as blast overpressure suppression), speed of implementation, cost, simplicity, and required space. A mock-up of the conceptual idea was constructed at SNL's 9920 explosive test site to demonstrate the containment design.

  10. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination.

  11. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination. PMID:25710477

  12. A high voltage test stand for electron gun qualification for LINACs

    SciTech Connect

    Wanmode, Yashwant D.; Mulchandani, J.; Acharya, M.; Bhisikar, A.; Singh, H.G.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2011-07-01

    An electron gun lest stand has been developed at RRCAT. The test stand consists of a high voltage pulsed power supply, electron gun filament supply, grid supply, UHV system and electron gun current measurement system. Several electron guns developed indigenously were evaluated on this test stand. The shielding is provided for the electron gun set up. Electron gun tests can be tested upto 55 kV with pulse width of 15 microsecs and pulse repetition rates up to 200 Hz. The technical details of the subsystems are furnished and results of performance of the test stand have been reported in this paper. (author)

  13. Biological warfare in a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Roffey, R; Tegnell, A; Elgh, F

    2002-08-01

    There are some early examples of biological warfare (BW), but in modern times it was used first for sabotage by Germany during WWI. Development of biological weapons on a military significant scale was initiated in several countries in the period between the world wars. During WWII, several countries had active programs such as the USA, UK, Canada, Germany, Japan and the Soviet Union. It was only Japan that on a fairly large scale used BW. The US program continued until 1969, when President Nixon took a decision to end it in connection with signing the BTWC. The Soviet Union had also continued its program after the war, and this was enhanced after signing the BTWC: in the 1980s the program consisted of around fifty facilities and involved around 60,000 people. The Soviet Union produced and maintained a large stockpile of BW-agents. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, and due to pressure from USA and UK, President Yeltsin issued a decree in 1992 banning continued offensive BW activity. However, there are still concerns of residual activity in Russia. Another program of concern is the Iraqi BW-program. After 10 years of UN inspections that were stopped in 1998, there are still many unanswered questions concerning the BW program. There was also a covert BW-program in South Africa that was terminated around 1993. There have also been a number of allegations of alleged use or possession. In addition, there are indications that 10-12 states are now trying to acquire BW, and this assessment is based on intelligence information, mainly from the USA. For example Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Syria, Sudan and Libya. Another aspect is the strong driving force of technology developments to promote this type of program, opening new risks for future potential military misuse.

  14. Biological warfare in a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Roffey, R; Tegnell, A; Elgh, F

    2002-08-01

    There are some early examples of biological warfare (BW), but in modern times it was used first for sabotage by Germany during WWI. Development of biological weapons on a military significant scale was initiated in several countries in the period between the world wars. During WWII, several countries had active programs such as the USA, UK, Canada, Germany, Japan and the Soviet Union. It was only Japan that on a fairly large scale used BW. The US program continued until 1969, when President Nixon took a decision to end it in connection with signing the BTWC. The Soviet Union had also continued its program after the war, and this was enhanced after signing the BTWC: in the 1980s the program consisted of around fifty facilities and involved around 60,000 people. The Soviet Union produced and maintained a large stockpile of BW-agents. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, and due to pressure from USA and UK, President Yeltsin issued a decree in 1992 banning continued offensive BW activity. However, there are still concerns of residual activity in Russia. Another program of concern is the Iraqi BW-program. After 10 years of UN inspections that were stopped in 1998, there are still many unanswered questions concerning the BW program. There was also a covert BW-program in South Africa that was terminated around 1993. There have also been a number of allegations of alleged use or possession. In addition, there are indications that 10-12 states are now trying to acquire BW, and this assessment is based on intelligence information, mainly from the USA. For example Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Syria, Sudan and Libya. Another aspect is the strong driving force of technology developments to promote this type of program, opening new risks for future potential military misuse. PMID:12197867

  15. 49 CFR 220.315 - Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... restrictions on use of electronic devices. 220.315 Section 220.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Electronic Devices § 220.315 Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic... calling the personal electronic device or the railroad-supplied electronic device used by a...

  16. 49 CFR 220.315 - Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... restrictions on use of electronic devices. 220.315 Section 220.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Electronic Devices § 220.315 Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic... calling the personal electronic device or the railroad-supplied electronic device used by a...

  17. 49 CFR 220.315 - Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... restrictions on use of electronic devices. 220.315 Section 220.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Electronic Devices § 220.315 Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic... calling the personal electronic device or the railroad-supplied electronic device used by a...

  18. 49 CFR 220.315 - Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... restrictions on use of electronic devices. 220.315 Section 220.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Electronic Devices § 220.315 Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic... calling the personal electronic device or the railroad-supplied electronic device used by a...

  19. 49 CFR 220.315 - Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... restrictions on use of electronic devices. 220.315 Section 220.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Electronic Devices § 220.315 Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic... calling the personal electronic device or the railroad-supplied electronic device used by a...

  20. Biomaterials for mediation of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Russell, Alan J; Berberich, Jason A; Drevon, Geraldine F; Koepsel, Richard R

    2003-01-01

    Recent events have emphasized the threat from chemical and biological warfare agents. Within the efforts to counter this threat, the biocatalytic destruction and sensing of chemical and biological weapons has become an important area of focus. The specificity and high catalytic rates of biological catalysts make them appropriate for decommissioning nerve agent stockpiles, counteracting nerve agent attacks, and remediation of organophosphate spills. A number of materials have been prepared containing enzymes for the destruction of and protection against organophosphate nerve agents and biological warfare agents. This review discusses the major chemical and biological warfare agents, decontamination methods, and biomaterials that have potential for the preparation of decontamination wipes, gas filters, column packings, protective wear, and self-decontaminating paints and coatings.

  1. Tests of the MICE Electron Muon Ranger frontend electronics with a small scale prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognini, D.; Bene, P.; Blondel, A.; Cadoux, F.; Debieux, S.; Giannini, G.; Graulich, J. S.; Lietti, D.; Masciocchi, F.; Prest, M.; Rothenfusser, K.; Vallazza, E.; Wisting, H.

    2011-08-01

    The MICE experiment is being commissioned at RAL to demonstrate the feasibility of the muon ionization cooling technique for future applications such as the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider. The cooling will be evaluated by measuring the emittance before and after the cooling channel with two 4 T spectrometers; to distinguish muons from the background, a multi-detector particle identification system is foreseen: three Time of Flight stations, two Cherenkov counters and a calorimetric system consisting of a pre-shower layer and a fully active scintillator detector (EMR) are used to discriminate muons from pions and electrons. EMR consists of 48 planes of triangular scintillating bars coupled to WLS fibers readout by single PMTs on one side and MAPMTs on the other; each plane sensible area is 1 m 2. This article deals with a small scale prototype of the EMR detector which has been used to test the MAPMT frontend electronics based on the MAROC ASIC; the tests with cosmic rays using both an analog mode and a digital readout mode are presented. A very preliminary study on the cross talk problem is also shown.

  2. Effects of CW (chemical warfare)-related chemicals on social behavior and performance. Annual report, 30 September 1983-29 September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Bunnell, B.N.; Iturrian, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    This report summarizes work accomplished in the first year of a three-year project aimed at developing a battery of tests of social behavior and and performance that will be sensitive to the effects of chemical warfare-related chemicals considered for use as antidotes or prophylactics against chemical-warfare agents. Procedures for assessing social behavior in nonhuman primates are described and compared. The presence and absence of correlations between social behavior and performance on two operant schedules, a test of complex problem solving, and behavior in a novel environment are reported as are the effects of caffeine (as a control) and atropine on the social and performance variables.

  3. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  4. Imaging doped silicon test structures using low energy electron microscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakakura, Craig Yoshimi; Anderson, Meredith Lynn; Kellogg, Gary Lee

    2010-01-01

    work of Mankos et al., who evaluated the impact of high-throughput requirements on the LEEM designs and demonstrated new applications of imaging modes with a tilted electron beam. To assess its potential as a semiconductor device imaging tool and to identify contrast mechanisms, we used LEEM to investigate doped Si test structures. In section 2, Imaging Oxide-Covered Doped Si Structures Using LEEM, we show that the LEEM technique is able to provide reasonably high contrast images across lateral pn junctions. The observed contrast is attributed to a work function difference ({Delta}{phi}) between the p- and n-type regions. However, because the doped regions were buried under a thermal oxide ({approx}3.5 nm thick), e-beam charging during imaging prevented quantitative measurements of {Delta}{phi}. As part of this project, we also investigated a series of similar test structures in which the thermal oxide was removed by a chemical etch. With the oxide removed, we obtained intensity-versus-voltage (I-V) curves through the transition from mirror to LEEM mode and determined the relative positions of the vacuum cutoffs for the differently doped regions. Although the details are not discussed in this report, the relative position in voltage of the vacuum cutoffs are a direct measure of the work function difference ({Delta}{phi}) between the p- and n-doped regions.

  5. Voyager electronic parts radiation program. Volume 2: Test requirements and procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Documents are presented outlining the conditions and requirements of the test program. The Appendixes are as follows: appendix A -- Electron Simulation Radiation Test Specification for Voyager Electronic Parts and Devices, appendix B -- Electronic Piece-Part Testing Program for Voyager, appendix C -- Test Procedure for Radiation Screening of Voyager Piece Parts, appendix D -- Boeing In Situ Test Fixture, and appendix E -- Irradiate - Anneal (IRAN) Screening Documents.

  6. Public Discussion of Nuclear Warfare: A Time for Hope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Martha

    Anti-nuclear discourse, which peaked in 1981-82, signaled an emergence of public discourse on the nuclear warfare issue. During the development of the original atomic bomb, public discussion of the issue was severely restricted, but immediately after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, discourse on the subject increased. During the Cold War…

  7. Evolution: Bacterial Territoriality as a Byproduct of Kin Discriminatory Warfare.

    PubMed

    Velicer, Gregory J; Plucain, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    Recent work suggests that the inability of genetically distinct colonies of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis to freely merge is often a byproduct of microbial warfare mediated by divergent suites of chemical weaponry. Any effects of such kin-discriminatory antagonisms on levels of within-group cooperation at other traits remain unclear.

  8. Evolution: Bacterial Territoriality as a Byproduct of Kin Discriminatory Warfare.

    PubMed

    Velicer, Gregory J; Plucain, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    Recent work suggests that the inability of genetically distinct colonies of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis to freely merge is often a byproduct of microbial warfare mediated by divergent suites of chemical weaponry. Any effects of such kin-discriminatory antagonisms on levels of within-group cooperation at other traits remain unclear. PMID:27166695

  9. 78 FR 11700 - Notice of Availability: Beta Test of Electronic Product Fulfillment for Addressing and Delivery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...) licensees to test a beta web service that allows the electronic download of these products through the USPS Electronic Product Fulfillment (EPF) Web site. DATES: Interested licensees should submit requests for... licensees to test a beta web service that allows the electronic download of these products through the...

  10. Some performance tests of a microarea AES. [Auger Electron Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, G.; Poppa, H.

    1978-01-01

    An Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) system which has a submicron analysis capability is described. The system provides secondary electron imaging, as well as micro- and macro-area AES. The resolution of the secondary electron image of an oxidized Al contact pad on a charge-coupled device chip indicates a primary beam size of about 1000 A. For Auger mapping, a useful resolution of about 4000 A is reported

  11. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2011-06-01

    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  12. NASCAP simulation of laboratory charging tests using multiple electron guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Katz, I.; Parks, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    NASCAP calculations have been performed simulating exposure of a spacecraft-like model to multiple electron guns. The results agree well with experiment. It is found that magnetic field effects are fairly small, but substantial differential charging can result from electron gun placement. Conditions for surface flashover are readily achieved.

  13. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Stengl, Vaclav; Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika; Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas

    2010-11-15

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  14. Implications for studying team cognition and team performance in network-centric warfare paradigms.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Gerald P; Banderet, Louis E

    2007-05-01

    Network-centric warfare's (NCW) information-rich systems involving sophisticated sensors, tracking systems, smart weapons, and enhanced digital communications threaten to overload combatants with voluminous amounts of data. It is unclear whether warfighters will perceive such extensive data as actionable information to which they will respond accurately in a timely enough manner. Members of small teams in command and control centers, operating in crew-served vehicles, or simply "grunting it out" as ground-pounding infantrymen, may be disparately separated by space, but will communicate and be connected by electronic linkages, e.g., radio, text messages, situation displays, or global positioning data. However, team members will also have to remember shared mental models of tasks at hand, pay attention to and share common situation awareness in complex operational environments, perform team cognition and team coordination, and integrate both lower and higher cognitive processes with those of team behaviors. Such exceptional capabilities are required more now than ever before; such capabilities today are far from assured. After two workshops to establish performance metrics for assessing cognitive performance of military personnel in NCW, this preface introduces five manuscripts addressing team cognition and team performance from both a theoretical and a practical perspective. The authors of this preface question if NCW, and perhaps the politico-social ramifications of modern warfare, have already outstripped behavioral scientists' approach to researching team cognition and team performance-expertise that is so crucially needed for combatants on the rapidly changing 21st-century battlegrounds.

  15. 21 CFR 874.1120 - Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing... noise generator for audiometric testing. (a) Identification. An electronic noise generator for audiometric testing is a device that consists of a swept frequency generator, an amplifier, and an...

  16. 21 CFR 874.1120 - Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing... noise generator for audiometric testing. (a) Identification. An electronic noise generator for audiometric testing is a device that consists of a swept frequency generator, an amplifier, and an...

  17. 21 CFR 874.1120 - Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing... noise generator for audiometric testing. (a) Identification. An electronic noise generator for audiometric testing is a device that consists of a swept frequency generator, an amplifier, and an...

  18. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

    2008-05-01

    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  19. Microcircuit testing and fabrication, using scanning electron microscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolas, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopes are used to determine both user-induced damages and manufacturing defects subtle enough to be missed by conventional light microscopy. Method offers greater depth of field and increased working distances.

  20. Advances in molecular electronics: Synthesis and testing of potential molecular electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, David Wilson, Jr.

    New potential molecular electronics devices have been synthesized based on our knowledge of previous systems that have come out of our group. Previous studies and current studies have shown that simple molecular systems demonstrate negative differential resistance (NDR) and memory characteristics. The new systems rely primarily on the redox properties of the compounds to improve upon the solid state properties already observed. Most of these new organic compounds use thiol-based "alligator clips" for attachment to metal surfaces. Some of the compounds, however, contain different "alligator clips," primarily isonitriles, for attachment to metal substrates. It is our hope that these new "alligator clips" will offer lower conductivity barriers (higher current density). Electrochemical tests have been performed in order to evaluate those redox properties and in the hope of using those electrochemical results as a predictive tool to evaluate the usefulness of those compounds. Also, organic structures with polymerizable functionalities have been synthesized in order to cross-link the molecules once they are a part of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). This has been shown to enable the electrochemical growth of polypyrrole from a SAM in a controllable manner.

  1. Failure analysis of electronic parts: Laboratory methods. [for destructive and nondestructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anstead, R. J. (Editor); Goldberg, E. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Failure analysis test methods are presented for use in analyzing candidate electronic parts and in improving future design reliability. Each test is classified as nondestructive, semidestructive, or destructive. The effects upon applicable part types (i.e. integrated circuit, transitor) are discussed. Methodology is given for performing the following: immersion tests, radio graphic tests, dewpoint tests, gas ambient analysis, cross sectioning, and ultraviolet examination.

  2. Remote Continuous Wave and Pulsed Laser Raman Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants and Toxic Industrial Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Rivera, William; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2010-09-01

    This study describes the design, assembly, testing and comparison of two Remote Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) systems intended for standoff detection of hazardous chemical liquids. Raman spectra of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants (CWAS) and Toxic Industrial Compounds (TIC) were measured in the laboratory at a 6.6 m source-target distance using continuous wave (CW) laser detection. Standoff distances for pulsed measurements were 35 m for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) detection and 60, 90 and 140 m for cyclohexane detection. The prototype systems consisted of a Raman spectrometer equipped with a CCD detector (for CW measurements) and an I-CCD camera with time-gated electronics (for pulsed laser measurements), a reflecting telescope, a fiber optic assembly, a single-line CW laser source (514.5, 488.0, 351.1 and 363.8 nm) and a frequency-doubled single frequency Nd:YAG 532 nm laser (5 ns pulses at 10 Hz). The telescope was coupled to the spectrograph using an optical fiber, and filters were used to reject laser radiation and Rayleigh scattering. Two quartz convex lenses were used to collimate the light from the telescope from which the telescope-focusing eyepiece was removed, and direct it to the fiber optic assembly. To test the standoff sensing system, the Raman Telescope was used in the detection of liquid TIC: benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane and carbon disulfide. Other compounds studied were CWAS: dimethylmethyl phosphonate, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-(butylamino)-ethanethiol. Relative Raman scattering cross sections of liquid CWAS were measured using single-line sources at 532.0, 488.0, 363.8 and 351.1 nm. Samples were placed in glass and quartz vials at the standoff distances from the telescope for the Remote Raman measurements. The mass of DMMP present in water solutions was also quantified as part of the system performance tests.

  3. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sandeep

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  4. Tissue-based standoff biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-11-18

    A tissue-based, deployable, standoff air quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent, includes: a cell containing entrapped photosynthetic tissue, the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; means for introducing an air sample into the cell and contacting the air sample with the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; a fluorometer in operable relationship with the cell for measuring photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; and transmitting means for transmitting analytical data generated by the fluorometer relating to the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the air sample, the sensor adapted for deployment into a selected area.

  5. Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of a 14th-century account by the Genoese Gabriele de’ Mussi, the Black Death is widely believed to have reached Europe from the Crimea as the result of a biological warfare attack. This is not only of great historical interest but also relevant to current efforts to evaluate the threat of military or terrorist use of biological weapons. Based on published translations of the de’ Mussi manuscript, other 14th-century accounts of the Black Death, and secondary scholarly literature, I conclude that the claim that biological warfare was used at Caffa is plausible and provides the best explanation of the entry of plague into the city. This theory is consistent with the technology of the times and with contemporary notions of disease causation; however, the entry of plague into Europe from the Crimea likely occurred independent of this event. PMID:12194776

  6. Testing and Troubleshooting. Electronics Module 7. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Don

    This module is the seventh of 10 modules in the competency-based electronics series. Introductory materials include a listing of competencies addressed in the module, and a cross-reference table of instructional materials. Three instructional units cover: block diagrams; board-level repairs; and component-level troubleshooting. Each unit includes…

  7. Molecular Rotors for the Detection of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Il; Maity, Shubhra Bikash; Bouffard, Jean; Kim, Youngmi

    2016-09-20

    The fluorogenic probe o-OH is able to detect and quantify organophosphorus nerve agent mimics in solution and in the vapor phase following immobilization on a solid substrate, making the system a suitable candidate for the field detection of chemical warfare agents. Detection is achieved by the suppression of internal rotation upon phosphorylation of a reactive phenolate, resulting in a large fluorescence "turn-on" response.

  8. Constitution aims to bring an end to health economy warfare.

    PubMed

    Harding, Mary-Louise; Martin, Daniel

    2005-02-10

    A rough new constitution is being drawn up for the NHS in a bid to prevent health economies sliding into bitter 'Bradford-style' warfare in the era of foundations trusts and payment by results. The rules of engagement are part of a package of measures designed to rescue some of the government's flagship reforms amid warnings from audit chiefs on the impact of PbR.

  9. Molecular Rotors for the Detection of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Il; Maity, Shubhra Bikash; Bouffard, Jean; Kim, Youngmi

    2016-09-20

    The fluorogenic probe o-OH is able to detect and quantify organophosphorus nerve agent mimics in solution and in the vapor phase following immobilization on a solid substrate, making the system a suitable candidate for the field detection of chemical warfare agents. Detection is achieved by the suppression of internal rotation upon phosphorylation of a reactive phenolate, resulting in a large fluorescence "turn-on" response. PMID:27536955

  10. The threat of mid-spectrum chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Aas, Pål

    2003-01-01

    There is a spectrum of several threat agents, ranging from nerve agents and mustard agents to natural substances, such as biotoxins and new, synthetic, bioactive molecules produced by the chemical industry, to the classical biological warfare agents. The new, emerging threat agents are biotoxins produced by animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria. Examples of such biotoxins are botulinum toxin, tetanus toxin, and ricin. Several bioactive molecules produced by the pharmaceutical industry can be even more toxic than are the classical chemical warfare agents. Such new agents, like the biotoxins and bioregulators, often are called mid-spectrum agents. The threat to humans from agents developed by modern chemical synthesis and by genetic engineering also must be considered, since such agents may be more toxic or more effective in causing death or incapacitation than classical warfare agents. By developing effective medical protection and treatment against the most likely chemical and mid-spectrum threat agents, the effects of such agents in a war scenario or following a terrorist attack can be reduced.

  11. Construction and Test of a Novel Superconducting RF Electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Bisognano, Joseph J.

    2014-04-16

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison has completed installation of a superconducting electron gun. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility with multiple megahertz repetition rate end stations. This VHF superconducting configuration holds the promise of the highest performance for CW injectors. Initial commissioning efforts show that the cavity can achieve gradients of 35 MV/m at the cathode position. With the cathode inserted CW operation has been achieved at 20 MV/m with good control of microphonics, negligible dark current, and Q0 > 3×109 at 4 K. Bunch charges of ~100 pC have been delivered, and first simple beam measurements made. These preliminary results are very encouraging for production of 100s pC bunches with millimeter-milliradian or smaller normalized emittances. Plans are in place to carry out more definitive studies to establish the full capabilities. However, since the grant was not renewed, the electron gun is currently mothballed, and without supplemental fund the opportunity for further work will be lost.

  12. Analysis methods and tests for the study of electrostatic discharges of satellite electronic equipment - Design rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourtau, J. C.

    Analysis methods and tests implemented by Alcatel-Espace to make spacecraft electronic units resistant to electrostatic discharges (ESD) are presented. ESD qualification tests for Telecom-2 and Intelsat-7 equipment are described. A methodology for the analysis of ESD effects on electronic equipment which combines experimental and computer simulations is defined. These methods have led to the definition of design rules that will ensure sufficient immunity of electronic circuits against ESD.

  13. Front-end Electronics for Unattended Measurement (FEUM). Prototype Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, Ryan C.; Morris, Scott J.; Smith, Leon E.; Keller, Daniel T.

    2015-09-16

    The IAEA has requested that PNNL perform an initial set of tests on front-end electronics for unattended measurement (FEUM) prototypes. The FEUM prototype test plan details the tests to be performed, the criteria for evaluation, and the procedures used to execute the tests.

  14. Observation of electron cloud instabilities and emittance dilution at the Cornell electron-positron Storage ring Test Accelerator

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Holtzapple, R. L.; Billing, M. G.; Campbell, R. C.; Dugan, G. F.; Flanagan, J.; McArdle, K. E.; Miller, M. I.; Palmer, M. A.; Ramirez, G. A.; Sonnad, K. G.; et al

    2016-04-11

    Electron cloud related emittance dilution and instabilities of bunch trains limit the performance of high intensity circular colliders. One of the key goals of the Cornell electron-positron storage ring Test Accelerator (CesrTA) research program is to improve our understanding of how the electron cloud alters the dynamics of bunches within the train. Single bunch beam diagnostics have been developed to measure the beam spectra, vertical beam size, two important dynamical effects of beams interacting with the electron cloud, for bunch trains on a turn-by-turn basis. Experiments have been performed at CesrTA to probe the interaction of the electron cloud withmore » stored positron bunch trains. The purpose of these experiments was to characterize the dependence of beam-electron cloud interactions on the machine parameters such as bunch spacing, vertical chromaticity, and bunch current. The beam dynamics of the stored beam, in the presence of the electron cloud, was quantified using: 1) a gated beam position monitor (BPM) and spectrum analyzer to measure the bunch-by-bunch frequency spectrum of the bunch trains, 2) an x-ray beam size monitor to record the bunch-by-bunch, turn-by-turn vertical size of each bunch within the trains. In this study we report on the observations from these experiments and analyze the effects of the electron cloud on the stability of bunches in a train under many different operational conditions.« less

  15. Observation of Electron Cloud Instabilities and Emittance Dilution at the Cornell Electron-Positron Storage Ring Test Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtzapple, R. L.; Billing, M. G.; Campbell, R. C.; Dugan, G. F.; Flanagan, J.; McArdle, K. E.; Miller, M. I.; Palmer, M. A.; Ramirez, G. A.; Sonnad, K. G.; Totten, M. M.; Tucker, S. L.; Williams, H. A.

    2016-04-01

    Electron cloud related emittance dilution and instabilities of bunch trains limit the performance of high intensity circular colliders. One of the key goals of the Cornell electron-positron storage ring Test Accelerator (CesrTA) research program is to improve our understanding of how the electron cloud alters the dynamics of bunches within the train. Single bunch beam diagnotics have been developed to measure the beam spectra, vertical beam size, two important dynamical effects of beams interacting with the electron cloud, for bunch trains on a turn-by-turn basis. Experiments have been performed at CesrTA to probe the interaction of the electron cloud with stored positron bunch trains. The purpose of these experiments was to characterize the dependence of beam-electron cloud interactions on the machine parameters such as bunch spacing, vertical chromaticity, and bunch current. The beam dynamics of the stored beam, in the presence of the electron cloud, was quantified using: 1) a gated beam position monitor (BPM) and spectrum analyzer to measure the bunch-by-bunch frequency spectrum of the bunch trains; 2) an x-ray beam size monitor to record the bunch-by-bunch, turn-by-turn vertical size of each bunch within the trains. In this paper we report on the observations from these experiments and analyze the effects of the electron cloud on the stability of bunches in a train under many different operational conditions.

  16. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Technological advancements for the detection of and protection against biological and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Lisa M; Dickerson, Tobin J; Janda, Kim D

    2007-03-01

    There is a growing need for technological advancements to combat agents of chemical and biological warfare, particularly in the context of the deliberate use of a chemical and/or biological warfare agent by a terrorist organization. In this tutorial review, we describe methods that have been developed both for the specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents in a field setting, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for treating exposure to these toxic species. In particular, nerve agents are described as a typical chemical warfare agent, and the two potent biothreat agents, anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin, are used as illustrative examples of potent weapons for which countermeasures are urgently needed.

  20. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Selection, testing, operation, and mainatenance of electronic flow computers

    SciTech Connect

    Haefele, R.M.

    1995-12-01

    So, now that someone has decided that you are the lucky one who will bring your company into the wonderful world of electronic gas measurement, you must be asking yourself about a million questions. Take heart. Selecting an EFC is a complicated process, but others before you have accomplished it and most of them survived. Some of those people are now consultants to the industry and, depending on the level of familiarity with such equipment within your company, they are sometimes the best solution. Assuming that you have chosen to take on the challenge internally, it is best to consider the impact of your choice in two major areas: personnel and equipment.

  3. Slowly moving test charge in two-electron component non-Maxwellian plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.; Eliasson, B.

    2015-08-15

    Potential distributions around a slowly moving test charge are calculated by taking into account the electron-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma. Considering a neutralizing background of static positive ions, the supra-thermal hot and cold electrons are described by the Vlasov equations to account for the Kappa (power-law in velocity space) and Maxwell equilibrium distributions. Fourier analysis further leads to the derivation of electrostatic potential showing the impact of supra-thermal hot electrons. The test charge moves slowly in comparison with the hot and cold electron thermal speeds and is therefore shielded by the electrons. This gives rise to a short-range Debye-Hückel potential decaying exponentially with distance and to a far field potential decaying as inverse third power of the distance from the test charge. The results are relevant for both laboratory and space plasmas, where supra-thermal hot electrons with power-law distributions have been observed.

  4. Electronic test instrument generates extremely small current signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brookshier, W. K.

    1967-01-01

    Generator produces dynamic test signals in the range from 0.0001 and 10 to the minus 12th power amperes. It involves an extension of the technique of applying a triangular voltage waveform to a small capacitor to obtain a square-wave output current. The effects of stray capacitance are minimized by appropriate shielding.

  5. Flexible electronic feedback using the virtues of progress testing.

    PubMed

    Muijtjens, Arno M M; Timmermans, Ilske; Donkers, Jeroen; Peperkamp, Robert; Medema, Harro; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Thoben, Arnold; Wenink, Arnold C G; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2010-01-01

    The potential richness of the feedback for learners and teachers is one of the educational advantages of progress tests (PTs). Every test administration yields information on a student's knowledge level in each sub-domain of the test (cross-sectional information), and it adds a next point to the corresponding knowledge growth curve (longitudinal information). Traditional paper-based feedback has severe limitations and requires considerable effort from the learners to give meaning to the data. We reasoned that the PT data should be flexibly accessible in all pathways and with any available comparison data, according to the personal interest of the learner. For that purpose, a web-based tool (Progress test Feedback, the ProF system) was developed. This article presents the principles and features of the generated feedback and shows how it can be used. In addition to enhancement of the feedback, the ProF database of longitudinal PT-data also provides new opportunities for research on knowledge growth, and these are currently being explored. PMID:20515379

  6. Fabrication and test of digital output interface devices for gas turbine electronic controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newirth, D. M.; Koenig, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop an innovative digital output interface device, a digital effector with optical feedback of the fuel metering valve position, for future electronic controls for gas turbine engines. A digital effector (on-off solenoids driven directly by on-off signals from a digital electronic controller) with optical position feedback was fabricated, coupled with the fuel metering valve, and tested under simulated engine operating conditions. The testing indicated that a digital effector with optical position feedback is a suitable candidate, with proper development for future digital electronic gas turbine controls. The testing also identified several problem areas which would have to be overcome in a final production configuration.

  7. Electronic Quality of Life Assessment Using Computer-Adaptive Testing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QoL) questionnaires are desirable for clinical practice but can be time-consuming to administer and interpret, making their widespread adoption difficult. Objective Our aim was to assess the performance of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-100 questionnaire as four item banks to facilitate adaptive testing using simulated computer adaptive tests (CATs) for physical, psychological, social, and environmental QoL. Methods We used data from the UK WHOQOL-100 questionnaire (N=320) to calibrate item banks using item response theory, which included psychometric assessments of differential item functioning, local dependency, unidimensionality, and reliability. We simulated CATs to assess the number of items administered before prespecified levels of reliability was met. Results The item banks (40 items) all displayed good model fit (P>.01) and were unidimensional (fewer than 5% of t tests significant), reliable (Person Separation Index>.70), and free from differential item functioning (no significant analysis of variance interaction) or local dependency (residual correlations < +.20). When matched for reliability, the item banks were between 45% and 75% shorter than paper-based WHOQOL measures. Across the four domains, a high standard of reliability (alpha>.90) could be gained with a median of 9 items. Conclusions Using CAT, simulated assessments were as reliable as paper-based forms of the WHOQOL with a fraction of the number of items. These properties suggest that these item banks are suitable for computerized adaptive assessment. These item banks have the potential for international development using existing alternative language versions of the WHOQOL items. PMID:27694100

  8. The Cold Dark Matter Search test stand warm electronics card

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, Bruce; Hansen, Sten; Huber, Martin; Kiper, Terry; Rau, Wolfgang; Saab, Tarek; Seitz, Dennis; Sundqvist, Kyle; Mandic, Vuk; /Minnesota U.

    2010-11-01

    A card which does the signal processing for four SQUID amplifiers and two charge sensitive channels is described. The card performs the same functions as is presently done with two custom 9U x 280mm Eurocard modules, a commercial multi-channel VME digitizer, a PCI to GPIB interface, a PCI to VME interface and a custom built linear power supply. By integrating these functions onto a single card and using the power over Ethernet standard, the infrastructure requirements for instrumenting a Cold Dark Matter Search (CDMS) detector test stand are significantly reduced.

  9. A Few Observations and Remarks on Time Effectiveness of Interactive Electronic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magdin, Martin; Turcáni, Milan

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, we point out several observations and remarks on time effectiveness of electronic testing, in particular of its new form (interactive tests). A test is often used as an effective didactic tool for evaluating the extent of gained cognitive capabilities. According to authors Rudman (1989) and Wang (2003) it is provable that the…

  10. 21 CFR 874.1120 - Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1120 Electronic... audiometric testing is a device that consists of a swept frequency generator, an amplifier, and an earphone.... The device minimizes the non-test ear's sensing of test tones and signals being generated for the...

  11. 21 CFR 874.1120 - Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1120 Electronic... audiometric testing is a device that consists of a swept frequency generator, an amplifier, and an earphone.... The device minimizes the non-test ear's sensing of test tones and signals being generated for the...

  12. Love-wave sensors combined with microfluidics for fast detection of biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-07-15

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.

  13. Setting up a mobile Lidar (DIAL) system for detecting chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavosh Tehrani, M.; Mohammad, M. Malek; Jaafari, E.; Mobashery, A.

    2015-03-01

    The mobile light detection and ranging DIAL system of Malek Ashtar University of Technology has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agents whose absorption wavelengths are in the range of 9.2-10.8 μm tunable CO2 lasers of the system. In this paper, this system is first described and then ammonia detection is analyzed experimentally. Also, experimental results of detecting a sarin agent simulant, dimethyl-methyl phosphonate (DMMP), are presented. The power levels received from different ranges to detect specific concentrations of NH3 and DMMP have been measured and debated. The primary test results with a 150 ns clipped pulse width by passive pinhole plasma shutter indicate that the system is capable of monitoring several species of pollutants in the range of about 1 km, with a 20 m spatial and 2 min temporal resolution.

  14. Love-wave sensors combined with microfluidics for fast detection of biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

  15. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    PubMed Central

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

  16. Ultraviolet Raman scattering from persistent chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Wästerby, Pär.; Landström, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering at excitation wavelengths in the middle ultraviolet was examined using a pulsed tunable laser based spectrometer system. Droplets of chemical warfare agents, with a volume of 2 μl, were placed on a silicon surface and irradiated with sequences of laser pulses. The Raman scattering from V-series nerve agents, Tabun (GA) and Mustard gas (HD) was studied with the aim of finding the optimum parameters and the requirements for a detection system. A particular emphasis was put on V-agents that have been previously shown to yield relatively weak Raman scattering in this excitation band.

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction of chemical warfare agent simulants from soil.

    PubMed

    Griest, W H; Ramsey, R S; Ho, C H; Caldwell, W M

    1992-05-29

    Chemical warfare agent simulants are efficiently recovered from 2-ppm spikes in 1 g of Rocky Mountain Arsenal Standard Soil using methanol-carbon dioxide (5:95) at 300 atm for 2 min at 60 degrees C. Recoveries (n = 3) were 79 +/- 23% for dimethylmethylphosphonate, 93 +/- 14% for 2-chloroethylethyl sulfide, 92 +/- 13% for diisopropylfluorophosphate and 95 +/- 17% for diisopropylmethylphosphonate. Recoveries are higher than, but less precise than those achieved from a 5-min ultrasonic micro-scale extraction using methanol. Much less laboratory waste is generated than the current standard organic solvent extraction method (33 g of soil shaken with 100 ml of chloroform). PMID:1400849

  18. Antidotes and treatments for chemical warfare/terrorism agents: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, G C; Condurache, C T

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of antidotes used or recommended for the potential chemical warfare agents of most concern. Chemical warfare agents considered include cyanide, vesicants, pulmonary irritants such as chlorine and phosgene, and nerve agents. The strength of evidence for most antidotes is weak, highlighting the need for additional research in this area.

  19. General Organizational Classification: An Empirical Test Using the United States and Japanese Electronics Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Dave; McKelvey, Bill

    1990-01-01

    Tests for and identifies populations within a family of electronics industries. Data include 669 United States and 144 Japanese electronics firms. Demonstrates the relevance of a general organizational classification for explaining how different natural selection processes affect different populations. (75 references) (MLF)

  20. Linking Basic Skills to Entry-Level Electronics Test Technician Tasks. Instructional Resources. Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaillard, Don; Mostaghel, Debbie

    This project first identified the specific mathematics, reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills required of an entry-level electronics testing technician (ETT), using a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) occupational analysis process. This approach involves a panel of expert workers from the electronics industry who analyze and…

  1. Lumped Parameter Modeling for Rapid Vibration Response Prototyping and Test Correlation for Electronic Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Present preliminary work using lumped parameter models to approximate dynamic response of electronic units to random vibration; Derive a general N-DOF model for application to electronic units; Illustrate parametric influence of model parameters; Implication of coupled dynamics for unit/board design; Demonstrate use of model to infer printed wiring board (PWB) dynamics from external chassis test measurement.

  2. The GfW handbook for data compilation of irradiation tested electronic components, volume 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulf, F.; Braeunig, D.; Boden, A.

    1984-05-01

    Fifty-three standardized reports of spacecraft electronic components irradiation tests are presented. Statistical values are given which enable reader to evaluate the components life time in a radiative environment.

  3. Monitoring the Environment: The Use of Electronic Meters and Chemical or Bacteriological Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, J. R.; Tranter, J.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of electronic environmental meters available for use in schools. Included are conductivity, oxygen, pH, and temperature meters. Chemical test papers and kits for use in environmental studies are included. (BB)

  4. Satellites and solid state electronics test concrete pressure water pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumo, John; Worthington, Will

    2000-06-01

    Like all structures, water pressure pipelines have a finite life. Pipelines will eventually begin to fail, leaving the pipeline owner to deal with the quandary: what caused this to happen, can we prevent future failures, must we replace this structure now? The causes for pipeline failure include defects and anomalies which may occur in any phase of a pipeline's life: during the engineering, the manufacture, the construction, or the operation. Failure may simply be the result of environmental conditions or old age. In the past five years, passive acoustic emission detection technology has been adapted to concrete pressure pipelines. This method of inspection is based on the caustic emissions made by the prestressed reinforcing wire as it releases its energy. A recently patented method of using this technology relies on a series of remote, independent test stations to detect, record and time-stamp these acoustic emissions. A low-powered, high- performance embedded processor system makes use of global positioning system time signals to synchronize multiple stations. These methods are re-defining the standard of care of water pressure pipelines. This paper describes pipeline failure mechanisms and a state-of-the-art data sampling system which has been developed to evaluate pipeline structural integrity.

  5. The development and flight test of an electronic integrated propulsion control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. J.; Painter, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Advanced technical features of the electronic integrated propulsion control system (IPCS) and flight evaluation tests of IPCS (F-111E with TF30-P-9 engines as test vehicle) are described. Nine baseline flight tests and 15 IPCS flight tests were conducted. Instrumentation, data acquisition and data processing systems, software maintenance procedures, flight test procedures, flight safety criteria, flight test results, and ground and flight testing of the aircraft system are described. Advantages conferred by IPCS include: faster accelerations (both gas generator and afterburner performance), better thrust and flight control, reduced flight idle thrust, reduced engine ground trim, extended service ceiling, automatic stall detection, and stall recovery detection.

  6. Chemical warfare and the Gulf War: a review of the impact on Gulf veterans' health.

    PubMed

    Riddle, James R; Brown, Mark; Smith, Tyler; Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Brix, Kelley Ann; Romano, James

    2003-08-01

    It is unlikely that Gulf War veterans are suffering chronic effects from illnesses caused by chemical warfare nerve agent exposure. Extensive investigation and review by several expert panels have determined that no evidence exists that chemical warfare nerve agents were used during the Gulf War. At no time before, during, or after the war was there confirmation of symptoms among anyone, military or civilian, caused by chemical warfare nerve agent exposure. However, studies of Gulf War veterans have found belief that chemical weapons were used, significantly associated with both severe and mild-moderate illnesses. The psychological impact of a chemical warfare attack, either actual or perceived, can result in immediate and long-term health consequences. The deployment or war-related health impact from life-threatening experiences of the Gulf War, including the perceived exposure to chemical warfare agents, should be considered as an important cause of morbidity among Gulf War veterans.

  7. Beam tests of beampipe coatings for electron cloud mitigation in Fermilab Main Injector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Backfish, Michael; Eldred, Jeffrey; Tan, Cheng Yang; Zwaska, Robert

    2015-10-26

    Electron cloud beam instabilities are an important consideration in virtually all high-energy particle accelerators and could pose a formidable challenge to forthcoming high-intensity accelerator upgrades. Dedicated tests have shown beampipe coatings dramatically reduce the density of electron cloud in particle accelerators. In this work, we evaluate the performance of titanium nitride, amorphous carbon, and diamond-like carbon as beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector. Altogether our tests represent 2700 ampere-hours of proton operation spanning five years. Three electron cloud detectors, retarding field analyzers, are installed in a straight section and allow a direct comparisonmore » between the electron flux in the coated and uncoated stainless steel beampipe. We characterize the electron flux as a function of intensity up to a maximum of 50 trillion protons per cycle. Each beampipe material conditions in response to electron bombardment from the electron cloud and we track the changes in these materials as a function of time and the number of absorbed electrons. Contamination from an unexpected vacuum leak revealed a potential vulnerability in the amorphous carbon beampipe coating. We measure the energy spectrum of electrons incident on the stainless steel, titanium nitride and amorphous carbon beampipes. We find the electron cloud signal is highly sensitive to stray magnetic fields and bunch-length over the Main Injector ramp cycle. In conclusion, we conduct a complete survey of the stray magnetic fields at the test station and compare the electron cloud signal to that in a field-free region.« less

  8. Beam tests of beampipe coatings for electron cloud mitigation in Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Backfish, Michael; Eldred, Jeffrey; Tan, Cheng Yang; Zwaska, Robert

    2015-10-26

    Electron cloud beam instabilities are an important consideration in virtually all high-energy particle accelerators and could pose a formidable challenge to forthcoming high-intensity accelerator upgrades. Dedicated tests have shown beampipe coatings dramatically reduce the density of electron cloud in particle accelerators. In this work, we evaluate the performance of titanium nitride, amorphous carbon, and diamond-like carbon as beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector. Altogether our tests represent 2700 ampere-hours of proton operation spanning five years. Three electron cloud detectors, retarding field analyzers, are installed in a straight section and allow a direct comparison between the electron flux in the coated and uncoated stainless steel beampipe. We characterize the electron flux as a function of intensity up to a maximum of 50 trillion protons per cycle. Each beampipe material conditions in response to electron bombardment from the electron cloud and we track the changes in these materials as a function of time and the number of absorbed electrons. Contamination from an unexpected vacuum leak revealed a potential vulnerability in the amorphous carbon beampipe coating. We measure the energy spectrum of electrons incident on the stainless steel, titanium nitride and amorphous carbon beampipes. We find the electron cloud signal is highly sensitive to stray magnetic fields and bunch-length over the Main Injector ramp cycle. In conclusion, we conduct a complete survey of the stray magnetic fields at the test station and compare the electron cloud signal to that in a field-free region.

  9. Beam Tests of Beampipe Coatings for Electron Cloud Mitigation in Fermilab Main Injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backfish, Michael; Eldred, Jeffrey; Tan, Cheng-Yang; Zwaska, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Electron cloud beam instabilities are an important consideration in virtually all high-energy particle accelerators and could pose a formidable challenge to forthcoming high-intensity accelerator upgrades. Dedicated tests have shown beampipe coatings dramatically reduce the density of electron cloud in particle accelerators. In this work, we evaluate the performance of titanium nitride, amorphous carbon, and diamond-like carbon as beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector. Altogether our tests represent 2700 ampere-hours of proton operation spanning five years. Three electron cloud detectors, retarding field analyzers, are installed in a straight section and allow a direct comparison between the electron flux in the coated and uncoated stainless steel beampipe. We characterize the electron flux as a function of intensity up to a maximum of 50 trillion protons per cycle. Each beampipe material conditions in response to electron bombardment from the electron cloud and we track the changes in these materials as a function of time and the number of absorbed electrons. Contamination from an unexpected vacuum leak revealed a potential vulnerability in the amorphous carbon beampipe coating. We measure the energy spectrum of electrons incident on the stainless steel, titanium nitride and amorphous carbon beampipes. We find the electron cloud signal is highly sensitive to stray magnetic fields and bunch-length over the Main Injector ramp cycle. We conduct a complete survey of the stray magnetic fields at the test station and compare the electron cloud signal to that in a field-free region.

  10. In situ nanomechanical testing in focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Gianola, D S; Sedlmayr, A; Mönig, R; Volkert, C A; Major, R C; Cyrankowski, E; Asif, S A S; Warren, O L; Kraft, O

    2011-06-01

    The recent interest in size-dependent deformation of micro- and nanoscale materials has paralleled both technological miniaturization and advancements in imaging and small-scale mechanical testing methods. Here we describe a quantitative in situ nanomechanical testing approach adapted to a dual-beam focused ion beam and scanning electron microscope. A transducer based on a three-plate capacitor system is used for high-fidelity force and displacement measurements. Specimen manipulation, transfer, and alignment are performed using a manipulator, independently controlled positioners, and the focused ion beam. Gripping of specimens is achieved using electron-beam assisted Pt-organic deposition. Local strain measurements are obtained using digital image correlation of electron images taken during testing. Examples showing results for tensile testing of single-crystalline metallic nanowires and compression of nanoporous Au pillars will be presented in the context of size effects on mechanical behavior and highlight some of the challenges of conducting nanomechanical testing in vacuum environments.

  11. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-07-12

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species.

  12. The fate of the chemical warfare agent during DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Della A; Hulst, Albert G; de Reuver, Leo P J; van Krimpen, Simon H; van Baar, Ben M L

    2007-11-01

    Forensic laboratories do not have the infrastructure to process or store contaminated DNA samples that have been recovered from a crime scene contaminated with chemical or biological warfare agents. Previous research has shown that DNA profiles can be recovered from blood exposed to several chemical warfare agents after the agent has been removed. The fate of four toxic agents, sulfur mustard, sodium 2-fluoroacetate, sarin, and diazinon, in a lysis buffer used in Promega DNA IQ extraction protocol was studied to determine if extraction would render the samples safe. Two independent analytical methods were used per agent, selected from GC-MS, 1H NMR, 19F NMR, (31)P NMR, or LC-ES MS. The methods were validated before use. Determinations were carried out in a semi-quantitative way, by direct comparison to standards. Agent levels in the elution buffer were found to be below the detectable limits for mustard, sarin, sodium 2-fluoroacetate or low (<0.02 mg/mL) for diazinon. Therefore, once extracted these DNA samples could be safely processed in a forensic laboratory. PMID:18093062

  13. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Mondloch, Joseph E; Katz, Michael J; Isley, William C; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W; Hall, Morgan G; DeCoste, Jared B; Peterson, Gregory W; Snurr, Randall Q; Cramer, Christopher J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic Zr(IV) ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy. PMID:25774952

  14. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-07-12

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species. PMID:21670285

  15. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondloch, Joseph E.; Katz, Michael J.; Isley, William C., III; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W.; Hall, Morgan G.; Decoste, Jared B.; Peterson, Gregory W.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic ZrIV ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  16. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Mondloch, Joseph E; Katz, Michael J; Isley, William C; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W; Hall, Morgan G; DeCoste, Jared B; Peterson, Gregory W; Snurr, Randall Q; Cramer, Christopher J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic Zr(IV) ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  17. Evanescent planar waveguide detection of biological warfare simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipe, David M.; Schoonmaker, Kenneth P.; Herron, James N.; Mostert, Michael J.

    2000-04-01

    An evanescent planar waveguide Mark 1.5 instrument was used to detect simulants of biological warfare agents; ovalbumin (OV), MS2 bacteriophage, BG, and Erwinia herbicola (EH). Polyclonal tracer antibodies were labeled with the fluorescent dye, Cy5. Discrete bands of polyclonal capture antibodies were immobilized to a polystyrene planar waveguide with molded integral lenses. An ST-6 CCD camera was used for detection. OV. MS2 and BG were detected in a simultaneous 3 by 3 array; with a total of nine measurements within 6 minutes. EH was analyzed in a separate array. Results were evaluate dat the US Army Joint Field Trials V, at the Dugway Proving Grounds. Over a 10 day period, 32 unknown samples were analyzed daily for each simulant. Detection limits: OV 10 ng/ml, MS2 107 pfu/ml, BG 105 cfu/ml. EH was detectable at 5 X 105 cfu/ml. Overall false positives were 3.0 percent. Therefore, the Mark 1.5 instrument, with a parallel array of detectors, evanescent flourescent excitation, and CCD imaging provides for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of biological warfare agent simulants.

  18. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species. PMID:21670285

  19. A Test Apparatus for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR Front-end Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harjit; Loach, James; Poon, Alan

    2012-10-01

    One of the most important experimental programs in neutrino physics is the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay. The MAJORANA collaboration is searching for this rare nuclear process in the Ge-76 isotope using HPGe detectors. Each detector is instrumented with high-performance electronics to read out and amplify the signals. The part of the electronics close to the detectors, consisting of a novel front-end circuit, cables and connectors, is made of radio-pure materials and is exceedingly delicate. In this work a dedicated test apparatus was created to benchmark the performance of the electronics before installation in the experiment. The apparatus was designed for cleanroom use, with fixtures to hold the components without contaminating them, and included the electronics necessary for power and readout. In addition to testing, the station will find longer term use in development of future versions of the electronics.

  20. A new method of testing space-based high-energy electron detectors with radioactive electron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. Y.; Shen, G. H.; Sun, Y.; Zhou, D. Z.; Zhang, X. X.; Li, J. W.; Huang, C.; Zhang, X. G.; Dong, Y. J.; Zhang, W. J.; Zhang, B. Q.; Shi, C. Y.

    2016-05-01

    Space-based electron detectors are commonly tested using radioactive β-sources which emit a continuous spectrum without spectral lines. Therefore, the tests are often to be considered only qualitative. This paper introduces a method, which results in more than a qualitative test even when using a β-source. The basic idea is to use the simulated response function of the instrument to invert the measured spectrum and compare this inverted spectrum with a reference spectrum obtained from the same source. Here we have used Geant4 to simulate the instrument response function (IRF) and a 3.5 mm thick Li-drifted Si detector to obtain the reference 90Sr/90Yi source spectrum to test and verify the geometric factors of the Omni-Direction Particle Detector (ODPD) on the Tiangong-1 (TG-1) and Tiangong-2 (TG-2) spacecraft. The TG spacecraft are experimental space laboratories and prototypes of the Chinese space station. The excellent agreement between the measured and reference spectra demonstrates that this test method can be used to quantitatively assess the quality of the instrument. Due to its simplicity, the method is faster and therefore more efficient than traditional full calibrations using an electron accelerator.

  1. Evaluation test of the energy monitoring device in industrial electron beam facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuochi, P. G.; Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A.; Corda, U.; Cornia, G.; Kovács, A.

    2009-07-01

    The electron beam energy monitoring device, previously developed and tested under standard laboratory conditions using electron beams in the energy range 4-12 MeV, has now been tested under industrial irradiation conditions in high-energy, high-power electron beam facilities. The measuring instrument was improved in order to measure high peak current delivered at low pulse repetition rate as well. Tests, with good results, were carried out at two different EB plants: one equipped with a LUE-8 linear electron accelerator of 7 MeV maximum energy used for cross-linking of cables and for medical device sterilization, and the other with a 10 MeV Rhodotron type TT 100 used for in-house sterilization.

  2. Dynamic Testing with Tangible Electronics: Measuring Children's Change in Strategy Use with a Series Completion Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resing, Wilma C. M.; Elliott, Julian G.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This study sought to explore the use of a novel approach that incorporates dynamic testing and tangible electronics in the assessment of children's learning potential and strategy use. Sample: A total of 77 children with a mean age 8.9 years participated in the study; half of them were dynamically tested using graduate prompt techniques; the…

  3. Advanced Electronics Technologies: Challenges for Radiation Effects Testing, Modeling, and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2005-01-01

    Emerging Electronics Technologies include: 1) Changes in the commercial semiconductor world; 2) Radiation Effects Sources (A sample test constraint); and 3) Challenges to Radiation Testing and Modeling: a) IC Attributes-Radiation Effects Implication b) Fault Isolation c) Scaled Geometry d) Speed e) Modeling Shortfall f) Knowledge Status

  4. Design and first cold test of BNL superconducting 112 MHz QWR for electron gun applications

    SciTech Connect

    Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Boulware, C.H.; Chang, X.; Grimm, T.L.; Siegel, B.; Than, R.; Winowski, M.

    2011-03-28

    Brookhaven National Laboratory and Niowave, Inc. have designed, fabricated, and performed the first cold test of a superconducting 112 MHz quarter-wave resonator (QWR) for electron gun experiments. The first cold test of the QWR cryomodule has been completed at Niowave. The paper discusses the cryomodule design, presents the cold test results, and outline plans to upgrade the cryomodule for future experiments. A quarter-wave resonator concept of superconducting RF (SRF) electron gun was proposed at BNL for electron cooling ion/proton beams at RHIC. QWRs can be made sufficiently compact even at low RF frequencies (long wavelengths). The long wavelength allows to produce long electron bunches, thus minimizing space charge effects and enabling high bunch charge. Also, such guns should be suitable for experiments requiring high average current electron beams. A 112 MHz QWR gun was designed, fabricated, and cold-tested in collaboration between BNL and Niowave. This is the lowest frequency SRF gun ever tested successfully. In this paper we describe the gun design and fabrication, present the cold test results, and outline plans for the cryomodule upgrade for future experiments.

  5. Thermal shock tests with beryllium coupons in the electron beam facility JUDITH

    SciTech Connect

    Roedig, M.; Duwe, R.; Schuster, J.L.A.

    1995-09-01

    Several grades of American and Russian beryllium have been tested in high heat flux tests by means of an electron beam facility. For safety reasons, major modifications of the facility had to be fulfilled in advance to the tests. The influence of energy densities has been investigated in the range between 1 and 7 MJ/m{sup 2}. In addition the influence of an increasing number of shots at constant energy density has been studied. For all samples, surface profiles have been measured before and after the experiments. Additional information has been gained from scanning electron microscopy, and from metallography.

  6. Effects of CW (chemical warfare)-related chemicals on social behavior and performance. Annual report, 30 September 1984-29 September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Bunnell, B.N.; Iturrian, W.B.

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes work accomplished in the second year of a three-year project aimed at developing a battery of tests of social behavior and performance that wil be sensitive to the effects of chemical warfare-related chemicals considered for use as antidotes or prophylactics against chemical-warfare agents. Procedures for assessing social behavior in nonhuman primates are described and compared. Performance scores on three operant schedules, a test of complex problem solving, and behavior in a novel environment are presented and correlations between the social and performance variables are examined. The effects of atropines on several of the social and performance measures are reported as are data from plasma hormone assays for cortisol and prolactin.

  7. Dual Electron Spectrometer for Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission: Results of the Comprehensive Tests of the Engineering Test Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avanov, Levon A.; Gliese, Ulrik; Mariano, Albert; Tucker, Corey; Barrie, Alexander; Chornay, Dennis J.; Pollock, Craig James; Kujawski, Joseph T.; Collinson, Glyn A.; Nguyen, Quang T.; Auletti, Craig R.; Rosnack, Traci P.; Zeuch, Michael A.; Christian, Kent; Bigio, Victor L.; Tull, Kimathi N.; Rucker, Alan M.; Cao, Nga T.; Smith, Darrell L.; Lobbel, James V.; Jacques, Arthus D.

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) is designed to study fundamental phenomena in space plasma physics such as a magnetic reconnection. The mission consists of four spacecraft, equipped with identical scientific payloads, allowing for the first measurements of fast dynamics in the critical electron diffusion region where magnetic reconnection occurs and charged particles are demagnetized. The MMS orbit is optimized to ensure the spacecraft spend extended periods of time in locations where reconnection is known to occur: at the dayside magnetopause and in the magnetotail. In order to resolve fine structures of the three dimensional electron distributions in the diffusion region (reconnection site), the Fast Plasma Investigation's (FPI) Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) is designed to measure three dimensional electron velocity distributions with an extremely high time resolution of 30 ms. In order to achieve this unprecedented sampling rate, four dual spectrometers, each sampling 180 x 45 degree sections of the sky, are installed on each spacecraft. We present results of the comprehensive tests performed on the DES Engineering & Test Unit (ETU). This includes main parameters of the spectrometer such as energy resolution, angular acceptance, and geometric factor along with their variations over the 16 pixels spanning the 180-degree tophat Electro Static Analyzer (ESA) field of view and over the energy of the test beam. A newly developed method for precisely defining the operational space of the instrument is presented as well. This allows optimization of the trade-off between pixel to pixel crosstalk and uniformity of the main spectrometer parameters.

  8. Flight test of a full authority Digital Electronic Engine Control system in an F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, W. J.; Rembold, J. P.; Burcham, F. W.; Myers, L.

    1981-01-01

    The Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) system considered is a relatively low cost digital full authority control system containing selectively redundant components and fault detection logic with capability for accommodating faults to various levels of operational capability. The DEEC digital control system is built around a 16-bit, 1.2 microsecond cycle time, CMOS microprocessor, microcomputer system with approximately 14 K of available memory. Attention is given to the control mode, component bench testing, closed loop bench testing, a failure mode and effects analysis, sea-level engine testing, simulated altitude engine testing, flight testing, the data system, cockpit, and real time display.

  9. Beam Tests of a Clearing Electrode for Electron Cloud Mitigation at KEKB Positron Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Suetsugu, Y.; Fukuma, H.; Shibata, K.; Pivi, M.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2010-06-15

    In order to mitigate the electron cloud instability in an intense positron ring, an electron clearing electrode with a very thin structure has been developed. The electrode was tested with a positron beam of the KEKB B-factory (KEKB). A drastic reduction in the electron density around the beam was demonstrated in a wiggler magnet with a dipole-type magnetic field of 0.78 T. The clearing electrode was then applied to a copper beam pipe with antechambers assuming an application of the electrode to a wiggler section in the Super KEKB. The beam pipe was installed at a magnetic-free region in the ring and tested with beam. No extra heating of the electrodes and feed-throughs were observed. A reduction in the electron density reasonable in a magnetic-free region was also obtained.

  10. Electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springford, Michael

    1997-03-01

    1. J. J. Thomson and the discovery of the electron A. B. P. Pippard; 2. The isolated electron W. N. Cottingham; 3. The relativistic electron D. I. Olive; 4. The electron glue B. L. Gyorffy; 5. The electron fluid P. Coleman; 6. The magnetic electron G. G. Lonzarich; 7. The paired electron A. J. Leggett; 8. The heavy electron M. Springford; 9. The coherent electron Y. Imry and M. Peskin; 10. The composite electron R. Nicholas; 11. The electron in the cosmos M. S. Longair.

  11. Electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springford, Michael

    2008-12-01

    1. J. J. Thomson and the discovery of the electron A. B. P. Pippard; 2. The isolated electron W. N. Cottingham; 3. The relativistic electron D. I. Olive; 4. The electron glue B. L. Gyorffy; 5. The electron fluid P. Coleman; 6. The magnetic electron G. G. Lonzarich; 7. The paired electron A. J. Leggett; 8. The heavy electron M. Springford; 9. The coherent electron Y. Imry and M. Peskin; 10. The composite electron R. Nicholas; 11. The electron in the cosmos M. S. Longair.

  12. The anti-plague system and the Soviet biological warfare program.

    PubMed

    Zilinskas, Raymond A

    2006-01-01

    The USSR possessed a unique national public health system that included an agency named "anti-plague system." Its mission was to protect the country from highly dangerous diseases of either natural or laboratory etiology. During the 1960s, the anti-plague system became the lead agency of a program to defend against biological warfare, codenamed Project 5. This responsibility grew and by the middle 1970s came to include undertaking tasks for the offensive biological warfare program, codenamed Ferment. This article describes the anti-plague system's activities relevant to both aspects of the Soviet Union's biological warfare program, offense and defense, and analyzes its contributions to each.

  13. The anti-plague system and the Soviet biological warfare program.

    PubMed

    Zilinskas, Raymond A

    2006-01-01

    The USSR possessed a unique national public health system that included an agency named "anti-plague system." Its mission was to protect the country from highly dangerous diseases of either natural or laboratory etiology. During the 1960s, the anti-plague system became the lead agency of a program to defend against biological warfare, codenamed Project 5. This responsibility grew and by the middle 1970s came to include undertaking tasks for the offensive biological warfare program, codenamed Ferment. This article describes the anti-plague system's activities relevant to both aspects of the Soviet Union's biological warfare program, offense and defense, and analyzes its contributions to each. PMID:16610337

  14. Usability Testing of a National Substance Use Screening Tool Embedded in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    DeStio, Catherine; McCullagh, Lauren; Kapoor, Sandeep; Morley, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is currently being implemented into health systems nationally via paper and electronic methods. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the integration of an electronic SBIRT tool into an existing paper-based SBIRT clinical workflow in a patient-centered medical home. Methods Usability testing was conducted in an academic ambulatory clinic. Two rounds of usability testing were done with medical office assistants (MOAs) using a paper and electronic version of the SBIRT tool, with two and four participants, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed to determine the impact of both tools on clinical workflow. A second round of usability testing was done with the revised electronic version and compared with the first version. Results Personal workflow barriers cited in the first round of testing were that the electronic health record (EHR) tool was disruptive to patient’s visits. In Round 2 of testing, MOAs reported favoring the electronic version due to improved layout and the inclusion of an alert system embedded in the EHR. For example, using the system usability scale (SUS), MOAs reported a grade “1” for the statement, “I would like to use this system frequently” during the first round of testing but a “5” during the second round of analysis. Conclusions The importance of testing usability of various mediums of tools used in health care screening is highlighted by the findings of this study. In the first round of testing, the electronic tool was reported as less user friendly, being difficult to navigate, and time consuming. Many issues faced in the first generation of the tool were improved in the second generation after usability was evaluated. This study demonstrates how usability testing of an electronic SBRIT tool can help to identify challenges that can impact clinical workflow. However, a limitation of this study was the small sample size

  15. An electromechanical material testing system for in situ electron microscopy and applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Espinosa, Horacio D.

    2005-01-01

    We report the development of a material testing system for in situ electron microscopy (EM) mechanical testing of nanostructures. The testing system consists of an actuator and a load sensor fabricated by means of surface micromachining. This previously undescribed nanoscale material testing system makes possible continuous observation of the specimen deformation and failure with subnanometer resolution, while simultaneously measuring the applied load electronically with nanonewton resolution. This achievement was made possible by the integration of electromechanical and thermomechanical components based on microelectromechanical system technology. The system capabilities are demonstrated by the in situ EM testing of free-standing polysilicon films, metallic nanowires, and carbon nanotubes. In particular, a previously undescribed real-time instrumented in situ transmission EM observation of carbon nanotubes failure under tensile load is presented here. PMID:16195381

  16. Integration and test of high-speed transmitter electronics for free-space laser communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Nitin J.; Lizanich, Paul J.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, has developed the electronics for a free-space, direct-detection laser communications system demonstration. Under the High-Speed Laser Integrated Terminal Electronics (Hi-LITE) Project, NASA Lewis has built a prototype full-duplex, dual-channel electronics transmitter and receiver operating at 325 megabit S per second (Mbps) per channel and using quaternary pulse-position modulation (QPPM). This paper describes the integration and testing of the transmitter portion for future application in free-space, direct-detection laser communications. A companion paper reviews the receiver portion of the prototype electronics. Minor modifications to the transmitter were made since the initial report on the entire system, and this paper addresses them. The digital electronics are implemented in gallium arsenide integrated circuits mounted on prototype boards. The fabrication and implementation issues related to these high-speed devices are discussed. The transmitter's test results are documented, and its functionality is verified by exercising all modes of operation. Various testing issues pertaining to high-speed circuits are addressed. A description of the transmitter electronics packaging concludes the paper.

  17. Characterization tests of a new parallel plate ionization chamber for use in electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonato, Fernanda B. C.; Sakuraba, Roberto K.; da Cruz, José Carlos; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2014-11-01

    Linear accelerators with electron beams are used in several Brazilian hospitals. Consequently, there is an increasing demand for parallel-plate ionization chambers, to be utilized for dosimetry of electron beams. In Brazil, the commercial ionization chambers utilized are imported. The ionization chambers have usually a simple construction, using different materials and geometries. A homemade ionization chamber was developed to be used in electron beams of linear accelerator. The ionization chamber body is made of acrylic and the collecting electrode is painted with graphite powder mixed with nail polish. Several tests were applied, and the results showed values better than the limits established by the international recommendations, except for the polarity effect test, but the response of the developed ionization chamber, for this test, is similar in relation to the response of other commercial ionization chambers from the literature.

  18. Hardware Testing of the BaBar Drift Chamber Electronics Upgrade (SULI paper)

    SciTech Connect

    Littlejohn, Bryce; Chu, Yiwen; Wiik, Liv; /SLAC

    2006-01-04

    The BaBar drift chamber provides position, timing, and dE/dx measurements for charged decay products of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance at 10.58 GeV. Increasing data collection rates stemming from higher PEP II luminosities and background have highlighted dead time problems in the drift chamber's data acquisition system. A proposed upgrade, called Phase II, aims to solve the problem with the introduction of rewritable, higher-memory firmware in the DAQ front-end electronics that lowers dataflow through the system. After fabrication, the new electronics components were tested to ensure proper function and reliability before installation in the detector. Some tests checked for successful operation of individual components, while others operated entire sections of the upgraded system in a mockup drift chamber environment. This paper explains the testing process and presents results regarding performance of the upgrade electronics.

  19. Design and testing of focusing magnets for a compact electron linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qushan; Qin, Bin; Liu, Kaifeng; Liu, Xu; Fu, Qiang; Tan, Ping; Hu, Tongning; Pei, Yuanji

    2015-10-01

    Solenoid field errors have great influence on electron beam qualities. In this paper, design and testing of high precision solenoids for a compact electron linac is presented. We proposed an efficient and practical method to solve the peak field of the solenoid for relativistic electron beams based on the reduced envelope equation. Beam dynamics involving space charge force were performed to predict the focusing effects. Detailed optimization methods were introduced to achieve an ultra-compact configuration as well as high accuracy, with the help of the POISSON and OPERA packages. Efforts were attempted to restrain system errors in the off-line testing, which showed the short lens and the main solenoid produced a peak field of 0.13 T and 0.21 T respectively. Data analysis involving central and off axes was carried out and demonstrated that the testing results fitted well with the design.

  20. Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle

    2005-02-01

    A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393 l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch.

  1. Spectroscopic investigations of surface deposited biological warfare simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrington, Stephen J.; Bird, Hilary; Hurst, Daniel; McIntosh, Alastair J. S.; Spencer, Phillippa; Pelfrey, Suzanne H.; Baker, Matthew J.

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports a proof-of-principle study aimed at discriminating biological warfare (BW) simulants from common environmental bacteria in order to differentiate pathogenic endospores in situ, to aid any required response for hazard management. We used FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis; FTIR is a versatile technique for the non-destructive analysis of a range of materials. We also report an evaluation of multiple pre-processing techniques and subsequent differences in cross-validation accuracy of two pattern recognition models (Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Principal Component - Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA)) for two classifications: a two class classification (Gram + ve spores vs. Gram -ve vegetative cells) and a six class classification (bacterial classification). Six bacterial strains Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis, Escherichia coli, Pantaeoa agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens were analysed.

  2. Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water.

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, W D; Renner, S E

    1999-01-01

    Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment may be most at risk of exposure. Municipal water treatment facilities would be measurably less effective. Some replicating (infectious) agents and a few biotoxins are inactivated by chlorine disinfection; for others chlorine is ineffective or of unknown efficacy. This report assesses the state of our knowledge of agents as potable water threats and contemplates the consequences of intentional or collateral contamination of potable water supplies by 18 replicating agents and 9 biotoxins known or likely to be weaponized or otherwise used as threats. PMID:10585901

  3. Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Michael E.; Pushkarsky, Michael B.; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2004-12-01

    We present an analytical model evaluating the suitability of optical absorption based spectroscopic techniques for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in ambient air. The sensor performance is modeled by simulating absorption spectra of a sample containing both the target and multitude of interfering species as well as an appropriate stochastic noise and determining the target concentrations from the simulated spectra via a least square fit (LSF) algorithm. The distribution of the LSF target concentrations determines the sensor sensitivity, probability of false positives (PFP) and probability of false negatives (PFN). The model was applied to CO2 laser based photoacosutic (L-PAS) CWA sensor and predicted single digit ppb sensitivity with very low PFP rates in the presence of significant amount of interferences. This approach will be useful for assessing sensor performance by developers and users alike; it also provides methodology for inter-comparison of different sensing technologies.

  4. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    PubMed

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janoš, Pavel; Skoumal, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides have very important applications in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science; their properties are dependent on the method of preparation, the morphology and texture. Nanostructured metal oxides can exhibit unique characteristics unlike those of the bulk form depending on their morphology, with a high density of edges, corners and defect surfaces. In recent years, methods have been developed for the preparation of metal oxide powders with tunable control of the primary particle size as well as of a secondary particle size: the size of agglomerates of crystallites. One of the many ways to take advantage of unique properties of nanostructured oxide materials is stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) pollutants on their surfaces.

  5. Warfare, genocide, and ethnic conflict: a Darwinian approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As the 21st century dawns, I reflect on the history of humankind with growing concern about the need to understand the underlying biological and cultural roots of ethnic conflict and warfare. In the many studies of human conflict, innate biological predispositions have been neglected. This article is the third part of a series of seminars for medical residents at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas (see http://adarwinstudygroup.org/). The series starts with in-depth coverage of Darwinian natural and sexual selection, with examples from the domestication of animals and plants and the crisis of antibiotic resistance. The series strives to show how biology has been neglected in the study of the we-they orientation of human behavior, with its devastating consequences. The subject material is profoundly disturbing, as it looks at “human nature” and contrasts the “dark side” of human behavior with the opposite, profoundly caring and loving side. PMID:21240320

  6. Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Terry M.; Logan-Henfrey, Linda; Weller, Richard E.; Kellman, Brian

    2000-04-12

    There is a rising level of concern that agriculture might be targeted for economic sabotage by terrorists. Knowledge gathered about the Soviet Union biological weapons program and Iraq following the Gulf War, confirmed that animals and agricultural crops were targets of bioweapon development. These revelations are particularly disturbing in light of the fact that both countries are States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention that entered into force in 1975. The potential for misusing biotechnology to create more virulent pathogens and the lack of international means to detect unethical uses of new technologies to create destructive bioweapons is of increasing concern. Disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or intentionally, involving agricultural pathogens that destroy livestock and crops would have a profound impact on a country's infrastructure, economy and export markets. This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically, horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.

  7. Summary of the psychological effects of tactical nuclear warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Sessions, G.R.

    1984-04-01

    The psychological component of the response of combat troops to tactical nuclear warfare is a troublesome variable which plagues military planners and commanders responsible for the preparation of the armed forces for the eventuality that nuclear weapons might one day be used in armed conflict. The devastating physical effects of nuclear weapons have been extensively documented and the biological response of animals and humans to radiation has also been well studied, but very little is known concerning the probable effects of experiencing a nuclear attack, upon the emotional stability, morale, and motivation of soldiers to perform their assigned duties. The literature addressing this topic has been reviewed and evaluated as part of the Defense Nuclear Agency's Intermediate Dose Program. A summary of the report resulting from this effort is presented herein. The full literature review and accompanying bibliography are available from the author upon request.

  8. The impact of warfare on the soil environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Certini, Giacomo; Scalenghe, Riccardo; Woods, William I.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most dramatic ways humans can affect soil properties is through the performance of military activities. Warfare-induced disturbances to soil are basically of three types - physical, chemical, and biological - and are aimed at causing direct problems to enemies or, more often, are indirect, undesired ramifications. Physical disturbances to soil include sealing due to building of defensive infrastructures, excavation of trenches or tunnels, compaction by traffic of machinery and troops, or cratering by bombs. Chemical disturbances consist of the input of pollutants such as oil, heavy metals, nitroaromatic explosives, organophosphorus nerve agents, dioxins from herbicides, or radioactive elements. Biological disturbances occur as unintentional consequences of the impact on the physical and chemical properties of soil or the deliberate introduction of microorganisms lethal to higher animals and humans such as botulin or anthrax. Soil represents a secure niche where such pathogens can perpetuate their virulence for decades.

  9. [Cutaneous and systemic toxicology of vesicants used in warfare].

    PubMed

    Pita, R; Vidal-Asensi, S

    2010-01-01

    Vesicants are a group of chemicals used in warfare. The most representative agent is yperite, also known as mustard gas. The blisters that appeared on those exposed to yperite during combat in the First World War are responsible for the current name--vesicants--for this group of chemicals. Their affects are produced mainly through localized action of liquid or vapor forms on the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. However, the high absorption of the liquid form through the skin or the vapor form on inhalation may cause substantial systemic effects. Here we analyze these effects, treatment of intoxication, and long-term sequelae, drawing on our experience and a review of the literature.

  10. Chemical warfare protection for the cockpit of future aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickl, William C.

    1988-01-01

    Currently systems are being developed which will filter chemical and biological contaminants from crew station air. In order to maximize the benefits of these systems, a method of keeping the cockpit contaminant free during pilot ingress and egress is needed. One solution is to use a rectangular plastic curtain to seal the four edges of the canopy frame to the canopy sill. The curtain is stored in a tray which is recessed into the canopy sill and unfolds in accordion fashion as the canopy is raised. A two way zipper developed by Calspan could be used as an airlock between the pilot's oversuit and the cockpit. This system eliminates the pilot's need for heavy and restrictive CB gear because he would never be exposed to the chemical warfare environment.

  11. Three-dimensional visualization of buildings for urban warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoennessen, Ulrich; Gross, Hermann

    2003-07-01

    Future conflicts will probably lead the armed forces also into regions, for which topographical data are missing as well as out of date. Here IMINT must support the planning and transaction of military operations through improved target recognition in combination with topographical information. High-resolution LIDAR data, multi-spectral image data and GIS with orthorectified elevation data, combined with 3Dimage maps with high geometrical and spatial precision integrated in a network (Smart Sensor Web, SSW), open new additional possibilities of the reconnaissance. To improve reconnaissance, we investigate the 3D-modeling of built up areas including texturing and visualization for the observer. In a future joint-sensor system the information of several sensors should be used in common and should also be combined with non-imaging knowledge (Rapid Terrain Visualization, RTV). By this, the technology is a key technology for military applications in urban warfare and in the battle against terrorism.

  12. RNA 'Information Warfare' in Pathogenic and Mutualistic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Chaloner, Thomas; van Kan, Jan A L; Grant-Downton, Robert T

    2016-09-01

    Regulatory non-coding RNAs are emerging as key players in host-pathogen interactions. Small RNAs such as microRNAs are implicated in regulating plant transcripts involved in immunity and defence. Surprisingly, RNAs with silencing properties can be translocated from plant hosts to various invading pathogens and pests. Small RNAs are now confirmed virulence factors, with the first report of fungal RNAs that travel to host cells and hijack post-transcriptional regulatory machinery to suppress host defence. Here, we argue that trans-organism movement of RNAs represents a common mechanism of control in diverse interactions between plants and other eukaryotes. We suggest that extracellular vesicles are the key to such RNA movement events. Plant pathosystems serve as excellent experimental models to dissect RNA 'information warfare' and other RNA-mediated interactions. PMID:27318950

  13. Beam tests of CALET with BBM electronics and STM at CERN-SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Tadahisa

    We have been developing flight hardware of CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope) to observe electrons, gamma rays, and nuclei at the Japanese Experiment Module “Kibo” Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) on the International Space Station (ISS). The main calorimeter of CALET consists of a charge detector (CHD) to identify particles by charge, an imaging calorimeter (IMC) to determine incident angles and shower starting points, and a total absorption calorimeter (TASC) to measure energies and to discriminate electromagnetic particles from nuclei. We carried out beam experiments at CERN-SPS to confirm consistency between our simulation and beam test data. It is important for performance check and flight data analyses. We assembled a Beam Test Model detector by using BBM (Bread Board Model) of front end electronics and STM (Structure and Thermal Model) of CHD, IMC, and TASC for electron/proton runs in 2012. We made ion runs mainly to test CHD readout with BBM front end electronics in 2013. Basic results of the beam tests will be reported here.

  14. Preliminary tests of vulnerability of typical aircraft electronics to lightning-induced voltages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumer, J. A.; Walko, L. C.

    1974-01-01

    Tests made on two pieces of typical aircraft electronics equipment to ascertain their vulnerability to simulated lightning-induced transient voltages representative of those which might occur in flight when the aircraft is struck by lightning were conducted. The test results demonstrated that such equipment can be interfered with or damaged by transient voltages as low as 21 volts peak. Greater voltages can cause failure of semiconductor components within the equipment. The results emphasize a need for establishment of coordinated system susceptibility and component vulnerability criteria to achieve lightning protection of aerospace electrical and electronic systems.

  15. Cold test results of a side-coupled standing-wave electron-accelerating structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ki Baek; Li, Yonggui; Lee, Sanghyun; Lee, Byeong-No; Park, Hyung Dal; Cha, Sung-Su; Lee, Byung Cheol

    2013-07-01

    The radio-frequency (RF) cavity for the dual-energy S-band electron linear accelerator (LINAC) is designed for a cargo inspection system (CIS) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The cold test results of the electron accelerator structure, which has a side-coupled standing-wave interlaced-pulse dual-energy mode, are described. The design concept, basic structure, microwave-tuning method, and cold-test procedure are described as well. The measured dispersion curve, spectrum characteristics, ρ-f relation of the power coupler, and axial field distribution of the accelerating gradient are provided.

  16. Flight testing the digital electronic engine control in the F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) is a full-authority digital engine control developed for the F100-PW-100 turbofan engine which was flight tested on an F-15 aircraft. The DEEC hardware and software throughout the F-15 flight envelope was evaluated. Real-time data reduction and data display systems were implemented. New test techniques and stronger coordination between the propulsion test engineer and pilot were developed which produced efficient use of test time, reduced pilot work load, and greatly improved quality data. The engine pressure ratio (EPR) control mode is demonstrated. It is found that the nonaugmented throttle transients and engine performance are satisfactory.

  17. New electron beam facility for irradiated plasma facing materials testing in hot cell

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, N.; Kawamura, H.; Akiba, M.

    1995-09-01

    Since plasma facing components such as the first wall and the divertor for the next step fusion reactors are exposed to high heat loads and high energy neutron flux generated by the plasma, it is urgent to develop of plasma facing components which can resist these. Then, we have established electron beam heat facility ({open_quotes}OHBIS{close_quotes}, Oarai Hot-cell electron Beam Irradiating System) at a hot cell in JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) hot laboratory in order to estimate thermal shock resistivity of plasma facing materials and heat removal capabilities of divertor elements under steady state heating. In this facility, irradiated plasma facing materials (beryllium, carbon based materials and so on) and divertor elements can be treated. This facility consists of an electron beam unit with the maximum beam power of 50kW and the vacuum vessel. The acceleration voltage and the maximum beam current are 30kV (constant) and 1.7A, respectively. The loading time of electron beam is more than 0.1ms. The shape of vacuum vessel is cylindrical, and the mainly dimensions are 500mm in inner diameter, 1000mm in height. The ultimate vacuum of this vessel is 1 x 10{sup -4}Pa. At present, the facility for thermal shock test has been established in a hot cell. And performance estimation on the electron beam is being conducted. Presently, the devices for heat loading tests under steady state will be added to this facility.

  18. "No practical capabilities": American biological and chemical warfare programs during the Korean war.

    PubMed

    Crane, Conrad C

    2002-01-01

    Much controversy still surrounds accusations that American forces in the Far East during the Korean War used biological warfare against North Korea and China. An analysis of recently declassified documents reveals that, although the United States attempted to accelerate its development and acquisition of such weapons during that period, its efforts to create a viable biological warfare capability were unsuccessful. Plans to similarly expand chemical warfare stocks and capabilities were also frustrated. Technological difficulties, personnel shortages, bureaucratic battles between the armed services, and policy limitations combined to hold back advances in American chemical and biological warfare. In light of the recent fears of terrorist attacks with such weapons, this analysis highlights the great difficulties involved in developing, acquiring, and delivering such capabilities.

  19. Secondary Electron Yield and Groove Chamber Tests in PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Le Pimpec, F.; Kirby, R.E.; Markiewicz, Thomas W.; Pivi, MTF; Raubenheimer, Tor O.; Seeman, J.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2007-11-06

    Possible remedies for the electron cloud in positron damping ring (DR) of the International Linear Collider (ILC) includes thin-film coatings, surface conditioning, photon antechamber, clearing electrodes and chamber with grooves or slots [1]. We installed chambers in the PEP-II Low Energy Ring (LER) to monitor the secondary electron yield (SEY) of TiN, TiZrV (NEG) and technical accelerator materials under the effect of electron and photon conditioning in situ. We have also installed chambers with rectangular grooves in straight sections to test this possible mitigation technique. In this paper, we describe the ILC R&D ongoing effort at SLAC to reduce the electron cloud effect in the damping ring, the chambers installation in the PEP-II and latest results.

  20. The leicester Doppler phantom--a digital electronic phantom for ultrasound pulsed Doppler system testing.

    PubMed

    Gittins, John; Martin, Kevin

    2010-04-01

    Doppler flow and string phantoms have been used to assess the performance of ultrasound Doppler systems in terms of parameters such as sensitivity, velocity accuracy and sample volume registration. However, because of the nature of their construction, they cannot challenge the accuracy and repeatability of modern digital ultrasound systems or give objective measures of system performance. Electronic Doppler phantoms are able to make use of electronically generated test signals, which may be controlled precisely in terms of frequency, amplitude and timing. The Leicester Electronic Doppler Phantom uses modern digital signal processing methods and field programmable gate array technology to overcome some of the limitations of previously described electronic phantoms. In its present form, it is able to give quantitative graphical assessments of frequency response and range gate characteristics, as well as measures of dynamic range and velocity measurement accuracy. The use of direct acoustic coupling eliminates uncertainties caused by Doppler beam effects, such as intrinsic spectral broadening, but prevents their evaluation.

  1. In Situ Microstructural Control and Mechanical Testing Inside the Transmission Electron Microscope at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baoming; Haque, M. A.

    2015-08-01

    With atomic-scale imaging and analytical capabilities such as electron diffraction and energy-loss spectroscopy, the transmission electron microscope has allowed access to the internal microstructure of materials like no other microscopy. It has been mostly a passive or post-mortem analysis tool, but that trend is changing with in situ straining, heating and electrical biasing. In this study, we design and demonstrate a multi-functional microchip that integrates actuators, sensors, heaters and electrodes with freestanding electron transparent specimens. In addition to mechanical testing at elevated temperatures, the chip can actively control microstructures (grain growth and phase change) of the specimen material. Using nano-crystalline aluminum, nickel and zirconium as specimen materials, we demonstrate these novel capabilities inside the microscope. Our approach of active microstructural control and quantitative testing with real-time visualization can influence mechanistic modeling by providing direct and accurate evidence of the fundamental mechanisms behind materials behavior.

  2. Estimated Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Clearance Goals for Remediation Pre-Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Dolislager, Frederick; Bansleben, Dr. Donald; Watson, Annetta Paule

    2010-01-01

    Health-based surface clearance goals, in units of mg/cm2, have been developed for the persistent chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard (HD) and nerve agent VX as well as their principal degradation products. Selection of model parameters and critical receptor (toddler child) allow calculation of surface residue estimates protective for the toddler child, the general population and adult employees of a facilty that has undergone chemical warfare agent attack.

  3. Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection.

    PubMed

    Plachá, Daniela; Rosenbergová, Kateřina; Slabotínský, Jiří; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Studentová, Soňa; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2014-04-30

    Sorption efficiencies of modified montmorillonite and vermiculite of their mono ionic Na and organic HDTMA and HDP forms were studied against chemical and biological warfare agents such as yperite and selected bacterial strains. Yperite interactions with modified clay minerals were observed through its capture in low-density polyethylene foil-modified clay composites by measuring yperite gas permeation with using chemical indication and gas chromatography methods. The antibacterial activities of synthetized organoclays were tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The obtained results showed a positive influence of modified clay minerals on the significant yperite breakthrough-time increase. The most effective material was the polyethylene-Na form montmorillonite, while the polyethylene-Na form vermiculite showed the lowest efficiency. With increasing organic cations loading in the interlayer space the montmorillonite efficiency decreased, and in the case of vermiculite an opposite effect was observed. Generally the modified montmorillonites were more effective than modified vermiculites. The HDP cations seem to be more effective compare to the HDTMA. The antibacterial activity tests confirmed efficiency of all organically modified clay minerals against Gram-positive bacteria. The confirmation of antibacterial activity against Y. pestis, plague bacteria, is the most interesting result of this part of the study.

  4. Development and testing of the Junkeeper Control Corporation integrated programmable electronic controller and hydronics package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Additional developmental work on the existing programmable electronic controller and hydronic package for use with solar heating and cooling systems is summarized. The controller/hydronics subsystems passed all acceptance tests and performance criteria. The subsystems were shown marketable for public use.

  5. Vapour breakthrough behaviour of carbon tetrachloride - A simulant for chemical warfare agent on ASZMT carbon: A comparative study with whetlerite carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Avanish Kumar; Shah, Dilip K.; Mahato, T. H.; Roy, A.; Yadav, S. S.; Srivas, S. K.; Singh, Beer

    2013-06-01

    ASZMT and whetlerite carbon was prepared by impregnation of active carbon with ammonical salts of Cu (II), Ag (I), Zn (II), Mo (VI), TEDA and Cu (II), Ag (I), Cr (VI), NaOH, C5H5N respectively using incipient wetness technique. Thereafter, impregnated carbon systems were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and surface characterization techniques. Impregnated carbon systems were evaluated under dynamic conditions against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) vapour that was used as a simulant for the persistent chemical warfare agents for testing breakthrough times of filter cartridges and canisters of gas masks in the national approval test of respirators. The protective potential of ASZMT carbon was compared with the whetlerite carbon which is presently used in NBC filtration system. The effect of CCl4 concentration, test flow rate, temperature and relative humidity on the breakthrough behaviour of the impregnated carbon systems has also been studied. The study clearly indicated that the whetlerite carbon possessed breakthrough time greater than ASZMT carbon. However, ASZMT carbon provided adequate protection against CCl4 vapours and can be used as an alternative to whetlerite carbon that contain Cr(VI), which is reported to be carcinogenic and having lesser shelf life. The study indicated the breakthrough time of impregnated carbon systems were found to decrease with the increase of the CCl4 concentration and flow rate. The variation in temperature and relative humidity did not significantly affect the breakthrough behaviour of impregnated carbon systems at high vapour concentration of CCl4 whereasbreak through time of impregnated carbon systems reduced by an increase of relative humidity at low CCl4 vapour concentration.

  6. A comparison of fixed-base and driven-base modal testing of an electronics package

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Martinez, D.R.; Nord, A.R.

    1989-08-01

    This paper compares results for a fixed-base and a driven-base modal test of an electronics package. A fixed-base modal test uses the common testing procedure of attaching the structure to a large inertial mass which is freely suspended. The problem with this approach is that the input levels are typically limited by the strength of the structure and stinger attachment. An attractive alternative to fixed-base modal testing is to use high force shaker-tables to provide a driven-base input. Some of the issues of concern are: properly simulating the fixed boundary conditions, applying modal estimation algorithms to motion-to-motion frequency response functions vs. motion-to-force frequency response functions, non-linearity effects and testing at very low input levels vs. levels equal to those of the field environment, complications involved with shaker resonances, exciting the ''response-critical'' modes of the structure, and consistency of the modal parameters using driven-base tests vs. fixed-base modal tests. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the adequacy of using vibration shake tables to excite the fixed-based modes of the system. A direct comparison of the modes acquired using fixed-base and driven-base excitation for the electronics package shows very close agreement. A discussion of the theory for driven-base testing is given, as well as a brief presentation of analytical predictions for the structure. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Detection of chemical warfare simulants using Raman excitation at 1064 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentinger, Claire; Mabry, Mark W.; Roy, Eric G.

    2014-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for material identification. The technique is sensitive to primary and higher ordered molecular structure and can be used to identify unknown materials by comparison with spectral reference libraries. Additionally, miniaturization of opto-electronic components has permitted development of portable Raman analyzers that are field deployable. Raman scattering is a relatively weak effect compared to a competing phenomenon, fluorescence. Even a moderate amount of fluorescence background interference can easily prevent identification of unknown materials. A long wavelength Raman system is less likely to induce fluorescence from a wider variety of materials than a higher energy visible laser system. Compounds such as methyl salicylate (MS), diethyl malonate (DEM), and dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) are used as chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants for development of analytical detection strategies. Field detection of these simulants however poses unique challenges because threat identification must be made quickly without the turnaround time usually required for a laboratory based analysis. Fortunately, these CWA simulants are good Raman scatterers, and field based detection using portable Raman instruments is promising. Measurements of the CWA simulants were done using a 1064 nm based portable Raman spectrometer. The longer wavelength excitation laser was chosen relative to a visible based laser systems because the 1064 nm based spectrometer is less likely to induce fluorescence and more suitable to a wider range of materials. To more closely mimic real world measurement situations, different sample presentations were investigated.

  8. Tests of CMS Phase 1 Pixel Upgrade Back-End Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The CMS detector will be upgraded so that it can handle the higher instantaneous luminosity of the 13-14 TeV collisions. The Phase 1 Pixel detector will experience a higher density of particle interactions requiring new front-end and read-out electronics. A front-end pixel data emulator was developed to validate the back-end readout electronics prior to installation and operation. A FPGA-based design emulates 400 Mbps data patterns from the front-end read-out chips and will be used to confirm that each Front End Driver (FED) can correctly decode and process the expected data patterns and error conditions. A FED test bench using the emulator can produce LHC-like conditions for stress testing FED hardware, firmware and online software. The design of the emulator and initial test results will be reported.

  9. A VUV free electron laser at the TESLA test facility at DESY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossbach, J.; Tesla Fel Study Group

    1996-02-01

    We present the layout of a single pass free electron laser (FEL) to be driven by the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) currently under construction at DESY. The TTF is a test-bed for high-gradient, high efficiency superconducting acceleration sections for a future linear collider. Due to its unrivaled ability to sustain high beam quality during acceleration, a superconducting rf linac is considered the optimum choice to drive a FEL. We aim at a photon wavelength of λ = 6 nm utilizing the TTF after it has been extended to 1 GeV beam energy. Due to lack of mirrors and seed-lasers in this wavelength regime, a single pass FEL and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) is considered. A first test is foreseen at a larger photon wavelength. The overall design as well as both electron and photon beam properties are discussed.

  10. Tests of an RF Dipole Crabbing Cavity for an Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Castilla Loeza, Alejandro; Delayen, Jean R.

    2013-12-01

    On the scheme of developing a medium energy electron-ion collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab, we have designed a compact superconducting rf dipole cavity at 750 MHz to crab both electron and ion bunches and increase luminosities at the interaction points (IP) of the machine. Following the design optimization and characterization of the electromagnetic properties such as peak surface fields and shunt impedance, along with field nonuniformities, multipole components content, higher order modes (HOM) and multipacting, a prototype cavity was built by Niowave Inc. The 750 MHz prototype crab cavity has been tested at 4 K and is ready for re-testing at 4 K and 2 K at Jefferson Lab. In this paper we present the detailed results of the rf tests performed on the 750 MHz crab cavity prototype.

  11. Performance Studies of the Vibration Wire Monitor on the Test Stand with Low Energy Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Kota; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kinsho, Michikazu

    In the high intensity proton accelerator as the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) accelerators, serious radiation and residual dose is induced by a small beam loss such a beam halo. Therefore, diagnostics of the beam halo formation is one of the most important issues to control the beam loss. For the beam halo monitor, the vibration wire monitor (VWM) has a potential for investigating the beam halo and weak beam scanning. The VWM has a wide dynamic range, high resolution and the VWM is not susceptible to secondary electrons and electric noises. We have studied the VWM features as a new beam-halo monitor on the test stand with low energy electron gun. The frequency shift of the irradiated vibration wire was confirmed about wire material and the electron beam profile measured by using the VWM was consistent with the results of the Faraday cup measurement. Also we calculated a temperature distribution on the vibration wire which is irradiated by the electron beam with the numerical simulation. The simulations have been fairly successful in reproducing the transient of the irradiated vibration wire frequency measured by test stand experiments. In this paper, we will report a result of performance evaluation for the VWM on the test stands and discuss the VWM for beam halo diagnostic

  12. Torsion Balance Test of Preferred-Frame and Weak Coupling to Polarized Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckel, B. R.; Cramer, C. E.; Adelberger, E. G.; Cook, T. S.

    2008-03-01

    We used a torsion balance containing polarized electrons to search for new weak forces that couple to electron spins and for a violation of Lorentz Symmetry as may arise from the presence of a preferred-frame. We used the gyro-compass torque of the Earth's rotation acting on the angular momentum of the pendulum to calibrate the spin content of the pendulum. Data taken over several years allows us to test rotational invariance at the level of 10-31 GeV which should be compared to a benchmark value of m2e/MPlanck = 2 × 10-26\\ GeV. Preliminary results will be presented.

  13. Test of the Electron Hose Instability in the E157 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, Franz-Josef

    2002-08-21

    The E157 experiment is designed to demonstrate high-gradient Plasma Wake Field Acceleration over a significant length. It has been suggested that the electron hose instability of the drive beam will degrade the performance of this experiment because the hosing tail-electrons will not fully sample the highest acceleration field. In this paper a parasitic experiment designed to test the extent of the hosing instability is described. In particular, we discuss how the initial beam conditions are determined so that the extent to which any transverse perturbations grow due to hosing can be determined.

  14. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies. PMID:21944706

  15. Sensitizers on inorganic carriers for decomposition of the chemical warfare agent yperite.

    PubMed

    Cojocaru, Bogdan; Parvulescu, Vasile I; Preda, Elena; Iepure, Gabriel; Somoghi, Vasile; Carbonell, Esther; Alvaro, Mercedes; García, Hermenegildo

    2008-07-01

    Sulfur-containing compounds, such as mercaptans, alkali sulfides, alkali sulfites, and alkali thiosulfates, are byproducts of industrial processes and pollutants of waste and natural waters. Other sulfur-containing compounds such as yperite are dangerous chemical weapons. Efficient photocatalytic decomposition of these molecules is a process that can find applications in emergency situations or for the controlled destruction of chemical warfare stockpiles. A series of heterogeneous photocatalysts consisting of a metal phthalocyanine or 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium as photoactive components encapsulated inside the cavities of zeolite Y or the mesoporous channels of MCM-41 or supported on silica or titania-silica was tested for the photocatalytic decomposition of yperite. Two types of photoreactors, either an open reactor naturally aerated or a closed quartz tube with a constant airflow using UV or visible ambient light were used. These tests demonstrated that iron and manganese phthalocyanine and 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium embedded in NaY or titania-silica can be suitable solid photocatalysts for the degradation of yperite using UV and visible irradiation. PMID:18678025

  16. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies.

  17. Commissioning and periodic tests of the Esteya® electronic brachytherapy system

    PubMed Central

    Niatsetski, Yury; Ouhib, Zoubir; Ballester, Facundo; Vijande, Javier; Perez-Calatayud, Jose

    2015-01-01

    A new electronic brachytherapy unit from Elekta, called Esteya®, has recently been introduced to the market. As a part of the standards in radiation oncology, an acceptance testing and commissioning must be performed prior to treatment of the first patient. In addition, a quality assurance program should be implemented. A complete commissioning and periodic testing of the Esteya® device using the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie and the European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) guidelines for linacs and brachytherapy units as well as our personal experience is described in this paper. In addition to the methodology, recommendations on equipment required for each test are provided, taking into consideration their availability and traceability of the detectors. Finally, tolerance levels for all the tests are provided, and a specific frequency for each test is suggested. PMID:26034501

  18. Commissioning and periodic tests of the Esteya(®) electronic brachytherapy system.

    PubMed

    Candela-Juan, Cristian; Niatsetski, Yury; Ouhib, Zoubir; Ballester, Facundo; Vijande, Javier; Perez-Calatayud, Jose

    2015-04-01

    A new electronic brachytherapy unit from Elekta, called Esteya(®), has recently been introduced to the market. As a part of the standards in radiation oncology, an acceptance testing and commissioning must be performed prior to treatment of the first patient. In addition, a quality assurance program should be implemented. A complete commissioning and periodic testing of the Esteya(®) device using the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie and the European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) guidelines for linacs and brachytherapy units as well as our personal experience is described in this paper. In addition to the methodology, recommendations on equipment required for each test are provided, taking into consideration their availability and traceability of the detectors. Finally, tolerance levels for all the tests are provided, and a specific frequency for each test is suggested. PMID:26034501

  19. The gas-liquid chromatograph and the electron capture detection in equine drug testing.

    PubMed Central

    Blake, J. W.; Tobin, T.

    1976-01-01

    Three gas-liquid chromatographic (G.L.C.) procedures discussed have been designed around the four "esses" of detection tests--speed, sensitivity, simplicity, and specificity. These techniques are admirably applicable to the very low plasma drug levels encountered in blood testing under pre-race conditions. The methods are equally applicable to post-race testing procedures, where both blood and urine samples are tested. Drugs can only rarely be detected by the electron capture detector (E.C.D.) without a prior derivatization step, which conveys to the drug(s) high electron affinity. Because of broad applicability, two derivatizing agents, heptafluorobutyric (HFBA) and pentafluorpropionic (PFPA) anhydrides are employed. The three techniques, allowing broad coverage of various drug classes are: 1) direct derivatization of drugs to form strongly electron capturing amides and esters. 2) reductive fragmentation of drugs with lithium aluminum hydride to form alcohols, with conversion to ester derivatives. 3) oxidative fragmentation of drugs with potassium dichromate to form derivatizable groups, followed by direct derivatization. PMID:1000157

  20. Integrated testing of the Thales LPT9510 pulse tube cooler and the iris LCCE electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Dean L.; Rodriguez, Jose I.; Carroll, Brian A.; Bustamante, John G.; Kirkconnell, Carl S.; Luong, Thomas T.; Murphy, J. B.; Haley, Michael F.

    2014-01-29

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has identified the Thales LPT9510 pulse tube cryocooler as a candidate low cost cryocooler to provide active cooling on future cost-capped scientific missions. The commercially available cooler can provide refrigeration in excess of 2 W at 100K for 60W of power. JPL purchased the LPT9510 cooler for thermal and dynamic performance characterization, and has initiated the flight qualification of the existing cooler design to satisfy near-term JPL needs for this cooler. The LPT9510 has been thermally tested over the heat reject temperature range of 0C to +40C during characterization testing. The cooler was placed on a force dynamometer to measure the selfgenerated vibration of the cooler. Iris Technology has provided JPL with a brass board version of the Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (LCCE) to drive the Thales cooler during characterization testing. The LCCE provides precision closed-loop temperature control and embodies extensive protection circuitry for handling and operational robustness; other features such as exported vibration mitigation and low frequency input current filtering are envisioned as options that future flight versions may or may not include based upon the mission requirements. JPL has also chosen to partner with Iris Technology for the development of electronics suitable for future flight applications. Iris Technology is building a set of radiation-hard, flight-design electronics to deliver to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Test results of the thermal, dynamic and EMC testing of the integrated Thales LPT9510 cooler and Iris LCCE electronics is presented here.

  1. Evaluation of Maxim Module-Integrated Electronics at the DOE Regional Test Centers (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; Sekulic, B.; Barkaszi, S.; Yang, J.; Kahn, S.

    2014-06-01

    Module-embedded power electronics developed by Maxim Integrated are under evaluation through a partnership with the Department of Energy's Regional Test Center (RTC) program. Field deployments of both conventional modules and electronics-enhanced modules are designed to quantify the performance advantage of Maxim's products under different amounts of interrow shading, and their ability to be deployed at a greater ground-coverage ratio than conventional modules. Simulations in PVSYST have quantified the predicted performance difference between conventional modules and Maxim's modules from interrow shading. Initial performance results have identified diffuse irradiance losses at tighter row spacing for both the Maxim and conventional modules. Comparisons with published models show good agreement with models predicting the greatest diffuse irradiance losses. At tighter row spacing, all of the strings equipped with embedded power electronics outperformed their conventional peers. An even greater performance advantage is predicted to occur in the winter months when the amount of interrow shading mismatch is at a maximum.

  2. High-voltage testing of a 500-kV dc photocathode electron gun.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Ryoji; Hajima, Ryoichi; Nishimori, Nobuyuki; Muto, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Honda, Yosuke; Miyajima, Tsukasa; Iijima, Hokuto; Kuriki, Masao; Kuwahara, Makoto; Okumi, Shoji; Nakanishi, Tsutomu

    2010-03-01

    A high-voltage dc photocathode electron gun was successfully conditioned up to a voltage of 550 kV and a long-time holding test for 8 h was demonstrated at an acceleration voltage of 500 kV. The dc photocathode electron gun is designed for future light sources based on energy-recovery linac and consists of a Cockcroft-Walton generator, a segmented cylindrical ceramic insulator, guard-ring electrodes, a support-rod electrode, a vacuum chamber, and a pressurized insulating gas tank. The segmented cylindrical ceramic insulator and the guard-ring electrodes were utilized to prevent any damage to the insulator from electrons emitted by the support-rod electrode.

  3. Warfare and reproductive success in a tribal population.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard

    2015-01-13

    Intergroup conflict is a persistent feature of many human societies yet little is known about why individuals participate when doing so imposes a mortality risk. To evaluate whether participation in warfare is associated with reproductive benefits, we present data on participation in small-scale livestock raids among the Nyangatom, a group of nomadic pastoralists in East Africa. Nyangatom marriages require the exchange of a significant amount of bridewealth in the form of livestock. Raids are usually intended to capture livestock, which raises the question of whether and how these livestock are converted into reproductive opportunities. Over the short term, raiders do not have a greater number of wives or children than nonraiders. However, elders who were identified as prolific raiders in their youth have more wives and children than other elders. Raiders were not more likely to come from families with fewer older maternal sisters or a greater number of older maternal brothers. Our results suggest that in this cultural context raiding provides opportunities for increased reproductive success over the lifetime.

  4. Performance effects of chemical warfare antidotes: A perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    The threat that enemy forces may use chemical warfare against United States military troops has caused the medical research and development community to find effective antidotes. Particularly in the case of nerve agent poisoning, the timely use of antidote therapies represents the key to survival in contaminated environments. Current training doctrine instructs soldiers how to recognize the symptoms of nerve agent exposure, and then how to counteract the life-threatening effects with the administration of atropine sulfate and pralidoxime chloride. However, these compounds can produce performance degrading effects on their own even when no chemical agent is present. Particularly in the case of the aviator, who is expected to exercise very precise control over an inherently complex vehicle such as a helicopter, the impact of self-administered antidotes should be fully appreciated. The present review briefly summarizes what is known about the actions and performance effects of both atropine and pralidoxime chloride, and recommendations are made concerning the need for additional research.

  5. Eye injuries in twentieth century warfare: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Wong, T Y; Seet, M B; Ang, C L

    1997-01-01

    With successive wars in the twentieth century, there has been a relative increase in injuries to the eye compared to injuries of other parts of the body. The main causes of eye injury have changed with advances in techniques and weaponry of warfare, with blast fragmentation injuries accounting for 50-80% of cases. Penetrating and perforating injuries are most common, and injuries associated with intraocular foreign bodies pose special diagnostic and management problems. Injuries are bilateral in 15-25% of cases. Injuries associated with chemical, nuclear, and laser weapons have distinct characteristics and epidemiology. Enucleation was commonly performed at the turn of the century, but incidence has declined with better understanding of the pathophysiology of ocular trauma, improved surgical techniques and sepsis control with antibiotics. Sympathetic ophthalmia appears to be uncommon and earlier fears of this complication seem to have been exaggerated. Timely evacuation to a surgical facility is important for a good visual prognosis and preservation of the globe. However, prevention of injuries with eye armor is ultimately the best management, and the need for a comprehensive eye protection program in the military cannot be overemphasized, especially since eye injuries pose important socioeconomic, as well as medical, problems. PMID:9220567

  6. Lessons learned from the former Soviet biological warfare program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Debra A.

    The purpose of this doctoral project was to develop the most credible educational tool openly available to enhance the understanding and the application of biological weapons threat analysis. The theory governing the effectiveness of biological weapons was integrated from publications, lectures, and seminars primarily provided by Kenneth Alibek and William C. Patrick III, the world's foremost authorities on the topic. Both experts validated the accuracy of the theory compiled from their work and provided forewords. An exercise requiring analysis of four national intelligence estimates of the former Soviet biological warfare program was included in the form of educational case studies to enhance retention, experience, and confidence by providing a platform against which the reader can apply the newly learned theory. After studying the chapters on BW theory, the reader can compare his/her analysis of the national intelligence estimates against the analysis provided in the case studies by this researcher. This training aid will be a valuable tool for all who are concerned with the threat posed by biological weapons and are therefore seeking the most reliable source of information in order to better understand the true nature of the threat.

  7. Prevalence of Asthma in Children of Chemical Warfare Victims

    PubMed Central

    Mirsadraee, Majid; Mozaffari, Abolfazl; Attaran, Davood

    2011-01-01

    Objective Exposure of DNA to sulfur mustard gas may increase the inheritance of asthma in chemical warfare victims' (CWV) offspring. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma in children of CWV and compare it to asthmatic children in the general population. Methods Four hundred and nine children from 130 CWV fathers and 440 children from 145 asthmatic parents from two cities in Iran participated in this study. The prevalence of asthma was determined by standard questionnaire released for epidemiological survey of asthma in children and compared between two groups. Findings The prevalence of asthma in the CWV group was 15%; this was not significantly different from the control group (12.5%). The children of the CWV group reported a significantly greater incidence of wheezing (1.2±3.1 attacks) per year, but the control group reported more severe attacks leading to speech difficulties (3%) and coughing (7%). Regression analysis showed that with increasing family size in the control group, the number of subjects suffering from asthmatic symptoms decreases significantly (r=0.86, P=0.001). Conclusion Chemical agents may increase the prevalence of asthma in the offspring of CWV. PMID:23056804

  8. Towards a new chemical warfare policy. Individual study project

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, C.D.

    1991-02-15

    Now that the stability of the cold war bipolar world has been ended, the world is likely to be more turbulent and the possibility that United States military forces will become involved in conflict seems more likely. Proliferation of chemical weapons in recent years has increased the likelihood of chemical warfare. Through-out history chemical weapons have proven to be logistically difficult to employ, highly dependent upon environmental factors of terrain and weather, and relatively easy to defend against. On a tactical and operational level chemical weapons have displayed only a minimal level of effectiveness. Nevertheless, the ominous specter of chemical weapons being unleashed upon unprotected civilian targets has created a strong and enduring political anathema against their use. In a chemical attack upon our cities, nuclear retaliation would be more punishing and thereby more appropriate than chemical retaliation. In an occurrence of a tactical chemical attack against our military forces, a conventional retaliation would be more punishing and thereby more appropriate than chemical retaliation. Our chemical defense capability is inadequate and should be improved. Our policy should be to completely repudiate the use of chemical weapons and destroy our stockpile because they offer us neither a worthwhile deterrence nor retaliatory capability. Our retention of chemical weapons gains us no military advantage and burdens us with a political albatross.

  9. BACTERIAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE-The Current Status.

    PubMed

    Coggins, C H

    1960-08-01

    For fourteen years public attention has been focused so sharply on atomic weapons as to lose sight of other, less spectacular but equally significant advances in the art of warfare. In the shadows cast by brilliant research in nuclear physics are hidden startling advances in the field of chemical and biological weapons. These weapons, as now developed, are not only capable of producing mass casualties quite comparable with those of atomic bombs, but they also possess certain advantages which may make them the weapons of choice for an unscrupulous enemy. If war should come, it is the medical profession which will have the sole responsibility for protecting the citizens of California against these weapons, and we can therefore delay no longer in acquainting ourselves with their potentialities and characteristics. In this task, we are working under two serious handicaps. The first is that our classical medical training affords little appreciation of the real danger, and the second is the cloak of secrecy surrounding the entire subject.

  10. Warfare and reproductive success in a tribal population

    PubMed Central

    Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Intergroup conflict is a persistent feature of many human societies yet little is known about why individuals participate when doing so imposes a mortality risk. To evaluate whether participation in warfare is associated with reproductive benefits, we present data on participation in small-scale livestock raids among the Nyangatom, a group of nomadic pastoralists in East Africa. Nyangatom marriages require the exchange of a significant amount of bridewealth in the form of livestock. Raids are usually intended to capture livestock, which raises the question of whether and how these livestock are converted into reproductive opportunities. Over the short term, raiders do not have a greater number of wives or children than nonraiders. However, elders who were identified as prolific raiders in their youth have more wives and children than other elders. Raiders were not more likely to come from families with fewer older maternal sisters or a greater number of older maternal brothers. Our results suggest that in this cultural context raiding provides opportunities for increased reproductive success over the lifetime. PMID:25548190

  11. Warfare and reproductive success in a tribal population.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard

    2015-01-13

    Intergroup conflict is a persistent feature of many human societies yet little is known about why individuals participate when doing so imposes a mortality risk. To evaluate whether participation in warfare is associated with reproductive benefits, we present data on participation in small-scale livestock raids among the Nyangatom, a group of nomadic pastoralists in East Africa. Nyangatom marriages require the exchange of a significant amount of bridewealth in the form of livestock. Raids are usually intended to capture livestock, which raises the question of whether and how these livestock are converted into reproductive opportunities. Over the short term, raiders do not have a greater number of wives or children than nonraiders. However, elders who were identified as prolific raiders in their youth have more wives and children than other elders. Raiders were not more likely to come from families with fewer older maternal sisters or a greater number of older maternal brothers. Our results suggest that in this cultural context raiding provides opportunities for increased reproductive success over the lifetime. PMID:25548190

  12. System integration and development for biological warfare agent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Jacob A.; Green, Lance D.; Deshpande, Alina; White, P. Scott

    2007-04-01

    A wide variety of technical needs exist for surveillance, monitoring, identifying, or detecting pathogens with potential use as biological terrorism or warfare agents. Because the needs vary greatly among diverse applications, tailored systems are needed that meet performance, information, and cost requirements. A systems perspective allows developers to identify chokepoints for each application, and focus R&D investments on the limiting factors. Surveillance and detection systems are comprised of three primary components: information (markers), chemistries (assays), and instrumentation for "readout". Careful consideration of these components within the context of each application will allow for increases in efficiency and performance not generally realized when researchers focus on a single component in isolation. In fact, many application requirements can be met with simple novel combinations of existing technologies, without the need for huge investments in basic research. Here we discuss some of the key parameters for surveillance, detection, and identification of biothreat agents, and provide examples of focused development that addresses key bottlenecks, and greatly improve system performance.

  13. Microbiological, biological, and chemical weapons of warfare and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Ronald A; Brown, Brent R; Hutchins, James B; Iandolo, John J; Jackson, Rhett; Slater, Leonard N; Bronze, Michael S

    2002-06-01

    Microbiological, biological, and chemical toxins have been employed in warfare and in terrorist attacks. In this era, it is imperative that health care providers are familiar with illnesses caused by these agents. Botulinum toxin produces a descending flaccid paralysis. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B produces a syndrome of fever, nausea, and diarrhea and may produce a pulmonary syndrome if aerosolized. Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin could possibly be aerosolized to produce acute pulmonary edema. Ricin intoxication can manifest as gastrointestinal hemorrhage after ingestion, severe muscle necrosis after intramuscular injection, and acute pulmonary disease after inhalation. Nerve agents inhibit acetylcholinesterase and thus produce symptoms of increased cholinergic activity. Ammonia, chlorine, vinyl chloride, phosgene, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide, tear gas, and zinc chloride primarily injure the upper respiratory tract and the lungs. Sulfur mustard (and nitrogen mustard) are vesicant and alkylating agents. Cyanide poisoning ranges from sudden-onset headache and drowsiness to severe hypoxemia, cardiovascular collapse, and death. Health care providers should be familiar with the medical consequences of toxin exposure, and understand the pathophysiology and management of resulting illness.

  14. Evaluation of Molecular Markers and Analytical Methods Documenting the Occurrence of Mustard Gas and Arsenical Warfare Agents in Soil.

    PubMed

    Sassolini, Alessandro; Brinchi, Giampaolo; Di Gennaro, Antonio; Dionisi, Simone; Dominici, Carola; Fantozzi, Luca; Onofri, Giorgio; Piazza, Rosario; Guidotti, Maurizio

    2016-09-01

    The chemicals warfare agents (CWAs) are an extremely toxic class of molecules widely produced in many industrialized countries for decades, these compounds frequently contained arsenic. The plants where the CWAs have been produced or the plants where they have been demilitarized after the Second World War with unacceptable techniques can represent a serious environmental problem. CWAs standards are difficult to find on market so in present work an environmental assessment method based on markers has been proposed. Triphenylarsine, phenylarsine oxide and thiodiglycol have been selected as markers. Three reliable analytical methods based on gaschromatography and mass detection have been proposed and tested for quantitative analysis of markers. Methods performance have been evaluated testing uncertainty, linearity, recovery and detection limits and also comparing detection limits with exposure limits of reference CWAs. Proposed assessment methods have been applied to a case study of a former industrial plant sited in an area characterized by a high background of mineral arsenic.

  15. Evaluation of Molecular Markers and Analytical Methods Documenting the Occurrence of Mustard Gas and Arsenical Warfare Agents in Soil.

    PubMed

    Sassolini, Alessandro; Brinchi, Giampaolo; Di Gennaro, Antonio; Dionisi, Simone; Dominici, Carola; Fantozzi, Luca; Onofri, Giorgio; Piazza, Rosario; Guidotti, Maurizio

    2016-09-01

    The chemicals warfare agents (CWAs) are an extremely toxic class of molecules widely produced in many industrialized countries for decades, these compounds frequently contained arsenic. The plants where the CWAs have been produced or the plants where they have been demilitarized after the Second World War with unacceptable techniques can represent a serious environmental problem. CWAs standards are difficult to find on market so in present work an environmental assessment method based on markers has been proposed. Triphenylarsine, phenylarsine oxide and thiodiglycol have been selected as markers. Three reliable analytical methods based on gaschromatography and mass detection have been proposed and tested for quantitative analysis of markers. Methods performance have been evaluated testing uncertainty, linearity, recovery and detection limits and also comparing detection limits with exposure limits of reference CWAs. Proposed assessment methods have been applied to a case study of a former industrial plant sited in an area characterized by a high background of mineral arsenic. PMID:27385368

  16. Potential distribution around a test charge in a positive dust-electron plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, S.

    2016-06-01

    The electrostatic potential caused by a test-charge particle in a positive dust-electron plasma is studied, accounting for the dust-charge fluctuations associated with ultraviolet photoelectron and thermionic emissions. For this purpose, the set of Vlasov-Poisson equations coupled with the dust charging equation is solved by using the space-time Fourier transform technique. As a consequence, a modified dielectric response function is obtained for dust-acoustic waves in a positive dust-electron plasma. By imposing certain conditions on the velocity of the test charge, the electrostatic potential is decomposed into the Debye-H¨uckel (DH), wake-field (WF), and far-field (FF) potentials that are significantly modified in the limit of a large dust-charge relaxation rate both analytically and numerically. The results can be helpful for understanding dust crystallization/coagulation in twocomponent plasmas, where positively charged dust grains are present.

  17. NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project: Vibration Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodrow, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Vibration testing was conducted by Boeing Research and Technology (Seattle) for the NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Solder Project. This project is a follow-on to the Joint Council on Aging Aircraft/Joint Group on Pollution Prevention (JCAA/JG-PP) Lead-Free Solder Project which was the first group to test the reliability of lead-free solder joints against the requirements of the aerospace/miLItary community. Twenty seven test vehicles were subjected to the vibration test conditions (in two batches). The random vibration Power Spectral Density (PSD) input was increased during the test every 60 minutes in an effort to fail as many components as possible within the time allotted for the test. The solder joints on the components were electrically monitored using event detectors and any solder joint failures were recorded on a Labview-based data collection system. The number of test minutes required to fail a given component attached with SnPb solder was then compared to the number of test minutes required to fail the same component attached with lead-free solder. A complete modal analysis was conducted on one test vehicle using a laser vibrometer system which measured velocities, accelerations, and displacements at one . hundred points. The laser vibrometer data was used to determine the frequencies of the major modes of the test vehicle and the shapes of the modes. In addition, laser vibrometer data collected during the vibration test was used to calculate the strains generated by the first mode (using custom software). After completion of the testing, all of the test vehicles were visually inspected and cross sections were made. Broken component leads and other unwanted failure modes were documented.

  18. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena

    2016-01-01

    Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy), it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable. PMID:27657086

  19. Electron Lenses and Cooling for the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, G.; Burov, A.; Lebedev, V.; Nagaitsev, S.; Prebys, E.; Valishev, A.

    2015-11-05

    Recently, the study of integrable Hamiltonian systems has led to nonlinear accelerator lattices with one or two transverse invariants and wide stable tune spreads. These lattices may drastically improve the performance of high-intensity machines, providing Landau damping to protect the beam from instabilities, while preserving dynamic aperture. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is being built at Fermilab to study these concepts with 150-MeV pencil electron beams (single-particle dynamics) and 2.5-MeV protons (dynamics with self fields). One way to obtain a nonlinear integrable lattice is by using the fields generated by a magnetically confined electron beam (electron lens) overlapping with the circulating beam. The required parameters are similar to the ones of existing devices. In addition, the electron lens will be used in cooling mode to control the brightness of the proton beam and to measure transverse profiles through recombination. More generally, it is of great interest to investigate whether nonlinear integrable optics allows electron coolers to exceed limitations set by both coherent or incoherent instabilities excited by space charge.

  20. A microwiggler Free-Electron Laser at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.; Kirk, H.; Pellegrini, C.; Vansteenbergen, A.; Bhowmik, A.

    1989-09-01

    The design and status of an FEL experiment at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility is reported. A 50 MeV high brightness electron beam will be utilized for an oscillator experiment in the visible wavelength region. The microwiggler to be used is a superferric planar undulator with a 0.88 cm period, 60 cm length and K = 0.35. The optical cavity is a 368 cm long stable resonator with broadband dielectric coated mirrors.

  1. Facility for fast neutron irradiation tests of electronics at the ISIS spallation neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Salsano, A.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Gerardin, S.; Frost, C. D.; Ansell, S.; Platt, S. P.

    2008-03-17

    The VESUVIO beam line at the ISIS spallation neutron source was set up for neutron irradiation tests in the neutron energy range above 10 MeV. The neutron flux and energy spectrum were shown, in benchmark activation measurements, to provide a neutron spectrum similar to the ambient one at sea level, but with an enhancement in intensity of a factor of 10{sup 7}. Such conditions are suitable for accelerated testing of electronic components, as was demonstrated here by measurements of soft error rates in recent technology field programable gate arrays.

  2. A Test Facility for MEIC ERL Circulator Ring Based Electron Cooler Design

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuhong; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Douglas, David R.; Hutton, Andrew M.; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Nissen, Edward W.

    2013-05-01

    An electron cooling facility which is capable to deliver a beam with energy up to 55 MeV and average current up to 1.5 A at a high bunch repetition rate up to 750 MHz is required for MEIC. The present cooler design concept is based on a magnetized photo-cathode SRF gun, an SRF ERL and a compact circulator ring. In this paper, we present a proposal of a test facility utilizing the JLab FEL ERL for a technology demonstration of this cooler design concept. Beam studies will be performed and supporting technologies will also be developed in this test facility.

  3. Electronic Nose for Quality Control of Colombian Coffee Through the Detection of Defects in ``Cup Tests''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Juan C.; Duran, Cristhian M.; Reyes, Adriana X.

    2009-05-01

    This article presents a preliminary study on the analysis of samples of Colombian coffee for the detection and classification of defects (i.e. using "Cup Tests"), which was conducted in Almacafé quality control laboratory Almacafé in Cúcuta, Colombia). The results obtained show the application of an Electronic Nose (EN), called "A-NOSE," used in the coffee sector for the cupping tests. The results show that e-nose technology can be a useful tool as quality control of coffee grain.

  4. Comparison of electron microscopy with three commercial tests for the detection of rotavirus in animal feces.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S M; Rademacher, R A; Pomeroy, K A

    1987-03-01

    Three commercial test kits were evaluated to detect the presence of rotavirus antigens in bovine, porcine, and turkey feces. Two of the assays, Rotalex (Medical Technology Corporation, Somerset, NJ) and Virogen-Rotatest (Wampole Labs, Cranbury, NJ) are latex agglutination tests (LA), while the third, Pathfinder (Kallestad, Austin, TX) is an enzyme immunoassay. The clinical usefulness of these assays was elevated by comparing their results with those of direct electron microscopy (EM). A total of 135, 92, and 211 samples of animal feces were tested by Rotalex, Virogen, and Pathfinder, respectively. All samples were examined by EM as a reference procedure. The overall agreement of the three commercial assays with EM was 53%, 66%, and 83% for Rotalex, Virogen, and Pathfinder, respectively. Based on these results, we consider Pathfinder as an attractive alternative to EM for the detection of rotavirus in animals. Of the two LA tests, Virogen was found to be a little more sensitive and specific. PMID:3032502

  5. A comparison of fixed-base and driven-base modal testing of an electronics package

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Martinez, D.R.; Nord, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper compares results for a fixed-base and a driven-base modal test of an electronics package. A fixed-base modal test uses the common testing procedure of attaching the structure to a large inertial mass which is freely suspended. The problem with this approach is that the input levels are typically limited by the size of the shakers and the strength of the attachment. An attractive alternative to fixed-base modal testing is to use stationary vibration shaker tables to provide a driven-base input. The modes can be obtained at much higher excitation levels than fixed-base excitation modes using portable shakers and flexible attachments. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the adequacy of using vibration shake tables to excite the fixed-based modes of the system. A direct comparison of the modes acquired using fixed-base and driven-base excitation for the electronics package shows very close agreement. A discussion of the theory for driven-base testing is given, as well as a brief presentation of analytical (finite element) predictions for the structure. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Standoff lidar simulation for biological warfare agent detection, tracking, and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jönsson, Erika; Steinvall, Ove; Gustafsson, Ove; Kullander, Fredrik; Jonsson, Per

    2010-04-01

    Lidar has been identified as a promising sensor for remote detection of biological warfare agents (BWA). Elastic IR lidar can be used for cloud detection at long ranges and UV laser induced fluorescence can be used for discrimination of BWA against naturally occurring aerosols. This paper will describe a simulation tool which enables the simulation of lidar for detection, tracking and classification of aerosol clouds. The cloud model was available from another project and has been integrated into the model. It takes into account the type of aerosol, type of release (plume or puff), amounts of BWA, winds, height above the ground and terrain roughness. The model input includes laser and receiver parameters for both the IR and UV channels as well as the optical parameters of the background, cloud and atmosphere. The wind and cloud conditions and terrain roughness are specified for the cloud simulation. The search area including the angular sampling resolution together with the IR laser pulse repetition frequency defines the search conditions. After cloud detection in the elastic mode, the cloud can be tracked using appropriate algorithms. In the tracking mode the classification using fluorescence spectral emission is simulated and tested using correlation against known spectra. Other methods for classification based on elastic backscatter are also discussed as well as the determination of particle concentration. The simulation estimates and displays the lidar response, cloud concentration as well as the goodness of fit for the classification using fluorescence.

  7. Detection of biological warfare agents with fiber-optic microsphere-based DNA arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Linan; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Biological warfare agents (BWAs) pose significant threats to both military forces and civilian populations. The increased concern about bioterrorism has promoted the development of rapid, sensitive, and reliable detection systems to provide an early warning for detecting the release of BWAs. We have developed a high-density DNA array to detect BWAs in real environmental samples with fast response times and high sensitivity. An optical fiber bundle containing approximately 50,000 individual 3.1 μm diameter fibers was chemically etched to yield an array of microwells and used as the substrate for the array. 50-mer single-stranded DNA probes designed to be specific for target BWAs were covalently attached to 3.1-μm microspheres, and the microspheres were distributed into the microwells to form a randomized high-density DNA array. We demonstrated the applicability of this DNA array for the identification of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a BWA simulant, in real samples. PCR was used to amplify the sequences, introduce fluorescent labels into the target molecules, and provide a second level of specificity. After hybridization of test solutions to the array, analysis was performed by evaluating the specific responses of individual probes on the array.

  8. Medical effects of internal contamination with actinides: further controversy on depleted uranium and radioactive warfare.

    PubMed

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2016-05-01

    The Nuclear Age began in 1945 with testing in New Mexico, USA, and the subsequent bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Regardless of attempts to limit the development of nuclear weapons, the current world arsenal has reached the staggering dimensions and presents a significant concern for the biosphere and mankind. In an explosion of a nuclear weapon, over 400 radioactive isotopes are released into the biosphere, 40 of which pose potential dangers including iodine, cesium, alkaline earths, and actinides. The immediate health effects of nuclear explosions include thermal, mechanical, and acute radiation syndrome. Long-term effects include radioactive fallout, internal contamination, and long-term genotoxicity. The current controversial concern over depleted uranium's somatic and genetic toxicity is still a subject of worldwide sustained research. The host of data generated in the past decades has demonstrated conflicting findings, with the most recent evidence showing that its genotoxicity is greater than previously considered. Of particular concern are the osteotropic properties of uranium isotopes due to their final retention in the crystals of exchangeable and nonexchangeable bone as well as their proximity to pluripotent stem cells. Depleted uranium remains an unresolved issue in both warfare and the search for alternative energy sources. PMID:27002520

  9. Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance sorbent for efficient extraction of chemical warfare agents from water samples.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud D, Raghavender; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-02-19

    Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (MHLB) hybrid resin was prepared by precipitation polymerization using N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and divinylbenzene (DVB) as monomers and Fe2O3 nanoparticles as magnetic material. These resins were successfully applied for the extraction of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their markers from water samples through magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (MDSPE). By varying the ratios of monomers, resin with desired hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was prepared for the extraction of CWAs and related esters of varying polarities. Amongst different composites Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with 10% PVP+90% DVB exhibited the best recoveries varying between 70.32 and 97.67%. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies, such as extraction time, desorption time, nature and volume of desorption solvent, amount of extraction sorbent and the effect of salts on extraction were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5-500 ng mL(-1) with correlation ranging from 0.9911-0.9980. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.5-1.0 and 3.0-5.0 ng mL(-1) respectively with RSDs varying from 4.88-11.32% for markers of CWAs. Finally, the developed MDSPE method was employed for extraction of analytes from water samples of various sources and the OPCW proficiency test samples.

  10. Evaluation of protective ointments used against dermal effects of nitrogen mustard, a vesicant warfare agent.

    PubMed

    Kenar, Levent; Karayilanoğlu, Turan; Yuksel, Altan; Gunhan, Omer; Kose, Songul; Kurt, Bulent

    2005-01-01

    Mustard, a vesicant warfare agent, has cytotoxic, mutagenic, and cytostatic effects via alkylation of DNA and inhibition of DNA replication. Since symptoms appear following a latent period, it can cause some subacute and chronic effects to occur and delay in the treatment. Therefore, the main approach should be the use of protective preparation to reduce the skin toxicity. Thus, this study was conducted in guinea pigs (350-400 g) shaved in areas of 10 x 10 cm. Mechlorethamine HCl (100 mg), a nitrogen mustard derivative, in ethanol was applied by spraying on hairless regions where previously prepared pharmaceutical topical formulations were medicated before. The experimental regions of the animals were kept preserved from environmental factors. Forty-eight hours after the application of the protective ointments and mechlorethamine consecutively, skin-damaging effects were macroscopically evaluated in terms of erythema formation, ulceration, necrosis, and inflammation occurrences. Then, punch biopsy was performed from these damaged sites for histopathological evaluation. Although numerous topical formulations were prepared and tested for protection, according to microscopic examination of the pathologic sections, tissue specimen treated with the ointment containing the mixture of zinc oxide, zinc chloride, dimethylpolysiloxane in a base of petroleum jelly was determined as being the most effective protective against skin injury caused by the vesicant agent.

  11. Phase I study of a topical skin protectant against chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Eisenkraft, Arik; Krivoy, Amir; Vidan, Aviv; Robenshtok, Eyal; Hourvitz, Ariel; Dushnitsky, Tsvika; Markel, Gal

    2009-01-01

    Vesicants and some nerve agents penetrate exposed skin, mainly through the sensitive integration areas of the personal protective equipment. Therefore, improving dermal barrier with a topical agent should reduce the threat of exposure. A topical skin protectant lotion (IB1) was developed to improve protection against chemical warfare agents. Preclinical studies in several animal models have proven the protective efficacy of IB1. Here we present the results of a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind phase I clinical study, performed with 34 healthy volunteers. The study tested the safety of repeated applications, including ruling out transdermal permeation of magnesium, which may lead to a dangerous blood magnesium level, since the lotion contains magnesium sulfate. Other objectives included detection of dermatological adverse effects, assessment of application convenience, and effect on daily activities. Importantly, no serious adverse effects were recorded and the lotion did not interfere with daily tasks. There were no significant differences in magnesium levels between the placebo and the study groups in any of the applications. No toxic levels of magnesium were found in either group. We conclude that IB1 is probably safe, easily self-applied, and does not cause any significant inconvenience. Therefore, IB1 can be considered as an adjunctive chemical, biological, and radio-nuclear (CBRN) protective aid to field soldiers.

  12. Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance sorbent for efficient extraction of chemical warfare agents from water samples.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud D, Raghavender; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-02-19

    Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (MHLB) hybrid resin was prepared by precipitation polymerization using N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and divinylbenzene (DVB) as monomers and Fe2O3 nanoparticles as magnetic material. These resins were successfully applied for the extraction of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their markers from water samples through magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (MDSPE). By varying the ratios of monomers, resin with desired hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was prepared for the extraction of CWAs and related esters of varying polarities. Amongst different composites Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with 10% PVP+90% DVB exhibited the best recoveries varying between 70.32 and 97.67%. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies, such as extraction time, desorption time, nature and volume of desorption solvent, amount of extraction sorbent and the effect of salts on extraction were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5-500 ng mL(-1) with correlation ranging from 0.9911-0.9980. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.5-1.0 and 3.0-5.0 ng mL(-1) respectively with RSDs varying from 4.88-11.32% for markers of CWAs. Finally, the developed MDSPE method was employed for extraction of analytes from water samples of various sources and the OPCW proficiency test samples. PMID:26814366

  13. In Situ Wear Test on Thermal Spray Coatings in a Large Chamber Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Weifeng; Tillmann, Wolfgang; Selvadurai, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the determination of the mass loss is usually used for a quantitative evaluation of wear tests, while the analysis of wear tracks is utilized for a qualitative evaluation of wear. Both evaluation methods can only be used after the wear testing process and their results only present the final outcome of the wear test. However, the changes during the wear test and the time-dependent wear mechanisms are of great interest as well. A running wear test in a large chamber scanning electron microscope (SEM) offers the first opportunity to observe the wear process in situ. Different wear mechanisms, such as the adhesive, abrasive wear, surface fatigue and tribochemical reaction, can be recorded with high magnification. Within this research, a special pin-on-disk testing device is designed for a vacuum environment. Using this device, arc-sprayed NiCrBSi coatings and high-velocity-oxygen-fuel-sprayed WC-12Co coatings were tested in a large chamber SEM with Al2O3 ceramic balls as wear counterparts. During the wear testing, different wear mechanisms were determined and the processes were recorded in short video streams.

  14. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of boar and inobuta testes after the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Hideaki; Abe, Yasuyuki; Hayashi, Gohei; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Jin; Kino, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tong, Bin; Takino, Sachio; Sugano, Yukou; Sugimura, Satoshi; Yamada, Takahisa; Isogai, Emiko; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic radiation exposure associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident on the testes of boar and inobuta (a hybrid of Sus scrofa and Sus scrofa domestica). This study examined the contamination levels of radioactive caesium (Cs), especially (134)Cs and (137)Cs, in the testis of both boar and inobuta during 2012, after the Fukushima accident. Morphological analysis and electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) were also undertaken on the testes. The (134)Cs and (137)Cs levels were 6430 ± 23 and 6820 ± 32 Bq/kg in the boar testes, and 755 ± 13 and 747 ± 17 Bq/kg in the inobuta testes, respectively. The internal and external exposure of total (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the boar testes were 47.1 mGy and 176.2 mGy, respectively, whereas in the inobuta testes, these levels were 6.09 mGy and 59.8 mGy, respectively. Defective spermatogenesis was not detected by the histochemical analysis of radiation-exposed testes for either animal. In neither animal were Cs molecules detected, using EPMA. In conclusion, we showed that adverse radiation-induced effects were not detected in the examined boar and inobuta testes following the chronic radiation exposure associated with the FNPP accident. PMID:26825300

  15. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of boar and inobuta testes after the Fukushima accident

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Hideaki; Abe, Yasuyuki; Hayashi, Gohei; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Jin; Kino, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tong, Bin; Takino, Sachio; Sugano, Yukou; Sugimura, Satoshi; Yamada, Takahisa; Isogai, Emiko; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic radiation exposure associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident on the testes of boar and inobuta (a hybrid of Sus scrofa and Sus scrofa domestica). This study examined the contamination levels of radioactive caesium (Cs), especially 134Cs and 137Cs, in the testis of both boar and inobuta during 2012, after the Fukushima accident. Morphological analysis and electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) were also undertaken on the testes. The 134Cs and 137Cs levels were 6430 ± 23 and 6820 ± 32 Bq/kg in the boar testes, and 755 ± 13 and 747 ± 17 Bq/kg in the inobuta testes, respectively. The internal and external exposure of total 134Cs and 137Cs in the boar testes were 47.1 mGy and 176.2 mGy, respectively, whereas in the inobuta testes, these levels were 6.09 mGy and 59.8 mGy, respectively. Defective spermatogenesis was not detected by the histochemical analysis of radiation-exposed testes for either animal. In neither animal were Cs molecules detected, using EPMA. In conclusion, we showed that adverse radiation-induced effects were not detected in the examined boar and inobuta testes following the chronic radiation exposure associated with the FNPP accident. PMID:26825300

  16. Testing of multigap Resistive Plate Chambers for Electron Ion Collider Detector Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Hannah; Phenix Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Despite decades of research on the subject, some details of the spin structure of the nucleon continues to be unknown. To improve our knowledge of the nucleon spin structure, the construction of a new collider is needed. This is one of the primary goals of the proposed Electron Ion Collider (EIC). Planned EIC spectrometers will require good particle identification. This can be provided by time of flight (TOF) detectors with excellent timing resolutions of 10 ps. A potential TOF detector that could meet this requirement is a glass multigap resistive plate chamber (mRPC). These mRPCs can provide excellent timing resolution at a low cost. The current glass mRPC prototypes have a total of twenty 0.1 mm thick gas gaps. In order to test the feasibility of this design, a cosmic test stand was assembled. This stand used the coincidence of scintillators as a trigger, and contains fast electronics. The construction, the method of testing, and the test results of the mRPCs will be presented.

  17. Enabling More than Moore: Accelerated Reliability Testing and Risk Analysis for Advanced Electronics Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza; Evans, John W.

    2014-01-01

    For five decades, the semiconductor industry has distinguished itself by the rapid pace of improvement in miniaturization of electronics products-Moore's Law. Now, scaling hits a brick wall, a paradigm shift. The industry roadmaps recognized the scaling limitation and project that packaging technologies will meet further miniaturization needs or ak.a "More than Moore". This paper presents packaging technology trends and accelerated reliability testing methods currently being practiced. Then, it presents industry status on key advanced electronic packages, factors affecting accelerated solder joint reliability of area array packages, and IPC/JEDEC/Mil specifications for characterizations of assemblies under accelerated thermal and mechanical loading. Finally, it presents an examples demonstrating how Accelerated Testing and Analysis have been effectively employed in the development of complex spacecraft thereby reducing risk. Quantitative assessments necessarily involve the mathematics of probability and statistics. In addition, accelerated tests need to be designed which consider the desired risk posture and schedule for particular project. Such assessments relieve risks without imposing additional costs. and constraints that are not value added for a particular mission. Furthermore, in the course of development of complex systems, variances and defects will inevitably present themselves and require a decision concerning their disposition, necessitating quantitative assessments. In summary, this paper presents a comprehensive view point, from technology to systems, including the benefits and impact of accelerated testing in offsetting risk.

  18. Michelson-Morley analogue for electrons using trapped ions to test Lorentz symmetry.

    PubMed

    Pruttivarasin, T; Ramm, M; Porsev, S G; Tupitsyn, I I; Safronova, M S; Hohensee, M A; Häffner, H

    2015-01-29

    All evidence so far suggests that the absolute spatial orientation of an experiment never affects its outcome. This is reflected in the standard model of particle physics by requiring all particles and fields to be invariant under Lorentz transformations. The best-known tests of this important cornerstone of physics are Michelson-Morley-type experiments verifying the isotropy of the speed of light. For matter, Hughes-Drever-type experiments test whether the kinetic energy of particles is independent of the direction of their velocity, that is, whether their dispersion relations are isotropic. To provide more guidance for physics beyond the standard model, refined experimental verifications of Lorentz symmetry are desirable. Here we search for violation of Lorentz symmetry for electrons by performing an electronic analogue of a Michelson-Morley experiment. We split an electron wave packet bound inside a calcium ion into two parts with different orientations and recombine them after a time evolution of 95 milliseconds. As the Earth rotates, the absolute spatial orientation of the two parts of the wave packet changes, and anisotropies in the electron dispersion will modify the phase of the interference signal. To remove noise, we prepare a pair of calcium ions in a superposition of two decoherence-free states, thereby rejecting magnetic field fluctuations common to both ions. After a 23-hour measurement, we find a limit of h × 11 millihertz (h is Planck's constant) on the energy variations, verifying the isotropy of the electron's dispersion relation at the level of one part in 10(18), a 100-fold improvement on previous work. Alternatively, we can interpret our result as testing the rotational invariance of the Coulomb potential. Assuming that Lorentz symmetry holds for electrons and that the photon dispersion relation governs the Coulomb force, we obtain a fivefold-improved limit on anisotropies in the speed of light. Our result probes Lorentz symmetry violation

  19. The history and threat of biological warfare and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Noah, Donald L; Huebner, Kermit D; Darling, Robert G; Waeckerle, Joseph F

    2002-05-01

    The inevitable conclusion is that the availability of biological warfare agents and supporting technologic infrastructure, coupled with the fact that there are many people motivated to do harm to the United States, means that America must be prepared to defend her homeland against biological agents. Some have argued to the contrary, that the threat and risks from a biological weapon attack are not to be considered serious, because [39]: They've not been used yet on a large scale so they probably won't be in the near future. Their use is so morally repugnant that they probably won't be used at all. The technologic hurdles associated with isolating, growing, purifying, weaponizing, and disseminating adequate quantities of pathologic agents are so high that only the most advanced laboratories could attempt the process. Similar to a 'nuclear winter,' the aftermath of a biological attack is so unthinkable that none would attempt it. Unfortunately, the trends associated with biotechnology globalization, terrorist group dynamics, and global/regional politics render these beliefs untenable and inappropriate, as recent events have underscored. To that end, the United States has accelerated its program of defense against biological weapons, as it must. Biological weapons are such dreadful weapons of uniqueness and complexity that a specific defense strategy is paramount. Elements of this program include pharmaceutical stockpiles, heightened surveillance systems, energized vaccine development programs, and comprehensive training initiatives. Although the depth and breadth of these efforts are unprecedented, above all these efforts is the absolute necessity for medical and public health care professionals to be educated and actively involved. These professionals are the sine qua non of future defensive readiness. This is just the start; unfortunately, there is no end yet in sight. PMID:12120479

  20. Selected fault testing of electronic isolation devices used in nuclear power plant operation

    SciTech Connect

    Villaran, M.; Hillman, K.; Taylor, J.; Lara, J.; Wilhelm, W.

    1994-05-01

    Electronic isolation devices are used in nuclear power plants to provide electrical separation between safety and non-safety circuits and systems. Major fault testing in an earlier program indicated that some energy may pass through an isolation device when a fault at the maximum credible potential is applied in the transverse mode to its output terminals. During subsequent field qualification testing of isolators, concerns were raised that the worst case fault, that is, the maximum credible fault (MCF), may not occur with a fault at the maximum credible potential, but rather at some lower potential. The present test program investigates whether problems can arise when fault levels up to the MCF potential are applied to the output terminals of an isolator. The fault energy passed through an isolated device during a fault was measured to determine whether the levels are great enough to potentially damage or degrade performance of equipment on the input (Class 1E) side of the isolator.

  1. Test and evaluation of the HIDEC engine uptrim algorithm. [Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. J.; Myers, L. P.

    1986-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program will demonstrate and evaluate the improvements in performance and mission effectiveness that result from integrated engine-airframe control systems. Performance improvements will result from an adaptive engine stall margin mode, a highly integrated mode that uses the airplane flight conditions and the resulting inlet distortion to continuously compute engine stall margin. When there is excessive stall margin, the engine is uptrimmed for more thrust by increasing engine pressure ratio (EPR). The EPR uptrim logic has been evaluated and implemente into computer simulations. Thrust improvements over 10 percent are predicted for subsonic flight conditions. The EPR uptrim was successfully demonstrated during engine ground tests. Test results verify model predictions at the conditions tested.

  2. Electronic vending machines for dispensing rapid HIV self-testing kits: a case study.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D; Klausner, Jeffrey; Fynn, Risa; Bolan, Robert

    2014-02-01

    This short report evaluates the feasibility of using electronic vending machines for dispensing oral, fluid, rapid HIV self-testing kits in Los Angeles County. Feasibility criteria that needed to be addressed were defined as: (1) ability to find a manufacturer who would allow dispensing of HIV testing kits and could fit them to the dimensions of a vending machine, (2) ability to identify and address potential initial obstacles, trade-offs in choosing a machine location, and (3) ability to gain community approval for implementing this approach in a community setting. To address these issues, we contracted a vending machine company who could supply a customized, Internet-enabled machine that could dispense HIV kits and partnered with a local health center available to host the machine onsite and provide counseling to participants, if needed. Vending machines appear to be feasible technologies that can be used to distribute HIV testing kits.

  3. Electrochemical Testing of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded and Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Welded Alloy 22

    SciTech Connect

    Day, S D; Wong, F M G; Gordon, S R; Wong, L L; Rebak, R B

    2003-09-07

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is the material selected for the fabrication of the outer shell of the nuclear waste containers for the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository site. A key technical issue in the Yucca Mountain waste package program has been the integrity of container weld joints. The currently selected welding process for fabricating and sealing the containers is the traditional gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or TIG method. An appealing faster alternative technique is reduced pressure electron beam (RPEB) welding. Standard electrochemical tests were carried on GTAW and RPEB welds as well as on base metal to determine their relative corrosion behavior in SCW at 90 C (alkaline), 1 M HCl at 60 C (acidic) and 1 M NaCl at 90 C (neutral) solutions. Results show that for all practical purposes, the three tested materials had the electrochemical behavior in the three tested solutions.

  4. Characterization of a Power Electronic Grid Simulator for Wind Turbine Generator Compliance Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Glasdam, Jakob Baerholm; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wallen, Robb; Bak, Claus Leth; Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2014-11-13

    This paper presents the commissioning results and testing capabilities of a multi-megawatt power electronic grid simulator situated in National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) new testing facility. The commissioning is done using a commercial type 4 multi-megawatt sized wind turbine generator (WTG) installed in NREL's new 5 MW dynamometer and a kilowatt sized type 1 WTG connected to the existing 2.5 MW dynamometer at NREL. The paper demonstrates the outstanding testing capability of the grid simulator and its application in the grid code compliance evaluation of WTGs including balanced and unbalanced voltage low and high fault ride-through. Furthermore, the paper provides insight into the performance of commercial WTGs during both normal and abnormal operating conditions.

  5. Modeling particle-induced electron emission in a simplified plasma Test Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Giuliano, Paul N.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2013-03-21

    Particle-induced electron emission (PIE) is modeled in a simplified, well-characterized plasma Test Cell operated at UCLA. In order for PIE to be a useful model in this environment, its governing equations are first reduced to lower-order models which can be implemented in a direct simulation Monte Carlo and Particle-in-Cell framework. These reduced-order models are described in full and presented as semi-empirical models. The models are implemented to analyze the interaction of low- and high-energy ({approx}1-2 keV) xenon ions and atoms with the stainless steel electrodes of the Test Cell in order to gain insight into the emission and transport of secondary electrons. Furthermore, there is a lack of data for xenon-stainless steel atom- and ion-surface interactions for similar environments. Using experimental data as a reference, both total yields and emitted electron energy distribution functions can be deduced by observing sensitivities of current collection results to these numerical models and their parameters.

  6. Deducing Electronic Unit Internal Response During a Vibration Test Using a Lumped Parameter Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    During random vibration testing of electronic boxes there is often a desire to know the dynamic response of certain internal printed wiring boards (PWBs) for the purpose of monitoring the response of sensitive hardware or for post-test forensic analysis in support of anomaly investigation. Due to restrictions on internally mounted accelerometers for most flight hardware there is usually no means to empirically observe the internal dynamics of the unit, so one must resort to crude and highly uncertain approximations. One common practice is to apply Miles Equation, which does not account for the coupled response of the board in the chassis, resulting in significant over- or under-prediction. This paper explores the application of simple multiple-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter modeling to predict the coupled random vibration response of the PWBs in their fundamental modes of vibration. A simple tool using this approach could be used during or following a random vibration test to interpret vibration test data from a single external chassis measurement to deduce internal board dynamics by means of a rapid correlation analysis. Such a tool might also be useful in early design stages as a supplemental analysis to a more detailed finite element analysis to quickly prototype and analyze the dynamics of various design iterations. After developing the theoretical basis, a lumped parameter modeling approach is applied to an electronic unit for which both external and internal test vibration response measurements are available for direct comparison. Reasonable correlation of the results demonstrates the potential viability of such an approach. Further development of the preliminary approach presented in this paper will involve correlation with detailed finite element models and additional relevant test data.

  7. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data for the main site, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Laboratory, Dahlgren, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Clifton F.; Bolles, Thomas P.; Harlow,, George E.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Laboratory at Dahlgren, Virginia, as part of a hydrogeologic assessment of the shallow aquifer system begun in 1992. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted this study to provide the Navy with hydrogeologic data to meet the requirements of a Spill Contingency Plan. This report describes the ground-water observation-well network, hydro- geologic, and water-quality data collected between August 1992 and September 1993. The report includes a description of the locations and con- struction of 35 observation wells on the Main Site. Hydrologic data include lithologic core samples, geophysical logs, and vertical hydraulic conductivity measurements of selected core intervals. Hydrologic data include synoptic and hourly measurements of ground-water levels, observation-well slug tests to determine horizontal hydraulic conductivity, and tide data. Water-quality data include analyses of major dissolved constituents in ground water and surface water.

  8. Electronic speckle pattern interferometric testing of JWST primary mirror segment assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Koby Z.; Chaney, David M.; Saif, Babak N.

    2011-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Primary Mirror Segment Assembly (PMSA) was required to meet NASA Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 06 requirements in the summer of 2006. These TRL06 requirements included verifying all mirror technology systems level readiness in simulated end-to-end operating conditions. In order to support the aggressive development and technology readiness schedule for the JWST Primary Mirror Segment Assembly (PMSA), a novel approach was implemented to verify the nanometer surface figure distortion effects on an in-process non-polished beryllium mirror surface. At the time that the TRL06 requirements needed to be met, a polished mirror segment had not yet been produced that could have utilized the baselined interferometric optical test station. The only JWST mirror segment available was a finished machined segment with an acid-etched optical surface. Therefore an Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometer (ESPI) was used in coordination with additional metrology techniques to perform interferometric level optical testing on a non-optical surface. An accelerated, rigorous certification program was quickly developed for the ESPI to be used with the unfinished optical surface of the primary mirror segment. The ESPI was quickly implemented into the PMSA test program and optical testing was very successful in quantifying the nanometer level surface figure deformation changes in the PMSA due to assembly, thermal cycling, vibration, and acoustic testing. As a result of the successful testing, the PMSA passed all NASA TRL06 readiness requirements.

  9. Design and Testing of the Variable Electronic Regulator (VER) for Portable Life Support System (PLSS) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin; Pryzbyla, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The next generation space suit requires additional capabilities for controlling and adjusting internal pressure compared to that of historical designs. Next generation suit pressures will range from slight pressure, for astronaut prebreathe comfort, to hyperbaric pressure levels for emergency medical treatment of decompression sickness. Historical regulator designs for space suits have been purely mechanical in nature with the performance aspects typical of such designs such as droop. This paper discusses a new approach to providing the tighter regulation band possible with electronic regulation while mitigating the typical short-comings of electronic control: power consumption, loss of power failure modes, start-up time, and reliability. The paper will also address the bench top prototype development and subsequent performance testing with comparison back to mechanical regulators as a baseline.

  10. Stress testing on silicon carbide electronic devices for prognostics and health management.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplar, Robert James; Brock, Reinhard C.; Marinella, Matthew; King, Michael Patrick; Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Power conversion systems for energy storage and other distributed energy resource applications are among the drivers of the important role that power electronics plays in providing reliable electricity. Wide band gap semiconductors such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) will help increase the performance and efficiency of power electronic equipment while condition monitoring (CM) and prognostics and health management (PHM) will increase the operational availability of the equipment and thereby make it more cost effective. Voltage and/or temperature stress testing were performed on a number of SiC devices in order to accelerate failure modes and to identify measureable shifts in electrical characteristics which may provide early indication of those failures. Those shifts can be interpreted and modeled to provide prognostic signatures for use in CM and/or PHM. Such experiments will also lead to a deeper understanding of basic device physics and the degradation mechanisms behind failure.

  11. Tests of quantum electrodynamics in few-electron very high-Z ions

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, H.; Munger, C.T.

    1986-08-01

    This article discusses our measurement of the Lamb shift in heliumlike uranium and outlines future tests of QED using few- electron very high atomic number (Z) ions. Our recently reported Lamb shift value of 70.4 (8.1) eV for the one- electron Lamb shift in uranium is in agreement with the theoretical value of 75.3 (0.4) eV. The experimental value was extracted from a beam-foil time-of-flight measurement of the 54.4 (3.3) ps lifetime of the 1s2p/sub 1/2/ /sup 3/P/sub 0/ state of heliumlike uranium. 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Application of protein arraytubes to bacteria, toxin, and biological warfare agent detection.

    PubMed

    Ehricht, Ralf; Adelhelm, Karin; Monecke, Stefan; Huelseweh, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Microarray technology enables the fast and parallel analysis of a multitude of biologically relevant parameters. Not only nucleic acid-based tests, but also peptide, antigen, and antibody assays using different formats of microarrays evolved within the last decade. They offer the possibility to measure interactions in a miniaturised, economic, automated, and qualitative or quantitative way providing insights into the cellular machinery of diverse organisms. Examples of applications in research and diagnostics are, e.g., O-typing of pathogenic Escherichia coli, detection of bacterial toxins and other biological warfare agents (BW agents) from a variety of different samples, screening of complex antibody libraries, and epitope mapping. Conventional O- and H-serotyping methods can now be substituted by procedures applying DNA oligonucleotide and antibody-based microarrays. For simultaneous and sensitive detection of BW agents microarray-based tests are available, which include not only relevant viruses and bacteria, but also toxins. This application is not only restricted to the security and military sector but it can also be used in the fields of medical diagnostics or public health to detect, e.g., staphylococcal enterotoxins in food or clinical samples. Furthermore, the same technology could be used to detect antibodies against enterotoxins in human sera using a competitive assay. Protein and peptide microarrays can also be used for characterisation of antibodies. On one hand, peptide microarrays allow detailed epitope mapping. On the other hand, a set of different antibodies recognising the same antigen can be spotted as a microarray and labelled as detection antibodies. This approach makes it possible to test every combination, allowing to find the optimal pair of detection/capture antibody.

  13. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K; Sharma, Ramesh C

    2013-08-01

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ~5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly. PMID:23719340

  14. An evolutionary theory of large-scale human warfare: Group-structured cultural selection.

    PubMed

    Zefferman, Matthew R; Mathew, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    When humans wage war, it is not unusual for battlefields to be strewn with dead warriors. These warriors typically were men in their reproductive prime who, had they not died in battle, might have gone on to father more children. Typically, they are also genetically unrelated to one another. We know of no other animal species in which reproductively capable, genetically unrelated individuals risk their lives in this manner. Because the immense private costs borne by individual warriors create benefits that are shared widely by others in their group, warfare is a stark evolutionary puzzle that is difficult to explain. Although several scholars have posited models of the evolution of human warfare, these models do not adequately explain how humans solve the problem of collective action in warfare at the evolutionarily novel scale of hundreds of genetically unrelated individuals. We propose that group-structured cultural selection explains this phenomenon.

  15. An evolutionary theory of large-scale human warfare: Group-structured cultural selection.

    PubMed

    Zefferman, Matthew R; Mathew, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    When humans wage war, it is not unusual for battlefields to be strewn with dead warriors. These warriors typically were men in their reproductive prime who, had they not died in battle, might have gone on to father more children. Typically, they are also genetically unrelated to one another. We know of no other animal species in which reproductively capable, genetically unrelated individuals risk their lives in this manner. Because the immense private costs borne by individual warriors create benefits that are shared widely by others in their group, warfare is a stark evolutionary puzzle that is difficult to explain. Although several scholars have posited models of the evolution of human warfare, these models do not adequately explain how humans solve the problem of collective action in warfare at the evolutionarily novel scale of hundreds of genetically unrelated individuals. We propose that group-structured cultural selection explains this phenomenon. PMID:25914359

  16. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K; Sharma, Ramesh C

    2013-08-01

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ~5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly.

  17. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K.; Sharma, Ramesh C.

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ˜5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly.

  18. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea.

    PubMed

    Bruwer, A

    2001-01-01

    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  19. Changing the Scale and Efficiency of Chemical Warfare Countermeasure Discovery Using the Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Randall T.; MacRae, Calum A.

    2013-01-01

    As the scope of potential chemical warfare agents grows rapidly and as the diversity of potential threat scenarios expands with non-state actors, so a need for innovative approaches to countermeasure development has emerged. In the last few years, the utility of the zebrafish as a model organism that is amenable to high-throughput screening has become apparent and this system has been applied to the unbiased discovery of chemical warfare countermeasures. This review summarizes the in vivo screening approach that has been pioneered in the countermeasure discovery arena, and highlights the successes to date as well as the potential challenges in moving the field forward. Importantly, the establishment of a zebrafish platform for countermeasure discovery would offer a rapid response system for the development of antidotes to the continuous stream of new potential chemical warfare agents. PMID:24273586

  20. 33 CFR 165.1103 - Security Zone; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 33 CFR 165.33 apply to the security zone described in paragraph (a) of this section. (2) Entry... Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. 165.1103 Section 165.1103 Navigation and Navigable... Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1103 Security Zone; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command;...

  1. Studies on a VUV free electron laser at the TESLA Test Facility at DESY

    SciTech Connect

    Rossbach, J.

    1995-12-31

    The TESLA Test Facility (TTF) currently under construction at DESY is a test-bed for acceleration sections of a high-gradient, high efficiency superconducting linear collider. Due to ist unrivaled ability to sustain high beam quality during acceleration, a superconducting rf linac is considered the optimum choice to drive a Free Electron Laser (FEL). We aim at a photon wavelength of {lambda} = 6 manometer utilizing the TTF after is has been extended to 1 GeV beam energy. Due to lack of mirrors and seed-lasers in this wavelength regime, a single pass FEL and Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission (SASE) is considered. A first test is foreseen at a larger photon wavelength. The overall design as well as both electron and photon beam properties will be discussed. To reach the desired photon wavelength, the main components that have to be added to the TTF are: (a) a low emittance rf gun including space charge compensation (b) a two stage bunch compressor increasing the peak bunch current from 100 A up to 2500 A (c) four more accelerating modules to achieve 1 GeV beam energy (d) a 25 m long undulator (period length 27 mm, peak field 0.5 T) The average brillance will be larger than 1-10{sup 22}photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1%. Each 800 {mu}s long pulse will contain up to 7200 equidistant bunches. The repetition frequency of the linac is 10 Hz.

  2. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Synthetic Instrument Capabilities Assessment and Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    The role of synthetic instruments (SIs) for Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) is to provide an external lower-level diagnostic and functional test capability beyond the built-in-test capabilities of spacecraft electronics. Built-in diagnostics can report faults and symptoms, but isolating the root cause and performing corrective action requires specialized instruments. Often a fault can be revealed by emulating the operation of external hardware. This implies complex hardware that is too massive to be accommodated in spacecraft. The SI strategy is aimed at minimizing complexity and mass by employing highly reconfigurable instruments that perform diagnostics and emulate external functions. In effect, SI can synthesize an instrument on demand. The SI architecture section of this document summarizes the result of a recent program diagnostic and test needs assessment based on the International Space Station. The SI architecture addresses operational issues such as minimizing crew time and crew skill level, and the SI data transactions between the crew and supporting ground engineering searching for the root cause and formulating corrective actions. SI technology is described within a teleoperations framework. The remaining sections describe a lab demonstration intended to show that a single SI circuit could synthesize an instrument in hardware and subsequently clear the hardware and synthesize a completely different instrument on demand. An analysis of the capabilities and limitations of commercially available SI hardware and programming tools is included. Future work in SI technology is also described.

  3. Novel scanning electron microscope bulge test technique integrated with loading function

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chuanwei; Xie, Huimin E-mail: xiehm@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Zhanwei E-mail: xiehm@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-10-15

    Membranes and film-on-substrate structures are critical elements for some devices in electronics industry and for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems devices. These structures are normally at the scale of micrometer or even nanometer. Thus, the measurement for the mechanical property of these membranes poses a challenge over the conventional measurements at macro-scales. In this study, a novel bulge test method is presented for the evaluation of mechanical property of micro thin membranes. Three aspects are discussed in the study: (a) A novel bulge test with a Scanning Electron Microscope system realizing the function of loading and measuring simultaneously; (b) a simplified Digital Image Correlation method for a height measurement; and (c) an imaging distortion correction by the introduction of a scanning Moiré method. Combined with the above techniques, biaxial modulus as well as Young's modulus of the polyimide film can be determined. Besides, a standard tensile test is conducted as an auxiliary experiment to validate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  4. Electronically controled mechanical seal for aerospace applications -- Part 1: Design, analysis, and steady state tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.; Wolff, Paul; Navon, Samuel

    1994-01-01

    An electronically-controlled mechanial seal, for use as the purge gas seal in a liquid oxygen turbopump, has been designed, analyzed, and built. The thickness of the lubricating film between the faces is controlled by adjusting the coning of the carbon face. This is done by applying a voltage across a piezoelectric element to which the carbon face is bound. Steady state tests have shown that the leakage rate (and film thickness) can be adjusted over a substantial range, utilizing the available range of voltage.

  5. Detection of biological warfare agents using the polymerase chain reaction. Final report, June-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, B.J.

    1992-09-01

    The detection of biological warfare agents is an important mission for the U.S. Army. This report explores the feasibility of using the polymerase chain reaction as a means of rapid detection of biological warfare agents. Two levels of detection are proposed. The first level is group specific detection, using primers derived from 16S rDNA sequences, to detect various groups of pathogenic bacteria. The second level is species-specific detection using primers derived from DNA sequences, unique to each pathogenic organism targeted for detection. Specific examples of Vibrio cholerae, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus anthracis are described.

  6. Particle Swarm Social Adaptive Model for Multi-Agent Based Insurgency Warfare Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Potok, Thomas E

    2009-12-01

    To better understand insurgent activities and asymmetric warfare, a social adaptive model for modeling multiple insurgent groups attacking multiple military and civilian targets is proposed and investigated. This report presents a pilot study using the particle swarm modeling, a widely used non-linear optimal tool to model the emergence of insurgency campaign. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of insurgent social adaptation for the dynamically changing environment and to provide insight and understanding of insurgency warfare. Our results show that unified leadership, strategic planning, and effective communication between insurgent groups are not the necessary requirements for insurgents to efficiently attain their objective.

  7. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-02-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  8. Fabrication and microstructure control of nanoscale mechanical testing specimens via electron beam lithography and electroplating.

    PubMed

    Burek, Michael J; Greer, Julia R

    2010-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the mechanical properties of materials change significantly when external dimensions are confined to the nanoscale. Currently, the dominant fabrication method for mechanical testing specimens with nanometer dimensions is by using focused ion beam (FIB) milling, which results in inevitable Ga(+) induced damage to the microstructure. Here, we report a FIB-less fabrication technique to create arrays of vertically oriented gold and copper nanopillars based on patterning polymethylmethacrylate by electron beam lithography and subsequent electroplating into the prescribed template. This fabrication process is capable of producing a wide range of microstructures: from single crystals and nanotwinned, to bi-, poly-, and nanocrystalline mechanical testing specimens with diameters from 750 down to 25 nm with the diameter range below 100 nm previously inaccessible by FIB.

  9. Structure refinement using precession electron diffraction tomography and dynamical diffraction: tests on experimental data.

    PubMed

    Palatinus, Lukáš; Corrêa, Cinthia Antunes; Steciuk, Gwladys; Jacob, Damien; Roussel, Pascal; Boullay, Philippe; Klementová, Mariana; Gemmi, Mauro; Kopeček, Jaromír; Domeneghetti, M Chiara; Cámara, Fernando; Petříček, Václav

    2015-12-01

    The recently published method for the structure refinement from three-dimensional precession electron diffraction data using dynamical diffraction theory [Palatinus et al. (2015). Acta Cryst. A71, 235-244] has been applied to a set of experimental data sets from five different samples - Ni2Si, PrVO3, kaolinite, orthopyroxene and mayenite. The data were measured on different instruments and with variable precession angles. For each sample a reliable reference structure was available. A large series of tests revealed that the method provides structure models with an average error in atomic positions typically between 0.01 and 0.02 Å. The obtained structure models are significantly more accurate than models obtained by refinement using kinematical approximation for the calculation of model intensities. The method also allows a reliable determination of site occupancies and determination of absolute structure. Based on the extensive tests, an optimal set of the parameters for the method is proposed.

  10. New CP-Violation and Preferred-Frame Tests with Polarized Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Heckel, B. R.; Cramer, C. E.; Cook, T. S.; Adelberger, E. G.; Schlamminger, S.; Schmidt, U.

    2006-07-14

    We used a torsion pendulum containing {approx}9x10{sup 22} polarized electrons to search for CP-violating interactions between the pendulum's electrons and unpolarized matter in the laboratory's surroundings or the Sun, and to test for preferred-frame effects that would precess the electrons about a direction fixed in inertial space. We find |g{sub P}{sup e}g{sub S}{sup N}|/(({Dirac_h}/2{pi})c)<1.7x10{sup -36} and |g{sub A}{sup e}g{sub V}{sup N}|/(({Dirac_h}/2{pi})c)<4.8x10{sup -56} for {lambda}>1 AU. Our preferred-frame constraints, interpreted in the Kostelecky framework, set an upper limit on the parameter |b(tilde sign){sup e}|{<=}5.0x10{sup -21} eV that should be compared to the benchmark value m{sub e}{sup 2}/M{sub Planck}=2x10{sup -17} eV.

  11. Evaluation of Maxim Module-Integrated Electronics at the DOE Regional Test Centers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; Sekulic, B.; Stein, J.; Barkaszi, S.; Yang, J.; Kahn, S.

    2014-07-01

    Module-embedded power electronics developed by Maxim Integrated are under evaluation through a partnership with the Department of Energy's Regional Test Center (RTC) program. Field deployments of both conventional modules and electronics-enhanced modules are designed to quantify the performance advantage of Maxim's products under different amounts of inter-row shading, and their ability to be deployed at a greater ground-coverage-ratio than conventional modules. Simulations in PVSYST have quantified the predicted performance difference between conventional modules and Maxim's modules from inter-row shading. Initial performance results have identified diffuse irradiance losses at tighter row spacing for both the Maxim and conventional modules. Comparisons with published models show good agreement with models predicting the greatest diffuse irradiance losses. At tighter row spacing, all of the strings equipped with embedded power electronics outperformed their conventional peers. An even greater performance advantage is predicted to occur in the winter months when the amount of inter-row shading mismatch is at a maximum.

  12. Notification of abnormal lab test results in an electronic medical record: do any safety concerns remain?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep; Thomas, Eric J.; Sittig, Dean F.; Wilson, Lindsey; Espadas, Donna; Khan, Myrna M.; Petersen, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Follow-up of abnormal outpatient laboratory test results is a major patient safety concern. Electronic medical records can potentially address this concern through automated notification. We examined whether automated notifications of abnormal laboratory results (alerts) in an integrated electronic medical record resulted in timely follow-up actions. Methods: We studied four alerts: hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥15%, positive hepatitis C antibody (HCV), prostate specific antigen (PSA) ≥15 ng/mL, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) ≥ 15 mIU/L. An alert tracking system determined whether the alert was acknowledged (i.e. provider clicked on and opened the message) within two weeks of transmission; acknowledged alerts were considered read. Within 30 days of result transmission, record review and provider contact determined follow-up actions (e.g. patient contact, treatment etc.). Multivariable logistic regression models analyzed predictors for lack of timely follow-up. Results: Between May 2008 and December 2008, 78,158 tests (HbA1c, HCV, TSH and PSA) were performed, of which 1163 (1.48%) were transmitted as alerts; 10.2% of these (119/1163) were unacknowledged. Timely follow-up was lacking in 79 (6.8%) and was statistically not different for acknowledged and unacknowledged alerts (6.4% vs. 10.1%; p =.13). Two-hundred two alerts (17.4% of 1163) arose from unnecessarily ordered (redundant) tests. Alerts for a new versus known diagnosis were more likely to lack timely follow-up (OR: 7.35; 95% CI: 4.16-12.97) whereas alerts related to redundant tests were less likely to lack timely follow-up (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.07-0.84). Conclusions: Safety concerns related to timely patient follow-up remain despite automated notification of non-life threatening abnormal laboratory results in the outpatient setting. PMID:20193832

  13. FRONT-END ELECTRONICS FOR UNATTENDED SAFEGUARDS SYSTEMS: TESTING OF A CANDIDATE DEVICE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leon E.; Conrad, Ryan C.; Keller, Daniel T.; Morris, Scott J.

    2015-07-14

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) deploys unattended monitoring systems to provide continuous monitoring of nuclear material within safeguarded facilities around the world. As the number of unattended monitoring instruments increases, the IAEA is challenged to become more efficient in the implementation of those systems. In 2010, the IAEA initiated the Front-End Electronics for Unattended Measurement (FEUM) project with the goals of greater flexibility in the interfaces to various sensors and data acquisition systems, and improved capabilities for remotely located sensors (e.g., where sensor and front-end electronics might be separated by tens of meters). In consultation with the IAEA, a technical evaluation of a candidate FEUM device produced by a commercial vendor is being performed. This evaluation is assessing the device against the IAEA’s original technical specifications and a broad range of important parameters that included sensor types, cable types, and industrial electromagnetic noise that can degrade signals from remotely located detectors. Testing has been performed in a laboratory and also in environments representative of IAEA deployments. The results are expected to inform the IAEA about where and how FEUM devices might be implemented in the field. Data and preliminary findings from the testing performed to date are presented.

  14. REFLEX: An energy deposition code that models the effects of electron reflection during electron beam heating tests

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.A. IV; Croessmann, C.D.; Whitley, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes an energy coupling model that considers electron reflection losses during electron beam heating experiments. This model is embodied on the REFLEX computer code, written in standard FORTRAN 77. REFLEX currently models energy deposition phenomena in three different sample geometries. These configurations include flat, cylindrical shell, and hemispherical shell surfaces. Given the electron beam operating parameters, REFLEX calculates the heat flux profile over a sample's surface, the total amount of energy deposited into a sample, and the percentage of the electron beam energy that is transferred to a sample. This document describes the energy deposition equations used in the REFLEX code; the program is described and detailed instructions are given regarding the input. Results are given for each geometry and possible experimental applications are presented. 3 refs., 20 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. REFLEX: An energy deposition code that models the effects of electron reflection during electron beam heating tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, C. A., IV; Croessmann, C. D.; Whitley, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes an energy coupling model that considers electron reflection losses during electron beam heating experiments. This model is embodied on the REFLEX computer code, written in standard FORTRAN 77. REFLEX currently models energy deposition phenomena in three different sample geometries. These configurations include flat, cylindrical shell, and hemispherical shell surfaces. Given the electron beam operating parameters, REFLEX calculates the heat flux profile over a sample's surface, the total amount of energy deposited into a sample, and the percentage of the electron beam energy that is transferred to a sample. This document describes the energy deposition equations used in the REFLEX code; the program is described and detailed instructions are given regarding the input. Results are given for each geometry and possible experimental applications are presented.

  16. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2016-08-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator.

  17. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  18. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis.

    PubMed

    Hensen, B; Kalb, N; Blok, M S; Dréau, A E; Reiserer, A; Vermeulen, R F L; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Goodenough, K; Elkouss, D; Wehner, S; Taminiau, T H; Hanson, R

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682-686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  19. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H; Barber, Samuel K; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R; Takacs, Peter Z; Voronov, Dmitriy L

    2010-09-17

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality x-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested [Proc. SPIE 7077-7 (2007), Opt. Eng. 47(7), 073602-1-5 (2008)} and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 616, 172-82 (2010)]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi2/Si multilayer coating with pseudo randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize x-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with x-ray microscopes is in progress.

  20. Characterization of Electron Microscopes with Binary Pseudo-random Multilayer Test Samples

    SciTech Connect

    V Yashchuk; R Conley; E Anderson; S Barber; N Bouet; W McKinney; P Takacs; D Voronov

    2011-12-31

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested [1] and [2] and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi2/Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  1. Preferred-frame and CP-violation tests with polarized electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Heckel, B. R.; Adelberger, E. G.; Cramer, C. E.; Cook, T. S.; Schlamminger, S.; Schmidt, U.

    2008-11-01

    We used a torsion pendulum containing {approx_equal}10{sup 23} polarized electrons to search new interactions that couple to electron spin. We limit CP-violating interactions between the pendulum's electrons and unpolarized matter in the Earth or the Sun, test for rotation and boost-dependent preferred-frame effects using the Earth's rotation and velocity with respect to the entire cosmos, and search for exotic velocity-dependent potentials between polarized electrons and unpolarized matter in the Sun and Moon. We find CP-violating parameters |g{sub P}{sup e}g{sub S}{sup N}|/(({Dirac_h}/2{pi})c)<9.4x10{sup -37} and |g{sub A}{sup e}g{sub V}{sup N}|/(({Dirac_h}/2{pi})c)<1.2x10{sup -56} for {lambda}>1 AU. We test for preferred-frame interactions of the form V=-{sigma}{sup e}{center_dot}A, V=-B{sigma}{sup e}{center_dot}v/c, or , where v is the velocity of the Earth with respect to the cosmic microwave background restframe and i, j represent the equatorial inertial coordinates X, Y, and Z. We constrain all 3 components of A, obtaining 1{sigma} upper limits |A{sub X,Y}|{<=}1.5x10{sup -22} eV and |A{sub Z}|{<=}4.4x10{sup -21} eV that may be compared to the benchmark value m{sub e}{sup 2}/M{sub Planck}=2x10{sup -17} eV. Interpreting our constraint on A in terms of noncommutative geometry, we obtain an upper bound of (355l{sub GUT}){sup 2} on the minimum observable area, where l{sub GUT}=({Dirac_h}/2{pi})c/(10{sup 16} GeV) is the grand unification length. We find that |B|{<=}1.2x10{sup -19} eV. All 9 components of C are constrained at the 10{sup -17} to 10{sup -18} eV level. We determine 9 linear combinations of parameters of the standard model extension; rotational-noninvariant and boost-noninvariant terms are limited at roughly the 10{sup -31} GeV and 10{sup -27} GeV levels, respectively. Finally, we find that the gravitational mass of an electron spinning toward the galactic center differs by less than about 1 part in 10{sup 21} from an electron spinning in the opposite

  2. DESI-MS/MS of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Paul A.

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were used to headspace ­sample chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products from glass vials and glass vials containing spiked media, including Dacron swabs, office carpet, paper and fabric. The interface of the Z-spray source was modified to permit safe introduction of the SPME fibers for desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (DESI-MS) analysis. A "dip and shoot" method was also developed for the rapid sampling and DESI-MS analysis of chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products in liquid samples. Sampling was performed by simply dipping fused silica, stainless steel or SPME tips into the organic or aqueous samples. Replicate analyses were completed within several minutes under ambient conditions with no sample pre-treatment, resulting in a significant increase in sample throughput. The developed sample handling and analysis method was applied to the determination of chemical warfare agent content in samples containing unknown chemical and/or biological warfare agents. Ottawa sand was spiked with sulfur mustard, extracted with water and autoclaved to ensure sterility. Sulfur mustard was completely hydrolysed during the extraction/autoclave step and thiodiglycol was identified by DESI-MS, with analyses generally being completed within 1 min using the "dip and shoot" method.

  3. Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Albert T

    2005-09-01

    Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including mid-spectrum materials (i.e. bioactive peptides, toxins, etc.) for which biological approaches are inadequate. Being very fast (seconds and minutes), extremely sensitive (zeptomoles 10(-21)), and informative (detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures containing hundreds of chemicals), mass spectrometry is a principal analytical tool at the sites of destruction of CW. Due to its unique features, mass spectrometry is applied not only for the detection of CW agents, but for the analysis of products of metabolism and degradation of these agents in organisms or environment as well. The present paper deals with some examples of successful application of mass spectrometry for the analyses of ecotoxicants, chemical warfare agents, explosives, and microorganisms including biology warfare agents.

  4. Instructional Development and Classroom Technology: Prototype Classrooms at the Navy's Surface Warfare Officers School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael; And Others

    The first phase of the process of developing a plan to promote increased use of educational technology by the instructors and students of the U.S. Navy's Surface Warfare Officers School (SWOS) in Newport, Rhode Island, began with a needs assessment which focused on the mission and organization of the school; the SWOS curriculum and the teaching…

  5. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the…

  6. All-Indian Rodeo: A Transformation of Western Apache Tribal Warfare and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavis, Ben

    1993-01-01

    Characteristics of All-Indian Rodeos held on the Fort Apache Reservation (Arizona) clearly reflect the evolution of historical patterns of tribal warfare and raiding. Rodeos provide the means to preserve Apache rituals, the warrior ideal, and traditional relationships with neighboring Navajo and Papago tribes. (SV)

  7. WASTE MINIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE ENGINEERING STATION - KEYPORT, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. he assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. hese shops service the Mark 48...

  8. Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Albert T. . E-mail: lebedev@org.chem.msu.ru

    2005-09-01

    Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including mid-spectrum materials (i.e. bioactive peptides, toxins, etc.) for which biological approaches are inadequate. Being very fast (seconds and minutes), extremely sensitive (zeptomoles 10{sup -21}), and informative (detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures containing hundreds of chemicals), mass spectrometry is a principal analytical tool at the sites of destruction of CW. Due to its unique features, mass spectrometry is applied not only for the detection of CW agents, but for the analysis of products of metabolism and degradation of these agents in organisms or environment as well. The present paper deals with some examples of successful application of mass spectrometry for the analyses of ecotoxicants, chemical warfare agents, explosives, and microorganisms including biology warfare agents.

  9. 75 FR 6642 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ...The Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Recruiting Directorate announces the submission of a public information collection and seeks public comment on the provisions thereof. Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency, including whether the information shall have practical utility; (b) the accuracy......

  10. Waste minimization opportunity assessment: Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, Washington. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a systematic approach to identify, select and implement options to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste. The report describes the application of the waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station in Keyport, WA (NUWES Keyport).

  11. Fluorescent discrimination between traces of chemical warfare agents and their mimics.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Greñu, Borja; Moreno, Daniel; Torroba, Tomás; Berg, Alexander; Gunnars, Johan; Nilsson, Tobias; Nyman, Rasmus; Persson, Milton; Pettersson, Johannes; Eklind, Ida; Wästerby, Pär

    2014-03-19

    An array of fluorogenic probes is able to discriminate between nerve agents, sarin, soman, tabun, VX and their mimics, in water or organic solvent, by qualitative fluorescence patterns and quantitative multivariate analysis, thus making the system suitable for the in-the-field detection of traces of chemical warfare agents as well as to differentiate between the real nerve agents and other related compounds.

  12. A Communitarian Critique of the Warfare State: Implications for the Twenty-First-Century University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Knotwell, Jim

    2007-01-01

    This article contends that the relatively recent academic movement known as communitarianism can serve as a policy guide that could work catalytically on American cultural development of the sort that would loosen the tight military-industrial connection and in so doing aid the dismantling of the "warfare state." After chronicling the development…

  13. NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project. DRAFT Joint Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    . The longer the transition period, the greater the likelihood of Pb-free parts inadvertently being mixed with Pb parts and ending up on what are supposed to be Pb systems. As a result, OEMs, depots, and support contractors need to take action now to either abate the influx of Pb-free parts, or accept it and deal with the likely interim consequences of reduced reliability due to a wide variety of matters, such as Pb contamination, high temperature incompatibility, and tin whiskering. Allowance of Pb-free components produces one of the greatest risks to the reliability of a weapon system. This is due to new and poorly understood failure mechanisms, as well as unknown long-term reliability. If the decision is made to consciously allow Pb-free solder and component finishes into SnPb electronics, additional effort (and cost) will be required to make the significant number of changes to drawings and task order procedures. This project is a follow-on effort to the Joint Council on Aging Aircraft/Joint Group on Pollution Prevention (JCAA/JG-PP) Pb-free Solder Project which was the first group to test the reliability of Pb-free solder joints against the requirements of the aerospace and military community.

  14. Molecularly imprinted nanopatterns for the recognition of biological warfare agent ricin.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Santwana; Boopathi, M; Kumar, Om; Baghel, Anuradha; Pandey, Pratibha; Mahato, T H; Singh, Beer; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2009-11-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for biological warfare agent (BWA) ricin was synthesized using silanes in order to avoid harsh environments during the synthesis of MIP. The synthesized MIP was utilized for the recognition of ricin. The complete removal of ricin from polymer was confirmed by fluorescence spectrometer and SEM-EDAX. SEM and EDAX studies confirmed the attachment of silane polymer on the surface of silica gel matrix. SEM image of Ricin-MIP exhibited nanopatterns and it was found to be entirely different from the SEM image of non-imprinted polymer (NIP). BET surface area analysis revealed more surface area (227 m(2)/g) for Ricin-MIP than that of NIP (143 m(2)/g). In addition, surface area study also showed more pore volume (0.5010 cm(3)/g) for Ricin-MIP than that of NIP (0.2828 cm(3)/g) at 12 nm pore diameter confirming the presence of imprinted sites for ricin as the reported diameter of ricin is 12 nm. The recognition and rebinding ability of the Ricin-MIP was tested in aqueous solution. Ricin-MIP rebound more ricin when compared to the NIP. Chromatogram obtained with Ricin-MIP exhibited two peaks due to imprinting, however, chromatogram of NIP exhibited only one peak for free ricin. SDS-PAGE result confirmed the second peak observed in chromatogram of Ricin-MIP as ricin peak. Ricin-MIP exhibited an imprinting efficiency of 1.76 and it also showed 10% interference from the structurally similar protein abrin.

  15. Electrochemical Testing of Gas Tungsten ARC Welded and Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Welded Alloy 22

    SciTech Connect

    S. Daniel Day; Frank M.G. Wong; Steven R. Gordon; Lana L. Wong; Raul B. Rebak

    2006-05-08

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is the material selected for the fabrication of the outer shell of the nuclear waste containers for the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository site. A key technical issue in the waste package program has been the integrity of the container weld joints. The currently selected welding process for fabricating and sealing the containers is the traditional gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or TIC method. An appealing faster alternative technique is reduced pressure electron beam (RPEB) welding. It was of interest to compare the corrosion properties of specimens prepared using both types of welding techniques. Standard electrochemical tests were carried on GTAW and RPEB welds as well as on base metal (non-welded) to determine their relative corrosion behavior in simulated concentrated water (SCW) at 90 C (alkaline), 1 M HCI at 60 C (acidic) and 1 M NaCl at 90 C (neutral) solutions. Results show that for all practical purposes, the three tested materials had the same electrochemical behavior in the three tested electrolytes.

  16. Virtual rough samples to test 3D nanometer-scale scanning electron microscopy stereo photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarrubia, J. S.; Tondare, V. N.; Vladár, A. E.

    2016-03-01

    The combination of scanning electron microscopy for high spatial resolution, images from multiple angles to provide 3D information, and commercially available stereo photogrammetry software for 3D reconstruction offers promise for nanometer-scale dimensional metrology in 3D. A method is described to test 3D photogrammetry software by the use of virtual samples—mathematical samples from which simulated images are made for use as inputs to the software under test. The virtual sample is constructed by wrapping a rough skin with any desired power spectral density around a smooth near-trapezoidal line with rounded top corners. Reconstruction is performed with images simulated from different angular viewpoints. The software's reconstructed 3D model is then compared to the known geometry of the virtual sample. Three commercial photogrammetry software packages were tested. Two of them produced results for line height and width that were within close to 1 nm of the correct values. All of the packages exhibited some difficulty in reconstructing details of the surface roughness.

  17. Electrochemical Testing of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded and Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Welded Alloy 22

    SciTech Connect

    Day, S D; Wong, F G; Gordon, S R; Wong, L L; Rebak, R B

    2006-02-05

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is the material selected for the fabrication of the outer shell of the nuclear waste containers for the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository site. A key technical issue in the waste package program has been the integrity of the container weld joints. The currently selected welding process for fabricating and sealing the containers is the traditional gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or TIG method. An appealing faster alternative technique is reduced pressure electron beam (RPEB) welding. It was of interest to compare the corrosion properties of specimens prepared using both types of welding techniques. Standard electrochemical tests were carried on GTAW and RPEB welds as well as on base metal (non-welded) to determine their relative corrosion behavior in simulated concentrated water (SCW) at 90 C (alkaline), 1 M HCl at 60 C (acidic) and 1 M NaCl at 90 C (neutral) solutions. Results show that for all practical purposes, the three tested materials had the same electrochemical behavior in the three tested electrolytes.

  18. Testing sterile neutrino extensions of the Standard Model at the Circular Electron Positron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, Stefan; Fischer, Oliver

    2015-08-01

    Extending the Standard Model with sterile (“right-handed”) neutrinos is one of the best motivated ways to account for the observed neutrino masses. We discuss the expected sensitivity of the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) for testing such extensions. An interesting scenario is given by symmetry protected seesaw models, which theoretically allow for sterile neutrino masses around the electroweak scale with up to order one mixings with the active (SM) neutrinos. When the masses of the sterile neutrinos are well above the electroweak scale, they affect precision data via effective non-unitarity of the leptonic mixing matrix in a model independent way. The expected improvement of the electroweak precision observables from the CEPC may allow to test mixings between active and sterile neutrinos down to ˜ 5 × 10-3 (using currently discussed CEPC performance parameters). For sterile neutrinos with masses around the electroweak scale, direct searches are possible. Such tests are given by the search for sterile neutrino decays at the Z pole, by deviations from the SM cross section for four leptons at and beyond the W threshold, and by Higgs boson production and decays. The expected sensitivities at the CEPC could reach down to mixings as small as ˜ 5 × 10-5.

  19. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, V.V.; Conley, R.; Anderson, E.H.; Barber, S.K.; Bouet, N.; McKinney, W.R.; Takacs, P.Z. and Voronov, D.L.

    2010-12-08

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binarypseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested and and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer. Here we describe the details of development of binarypseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi{sub 2}/Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML testsamples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  20. Stress reactivity to an electronic version of the Trier Social Stress Test: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hawn, Sage E.; Paul, Lisa; Thomas, Suzanne; Miller, Stephanie; Amstadter, Ananda B.

    2015-01-01

    Social stressors that rely on the inclusion of confederates (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) are often used in clinical laboratory research paradigms to elicit a measurable stress response in participants. Although effective, the TSST is labor intensive and may introduce error variance as a function of confederate race, gender, and/or response characteristics. The present study aimed to develop and validate an electronic version of the TSST (e-TSST). The primary aim was to compare the e-TSST to an e-neutral control condition; the exploratory aim was to compare the magnitude of stress response elicited by the e-TSST to that elicited by the traditional TSST. Forty-three healthy adults were randomized to the e-TSST or e-neutral condition. Subjective (participant-rated distress) and objective [cortisol, heart rate (HR), and blood pressure] indices of stress were collected prior to, and multiple times following, the stressor. Using archival data collected from 19 healthy participants exposed to the traditional TSST in a prior study, stress reactivity was compared between the electronic and traditional versions of the TSST. The e-TSST elicited significant increases in all measures of stress reactivity compared to the e-neutral condition, with the exception of HR. Results showed that the magnitude of subjective distress, BP, and HR responses elicited by the e-TSST did not differ significantly from that elicited by the traditional TSST. The traditional TSST elicited significantly higher cortisol than the e-TSST. Although these findings provide initial support for the development of electronic versions of the TSST, further refinement of the e-TSST is warranted prior to broad adoption of this technology. A refined, reliable e-TSST could allow for increased utilization of the TSST by enhancing convenience, reducing labor costs, and limiting potential error variance introduced by human confederates. PMID:26074862

  1. Performance simulation of infrared free electron laser at the Pohang Light Source test linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-San

    2004-08-01

    Numerical simulation studies are performed for the proposed infrared self-amplified spontaneous-emission free-electron laser (SASE-FEL) at the existing PLS test linac. It is shown that a high-gain SASE-FEL with a 1.5 μm radiation wavelength could be driven by a 61-MeV electron beam from the S-band rf linac and a 5-m long undulator. Third-harmonic generation to 0.5 μm radiation wavelength was also investigated to enhance the usefulness of the infrared SASE-FEL facility. Bunching fractions of the nonlinear third harmonic to the fundamental mode in the designed SASE-FEL is estimated and showed that the third-harmonic emission resulted in the same trend as the fundamental. This paper attempts to investigate the effect of the beam parameters such as the emittance, the energy spread, the beam energy, and the peak beam current to the designed infrared SASE-FEL. The wake effects due to the surface roughness of beam chamber in the undulator are also estimated.

  2. Initial Usability Testing of a Hand-held Electronic Logbook Prototype for the Human Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Andrea H.; Whitmore, Mihriban

    1996-01-01

    The Apple(R) Newton(TM) MessagePad 110 was flown aboard the KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft for microgravity usability testing. The Newton served as the initial hand-held electronic logbook prototype for the International Space Station (ISS) Human Research Facility (HRF). Subjects performed three different tasks with the Newton: (1) using the stylus to tap on different sections of the screen in order to launch an application and to select options within it; (2) using the stylus to write, and; (3) correcting handwriting recognition errors in a handwriting-intensive application. Subjects rated handwriting in microgravity 'Borderline' and had great difficulties finding a way in which to adequately restrain themselves at the lower body in order to have their hands free for the Newton. Handwriting recognition was rated 'Unacceptable,' but this issue is hardware-related and not unique to the microgravity environment. It is suggested that the restraint and handwriting issues are related and require further joint research with the current Handheld Electronic Logbook prototype: the Norand Pen*key Model #6300.

  3. Electro-Mechanical Testing of Conductive Materials Used in Flexible Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordill, Megan; Glushko, Oleksandr; Putz, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The use of flexible electronics has increased in recent years. In order to have robust and long lasting flexible displays and sensors, the combined electro-mechanical behavior needs to be assessed. The most common method to determine electrical and mechanical behavior of conductive thin films used in flexible electronics is the fragmentation test, or uniaxial tensile straining of the film and substrate. When performed in situ fracture and deformation behavior can be determined. The use of in situ electrical resistance measurements can be informative about the crack onset strain of brittle layers, such as transparent conductors, or the stretchability of metal interconnects. The combination of in situ electrical measurements with in situ X-ray or confocal laser scanning microscopy can provide even more information about the failure mechanisms of the material systems. Lattice strains and stresses can be measured with X-rays, while cracking and buckle delaminations can be studied with confocal laser scanning microscopy. These new combinations of in situ methods will be discussed as well as methods to quantify interfacial properties of conductive thin films on polymer substrates. The combined techniques provide valuable correlated electrical and mechanical data needed to understand failure mechanisms in flexible devices.

  4. Beam experiments with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS.

    PubMed

    Thomae, R; Conradie, J; Fourie, D; Mira, J; Nemulodi, F; Kuechler, D; Toivanen, V

    2016-02-01

    At iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences (iThemba LABS) an electron cyclotron ion source was installed and commissioned. This source is a copy of the Grenoble Test Source (GTS) for the production of highly charged ions. The source is similar to the GTS-LHC at CERN and named GTS2. A collaboration between the Accelerators and Beam Physics Group of CERN and the Accelerator and Engineering Department of iThemba LABS was proposed in which the development of high intensity argon and xenon beams is envisaged. In this paper, we present beam experiments with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS, in which the results of continuous wave and afterglow operation of xenon ion beams with oxygen as supporting gases are presented.

  5. Beam experiments with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS.

    PubMed

    Thomae, R; Conradie, J; Fourie, D; Mira, J; Nemulodi, F; Kuechler, D; Toivanen, V

    2016-02-01

    At iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences (iThemba LABS) an electron cyclotron ion source was installed and commissioned. This source is a copy of the Grenoble Test Source (GTS) for the production of highly charged ions. The source is similar to the GTS-LHC at CERN and named GTS2. A collaboration between the Accelerators and Beam Physics Group of CERN and the Accelerator and Engineering Department of iThemba LABS was proposed in which the development of high intensity argon and xenon beams is envisaged. In this paper, we present beam experiments with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS, in which the results of continuous wave and afterglow operation of xenon ion beams with oxygen as supporting gases are presented. PMID:26931949

  6. Beam experiments with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomae, R.; Conradie, J.; Fourie, D.; Mira, J.; Nemulodi, F.; Kuechler, D.; Toivanen, V.

    2016-02-01

    At iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences (iThemba LABS) an electron cyclotron ion source was installed and commissioned. This source is a copy of the Grenoble Test Source (GTS) for the production of highly charged ions. The source is similar to the GTS-LHC at CERN and named GTS2. A collaboration between the Accelerators and Beam Physics Group of CERN and the Accelerator and Engineering Department of iThemba LABS was proposed in which the development of high intensity argon and xenon beams is envisaged. In this paper, we present beam experiments with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS, in which the results of continuous wave and afterglow operation of xenon ion beams with oxygen as supporting gases are presented.

  7. Military medicine and the ethics of war: British colonial warfare during the Seven Years War (1756-63).

    PubMed

    Charters, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This article examines 18th-century European warfare, tracing the first formal codifications of conventions of war, frequently introduced by military physicians and initially regarding the treatment of the sick and wounded. It outlines to what extent these conventions were followed in practice, particularly in the challenging environment of American irregular warfare, with a focus on the most well-known incident of "biological warfare" in the period: the deliberate spread of smallpox by British officers among Amerindians in 1763. More broadly, it demonstrates that the history of military medicine provides a fruitful method with which to uncover assumptions about the ethics of war.

  8. Chemical analysis of bleach and hydroxide-based solutions after decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX).

    PubMed

    Hopkins, F B; Gravett, M R; Self, A J; Wang, M; Chua, Hoe-Chee; Hoe-Chee, C; Lee, H S Nancy; Sim, N Lee Hoi; Jones, J T A; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

    2014-08-01

    Detailed chemical analysis of solutions used to decontaminate chemical warfare agents can be used to support verification and forensic attribution. Decontamination solutions are amongst the most difficult matrices for chemical analysis because of their corrosive and potentially emulsion-based nature. Consequently, there are relatively few publications that report their detailed chemical analysis. This paper describes the application of modern analytical techniques to the analysis of decontamination solutions following decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). We confirm the formation of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine following decontamination of VX with hypochlorite-based solution, whereas they were not detected in extracts of hydroxide-based decontamination solutions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We report the electron ionisation and chemical ionisation mass spectroscopic details, retention indices, and NMR spectra of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine, as well as analytical methods suitable for their analysis and identification in solvent extracts and decontamination residues.

  9. Testing the Jacob's ladder of density functionals for electronic structure and magnetism of rutile VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Bing; Sun, Jianwei; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Perdew, John P.

    2014-08-01

    We employ semilocal density functionals [local spin-density approximation (LSDA), Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and meta-GGAs)], LSDA plus Hubbard U (LSDA+U) theory, a nonlocal range-separated Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional (HSE06), and the random-phase approximation (RPA) to assess their performances for the ground-state magnetism and electronic structure of a strongly correlated metal, rutile VO2. Using recent quantum Monte Carlo results as the benchmark, all tested semilocal and hybrid functionals as well as the RPA (with PBE inputs) predict the correct magnetic ground states for rutile VO2. The observed paramagnetism could arise from temperature-disordered local spin moments or from the thermal destruction of these moments. All semilocal functionals also give the correct ground-state metallicity for rutile VO2. However, in the ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases, LSDA+U and HSE06 incorrectly predict rutile VO2 to be a Mott-Hubbard insulator. For the computed electronic structures of FM and AFM phases, we find that the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) and revised TPSS (revTPSS) meta-GGAs give strong 2p-3d hybridizations, resulting in a depopulation of the 2p bands of O atoms, in comparison with other tested meta-GGAs. The regularized TPSS (regTPSS) and meta-GGAs made simple, i.e., MGGA_MS0 and MGGA_MS2, which are free of the spurious order-of-limits problem of TPSS and revTPSS, give electronic states close to those of the PBE GGA and LSDA. In comparison to experiment, semilocal functionals predict better equilibrium cell volumes for rutile VO2 in FM and AFM states than in the spin-unpolarized state. For meta-GGAs, a monotonic decrease of the exchange enhancement factor Fx(s,α) with α for small s, as in the MGGA_MS functionals, leads to large (probably too large) local magnetic moments in spin-polarized states.

  10. Artificial vision: needs, functioning, and testing of a retinal electronic prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Chader, Gerald J; Weiland, James; Humayun, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands around the world have poor vision or no vision at all due to inherited retinal degenerations (RDs) like retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Similarly, millions suffer from vision loss due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In both of these allied diseases, the primary target for pathology is the retinal photoreceptor cells that dysfunction and die. Secondary neurons though are relatively spared. To replace photoreceptor cell function, an electronic prosthetic device can be used such that retinal secondary neurons receive a signal that simulates an external visual image. The composite device has a miniature video camera mounted on the patient's eyeglasses, which captures images and passes them to a microprocessor that converts the data to an electronic signal. This signal, in turn, is transmitted to an array of electrodes placed on the retinal surface, which transmits the patterned signal to the remaining viable secondary neurons. These neurons (ganglion, bipolar cells, etc.) begin processing the signal and pass it down the optic nerve to the brain for final integration into a visual image. Many groups in different countries have different versions of the device, including brain implants and retinal implants, the latter having epiretinal or subretinal placement. The device furthest along in development is an epiretinal implant sponsored by Second Sight Medical Products (SSMP). Their first-generation device had 16 electrodes with human testing in a Phase 1 clinical trial beginning in 2002. The second-generation device has 60+ electrodes and is currently in Phase 2/3 clinical trial. Increased numbers of electrodes are planned for future versions of the device. Testing of the device's efficacy is a challenge since patients admitted into the trial have little or no vision. Thus, methods must be developed that accurately and reproducibly record small improvements in visual function after implantation. Standard tests such as visual acuity, visual

  11. Artificial vision: needs, functioning, and testing of a retinal electronic prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Chader, Gerald J; Weiland, James; Humayun, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands around the world have poor vision or no vision at all due to inherited retinal degenerations (RDs) like retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Similarly, millions suffer from vision loss due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In both of these allied diseases, the primary target for pathology is the retinal photoreceptor cells that dysfunction and die. Secondary neurons though are relatively spared. To replace photoreceptor cell function, an electronic prosthetic device can be used such that retinal secondary neurons receive a signal that simulates an external visual image. The composite device has a miniature video camera mounted on the patient's eyeglasses, which captures images and passes them to a microprocessor that converts the data to an electronic signal. This signal, in turn, is transmitted to an array of electrodes placed on the retinal surface, which transmits the patterned signal to the remaining viable secondary neurons. These neurons (ganglion, bipolar cells, etc.) begin processing the signal and pass it down the optic nerve to the brain for final integration into a visual image. Many groups in different countries have different versions of the device, including brain implants and retinal implants, the latter having epiretinal or subretinal placement. The device furthest along in development is an epiretinal implant sponsored by Second Sight Medical Products (SSMP). Their first-generation device had 16 electrodes with human testing in a Phase 1 clinical trial beginning in 2002. The second-generation device has 60+ electrodes and is currently in Phase 2/3 clinical trial. Increased numbers of electrodes are planned for future versions of the device. Testing of the device's efficacy is a challenge since patients admitted into the trial have little or no vision. Thus, methods must be developed that accurately and reproducibly record small improvements in visual function after implantation. Standard tests such as visual acuity, visual

  12. Radiation Test Results on COTS and non-COTS Electronic Devices for NASA-JSC Space Flight Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allums, Kimberly K.; O'Neill, P. M.; Reddell, B. D.; Nguyen, K. V.; Bailey, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation reports the results of recent proton and heavy ion Single Event Effect (SEE) testing on a variety of COTS and non-COTs electronic devices and assemblies tested for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV).

  13. Graphical display of diagnostic test results in electronic health records: a comparison of 8 systems.

    PubMed

    Sittig, Dean F; Murphy, Daniel R; Smith, Michael W; Russo, Elise; Wright, Adam; Singh, Hardeep

    2015-07-01

    Accurate display and interpretation of clinical laboratory test results is essential for safe and effective diagnosis and treatment. In an attempt to ascertain how well current electronic health records (EHRs) facilitated these processes, we evaluated the graphical displays of laboratory test results in eight EHRs using objective criteria for optimal graphs based on literature and expert opinion. None of the EHRs met all 11 criteria; the magnitude of deficiency ranged from one EHR meeting 10 of 11 criteria to three EHRs meeting only 5 of 11 criteria. One criterion (i.e., the EHR has a graph with y-axis labels that display both the name of the measured variable and the units of measure) was absent from all EHRs. One EHR system graphed results in reverse chronological order. One EHR system plotted data collected at unequally-spaced points in time using equally-spaced data points, which had the effect of erroneously depicting the visual slope perception between data points. This deficiency could have a significant, negative impact on patient safety. Only two EHR systems allowed users to see, hover-over, or click on a data point to see the precise values of the x-y coordinates. Our study suggests that many current EHR-generated graphs do not meet evidence-based criteria aimed at improving laboratory data comprehension. PMID:25792704

  14. Design and Application of an Electronic Logbook for Space System Integration and Test Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kavelaars, Alicia T.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Dept. Aeronaut. Astronaut.

    2006-10-10

    In the highly technological aerospace world paper is still widely used to document space system integration and test (I&T) operations. E-Logbook is a new technology designed to substitute the most commonly used paper logbooks in space system I&T, such as the connector mate/demate logbook, the flight hardware and flight software component installation logbook, the material mix record logbook and the electronic ground support equipment validation logbook. It also includes new logbook concepts, such as the shift logbook, which optimizes management oversight and the shift hand-over process, and the configuration logbook, which instantly reports on the global I&T state of the space system before major test events or project reviews. The design of E-Logbook focuses not only on a reliable and efficient relational database, but also on an ergonomic human-computer interactive (HCI) system that can help reduce human error and improve I&T management and oversight overall. E-Logbook has been used for the I&T operation of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). More than 41,000 records have been created for the different I&T logbooks, with no data having been corrupted or critically lost. 94% of the operators and 100% of the management exposed to E-Logbook prefer it to paper logbooks and recommend its use in the aerospace industry.

  15. Comparison of immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and direct fluorescent antibody test for the detection of bovine coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Dar, A M; Kapil, S; Goyal, S M

    1998-04-01

    Bovine coronavirus (BCV) is 1 of the major causes of calf diarrhea and has also been implicated in respiratory infections of young calves and winter dysentery of adult cattle. Currently, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), direct fluorescent antibody (DFA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques are considered standard methods for the diagnosis of BCV infection. However, these techniques are not useful if fresh tissues and intestinal contents are not available for examination. The detection of viral antigens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a suitable alternative. In the present study, 166 tissue specimens were tested by IHC for the presence of BCV. These tissues were from animals whose feces were positive for rotavirus and/or coronavirus by TEM. Some of these samples were also tested by DFA. Thus, TEM, DFA, and IHC were compared for the detection of BCV. There was 56% agreement among the 3 methods (overall kappa = 0.368). When IHC was compared with TEM, 78% agreement was observed (kappa = 0.475). Similarly, IHC and DFA had 64% agreement (kappa = 0.277). These kappa values indicate a moderate degree of agreement between IHC and TEM; agreement between IHC and DFA was fair. The results of this study indicate that IHC may be a suitable adjunct for the detection of BCV because of its simplicity, ease of use, and relatively close correlation with TEM results. PMID:9576342

  16. Performance tests of a power-electronics converter for multi-megawatt wind turbines using a grid emulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizqy Averous, Nurhan; Berthold, Anica; Schneider, Alexander; Schwimmbeck, Franz; Monti, Antonello; De Doncker, Rik W.

    2016-09-01

    A vast increase of wind turbines (WT) contribution in the modern electrical grids have led to the development of grid connection requirements. In contrast to the conventional test method, testing power-electronics converters for WT using a grid emulator at Center for Wind Power Drives (CWD) RWTH Aachen University offers more flexibility for conducting test scenarios. Further analysis on the performance of the device under test (DUT) is however required when testing with grid emulator since the characteristic of the grid emulator might influence the performance of the DUT. This paper focuses on the performance analysis of the DUT when tested using grid emulator. Beside the issue regarding the current harmonics, the performance during Fault Ride-Through (FRT) is discussed in detail. A power hardware in the loop setup is an attractive solution to conduct a comprehensive study on the interaction between the power-electronics converters and the electrical grids.

  17. Electron Lenses for Experiments on Nonlinear Dynamics with Wide Stable Tune Spreads in the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, G.; Carlson, K.; McGee, M. W.; Nobrega, L. E.; Romanov, A. L.; Ruan, J.; Valishev, A.; Noll, D.

    2015-06-01

    Recent developments in the study of integrable Hamiltonian systems have led to nonlinear accelerator lattice designs with two transverse invariants. These lattices may drastically improve the performance of high-power machines, providing wide tune spreads and Landau damping to protect the beam from instabilities, while preserving dynamic aperture. To test the feasibility of these concepts, the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is being designed and built at Fermilab. One way to obtain a nonlinear integrable lattice is by using the fields generated by a magnetically confined electron beam (electron lens) overlapping with the circulating beam. The parameters of the required device are similar to the ones of existing electron lenses. We present theory, numerical simulations, and first design studies of electron lenses for nonlinear integrable optics.

  18. Design of a new front-end electronics test-bench for the upgraded ATLAS detector's Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kureba, C. O.; Govender, M.; Hofsajer, I.; Ruan, X.; Sandrock, C.; Spoor, M.

    2015-10-01

    The year 2022 has been scheduled to see an upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in order to increase its instantaneous luminosity. The High Luminosity LHC, also referred to as the upgrade Phase-II, means an inevitable complete re-design of the read-out electronics in the Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the A Toroidal LHC Apparatus (ATLAS) detector. Here, the new read-out architecture is expected to have the front-end electronics transmit fully digitized information of the detector to the back-end electronics system. Fully digitized signals will allow more sophisticated reconstruction algorithms which will contribute to the required improved triggers at high pile-up. In Phase II, the current Mobile Drawer Integrity ChecKing (MobiDICK) test-bench will be replaced by the next generation test-bench for the TileCal superdrawers, the new Prometeo (A Portable ReadOut ModulE for Tilecal ElectrOnics). Prometeo is a portable, high-throughput electronic system for full certification of the front-end electronics of the ATLAS TileCal. It is designed to interface to the fast links and perform a series of tests on the data to assess the certification of the electronics. The Prometeo's prototype is being assembled by the University of the Witwatersrand and installed at CERN for further developing, tuning and tests. This article describes the overall design of the new Prometeo, and how it fits into the TileCal electronics upgrade.

  19. Impact of psychological problems in chemical warfare survivors with severe ophthalmologic complication, a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated SM induced ocular injuries, few of those studies have also focused on the psychological health status of victims. This study has evaluated the most prominent influences on the psychological health status of patients with severe SM induced ocular injuries. Methods This descriptive study was conducted on 149 Iranian war veterans with severe SM induced eye injuries. The psychological health status of all patients was assessed using the Iranian standardized Symptom Check List 90-Revised (SCL90-R) questionnaire. The results of patients' Global Severity Index (GSI) were compared with the optimal cut-off point of 0.4 that has previously been calculated for GSI in Iranian community. The Mann-Whitney U test, T tests and effect sizes (using Cohen's d) were employed as statistical methods. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results The mean age of patients was 44.86 (SD = 8.7) and mean duration of disease was 21.58 (SD = 1.20) years. Rate of exposure was once in 99 (66.4%) cases. The mean GSI (1.46) of the study group was higher compared to standardized cut off point (0.4) of the Iranian community. The results of this study showed that the mean of total GSI score was higher in participants with lower educational levels (effect size = 0.507), unemployment (effect size = 0.464) and having more than 3 children (effect size = 0.62). Among the participants, 87 (58.4%) cases had a positive psychological history for hospitalization or receiving outpatient cares previously and 62 (41.6%) cases had a negative psychological history. In addition, the mean of GSI in participants with negative psychological history was lower than those with positive psychological history (Mean Change Difference = -0.621 with SD = 0.120). There was a significant difference between positive and negative psychological history with respect

  20. Grid Interconnection and Performance Testing Procedures for Vehicle-To-Grid (V2G) Power Electronics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Hoke, A.; Martin, G.; Markel, T.

    2012-03-01

    Bidirectional power electronics can add vehicle-to-grid (V2G) capability in a plug-in vehicle, which then allows the vehicle to operate as a distributed resource (DR). The uniqueness of the battery-based V2G power electronics requires a test procedure that will not only maintain IEEE interconnection standards, but can also evaluate the electrical performance of the vehicle working as a DR. The objective of this paper is to discuss a recently published NREL technical report that provides interim test procedures for V2G vehicles for their integration into the electrical distribution systems and for their performance in terms of continuous output power, efficiency, and losses. Additionally, some other test procedures are discussed that are applicable to a V2G vehicle that desires to provide power reserve functions. A few sample test results are provided based on testing of prototype V2G vehicles at NREL.

  1. Improving the power of genetic association tests with imperfect phenotype derived from electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, Jennifer A; Dai, Wei; Liao, Katherine P; Shaw, Stanley Y; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Gainer, Vivian S; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Churchill, Susanne; Szolovits, Peter; Murphy, Shawn; Kohane, Isaac; Plenge, Robert; Cai, Tianxi

    2014-11-01

    To reduce costs and improve clinical relevance of genetic studies, there has been increasing interest in performing such studies in hospital-based cohorts by linking phenotypes extracted from electronic medical records (EMRs) to genotypes assessed in routinely collected medical samples. A fundamental difficulty in implementing such studies is extracting accurate information about disease outcomes and important clinical covariates from large numbers of EMRs. Recently, numerous algorithms have been developed to infer phenotypes by combining information from multiple structured and unstructured variables extracted from EMRs. Although these algorithms are quite accurate, they typically do not provide perfect classification due to the difficulty in inferring meaning from the text. Some algorithms can produce for each patient a probability that the patient is a disease case. This probability can be thresholded to define case-control status, and this estimated case-control status has been used to replicate known genetic associations in EMR-based studies. However, using the estimated disease status in place of true disease status results in outcome misclassification, which can diminish test power and bias odds ratio estimates. We propose to instead directly model the algorithm-derived probability of being a case. We demonstrate how our approach improves test power and effect estimation in simulation studies, and we describe its performance in a study of rheumatoid arthritis. Our work provides an easily implemented solution to a major practical challenge that arises in the use of EMR data, which can facilitate the use of EMR infrastructure for more powerful, cost-effective, and diverse genetic studies. PMID:25062868

  2. Energy confinement time and electron density profile shape in TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.K.; Bell, M.G.; Goldston, R.J.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Johnson, D.W.; Scott, S.D.; Wieland, R.M.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Bitter, M.; Bretz, N.; Budny, R.; Dylla, H.F.; Grek, B.; Howell, R.B.; Hsuan , H.; Johnson, L.C.; Mansfield, D.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Schivell, J.; Taylor, G.; Ulrickson, M.

    1989-11-01

    The electron density profiles of intense deuterium neutral-beam- heated plasmas (P{sub tot}/P{sub ohm} {gt} 10) are characterized as a peakedness parameter (F{sub ne} = n{sub eo}/{l angle}n{sub e}{r angle}) in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The gross energy confinement time ({tau}{sub E} = E{sub tot}/P{sub tot}) at the time of maximum stored energy is found to be a weak function of the plasma current and total heating power but depends strongly on the peakedness parameter. A regression study showed {tau}{sub E} = 2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}F{sub ne}{sup 0.76}I{sub P}{sup 0.18}P{sub tot}{sup {minus}0.12} for a data set of 561 discharges in the TFTR. Also {tau}{sub E} can be represented as {tau}{sub E} = {tau}{sub E}{sup L}f(F{sub ne}), where {tau}{sub E}{sup L} is the empirical L-mode scaling result. A similar scaling applies to an appropriately defined incremental energy confinement time ({tau}{sub inc} = dE{sub tot}/dP{sub tot}{vert bar}{sub F{sub ne} = constant}). 14 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Initial high-power testing of the ATF (Advanced Toroidal Facility) ECH (electron cyclotron heating) system

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is a moderate aspect ratio torsatron that will utilize 53.2 GHz 200 kW Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) to produce nearly current-free target plasmas suitable for subsequent heating by strong neutral beam injection. The initial configuration of the ECH system from the gyrotron to ATF consists of an optical arc detector, three bellows, a waveguide mode analyzer, two TiO/sub 2/ mode absorbers, two 90/sup 0/ miter bends, two waveguide pumpouts, an insulating break, a gate valve, and miscellaneous straight waveguide sections feeding a launcher radiating in the TE/sub 02/ mode. Later, a focusing Vlasov launcher will be added to beam the ECH power to the saddle point in ATF magnetic geometry for optimum power deposition. The ECH system has several unique features; namely, the entire ECH system is evacuated, the ECH system is broadband, forward power is monitored by a newly developed waveguide mode analyzer, phase correcting miter bends will be employed, and the ECH system will be capable of operating short pulse to cw. Initial high-power tests show that the overall system efficiency is 87%. The waveguide mode analyzer shows that the gyrotron mode output consists of 13% TE/sub 01/, 82.6% TE/sub 02/, 2.5% TE/sub 03/, and 1.9% TE/sub 04/. 4 refs.

  4. Identification of irradiated wheat by germination test, DNA comet assay and electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, Adilson C.; Freund, Maria Teresa L.; Villavicencio, Ana Lúcia C. H.; Delincée, Henry; Arthur, Valter

    2002-03-01

    In several countries, there has been an increase in the use of radiation for food processing thus improving the quality and sanitary conditions, inhibiting pathogenic microorganisms, delaying the natural aging process and so extending product lifetime. The need to develop analytical methods to detect these irradiated products is also increasing. The goal of this research was to identify wheat irradiated using different radiation doses. Seeds were irradiated with a gamma 60Co source (Gammacell 220 GC) in the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura and the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares. Dose rate used were 1.6 and 5.8kGy/h. Applied doses were 0.0, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 2.0kGy. After irradiation, seeds were analysed over a 6 month period. Three different detection methods were employed to determine how irradiation had modified the samples. Screening methods consisted of a germination test measuring the inhibition of shooting and rooting and analysis of DNA fragmentation. The method of electron spin resonance spectroscopy allowed a better dosimetric evaluation. These techniques make the identification of irradiated wheat with different doses possible.

  5. An overview of biological markers of exposure to chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Black, Robin M

    2008-01-01

    An overview is given of biological markers of exposure to chemical warfare agents. Metabolites, protein, and/or DNA adducts have been identified for most nerve agents and vesicants and validated in experimental animals or in a small number of human exposures. For several agents, metabolites derived from hydrolysis are unsatisfactory biomarkers of exposure because of background levels in the human population. These are assumed to result from environmental exposure to commercial products that contain these hydrolysis products or chemicals that are metabolized to them. In these cases, metabolites derived from glutathione pathways, or covalent adducts with proteins or DNA, provide more definitive biomarkers. Biomarkers for cyanide and phosgene are unsatisfactory as indicators of chemical warfare exposure because of other sources of these chemicals or their metabolites.

  6. Development of biosensors for the detection of biological warfare agents: its issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Harish; Rani, Renu

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses current development in biosensors for the detection of biological warfare agents (BWAs). BWAs include bacteria, virus and toxins that are added deliberately into air water and food to spread terrorism and cause disease or death. The rapid and unambiguous detection and identification of BWAs with early warning signals for detecting possible biological attack is a major challenge for government agencies particularly military and health. The detection devices--biosensors--can be classified (according to their physicochemical transducers) into four types: electrochemical, nucleic acid, optical and piezoelectric. Advantages and limitations of biosensors are discussed in this review followed by an assessment of the current state of development of different types of biosensors. The research and development in biosensors for biological warfare agent detection is of great interest for the public as well as for governments.

  7. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-09-18

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

  8. Injuries sustained to the upper extremity due to modern warfare and the evolution of care.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Eric P; Mazurek, Michael; Ingari, Jack

    2007-10-01

    The formation of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand was related to world conflicts and hostilities. Therefore, it is appropriate that upper-extremity surgeons understand injuries resulting from modern-day combat. Because of ongoing warfare, many countries have experienced a large increase in the number of wounded service members and civilians, particularly wounds of the extremities. As a result of increased rate of survival in battlefield trauma in part because of the use of modern body armor, there is increasing complexity of extremity injuries that require complex reconstructions. Decreased mortality and a consequent increase in the incidence of injured extremities underline the need for the development of new treatment options. The purpose of this presentation is to describe upper-extremity injury patterns in modern warfare, the levels of care available, and the treatment at each level of care based on the experience of the United States Military Medical Support System. PMID:17923293

  9. Experimental examination of ultraviolet Raman cross sections of chemical warfare agent simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, F.; Landström, L.; Lundén, H.; Wästerby, Pär.

    2015-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering from the commonly used chemical warfare agent simulants dimethyl sulfoxide, tributyl phosphate, triethyl phosphonoacetate was measured at excitation wavelengths ranging from 210 to 410 nm using a pulsed laser based spectrometer system with a probing distance of 1.4 m and with a field of view on the target of less than 1mm. For the purpose of comparison with well explored reference liquids the Raman scattering from simulants was measured in the form of an extended liquid surface layer on top of a silicon wafer. This way of measuring enabled direct comparison to the Raman scattering strength from cyclohexane. The reference Raman spectra were used to validate the signal strength of the simulants and the calibration of the experimental set up. Measured UV absorbance functions were used to calculate Raman cross sections. Established Raman cross sections of the simulants make it possible to use them as reference samples when measuring on chemical warfare agents in droplet form.

  10. Textile/metal-organic-framework composites as self-detoxifying filters for chemical-warfare agents.

    PubMed

    López-Maya, Elena; Montoro, Carmen; Rodríguez-Albelo, L Marleny; Aznar Cervantes, Salvador D; Lozano-Pérez, A Abel; Cenís, José Luis; Barea, Elisa; Navarro, Jorge A R

    2015-06-01

    The current technology of air-filtration materials for protection against highly toxic chemicals, that is, chemical-warfare agents, is mainly based on the broad and effective adsorptive properties of hydrophobic activated carbons. However, adsorption does not prevent these materials from behaving as secondary emitters once they are contaminated. Thus, the development of efficient self-cleaning filters is of high interest. Herein, we report how we can take advantage of the improved phosphotriesterase catalytic activity of lithium alkoxide doped zirconium(IV) metal-organic framework (MOF) materials to develop advanced self-detoxifying adsorbents of chemical-warfare agents containing hydrolysable P-F, P-O, and C-Cl bonds. Moreover, we also show that it is possible to integrate these materials onto textiles, thereby combining air-permeation properties of the textiles with the self-detoxifying properties of the MOF material.

  11. Ultrasensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents by low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanqi; Liang, Miao; Li, Zhen; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Xu, Ce; Zou, Yao

    2016-08-15

    On-spot monitoring of threat agents needs high sensitive instrument. In this study, a low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometer (LPPI-MS) was employed to detect trace amounts of vapor-phase explosives and chemical warfare agent mimetics under ambient conditions. Under 10-s detection time, the limits of detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene, nitrotoluene, nitrobenzene, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate were 30, 0.5, 4, and 1 parts per trillion by volume, respectively. As compared to those obtained previously with PI mass spectrometric techniques, an improvement of 3-4 orders of magnitude was achieved. This study indicates that LPPI-MS will open new opportunities for the sensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents.

  12. Injuries sustained to the upper extremity due to modern warfare and the evolution of care.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Eric P; Mazurek, Michael; Ingari, Jack

    2007-10-01

    The formation of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand was related to world conflicts and hostilities. Therefore, it is appropriate that upper-extremity surgeons understand injuries resulting from modern-day combat. Because of ongoing warfare, many countries have experienced a large increase in the number of wounded service members and civilians, particularly wounds of the extremities. As a result of increased rate of survival in battlefield trauma in part because of the use of modern body armor, there is increasing complexity of extremity injuries that require complex reconstructions. Decreased mortality and a consequent increase in the incidence of injured extremities underline the need for the development of new treatment options. The purpose of this presentation is to describe upper-extremity injury patterns in modern warfare, the levels of care available, and the treatment at each level of care based on the experience of the United States Military Medical Support System.

  13. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas.

  14. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas. PMID:22352732

  15. Development of biosensors for the detection of biological warfare agents: its issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Harish; Rani, Renu

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses current development in biosensors for the detection of biological warfare agents (BWAs). BWAs include bacteria, virus and toxins that are added deliberately into air water and food to spread terrorism and cause disease or death. The rapid and unambiguous detection and identification of BWAs with early warning signals for detecting possible biological attack is a major challenge for government agencies particularly military and health. The detection devices--biosensors--can be classified (according to their physicochemical transducers) into four types: electrochemical, nucleic acid, optical and piezoelectric. Advantages and limitations of biosensors are discussed in this review followed by an assessment of the current state of development of different types of biosensors. The research and development in biosensors for biological warfare agent detection is of great interest for the public as well as for governments. PMID:24244972

  16. Ultrasensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents by low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanqi; Liang, Miao; Li, Zhen; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Xu, Ce; Zou, Yao

    2016-08-15

    On-spot monitoring of threat agents needs high sensitive instrument. In this study, a low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometer (LPPI-MS) was employed to detect trace amounts of vapor-phase explosives and chemical warfare agent mimetics under ambient conditions. Under 10-s detection time, the limits of detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene, nitrotoluene, nitrobenzene, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate were 30, 0.5, 4, and 1 parts per trillion by volume, respectively. As compared to those obtained previously with PI mass spectrometric techniques, an improvement of 3-4 orders of magnitude was achieved. This study indicates that LPPI-MS will open new opportunities for the sensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents. PMID:27260452

  17. Demonstration of spread-on peel-off consumer products for sampling surfaces contaminated with pesticides and chemical warfare agent signatures.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Deborah L; Smith, Deborah L; Katona, Vanessa R; Lewis, Alan T; Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    A terrorist attack using toxic chemicals is an international concern. The utility of rubber cement and latex body paint as spray-on/spread-on peel-off collection media for signatures attributable to pesticides and chemical warfare agents from interior building and public transportation surfaces two weeks post-deposition is demonstrated. The efficacy of these media to sample escalator handrail, stainless steel, vinyl upholstery fabric, and wood flooring is demonstrated for two pesticides and eight chemicals related to chemical warfare agents. The chemicals tested are nicotine, parathion, atropine, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, dimethyl methylphosphonate, dipinacolyl methylphosphonate, ethyl methylphosphonic acid, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, methylphosphonic acid, and thiodiglycol. Amounts of each chemical found are generally greatest when latex body paint is used. Analytes with low volatility and containing an alkaline nitrogen or a sulfur atom (e.g., nicotine and parathion) usually are recovered to a greater extent than the neutral phosphonate diesters and acidic phosphonic acids (e.g., dimethyl methylphosphonate and ethyl methylphosphonic acid).

  18. Demonstration of spread-on peel-off consumer products for sampling surfaces contaminated with pesticides and chemical warfare agent signatures.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Deborah L; Smith, Deborah L; Katona, Vanessa R; Lewis, Alan T; Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    A terrorist attack using toxic chemicals is an international concern. The utility of rubber cement and latex body paint as spray-on/spread-on peel-off collection media for signatures attributable to pesticides and chemical warfare agents from interior building and public transportation surfaces two weeks post-deposition is demonstrated. The efficacy of these media to sample escalator handrail, stainless steel, vinyl upholstery fabric, and wood flooring is demonstrated for two pesticides and eight chemicals related to chemical warfare agents. The chemicals tested are nicotine, parathion, atropine, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, dimethyl methylphosphonate, dipinacolyl methylphosphonate, ethyl methylphosphonic acid, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, methylphosphonic acid, and thiodiglycol. Amounts of each chemical found are generally greatest when latex body paint is used. Analytes with low volatility and containing an alkaline nitrogen or a sulfur atom (e.g., nicotine and parathion) usually are recovered to a greater extent than the neutral phosphonate diesters and acidic phosphonic acids (e.g., dimethyl methylphosphonate and ethyl methylphosphonic acid). PMID:24835029

  19. Using metal complex ion-molecule reactions in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer to detect chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Graichen, Adam M; Vachet, Richard W

    2013-06-01

    The gas-phase reactions of a series of coordinatively unsaturated [Ni(L)n](y+) complexes, where L is a nitrogen-containing ligand, with chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer were investigated as part of a new approach to detect CWAs. Results show that upon entering the vacuum system via a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane introduction, low concentrations of several CWA simulants, including dipropyl sulfide (simulant for mustard gas), acetonitrile (simulant for the nerve agent tabun), and diethyl phosphite (simulant for nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX), can react with metal complex ions generated by electrospray ionization (ESI), thereby providing a sensitive means of detecting these compounds. The [Ni(L)n](2+) complexes are found to be particularly reactive with the simulants of mustard gas and tabun, allowing their detection at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. These detection limits are well below reported exposure limits for these CWAs, which indicates the applicability of this new approach, and are about two orders of magnitude lower than electron ionization detection limits on the same mass spectrometer. The use of coordinatively unsaturated metal complexes as reagent ions offers the possibility of further tuning the ion-molecule chemistry so that desired compounds can be detected selectively or at even lower concentrations.

  20. Application of Ni-63 photo and corona discharge ionization for the analysis of chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stach, J.; Adler, J.; Brodacki, M.; Doring, H.-R.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade, advances in instrumental design and refinements in the understanding of ion molecule reactions at atmospheric pressure enabled the application of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) as a simple inexpensive and sensitive analytical method for the detection of organic trace compounds. Positive and negative gas-phase ions for ion mobility spectrometry have been produced by a variety of methods, including photo-ionization, laser multi photon ionization, surface ionization, corona discharge ionization. The most common ion source used in ion mobility spectrometry is a radioactive Ni-63 foil which is favored due to simplicity, stability, convenience, and high selectivity. If reactant ions like (H2O(n)H)(+) or (H2O(n)O2)(-) dominate in the reaction region, nearly all kinds of compounds with a given proton or electron affinity; are ionized. However, the radioactivity of the Ni-63 foil is one disadvantage of this ion source that stimulates the development and application of other ionization techniques. In this paper, we report analyses of old chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes using Bruker RAID ion mobility spectrometers. Due to the modular construction of the measuring cell, the spectrometers can be equipped with different ion sources. The combined use of Ni-63, photo- and corona discharge ionization allows the identification of different classes of chemical compounds and yields in most cases comparable results.

  1. Molecular modeling toward selective inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Juliana O S; Mancini, Daiana T; Guimarães, Ana P; Gonçalves, Arlan S; da Cunha, Elaine F F; França, Tanos C C; Ramalho, Teodorico C

    2015-02-16

    In the present work, we applied docking and molecular dynamics techniques to study 11 compounds inside the enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis (BaDHFR) and Homo sapiens sapiens (HssDHFR). Six of these compounds were selected for a study with the mutant BaF96IDHFR. Our results corroborated with experimental data and allowed the proposition of a new molecule with potential activity and better selectivity for BaDHFR.

  2. The role of professionals in the South African chemical and biological warfare programme.

    PubMed

    Gould, Chandré; Folb, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a short account of the South African Defence Force's chemical and biological warfare programme during apartheid, specifically during the period 1980 to 1994. It examines the circumstances of recruitment of the scientists and physicians and their retention in the programme; details the 'scientific efforts' of the programme and its aberrations; and explores ethical issues in relation to the involvement of scientists in the programme.

  3. Chemical warfare nerve agents. A review of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology and resuscitation. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, D.R.

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the medical research community with a digest of the open and internal literature related to cardiopulmonary pathophysiology, resuscitation, and animal modeling of chemical warfare nerve agent intoxication. Though not comprehensive, this review makes available to the reader a cross section of what research was done in this small but important part of the medical chemical defense research program between World War II and the early 1980's.

  4. Waste-minimization opportunity assessment: Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, Washington. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. The assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. These shops service the Mark 48 torpedo and the Mark 46 torpedo respectively. The five waste minimization options presented are volume reduction of contaminated clothing, automated cleaning of parts, automated fuel tank draining, modification of the deep sink draining schedule and recycling of mineral spirits.

  5. Fluorescent discrimination between traces of chemical warfare agents and their mimics.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Greñu, Borja; Moreno, Daniel; Torroba, Tomás; Berg, Alexander; Gunnars, Johan; Nilsson, Tobias; Nyman, Rasmus; Persson, Milton; Pettersson, Johannes; Eklind, Ida; Wästerby, Pär

    2014-03-19

    An array of fluorogenic probes is able to discriminate between nerve agents, sarin, soman, tabun, VX and their mimics, in water or organic solvent, by qualitative fluorescence patterns and quantitative multivariate analysis, thus making the system suitable for the in-the-field detection of traces of chemical warfare agents as well as to differentiate between the real nerve agents and other related compounds. PMID:24597942

  6. Airborne exposure limits for chemical and biological warfare agents: is everything set and clear?

    PubMed

    Sabelnikov, Alex; Zhukov, Vladimir; Kempf, C Ruth

    2006-08-01

    Emergency response strategies (guidelines) for biological, chemical, nuclear, or radiological terrorist events should be based on scientifically established exposure limits for all the agents or materials involved. In the case of a radiological terrorist event, emergency response guidelines (ERG) have been worked out. In the case of a terrorist event with the use of chemical warfare (CW) agents the situation is not that clear, though the new guidelines and clean-up values are being generated based on re-evaluation of toxicological and risk data. For biological warfare (BW) agents, such guidelines do not yet exist. In this paper the current status of airborne exposure limits (AELs) for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are reviewed. Particular emphasis is put on BW agents that lack such data. An efficient, temporary solution to bridge the gap in experimental infectious data and to set provisional AELs for BW agents is suggested. It is based on mathematically generated risks of infection for BW agents grouped by their alleged ID50 values in three categories: with low, intermediate and high ID50 values.

  7. Nanoplatforms for Detection, Remediation and Protection Against Chem-Bio Warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denkbaş, E. B.; Bayram, C.; Kavaz, D.; Çirak, T.; Demirbilek, M.

    Chemical and biological substances have been used as warfare agents by terrorists by varying degree of sophistication. It is critical that these agents be detected in real-time with high level of sensitively, specificity, and accuracy. Many different types of techniques and systems have been developed to detect these agents. But there are some limitations in these conventional techniques and systems. Limitations include the collection, handling and sampling procedures, detection limits, sample transfer, expensive equipment, personnel training, and detection materials. Due to the unique properties such as quantum effect, very high surface/volume ratio, enhanced surface reactivity, conductivity, electrical and magnetic properties of the nanomaterials offer great opportunity to develop very fast, sensitive, accurate and cost effective detection techniques and systems to detect chemical and biological (chem.-bio) warfare agents. Furthermore, surface modification of the materials is very easy and effective way to get functional or smart surfaces to be used as nano-biosensor platform. In that respect many different types of nanomaterials have been developed and used for the detection, remediation and protection, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, quantum dots, Nano chips and arrays, fluorescent polymeric and magnetic nanoparticles, fiber optic and cantilever based nanobiosensors, nanofibrillar nanostructures etc. This study summarizes preparation and characterization of nanotechnology based approaches for the detection of and remediation and protection against chem.-bio warfare agents.

  8. [Glanders--a potential disease for biological warfare in humans and animals].

    PubMed

    Lehavi, Ofer; Aizenstien, Orna; Katz, Lior H; Hourvitz, Ariel

    2002-05-01

    Infection with Burkholderia mallei (formerly Pseudomonas mallei) can cause a subcutaneous infection known as "farcy" or can disseminate to condition known as Glanders. It is primarily a disease affecting horses, donkeys and mules. In humans, Glanders can produce four types of disease: localized form, pulmonary form, septicemia, and chronic form. Necrosis of the tracheobronchial tree and pustular skin lesions characterize acute infection with B. mallei. Other symptoms include febrile pneumonia, if the organism was inhaled, or signs of sepsis and multiple abscesses, if the skin was the port of entry. Glanders is endemic in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Central and South America. Glanders has low contiguous potential, but because of the efficacy of aerosolized dissemination and the lethal nature of the disease, B. mallei was considered a candidate for biological warfare. During World War I, Glanders was believed to have been spread to infect large numbers of Russian horses and mules on the Eastern front. The Japanese infected horses, civilians and prisoners of war during World War II. The USA and the Soviet Union have shown interest in B. mallei in their biological warfare program. The treatment is empiric and includes mono or poly-therapy with Ceftazidime, Sulfadiazine, Trimethoprim + Sulfamethoxazol, Gentamicin, Imipenem etc. Aggressive control measures essentially eliminated Glanders from the west. However, with the resurgent concern about biological warfare, B. mallei is now being studied in a few laboratories worldwide. This review provides an overview of the disease and presents the only case reported in the western world since 1949.

  9. [Chemical treatment and decomposition technique of the chemical warfare agents containing arsenicals].

    PubMed

    Kaise, Toshikazu; Kinoshita, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The old Japanese army developed several chemical warfare agents on Ohkuno Island in Seto inland sea, Hiroshima Japan, during the period between 1919 and 1944. These chemical agents including yperite (mustard; irritating agent), lewisite (irritating agent), diphenylchloroarsine (DA; vomiting agent), diphenylcyanoarsine (DC; vomiting agent) and other poisonous gases were manufactured to be used in China. After World War II, the old Japanese army abandoned or dumped these agents into seas inside or outside of Japan and interior of China. Rather than being used for terrorism, these chemical warfare agents containing arsenicals may cause injury to some workers at the digging site of abandoned chemical weapons. Moreover, the leakage of chemical agents or an explosion of the bomb may result in environmental pollution, as a result, it is highly possible to cause serious health damage to the residents. There are still many abandoned or dumped warfare agents in Japan and China, therefore chemical agents containing arsenic are needed to be treated with alkaline for decomposition or to decompose with oxidizing agent. Presently, a large quantity of chemical agents and the contaminated soil are processed by combustion, and industrial waste is treated with sulfur compounds as the insoluble sulfur arsenic complex. This report describes the methods for the disposal of these organic arsenic agents that have been implemented until present and examines the future prospects. PMID:19122436

  10. Intelligence/Electronic Warfare (IEW) direction-finding and fix estimation analysis report. Volume 2: Trailblazer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Robert; Gillis, James W.; Griesel, Ann; Pardo, Bruce

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the direction finding (DF) and fix estimation algorithms in TRAILBLAZER is presented. The TRAILBLAZER software analyzed is old and not currently used in the field. However, the algorithms analyzed are used in other current IEW systems. The underlying algorithm assumptions (including unmodeled errors) are examined along with their appropriateness for TRAILBLAZER. Coding and documentation problems are then discussed. A detailed error budget is presented.

  11. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  12. Fragmentation of molecular ions in differential mobility spectrometry as a method for identification of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Maziejuk, M; Puton, J; Szyposzyńska, M; Witkiewicz, Z

    2015-11-01

    The subject of the work is the use of differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWA). Studies were performed for mustard gas, i.e., bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (HD), sarin, i.e., O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GB) and methyl salicylate (MS) used as test compounds. Measurements were conducted with two ceramic DMS analyzers of different constructions allowing the generation of an electric field with an intensity of more than 120 Td. Detector signals were measured for positive and negative modes of operation in a temperature range from 0 to 80 °C. Fragmentations of ions containing analyte molecules were observed for all tested compounds. The effective temperatures of fragmentation estimated on the basis of dispersion plots were equal from about 148 °C for GB to 178 °C for MS. It was found that values of separation voltage (SV) and compensation voltage (CV) at which the fragmentation of sample ions is observed may be the parameters improving the certainty of detection for different analytes. The DMS analyzers enabling the observation of ion fragmentation can be successfully used for effective CWA detection. PMID:26452948

  13. Preliminary evaluation of military, commercial and novel skin decontamination products against a chemical warfare agent simulant (methyl salicylate).

    PubMed

    Matar, Hazem; Guerreiro, Antonio; Piletsky, Sergey A; Price, Shirley C; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Rapid decontamination is vital to alleviate adverse health effects following dermal exposure to hazardous materials. There is an abundance of materials and products which can be utilised to remove hazardous materials from the skin. In this study, a total of 15 products were evaluated, 10 of which were commercial or military products and five were novel (molecular imprinted) polymers. The efficacies of these products were evaluated against a 10 µl droplet of (14)C-methyl salicylate applied to the surface of porcine skin mounted on static diffusion cells. The current UK military decontaminant (Fuller's earth) performed well, retaining 83% of the dose over 24 h and served as a benchmark to compare with the other test products. The five most effective test products were Fuller's earth (the current UK military decontaminant), Fast-Act® and three novel polymers [based on itaconic acid, 2-trifluoromethylacrylic acid and N,N-methylenebis(acrylamide)]. Five products (medical moist-free wipes, 5% FloraFree™ solution, normal baby wipes, baby wipes for sensitive skin and Diphotérine™) enhanced the dermal absorption of (14)C-methyl salicylate. Further work is required to establish the performance of the most effective products identified in this study against chemical warfare agents. PMID:26339920

  14. Preliminary evaluation of military, commercial and novel skin decontamination products against a chemical warfare agent simulant (methyl salicylate).

    PubMed

    Matar, Hazem; Guerreiro, Antonio; Piletsky, Sergey A; Price, Shirley C; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Rapid decontamination is vital to alleviate adverse health effects following dermal exposure to hazardous materials. There is an abundance of materials and products which can be utilised to remove hazardous materials from the skin. In this study, a total of 15 products were evaluated, 10 of which were commercial or military products and five were novel (molecular imprinted) polymers. The efficacies of these products were evaluated against a 10 µl droplet of (14)C-methyl salicylate applied to the surface of porcine skin mounted on static diffusion cells. The current UK military decontaminant (Fuller's earth) performed well, retaining 83% of the dose over 24 h and served as a benchmark to compare with the other test products. The five most effective test products were Fuller's earth (the current UK military decontaminant), Fast-Act® and three novel polymers [based on itaconic acid, 2-trifluoromethylacrylic acid and N,N-methylenebis(acrylamide)]. Five products (medical moist-free wipes, 5% FloraFree™ solution, normal baby wipes, baby wipes for sensitive skin and Diphotérine™) enhanced the dermal absorption of (14)C-methyl salicylate. Further work is required to establish the performance of the most effective products identified in this study against chemical warfare agents.

  15. Fragmentation of molecular ions in differential mobility spectrometry as a method for identification of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Maziejuk, M; Puton, J; Szyposzyńska, M; Witkiewicz, Z

    2015-11-01

    The subject of the work is the use of differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWA). Studies were performed for mustard gas, i.e., bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (HD), sarin, i.e., O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GB) and methyl salicylate (MS) used as test compounds. Measurements were conducted with two ceramic DMS analyzers of different constructions allowing the generation of an electric field with an intensity of more than 120 Td. Detector signals were measured for positive and negative modes of operation in a temperature range from 0 to 80 °C. Fragmentations of ions containing analyte molecules were observed for all tested compounds. The effective temperatures of fragmentation estimated on the basis of dispersion plots were equal from about 148 °C for GB to 178 °C for MS. It was found that values of separation voltage (SV) and compensation voltage (CV) at which the fragmentation of sample ions is observed may be the parameters improving the certainty of detection for different analytes. The DMS analyzers enabling the observation of ion fragmentation can be successfully used for effective CWA detection.

  16. Status of the visible Free-Electron Laser at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Fernow, R.C.; Fisher, A.S.; Friedman, A.; Gallardo, J.; Ingold, G.; Kirk, H.; Kramer, S.; Lin, L.; Rogers, J.T.; Sheehan, J.F.; van Steenbergen, A.; Woodle, M.; Xie, J.; Yu, L.H.; Zhang, R. ); Bhowmik, A. . Rocketdyne Div.)

    1991-01-01

    The 500 nm Free-Electron Laser (ATF) of the Brookhaven National Laboratory is reviewed. We present an overview of the ATF, a high-brightness, 50-MeV, electron accelerator and laser complex which is a users' facility for accelerator and beam physics. A number of laser acceleration and FEL experiments are under construction at the ATF. The visible FEL experiment is based on a novel superferric 8.8 mm period undulator. The electron beam parameters, the undulator, the optical resonator, optical and electron beam diagnostics are discussed. The operational status of the experiment is presented. 22 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Nucleophilic Polymers and Gels in Hydrolytic Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Lev; Creasy, William R; McGarvey, David J; Wilusz, Eugene; Hatton, T Alan

    2015-10-01

    Water- and solvent-soluble polymeric materials based on polyalkylamines modified with nucleophilic groups are introduced as catalysts of chemical warfare agent (CWA) hydrolysis. A comparative study conducted at constant pH and based on the criteria of the synthetic route simplicity, aqueous solubility, and rate of hydrolysis of CWA mimic, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), indicated that 4-aminopyridine-substituted polyallylamine (PAAm-APy) and polyvinylamine substituted with 4-aminopyridine (PVAm-APy) were advantageous over 4-pyridinealdoxime-modified PVAm and PAAm, poly(butadiene-co-pyrrolidinopyridine), and PAAm modified with bipyridine and its complex with Cu(II). The synthesis of PVAm-APy and PAAm-APy involved generation of a betaine derivative of acrylamide and its covalent attachment onto the polyalkylamine chain followed by basic hydrolysis. Hydrogel particles of PAAm-APy and PVAm-APy cross-linked by epichlorohydrin exhibited pH-dependent swelling and ionization patterns that affected the rate constants of DFP nucleophilic hydrolysis. Deprotonation of the aminopyridine and amine groups increased the rates of the nucleophilic hydrolysis. The second-order rate of nucleophilic hydrolysis was 5.5- to 10-fold higher with the nucleophile-modified gels compared to those obtained by cross-linking of unmodified PAAm, throughout the pH range. Testing of VX and soman (GD) was conducted in 2.5-3.7 wt % PVAm-APy suspensions or gels swollen in water or DMSO/water mixtures. The half-lives of GD in aqueous PVAm-APy were 12 and 770 min at pH 8.5 and 5, respectively. Addition of VX into 3.5-3.7 wt % suspensions of PVAm-APy in DMSO-d6 and D2O at initial VX concentration of 0.2 vol % resulted in 100% VX degradation in less than 20 min. The unmodified PVAm and PAAm were 2 orders of magnitude less active than PVAm-APy and PAAm-APy, with VX half-lives in the range of 24 h. Furthermore, the PVAm-APy and PAAm-APy gels facilitated the dehydrochlorination reaction of sulfur mustard

  18. Nucleophilic Polymers and Gels in Hydrolytic Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Lev; Creasy, William R; McGarvey, David J; Wilusz, Eugene; Hatton, T Alan

    2015-10-01

    Water- and solvent-soluble polymeric materials based on polyalkylamines modified with nucleophilic groups are introduced as catalysts of chemical warfare agent (CWA) hydrolysis. A comparative study conducted at constant pH and based on the criteria of the synthetic route simplicity, aqueous solubility, and rate of hydrolysis of CWA mimic, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), indicated that 4-aminopyridine-substituted polyallylamine (PAAm-APy) and polyvinylamine substituted with 4-aminopyridine (PVAm-APy) were advantageous over 4-pyridinealdoxime-modified PVAm and PAAm, poly(butadiene-co-pyrrolidinopyridine), and PAAm modified with bipyridine and its complex with Cu(II). The synthesis of PVAm-APy and PAAm-APy involved generation of a betaine derivative of acrylamide and its covalent attachment onto the polyalkylamine chain followed by basic hydrolysis. Hydrogel particles of PAAm-APy and PVAm-APy cross-linked by epichlorohydrin exhibited pH-dependent swelling and ionization patterns that affected the rate constants of DFP nucleophilic hydrolysis. Deprotonation of the aminopyridine and amine groups increased the rates of the nucleophilic hydrolysis. The second-order rate of nucleophilic hydrolysis was 5.5- to 10-fold higher with the nucleophile-modified gels compared to those obtained by cross-linking of unmodified PAAm, throughout the pH range. Testing of VX and soman (GD) was conducted in 2.5-3.7 wt % PVAm-APy suspensions or gels swollen in water or DMSO/water mixtures. The half-lives of GD in aqueous PVAm-APy were 12 and 770 min at pH 8.5 and 5, respectively. Addition of VX into 3.5-3.7 wt % suspensions of PVAm-APy in DMSO-d6 and D2O at initial VX concentration of 0.2 vol % resulted in 100% VX degradation in less than 20 min. The unmodified PVAm and PAAm were 2 orders of magnitude less active than PVAm-APy and PAAm-APy, with VX half-lives in the range of 24 h. Furthermore, the PVAm-APy and PAAm-APy gels facilitated the dehydrochlorination reaction of sulfur mustard

  19. Secondary Electron Yield Measurements and Groove Chambers Tests in the PEP-II Beam Line Straights Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M.T.F.; King, F.; Kirby, R.E.; Markiewicz, T; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Seeman, J.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2008-07-03

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of the positron Damping Ring (DR) of future Linear Colliders such as ILC and CLIC [1, 2]. In the Positron Low Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II accelerator, we have installed vacuum chambers with rectangular grooves in a straight magnetic-free section to test this promising possible electron cloud mitigation technique. We have also installed a special chamber to monitor the secondary electron yield of TiN and TiZrV (NEG) coating, Copper, Stainless Steel and Aluminum under the effect of electron and photon conditioning in situ in the beam line. In this paper, we describe the ongoing R&D effort to mitigate the electron cloud effect for the ILC damping ring, the latest results on in situ secondary electron yield conditioning and recent update on the groove tests in PEP-II.

  20. A 4 V, ns-range pulse generator for the test of Cherenkov Telescopes readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoranz, P.; Vegas, I.; Miranda, J. M.

    2010-08-01

    We present in this paper the design, fabrication and verification of a ns-range pulse generator based on a Step Recovery Diode (SRD). This device needs only a 5 V DC power supply, delivers 1 ns pulses with peak amplitudes in excess of 4 V and features state of the art jitter figures. In addition, the pulser contains a trigger channel. The long standing problem of the SRD simulation via circuital analysis is addressed. It is shown that the dynamic properties of the Step Recovery Diode can accurately be reproduced via a small signal circuital simulation for the rise times needed in a ns-range pulser. It is also demonstrated that strong inaccuracies in the pulse shape prediction are obtained if the wave propagation through the lines typically used in this type of circuits is simulated by a simple Transverse Electromagnetic Mode (TEM) line model. Instead, it is necessary to account for non-TEM effects. By means of broadband resistive power splitters and high dynamic range amplifiers, a prototype of 4 channels was also fabricated. This prototype is particularly useful for testing the readout electronics of Cherenkov Telescopes, but additional applications to other large-scale experiments are expected, any of those where calibration or verification with compact ns-range pulsers featuring low jitter, large dynamic ranges and multichannel operation is needed. In addition, the fabrication cost of this pulser is almost negligible as compared with bulky, commercially available waveform generators, which rarely deliver ns pulses in excess of 3 V. Furthermore, the small size of the pulser presented here and its low power consumption allow an easy integration into more complex systems.

  1. Minimizing the magnetic field effect in MR-linac specific QA-tests: the use of electron dense materials.

    PubMed

    van Zijp, H M; van Asselen, B; Wolthaus, J W H; Kok, J M G; de Vries, J H W; Ishakoglu, K; Beld, E; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2016-02-01

    To address the quality assurance (QA) of a MR-linac which is an MRI combined with a linear accelerator (linac), the traditional linac QA-tests need to be redesigned, since the presence of the static magnetic field in the MR-linac alters the electron trajectory. The latter causes the asymmetry in the dose kernel which is introduced by the magnetic field and hinders accurate geometrical QA-tests for the MR-linac. We introduced the use of electron dense materials (e.g. copper) to reduce the size of the dose kernel and thereby the magnetic field effect on the dose deposition. Two examples of QA-tests are presented in which the geometrical accuracy of the MR-linac was addressed; beam profile and star-shot measurements. The introduced setup was compared with a reference setup and both were tested on a conventional and the MR-linac. The results showed that the symmetry of the recorded beam profile was restored in presence of the copper material and that the isocenter size of the MR-linac can be determined accurately with the introduced star-shot setup. The use of electron dense materials is not limited to the presented QA-tests but has a broad application for beam-specific QA-tests in presence of a magnetic field. PMID:26758570

  2. Minimizing the magnetic field effect in MR-linac specific QA-tests: the use of electron dense materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zijp, H. M.; van Asselen, B.; Wolthaus, J. W. H.; Kok, J. M. G.; de Vries, J. H. W.; Ishakoglu, K.; Beld, E.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2016-02-01

    To address the quality assurance (QA) of a MR-linac which is an MRI combined with a linear accelerator (linac), the traditional linac QA-tests need to be redesigned, since the presence of the static magnetic field in the MR-linac alters the electron trajectory. The latter causes the asymmetry in the dose kernel which is introduced by the magnetic field and hinders accurate geometrical QA-tests for the MR-linac. We introduced the use of electron dense materials (e.g. copper) to reduce the size of the dose kernel and thereby the magnetic field effect on the dose deposition. Two examples of QA-tests are presented in which the geometrical accuracy of the MR-linac was addressed; beam profile and star-shot measurements. The introduced setup was compared with a reference setup and both were tested on a conventional and the MR-linac. The results showed that the symmetry of the recorded beam profile was restored in presence of the copper material and that the isocenter size of the MR-linac can be determined accurately with the introduced star-shot setup. The use of electron dense materials is not limited to the presented QA-tests but has a broad application for beam-specific QA-tests in presence of a magnetic field.

  3. Gate assisted Kelvin test structure to measure the electron and hole flows at the same nanowire contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Hui E-mail: qli6@gmu.edu; Zhu, Hao; Badwan, Ahmad; Ioannou, Dimitris E.; Li, Qiliang E-mail: qli6@gmu.edu; Richter, Curt A.; Kirillov, Oleg

    2014-09-29

    A gate assisted Kelvin test structure based on Si nanowire field effect transistors has been designed and fabricated for the characterization of the transistor source/drain contacts. Because the Si nanowire field effect transistors exhibit ambipolar characteristics with electron current slightly lower than the hole current, we can select the type of carriers (electrons or holes) flowing through the same contacts and adjust the current by the applied gate voltage. In this way, we are able to measure the characteristics of the same contact with either pure electron or hole flow. In addition, we found that the nanowire contacts behave very differently depending on the current flow directions. This indicates that the source and drain contact resistance can be dramatically different. Such a gate assisted Kelvin Test structure will lead to future metrology and applications in nanoelectronics.

  4. Single-Event Transient Testing of the Crane Aerospace and Electronics SMHF2812D Dual DC-DC Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this testing was to characterize the Crane Aerospace & Electronics (Crane) Interpoint SMHF2812D for single-event transient (SET) susceptibility. These data shall be used for flight lot evaluation, as well as qualification by similarity of the SMHF family of converters, all of which use the same active components.

  5. Determining Training Requirements for Electronic System Maintenance: Development and Test of a New Method of Skill and Knowledge Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Edgar L.

    This is the report of a study designed to develop and test methods of deriving, directly from an analysis of the system or its surrogate, an effective and economical set of skills and knowledge for operating and maintaining a weapon system. Two methods for analyzing electronic weapon systems were developed, one method for the operator task and one…

  6. CV 990 interface test and procedure analysis of the monkey restraint, support equipment, and telemetry electronics proposed for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, B. D.

    1978-01-01

    A biological system proposed to restrain a monkey in the Spacelab was tested under operational conditions using typical metabolic and telemetered cardiovascular instrumentation. Instrumentation, interfaced with other electronics, and data gathering during a very active operational mission were analyzed for adequacy of procedure and success of data handling by the onboard computer.

  7. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. January 1979-November 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1979-November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (This updated bibliography contains 310 citations, 29 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  8. Graphene oxide as sensitive layer in Love-wave surface acoustic wave sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agent simulants.

    PubMed

    Sayago, Isabel; Matatagui, Daniel; Fernández, María Jesús; Fontecha, José Luis; Jurewicz, Izabela; Garriga, Rosa; Muñoz, Edgar

    2016-02-01

    A Love-wave device with graphene oxide (GO) as sensitive layer has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. Sensitive films were fabricated by airbrushing GO dispersions onto Love-wave devices. The resulting Love-wave sensors detected very low CWA simulant concentrations in synthetic air at room temperature (as low as 0.2 ppm for dimethyl-methylphosphonate, DMMP, a simulant of sarin nerve gas, and 0.75 ppm for dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether, DPGME, a simulant of nitrogen mustard). High responses to DMMP and DPGME were obtained with sensitivities of 3087 and 760 Hz/ppm respectively. Very low limit of detection (LOD) values (9 and 40 ppb for DMMP and DPGME, respectively) were calculated from the achieved experimental data. The sensor exhibited outstanding sensitivity, good linearity and repeatability to all simulants tested. The detection mechanism is here explained in terms of hydrogen bonding formation between the tested CWA simulants and GO.

  9. using multi-scale measurements of pitch angle distribution to test magnetospheric relativistic electron energization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Reeves, E. G. D.

    Detailed investigation of pitch angle distributions during the course of a relativistic electron energization event can aid in identifying the dominant physical process underlying the event. Current models of electron energization employ a variety physical processes ranging from radial diffusion to in-situ acceleration mechanisms. These processes result in different pitch angle distributions of energized electrons, for example radial diffusion dominated events have a pancake-type distribution. We present the results of a statistical survey of multi-scale electron pitch angle measurements during relativistic electron events. Measurements of in-situ pitch angle evolution at geosynchronous altitude are combined with measurements of global isotropization time scales. We use data from energetic particle sensors onboard SAMPEX and pitch angle data from the SOPA and ESP sensors onboard LANL spacecraft. The LANL measurements provide a microscopic view of the electron pitch angle distribution. Combining electron flux measurements at geosynchronous altitudes with those measured by SAMPEX which is in low earth orbit provides a macroscopic global view of the flux isotropization.

  10. Thermal/vacuum vs. thermal atmospheric testing of space flight electronic assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbel, Mark

    1990-01-01

    For space flight hardware, the thermal vacuum environmental test is the best test of a system's flight worthiness. Substituting an atmospheric pressure thermal test for a thermal/vacuum test can effectively reduce piece part temperatures by 20 C or more, even for low power density designs. Similar reductions in test effectiveness can also result from improper assembly level T/V test boundary conditions. The net result of these changes may reduce the effective test temperatures to the point where there is zero or negative margin over the flight thermal environment.

  11. Versatile Optical Bench for Teaching, Development, and Testing of Electron and Ion Optical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhiday, M. R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Describes a versatile apparatus for demonstrating the imaging properties of various types of electrostatic lenses. The apparatus can be used to study the focusing properties of different types of electrostatic electron or ion lenses or their combinations. (MLH)

  12. A correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic and the importance of multifield fluctuation measurements for testing nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations

    SciTech Connect

    White, A. E.; Schmitz, L.; Peebles, W. A.; Carter, T. A.; Rhodes, T. L.; Doyle, E. J.; Gourdain, P. A.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Wang, G.; Holland, C.; Tynan, G. R.; Austin, M. E.; McKee, G. R.; Shafer, M. W.; Burrell, K. H.; Candy, J.; DeBoo, J. C.; Prater, R.; Staebler, G. M.; Waltz, R. E.

    2008-10-15

    A correlation electron cyclotron emission (CECE) diagnostic has been used to measure local, turbulent fluctuations of the electron temperature in the core of DIII-D plasmas. This paper describes the hardware and testing of the CECE diagnostic and highlights the importance of measurements of multifield fluctuation profiles for the testing and validation of nonlinear gyrokinetic codes. The process of testing and validating such codes is critical for extrapolation to next-step fusion devices. For the first time, the radial profiles of electron temperature and density fluctuations are compared to nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The CECE diagnostic at DIII-D uses correlation radiometry to measure the rms amplitude and spectrum of the electron temperature fluctuations. Gaussian optics are used to produce a poloidal spot size with w{sub o}{approx}1.75 cm in the plasma. The intermediate frequency filters and the natural linewidth of the EC emission determine the radial resolution of the CECE diagnostic, which can be less than 1 cm. Wavenumbers resolved by the CECE diagnostic are k{sub {theta}}{<=}1.8 cm{sup -1} and k{sub r}{<=}4 cm{sup -1}, relevant for studies of long-wavelength turbulence associated with the trapped electron mode and the ion temperature gradient mode. In neutral beam heated L-mode plasmas, core electron temperature fluctuations in the region 0.5

  13. A correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic and the importance of multifield fluctuation measurements for testing nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations.

    PubMed

    White, A E; Schmitz, L; Peebles, W A; Carter, T A; Rhodes, T L; Doyle, E J; Gourdain, P A; Hillesheim, J C; Wang, G; Holland, C; Tynan, G R; Austin, M E; McKee, G R; Shafer, M W; Burrell, K H; Candy, J; DeBoo, J C; Prater, R; Staebler, G M; Waltz, R E; Makowski, M A

    2008-10-01

    A correlation electron cyclotron emission (CECE) diagnostic has been used to measure local, turbulent fluctuations of the electron temperature in the core of DIII-D plasmas. This paper describes the hardware and testing of the CECE diagnostic and highlights the importance of measurements of multifield fluctuation profiles for the testing and validation of nonlinear gyrokinetic codes. The process of testing and validating such codes is critical for extrapolation to next-step fusion devices. For the first time, the radial profiles of electron temperature and density fluctuations are compared to nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The CECE diagnostic at DIII-D uses correlation radiometry to measure the rms amplitude and spectrum of the electron temperature fluctuations. Gaussian optics are used to produce a poloidal spot size with w(o) approximately 1.75 cm in the plasma. The intermediate frequency filters and the natural linewidth of the EC emission determine the radial resolution of the CECE diagnostic, which can be less than 1 cm. Wavenumbers resolved by the CECE diagnostic are k(theta) < or = 1.8 cm(-1) and k(r) < or = 4 cm(-1), relevant for studies of long-wavelength turbulence associated with the trapped electron mode and the ion temperature gradient mode. In neutral beam heated L-mode plasmas, core electron temperature fluctuations in the region 0.5 < r/a < 0.9, increase with radius from approximately 0.5% to approximately 2%, similar to density fluctuations that are measured simultaneously with beam emission spectroscopy. After incorporating "synthetic diagnostics" to effectively filter the code output, the simulations reproduce the characteristics of the turbulence and transport at one radial location r/a = 0.5, but not at a second location, r/a = 0.75. These results illustrate that measurements of the profiles of multiple fluctuating fields can provide a significant constraint on the turbulence models employed by the code.

  14. Bread-Board Testing of the Radiation Hard Electron Monitor (RADEM) being developed for the ESA JUICE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrigakshi, Alankrita; Hajdas, Wojtek; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Xiao, Hualin; Goncalves, Patricia; Pinto, Marco; Pinto, Costa; Marques, Arlindo; Meier, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The RADEM instrument will serve as the radiation monitor for the JUICE spacecraft. It will characterize the highly dynamic radiation environment of the Jovian system by measuring the energy spectra of energetic electrons and protons up to 40 MeV and 250 MeV, respectively. It will also determine the directionality of 0.3-10 MeV electrons. Further goals include the detection of heavy ions, and the determination of the corresponding LET spectra and dose rates. Here, the tests of the Electron and Proton Telescopes, and the Directionality Detector of the RADEM Bread-Board model are described. The objective of these tests is to validate RADEM design and physical concept applied therein. The tests were performed at various irradiation facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) where energy ranges relevant for space applications can be covered (electrons: ≤100 MeV and protons: ≤230 MeV). The measured values are also compared with GEANT4 Monte-Carlo Simulation results.

  15. Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding Effectiveness (SE) Interim Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Test specimen configuration was provided by Parker Chomerics. The EMI gasket used in this project was Cho-Seal 6503E. Black oxide alloy steel socket head bolts were used to hold the plates together. Non-conductive spacers were used to control the amount of compression on the gaskets. The following test fixture specifications were provided by Parker Chomerics. The CHO-TP09 test plate sets selected for this project consist of two aluminum plates manufactured to the specifications detailed in CHO­-TP09. The first plate, referred to as the test frame, is illustrated in Figure 1. The test frame is designed with a cutout in the center and two alternating bolt patterns. One pattern is used to bolt the test frame to the corresponding test cover plate (Figure 2), forming a test plate set. The second pattern accepts the hardware used to mount the fully assembled test plate set to the main adapter plate (Figure 3).

  16. Lessons learned from the introduction of an electronic safety net to enhance test result management in an Australian mothers’ hospital

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Andrew; Lymer, Sharyn; Forster, Megan; Strachan, Michael; Graham, Sara; Hirst, Geof; Callen, Joanne; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the implementation and impact of an electronic test result acknowledgement (RA) system in the Mater Mothers’ Hospital in Brisbane, Australia. The Verdi application electronically records clinicians’ acknowledgement of the review of results. Hospital data (August 2011–August 2012) were extracted to measure clinicians’ acknowledgement practices. There were 27 354 inpatient test results for 6855 patients. All test results were acknowledged. 60% (95% CI 59% to 61%) of laboratory and 44% (95% CI 40% to 48%) of imaging results were acknowledged within 24 h. The median time between report availability and acknowledgement was 18.1 h for laboratory and 1 day 18 h for imaging results. The median time from when a result was first viewed to its acknowledgement was 7 min for laboratory and 1 min for imaging results. The longest recorded time to acknowledgement was 38 days. Electronic RA provides a safety net to enhance test result management. PMID:24598829

  17. Program EPICP: Electron photon interaction code, photon test module. Version 94.2

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D.E.

    1994-09-01

    The computer code EPICP performs Monte Carlo photon transport calculations in a simple one zone cylindrical detector. Results include deposition within the detector, transmission, reflection and lateral leakage from the detector, as well as events and energy deposition as a function of the depth into the detector. EPICP is part of the EPIC (Electron Photon Interaction Code) system. EPICP is designed to perform both normal transport calculations and diagnostic calculations involving only photons, with the objective of developing optimum algorithms for later use in EPIC. The EPIC system includes other modules that are designed to develop optimum algorithms for later use in EPIC; this includes electron and positron transport (EPICE), neutron transport (EPICN), charged particle transport (EPICC), geometry (EPICG), source sampling (EPICS). This is a modular system that once optimized can be linked together to consider a wide variety of particles, geometries, sources, etc. By design EPICP only considers photon transport. In particular it does not consider electron transport so that later EPICP and EPICE can be used to quantitatively evaluate the importance of electron transport when starting from photon sources. In this report I will merely mention where we expect the results to significantly differ from those obtained considering only photon transport from that obtained using coupled electron-photon transport.

  18. Evaluating Maintenance Performance: A Video Approach to Symbolic Testing of Electronics Maintenance Tasks. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Edgar L.; And Others

    This volume reports an effort to use the video media as an approach for the preparation of a battery of symbolic tests that would be empirically valid substitutes for criterion referenced Job Task Performance Tests. The graphic symbolic tests require the storage of a large amount of pictorial information which must be searched rapidly for display.…

  19. Characterization of a medical X-ray machine for testing the response of electronic dosimeters in pulsed radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, Margarete C.; Da Silva, Teógenes A.

    2014-11-01

    Electronic personal dosimeters (EPD) based on solid state detectors have been used for personnel monitoring for radiation protection purpose; their use has been extended to practices with pulsed radiation beams although their performance is not well known. Deficiencies in the EPD response in pulsed radiation fields have been reported; they were not detected before since type tests and calibrations of EPDs were established in terms of continuous X and gamma reference radiations. An ISO working group was formed to elaborate a standard for test conditions and performance requirements of EPDs in pulsed beams; the PTB/Germany implemented a special X-ray facility for generating the reference pulsed radiation beams. In this work, an 800 Plus VMI medical X-ray machine of the Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory of CDTN/CNEN was characterized to verify its feasibility to perform EPD tests. Characterization of the x-ray beam was done in terms of practical peak voltage, half-value layer, mean energy and air kerma rate. Reference dosimeters used for air kerma measurements were verified as far their metrological coherence and a procedure for testing EDPs was established. Electronic personal dosimeters (EPD) have been used for personnel monitoring. EPD use has been extended to pulsed radiation beams. Deficiencies in the EPD response in pulsed beams have been reported. The feasibility of using a medical X-ray machine to perform EPD tests was studied. Reference dosimeters were verified and EPD testing procedure was established.

  20. Performance Modeling and Testing of Distributed Electronics in PV Systems; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.

    2015-03-18

    Computer modeling is able to predict the performance of distributed power electronics (microinverters, power optimizers) in PV systems. However, details about partial shade and other mismatch must be known in order to give the model accurate information to go on. This talk will describe recent updates in NREL’s System Advisor Model program to model partial shading losses with and without distributed power electronics, along with experimental validation results. Computer modeling is able to predict the performance of distributed power electronics (microinverters, power optimizers) in PV systems. However, details about partial shade and other mismatch must be known in order to give the model accurate information to go on. This talk will describe recent updates in NREL’s System Advisor Model program to model partial shading losses.

  1. The primary test of measuremental system for the actual emittance of relativistic electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Fu; Tai-bin Du; Xin Chen

    1995-12-31

    Recent, a new measuremental system has been established basically in Tsinghua University PRA. This system is able to measure the lower emittance of the electron beams from the RF accelerators for the FEL. It consists of a scanning magnetic field, a slit, a fluorescent screen, and a TV camera, an image processing system, a CAD 386 computer. Using it an actual phase diagram is obtained for 4-10 Mev electron beams, The principle and structure of the facility were reported in the Proceeding of the 15th FEL Conference. This paper describes the performance of the main components and the results of first measurement for the electron gun and 4Mev standing wave LINAC, Some new suggests are related too.

  2. Detection of warfare agents in liquid foods using the brine shrimp lethality assay.

    PubMed

    Lumor, Stephen E; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Labuza, Theodore P

    2011-01-01

    The brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA) was used for rapid and non-specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents at concentrations considerably below that which will cause harm to humans. Warfare agents detected include T-2 toxin, trimethylsilyl cyanide, and commercially available pesticides such as dichlorvos, diazinon, dursban, malathion, and parathion. The assay was performed by introducing 50 μL of milk or orange juice contaminated with each analyte into vials containing 10 freshly hatched brine shrimp nauplii in seawater. This was incubated at 28 °C for 24 h, after which mortality was determined. Mortality was converted to probits and the LC(50) was determined for each analyte by plotting probits of mortality against analyte concentration (log(10)). Our findings were the following: (1) the lethal effects of toxins dissolved in milk were observed, with T-2 toxin being the most lethal and malathion being the least, (2) except for parathion, the dosage (based on LC(50)) of analyte in a cup of milk (200 mL) consumed by a 6-y-old (20 kg) was less than the respective published rat LD(50) values, and (3) the BSLA was only suitable for detecting toxins dissolved in orange juice if incubation time was reduced to 6 h. Our results support the application of the BSLA for routine, rapid, and non-specific prescreening of liquid foods for possible sabotage by an employee or an intentional bioterrorist act. Practical Application: The findings of this study strongly indicate that the brine shrimp lethality assay can be adapted for nonspecific detection of warfare agents or toxins in food at any point during food production and distribution.

  3. U(VI) bioreduction with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor-Model application to a field test

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Guoping; Watson, David B; Wu, Wei-min; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Parker, Jack C; Brooks, Scott C

    2013-01-01

    A one-time 2-hour emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) injection in a fast flowing aquifer decreased U discharge to a stream for over a year. Using a comprehensive biogeochemical model developed in the companion article based on microcosm tests, we approximately matched the observed acetate, nitrate, Fe, U, and sulfate concentrations, and described the major evolution trends of multiple microbial functional groups in the field test. While the lab-determined parameters were generally applicable in the field-scale simulation, the EVO hydrolysis rate constant was estimated to be an order of magnitude greater in the field than in the microcosms. The model predicted substantial biomass (sulfate reducers) and U(IV) accumulation near the injection wells and along the side boundaries of the treatment zone where electron donors (long-chain fatty acids) from the injection wells met electron acceptors (sulfate) from the surrounding environment. While EVO retention and hydrolysis characteristics were expected to control treatment longevity, modeling results indicated that electron acceptors such as sulfate may not only compete for electrons but also play a conducive role in degrading complex substrates and enhancing U(VI) reduction and immobilization. As a result, the spacing of the injection wells could be optimized for effective sustainable bioremediation.

  4. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 187 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Sex differences in intergroup competition, aggression, and warfare: the male warrior hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Van Vugt, Mark

    2009-06-01

    The social science literature abounds with examples of human tribalism, the tendency to categorize individuals on the basis of their group membership and treat in-group members benevolently and out-group members malevolently. I argue that this tribal inclination is an evolved response to the threat of intergroup violence and warfare that was endemic in ancestral human environments (and is still common today). Here I hypothesize that intergroup conflict has profoundly affected the social psychology of human males in particular--the male warrior hypothesis--and present evidence consistent with this claim. I also discuss implications of this hypothesis for managing intergroup relations in our society.

  6. Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. The most important bacterial warfare agents - review.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, M; Skládal, P

    2009-01-01

    There are three most important bacterial causative agents of serious infections that could be misused for warfare purposes: Bacillus anthracis (the causative agent of anthrax) is the most frequently mentioned one; however, Fracisella tularensis (causing tularemia) and Yersinia pestis (the causative agent of plague) are further bacterial agents enlisted by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention into the category A of potential biological weapons. This review intends to summarize basic information about these bacterial agents. Military aspects of their pathogenesis and the detection techniques suitable for field use are discussed.

  7. Niobium(V) saponite clay for the catalytic oxidative abatement of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Carniato, Fabio; Bisio, Chiara; Psaro, Rinaldo; Marchese, Leonardo; Guidotti, Matteo

    2014-09-15

    A Nb(V)-containing saponite clay was designed to selectively transform toxic organosulfur chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under extremely mild conditions into nontoxic products with reduced environmental impact. Thanks to the insertion of Nb(V) sites within the saponite framework, a bifunctional catalyst with strong oxidizing and acid properties was obtained. Remarkable activity and high selectivity were observed for the oxidative abatement of (2-chloroethyl)ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of sulfur mustard, at room temperature with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. This performance was significantly better compared to a conventional commercial decontamination powder.

  8. Fast neutron sensor for detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin; Matika, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water has been confirmed it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive or chemical warfare charge. We propose that this be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system can inspect the object for the presence of the threat materials by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator. PMID:19833524

  9. Surface-immobilization of molecules for detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Indrani; Neelam

    2014-09-01

    Fabrication of nanoscale molecular assemblies with advanced functionalities is an emerging field. These systems provide new perspectives for the detection and degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). The main concern in this context is the design and fabrication of "smart surfaces" able to immobilize functional molecules which can perform a certain function or under the input of external stimuli. This review addresses the above points dealing with immobilization of various molecules on different substrates and describes their adequacy as sensors for the detection of CWAs.

  10. Supramolecular chemistry and chemical warfare agents: from fundamentals of recognition to catalysis and sensing.

    PubMed

    Sambrook, M R; Notman, S

    2013-12-21

    Supramolecular chemistry presents many possible avenues for the mitigation of the effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), including sensing, catalysis and sequestration. To-date, efforts in this field both to study fundamental interactions between CWAs and to design and exploit host systems remain sporadic. In this tutorial review the non-covalent recognition of CWAs is considered from first principles, including taking inspiration from enzymatic systems, and gaps in fundamental knowledge are indicated. Examples of synthetic systems developed for the recognition of CWAs are discussed with a focus on the supramolecular complexation behaviour and non-covalent approaches rather than on the proposed applications.

  11. Laboratory conditions and safety in a chemical warfare agent analysis and research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kenar, Levent; Karayilanoğlu, Turan; Kose, Songul

    2002-08-01

    Toxic chemicals have been used as weapons of war and also as means of terrorist attacks on civilian populations. Research focusing on chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may be associated with an increased risk of exposure to and contamination by these agents. This article summarizes some of the regulations concerning designation and safety in a CWA analysis and research laboratory and medical countermeasures in case of an accidental exposure. The design of such a laboratory, coupled with a set of safety guidelines, provides for the safe conduct of research and studies involving CWAs. Thus, a discussion of decontamination and protection means against CWAs is also presented.

  12. Testing of the J-2X Augmented Spark Igniter (ASI) and Its Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Reliable operation of the spark ignition system electronics in the J-2X Augmented Spark Igniter (ASI) is imperative in assuring ASI ignition and subsequent Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) ignition events are reliable in the J-2X Engine. Similar to the man-rated J-2 and RS-25 engines, the J-2X ignition system electronics are equipped with spark monitor outputs intended to indicate that the spark igniters are properly energized and sparking. To better understand anomalous spark monitor data collected on the J-2X development engines at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC), a comprehensive subsystem study of the engine's low- and high-tension spark ignition system electronics was conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Spark monitor output data were compared to more detailed spark diagnostics to determine if the spark monitor was an accurate indication of actual sparking events. In addition, ignition system electronics data were closely scrutinized for any indication of an electrical discharge in some location other than the firing tip of the spark igniter - a problem not uncommon in the development of high voltage ignition systems.

  13. Study of quantum spin correlations of relativistic electron pairs - Testing nonlocality of relativistic quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodek, K.; Caban, P.; Ciborowski, J.; Enders, J.; Köhler, A.; Kozela, A.; Rembieliński, J.; Rozpedzik, D.; Włodarczyk, M.; Zejma, J.

    2013-11-01

    The Polish-German project QUEST aims at studying relativistic quantum spin correlations of the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky-Bohm type, through measurement of the correlation function and the corresponding probabilities for relativistic electron pairs. The results will be compared to theoretical predictions obtained by us within the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics, based on assumptions regarding the form of the relativistic spin operator. Agreement or divergence will be interpreted in the context of non-uniqueness of the relativistic spin operator in quantum mechanics as well as dependence of the correlation function on the choice of observables representing the spin. Pairs of correlated electrons will originate from the Mo/ller scattering of polarized 15 MeV electrons provided by the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC, TU Darmstadt, incident on a Be target. Spin projections will be determined using the Mott polarimetry technique. Measurements (starting 2013) are planned for longitudinal and transverse beam polarizations and different orientations of the beam polarization vector w.r.t. the Mo/ller scattering plane. This is the first project to study relativistic spin correlations for particles with mass.

  14. A New Chicane Experiment in PEP-II to Test Mitigations of the Electron Cloud Effect for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M. T.; Pivi, M.T.F.; Ng, J.S.T.; Arnett, D.; Cooper, F.; Kharakh, D.; King, F.K.; Kirby, R.E.; Kuekan, B.; Lipari, J.J.; Munro, M.; Olszewski, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Seeman, J.; Spencer, C.M.; Wang, L.; Wittmer, W.; Celata, C.M.; Furman, M.A.; Smith, B.

    2008-06-11

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings, and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of future colliders [1-3]. The effect is expected to be particularly severe in magnetic field regions. To test possible mitigation methods in magnetic fields, we have installed a new 4-dipole chicane experiment in the PEP-II Low Energy Ring (LER) at SLAC with both bare and TiN-coated aluminum chambers. In particular, we have observed a large variation of the electron flux at the chamber wall as a function of the chicane dipole field. We infer this is a new high order resonance effect where the energy gained by the electrons in the positron beam depends on the phase of the electron cyclotron motion with respect to the bunch crossing, leading to a modulation of the secondary electron production. Presumably the cloud density is modulated as well and this resonance effect could be used to reduce its magnitude in future colliders. We present the experimental results obtained during January 2008 until the April final shut-down of the PEP-II machine.

  15. A New Chicane Experiment In PEP-II to Test Mitigations of the Electron Cloud Effect for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M.T.F.; Ng, J.S.T.; Arnett, D.; Cooper, F.; Kharakh, D.; King, F.K.; Kirby, R.E.; Kuekan, B.; Lipari, J.J.; Munro, M.; Olszewski, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Seeman, J.; Smith, B.; Spencer, C.M.; Wang, L.; Wittmer, W.; Celata, C.M.; Furman, M.A.; /SLAC /LBL, Berkeley

    2008-07-03

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings, and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of future colliders [1-3]. The effect is expected to be particularly severe in magnetic field regions. To test possible mitigation methods in magnetic fields, we have installed a new 4-dipole chicane experiment in the PEP-II Low Energy Ring (LER) at SLAC with both bare and TiN-coated aluminum chambers. In particular, we have observed a large variation of the electron flux at the chamber wall as a function of the chicane dipole field. We infer this is a new high order resonance effect where the energy gained by the electrons in the positron beam depends on the phase of the electron cyclotron motion with respect to the bunch crossing, leading to a modulation of the secondary electron production. Presumably the cloud density is modulated as well and this resonance effect could be used to reduce its magnitude in future colliders. We present the experimental results obtained during January 2008 until the April final shut-down of the PEP-II machine.

  16. Plasticity mechanisms in ultrafine grained freestanding aluminum thin films revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy nanomechanical testing

    SciTech Connect

    Idrissi, Hosni; Kobler, Aaron; Amin-Ahmadi, Behnam; Schryvers, Dominique; Coulombier, Michael; Pardoen, Thomas; Galceran, Montserrat; Godet, Stéphane; Kübel, Christian

    2014-03-10

    In-situ bright field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) nanomechanical tensile testing and in-situ automated crystallographic orientation mapping in TEM were combined to unravel the elementary mechanisms controlling the plasticity of ultrafine grained Aluminum freestanding thin films. The characterizations demonstrate that deformation proceeds with a transition from grain rotation to intragranular dislocation glide and starvation plasticity mechanism at about 1% deformation. The grain rotation is not affected by the character of the grain boundaries. No grain growth or twinning is detected.

  17. Ronchi test for characterization of nanofocusing optics at a hard x-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Daniel; Uhlén, Fredrik; Holmberg, Anders; Hertz, Hans M; Schropp, Andreas; Patommel, Jens; Hoppe, Robert; Seiboth, Frank; Meier, Vivienne; Schroer, Christian G; Galtier, Eric; Nagler, Bob; Lee, Hae Ja; Vogt, Ulrich

    2012-12-15

    We demonstrate the use of the classical Ronchi test to characterize aberrations in focusing optics at a hard x-ray free-electron laser. A grating is placed close to the focus and the interference between the different orders after the grating is observed in the far field. Any aberrations in the beam or the optics will distort the interference fringes. The method is simple to implement and can provide single-shot information about the focusing quality. We used the Ronchi test to measure the aberrations in a nanofocusing Fresnel zone plate at the Linac Coherent Light Source at 8.194 keV.

  18. Closed cycle cryocooler for low temperature electronics circuits: Cold end test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirtle, F. W.

    1983-08-01

    A fabricated MACOR cold end including a metallic coating to prevent helium permeation and a fabricated die post displacer support bearing were combined with a compressor and motor which are standard CTI-CRYOGENICS products. A mechanical test was performed on the test cryocooler to determine that the mechanical test was performed on the test cryocooler to determine that the MACOR displacer was successfully guided by the die post bearing. Thermodynamic tests were conducted to determine the lowest temperature of the 4th (coldest) stage as a function of operating speed, helium charge pressure, 4th stage electrical heat load, and transfer tube diameter. Cooldown and steady state results are reported. Results indicate a low temperature limit of approximately 95K with the current test hardware. Although this represents an improvement from 122K during the program, a resizing will be necessary to reach 10K. The die post displacer support bearing and the MACOR cold finger construction are mechanically satisfactory.

  19. The Entomological Institute of the Waffen-SS: evidence for offensive biological warfare research in the third Reich.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    In January 1942, Heinrich Himmler, head of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and police in Nazi Germany, ordered the creation of an entomological institute to study the physiology and control of insects that inflict harm to humans. Founded in the grounds of the concentration camp at Dachau, it has been the focus of previous research, notably into the question of whether it was involved in biological warfare research. This article examines research protocols by the appointed leader Eduard May, presented here for the first time, which confirm the existence of an offensive biological warfare research programme in Nazi Germany.

  20. The Entomological Institute of the Waffen-SS: evidence for offensive biological warfare research in the third Reich.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    In January 1942, Heinrich Himmler, head of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and police in Nazi Germany, ordered the creation of an entomological institute to study the physiology and control of insects that inflict harm to humans. Founded in the grounds of the concentration camp at Dachau, it has been the focus of previous research, notably into the question of whether it was involved in biological warfare research. This article examines research protocols by the appointed leader Eduard May, presented here for the first time, which confirm the existence of an offensive biological warfare research programme in Nazi Germany. PMID:23787226

  1. Evaluating Maintenance Performance: The Development of Graphic Symbolic Substitutes for Criterion Referenced Job Task Performance Tests for Electronic Maintenance. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Edgar L.; Foley, John P., Jr.

    A battery of criterion referenced Job Task Performance Tests (JTPT) was developed because paper and pencil tests of job knowledge and electronic theory had very poor criterion-related or empirical validity with respect to the ability of electronic maintenance men to perform their job. Although the original JTPT required the use of actual…

  2. Radiation testing campaign results for understanding the suitability of FPGAs in detector electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citterio, M.; Camplani, A.; Cannon, M.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Deng, B.; Liu, C.; Meroni, C.; Kierstead, J.; Takai, H.; Wirthlin, M.; Ye, J.

    2016-07-01

    SRAM based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have been rarely used in High Energy Physics (HEP) due to their sensitivity to radiation. The last generation of commercial FPGAs based on 28 nm feature size and on Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technologies are more tolerant to radiation to the level that their use in front-end electronics is now feasible. FPGAs provide re-programmability, high-speed computation and fast data transmission through the embedded serial transceivers. They could replace custom application specific integrated circuits in front end electronics in locations with moderate radiation field. The use of a FPGA in HEP experiments is only limited by our ability to mitigate single event effects induced by the high energy hadrons present in the radiation field.

  3. Further developments and beam tests of the gas electron multiplier (GEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benlloch, J.; Bressan, A.; Capeáns, M.; Gruwé, M.; Hoch, M.; Labbé, J. C.; Placci, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Sauli, F.

    1998-12-01

    We describe the development and operation of the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM), a thin insulating foil metal-clad on both sides and perforated by a regular pattern of small holes. The mesh can be incorporated into the gas volume of an active detector to provide a first amplification channel for electrons, or used as stand alone. We report on the basic properties of GEMs manufactured with different geometries and operated in several gas mixtures as well as on their long-term stability after accumulation of charge equivalent to several years of operation in high-luminosity experiments. Optimized GEMs reach gains close to 10 000 at safe operating voltages, permitting the detection of ionizing tracks, without other amplifying elements, on a simple Printed Circuit Board (PCB), opening new possibilities for detector design.

  4. Electrons on the HDice target: Results and analysis of test runs at JLab in 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Michael; Bass, Christopher; D'Angelo, Annalisa; Deur, Alexandre; Hanretty, Charles; Ho, Dao; Kageya, Tsuneo; Laine, Vivien; Peng, Peng; Sandorfi, Andrew; Wei, Xiangdong; Whisnant, Charles

    2014-06-01

    During the Jefferson Labaratory E06-101 (g14) experiment \\cite{g14} utilizing photons on solid HD and performed in Hall B, two opportunities arose for targets to be subjected to multi-GeV electron beams in week-long campaigns of dose accumulation and NMR polarization measurements. This was in preparation for conditionally approved electron experiments after the 12 GeV JLab upgrade\\cite{trans}. Besides the important thermal effects, evidence consistent with screening of the NMR and with decay of the target polarization was observed during bombardment and for a time afterwards. The solid hydrogens have been the subject of previous radiation damage studies, both for possible polarized DT fusion\\cite{Forrest97} and for production of dynamically polarized nuclear targets\\cite{Radtke04}. We synthesize all this information into an overall picture that can guide on-going development of the HDice target system for future use.

  5. Electronic viscosity in a quantum well: A test for the local-density approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agosta, Roberto; di Ventra, Massimiliano; Vignale, Giovanni

    2007-07-01

    In the local-density approximation (LDA) for electronic time-dependent current-density-functional theory, many-body effects are described in terms of the viscoelastic constants of the homogeneous three-dimensional electron gas. In this paper, we critically examine the applicability of the three-dimensional LDA to the calculation of the viscous damping of one-dimensional collective oscillations of angular frequency ω in a quasi-two-dimensional quantum well. We calculate the effective viscosity ζ(ω) from perturbation theory in the screened Coulomb interaction and compare it with the commonly used three-dimensional LDA viscosity Y(ω) . Significant differences are found. At low frequency, Y(ω) is dominated by a shear term, which is absent in ζ(ω) . At high frequency, ζ(ω) and Y(ω) exhibit different power-law behaviors ( ω-3 and ω-5/2 , respectively), reflecting different spectral densities of electron-hole excitations in two and three dimensions. These findings demonstrate the need for better approximations for the exchange-correlation stress tensor in specific systems where the use of the three-dimensional functionals may lead to unphysical results.

  6. Guide for preparing annual reports on radiation-safety testing of electronic products (general)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    For manufacturers of electronic products other than those for which a specific guide has been issued, the guide replaces the Guide for the Filing of Annual Reports (21 CFR Subchapter J, Section 1002.11), HHS Publication FDA 82-8127. The electronic product (general) annual reporting guide is applicable to the following products: products intended to produce x radiation (accelerators, analytical devices, therapy x-ray machines); microwave diathermy machines; cold-cathode discharge tubes; and vacuum switches and tubes operating at or above 15,000 volts. To carry out its responsibilities under Public Law 90-602, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) has issued a series of regulations contained in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Part 1002 of 21 CFR deals with records and reports. Section 1002.61 categorizes electronic products into Groups A through C. Section 1002.30 requires manufacturers of products in Groups B and C to establish and maintain certain records, while Section 1002.11 requires such manufacturers to submit an Annual Report summarizing the contents of the required records. Section 1002.7 requires that reports conform to reporting guides issued by CDRH unless an acceptable justification for an alternate format is provided.

  7. How context affects electronic health record-based test result follow-up: a mixed-methods evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Shailaja; Smith, Michael W; Sittig, Dean F; Petersen, Nancy J; Hysong, Sylvia J; Espadas, Donna; Modi, Varsha; Singh, Hardeep

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Electronic health record (EHR)-based alerts can facilitate transmission of test results to healthcare providers, helping ensure timely and appropriate follow-up. However, failure to follow-up on abnormal test results (missed test results) persists in EHR-enabled healthcare settings. We aimed to identify contextual factors associated with facility-level variation in missed test results within the Veterans Affairs (VA) health system. Design, setting and participants Based on a previous survey, we categorised VA facilities according to primary care providers’ (PCPs’) perceptions of low (n=20) versus high (n=20) risk of missed test results. We interviewed facility representatives to collect data on several contextual factors derived from a sociotechnical conceptual model of safe and effective EHR use. We compared these factors between facilities categorised as low and high perceived risk, adjusting for structural characteristics. Results Facilities with low perceived risk were significantly more likely to use specific strategies to prevent alerts from being lost to follow-up (p=0.0114). Qualitative analysis identified three high-risk scenarios for missed test results: alerts on tests ordered by trainees, alerts ‘handed off’ to another covering clinician (surrogate clinician), and alerts on patients not assigned in the EHR to a PCP. Test result management policies and procedures to address these high-risk situations varied considerably across facilities. Conclusions Our study identified several scenarios that pose a higher risk for missed test results in EHR-based healthcare systems. In addition to implementing provider-level strategies to prevent missed test results, healthcare organisations should consider implementing monitoring systems to track missed test results. PMID:25387758

  8. Are Current SEE Test Procedures Adequate for Modern Devices and Electronics Technologies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.; Ladbury, Ray

    2008-01-01

    Believe it or not, this has been a simplistic look at starting a checklist for SEE testing. Given a memory that has 68 operating modes, when a SEU occurs that changes the mode, just how do you determine what's going on? Laser and microbeam tests can help, but not easily for modern packaged devices. Expanding this approach to other more complex devices such as ADCs or processors as well as analog devices should be considered. The recommendation is to use the existing text standards as the starting point. Just make your own checklist for the device/technology/issues being considered. At HEART 2007, we presented some of the burgeoning challenges associated with single event effect(SEE) testing of modern commercial memories: a) Package, device complexity, test fixture, and data analysis issues were discussed; b) "Complete" SEE Characterization would take 15 years; c) Qualification test costs have a greater than 4 times increase over the last decade. In this talk, we continue to explore the roles of technology with an emphasis on the existing SEE Test Procedures and some of the concerns related to modern devices. The primary objective of the briefing is to provide some overarching guidance concerning the many considerations involved in the formulation of a SEE test plan provided in a " Checklist" format.we note that there is no such thing as a complete check list and that the best approach is to develop a flexible test plan that takes into account the device type and functions, the device technology, circuit and package design, and, of course, test facility and beam characteristics.

  9. Final Test Report: Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding Effectiveness (SE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    The test results for Salt Spray Resistance, Static Heat and Humidity and Marine Environment can be found in Sections 3.1.3.3, 3.1.4.3 and 3.1.5.3 respectively. In summary, both the Metalast TCP and SurTec 650 Type 2 conversion coatings perform very similar to the incumbent Type 1 conversion coating against both 6061 and 5052 aluminum under all three test conditions. Significant prior work was performed to select the aluminum and conversion coating included within this test cycle; Reference - NASA GSDO Program Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives Final Pretreatments Test Report Task Order: NNH12AA45D September 01, 2013. As illustrated in the data, the 6061 aluminum panels SLIGHTLY out-performed the 5052 aluminum panels. Individual shielding effectiveness graphs for each panel are included within Appendix C and D. One other notable effect found during review of the data is that the Test Panels exposed to B117 Salt Fog reduced in shielding effectiveness significantly more than the Marine Environment Test Panels. The shielding effectiveness of the Marine Test Panels was approximately 20dB higher than the Test Panels that underwent B117 Salt Fog Exposure. The intent of this evaluation was not to maximize shielding effectiveness values. The same Parker Chomerics Cho-Seal 6503 gasket material was used for all panels with aluminum and conversion coating variants. A typical EMI gasket design for corrosive environments would be done quite differently. The intent was to execute a test that would provide the best possible evaluation of different aluminum materials and conversion coatings in corrosive environments. The test program achieved this intent. The fact that the two aluminums and two Type II conversion coatings performed similar to the incumbent Type 1 conversion coating is a positive outcome. It was desired to have an outcome that further differentiation the performance of two aluminum types and two conversion coating types but this could not be extracted by the test

  10. Strategies for the prevention of a successful biological warfare aerosol attack.

    PubMed

    Wiener, S L

    1996-05-01

    Biological warfare (BW) aerosol attacks are different from chemical attacks in that they may provide no warning/all clear signals that allow the soldier to put on or remove his M17/M40 protective mask. Methods are now being perfected to detect a BW aerosol cloud using an airborne (helicopter) pulsed laser system to scan the lower altitudes upwind from a troop concentration of corps size, and to sample and analyze the nature of the aerosol within a brief time interval. This system has certain limitations and vulnerabilities, since it is designed specifically to detect a line-type aerosol attack. Provision of, training with, and field use of a lightweight dust mist or HEPA filter respirator for each soldier is proposed for protection against undetected aerosol attacks. This particulate filter respirator would be issued in addition to the M17/M40 mask. Such a BW respirator will be able to purify the soldier's air by removing particles in the 0.3- to 15-micro m-diameter range with an efficiency of 98 to 100%. Particle size of BW aerosols is in the same range, with an optimum size for high-efficiency casualty production of 1 to 5 micro m mass median diameter. The proposed BW respirator will be lightweight; will require low inhalation pressures; will be comfortable to wear for prolonged periods; will not interfere with vision, hearing, and communication; and will not degrade overall effectiveness and performance to the degree observed with the M17/M40 masks. Such respirators would be worn as part of a contingency defense against an enemy likely to use BW agents. This respirator could be worn for prolonged periods when under threat of an undetectable BW attack during weather conditions favorable to the success of such an attack (i.e., low wind velocity and temperature inversion in the target area). In addition, tactically important assets such as command and control centers and missile batteries can also be protected continuously by air filtration systems powered by

  11. A novel two-axis load sensor designed for in situ scratch testing inside scanning electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hu; Zhao, Hongwei; Wu, Boda; Wan, Shunguang; Shi, Chengli

    2013-02-18

    Because of a lack of available miniaturized multiaxial load sensors to measure the normal load and the lateral load simultaneously, quantitative in situ scratch devices inside scanning electron microscopes and the transmission electron microscopes have barely been developed up to now. A novel two-axis load sensor was designed in this paper. With an I-shaped structure, the sensor has the function of measuring the lateral load and the normal load simultaneously, and at the same time it has compact dimensions. Finite element simulations were carried out to evaluate stiffness and modal characteristics. A decoupling algorithm was proposed to resolve the cross-coupling between the two-axis loads. Natural frequency of the sensor was tested. Linearity and decoupling parameters were obtained from the calibration experiments, which indicate that the sensor has good linearity and the cross-coupling between the two axes is not strong. Via the decoupling algorithm and the corresponding decoupling parameters, simultaneous measurement of the lateral load and the normal load can be realized via the developed two-axis load sensor. Preliminary applications of the load sensor for scratch testing indicate that the load sensor can work well during the scratch testing. Taking advantage of the compact structure, it has the potential ability for applications in quantitative in situ scratch testing inside SEMs.

  12. New reference and test materials for the characterization of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers at scanning electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Rackwitz, Vanessa; Krumrey, Michael; Laubis, Christian; Scholze, Frank; Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan

    2015-04-01

    Checking the performance of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers as well as validation of the results obtained with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) at a scanning electron microscope (SEM) involve the use of (certified) reference and dedicated test materials. This paper gives an overview on the test materials mostly employed by SEM/EDX users and accredited laboratories as well as on those recommended in international standards. The new BAM reference material EDS-CRM, which is currently in the process of certification, is specifically designed for the characterization of EDS systems at a SEM through calibration of the spectrometer efficiency in analytical laboratories in a simple manner. The certification of the spectra by means of a reference EDS is described. The focus is on the traceability of EDS efficiency which is ensured by measurements of the absolute detection efficiency of silicon drift detectors (SDD) and Si(Li) detectors at the laboratory of the PTB using the electron storage ring BESSY II as a primary X-ray source standard. A new test material in development at BAM for testing the performance of an EDS in the energy range below 1 keV is also briefly presented.

  13. Fiber-optic microsphere-based arrays for multiplexed biological warfare agent detection.

    PubMed

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun; Walt, David R

    2006-02-15

    We report a multiplexed high-density DNA array capable of rapid, sensitive, and reliable identification of potential biological warfare agents. An optical fiber bundle containing 6000 individual 3.1-mum-diameter fibers was chemically etched to yield microwells and used as the substrate for the array. Eighteen different 50-mer single-stranded DNA probes were covalently attached to 3.1-mum microspheres. Probe sequences were designed for Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Brucella melitensis, Clostridium botulinum, Vaccinia virus, and one biological warfare agent (BWA) simulant, Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. The microspheres were distributed into the microwells to form a randomized multiplexed high-density DNA array. A detection limit of 10 fM in a 50-microL sample volume was achieved within 30 min of hybridization for B. anthracis, Y. pestis, Vaccinia virus, and B. thuringiensis kurstaki. We used both specific responses of probes upon hybridization to complementary targets as well as response patterns of the multiplexed array to identify BWAs with high accuracy. We demonstrated the application of this multiplexed high-density DNA array for parallel identification of target BWAs in spiked sewage samples after PCR amplification. The array's miniaturized feature size, fabrication flexibility, reusability, and high reproducibility may enable this array platform to be integrated into a highly sensitive, specific, and reliable portable instrument for in situ BWA detection.

  14. APSTNG: neutron interrogation for detection of explosives, drugs, and nuclear and chemical warfare materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Edgar A.; Peters, Charles W.

    1993-02-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed-portal requirements for nondestructive detection, including monitoring of contraband explosives, drugs, and weapon materials, and treaty verification of sealed munitions. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14- MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in explosives, drugs, and chemical warfare agents, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs. The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Surveillance systems based on APSTNG technology can avoid the large physical size, high capital and operating expenses, and reliability problems associated with complex accelerators.

  15. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

    2013-08-01

    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the warfare metaphor alive. On the other hand, there are substantial numbers of Christians who at least appear to oppose science given their high-profile opposition to the general theory of evolution. The research reported in this paper asked, "Does anti-science sentiment increase with increasing orthodox Christian belief?" Two validated, published instruments were used: The Thinking about Science Survey Instrument and the Christian Fundamentalist Belief Scale. The subjects for the study were 545 preservice elementary teachers. The analysis did not show that anti-science sentiment increases with increasing Christian belief. Subjects with strong Christian beliefs were found to be just as supportive of science, if not more so, than subjects with no Christian beliefs. The study concludes with a caution against projecting attitudes toward science "on the whole" based on attitudes specifically toward evolution when working with preservice elementary teachers. Such a projection could well be counterproductive. The study has implications for other modern countries having highly religious populations such as Turkey.

  16. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced. PMID:24519220

  17. Consumer of concern early entry program (C-CEEP): protecting against the biological suicidal warfare host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Janet D.

    2014-05-01

    Man has used poisons for assassination purposes ever since the dawn of civilization, not only against individual enemies but also occasionally against armies. According to (Frischknecht, 2003)11 article on the History of Biological Warfare, during the past century, more than 500 million people died of infectious diseases. Several tens of thousands of these deaths were due to the deliberate release of pathogens or toxins. Two international treaties outlawed biological weapons in 1925 and 1972, but they have largely failed to stop countries from conducting offensive weapons research and large-scale production of biological weapons. Before the 20th century, biological warfare took on three main forms: (1) deliberate poisoning of food and water with infectious material, (2) use of microorganisms or toxins in some form of weapon system, and (3) use of biologically inoculated fabrics (Dire, 2013)8. This action plan is aimed at the recognition of the lack of current processes in place under an unidentified lead agency to detect, identify, track, and contain biological agents that can enter into the United States through a human host. This action plan program has been identified as the Consumer of Concern Early Entry Program or a simpler title is C-CEEP.

  18. Integrated nuclear and conventional theater warfare simulation (inwars) documentation. Part I. Synopsis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, J.R.; Gilmer, J.B.

    1980-02-08

    This volume constitutes the Synopsis Component of the Integrated Nuclear and Conventional Theater Warfare Simulation (INWARS) documentation. It provides an overview of the simulation in terms of unique features, inputs and outputs, and modes of application. The INWARS representation of theater warfare and its software implementation are then synopsized. INWARS has been developed to provide a tool for investigating interactions among conventional, nuclear, and chemical operations in the context of a theater-level conflict situation. INWARS is also distinguished by its focus on upper-echelon command, control, and intelligence (C22I) processes. In particular, INWARS contains explicit, fully-automated representation of the C2I activities involved in: (1) developing, and executing operations to achieve assigned objectives; (2) considering the employment of conventional, nuclear, or chemical weapons in support of those operations; and, (3) adapting ongoing activities to the perceived threat of enemy nuclear or chemical attacks. Since these activities are driven by generalized doctrines and policies supplied as user-inputs, INWARS can support investigations of alternative doctrinal approaches.

  19. The challenges experienced by Iranian war veterans living with chemical warfare poisoning: a descriptive, exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Hassankhani, Hadi; Taleghani, Fariba; Mills, Jane; Birks, Melanie; Francis, Karen; Ahmadi, Fazlolah

    2010-06-01

    This exploratory, descriptive study investigates the experiences of Iranian war veterans living with chronic disease acquired as a result of chemical warfare. Sulphur mustard (SM) is considered one of the most important agents of chemical warfare and was widely used during the Iran-Iraq conflict in 1980-1988. There are approximately 100 000 Iranian SM casualties who suffer from serious long-term progressive health problems involving their respiratory organs, eyes and skin. Seventeen male Iranian war veterans aged between 30 and 59 years and four victims' family members participated in the study. Data was generated during individual in-depth interviews that used open-ended questions. Grounded theory techniques, including the constant comparative method of concurrent data generation and analysis, were employed in the analysis of data. Preliminary results indicate two main thematic categories: social isolation and physical disability. It is argued that a lack of knowledge about the outcomes of SM poisoning, physical restrictions and difficulty in adjusting socially decreases war veterans' functional capacity and levels of independence.

  20. Toxicity induced by chemical warfare agents: insights on the protective role of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Pita, René; Marco-Contelles, José; Ramos, Eva; Del Pino, Javier; Romero, Alejandro

    2013-11-25

    Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) are substances that can be used to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare, but also against civilian population in terrorist attacks. Many chemical agents are able to generate free radicals and derived reactants, excitotoxicity process, or inflammation, and as consequence they can cause neurological symptoms and damage in different organs. Nowadays, taking into account that total immediate decontamination after exposure is difficult to achieve and there are not completely effective antidotes and treatments against all CWAs, we advance and propose that medical countermeasures against CWAs poisoning would benefit from a broad-spectrum multipotent molecule. Melatonin, a versatile and ubiquitous antioxidant molecule, originally discovered as a hormone synthesized mainly in the pineal gland, has low toxicity and high efficacy in reducing oxidative damage, anti-inflammatory effects by regulation of multiple cellular pathways and properties to prevent excitotoxicity, among others. The purpose of this review is to show the multiple and diverse properties of melatonin, as a pleiotropic indole derivative, and its marked potential for improving human health against the most widely used chemical weapons.