Diffusive mesh relaxation in ALE finite element numerical simulations
Dube, E.I.
1996-06-01
The theory for a diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is developed for use in three-dimensional Arbitary Lagrange/Eulerian (ALE) finite element simulation techniques. This mesh relaxer is derived by a variational principle for an unstructured 3D grid using finite elements, and incorporates hourglass controls in the numerical implementation. The diffusive coefficients are based on the geometric properties of the existing mesh, and are chosen so as to allow for a smooth grid that retains the general shape of the original mesh. The diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is then applied to an ALE code system, and results from several test cases are discussed.
Numerical Simulations of Instabilities in Single-Hole Office Elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Hitt, Matthew A.; Lineberry, David M.
2013-01-01
An orifice element is commonly used in liquid rocket engine test facilities either as a flow metering device, a damper for acoustic resonance or to provide a large reduction in pressure over a very small distance in the piping system. While the orifice as a device is largely effective in stepping down pressure, it is also susceptible to a wake-vortex type instability that generates pressure fluctuations that propagate downstream and interact with other elements of the test facility resulting in structural vibrations. Furthermore in piping systems an unstable feedback loop can exist between the vortex shedding and acoustic perturbations from upstream components resulting in an amplification of the modes convecting downstream. Such was the case in several tests conducted at NASA as well as in the Ariane 5 strap-on P230 engine in a static firing test where pressure oscillations of 0.5% resulted in 5% thrust oscillations. Exacerbating the situation in cryogenic test facilities, is the possibility of the formation of vapor clouds when the pressure in the wake falls below the vapor pressure leading to a cavitation instability that has a lower frequency than the primary wake-vortex instability. The cavitation instability has the potential for high amplitude fluctuations that can cause catastrophic damage in the facility. In this paper high-fidelity multi-phase numerical simulations of an orifice element are used to characterize the different instabilities, understand the dominant instability mechanisms and identify the tonal content of the instabilities.
Numerical Simulations of Single Flow Element in a Nuclear Thermal Thrust Chamber
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Gary; Ito, Yasushi; Ross, Doug; Chen, Yen-Sen; Wang, Ten-See
2007-01-01
The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate computational methodology to predict both detailed and global thermo-fluid environments of a single now element in a hypothetical solid-core nuclear thermal thrust chamber assembly, Several numerical and multi-physics thermo-fluid models, such as chemical reactions, turbulence, conjugate heat transfer, porosity, and power generation, were incorporated into an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics solver. The numerical simulations of a single now element provide a detailed thermo-fluid environment for thermal stress estimation and insight for possible occurrence of mid-section corrosion. In addition, detailed conjugate heat transfer simulations were employed to develop the porosity models for efficient pressure drop and thermal load calculations.
Direct numerical simulation of instabilities in parallel flow with spherical roughness elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deanna, R. G.
1992-01-01
Results from a direct numerical simulation of laminar flow over a flat surface with spherical roughness elements using a spectral-element method are given. The numerical simulation approximates roughness as a cellular pattern of identical spheres protruding from a smooth wall. Periodic boundary conditions on the domain's horizontal faces simulate an infinite array of roughness elements extending in the streamwise and spanwise directions, which implies the parallel-flow assumption, and results in a closed domain. A body force, designed to yield the horizontal Blasius velocity in the absence of roughness, sustains the flow. Instabilities above a critical Reynolds number reveal negligible oscillations in the recirculation regions behind each sphere and in the free stream, high-amplitude oscillations in the layer directly above the spheres, and a mean profile with an inflection point near the sphere's crest. The inflection point yields an unstable layer above the roughness (where U''(y) is less than 0) and a stable region within the roughness (where U''(y) is greater than 0). Evidently, the instability begins when the low-momentum or wake region behind an element, being the region most affected by disturbances (purely numerical in this case), goes unstable and moves. In compressible flow with periodic boundaries, this motion sends disturbances to all regions of the domain. In the unstable layer just above the inflection point, the disturbances grow while being carried downstream with a propagation speed equal to the local mean velocity; they do not grow amid the low energy region near the roughness patch. The most amplified disturbance eventually arrives at the next roughness element downstream, perturbing its wake and inducing a global response at a frequency governed by the streamwise spacing between spheres and the mean velocity of the most amplified layer.
Numerical Simulation of Dry Granular Flow Impacting a Rigid Wall Using the Discrete Element Method
Wu, Fengyuan; Fan, Yunyun; Liang, Li; Wang, Chao
2016-01-01
This paper presents a clump model based on Discrete Element Method. The clump model was more close to the real particle than a spherical particle. Numerical simulations of several tests of dry granular flow impacting a rigid wall flowing in an inclined chute have been achieved. Five clump models with different sphericity have been used in the simulations. By comparing the simulation results with the experimental results of normal force on the rigid wall, a clump model with better sphericity was selected to complete the following numerical simulation analysis and discussion. The calculation results of normal force showed good agreement with the experimental results, which verify the effectiveness of the clump model. Then, total normal force and bending moment of the rigid wall and motion process of the granular flow were further analyzed. Finally, comparison analysis of the numerical simulations using the clump model with different grain composition was obtained. By observing normal force on the rigid wall and distribution of particle size at the front of the rigid wall at the final state, the effect of grain composition on the force of the rigid wall has been revealed. It mainly showed that, with the increase of the particle size, the peak force at the retaining wall also increase. The result can provide a basis for the research of relevant disaster and the design of protective structures. PMID:27513661
Numerical Simulation of Dry Granular Flow Impacting a Rigid Wall Using the Discrete Element Method.
Wu, Fengyuan; Fan, Yunyun; Liang, Li; Wang, Chao
2016-01-01
This paper presents a clump model based on Discrete Element Method. The clump model was more close to the real particle than a spherical particle. Numerical simulations of several tests of dry granular flow impacting a rigid wall flowing in an inclined chute have been achieved. Five clump models with different sphericity have been used in the simulations. By comparing the simulation results with the experimental results of normal force on the rigid wall, a clump model with better sphericity was selected to complete the following numerical simulation analysis and discussion. The calculation results of normal force showed good agreement with the experimental results, which verify the effectiveness of the clump model. Then, total normal force and bending moment of the rigid wall and motion process of the granular flow were further analyzed. Finally, comparison analysis of the numerical simulations using the clump model with different grain composition was obtained. By observing normal force on the rigid wall and distribution of particle size at the front of the rigid wall at the final state, the effect of grain composition on the force of the rigid wall has been revealed. It mainly showed that, with the increase of the particle size, the peak force at the retaining wall also increase. The result can provide a basis for the research of relevant disaster and the design of protective structures. PMID:27513661
Numerical simulation of rip-raps with the distinct element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mittelbach, Livia
2013-06-01
and costal shores. They have to resist hydraulic loads such as ship and wind induced waves, tidal and ship induced currents, tidal varying water levels and storm surges. The numerical modelling of rip-rap revetments is undertaken by using the Distinct Element Method in three dimensions. With the DEM rip-rap stones can be modelled as autonomous objects with any degrees of freedom. Typical shapes of stones are formed by using clumped spherical particles. A method for the generation of the rip-rap stones based on geometrical and probabilistic parameters has been developed in order to generate stones with a realistic size and mass distribution. The DEM program is coupled with a computational fluid dynamics program to account for the influence of the hydraulic loads on the rip-rap stones. The acting forces can be simulated realistically for waves, currents and tidal varying water levels. Field measurements and model tests serve as validation for the numerical model. Physical model tests are carried out in a hydraulic flume with an instrumented rip-rap section for the calibration of the numerical stones material parameters. The behaviour of the particles depends on properties such as density, friction coefficient, normal and shear stiffness as well as the accuracy of the numerical representation of the rip-rap stones. Influences on the accuracy of the modelling of rip-raps with regard to the variation of these parameters are examined by comparing the results of the physical flume tests and numerical model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Percival, James; Xie, Zhihua; Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Gomes, Jefferson; Pain, Christopher; Matar, Omar
2013-11-01
We present results from a new formulation of a numerical model for direct simulation of bed fluidization and multiphase granular flow. The model is based on a consistent application of continuous-discontinuous mixed control volume finite element methods applied to fully unstructured meshes. The unstructured mesh framework allows for both a mesh adaptive capability, modifying the computational geometry in order to bound the error in the numerical solution while maximizing computational efficiency, and a simple scripting interface embedded in the model which allows fast prototyping of correlation models and parameterizations in intercomparison experiments. The model is applied to standard test problems for fluidized beds. EPSRC Programme Grant EP/K003976/1.
Finite element modeling of borehole heat exchanger systems. Part 2. Numerical simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diersch, H.-J. G.; Bauer, D.; Heidemann, W.; Rühaak, W.; Schätzl, P.
2011-08-01
Single borehole heat exchanger (BHE) and arrays of BHE are modeled by using the finite element method. Applying BHE in regional discretizations optimal conditions of mesh spacing around singular BHE nodes are derived. Optimal meshes have shown superior to such discretizations which are either too fine or too coarse. The numerical methods are benchmarked against analytical and numerical reference solutions. Practical application to a borehole thermal energy store (BTES) consisting of 80 BHE is given for the real-site BTES Crailsheim, Germany. The simulations are controlled by the specifically developed FEFLOW-TRNSYS coupling module. Scenarios indicate the effect of the groundwater flow regime on efficiency and reliability of the subsurface heat storage system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mamen, B.; Song, J.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J.-C.
2013-05-01
Powder injection molding (PIM) is a suitable technology for manufacturing of complex shapes with tungsten powders and has a great potential in many applications. Sintering is one of the most important steps in Powder Injection Molding process. The sintering behaviour of tungsten injection moulded components, under pure hydrogen atmosphere at temperature up to 1700°C using fine 0.4μm and coarse powders 7.0 μm, is investigated by means of the beam bending and dilatometric tests in the Setaram{copyright, serif} analyser. To simulate the shrinkage and shape distortion of tungsten injection moulded components during the sintering process using finite element methods, viscoplastic constitutive law is implemented in ABAQUS software as user subroutine UMAT and incorporated with the identified parameters. Comparison between the numerical simulations results and experimental ones, in term of shrinkages and sintered densities, shows good agreement between the two.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parkinson, S. D.; Hill, J.; Piggott, M. D.; Allison, P. A.
2014-05-01
High resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) are an important tool for the detailed analysis of turbidity current dynamics. Models that resolve the vertical structure and turbulence of the flow are typically based upon the Navier-Stokes equations. Two-dimensional simulations are known to produce unrealistic cohesive vortices that are not representative of the real three-dimensional physics. The effect of this phenomena is particularly apparent in the later stages of flow propagation. The ideal solution to this problem is to run the simulation in three dimensions but this is computationally expensive. This paper presents a novel finite-element (FE) DNS turbidity current model that has been built within Fluidity, an open source, general purpose, computational fluid dynamics code. The model is validated through re-creation of a lock release density current at a Grashof number of 5 × 106 in two, and three-dimensions. Validation of the model considers the flow energy budget, sedimentation rate, head speed, wall normal velocity profiles and the final deposit. Conservation of energy in particular is found to be a good metric for measuring mesh performance in capturing the range of dynamics. FE models scale well over many thousands of processors and do not impose restrictions on domain shape, but they are computationally expensive. Use of discontinuous discretisations and adaptive unstructured meshing technologies, which reduce the required element count by approximately two orders of magnitude, results in high resolution DNS models of turbidity currents at a fraction of the cost of traditional FE models. The benefits of this technique will enable simulation of turbidity currents in complex and large domains where DNS modelling was previously unachievable.
Development of a numerical computer code and circuit element models for simulation of firing systems
Carpenter, K.H. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)
1990-07-02
Numerical simulation of firing systems requires both the appropriate circuit analysis framework and the special element models required by the application. We have modified the SPICE circuit analysis code (version 2G.6), developed originally at the Electronic Research Laboratory of the University of California, Berkeley, to allow it to be used on MSDOS-based, personal computers and to give it two additional circuit elements needed by firing systems--fuses and saturating inductances. An interactive editor and a batch driver have been written to ease the use of the SPICE program by system designers, and the interactive graphical post processor, NUTMEG, supplied by U. C. Berkeley with SPICE version 3B1, has been interfaced to the output from the modified SPICE. Documentation and installation aids have been provided to make the total software system accessible to PC users. Sample problems show that the resulting code is in agreement with the FIRESET code on which the fuse model was based (with some modifications to the dynamics of scaling fuse parameters). In order to allow for more complex simulations of firing systems, studies have been made of additional special circuit elements--switches and ferrite cored inductances. A simple switch model has been investigated which promises to give at least a first approximation to the physical effects of a non ideal switch, and which can be added to the existing SPICE circuits without changing the SPICE code itself. The effect of fast rise time pulses on ferrites has been studied experimentally in order to provide a base for future modeling and incorporation of the dynamic effects of changes in core magnetization into the SPICE code. This report contains detailed accounts of the work on these topics performed during the period it covers, and has appendices listing all source code written documentation produced.
Numerical simulation of pressure therapy glove by using Finite Element Method.
Yu, Annie; Yick, Kit Lun; Ng, Sun Pui; Yip, Joanne; Chan, Ying Fan
2016-02-01
Pressure therapy garments apply pressure to suppress the growth and flatten hypertrophic scars caused by serious burns. The amount of pressure given by the pressure garments is critical to the treatment adherence and outcomes. In the present study, a biomechanical model for simulating the pressure magnitudes and distribution over hand dorsum given by a pressure glove was developed by using finite element method. In this model, the shape geometry of the hand, the mechanical properties of the glove and human body tissues were incorporated in the numerical stress analyses. The geometry of the hand was obtained by a 3D laser scanner. The material properties of two warp knitted fabrics were considered in the glove fabric model that developed from the glove production pattern with 10% size reduction in circumferential dimensions. The glove was regarded an isotropic elastic shell and the hand was assumed to be a homogeneous, isotropic and linearly elastic body. A glove wearing process was carried in the finite element analysis and the surface-to-surface contact pressure between hand and glove fabric was hence obtained. Through validation, the simulated contact pressure showed a good agreement with the experimental interface pressure measurement. The simulation model can be used to predict and visualise the pressure distribution exerted by a pressure therapy glove onto hand dorsum. It can provide information for optimising the material mechanical properties in pressure garment design and development, give a clue to understand the mechanisms of pressure action on hypertrophic scars and ultimately improve the medical functions of pressure garment. PMID:26520450
Numerical simulation of fluid-structure interactions with stabilized finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sváček, Petr
2016-03-01
This paper is interested to the interactions of the incompressible flow with a flexibly supported airfoil. The bending and the torsion modes are considered. The problem is mathematically described. The numerical method is based on the finite element method. A combination of the streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin and pressure stabilizing/Petrov-Galerkin method is used for the stabilization of the finite element method. The numerical results for a three-dimensional problem of flow over an airfoil are shown.
Numerical Simulations of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Turbines Using the Blade Element Momentum Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javaherchi, Teymour; Thulin, Oskar; Aliseda, Alberto
2011-11-01
Energy extraction from the available kinetic energy in tidal currents via Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines has recently attracted scientists' attention as a highly predictable source of renewable energy. The strongest tidal resources have a concentrated nature that require close turbine spacing in a farm of MHK turbines. This tight spacing, however, will lead to interaction of the downstream turbines with the turbulent wake generated by upstream turbines. This interaction can significantly reduce the power generated and possibly result in structural failure before the expected service life is completed. Development of a numerical methodology to study the turbine-wake interaction can provide a tool for optimization of turbine spacing to maximize the power generated in turbine arrays. In this work, we will present numerical simulations of the flow field in a farm of horizontal axis MHK turbines using the Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT). We compare the value of integral variables (i.e. efficiency, power, torque and etc.) calculated for each turbine in the farm for different arrangements with varying streamwise and lateral offsets between turbines. We find that BEMT provides accurate estimates of turbine efficiency under uniform flow conditions, but overpredicts the efficiency of downstream turbines when they are strongly affected by the wakes. Supported by DOE through the National Northwest Marine Renewable Energy Center.
Tan, L B; Webb, D C; Kormi, K; Al-Hassani, S T
2001-03-01
The proliferation of stent designs poses difficult problems to clinicians, who have to learn the relative merits of all stents to ensure optimal selection for each lesion, and also to regulatory authorities who have the dilemma of preventing the inappropriate marketing of substandard stents while not denying patients the benefits of advanced technology. Of the major factors influencing long-term results, those of patency and restenosis are being actively studied whereas the mechanical characteristics of devices influencing the technical results of stenting remain under-investigated. Each different stent design has its own particular features. A robust method for the independent objective comparison of the mechanical performance of each design is required. To do this by experimental measurement alone may be prohibitively expensive. A less costly option is to combine computer analysis, employing the standard numerical technique of the finite element method (FEM), with targeted experimental measurements of the specific mechanical behaviour of stents. In this paper the FEM technique is used to investigate the structural behaviour of two different stent geometries: Freedom stent geometry and Palmaz-Schatz (P-S) stent geometry. The effects of altering the stent geometry, the stent wire diameter and contact with (and material properties of) a hard eccentric intravascular lesion (simulating a calcified plaque) on stent mechanical performance were investigated. Increasing the wire diameter and the arterial elastic modulus by 150% results in the need to increase the balloon pressure to expand the stent by 10-fold. Increasing the number of circumferential convolutions increases the pressure required to initiate radial expansion of mounted stents. An incompressible plaque impinging on the mid portion of a stent causes a gross distortion of the Freedom stent and an hour-glass deformity in the P-S stent. These findings are of relevance for future comparative studies of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egidi, A.; Viticchie`, B.; Berrilli, F.; Del Moro, D.
2007-12-01
A numerical model for nanoflares is proposed to describe probability density functions (PDF) and waiting time statistics of the emitted magnetic energy and to guess PDF of quiet-Sun magnetic field strength. In the simulation, footpoints of reconnecting magnetic loops are advected by photospheric flows computed via a n-body algorithm. The model simulates a system whose behavior is characterized by small scale (i.e., granulation) flows that interact to develop large organization scales (i.e., mesogranulation). Such spatio-temporal correlated flows, incessantly supply , remove and convey the passive magnetic footpoints onto the photospheric surface, triggering reconnections and magnetic field reconfigurations.
Numerical Simulation of Flow Over a Savonius Wind Turbine Using a Spectral Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kandala, Sriharsha; Rempfer, Dietmar
2009-11-01
A parallel spectral element code, SpecSolve, is developed with the objective of modeling flows in complex geometries. This code supports both structured and unstructured meshes and allows exact representation of boundary surfaces which are particularly useful for modeling turbo machinery flows. In this talk we present the results from 2D Navier-Stokes simulations of flow over a Savonius turbine. The simulation uses a rotating mesh in regions surrounding the blade and a stationary mesh away from the rotor. Results of a 2D Optimization study involving overlap ratio and the number of blades are also presented. These results are compared with experimental data.
Numerical simulation of evolutionary erodible bedforms using the particle finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bravo, Rafael; Becker, Pablo; Ortiz, Pablo
2016-07-01
This paper presents a numerical strategy for the simulation of flows with evolutionary erodible boundaries. The fluid equations are fully resolved in 3D, while the sediment transport is modelled using the Exner equation and solved with an explicit Lagrangian procedure based on a fixed 2D mesh. Flow and sediment are coupled in geometry by deforming the fluid mesh in the vertical direction and in velocities with the experimental sediment flux computed using the Meyer Peter Müller model. A comparison with real experiments on channels is performed, giving good agreement.
On the effects of geometry in discrete element numerical earthquake simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGinnis, Seth Aaron
2001-07-01
Computer simulation is a widely-used component of earthquake research, but while many computer models of earthquakes exist, there are none that simulate both sub-fault activity and three-dimensional geometry. I develop a computer model of earthquakes that simulates activity on fault systems with three-dimensional geometry by calculating stress transfer between fault elements as a three-dimensional tensor quantity. This model is a discrete, quasi-static, cellular-automaton type model that generates failure cascade sequences of all sizes. The fault is represented as a collection of rectangular sub-faults or "fault patches" that are not constrained to a two-dimensional plane. Stress transfer is calculated as a tensor field originating from point sources in a linear elastic whole-space, though the effects of normal stress on the friction holding the surfaces of a fault element in place are neglected. I then develop a procedure for studying the effects of geometry on the evolution of synthetic event histories in a computer model by systematically varying the configuration of a z-shaped or "zig-zag" fault and studying the results using scaling, clustering, correlation, and phase dynamic probability change (PDPC) analysis. I also study the effects of roughness and coupling parameters. I find that, in the absence of normal stress effects, geometry does not act as a barrier to the development and propagation of events, but that differences in the rate of stress accumulation due to tectonic loading forces do; that geometric roughness does not change the dynamics of the system in a qualitative way; and that the PDPC analysis methodology cannot be effectively applied to simulation data of the quality that can be currently generated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okabe, Tomonaga; Yashiro, Shigeki
This study proposes the cohesive zone model (CZM) for predicting fatigue damage growth in notched carbon-fiber-reinforced composite plastic (CFRP) cross-ply laminates. In this model, damage growth in the fracture process of cohesive elements due to cyclic loading is represented by the conventional damage mechanics model. We preliminarily investigated whether this model can appropriately express fatigue damage growth for a circular crack embedded in isotropic solid material. This investigation demonstrated that this model could reproduce the results with the well-established fracture mechanics model plus the Paris' law by tuning adjustable parameters. We then numerically investigated the damage process in notched CFRP cross-ply laminates under tensile cyclic loading and compared the predicted damage patterns with those in experiments reported by Spearing et al. (Compos. Sci. Technol. 1992). The predicted damage patterns agreed with the experiment results, which exhibited the extension of multiple types of damage (e.g., splits, transverse cracks and delaminations) near the notches.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Nan-Suey; Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Wey, C. Thomas
2011-01-01
A series of numerical simulations of Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor have been conducted by using the National Combustion Code (NCC). The simulations have been carried out using the time filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) approach ranging from the steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), unsteady RANS (URANS), to the dynamic flow structure simulation (DFS). The sub-grid model employed for turbulent mixing and combustion includes the well-mixed model, the linear eddy mixing (LEM) model, and the filtered mass density function (FDF/PDF) model. The starting condition of the injected liquid spray is specified via empirical droplet size correlation, and a five-species single-step global reduced mechanism is employed for fuel chemistry. All the calculations use the same grid whose resolution is of the RANS type. Comparisons of results from various models are presented.
Kuang, C.; Zhang, J.; Wang, F.; Chen, J.
2002-09-19
Ceramic filters have revealed to have good thermal resistance and chemical corrosion resistance, but they are brittle and lack of toughness, and liable to rupture under large temperature swings. Metallic filters with their high strength and toughness and good heat conduction ability have showed good thermal shock resistance, 310S and FeAl intermetallic filter elements have exhibited additionally good chemical corrosion resistance in oxidizing and sulfidizing atmosphere( Sawada 1999 and Sunil et al. 1999). The behavior of metallic filter elements at high temperature was investigated and the filtration efficiency of the filter units for hot gas from a coal gasifier unit was tested. Pulse-jet cleaning of filter elements is a key component in the operation of the filtration unit. The pulse-jet is introduced into the filter element cavities from the clean side, and the dust cakes on the outer surfaces of the filter elements are detached and fall into the filter vessel. Sequential on-line cleaning of filter element groups yields a filter operation with no shutdown for filter regeneration. Development of advanced technologies in the design and operation of the pulse cleaning is one of the important tasks in order to increase the system reliability, to improve the filter life and to increase the filtering performance. The regeneration of filter element in gas filtration at high temperature plays a very important role for the operation of the process. Based on experimental observation and field operation, a numerical model is set up to numerically simulate the momentum and heat transport phenomena in the regeneration process, which is essential for understanding of the process, the optimization of process parameters and improvement of the design of the structure of venturi nozzle and the configuration of the apparatus.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abustan, M. S.; Rahman, N. A.; Gotoh, H.; Harada, E.; Talib, S. H. A.
2016-07-01
In Malaysia, not many researches on crowd evacuation simulation had been reported. Hence, the development of numerical crowd evacuation process by taking into account people behavioral patterns and psychological characteristics is crucial in Malaysia. On the other hand, tsunami disaster began to gain attention of Malaysian citizens after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that need quick evacuation process. In relation to the above circumstances, we have conducted simulations of tsunami evacuation process at the Miami Beach of Penang Island by using Distinct Element Method (DEM)-based crowd behavior simulator. The main objectives are to investigate and reproduce current conditions of evacuation process at the said locations under different hypothetical scenarios for the efficiency study of the evacuation. The sim-1 is initial condition of evacuation planning while sim-2 as improvement of evacuation planning by adding new evacuation area. From the simulation result, sim-2 have a shorter time of evacuation process compared to the sim-1. The evacuation time recuded 53 second. The effect of the additional evacuation place is confirmed from decreasing of the evacuation completion time. Simultaneously, the numerical simulation may be promoted as an effective tool in studying crowd evacuation process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stasiek, Jan; Ciofalo, Michele; Wierzbowski, Maciej
2004-05-01
Experimental and numerical investigation of heat transfer and fluid flow were conducted for classic heat exchanger elements (flat plate with fin-tubes in-line, staggered and with vortex generators) and corrugated-undulated ducts under transitional and weakly turbulent conditions. The dependence of average heat transfer and pressure drop on Reynolds number and geometrical parameters was investigated. Distributions of local heat transfer coefficient were obtained by using liquid crystal thermography and surface-averaged values were computed. Three-dimensional numerical simulations were conducted by a finite-volume method using a low-Reynolds number k-ɛ model under the assumption of fully developed flow. Computed flow fields provided otherwise inaccessible information on the flow patterns and the mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chun; Pollard, David D.; Gu, Kai; Shi, Bin
2015-12-01
Wiggly compaction bands in porous aeolian sandstone vary from chevron shape to wavy shape to nearly straight. In some outcrops these variations occur along a single band. A bonded close-packed discrete element model is used to investigate what mechanical properties control the formation of wiggly compaction bands (CBs). To simulate the volumetric yielding failure of porous sandstone, a discrete element shrinks when the force state of one of its bonds reaches the yielding cap defined by the failure force and the aspect ratio (k) of the yielding ellipse. A Matlab code "MatDEM3D" has been developed on the basis of this enhanced discrete element method. Mechanical parameters of elements are chosen according to the elastic properties and the strengths of porous sandstone. In numerical simulations, the failure angle between the band segment and maximum principle stress decreases from 90° to approximately 45° as k increases from 0.5 to 2, and compaction bands vary from straight to chevron shape. With increasing strain, subsequent compaction occurs inside or beside compacted elements, which leads to further compaction and thickening of bands. The simulations indicate that a greater yielding stress promotes chevron CBs, and a greater cement strength promotes straight CBs. Combined with the microscopic analysis introduced in the companion paper, we conclude that the shape of wiggly CBs is controlled by the mechanical properties of sandstone, including the aspect ratio of the yielding ellipse, the critical yielding stress, and the cement strength, which are determined primarily by petrophysical attributes, e.g., grain sorting, porosity, and cementation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Shrikrishna Nandkishor; Bolar, Gururaj
2016-06-01
Control of part deflection and deformation during machining of low rigidity thin-wall components is an important aspect in the manufacture of desired quality products. This paper presents a comparative study on the effect of geometry constraints on the product quality during machining of thin-wall components made of an aerospace alloy aluminum 2024-T351. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element (FE) based simulations of machining of thin-wall parts were carried out by considering three variations in the wall constraint viz. free wall, wall constrained at one end, and wall with constraints at both the ends. Lagrangian formulation based transient FE model has been developed to simulate the interaction between the workpiece and helical milling cutter. Johnson-Cook material and damage model were adopted to account for material behavior during machining process; damage initiation and chip separation. A modified Coulomb friction model was employed to define the contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece. The numerical model was validated with experimental results and found to be in good agreement. Based on the simulation results it was noted that deflection and deformation were maximum in the thin-wall constrained at one end in comparison with those obtained in other cases. It was noted that three dimensional finite element simulations help in a better way to predict the product quality during precision manufacturing of thin-wall components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imre, B.
2003-04-01
NUMERICAL SLOPE STABILITY SIMULATIONS OF CHASMA WALLS IN VALLES MARINERIS/MARS USING A DISTINCT ELEMENT METHOD (DEM). B. Imre (1) (1) German Aerospace Center, Berlin Adlershof, bernd.imre@gmx.net The 8- to 10-km depths of Valles Marineris (VM) offer excellent views into the upper Martian crust. Layering, fracturing, lithology, stratigraphy and the content of volatiles have influenced the evolution of the Valles Marineris wallslopes. But these parameters also reflect the development of VM and its wall slopes. The scope of this work is to gain understanding in these parameters by back-simulating the development of wall slopes. For that purpose, the two dimensional Particle Flow Code PFC2D has been chosen (ITASCA, version 2.00-103). PFC2D is a distinct element code for numerical modelling of movements and interactions of assemblies of arbitrarily sized circular particles. Particles may be bonded together to represent a solid material. Movements of particles are unlimited. That is of importance because results of open systems with numerous unknown variables are non-unique and therefore highly path dependent. This DEM allows the simulation of whole development paths of VM walls what makes confirmation of the model more complete (e.g. Oreskes et al., Science 263, 1994). To reduce the number of unknown variables a proper (that means as simple as possible) field-site had to be selected. The northern wall of eastern Candor Chasma has been chosen. This wall is up to 8-km high and represents a significant outcrop of the upper Martian crust. It is quite uncomplex, well-aligned and of simple morphology. Currently the work on the model is at the stage of performing the parameter study. Results will be presented via poster by the EGS-Meeting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qian-Jiang; Dai, Shi-Kun; Chen, Long-Wei; Qiang, Jian-Ke; Li, Kun; Zhao, Dong-Dong
2016-06-01
To deal with the problem of low computational precision at the nodes near the source and satisfy the requirements for computational efficiency in inversion imaging and finite-element numerical simulations of the direct current method, we propose a new mesh refinement and recoarsement method for a two-dimensional point source. We introduce the mesh refinement and mesh recoarsement into the traditional structured mesh subdivision. By refining the horizontal grids, the singularity owing to the point source is minimized and the topography is simulated. By recoarsening the horizontal grids, the number of grid cells is reduced significantly and computational efficiency is improved. Model tests show that the proposed method solves the singularity problem and reduces the number of grid cells by 80% compared to the uniform grid refinement.
The Tsaoling 1941 Landslide, New Insight of Numerical Simulation of Discrete Element Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, C.-L.; Hu, J.-C.; Lin, M.-L.
2009-04-01
Large earthquakes in the southeastern Taiwan are not rare in the historical catalogue. Tsaoling, located southeast of Taiwan, last five large landslides occurred in the 19th and 20th centuries. According to the literature about the Tsaoling landslide, we concluded four characteristics of the Tsaoling landslide, (1) repeated (2) multi-landslide surface, (3) huge landslide block, and (4) some people survived after sliding a long distance (>2 km). This is the reason why we want to understand the causes of the repeated landslides in Tsaoling and its mechanisms. However, there is not any record about the landslide in 1862 and the most of the landslide evidence disappeared. Hence, we aim at the landslide dynamics of the 1941 landslide in this study. Tsaoling area is located in a large dipping towards the south-southwest monocline. The dip of strata toward the SSW is similar to the both sides of the Chinshui River valley. The bedrock of the Tsaoling area is Pliocene in age and belongs to the upper Chinshui Shale and the lower Cholan Formation. The plane failure analysis and Newmark displacement method are common for slope stability in recent years. However, the plane failure analysis can only provide a safety factor. When the safe factor (FS) is less than 1, it can only indicate that the slope is unstable. The result of Newmark displacement method is a value of displacement length. Both assumptions of the analysis are based on a rigid body. For the large landslide, like the Tsaoling landslide, the volume of landslide masses are over 108 m3, and the landslide block cannot be considered a rigid body. We considered the block as a quasi-rigid body, because the blocks are deformable and jointed. The original version of Distinct Element Method (DEM) was devoted to the modeling of rock-block systems and it was lately applied to the modeling of granular material. The calculation cycle in PFC2D is a time-stepping algorithm that consists of the repeated application of the law of
Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1989-01-01
An overview of historical and current numerical aerodynamic simulation (NAS) is given. The capabilities and goals of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility are outlined. Emphasis is given to numerical flow visualization and its applications to structural analysis of aircraft and spacecraft bodies. The uses of NAS in computational chemistry, engine design, and galactic evolution are mentioned.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bian, Xuecheng; Chen, Yunmin; Hu, Ting
2008-06-01
An efficient 2.5D finite element numerical modeling approach was developed to simulate wave motions generated in ground by high-speed train passages. Fourier transform with respect to the coordinate in the track direction was applied to reducing the three-dimensional dynamic problem to a plane strain problem which has been solved in a section perpendicular to the track direction. In this study, the track structure and supporting ballast layer were simplified as a composite Euler beam resting on the ground surface, while the ground with complicated geometry and physical properties was modeled by 2.5D quadrilateral elements. Wave dissipation into the far field was dealt with the transmitting boundary constructed with frequency-dependent dashpots. Three-dimensional responses of track structure and ground were obtained from the wavenumber expansion in the track direction. The simulated wave motions in ground were interpreted for train moving loads traveling at speeds below or above the critical velocity of a specific track-ground system. It is found that, in the soft ground area, the high-speed train operations can enter the transonic range, which can lead to resonances of the track structure and the supporting ground. The strong vibration will endanger the safe operations of high-speed train and accelerate the deterioration of railway structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernard, C. A.; Correia, J. P. M.; Bahlouli, N.; Ahzi, S.
2015-09-01
During the last decades, the part of polymeric materials considerably increased in automotive and packaging applications. However, their mechanical behaviour is difficult to predict due to a strong sensitivity to the strain rate and the temperature. Numerous theories and models were developed in order to understand and model their complex mechanical behaviour. The one proposed by Richeton et al. [Int. J. Solids Struct. 44, 7938 (2007)] seems particularly suitable since several material parameters possess a strain rate and temperature sensitivity. The aim of this study is to implement the proposed constitutive model in a commercial finite element software by writing a user material subroutine. The implementation of the model was verified on a compressive test. Next a normal impact test was simulated in order to validate the predictive capabilities of the model. A good agreement is found between the FE predictions and the experimental results taken from the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robbins, Joshua; Voth, Thomas
2011-06-01
Material response to dynamic loading is often dominated by microstructure such as grain topology, porosity, inclusions, and defects; however, many models rely on assumptions of homogeneity. We use the probabilistic finite element method (WK Liu, IJNME, 1986) to introduce local uncertainty to account for material heterogeneity. The PFEM uses statistical information about the local material response (i.e., its expectation, coefficient of variation, and autocorrelation) drawn from knowledge of the microstructure, single crystal behavior, and direct numerical simulation (DNS) to determine the expectation and covariance of the system response (velocity, strain, stress, etc). This approach is compared to resolved grain-scale simulations of the equivalent system. The microstructures used for the DNS are produced using Monte Carlo simulations of grain growth, and a sufficient number of realizations are computed to ensure a meaningful comparison. Finally, comments are made regarding the suitability of one-dimensional PFEM for modeling material heterogeneity. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Mier, M.; Costa, F.; Idelsohn, S.
2008-12-01
Many magmatic and volcanic processes (e.g., magma differentiation, mingling, transport in the volcanic conduit) are controlled by the physical properties and flow styles of high-temperature silicate melts. Such processes can be experimentally investigated using analog systems and scaling methods, but it is difficult to find the suitable material and it is generally not possible to quantitatively extrapolate the results to the natural system. An alternative means of studying fluid dynamics in volcanic systems is with numerical models. We have chosen the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM), which is based on a Delaunay mesh that moves with the fluid velocity, the Navier-Stokes equations in Lagrangian formulation, and linear elements for velocity, pressure, and temperature. Remeshing is performed when the grid becomes too distorted [E. Oñate et al., 2004. The Particle Finite Element Method: An Overview. Int. J. Comput. Meth. 1, 267-307]. The method is ideal for tracking material interfaces between different fluids or media. Methods based on Eulerian reference frames need special techniques, such as level-set or volume-of-fluid, to capture the interface position, and these techniques add a significant numerical diffusion at the interface. We have performed a series of two-dimensional simulations of a classical problem of fluid dynamics in magmatic and volcanic systems: intrusion of a basaltic melt in a silica-rich magma reservoir. We have used realistic physical properties and equations of state for the silicate melts (e.g., temperature, viscosity, and density) and tracked the changes in the system for geologically relevant time scales (up to 100 years). The problem is modeled by the low-Mach-number equations derived from an asymptotic analysis of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations that removes shock waves from the flow but allows however large variations of density due to temperature variations. Non-constant viscosity and volume changes are taken into account
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lisjak, A.; Liu, Q.; Zhao, Q.; Mahabadi, O. K.; Grasselli, G.
2013-10-01
Stress waves, known as acoustic emissions (AEs), are released by localized inelastic deformation events during the progressive failure of brittle rocks. Although several numerical models have been developed to simulate the deformation and damage processes of rocks, such as non-linear stress-strain behaviour and localization of failure, only a limited number have been capable of providing quantitative information regarding the associated seismicity. Moreover, the majority of these studies have adopted a pseudo-static approach based on elastic strain energy dissipation that completely disregards elastodynamic effects. This paper describes a new AE modelling technique based on the combined finite-discrete element method (FEM/DEM), a numerical tool that simulates material failure by explicitly considering fracture nucleation and propagation in the modelling domain. Given the explicit time integration scheme of the solver, stress wave propagation and the effect of radiated seismic energy can be directly captured. Quasi-dynamic seismic information is extracted from a FEM/DEM model with a newly developed algorithm based on the monitoring of internal variables (e.g. relative displacements and kinetic energy) in proximity to propagating cracks. The AE of a wing crack propagation model based on this algorithm are cross-analysed by traveltime inversion and energy estimation from seismic recordings. Results indicate a good correlation of AE initiation times and locations, and scaling of energies, independently calculated with the two methods. Finally, the modelling technique is validated by simulating a laboratory compression test on a granite sample. The micromechanical parameters of the heterogeneous model are first calibrated to reproduce the macroscopic stress-strain response measured during standard laboratory tests. Subsequently, AE frequency-magnitude statistics, spatial clustering of source locations and the evolution of AE rate are investigated. The distribution of
Rocket engine numerical simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidian, Ken
1993-01-01
The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: a definition of the rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS); objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Fanshun; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Chaoqun; Yu, Weizhe; Chen, Yuxi
2015-08-01
The casing damage has been a big problem in oilfield production. The current detection methods mostly are used after casing damage, which is not very effective. With the rapid development of China's offshore oil industry, the number of offshore oil wells is becoming larger and larger. Because the cost of offshore oil well is very high, the casing damage will cause huge economic losses. What's more, it can also bring serious pollution to marine environment. So the effective methods of detecting casing damage are required badly. The accumulation of stress is the main reason for the casing damage. Magnetic anisotropy technique based on counter magnetostriction effect can detect the stress of casing in real time and help us to find out the hidden dangers in time. It is essential for us to prevent the casing damage from occurring. However, such technique is still in the development stage. Previous studies mostly got the relationship between stress and magnetic signals by physical experiment, and the study of physical mechanism in relative magnetic permeability connecting the stress and magnetic signals is rarely reported. The present paper uses the ANSYS to do the three-dimensional finite element numerical simulation to study how the relative magnetic permeability works for the oil casing model. We find that the quantitative relationship between the stress's variation and magnetic induction intensity's variation is: Δδ = K* Δ B, K = 8.04×109, which is proved correct by physical experiment.
Vafaeian, B; Le, L H; Tran, T N H T; El-Rich, M; El-Bialy, T; Adeeb, S
2016-05-01
The present study investigated the accuracy of micro-scale finite element modeling for simulating broadband ultrasound propagation in water-saturated trabecular bone-mimicking phantoms. To this end, five commercially manufactured aluminum foam samples as trabecular bone-mimicking phantoms were utilized for ultrasonic immersion through-transmission experiments. Based on micro-computed tomography images of the same physical samples, three-dimensional high-resolution computational samples were generated to be implemented in the micro-scale finite element models. The finite element models employed the standard Galerkin finite element method (FEM) in time domain to simulate the ultrasonic experiments. The numerical simulations did not include energy dissipative mechanisms of ultrasonic attenuation; however, they expectedly simulated reflection, refraction, scattering, and wave mode conversion. The accuracy of the finite element simulations were evaluated by comparing the simulated ultrasonic attenuation and velocity with the experimental data. The maximum and the average relative errors between the experimental and simulated attenuation coefficients in the frequency range of 0.6-1.4 MHz were 17% and 6% respectively. Moreover, the simulations closely predicted the time-of-flight based velocities and the phase velocities of ultrasound with maximum relative errors of 20 m/s and 11 m/s respectively. The results of this study strongly suggest that micro-scale finite element modeling can effectively simulate broadband ultrasound propagation in water-saturated trabecular bone-mimicking structures. PMID:26894840
Wan, Xiang; Xu, Guanghua; Zhang, Qing; Tse, Peter W; Tan, Haihui
2016-01-01
Lamb wave technique has been widely used in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM). However, due to the multi-mode characteristics and dispersive nature, Lamb wave propagation behavior is much more complex than that of bulk waves. Numerous numerical simulations on Lamb wave propagation have been conducted to study its physical principles. However, few quantitative studies on evaluating the accuracy of these numerical simulations were reported. In this paper, a method based on cross correlation analysis for quantitatively evaluating the simulation accuracy of time-transient Lamb waves propagation is proposed. Two kinds of error, affecting the position and shape accuracies are firstly identified. Consequently, two quantitative indices, i.e., the GVE (group velocity error) and MACCC (maximum absolute value of cross correlation coefficient) derived from cross correlation analysis between a simulated signal and a reference waveform, are proposed to assess the position and shape errors of the simulated signal. In this way, the simulation accuracy on the position and shape is quantitatively evaluated. In order to apply this proposed method to select appropriate element size and time step, a specialized 2D-FEM program combined with the proposed method is developed. Then, the proper element size considering different element types and time step considering different time integration schemes are selected. These results proved that the proposed method is feasible and effective, and can be used as an efficient tool for quantitatively evaluating and verifying the simulation accuracy of time-transient Lamb wave propagation. PMID:26315506
Numerical simulations in combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chung, T. J.
1989-01-01
This paper reviews numerical simulations in reacting flows in general and combustion phenomena in particular. It is shown that use of implicit schemes and/or adaptive mesh strategies can improve convergence, stability, and accuracy of the solution. Difficulties increase as turbulence and multidimensions are considered, particularly when finite-rate chemistry governs the given combustion problem. Particular attention is given to the areas of solid-propellant combustion dynamics, turbulent diffusion flames, and spray droplet vaporization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Vries, Martinus P.; Hamburg, Marc C.; Schutte, Harm K.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldman, Arthur E. P.
2003-04-01
Surgical removal of the larynx results in radically reduced production of voice and speech. To improve voice quality a voice-producing element (VPE) is developed, based on the lip principle, called after the lips of a musician while playing a brass instrument. To optimize the VPE, a numerical model is developed. In this model, the finite element method is used to describe the mechanical behavior of the VPE. The flow is described by two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The interaction between VPE and airflow is modeled by placing the grid of the VPE model in the grid of the aerodynamical model, and requiring continuity of forces and velocities. By applying and increasing pressure to the numerical model, pulses comparable to glottal volume velocity waveforms are obtained. By variation of geometric parameters their influence can be determined. To validate this numerical model, an in vitro test with a prototype of the VPE is performed. Experimental and numerical results show an acceptable agreement.
Numerical Propulsion System Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naiman, Cynthia
2006-01-01
The NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with the aerospace industry, other government agencies, and academia, is leading the effort to develop an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. The initial development of NPSS focused on the analysis and design of airbreathing aircraft engines, but the resulting NPSS framework may be applied to any system, for example: aerospace, rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and even human system modeling. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Fundamental Aeronautics Program and the Advanced Virtual Engine Test Cell (AVETeC). NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes capabilities to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS will provide improved tools to develop custom components and to use capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multi-fidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full development life cycle.
Kheloufi, Karim; Amara, El Hachemi
2008-09-23
We analyze the deformation induced by focusing a CW high power laser beam on stainless steel plate. A non-linear 3D finite element approach is used to simulate the thermo-elastoplastic deformation, the heat conduction, and stresses. Material properties including density, yield stress, Young modulus, specific heat, and thermal expansion coefficient are considered as temperature-dependent. The effect of heating time on transient temperatures, stresses, strains and bending angles during the process is studied, and the process parameters affecting the bending angles were also investigated.
Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterson, V. L.; Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.; Bailey, F. R.
1983-01-01
The history of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program, which is designed to provide a leading-edge capability to computational aerodynamicists, is traced back to its origin in 1975. Factors motivating its development and examples of solutions to successively refined forms of the governing equations are presented. The NAS Processing System Network and each of its eight subsystems are described in terms of function and initial performance goals. A proposed usage allocation policy is discussed and some initial problems being readied for solution on the NAS system are identified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Virgo, Simon; Ankit, Kumar; Nestler, Britta; Urai, Janos L.
2016-04-01
Crack-seal veins form in a complex interplay of coupled thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical processes. Their formation and cyclic growth involves brittle fracturing and dilatancy, phases of increased fluid flow and the growth of crystals that fill the voids and reestablish the mechanical strength. Existing numerical models of vein formation focus on selected aspects of the coupled process. Until today, no model exists that is able to use a realistic representation of the fracturing AND sealing processes, simultaneously. To address this challenge, we propose the bidirectional coupling of two numerical methods that have proven themselves as very powerful to model the fundamental processes acting in crack-seal systems: Phase-field and the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The phase-field Method was recently successfully extended to model the precipitation of quartz crystals from an aqueous solution and applied to model the sealing of a vein over multiple opening events (Ankit et al., 2013; Ankit et al., 2015a; Ankit et al., 2015b). The advantage over former, purely kinematic approaches is that in phase-field, the crystal growth is modeled based on thermodynamic and kinetic principles. Different driving forces for microstructure evolution, such as chemical bulk free energy, interfacial energy, elastic strain energy and different transport processes, such as mass diffusion and advection, can be coupled and the effect on the evolution process can be studied in 3D. The Discrete Element Method was already used in several studies to model the fracturing of rocks and the incremental growth of veins by repeated fracturing (Virgo et al., 2013; Virgo et al., 2014). Materials in DEM are represented by volumes of packed spherical particles and the response to the material to stress is modeled by interaction of the particles with their nearest neighbours. For rocks, in 3D, the method provides a realistic brittle failure behaviour. Exchange Routines are being developed that
Confidence in Numerical Simulations
Hemez, Francois M.
2015-02-23
This PowerPoint presentation offers a high-level discussion of uncertainty, confidence and credibility in scientific Modeling and Simulation (M&S). It begins by briefly evoking M&S trends in computational physics and engineering. The first thrust of the discussion is to emphasize that the role of M&S in decision-making is either to support reasoning by similarity or to “forecast,” that is, make predictions about the future or extrapolate to settings or environments that cannot be tested experimentally. The second thrust is to explain that M&S-aided decision-making is an exercise in uncertainty management. The three broad classes of uncertainty in computational physics and engineering are variability and randomness, numerical uncertainty and model-form uncertainty. The last part of the discussion addresses how scientists “think.” This thought process parallels the scientific method where by a hypothesis is formulated, often accompanied by simplifying assumptions, then, physical experiments and numerical simulations are performed to confirm or reject the hypothesis. “Confidence” derives, not just from the levels of training and experience of analysts, but also from the rigor with which these assessments are performed, documented and peer-reviewed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weatherill, Daniel P.; Stefanov, Konstantin D.; Greig, Thomas A.; Holland, Andrew D.
2014-07-01
Pixellated monolithic silicon detectors operated in a photon-counting regime are useful in spectroscopic imaging applications. Since a high energy incident photon may produce many excess free carriers upon absorption, both energy and spatial information can be recovered by resolving each interaction event. The performance of these devices in terms of both the energy and spatial resolution is in large part determined by the amount of diffusion which occurs during the collection of the charge cloud by the pixels. Past efforts to predict the X-ray performance of imaging sensors have used either analytical solutions to the diffusion equation or simplified monte carlo electron transport models. These methods are computationally attractive and highly useful but may be complemented using more physically detailed models based on TCAD simulations of the devices. Here we present initial results from a model which employs a full transient numerical solution of the classical semiconductor equations to model charge collection in device pixels under stimulation from initially Gaussian photogenerated charge clouds, using commercial TCAD software. Realistic device geometries and doping are included. By mapping the pixel response to different initial interaction positions and charge cloud sizes, the charge splitting behaviour of the model sensor under various illuminations and operating conditions is investigated. Experimental validation of the model is presented from an e2v CCD30-11 device under varying substrate bias, illuminated using an Fe-55 source.
Numerically simulating the sandwich plate system structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Guo-Qing; Li, Gang; Liu, Zhi-Hui; Niu, Huai-Lei; Li, Chen-Feng
2010-09-01
Sandwich plate systems (SPS) are advanced materials that have begun to receive extensive attention in naval architecture and ocean engineering. At present, according to the rules of classification societies, a mixture of shell and solid elements are required to simulate an SPS. Based on the principle of stiffness decomposition, a new numerical simulation method for shell elements was proposed. In accordance with the principle of stiffness decomposition, the total stiffness can be decomposed into the bending stiffness and shear stiffness. Displacement and stress response related to bending stiffness was calculated with the laminated shell element. Displacement and stress response due to shear was calculated by use of a computational code write by FORTRAN language. Then the total displacement and stress response for the SPS was obtained by adding together these two parts of total displacement and stress. Finally, a rectangular SPS plate and a double-bottom structure were used for a simulation. The results show that the deflection simulated by the elements proposed in the paper is larger than the same simulated by solid elements and the analytical solution according to Hoff theory and approximate to the same simulated by the mixture of shell-solid elements, and the stress simulated by the elements proposed in the paper is approximate to the other simulating methods. So compared with calculations based on a mixture of shell and solid elements, the numerical simulation method given in the paper is more efficient and easier to do.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Na; Yao, Jun; Huang, Zhaoqin; Wang, Yueying
2013-06-01
Numerical simulation in naturally fractured media is challenging because of the coexistence of porous media and fractures on multiple scales that need to be coupled. We present a new approach to reservoir simulation that gives accurate resolution of both large-scale and fine-scale flow patterns. Multiscale methods are suitable for this type of modeling, because it enables capturing the large scale behavior of the solution without solving all the small features. Dual-porosity models in view of their strength and simplicity can be mainly used for sugar-cube representation of fractured media. In such a representation, the transfer function between the fracture and the matrix block can be readily calculated for water-wet media. For a mixed-wet system, the evaluation of the transfer function becomes complicated due to the effect of gravity. In this work, we use a multiscale finite element method (MsFEM) for two-phase flow in fractured media using the discrete-fracture model. By combining MsFEM with the discrete-fracture model, we aim towards a numerical scheme that facilitates fractured reservoir simulation without upscaling. MsFEM uses a standard Darcy model to approximate the pressure and saturation on a coarse grid, whereas fine scale effects are captured through basis functions constructed by solving local flow problems using the discrete-fracture model. The accuracy and the robustness of MsFEM are shown through several examples. In the first example, we consider several small fractures in a matrix and then compare the results solved by the finite element method. Then, we use the MsFEM in more complex models. The results indicate that the MsFEM is a promising path toward direct simulation of highly resolution geomodels.
Numerical simulation of dusty plasmas
Winske, D.
1995-09-01
The numerical simulation of physical processes in dusty plasmas is reviewed, with emphasis on recent results and unresolved issues. Three areas of research are discussed: grain charging, weak dust-plasma interactions, and strong dust-plasma interactions. For each area, we review the basic concepts that are tested by simulations, present some appropriate examples, and examine numerical issues associated with extending present work.
Numerical Simulation of Nix's Rotation
This is a numerical simulation of the orientation of Nix as seen from the center of the Pluto system. It has been sped up so that one orbit of Nix around Pluto takes 2 seconds instead of 25 days. L...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tamma, Kumar K.; Namburu, Raju R.
1989-01-01
Numerical simulations are presented for hyperbolic heat-conduction problems that involve non-Fourier effects, using explicit, Lax-Wendroff/Taylor-Galerkin FEM formulations as the principal computational tool. Also employed are smoothing techniques which stabilize the numerical noise and accurately predict the propagating thermal disturbances. The accurate capture of propagating thermal disturbances at characteristic time-step values is achieved; numerical test cases are presented which validate the proposed hyperbolic heat-conduction problem concepts.
Requirements definition by numerical simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hickman, James J.; Kostas, Chris; Tsang, Kang T.
1994-10-01
We are investigating the issues involved in requirements definition for narcotics interdiction: how much of a particular signature is possible, how does this amount change for different conditions, and what is the temporal relationship in various scenarios. Our approach has been to simulate numerically the conditions that arise during vapor or particulate transport. The advantages of this approach are that (1) a broad range of scenarios can be rapidly and inexpensively analyzed by simulation, and (2) simulations can display quantities that are difficult or impossible to measure. The drawback of this approach is that simulations cannot include all of the phenomena present in a real measurement, and therefore the fidelity of the simulation results is always an issue. To address this limitation, we will ultimately combine the results of numerical simulations with measurements of physical parameters for inclusion in the simulation. In this paper, we discuss these issues and how they apply to the current problems in narcotics interdictions, especially cargo containers. We also show the results of 1D and 3D numerical simulations, and compare these results with analytical solutions. The results indicate that this approach is viable. We also present data from 3D simulations of vapor transport in a loaded cargo container and some of the issues present in this ongoing work.
Numerical simulations of hot spots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norman, Michael L.
Numerical simulations of hot spots and their associated jets are examined with emphasis on their dynamical variability. Attention is given to two-dimensional simulations, which incorporate dynamically passive and important magnetic fields in the ideal MHD limit. Distributions of total and polarized radio brightness have been derived for comparison with observations. The move toward three-dimensional simulations is documented, and hydrodynamical models for multiple hot spots are discussed. It is suggested that useful insights can be obtained from two-dimensional slab jet simulation, which relax the axisymmetric constraints while allowing high numerical resolution. In particular the dentist-drill model of Scheuer (1982) for working-surface variability is substantiated, and it is shown to result from self-excited jet instabilities near the working surface.
Mean Element Propagations Using Numerical Averaging
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ely, Todd A.
2009-01-01
The long-term evolution characteristics (and stability) of an orbit are best characterized using a mean element propagation of the perturbed two body variational equations of motion. The averaging process eliminates short period terms leaving only secular and long period effects. In this study, a non-traditional approach is taken that averages the variational equations using adaptive numerical techniques and then numerically integrating the resulting EOMs. Doing this avoids the Fourier series expansions and truncations required by the traditional analytic methods. The resultant numerical techniques can be easily adapted to propagations at most solar system bodies.
Finite element methods in numerical relativity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, P. J.
The finite element method is very successful in Newtonian fluid simulations, and can be extended to relativitstic fluid flows. This paper describes the general method, and then outlines some preliminary results for spherically symmetric geometries. The mixed finite element - finite difference scheme is introduced, and used for the description of spherically symmetric collapse. Baker's (Newtonian) shock modelling method and Miller's moving finite element method are also mentioned. Collapse in double-null coordinates requires non-constant time slicing, so the full finite element method in space and time is described.
Numerical Simulations of Granular Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richardson, Derek C.; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Yu, Yang; Matsumura, Soko
2014-11-01
Spacecraft images and indirect observations including thermal inertia measurements indicate most small bodies have surface regolith. Evidence of granular flow is also apparent in the images. This material motion occurs in very low gravity, therefore in a completely different gravitational environment than on the Earth. Understanding and modeling these motions can aid in the interpretation of imaged surface features that may exhibit signatures of constituent material properties. Also, upcoming sample-return missions to small bodies, and possible future manned missions, will involve interaction with the surface regolith, so it is important to develop tools to predict the surface response. We have added new capabilities to the parallelized N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav [1,2] that permit the simulation of granular dynamics, including multi-contact physics and friction forces, using the soft-sphere discrete-element method [3]. The numerical approach has been validated through comparison with laboratory experiments (e.g., [3,4]). Ongoing and recently completed projects include: impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes [5]; possible tidal resurfacing of asteroid Apophis during its 2029 encounter [6]; the Brazil-nut effect in low gravity [7]; and avalanche modeling.Acknowledgements: DCR acknowledges NASA (grants NNX08AM39G, NNX10AQ01G, NNX12AG29G) and NSF (AST1009579). PM acknowledges the French agency CNES. SRS works on the NEOShield Project funded under the European Commission’s FP7 program agreement No. 282703. SM acknowledges support from the Center for Theory and Computation at U Maryland and the Dundee Fellowship at U Dundee. Most simulations were performed using the YORP cluster in the Dept. of Astronomy at U Maryland and on the Deepthought High-Performance Computing Cluster at U Maryland.References: [1] Richardson, D.C. et al. 2000, Icarus 143, 45; [2] Stadel, J. 2001, Ph.D. Thesis, U Washington; [3] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2012, Gran
Numerical simulation of electrochemical desalination.
Hlushkou, D; Knust, K N; Crooks, R M; Tallarek, U
2016-05-18
We present an effective numerical approach to simulate electrochemically mediated desalination of seawater. This new membraneless, energy efficient desalination method relies on the oxidation of chloride ions, which generates an ion depletion zone and local electric field gradient near the junction of a microchannel branch to redirect sea salt into the brine stream, consequently producing desalted water. The proposed numerical model is based on resolution of the 3D coupled Navier-Stokes, Nernst-Planck, and Poisson equations at non-uniform spatial grids. The model is implemented as a parallel code and can be employed to simulate mass-charge transport coupled with surface or volume reactions in 3D systems showing an arbitrarily complex geometrical configuration. PMID:27089841
Numerical simulation of electrochemical desalination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hlushkou, D.; Knust, K. N.; Crooks, R. M.; Tallarek, U.
2016-05-01
We present an effective numerical approach to simulate electrochemically mediated desalination of seawater. This new membraneless, energy efficient desalination method relies on the oxidation of chloride ions, which generates an ion depletion zone and local electric field gradient near the junction of a microchannel branch to redirect sea salt into the brine stream, consequently producing desalted water. The proposed numerical model is based on resolution of the 3D coupled Navier–Stokes, Nernst–Planck, and Poisson equations at non-uniform spatial grids. The model is implemented as a parallel code and can be employed to simulate mass–charge transport coupled with surface or volume reactions in 3D systems showing an arbitrarily complex geometrical configuration.
Numerical simulation of supersonic boundary layer transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guo, Y.; Adams, N. A.; Sandham, N. D.; Kleiser, L.
1994-01-01
The present contribution reviews some of the recent progress obtained at our group in the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of compressible boundary layer transition. Elements of the different simulation approaches and numerical techniques employed are surveyed. Temporal and spatial simulations, as well as comparisons with results obtained from Parabolized Stability Equations, are discussed. DNS results are given for flat plate boundary layers in the Mach number range 1.6 to 4.5. A temporal DNS at Mach 4.5 has been continued through breakdown all the way to the turbulent stage. In addition results obtained with a recently developed extended temporal DNS approach are presented, which takes into account some nonparallel effects of a growing boundary layer. Results from this approach are quite close to those of spatial DNS, while preserving the efficiency of the temporal DNS.
Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Architecture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naiman, Cynthia G.
2004-01-01
The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. Because the NPSS was developed using the object-oriented paradigm, the resulting architecture is an extensible and flexible framework that is currently being used by a diverse set of participants in government, academia, and the aerospace industry. NPSS is being used by over 15 different institutions to support rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and aerospace. Full system-level simulations as well as subsystems may be modeled using NPSS. The NPSS architecture enables the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail, which is called numerical zooming. The middleware used to enable zooming and distributed simulations is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The NPSS Developer's Kit offers tools for the developer to generate CORBA-based components and wrap codes. The Developer's Kit enables distributed multi-fidelity and multi-discipline simulations, preserves proprietary and legacy codes, and facilitates addition of customized codes. The platforms supported are PC, Linux, HP, Sun, and SGI.
Numerical simulation of conservation laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Sin-Chung; To, Wai-Ming
1992-01-01
A new numerical framework for solving conservation laws is being developed. This new approach differs substantially from the well established methods, i.e., finite difference, finite volume, finite element and spectral methods, in both concept and methodology. The key features of the current scheme include: (1) direct discretization of the integral forms of conservation laws, (2) treating space and time on the same footing, (3) flux conservation in space and time, and (4) unified treatment of the convection and diffusion fluxes. The model equation considered in the initial study is the standard one dimensional unsteady constant-coefficient convection-diffusion equation. In a stability study, it is shown that the principal and spurious amplification factors of the current scheme, respectively, are structurally similar to those of the leapfrog/DuFort-Frankel scheme. As a result, the current scheme has no numerical diffusion in the special case of pure convection and is unconditionally stable in the special case of pure diffusion. Assuming smooth initial data, it will be shown theoretically and numerically that, by using an easily determined optimal time step, the accuracy of the current scheme may reach a level which is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the MacCormack scheme, with virtually identical operation count.
Numerical simulations of Lake Vostok
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curchitser, E.; Tremblay, B.
2003-04-01
Numerical simulations of Lake Vostok We present a systematic approach towards a realistic hydrodynamic model of lake Vostok. The lake is characterized by the unusual combination of size (permitting significant geostrophic motion) and an overlying ice sheet several kilometers thick. A priori estimates of the circulation in the deep lake predict a mostly geostrophic circulation driven by horizontal temperature gradients produced by the pressure-dependent freezing point at the base of the (non-uniform) ice sheet. Further preliminary (remote) research has revealed the steep topography and the elliptical geometry of the lake. A three dimensional, primitive equation, free surface, model is used as a starting point for the Lake configuration. We show how the surface pressure gradient forces are modified to permit a simulation that includes the hydrostatic effects of the overlying ice sheet. A thermodynamic ice model is coupled with the circulation component to simulate the ice accretion/melting at the base of the ice sheet. A stretching of the terrain following vertical coordinate is used to resolve the boundary layer in the ice/water interface. Furthermore, the terrain-following coordinate evolves in time, and is used to track the evolution of the ice sheet due to ice accretion/melting. Both idealized and realistic ice sheet bottom topographies (from remote radar data) are used to drive the simulations. Steady state and time evolving simulations (i.e., constant and evolving ice sheet geometry) will be descirbed, as well as a comparison to an idealized box model (Tremblay, Clarke, and Hohman). The coastline and lake bathymetry used in the simulation are derived from radar data and are accurately represented in our model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aharonov, Einat; Katz, Oded; Morgan, Julia K.; Dugan, Brandon
2016-01-01
Chen et al.'s comment presents limit equilibrium (LE) calculations of slope stability, which yield different landslide geometries compared with those obtained by Katz et al. (2014) using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). Previous work, however, has demonstrated excellent agreement in the slide geometries and sizes obtained by DEM vs. those obtained by limit analysis, thereby lending confidence to DEM and to limit analysis as methods to study slope instability and geometry. We suggest three reasons why the LE results may differ from DEM: (1) LE is a static method, which seeks a single failure surface to predict slope stability. Although it captures well the average slope conditions, the details of the stress distribution may be inaccurate. (2) DEM is a dynamic method that holistically simulates the evolution of stress and strain. Thus it is better suited to simulate far from equilibrium situations, such as overly steep slopes with FS < 1, which have strong dynamic responses. (3) The geometries of the slides presented by Chen et al. appear to be constrained by the domain size. We expect that a larger simulation domain may allow exploration of additional slide geometries, potentially with better correspondence with those of the DEM simulations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, J.; Adams, M.; Fertis, J.; Zeid, I.; Lam, P.
1982-01-01
Finite element codes are used in modelling rotor-bearing-stator structure common to the turbine industry. Engine dynamic simulation is used by developing strategies which enable the use of available finite element codes. benchmarking the elements developed are benchmarked by incorporation into a general purpose code (ADINA); the numerical characteristics of finite element type rotor-bearing-stator simulations are evaluated through the use of various types of explicit/implicit numerical integration operators. Improving the overall numerical efficiency of the procedure is improved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kluczyk, K.; Jacak, W.
2016-01-01
We investigate metal nano-particle size influence on plasmon resonance within theoretical and numerical approaches and compare results with available experimental data in order to improve resolution of optical identification of metallic nano-particle size and shape. The developed microscopic approach is the quantum random phase approximation model of plasmons in metallic nano-particles including plasmon damping by electron scattering and by radiative losses (i.e., by the so-called Lorentz friction). The numerical approach is by the finite element method solution of Maxwell equations for incident planar wave in spherical (also nano-rod, spheroid) geometry upon the system COMSOL and Mie treatment, supplemented with phenomenologically modeled dielectric function of metallic nano-particle. Comparison with experimental data for light extinction in Au and Ag nano-particle colloidal solutions with different particle sizes is presented. The crucial role of the Lorentz friction in the size effect of plasmon resonance in large (e.g., 20-60 nm for Au in vacuum) metallic nanoparticles is evidenced.
Simulating reionization in numerical cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokasian, Aaron
2003-11-01
The incorporation of radiative transfer effects into cosmological hydrodynamical simulations is essential for understanding how the intergalactic medium (IGM) makes the transition from a neutral medium to one that is almost fully ionized. I present an approximate numerical method designed to study in a statistical sense how a cosmological density field is ionized by various sets of sources. The method requires relatively few time steps and can be employed with simulations of high resolution. First, I explore the reionization history of Helium II by z < 6 quasars. Comparisons between HeII opacities measured observationally and inferred from our analysis reveal that the uncertainties in the empirical luminosity function provide enough leeway to provide a satisfactory match. A property common to all the calculations is that the epoch of Helium II reionization must have occurred between 3≲
2001 Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lytle, John; Follen, Gregory; Naiman, Cynthia; Veres, Joseph; Owen, Karl; Lopez, Isaac
2002-01-01
The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective, high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. Major accomplishments include the first formal release of the NPSS object-oriented architecture (NPSS Version 1) and the demonstration of a one order of magnitude reduction in computing cost-to-performance ratio using a cluster of personal computers. The paper also describes the future NPSS milestones, which include the simulation of space transportation propulsion systems in response to increased emphasis on safe, low cost access to space within NASA's Aerospace Technology Enterprise. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners on the fiscal year 2000 effort and the actions taken over the past year to
2000 Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lytle, John; Follen, Greg; Naiman, Cynthia; Veres, Joseph; Owen, Karl; Lopez, Isaac
2001-01-01
The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia, and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective. high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. Major accomplishments include the first formal release of the NPSS object-oriented architecture (NPSS Version 1) and the demonstration of a one order of magnitude reduction in computing cost-to-performance ratio using a cluster of personal computers. The paper also describes the future NPSS milestones, which include the simulation of space transportation propulsion systems in response to increased emphasis on safe, low cost access to space within NASA'S Aerospace Technology Enterprise. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners on the fiscal year 1999 effort and the actions taken over the past year to
Linking scales through numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lunati, I.
2012-12-01
Field-scale models of flow through porous media rely on a continuum description, which disregard pore-scale details and focus on macroscopic effects. As it is always the case, this choice is quite effective in reducing the number of model parameters, but this comes at expenses of an inherent loss of information and generality. Models based on Darcy's law, for instance, require spatial and temporal scale separation (locality and equilibrium). Although these conditions are generally met for single-phase flow, multiphase flow is far more complex: the interaction between nonlinearity of the interface behavior and the pore structure (disorder) creates a variety of flow regimes for which scale separation does not hold. In recent years, the increased computational power has led to a revival of pore-scale modeling in order to overcome this issue and describe the flow at the scale in which it physically occurs. If appropriate techniques are chosen, it is possible to use numerical simulations to complement experimental observations and advance our understanding of multiphase flow. By means of examples, we discuss the role played by these models in contributing to solve open problems and in devising alternatives to the standard description of flow through porous media.
Numerical Simulations of Thermobaric Explosions
Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E; Khasainov, B
2007-05-04
A Model of the energy evolution in thermobaric explosions is presented. It is based on the two-phase formulation: conservation laws for the gas and particle phases along with inter-phase interaction terms. It incorporates a Combustion Model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gas dynamic fields. The Model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the fuel (Al or TNT detonation products) with air. Numerical simulations were performed for 1.5-g thermobaric explosions in five different chambers (volumes ranging from 6.6 to 40 liters and length-to-diameter ratios from 1 to 12.5). Computed pressure waveforms were very similar to measured waveforms in all cases - thereby proving that the Model correctly predicts the energy evolution in such explosions. The computed global fuel consumption {mu}(t) behaved as an exponential life function. Its derivative {dot {mu}}(t) represents the global rate of fuel consumption. It depends on the rate of turbulent mixing which controls the rate of energy release in thermobaric explosions.
Numerical simulations of multifluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Unverdi, Salih Ozen
1990-01-01
A method for full numerical simulations of unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for multi-fluid systems is developed. Moving interfaces between dissimilar fluids are explicitly tracked and fluid properties are constructed on a stationary grid using the position of the interfaces. While the interfaces are explicitly tracked, they are not kept completely sharp but are given a finite thickness of the order of the mesh size to provide stability and smoothness. This thickness remains constant for all time but decreases with finer resolution of the stationary grid. A unique feature of the method is that the tracked interfaces carry the jump in properties across the interface and that, at each time step, the property fields are reconstructed by solving a Poisson equation. The advantage of this approach is that interfaces can interact in a natural way, since the gradients add or cancel as the grid distribution is constructed from the information carried by the tracked front. The emphasis is on the shape regimes of bubbles and bubble-bubble interactions in a stationary fluid. The circular, elliptical and skirted shape regimes and wake structures of two-dimensional bubbles are studied. Three-dimensional evolution of the interaction of two bubbles in a stationary fluid is investigated. Interaction of bubbles in a periodic array is also studied and it is found that a pair of bubbles in a free rise can interact in the absence of a toroidal wake below the upper bubble and that the interaction time is smaller as the viscosity of the outer fluid decreases. It is shown that the kinetic energy of the flow field decreases during this interaction. Sensitivity of the bubble interaction process to fluid properties is shown by different trajectories followed by bubbles in fluids of different viscosity. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is also studied.
Numerical Simulation of Delamination Growth in Composite Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Camanho, P. P.; Davila, C. G.; Ambur, D. R.
2001-01-01
The use of decohesion elements for the simulation of delamination in composite materials is reviewed. The test methods available to measure the interfacial fracture toughness used in the formulation of decohesion elements are described initially. After a brief presentation of the virtual crack closure technique, the technique most widely used to simulate delamination growth, the formulation of interfacial decohesion elements is described. Problems related with decohesion element constitutive equations, mixed-mode crack growth, element numerical integration and solution procedures are discussed. Based on these investigations, it is concluded that the use of interfacial decohesion elements is a promising technique that avoids the need for a pre-existing crack and pre-defined crack paths, and that these elements can be used to simulate both delamination onset and growth.
Relativistic positioning systems: Numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puchades Colmenero, Neus
The position of users located on the Earth's surface or near it may be found with the classic positioning systems (CPS). Certain information broadcast by satellites of global navigation systems, as GPS and GALILEO, may be used for positioning. The CPS are based on the Newtonian formalism, although relativistic post-Newtonian corrections are done when they are necessary. This thesis contributes to the development of a different positioning approach, which is fully relativistic from the beginning. In the relativistic positioning systems (RPS), the space-time position of any user (ship, spacecraft, and so on) can be calculated with the help of four satellites, which broadcast their proper times by means of codified electromagnetic signals. In this thesis, we have simulated satellite 4-tuples of the GPS and GALILEO constellations. If a user receives the signals from four satellites simultaneously, the emission proper times read -after decoding- are the user "emission coordinates". In order to find the user "positioning coordinates", in an appropriate almost inertial reference system, there are two possibilities: (a) the explicit relation between positioning and emission coordinates (broadcast by the satellites) is analytically found or (b) numerical codes are designed to calculate the positioning coordinates from the emission ones. Method (a) is only viable in simple ideal cases, whereas (b) allows us to consider realistic situations. In this thesis, we have designed numerical codes with the essential aim of studying two appropriate RPS, which may be generalized. Sometimes, there are two real users placed in different positions, which receive the same proper times from the same satellites; then, we say that there is bifurcation, and additional data are needed to choose the real user position. In this thesis, bifurcation is studied in detail. We have analyzed in depth two RPS models; in both, it is considered that the satellites move in the Schwarzschild's space
Numerical simulation of ball-racket impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yingpang
The collision of a ball with a tennis racket is usually modeled in terms of rigid body dynamics or an elastic system involving only a few springs. In this paper, we study the impact between a tennis ball and racket, by modeling the tennis ball in two different yaws. One method models the tennis ball as a Hertz elastic body and the other one models the ball by a more accurate finite element analysis. In the first model, we assume that the elastic properties of the ball obeys Hertz's law. In the finite element model, we consider the tennis ball as a shell witch is a elastic system constructed out of many isotropic small linear flat, elements, witch have both elastic and damping properties. The damping in each way is approximated as viscous term. In both methods, we study the static condition of deformation against a rigid surface before applying these models to dynamical processes. We compare these two methods and eventually determine how the racket parameters effect the performance of the racket, using numerical simulations. Comparison with experiment are show to confirm the general conclusion of the model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung
1998-01-01
Without resorting to special treatment for each individual test case, the 1D and 2D CE/SE shock-capturing schemes described previously (in Part I) are used to simulate flows involving phenomena such as shock waves, contact discontinuities, expansion waves and their interactions. Five 1D and six 2D problems are considered to examine the capability and robustness of these schemes. Despite their simple logical structures and low computational cost (for the 2D CE/SE shock-capturing scheme, the CPU time is about 2 micro-secs per mesh point per marching step on a Cray C90 machine), the numerical results, when compared with experimental data, exact solutions or numerical solutions by other methods, indicate that these schemes can accurately resolve shock and contact discontinuities consistently.
Numerical error in groundwater flow and solute transport simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woods, Juliette A.; Teubner, Michael D.; Simmons, Craig T.; Narayan, Kumar A.
2003-06-01
Models of groundwater flow and solute transport may be affected by numerical error, leading to quantitative and qualitative changes in behavior. In this paper we compare and combine three methods of assessing the extent of numerical error: grid refinement, mathematical analysis, and benchmark test problems. In particular, we assess the popular solute transport code SUTRA [Voss, 1984] as being a typical finite element code. Our numerical analysis suggests that SUTRA incorporates a numerical dispersion error and that its mass-lumped numerical scheme increases the numerical error. This is confirmed using a Gaussian test problem. A modified SUTRA code, in which the numerical dispersion is calculated and subtracted, produces better results. The much more challenging Elder problem [Elder, 1967; Voss and Souza, 1987] is then considered. Calculation of its numerical dispersion coefficients and numerical stability show that the Elder problem is prone to error. We confirm that Elder problem results are extremely sensitive to the simulation method used.
Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator (RENS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidian, Kenneth O.
1997-01-01
Work is being done at three universities to help today's NASA engineers use the knowledge and experience of their Apolloera predecessors in designing liquid rocket engines. Ground-breaking work is being done in important subject areas to create a prototype of the most important functions for the Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator (RENS). The goal of RENS is to develop an interactive, realtime application that engineers can utilize for comprehensive preliminary propulsion system design functions. RENS will employ computer science and artificial intelligence research in knowledge acquisition, computer code parallelization and objectification, expert system architecture design, and object-oriented programming. In 1995, a 3year grant from the NASA Lewis Research Center was awarded to Dr. Douglas Moreman and Dr. John Dyer of Southern University at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, to begin acquiring knowledge in liquid rocket propulsion systems. Resources of the University of West Florida in Pensacola were enlisted to begin the process of enlisting knowledge from senior NASA engineers who are recognized experts in liquid rocket engine propulsion systems. Dr. John Coffey of the University of West Florida is utilizing his expertise in interviewing and concept mapping techniques to encode, classify, and integrate information obtained through personal interviews. The expertise extracted from the NASA engineers has been put into concept maps with supporting textual, audio, graphic, and video material. A fundamental concept map was delivered by the end of the first year of work and the development of maps containing increasing amounts of information is continuing. Find out more information about this work at the Southern University/University of West Florida. In 1996, the Southern University/University of West Florida team conducted a 4day group interview with a panel of five experts to discuss failures of the RL10 rocket engine in conjunction with the Centaur launch vehicle. The
Element fracture technique for hypervelocity impact simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiao-tian; Li, Xiao-gang; Liu, Tao; Jia, Guang-hui
2015-05-01
Hypervelocity impact dynamics is the theoretical support of spacecraft shielding against space debris. The numerical simulation has become an important approach for obtaining the ballistic limits of the spacecraft shields. Currently, the most widely used algorithm for hypervelocity impact is the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Although the finite element method (FEM) is widely used in fracture mechanics and low-velocity impacts, the standard FEM can hardly simulate the debris cloud generated by hypervelocity impact. This paper presents a successful application of the node-separation technique for hypervelocity impact debris cloud simulation. The node-separation technique assigns individual/coincident nodes for the adjacent elements, and it applies constraints to the coincident node sets in the modeling step. In the explicit iteration, the cracks are generated by releasing the constrained node sets that meet the fracture criterion. Additionally, the distorted elements are identified from two aspects - self-piercing and phase change - and are deleted so that the constitutive computation can continue. FEM with the node-separation technique is used for thin-wall hypervelocity impact simulations. The internal structures of the debris cloud in the simulation output are compared with that in the test X-ray graphs under different material fracture criteria. It shows that the pressure criterion is more appropriate for hypervelocity impact. The internal structures of the debris cloud are also simulated and compared under different thickness-to-diameter ratios (t/D). The simulation outputs show the same spall pattern with the tests. Finally, the triple-plate impact case is simulated with node-separation FEM.
Numerical simulation of dynamic fracture and failure in solids
Chen, E.P.
1994-05-01
Numerical simulation of dynamic fracture and failure processes in solid continua using Lagrangian finite element techniques is the subject of discussion in this investigation. The specific configurations in this study include penetration of steel projectiles into aluminum blocks and concrete slabs. The failure mode in the aluminum block is excessive deformation while the concrete slab fails by hole growth, spallation, and scabbing. The transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA2D was used for the numerical analysis. The erosion capability in LS-DYNA2D was exercised to carry out the fracture and failure simulations. Calculated results were compared to the experimental data. Good correlations were obtained.
Numerical wind speed simulation model
Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.; Ballinger, M.Y.
1981-09-01
A relatively simple stochastic model for simulating wind speed time series that can be used as an alternative to time series from representative locations is described in this report. The model incorporates systematic seasonal variation of the mean wind, its standard deviation, and the correlation speeds. It also incorporates systematic diurnal variation of the mean speed and standard deviation. To demonstrate the model capabilities, simulations were made using model parameters derived from data collected at the Hanford Meteorology Station, and results of analysis of simulated and actual data were compared.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF LARYNGEAL FLOW
In this study, we have investigated laryngeal air flows by numerically solving the corresponding Navier-Stokes equations expressed in a two-dimensional cylindrical coordinate system. The glottal aperture, defined by the geometry of the vocal folds was allowed to change with the v...
A numerical method for cardiac mechanoelectric simulations.
Pathmanathan, Pras; Whiteley, Jonathan P
2009-05-01
Much effort has been devoted to developing numerical techniques for solving the equations that describe cardiac electrophysiology, namely the monodomain equations and bidomain equations. Only a limited selection of publications, however, address the development of numerical techniques for mechanoelectric simulations where cardiac electrophysiology is coupled with deformation of cardiac tissue. One problem commonly encountered in mechanoelectric simulations is instability of the coupled numerical scheme. In this study, we develop a stable numerical scheme for mechanoelectric simulations. A number of convergence tests are carried out using this stable technique for simulations where deformations are of the magnitude typically observed in a beating heart. These convergence tests demonstrate that accurate computation of tissue deformation requires a nodal spacing of around 1 mm in the mesh used to calculate tissue deformation. This is a much finer computational grid than has previously been acknowledged, and has implications for the computational efficiency of the resulting numerical scheme. PMID:19263223
The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator
Travish, G.A.
1989-11-01
Beam Break-Up (BBU) is a severe constraint in accelerator design, limiting beam current and quality. The control of BBU has become the focus of much research in the design of the next generation collider, recirculating and linear induction accelerators and advanced accelerators. Determining the effect on BBU of modifications to cavities, the focusing elements or the beam is frequently beyond the ability of current analytic models. A computer code was written to address this problem. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator (BBUNS) was designed to numerically solve for beam break-up (BBU) due to an arbitrary transverse wakefield. BBUNS was developed to be as user friendly as possible on the Cray computer series. The user is able to control all aspects of input and output by using a single command file. In addition, the wakefield is specified by the user and read in as a table. The program can model energy variations along and within the beam, focusing magnetic field profiles can be specified, and the graphical output can be tailored. In this note we discuss BBUNS, its structure and application. Included are detailed instructions, examples and a sample session of BBUNS. This program is available for distribution. 50 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.
Direct numerical simulation of active fiber composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Seung J.; Hwang, Joon S.; Paik, Seung H.
2003-08-01
Active Fiber Composites (AFC) possess desirable characteristics for smart structure applications. One major advantage of AFC is the ability to create anisotropic laminate layers useful in applications requiring off-axis or twisting motions. AFC is naturally composed of two different constituents: piezoelectric fiber and matrix. Therefore, homogenization method, which is utilized in the analysis of laminated composite material, has been used to characterize the material properties. Using this approach, the global behaviors of the structures are predicted in an averaged sense. However, this approach has intrinsic limitations in describing the local behaviors in the level of the constituents. Actually, the failure analysis of AFC requires the knowledge of the local behaviors. Therefore, microscopic approach is necessary to predict the behaviors of AFC. In this work, a microscopic approach for the analysis of AFC was performed. Piezoelectric fiber and matrix were modeled separately and finite element method using three-dimensional solid elements was utilized. Because fine mesh is essential, high performance computing technology was applied to the solution of the immense degree-of-freedom problem. This approach is called Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of structure. Through the DNS of AFC, local stress distribution around the interface of fiber and matrix was analyzed.
Stabilization of numerical interchange in spectral-element magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sovinec, C. R.
2016-08-01
Auxiliary numerical projections of the divergence of flow velocity and vorticity parallel to magnetic field are developed and tested for the purpose of suppressing unphysical interchange instability in magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The numerical instability arises with equal-order C0 finite- and spectral-element expansions of the flow velocity, magnetic field, and pressure and is sensitive to behavior at the limit of resolution. The auxiliary projections are motivated by physical field-line bending, and coercive responses to the projections are added to the flow-velocity equation. Their incomplete expansions are limited to the highest-order orthogonal polynomial in at least one coordinate of the spectral elements. Cylindrical eigenmode computations show that the projections induce convergence from the stable side with first-order ideal-MHD equations during h-refinement and p-refinement. Hyperbolic and parabolic projections and responses are compared, together with different methods for avoiding magnetic divergence error. The projections are also shown to be effective in linear and nonlinear time-dependent computations with the NIMROD code Sovinec et al. [17], provided that the projections introduce numerical dissipation.
Elements of a theory of simulation
Rasmussen, S.; Barrett, C.L. |
1995-06-01
Artificial Life and the more general area of Complex Systems does not have a unified theoretical framework although most theoretical work in these areas is based on simulation. This is primarily due to am insufficient representational power of the classical mathematical frameworks for the description of discrete dynamical systems of interacting objects with often complex internal states. Unlike computation or the numerical analysis of differential equations, simulation does not have a well established conceptual and mathematical foundation. Simulation is an arguable unique union of modeling and computation. However, simulation also qualifies as a separate species of system representation with its own motivations, characteristics, and implications. This work outlines how simulation can be rooted in mathematics and shows which properties some of the elements of such a mathematical framework has. The properties of simulation are described and analyzed in terms of properties of dynamical systems. It is shown how and why a simulation produces emergent behavior and why the analysis of the dynamics of the system being simulated always is an analysis of emergent phenomena. Indeed, the single fundamental class of properties of the natural world that simulation will open to new understanding, is that which occurs only in the dynamics produced by the interactions of the components of complex systems. Simulation offers a synthetic, formal framework for the experimental mathematics of representation and analysis of complex dynamical systems. A notion of a universal simulator and the definition of simulatabuity is proposed. This allows a description of conditions under which simulations can distribute update functions over system components, thereby determining simulatability. The connection between the notion of simulatability and the notion of computability is defined and the concepts are distinguished.
Coincidental match of numerical simulation and physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pierre, B.; Gudmundsson, J. S.
2010-08-01
Consequences of rapid pressure transients in pipelines range from increased fatigue to leakages and to complete ruptures of pipeline. Therefore, accurate predictions of rapid pressure transients in pipelines using numerical simulations are critical. State of the art modelling of pressure transient in general, and water hammer in particular include unsteady friction in addition to the steady frictional pressure drop, and numerical simulations rely on the method of characteristics. Comparison of rapid pressure transient calculations by the method of characteristics and a selected high resolution finite volume method highlights issues related to modelling of pressure waves and illustrates that matches between numerical simulations and physics are purely coincidental.
NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF CHROMOSPHERIC MICROFLARES
Jiang, R. L.; Fang, C.; Chen, P. F.
2010-02-20
With gravity, ionization, and radiation being considered, we perform 2.5 dimensional (2.5D) compressible resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of chromospheric magnetic reconnection using the CIP-MOCCT scheme. The temperature distribution of the quiet-Sun atmospheric model VALC and the helium abundance (10%) are adopted. Our 2.5D MHD simulation reproduces qualitatively the temperature enhancement observed in chromospheric microflares. The temperature enhancement DELTAT is demonstrated to be sensitive to the background magnetic field, whereas the total evolution time DELTAt is sensitive to the magnitude of the anomalous resistivity. Moreover, we found a scaling law, which is described as DELTAT/DELTAt {approx} n{sub H} {sup -1.5} B {sup 2.1}eta{sub 0} {sup 0.88}. Our results also indicate that the velocity of the upward jet is much greater than that of the downward jet, and the X-point may move up or down.
Numerical tools for atomistic simulations.
Fang, H.; Gullett, Philip Michael; Slepoy, Alexander; Horstemeyer, Mark F.; Baskes, Michael I.; Wagner, Gregory John; Li, Mo
2004-01-01
The final report for a Laboratory Directed Research and Development project entitled 'Parallel Atomistic Computing for Failure Analysis of Micromachines' is presented. In this project, atomistic algorithms for parallel computers were developed to assist in quantification of microstructure-property relations related to weapon micro-components. With these and other serial computing tools, we are performing atomistic simulations of various sizes, geometries, materials, and boundary conditions. These tools provide the capability to handle the different size-scale effects required to predict failure. Nonlocal continuum models have been proposed to address this problem; however, they are phenomenological in nature and are difficult to validate for micro-scale components. Our goal is to separately quantify damage nucleation, growth, and coalescence mechanisms to provide a basis for macro-scale continuum models that will be used for micromachine design. Because micro-component experiments are difficult, a systematic computational study that employs Monte Carlo methods, molecular statics, and molecular dynamics (EAM and MEAM) simulations to compute continuum quantities will provide mechanism-property relations associated with the following parameters: specimen size, number of grains, crystal orientation, strain rates, temperature, defect nearest neighbor distance, void/crack size, chemical state, and stress state. This study will quantify sizescale effects from nanometers to microns in terms of damage progression and thus potentially allow for optimized micro-machine designs that are more reliable and have higher fidelity in terms of strength. In order to accomplish this task, several atomistic methods needed to be developed and evaluated to cover the range of defects, strain rates, temperatures, and sizes that a material may see in micro-machines. Therefore we are providing a complete set of tools for large scale atomistic simulations that include pre-processing of
Numerical simulation of jet noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paliath, Umesh
In the present work, computational aeroacoustics and parallel computers are used to conduct a study of flow-induced noise from different jet nozzle geometries. The nozzle is included as part of the computational domain. This is important to predict jet noise from nozzles associated with military aircraft engines. The Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach is used to simulate both the jet nozzle internal and external flows as well as the jet plume. This methodology allows the turbulence model to transition from an unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) method for attached boundary layers to a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in separated regions. Thus, it is ideally suited to jet flow simulations where the nozzle is included. Both cylindrical polar and Cartesian coordinate systems are used. A spectral method is used to avoid the centerline singularity when using the cylindrical coordinate system. The one equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model, in DES mode, is used to describe the evolution of the turbulent eddy viscosity. An explicit 4th order Runge-Kutta time marching scheme is used. For spatial discritization the Dispersion Relation Preserving scheme(DRP) is used. The farfield sound is evaluated using the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings permeable surface wave extrapolation method. This permits the noise to be predicted at large distances from the jet based on fluctuations in the jets near field. The present work includes a study of the effect of different nozzle geometries such as axisymmetric/non-axisymmetric and planar/non-planar exits on the far field noise predictions. Also the effect of operating conditions such as a heated/unheated jet, the effect of forward flight, a jet flow at an angle of attack, and the effect of a supersonic exit Mach number, are included in the study.
Numerical simulation of transitional flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biringen, Sedat
1986-01-01
The applicability of active control of transition by periodic suction-blowing is investigated via direct simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. The time-evolution of finite-amplitude disturbances in plane channel flow is compared in detail with and without control. The analysis indicates that, for relatively small three-dimensional amplitudes, a two-dimensional control effectively reduces disturbance growth rates even for linearly unstable Reynolds numbers. After the flow goes through secondary instability, three-dimensional control seems necessary to stabilize the flow. An investigation of the temperature field suggests that passive temperature contamination is operative to reflect the flow dynamics during transition.
Numerical Simulations of Thermographic Responses in Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. Elliot; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Howell, Patricia A.
2015-01-01
Numerical simulations of thermographic responses in composite materials have been a useful for evaluating and optimizing thermographic analysis techniques. Numerical solutions are particularly beneficial for thermographic techniques, since the fabrication of specimens with realistic flaws is difficult. Simulations are presented with different ply layups that incorporated the anisotropic thermal properties that exist in each ply. The results are compared to analytical series solutions and thermal measurements on composites with flat bottom holes and delaminations.
Numerical simulations of the reditron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Davis, Harold A.
1988-04-01
The reflected-electrons discrimination microwave generator (reditron) is a high-power, narrow-band, and single-mode microwave generation that makes exclusive use of the oscillatory character of the virtual-cathode of a relativistic electron beam. The complex, nonlinear character of the virtual-cathode device necessitates particle-in-cell plasma simulation techniques. Investigations indicate two sources of the radiation: (1) the trapped electrons reflexing between the real and virtual cathodes, and (2) the oscillation of the virtual cathode. In the conventional design, the two mechanisms coexist and interfere with each other destructively, causing degradation of the efficiency of microwave generation. The authors have investigated a configuration with a slotted, thick anode and an external magnetic field, which effectively eliminates the reflexing electrons. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations showed that such a configuration exploits the oscillation of the virtual cathode exclusively, and it generates single-mode, narrowbandwidth, and high-power microwave radiation with a potential efficiency over 10 percent. It was found that further optimization could be achieved by the use of a density (current) modulated electron beam at appropriate frequencies.
Numerical simulations of disordered superconductors
Bedell, K.S.; Gubernatis, J.E.; Scalettar, R.T.; Zimanyi, G.T.
1997-12-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors carried out Monte Carlo studies of the critical behavior of superfluid {sup 4}He in aerogel. They found the superfluid density exponent increases in the presence of fractal disorder with a value roughly consistent with experimental results. They also addressed the localization of flux lines caused by splayed columnar pins. Using a Sine-Gordon-type of renormalization group study they obtained an analytic form for the critical temperature. They also determined the critical temperature from I-V characteristics obtained from a molecular dynamics simulation. The combined studies enabled one to construct the phase diagram as a function of interaction strength, temperature, and disorder. They also employed the recently developed mapping between boson world-lines and the flux motion to use quantum Monte Carlo simulations to analyze localization in the presence of disorder. From measurements of the transverse flux line wandering, they determined the critical ratio of columnar to point disorder strength needed to localize the bosons.
Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility preliminary study: Executive study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
A computing system was designed with the capability of providing an effective throughput of one billion floating point operations per second for three dimensional Navier-Stokes codes. The methodology used in defining the baseline design, and the major elements of the numerical aerodynamic simulation facility are described.
Numerical simulations of protostellar jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suttner, Gerhard; Smith, Michael D.; Yorke, Harold W.; Zinnecker, Hans
Molecular jets announce the successful birth of a protostar. We develop here a model for the jets and their environments, adapting a multi-dimensional hydrocode to follow the molecular-atomic transitions of hydrogen. We examine powerful outflows into dense gas. The cocoon which forms around a jet is a very low density cavity of atomic gas. These atoms originate from strong shocks which dissociate the molecules. The rest of the molecules are either within the jet or swept up into very thin layers. Pulsed jets produce wider cavities and molecular layers which can grow onto resolvable jet knots. Three-dimensional simulations produce shocked molecular knots, distorted and multiple bow shocks and arclike structures. Spectroscopic and excitation properties of the hydrogen molecules are calculated. In the infrared, strong emission is seen from shocks within the jet (when pulsed) as well as from discrete regions along the cavity walls. Excitation, as measured by line ratios, is not generally constant. Broad double-peaked, shifted emission lines are predicted. The jet model for protostellar outflows is confronted with the constraints imposed by CO spectroscopic observations. From the three dimensional simulations we calculate line profiles and construct position-velocity diagrams for the (low-J) CO transitions. We find (1) the profiles imply power law variation of integrated brightness with velocity over a wide range of velocities, (2) the velocity field resembles a `Hubble Law' and (3) a hollow-shell structure at low velocities becomes an elongated lobe at high velocities. Deviations from the simple power law dependence of integrated brightness versus velocity occur at high velocities in our simulations. The curve first dips to a shallow minimum and then rises rapidly and peaks sharply. Reanalysis of the NGC 2264G and Cepheus E data confirm these predictions. We identify these two features with a jet-ambient shear layer and the jet itself. A deeper analysis reveals that
Numerical simulations of pendant droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pena, Carlos; Kahouadji, Lyes; Matar, Omar; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon
2015-11-01
We simulate the evolution of a three-dimensional pendant droplet through pinch-off using a new parallel two-phase flow solver called BLUE. The parallelization of the code is based on the technique of algebraic domain decomposition where the velocity field is solved by a parallel GMRes method for the viscous terms and the pressure by a parallel multigrid/GMRes method. Communication is handled by MPI message passing procedures. The method for the treatment of the fluid interfaces uses a hybrid Front Tracking/Level Set technique which defines the interface both by a discontinuous density field as well as by a local triangular Lagrangian mesh. This structure allows the interface to undergo large deformations including the rupture and coalescence of fluid interfaces. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.
Numerical Simulation of Nanostructure Growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hwang, Helen H.; Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.
2004-01-01
Nanoscale structures, such as nanowires and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are often grown in gaseous or plasma environments. Successful growth of these structures is defined by achieving a specified crystallinity or chirality, size or diameter, alignment, etc., which in turn depend on gas mixture ratios. pressure, flow rate, substrate temperature, and other operating conditions. To date, there has not been a rigorous growth model that addresses the specific concerns of crystalline nanowire growth, while demonstrating the correct trends of the processing conditions on growth rates. Most crystal growth models are based on the Burton, Cabrera, and Frank (BCF) method, where adatoms are incorporated into a growing crystal at surface steps or spirals. When the supersaturation of the vapor is high, islands nucleate to form steps, and these steps subsequently spread (grow). The overall bulk growth rate is determined by solving for the evolving motion of the steps. Our approach is to use a phase field model to simulate the growth of finite sized nanowire crystals, linking the free energy equation with the diffusion equation of the adatoms. The phase field method solves for an order parameter that defines the evolving steps in a concentration field. This eliminates the need for explicit front tracking/location, or complicated shadowing routines, both of which can be computationally expensive, particularly in higher dimensions. We will present results demonstrating the effect of process conditions, such as substrate temperature, vapor supersaturation, etc. on the evolving morphologies and overall growth rates of the nanostructures.
NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF SPICULE ACCELERATION
Guerreiro, N.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V. E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no
2013-04-01
Observations in the H{alpha} line of hydrogen and the H and K lines of singly ionized calcium on the solar limb reveal the existence of structures with jet-like behavior, usually designated as spicules. The driving mechanism for such structures remains poorly understood. Sterling et al. shed some light on the problem mimicking reconnection events in the chromosphere with a one-dimensional code by injecting energy with different spatial and temporal distributions and tracing the thermodynamic evolution of the upper chromospheric plasma. They found three different classes of jets resulting from these injections. We follow their approach but improve the physical description by including non-LTE cooling in strong spectral lines and non-equilibrium hydrogen ionization. Increased cooling and conversion of injected energy into hydrogen ionization energy instead of thermal energy both lead to weaker jets and smaller final extent of the spicules compared with Sterling et al. In our simulations we find different behavior depending on the timescale for hydrogen ionization/recombination. Radiation-driven ionization fronts also form.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolis, A.; Cantwell, C. D.; Moxey, D.; Serson, D.; Sherwin, S. J.
2016-09-01
A hybrid parallelisation technique for distributed memory systems is investigated for a coupled Fourier-spectral/hp element discretisation of domains characterised by geometric homogeneity in one or more directions. The performance of the approach is mathematically modelled in terms of operation count and communication costs for identifying the most efficient parameter choices. The model is calibrated to target a specific hardware platform after which it is shown to accurately predict the performance in the hybrid regime. The method is applied to modelling turbulent flow using the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in an axisymmetric pipe and square channel. The hybrid method extends the practical limitations of the discretisation, allowing greater parallelism and reduced wall times. Performance is shown to continue to scale when both parallelisation strategies are used.
Numerical Resolution of Seismic Wavefield Simulations in Southern California
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tape, C.; Casarotti, E.
2014-12-01
Seismic wavefield simulations can provide accurate solutions to the wave equation, even for three-dimensional seismic velocity models with topography, basin structures, anisotropy, attenuation, and other complexities. But how accurate are these numerical solutions? In many cases the effect of numerical dispersion on the synthetic seismograms looks quite similar to the effects of structural complexities. Therefore it is important to know the numerical resolution of the synthetic seismograms, that is, the minimum period that provides a quantifiably numerically accurate solution to the wave equation. Numerical resolution can be discussed in terms of a combined mesh and velocity model, or in terms of an individual source-station path within the same mesh and velocity model. Here we discuss two approaches for quantifying the numerical resolution. In the first approach we estimate the minimum resolvable period of each element within the finite element mesh. This calculation, performed within SPECFEM3D, requires no wavefield simulations and is based only on the size of each element and the minimum velocity within each element. The calculation produces a volumetric field that shows the estimated minimum resolvable period within each element of the (generally unstructured) mesh. In the second approach we choose a set of earthquakes to be used within a tomographic inversion. For each earthquake we compute one simulation using a fine discretization of gridpoints on the finite-element mesh and another simulation using a coarse discretization. We filter both sets of seismograms over a range of periods and then quantify the waveform differences. The minimum resolvable period (or numerical resolution) is identified by the minimum period for which the synthetic seismogram from the coarse-mesh and fine-mesh simulations is quantifiably the same. This calculation provides a path-specific minimum resolvable period that can be used to guide the choice of measurement filtering for a
Numerical Simulations of Falling Sphere Viscometry Experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O Dwyer, L.; Kellogg, L. H.; Lesher, C. E.
2007-12-01
The falling sphere technique based on Stokes' law is widely used to determine the viscosities of geologically relevant melts at high pressures. Stokes' law is valid when a rigid sphere falls slowly and steadily through a stationary and infinite Newtonian medium of uniform properties. High-pressure falling sphere experiments however, usually involve dropping a dense, refractory sphere through a liquid contained by a cylindrical capsule of finite size. The sphere velocity is influenced by the walls (Faxen correction) and ends of the capsule, and possible convective motion of the fluid. Efforts are made to minimize thermal gradients in laboratory experiments, but small temperature differences within the capsule can lead to convection complicating interpretation. We utilize GALE (Moresi et al., 2003;), a finite element particle-in-cell code, to examine these factors in numerical models of conditions similar to those of high-pressure experiments. Our modeling considers a three- dimensional box or cylinder containing a cluster of particles that represent the dense sphere in laboratory experiments surrounded by low viscosity particles representing the melt. GALE includes buoyancy forces, heat flow, and viscosity variations so our model can be used to assess the effects of the capsule's walls and ends, and the consequences of thermal gradients on the sphere's velocity and trajectory. Comparisons between our numerical simulations and real-time falling sphere experiments involving lower viscosity molten komatiite are made to assess the validity of Stokes' law with the standard Faxen correction included, and formulations considering end effects. The modeling also permits an evaluation of the uncertainties in recovering accurate liquid viscosities from Stokes' law when a dense sphere falls through a convecting low viscosity melt. It also allows us to assess acceleration to a terminal velocity that can provide constraints on melt viscosity in experiments in which the terminal
Elements of Regolith Simulant's Cost Structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rickman, Douglas L.
2009-01-01
The cost of lunar regolith simulants is much higher than many users anticipate. After all, it is nothing more than broken rock. This class will discuss the elements which make up the cost structure for simulants. It will also consider which elements can be avoided under certain circumstances and which elements might be altered by the application of additional research and development.
Numerical simulation of magma chamber dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longo, Antonella; Papale, Paolo; Montagna, Chiara Paola; Vassalli, Melissa; Giudice, Salvatore; Cassioli, Andrea
2010-05-01
Magma chambers are characterized by periodic arrivals of deep magma batches that give origin to complex patterns of magma convection and mixing, and modify the distribution of physical quantities inside the chamber. We simulate the transient, 2D, multi-component homogeneous dynamics in geometrically complex dyke+chamber systems, by means of GALES, a finite element parallel C++ code solving mass, momentum and energy equations for multi-component homogeneous gas-liquid (± crystals) mixtures in compressible-to-incompressible flow conditions. Code validation analysis includes several cases from the classical engineering literature, corresponding to a variety of subsonic to supersonic gas-liquid flow regimes (see http://www.pi.ingv.it/~longo/gales/gales.html). The model allows specification of the composition of the different magmas in the domain, in terms of ten major oxides plus the two volatile species H2O and CO2. Gas-liquid thermodynamics are modeled by using the compositional dependent, non-ideal model in Papale et al. (Chem.. Geol., 2006). Magma properties are defined in terms of local pressure, temperature, and composition including volatiles. Several applications are performed within domains characterized by the presence of one or more magma chambers and one or more dykes, with different geometries and characteristic size from hundreds of m to several km. In most simulations an initial compositional interface is placed at the top of a feeding dyke, or at larger depth, with the deeper magma having a lower density as a consequence of larger volatile content. The numerical results show complex patterns of magma refilling in the chamber, with alternating phases of magma ingression and magma sinking from the chamber into the feeding dyke. Intense mixing takes place in feeding dykes, so that the new magma entering the chamber is always a mixture of the deep and the initially resident magma. Buoyant plume rise occurs through the formation of complex convective
Numerical Simulation of Incompressible Flows with Moving Interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medale, Marc; Jaeger, Marc
1997-03-01
A numerical model has been developed for the 2D simulation of free surface flows or, more generally speaking, moving interface ones. The bulk fluids on both sides of the interface are taken into account in simulating the incompressible laminar flow state. In the case of heat transfer the whole system, i.e. walls as well as possible obstacles, is considered. This model is based on finite element analysis with an Eulerian approach and an unstructured fixed mesh. A special technique to localize the interface allows its temporal evolution through this mesh. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the model.
Boundary acquisition for setup of numerical simulation
Diegert, C.
1997-12-31
The author presents a work flow diagram that includes a path that begins with taking experimental measurements, and ends with obtaining insight from results produced by numerical simulation. Two examples illustrate this path: (1) Three-dimensional imaging measurement at micron scale, using X-ray tomography, provides information on the boundaries of irregularly-shaped alumina oxide particles held in an epoxy matrix. A subsequent numerical simulation predicts the electrical field concentrations that would occur in the observed particle configurations. (2) Three-dimensional imaging measurement at meter scale, again using X-ray tomography, provides information on the boundaries fossilized bone fragments in a Parasaurolophus crest recently discovered in New Mexico. A subsequent numerical simulation predicts acoustic response of the elaborate internal structure of nasal passageways defined by the fossil record. The author must both add value, and must change the format of the three-dimensional imaging measurements before the define the geometric boundary initial conditions for the automatic mesh generation, and subsequent numerical simulation. The author applies a variety of filters and statistical classification algorithms to estimate the extents of the structures relevant to the subsequent numerical simulation, and capture these extents as faceted geometries. The author will describe the particular combination of manual and automatic methods used in the above two examples.
Finite Element Simulation of Smart Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cui, Y. Lawrence; Panahandeh, M.
1996-01-01
Finite element equations representing the behavior of piezoelectric materials when bounded to a typical structure and used as sensors and actuators were developed. Emphasis was placed on generating sensor output equations of piezoelectric sensors and responses of a typical structure bonded with piezoelectric sensors and actuators on the basis of finite element formulation. The model can predict not only structural responses due to both mechanical and electrical loading but also electrical potential due to mechanical or thermal effects. The resulted finite element equations were then used for simple control design and performance evaluation. In the control algorithm, voltages coming out from piezoelectric sensors, which are proportional to strains at sensing locations, are taken as input. The voltages applied to the piezoelectric actuators are used as output. The feasibility of integrating control algorithm with the element routine developed herein and FEAP was demonstrated. In particular, optimal independent modal space control was implemented in a software package on the basis of finite element formulation. A rudimentary finite element-control algorithm package was also developed to evaluate the performance of candidate control laws. A few numerical simulations using the software package developed herein were given. The integrated software package will provide a design tool to address issues such as how adaptive smart systems will scale to a full size aircraft, the amount of piezoelectric materials and the powers needed to actuate it for desired performance. It will also provide a viable new structural control design concept for practical applications in large flexible structures such as aerospace vehicles and aircraft.
Numerical simulation of double-diffusive finger convection
Hughes, J.D.; Sanford, W.E.; Vacher, H.L.
2005-01-01
A hybrid finite element, integrated finite difference numerical model is developed for the simulation of double-diffusive and multicomponent flow in two and three dimensions. The model is based on a multidimensional, density-dependent, saturated-unsaturated transport model (SUTRA), which uses one governing equation for fluid flow and another for solute transport. The solute-transport equation is applied sequentially to each simulated species. Density coupling of the flow and solute-transport equations is accounted for and handled using a sequential implicit Picard iterative scheme. High-resolution data from a double-diffusive Hele-Shaw experiment, initially in a density-stable configuration, is used to verify the numerical model. The temporal and spatial evolution of simulated double-diffusive convection is in good agreement with experimental results. Numerical results are very sensitive to discretization and correspond closest to experimental results when element sizes adequately define the spatial resolution of observed fingering. Numerical results also indicate that differences in the molecular diffusivity of sodium chloride and the dye used to visualize experimental sodium chloride concentrations are significant and cause inaccurate mapping of sodium chloride concentrations by the dye, especially at late times. As a result of reduced diffusion, simulated dye fingers are better defined than simulated sodium chloride fingers and exhibit more vertical mass transfer. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.
Numerical simulations of cryogenic cavitating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyunji; Kim, Hyeongjun; Min, Daeho; Kim, Chongam
2015-12-01
The present study deals with a numerical method for cryogenic cavitating flows. Recently, we have developed an accurate and efficient baseline numerical scheme for all-speed water-gas two-phase flows. By extending such progress, we modify the numerical dissipations to be properly scaled so that it does not show any deficiencies in low Mach number regions. For dealing with cryogenic two-phase flows, previous EOS-dependent shock discontinuity sensing term is replaced with a newly designed EOS-free one. To validate the proposed numerical method, cryogenic cavitating flows around hydrofoil are computed and the pressure and temperature depression effect in cryogenic cavitation are demonstrated. Compared with Hord's experimental data, computed results are turned out to be satisfactory. Afterwards, numerical simulations of flow around KARI turbopump inducer in liquid rocket are carried out under various flow conditions with water and cryogenic fluids, and the difference in inducer flow physics depending on the working fluids are examined.
Numerical Simulation Of Cutting Of Gear Teeth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oswald, Fred B.; Huston, Ronald L.; Mavriplis, Dimitrios
1994-01-01
Shapes of gear teeth produced by gear cutters of specified shape simulated computationally, according to approach based on principles of differential geometry. Results of computer simulation displayed as computer graphics and/or used in analyses of design, manufacturing, and performance of gears. Applicable to both standard and non-standard gear-tooth forms. Accelerates and facilitates analysis of alternative designs of gears and cutters. Simulation extended to study generation of surfaces other than gears. Applied to cams, bearings, and surfaces of arbitrary rolling elements as well as to gears. Possible to develop analogous procedures for simulating manufacture of skin surfaces like automobile fenders, airfoils, and ship hulls.
Reliability of Complex Nonlinear Numerical Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.
2004-01-01
This work describes some of the procedure to ensure a higher level of confidence in the predictability and reliability (PAR) of numerical simulation of multiscale complex nonlinear problems. The focus is on relating PAR of numerical simulations with complex nonlinear phenomena of numerics. To isolate sources of numerical uncertainties, the possible discrepancy between the chosen partial differential equation (PDE) model and the real physics and/or experimental data is set aside. The discussion is restricted to how well numerical schemes can mimic the solution behavior of the underlying PDE model for finite time steps and grid spacings. The situation is complicated by the fact that the available theory for the understanding of nonlinear behavior of numerics is not at a stage to fully analyze the nonlinear Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The discussion is based on the knowledge gained for nonlinear model problems with known analytical solutions to identify and explain the possible sources and remedies of numerical uncertainties in practical computations. Examples relevant to turbulent flow computations are included.
Numerical propulsion system simulation - An interdisciplinary approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nichols, Lester D.; Chamis, Christos C.
1991-01-01
The tremendous progress being made in computational engineering and the rapid growth in computing power that is resulting from parallel processing now make it feasible to consider the use of computer simulations to gain insights into the complex interactions in aerospace propulsion systems and to evaluate new concepts early in the design process before a commitment to hardware is made. Described here is a NASA initiative to develop a Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) capability.
Numerical propulsion system simulation: An interdisciplinary approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nichols, Lester D.; Chamis, Christos C.
1991-01-01
The tremendous progress being made in computational engineering and the rapid growth in computing power that is resulting from parallel processing now make it feasible to consider the use of computer simulations to gain insights into the complex interactions in aerospace propulsion systems and to evaluate new concepts early in the design process before a commitment to hardware is made. Described here is a NASA initiative to develop a Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) capability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terrana, S.; Vilotte, J. P.; Guillot, L.
2015-12-01
New seismological monitoring networks combine broadband seismic receivers, hydrophones and micro-barometers antenna, providing complementary observation of source-radiated waves. Exploiting these observations requires accurate and multi-media - elastic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound - wave simulation methods, in order to improve our physical understanding of energy exchanges at material interfaces.We present here a new development of a high-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) method, for the simulation of coupled seismic and acoustic wave propagation, within a unified framework ([1],[2]) allowing for continuous and discontinuous Spectral Element Methods (SEM) to be used in the same simulation, with conforming and non-conforming meshes. The HDG-SEM approximation leads to differential - algebraic equations, which can be solved implicitly using energy-preserving time-schemes.The proposed HDG-SEM is computationally attractive, when compared with classical Discontinuous Galerkin methods, involving only the approximation of the single-valued traces of the velocity field along the element interfaces as globally coupled unknowns. The formulation is based on a variational approximation of the physical fluxes, which are shown to be the explicit solution of an exact Riemann problem at each element boundaries. This leads to a highly parallel and efficient unstructured and high-order accurate method, which can be space-and-time adaptive.A numerical study of the accuracy and convergence of the HDG-SEM is performed through a number of case studies involving elastic-acoustic (infrasound) coupling with geometries of increasing complexity. Finally, the performance of the method is illustrated through realistic case studies involving ground wave propagation associated to topography effects.In conclusion, we outline some on-going extensions of the method.References:[1] Cockburn, B., Gopalakrishnan, J., Lazarov, R., Unified hybridization of discontinuous Galerkin, mixed and
A numerical simulation of galaxy subcluster mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roettiger, Kurt; Burns, Jack O.; Loken, Chris
1993-01-01
We present preliminary results of a 3-D numerical simulation of two merging subclusters of galaxies. By self-consistently modelling the intracluster gas and dark matter dynamics, we hope to gain insight as to how the dynamics of both relate to such observables as the cluster x-ray emission, radio source morphology, and velocity dispersions.
IRIS Spectrum Line Plot - Numeric Simulation
This video is similar to the IRIS Spectrum Line Plot video at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E4V_vF3qMSI, but now as derived from a numerical simulation of the Sun by the University of Oslo. Credit...
Simple Numerical Simulation of Strain Measurement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tai, H.
2002-01-01
By adopting the basic principle of the reflection (and transmission) of a plane polarized electromagnetic wave incident normal to a stack of films of alternating refractive index, a simple numerical code was written to simulate the maximum reflectivity (transmittivity) of a fiber optic Bragg grating corresponding to various non-uniform strain conditions including photo-elastic effect in certain cases.
Numerical simulation of plasma opening switches
Mason, R.J.; Jones, M.E.; Bergman, C.D.
1989-01-01
Plasma Opening Switches have been examined numerically with the aid of the ANTHEM plasma simulation model. A generic bi-cylindrical switch is studied. The switching of generator pulses ranging from 50 ns to 1 ..mu..sec is reviewed, for a variety of plasma fill lengths and densities, and for a range of resistive loads. 7 refs., 9 figs.
Galerkin finite-element simulation of a geothermal reservoir
Mercer, J.W., Jr.; Pinder, G.F.
1973-01-01
The equations describing fluid flow and energy transport in a porous medium can be used to formulate a mathematical model capable of simulating the transient response of a hot-water geothermal reservoir. The resulting equations can be solved accurately and efficiently using a numerical scheme which combines the finite element approach with the Galerkin method of approximation. Application of this numerical model to the Wairakei geothermal field demonstrates that hot-water geothermal fields can be simulated using numerical techniques currently available and under development. ?? 1973.
Numerical Simulation of a Convective Turbulence Encounter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Bowles, Roland L.
2002-01-01
A numerical simulation of a convective turbulence event is investigated and compared with observational data. The numerical results show severe turbulence of similar scale and intensity to that encountered during the test flight. This turbulence is associated with buoyant plumes that penetrate the upper-level thunderstorm outflow. The simulated radar reflectivity compares well with that obtained from the aircraft's onboard radar. Resolved scales of motion as small as 50 m are needed in order to accurately diagnose aircraft normal load accelerations. Given this requirement, realistic turbulence fields may be created by merging subgrid-scales of turbulence to a convective-cloud simulation. A hazard algorithm for use with model data sets is demonstrated. The algorithm diagnoses the RMS normal loads from second moments of the vertical velocity field and is independent of aircraft motion.
Determination of damping properties in laminated composites via numerical simulation
Surana, K.S.; Ahmadi, A.R.
1997-07-01
This paper presents a numerical simulation procedure based on finite element method which could be utilized for establishing the damping characteristic of laminated composite material. Viscoelastic fluids such as upper convected Maxwell fluid and White Metzner fluids are used as sample problems to illustrate the procedure and its usefulness. For many viscoelastic materials, the damping characteristics are incorporated through what is known as loss factor while simulating dynamic response of structures containing such materials. The loss factor is directly related to the dissipative mechanism in the equations describing the behavior can be accurately obtained. In this paper the authors utilize p-version Least Squares Finite Element Method (LSFEM) to numerically solve the equations and then calculate loss factor in the post processing phase of the computations. The governing differential equations and the constitutive laws describing the material behavior are recast into a system of first order differential equations using auxiliary variables (often the stresses). Both the dependent and the auxiliary variables are interpolated over an element using unequal order C{sup 0} interpolations (element approximation). When the element approximation is substituted into the first order differential equations the authors obtain element error or residual equations. In LSFEM they minimize the integrated sum of squares of these errors over the whole discretization. They utilize Newton`s method with line search to obtain a solution iteratively.
Numerical Simulation Of Buckling In Waffle Plants
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yin, Dah N.; Tran, Vu M.
1990-01-01
Accurate results obtained when fillet radii considered. Two reports describe numerical and experimental study of application of PASCO and WAFFLE computer programs to analysis of buckling in integrally machined, biaxially stiffened panel. PASCO (Panal Analysis and Sizing Code) is finite-element stress-and-strain code written for analysis and sizing of uniaxially stiffened panels. WAFFLE program provides comprehensive stress analysis of waffle panel, used to determine bending moments at interfaces.
An Enriched Shell Element for Delamination Simulation in Composite Laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McElroy, Mark
2015-01-01
A formulation is presented for an enriched shell finite element capable of delamination simulation in composite laminates. The element uses an adaptive splitting approach for damage characterization that allows for straightforward low-fidelity model creation and a numerically efficient solution. The Floating Node Method is used in conjunction with the Virtual Crack Closure Technique to predict delamination growth and represent it discretely at an arbitrary ply interface. The enriched element is verified for Mode I delamination simulation using numerical benchmark data. After determining important mesh configuration guidelines for the vicinity of the delamination front in the model, a good correlation was found between the enriched shell element model results and the benchmark data set.
Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility preliminary study, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
A technology forecast was established for the 1980-1985 time frame and the appropriateness of various logic and memory technologies for the design of the numerical aerodynamic simulation facility was assessed. Flow models and their characteristics were analyzed and matched against candidate processor architecture. Metrics were established for the total facility, and housing and support requirements of the facility were identified. An overview of the system is presented, with emphasis on the hardware of the Navier-Stokes solver, which is the key element of the system. Software elements of the system are also discussed.
Numerical simulation of fluid flow around a scramaccelerator projectile
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pepper, Darrell W.; Humphrey, Joseph W.; Sobota, Thomas H.
1991-01-01
Numerical simulations of the fluid motion and temperature distribution around a 'scramaccelerator' projectile are obtained for Mach numbers in the 5-10 range. A finite element method is used to solve the equations of motion for inviscid and viscous two-dimensional or axisymmetric compressible flow. The time-dependent equations are solved explicitly, using bilinear isoparametric quadrilateral elements, mass lumping, and a shock-capturing Petrov-Galerkin formulation. Computed results indicate that maintaining on-design performance for controlling and stabilizing oblique detonation waves is critically dependent on projectile shape and Mach number.
Numerical simulation of centrifugal casting of pipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaschnitz, E.
2012-07-01
A numerical simulation model for the horizontal centrifugal pipe casting process was developed with the commercial simulation package Flow3D. It considers - additionally to mass, energy and momentum conservation equations and free surface tracking - the fast radial and slower horizontal movement of the mold. The iron inflow is not steady state but time dependent. Of special importance is the friction between the liquid and the mold in connection with the viscosity and turbulence of the iron. Experiments with the mold at controlled revolution speeds were carried out using a high-speed camera. From these experiments friction coefficients for the description of the interaction between mold and melt were obtained. With the simulation model, the influence of typical process parameters (e.g. melts inflow, mold movement, melt temperature, cooling media) on the wall thickness of the pipes can be studied. The comparison to results of pipes from production shows a good agreement between simulation and reality.
Numerical Simulation of a Tornado Generating Supercell
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.
2012-01-01
The development of tornadoes from a tornado generating supercell is investigated with a large eddy simulation weather model. Numerical simulations are initialized with a sounding representing the environment of a tornado producing supercell that affected North Carolina and Virginia during the Spring of 2011. The structure of the simulated storm was very similar to that of a classic supercell, and compared favorably to the storm that affected the vicinity of Raleigh, North Carolina. The presence of mid-level moisture was found to be important in determining whether a supercell would generate tornadoes. The simulations generated multiple tornadoes, including cyclonic-anticyclonic pairs. The structure and the evolution of these tornadoes are examined during their lifecycle.
Issues in Numerical Simulation of Fire Suppression
Tieszen, S.R.; Lopez, A.R.
1999-04-12
This paper outlines general physical and computational issues associated with performing numerical simulation of fire suppression. Fire suppression encompasses a broad range of chemistry and physics over a large range of time and length scales. The authors discuss the dominant physical/chemical processes important to fire suppression that must be captured by a fire suppression model to be of engineering usefulness. First-principles solutions are not possible due to computational limitations, even with the new generation of tera-flop computers. A basic strategy combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation techniques with sub-grid model approximations for processes that have length scales unresolvable by gridding is presented.
Numerical simulations of catastrophic disruption: Recent results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benz, W.; Asphaug, E.; Ryan, E. V.
1994-01-01
Numerical simulations have been used to study high velocity two-body impacts. In this paper, a two-dimensional Largrangian finite difference hydro-code and a three-dimensional smooth particle hydro-code (SPH) are described and initial results reported. These codes can be, and have been, used to make specific predictions about particular objects in our solar system. But more significantly, they allow us to explore a broad range of collisional events. Certain parameters (size, time) can be studied only over a very restricted range within the laboratory; other parameters (initial spin, low gravity, exotic structure or composition) are difficult to study at all experimentally. The outcomes of numerical simulations lead to a more general and accurate understanding of impacts in their many forms.
Design and numerical simulation of an optofluidic pressure sensor.
Ebnali-Heidari, Majid; Mansouri, Morteza; Mokhtarian, Saeed; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammed Kazem
2012-06-01
We present a numerical design procedure for an all-optical compact sensor by means of integrating the optofluidic switch polymer interferometers to measure the microfluidic air pressure and flow rate. The design is based on a flexible air gap optical cavity that can generate an interference pattern when illuminated by a monochromatic light. The optical interference pattern directly depends on the pressure. In our numerical simulations, we take the effects of fluid flow rate, solid deformation, and the light interference into account. We use the beam propagation method for simulating the optics and the finite element method for simulating the mechanics. The significance of the proposed sensor lies with its low power consumption, compactness, low cost, and short length. This sensor can operate under pressure range of 0-60±6% Pa at a constant temperature of 20 °C. PMID:22695574
Direct numerical simulation of a recorder.
Giordano, N
2013-02-01
The aeroacoustics of a recorder are studied using a direct numerical simulation based on the Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions. Spatial maps for the air pressure and velocity give a detailed picture of vortex shedding near the labium. Changes in the spectrum as a result of variations in the blowing speed are also investigated. The results are in good semi-quantitative agreement with general results for these phenomena from experiments. PMID:23363126
Numerical simulation of droplet impact on interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kahouadji, Lyes; Che, Zhizhao; Matar, Omar; Shin, Seungwon; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir
2015-11-01
Simulations of three-dimensional droplet impact on interfaces are carried out using BLUE, a massively-parallel code based on a hybrid Front-Tracking/Level-Set algorithm for Lagrangian tracking of arbitrarily deformable phase interfaces. High resolution numerical results show fine details and features of droplet ejection, crown formation and rim instability observed under similar experimental conditions. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.
Numerical simulation of swept-wing flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, Helen L.
1991-01-01
The transition process characteristics of flows over swept wings were computationally modelled. The crossflow instability and crossflow/T-S wave interaction are analyzed through the numerical solution of the full three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations including unsteadiness, curvature, and sweep. The leading-edge region of a swept wing is considered in a three-dimensional spatial simulation with random disturbances as the initial conditions.
Numerical simulations of hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolbinger, B.; Capon, A.; Diermaier, M.; Lehner, S.; Malbrunot, C.; Massiczek, O.; Sauerzopf, C.; Simon, M. C.; Widmann, E.
2015-08-01
One of the ASACUSA (Atomic Spectroscopy And Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons) collaboration's goals is the measurement of the ground state hyperfine transition frequency in antihydrogen, the antimatter counterpart of one of the best known systems in physics. This high precision experiment yields a sensitive test of the fundamental symmetry of CPT. Numerical simulations of hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atoms have been performed providing information on the required antihydrogen events and the achievable precision.
Numerical simulation of magma energy extraction
Hickox, C.E.
1991-01-01
The Magma Energy Program is a speculative endeavor regarding practical utility of electrical power production from the thermal energy which reside in magma. The systematic investigation has identified an number of research areas which have application to the utilization of magma energy and to the field of geothermal energy. Eight topics were identified which involve thermal processes and which are areas for the application of the techniques of numerical simulation. These areas are: (1) two-phase flow of the working fluid in the wellbore, (2) thermodynamic cycles for the production of electrical power, (3) optimization of the entire system, (4) solidification and fracturing of the magma caused by the energy extraction process, (5) heat transfer and fluid flow within an open, direct-contact, heat-exchanger, (6) thermal convection in the overlying geothermal region, (7) thermal convection within the magma body, and (8) induced natural convection near the thermal energy extraction device. Modeling issues have been identified which will require systematic investigation in order to develop the most appropriate strategies for numerical simulation. It appears that numerical simulations will be of ever increasing importance to the study of geothermal processes as the size and complexity of the systems of interest increase. It is anticipated that, in the future, greater emphasis will be placed on the numerical simulation of large-scale, three-dimensional, transient, mixed convection in viscous flows and porous media. Increased computational capabilities, e.g.; massively parallel computers, will allow for the detailed study of specific processes in fractured media, non-Darcy effects in porous media, and non-Newtonian effects. 23 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.
Numerical Simulations of Ion Cloud Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sillitoe, Nicolas; Hilico, Laurent
We explain how to perform accurate numerical simulations of ion cloud dynamics by discussing the relevant orders of magnitude of the characteristic times and frequencies involved in the problem and the computer requirement with respect to the ion cloud size. We then discuss integration algorithms and Coulomb force parallelization. We finally explain how to take into account collisions, cooling laser interaction and chemical reactions in a Monte Carlo approach and discuss how to use random number generators to that end.
Numerical Simulations of Boundary-Driven Dynamos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, K.; Brummell, N.; Glatzmaier, G. A.
2012-12-01
An important topic of physics research is how magnetic fields are generated and maintained in the many astrophysical bodies where they are ubiquitously observed. Of particular interest, are reversals of magnetic fields of planets and stars, especially those of the Earth and the Sun. In an attempt to provide intuition on this problem, numerous physical dynamo experiments have been performed in different configurations. Recently, a tremendous breakthrough was made in the Von Karman sodium (VKS) experiments in France when the most realistic laboratory fluid dynamo to date was produced by driving an unconstrained flow in a cylinder of liquid sodium (Monchaux et al, 2007, PRL). One of the curiosities of the VKS experiment however is the effect of the composition of the impellers that drive the flow. Steel blades failed to produce a dynamo, but soft iron impellers, which have much higher magnetic permeability, succeeded. The role of the magnetic properties of the boundaries in boundary-driven dynamos is therefore clearly of interest. Kinematic and laminar numerical dynamo simulations (Giesecke et al, 2010, PRL & Gissinger et al, 2008 EPL) have shed some light but turbulent, nonlinear simulations are necessary. Roberts, Glatzmaier & Clune 2010 created a simplified model of the VKS setup by using three-dimensional numerical simulations in a spherical geometry with differential zonal motions of the boundary replacing the driving impellers of the VKS experiment. We have extended these numerical simulations further towards a more complete understanding of such boundary-forced dynamos. In particular, we have examined the effect of the magnetic boundary conditions - changes in the wall thickness, the magnetic permeability, and the electrical conductivity - on the mechanisms responsible for dynamo generation. Enhanced permeability, conductivity and wall thickness all help dynamo action to different degrees. We are further extending our investigations to asymmetric forcing to
Numerical simulation and nasal air-conditioning
Keck, Tilman; Lindemann, Jörg
2011-01-01
Heating and humidification of the respiratory air are the main functions of the nasal airways in addition to cleansing and olfaction. Optimal nasal air conditioning is mandatory for an ideal pulmonary gas exchange in order to avoid desiccation and adhesion of the alveolar capillary bed. The complex three-dimensional anatomical structure of the nose makes it impossible to perform detailed in vivo studies on intranasal heating and humidification within the entire nasal airways applying various technical set-ups. The main problem of in vivo temperature and humidity measurements is a poor spatial and time resolution. Therefore, in vivo measurements are feasible only to a restricted extent, solely providing single temperature values as the complete nose is not entirely accessible. Therefore, data on the overall performance of the nose are only based on one single measurement within each nasal segment. In vivo measurements within the entire nose are not feasible. These serious technical issues concerning in vivo measurements led to a large number of numerical simulation projects in the last few years providing novel information about the complex functions of the nasal airways. In general, numerical simulations merely calculate predictions in a computational model, e.g. a realistic nose model, depending on the setting of the boundary conditions. Therefore, numerical simulations achieve only approximations of a possible real situation. The aim of this review is the synopsis of the technical expertise on the field of in vivo nasal air conditioning, the novel information of numerical simulations and the current state of knowledge on the influence of nasal and sinus surgery on nasal air conditioning. PMID:22073112
Numerical simulations and modeling of turbulent combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuenot, B.
Turbulent combustion is the basic physical phenomenon responsible for efficient energy release by any internal combustion engine. However it is accompanied by other undesirable phenomena such as noise, pollutant species emission or damaging instabilities that may even lead to the system desctruction. It is then crucial to control this phenomenon, to understand all its mecanisms and to master it in industrial systems. For long time turbulent combustion has been explored only through theory and experiment. But the rapid increase of computers power during the last years has allowed an important development of numerical simulation, that has become today an essential tool for research and technical design. Direct numerical simulation has then allowed to rapidly progress in the knowledge of turbulent flame structures, leading to new modelisations for steady averaged simulations. Recently large eddy simulation has made a new step forward by refining the description of complex and unsteady flames. The main problem that arises when performing numerical simulation of turbulent combustion is linked to the description of the flame front. Being very thin, it can not however be reduced to a simple interface as it is the location of intense chemical transformation and of strong variations of thermodynamical quantities. Capturing the internal structure of a zone with a thickness of the order of 0.1 mm in a computation with a mesh step 10 times larger being impossible, it is necessary to model the turbulent flame. Models depend on the chemical structure of the flame, on the ambiant turbulence, on the combustion regime (flamelets, distributed combustion, etc.) and on the reactants injection mode (premixed or not). One finds then a large class of models, from the most simple algebraic model with a one-step chemical kinetics, to the most complex model involving probablity density functions, cross-correlations and multiple-step or fully complex chemical kinetics.
Direct Numerical Simulation of the Leidenfrost Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanguy, Sebastien; Rueda Villegas, Lucia; Fluid Mechanics Institute of Toulouse Team
2015-11-01
The development of numerical methods for the direct numerical simulation of two-phase flows with phase changes, is the main topic of this study. We propose a novel numerical method which allows dealing with both evaporation and boiling at the interface between a liquid and a gas. For instance it can occur for a Leidenfrost droplet; a water drop levitating above a hot plate which temperature is much higher than the boiling temperature. In this case, boiling occurs in the film of saturated vapor which is entrapped between the bottom of the drop and the plate, whereas the top of the water droplet evaporates in contact of ambient air. Thus, boiling and evaporation can occur simultaneously on different regions of the same liquid interface or occur successively at different times of the history of an evaporating droplet. Usual numerical methods are not able to perform computations in these transient regimes, therefore, we propose in this paper a novel numerical method to achieve this challenging task. Finally, we present several accurate validations against experimental results on Leidenfrost Droplets to strengthen the relevance of this new method.
Numerical simulation of freeway traffic flow
Liu, G.; Lyrintzis, A.S.; Michalopoulos, P.G.
1997-11-01
A new high-order continuum model is presented in this paper. This high-order model exhibits smooth solutions rather than discontinuities, is able to describe the amplification of small disturbances on heavy traffic, and allows fluctuations of speed around the equilibrium values. Furthermore, unlike some earlier high-order models, it does not result in negative speeds at the tail of congested regions and disturbance propagation speeds greater than the flow speed. The model takes into account the relaxation time as a function of density and, in the equilibrium limit, it is consistent with the simple continuum model. A Riemann-problem-based numerical method is proposed for the solution of the new high-order model. Modeling of interrupted flow behavior such as merging, diverging, and weaving is also investigated. Based on the new high order model, the proposed numerical method and the modeling of interrupted flow, a versatile code is developed for the numerical simulation of freeway traffic flow that includes several freeway geometries. The authors compare the high-order model with the simple continuum model and the proposed numerical method with the Lax method based on 30-s and 5-min field data. The model is tested in interrupted flow situations (e.g., pipeline, merging, diverging, and weaving areas). A comparison of numerical results with limited field data shows that the high-order model performs better than the simple continuum model and describes better than a previously proposed method.
Numerical Simulation of a Seaway with Breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dommermuth, Douglas; O'Shea, Thomas; Brucker, Kyle; Wyatt, Donald
2012-11-01
The focus of this presentation is to describe the recent efforts to simulate a fully non-linear seaway with breaking by using a high-order spectral (HOS) solution of the free-surface boundary value problem to drive a three-dimensional Volume of Fluid (VOF) solution. Historically, the two main types of simulations to simulate free-surface flows are the boundary integral equations method (BIEM) and high-order spectral (HOS) methods. BIEM calculations fail at the point at which the surface impacts upon itself, if not sooner, and HOS methods can only simulate a single valued free-surface. Both also employ a single-phase approximation in which the effects of the air on the water are neglected. Due to these limitations they are unable to simulate breaking waves and air entrainment. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method on the other hand is suitable for modeling breaking waves and air entrainment. However it is computationally intractable to generate a realistic non-linear sea-state. Here, we use the HOS solution to quickly drive, or nudge, the VOF solution into a non-linear state. The computational strategies, mathematical formulation, and numerical implementation will be discussed. The results of the VOF simulation of a seaway with breaking will also be presented, and compared to the single phase, single valued HOS results.
Numerical recipes for mold filling simulation
Kothe, D.; Juric, D.; Lam, K.; Lally, B.
1998-07-01
Has the ability to simulate the filling of a mold progressed to a point where an appropriate numerical recipe achieves the desired results? If results are defined to be topological robustness, computational efficiency, quantitative accuracy, and predictability, all within a computational domain that faithfully represents complex three-dimensional foundry molds, then the answer unfortunately remains no. Significant interfacial flow algorithm developments have occurred over the last decade, however, that could bring this answer closer to maybe. These developments have been both evolutionary and revolutionary, will continue to transpire for the near future. Might they become useful numerical recipes for mold filling simulations? Quite possibly. Recent progress in algorithms for interface kinematics and dynamics, linear solution methods, computer science issues such as parallelization and object-oriented programming, high resolution Navier-Stokes (NS) solution methods, and unstructured mesh techniques, must all be pursued as possible paths toward higher fidelity mold filling simulations. A detailed exposition of these algorithmic developments is beyond the scope of this paper, hence the authors choose to focus here exclusively on algorithms for interface kinematics. These interface tracking algorithms are designed to model the movement of interfaces relative to a reference frame such as a fixed mesh. Current interface tracking algorithm choices are numerous, so is any one best suited for mold filling simulation? Although a clear winner is not (yet) apparent, pros and cons are given in the following brief, critical review. Highlighted are those outstanding interface tracking algorithm issues the authors feel can hamper the reliable modeling of today`s foundry mold filling processes.
Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schoenfeld, Michael
2009-01-01
A detailed description of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) is presented. The contents include: 1) Design Requirements; 2) NTREES Layout; 3) Data Acquisition and Control System Schematics; 4) NTREES System Schematic; and 5) NTREES Setup.
Direct numerical simulation of the Leidenfrost Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rueda Villegas, Lucia; Tanguy, Sébastien
2012-11-01
We present direct numerical simulations of the impact of a single droplet on a heated flat surface in the Leidenfrost regime. To that end, we solve the Navier-Stokes equations, the energy equation, and the species mass fraction equation. The Level Set method is used to track the liquid-gas interface motion and the Ghost Fluid Method is implemented to treat the jump conditions. To get rid of the temporal stability condition due to viscosity, an implicit temporal discretization is used. Some specific numerical methods have been developed to deal with droplet vaporization interface jump conditions. Since the vapor layer is very thin compared to the droplet size, a non-uniform structured grid strongly refined near the wall is used to capture the droplet bounce. We present numerical simulations that enable us to study accurately the bouncing dynamics by analyzing the momentum balance during the droplet bounce. Moreover, we determine from such computation the ratio of the droplet heat transfer flux by comparing the energy used for the phase change (latent heat) to the energy used for droplet heating (specific heat). We then compare the shape of the droplet during the impact with some experimental results.
Dynamic stiffness removal for direct numerical simulations
Lu, Tianfeng; Law, Chung K.; Yoo, Chun Sang; Chen, Jacqueline H.
2009-08-15
A systematic approach was developed to derive non-stiff reduced mechanisms for direct numerical simulations (DNS) with explicit integration solvers. The stiffness reduction was achieved through on-the-fly elimination of short time-scales induced by two features of fast chemical reactivity, namely quasi-steady-state (QSS) species and partial-equilibrium (PE) reactions. The sparse algebraic equations resulting from QSS and PE approximations were utilized such that the efficiency of the dynamic stiffness reduction is high compared with general methods of time-scale reduction based on Jacobian decomposition. Using the dimension reduction strategies developed in our previous work, a reduced mechanism with 52 species was first derived from a detailed mechanism with 561 species. The reduced mechanism was validated for ignition and extinction applications over the parameter range of equivalence ratio between 0.5 and 1.5, pressure between 10 and 50 atm, and initial temperature between 700 and 1600 K for ignition, and worst-case errors of approximately 30% were observed. The reduced mechanism with dynamic stiffness removal was then applied in homogeneous and 1-D ignition applications, as well as a 2-D direct numerical simulation of ignition with temperature inhomogeneities at constant volume with integration time-steps of 5-10 ns. The integration was numerically stable and good accuracy was achieved. (author)
Numerical Simulation of Fluid Mud Gravity Currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yilmaz, N. A.; Testik, F. Y.
2011-12-01
Fluid mud bottom gravity currents are simulated numerically using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software, ANSYS-Fluent. In this study, Eulerian-Eulerian multi-fluid method is selected since this method treats all phases in a multiphase system as interpenetrated continua. There are three different phases in the computational model constructed for this study: water, fluid mud, and air. Water and fluid mud are defined as two miscible fluids and the mass and momentum transfers between these two phases are taken into account. Fluid mud, which is a dense suspension of clay particles and water, is defined as a single-phase non-Newtonian fluid via user-defined-functions. These functions define the physical characteristics (density, viscosity, etc.) of the fluid mud and these characteristics vary with changing suspension concentration due to mass transfer between the fluid mud and the water phase. Results of this two-dimensional numerical model are verified with data obtained from experiments conducted in a laboratory flume with a lock-release set-up. Numerical simulations are currently being conducted to elucidate turbulent entrainment of ambient water into fluid mud gravity currents. This study is motivated by coastal dredge disposal operations.
Numerical Simulations of Radar Acoustic Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boluriaan, Said; Morris, Philip J.
1998-11-01
Wake vortices are produced by the lifting surfaces of all aircraft. The vortex created by a large aircraft can have a catastrophic effect on a small plane following closely behind. A vortex detection system would not only increase airport productivity by allowing adaptive spacing, but would also increase the safety of all aircraft operating around the airport by alerting controllers to hazardous conditions that might exist near the runways. In the present research, one and two-dimensional models have been considered for the study of wake vortex detection using a Radar Acoustic Sounding System (RASS). The permittivity perturbation caused by the vortex is modeled as a traveling wave with a Gaussian envelope and a variable propagation speed. The model equations are solved numerically. The one-dimensional model is also solved analytically. The main problem with a time domain simulation is the number of samples required to resolve the Doppler shift. Even for a 1D model with a typical scatterer size, the CPU time required to run the code is far beyond the currently available computer resources. One way to make the time domain simulation feasible is to recast the governing differential equation in order to remove the carrier frequency and solve only for the frequency shift in the scattered wave. The numerical stability characteristics of the resulting equation with complex coefficients are discussed. In order to validate the numerical scheme, the code is run for a fictitious speed of light.
Direct numerical simulation of hot jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacob, Marc C.
1993-01-01
The ultimate motivation of this work is to investigate the stability of two dimensional heated jets and its implications for aerodynamic sound generation from data obtained with direct numerical simulations (DNS). As pointed out in our last report, these flows undergo two types of instabilities, convective or absolute, depending on their temperature. We also described the limits of earlier experimental and theoretical studies and explained why a numerical investigation could give us new insight into the physics of these instabilities. The aeroacoustical interest of these flows was also underlined. In order to reach this goal, we first need to succeed in the DNS of heated jets. Our past efforts have been focused on this issue which encountered several difficulties. Our numerical difficulties are directly related to the physical problem we want to investigate since these absolutely or almost absolutely unstable flows are by definition very sensitive to the smallest disturbances and are very likely to reach nonlinear saturation through a numerical feedback mechanism. As a result, it is very difficult to compute a steady laminar solution using a spatial DNS. A steady state was reached only for strongly co-flowed jets, but these flows are almost equivalent to two independent mixing layers. Thus they are far from absolute instability and have much lower growth rates.
Finite-element simulation of thermoemission electron guns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenfield, D.
2006-05-01
The peculiarity of the numeric simulation of the thermoemission electron guns consists in the principal necessity of taking into account the contribution of the electrons' charge into the potential distribution in the beam formation region. Ths fact makes the mathematical model essentially nonlinear especially in the high-perveance operation mode. Moreover, the charge density is extremely high in the vicinity of emitting surfaces, rising infinitely in the limit of zero initial velocities. A special semi-analytical approach has been applied to deal with the charge singularity. Being combined with traditional finite-element numerical techniques, this approach provides an efficient way to simulate thermoemission electron guns.
Numerical simulation of real-world flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayase, Toshiyuki
2015-10-01
Obtaining real flow information is important in various fields, but is a difficult issue because measurement data are usually limited in time and space, and computational results usually do not represent the exact state of real flows. Problems inherent in the realization of numerical simulation of real-world flows include the difficulty in representing exact initial and boundary conditions and the difficulty in representing unstable flow characteristics. This article reviews studies dealing with these problems. First, an overview of basic flow measurement methodologies and measurement data interpolation/approximation techniques is presented. Then, studies on methods of integrating numerical simulation and measurement, namely, four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var), Kalman filters (KFs), state observers, etc are discussed. The first problem is properly solved by these integration methodologies. The second problem can be partially solved with 4D-Var in which only initial and boundary conditions are control parameters. If an appropriate control parameter capable of modifying the dynamical structure of the model is included in the formulation of 4D-Var, unstable modes are properly suppressed and the second problem is solved. The state observer and KFs also solve the second problem by modifying mathematical models to stabilize the unstable modes of the original dynamical system by applying feedback signals. These integration methodologies are now applied in simulation of real-world flows in a wide variety of research fields. Examples are presented for basic fluid dynamics and applications in meteorology, aerospace, medicine, etc.
Numerical reproducibility for implicit Monte Carlo simulations
Cleveland, M.; Brunner, T.; Gentile, N.
2013-07-01
We describe and compare different approaches for achieving numerical reproducibility in photon Monte Carlo simulations. Reproducibility is desirable for code verification, testing, and debugging. Parallelism creates a unique problem for achieving reproducibility in Monte Carlo simulations because it changes the order in which values are summed. This is a numerical problem because double precision arithmetic is not associative. In [1], a way of eliminating this roundoff error using integer tallies was described. This approach successfully achieves reproducibility at the cost of lost accuracy by rounding double precision numbers to fewer significant digits. This integer approach, and other extended reproducibility techniques, are described and compared in this work. Increased precision alone is not enough to ensure reproducibility of photon Monte Carlo simulations. A non-arbitrary precision approaches required a varying degree of rounding to achieve reproducibility. For the problems investigated in this work double precision global accuracy was achievable by using 100 bits of precision or greater on all unordered sums which where subsequently rounded to double precision at the end of every time-step. (authors)
Direct Numerical Simulation of Cosmological Reionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
So, Geoffrey C.
We examine the epoch of hydrogen reionization using a new numerical method that allows us to self-consistently couple all the relevant physical processes (gas dynamics, dark matter dynamics, self-gravity, star formation/feedback, radiative transfer, ionization, recombination, heating and cooling) and evolve the system of coupled equations on the same high resolution mesh. We refer to this approach as direct numerical simulation, in contrast to existing approaches which decouple and coarse-grain the radiative transfer and ionization balance calculations relative to the underlying dynamical calculation. Our method is scalable with respect to the number of radiation sources, size of the mesh, and the number of computer processors employed, and is described in Chapter 2 of this thesis. This scalability permits us to simulate cosmological reionization in large cosmological volumes (~100 Mpc) while directly modeling the sources and sinks of ionizing radiation, including radiative feedback effects such as photoevaporation of gas from halos, Jeans smoothing of the IGM, and enhanced recombination due to small scale clumping. With our fiducial simulation, we find that roughly 2 ionizing photons per baryon is needed to highly ionize the intergalactic medium. The complicated events during reionization that lead to this number can be generally described as inside-out, but in reality the narrative depends on the level of ionization of the gas one defines as ionized. We have updated the formula observers often use for estimating the ionized volume filling fraction formula with a delta b and trec,eff to get from O(10%) to O(1%) consistency with our simulation results. This improvement comes from not using the traditional clumping factor, but instead, considering the history and local effects which were neglected in formulating the original expression. And finally, we have a new upper limit for the escape fraction of ~0.6 from our simulation, which takes into account the photons in
Numerical simulation of platelet margination in microcirculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Hong; Shaqfeh, Eric
2009-11-01
The adhesion of platelets to vascular walls is the first step in clotting. This process critically depends on the preferential concentration of platelets near walls. The presence of red blood cells, which are the predominant blood constituents, is known to affect the steady state platelet concentration and the dynamic platelet margination, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood to-day. We use a direct numerical simulation to study the platelet margination process, with particular emphasis on the Stokesian hydrodynamic interactions among red cells, platelets, and vessel walls. Well-known mechanical models are used for the shearing and bending stiffness of red cell membranes, and the stiffer platelets are modeled as rigid discoids. A boundary integral formulation is used to solve the flow field, where the numerical solution procedure is accelerated by a parallel O(N N) smooth particle-mesh Ewald method. The effects of red cell hematocrit and deformability will be discussed.
Numerical simulation of boundary-layer transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spalart, P. R.
1984-01-01
The transition to turbulence in boundary layers was investigated by direct numerical solution of the nonlinear, three-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in the half-infinite domain over a flat plate. Periodicity was imposed in the streamwise and spanwise directions. A body force was applied to approximate the effect of a nonparallel mean flow. The numerical method was spectra, based on Fourier series and Jacobi polynomials, and used divergence-free basis functions. Extremely rapid convergence was obtained when solving the linear Orr-Sommerfeld equation. The early nonlinear and three-dimensional stages of transition, in a boundary layer disturbed by a vibrating ribbon, were successfully simulated. Excellent qualitative agreement was observed with either experiments or weakly nonlinear theories. In particular, the breakdown pattern was staggered or nonstaggered depending on the disturbance amplitude.
Numerical simulation of hemorrhage in human injury
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chong, Kwitae; Jiang, Chenfanfu; Santhanam, Anand; Benharash, Peyman; Teran, Joseph; Eldredge, Jeff
2015-11-01
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is adapted to simulate hemorrhage in the injured human body. As a Lagrangian fluid simulation, SPH uses fluid particles as computational elements and thus mass conservation is trivially satisfied. In order to ensure anatomical fidelity, a three-dimensional reconstruction of a portion of the human body -here, demonstrated on the lower leg- is sampled as skin, bone and internal tissue particles from the CT scan image of an actual patient. The injured geometry is then generated by simulation of ballistic projectiles passing through the anatomical model with the Material Point Method (MPM) and injured vessel segments are identified. From each such injured segment, SPH is used to simulate bleeding, with inflow boundary condition obtained from a coupled 1-d vascular tree model. Blood particles interact with impermeable bone and skin particles through the Navier-Stokes equations and with permeable internal tissue particles through the Brinkman equations. The SPH results are rendered in post-processing for improved visual fidelity. The overall simulation strategy is demonstrated on several injury scenarios in the lower leg.
Numerical simulation of the nonlinear optical response of bacteriorhodopsin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kowalski, Gregory J.
1996-10-01
The numerical simulation of the nonlinear optical behavior of bacteriorhodopsin in a solution of water is described. Relationships for the intensity dependent absorption coefficient and index of refraction are developed and used in the numerical simulation of bacteriorhodopsin as an optical limiter and as defocussing element for laser pulses in the picosecond regime. The algorithm is a transient finite volume method that is coupled with a 'ray model' of the radiation which simultaneously solves the heat transfer and Maxwell's equations. The nonlinear behavior of the material is included in this analysis using a modified Euler predictor-corrector integration technique. Calculated power limiting and z-scan curves are in qualitative agreement with experiments. These results indicate that the code can be used to investigate and optimize optical systems which use the nonlinear behavior of bacteriorhodopsin.
Numerical simulation of swept-wing flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, Helen L.
1991-01-01
Efforts of the last six months to computationally model the transition process characteristics of flow over swept wings are described. Specifically, the crossflow instability and crossflow/Tollmien-Schlichting wave interactions are analyzed through the numerical solution of the full 3D Navier-Stokes equations including unsteadiness, curvature, and sweep. This approach is chosen because of the complexity of the problem and because it appears that linear stability theory is insufficient to explain the discrepancies between different experiments and between theory and experiment. The leading edge region of a swept wing is considered in a 3D spatial simulation with random disturbances as the initial conditions.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent mixing.
Statsenko, V P; Yanilkin, Yu V; Zhmaylo, V A
2013-11-28
The results of three-dimensional numerical simulations of turbulent flows obtained by various authors are reviewed. The paper considers the turbulent mixing (TM) process caused by the development of the main types of instabilities: those due to gravitation (with either a fixed or an alternating-sign acceleration), shift and shock waves. The problem of a buoyant jet is described as an example of the mixed-type problem. Comparison is made with experimental data on the TM zone width, profiles of density, velocity and turbulent energy and degree of homogeneity. PMID:24146009
Numerical simulation of coupler cavities for linacs
Ng, C.K.; Derutyer, H.; Ko, K.
1993-04-01
We present numerical procedures involved in the evaluation of the performance of coupler cavities for linacs. The MAFIA code is used to simulate an X-Band accelerator section in the time domain. The input/output coupler cavities for the structure arc of the symmetrical double-input design. We calculate the transmission properties of the coupler and compare the results with measurements. We compare the performance of the symmetrical double-input design with that of the conventional single-input type by evaluating the field amplitude and phase asymmetries. We also evaluate the peak field gradient in the computer.
Numerical simulation for fan broadband noise prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hase, Takaaki; Yamasaki, Nobuhiko; Ooishi, Tsutomu
2011-03-01
In order to elucidate the broadband noise of fan, the numerical simulation of fan operating at two different rotational speeds is carried out using the three-dimensional unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations. The computed results are compared to experiment to estimate its accuracy and are found to show good agreement with experiment. A method is proposed to evaluate the turbulent kinetic energy in the framework of the Spalart-Allmaras one equation turbulence model. From the calculation results, the turbulent kinetic energy is visualized as the turbulence of the flow which leads to generate the broadband noise, and its noise sources are identified.
Non-robust numerical simulations of analogue extension experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naliboff, John; Buiter, Susanne
2016-04-01
Numerical and analogue models of lithospheric deformation provide significant insight into the tectonic processes that lead to specific structural and geophysical observations. As these two types of models contain distinct assumptions and tradeoffs, investigations drawing conclusions from both can reveal robust links between first-order processes and observations. Recent studies have focused on detailed comparisons between numerical and analogue experiments in both compressional and extensional tectonics, sometimes involving multiple lithospheric deformation codes and analogue setups. While such comparisons often show good agreement on first-order deformation styles, results frequently diverge on second-order structures, such as shear zone dip angles or spacing, and in certain cases even on first-order structures. Here, we present finite-element experiments that are designed to directly reproduce analogue "sandbox" extension experiments at the cm-scale. We use material properties and boundary conditions that are directly taken from analogue experiments and use a Drucker-Prager failure model to simulate shear zone formation in sand. We find that our numerical experiments are highly sensitive to numerous numerical parameters. For example, changes to the numerical resolution, velocity convergence parameters and elemental viscosity averaging commonly produce significant changes in first- and second-order structures accommodating deformation. The sensitivity of the numerical simulations to small parameter changes likely reflects a number of factors, including, but not limited to, high angles of internal friction assigned to sand, complex, unknown interactions between the brittle sand (used as an upper crust equivalent) and viscous silicone (lower crust), highly non-linear strain weakening processes and poor constraints on the cohesion of sand. Our numerical-analogue comparison is hampered by (a) an incomplete knowledge of the fine details of sand failure and sand
Finite element simulation of articular contact mechanics with quadratic tetrahedral elements.
Maas, Steve A; Ellis, Benjamin J; Rawlins, David S; Weiss, Jeffrey A
2016-03-21
Although it is easier to generate finite element discretizations with tetrahedral elements, trilinear hexahedral (HEX8) elements are more often used in simulations of articular contact mechanics. This is due to numerical shortcomings of linear tetrahedral (TET4) elements, limited availability of quadratic tetrahedron elements in combination with effective contact algorithms, and the perceived increased computational expense of quadratic finite elements. In this study we implemented both ten-node (TET10) and fifteen-node (TET15) quadratic tetrahedral elements in FEBio (www.febio.org) and compared their accuracy, robustness in terms of convergence behavior and computational cost for simulations relevant to articular contact mechanics. Suitable volume integration and surface integration rules were determined by comparing the results of several benchmark contact problems. The results demonstrated that the surface integration rule used to evaluate the contact integrals for quadratic elements affected both convergence behavior and accuracy of predicted stresses. The computational expense and robustness of both quadratic tetrahedral formulations compared favorably to the HEX8 models. Of note, the TET15 element demonstrated superior convergence behavior and lower computational cost than both the TET10 and HEX8 elements for meshes with similar numbers of degrees of freedom in the contact problems that we examined. Finally, the excellent accuracy and relative efficiency of these quadratic tetrahedral elements was illustrated by comparing their predictions with those for a HEX8 mesh for simulation of articular contact in a fully validated model of the hip. These results demonstrate that TET10 and TET15 elements provide viable alternatives to HEX8 elements for simulation of articular contact mechanics. PMID:26900037
The numerical simulation of accelerator components
Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Hanerfeld, H.
1987-05-01
The techniques of the numerical simulation of plasmas can be readily applied to problems in accelerator physics. Because the problems usually involve a single component ''plasma,'' and times that are at most, a few plasma oscillation periods, it is frequently possible to make very good simulations with relatively modest computation resources. We will discuss the methods and illustrate them with several examples. One of the more powerful techniques of understanding the motion of charged particles is to view computer-generated motion pictures. We will show several little movie strips to illustrate the discussions. The examples will be drawn from the application areas of Heavy Ion Fusion, electron-positron linear colliders and injectors for free-electron lasers. 13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.
Numerical Simulations of Double White Dwarf Mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motl, Patrick M.; Clayton, G.; Tohline, J. E.; Even, W.; Fryer, C.; Diehl, S.; Geballe, T.; Herwig, F.
2010-03-01
We will present evolutions of white dwarf binaries from two independent codes (one SPH and one Eulerian). We attempt to match the initial data for semi-detached synchronously rotating binaries between these two fluid representations. Our set of simulations includes various initial mass ratios and we assume one of two different equations of state (polytropic or ideal gas) to span the parameter space between the two possible extreme cases of rapid, catastrophic merger through to long-lived, steady mass transfer. In this presentation, we will primarily highlight the level of agreement between the two codes and how the results vary with increasing numerical resolution. We will also discuss future work incorporating nuclear reactions into our simulations and the possible connections of double white dwarf mergers to astrophysical sources.
Numerical simulation of large fabric filter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sedláček, Jan; Kovařík, Petr
2012-04-01
Fabric filters are used in the wide range of industrial technologies for cleaning of incoming or exhaust gases. To achieve maximal efficiency of the discrete phase separation and long lifetime of the filter hoses, it is necessary to ensure uniform load on filter surface and to avoid impacts of heavy particles with high velocities to the filter hoses. The paper deals with numerical simulation of two phase flow field in a large fabric filter. The filter is composed of six chambers with approx. 1600 filter hoses in total. The model was simplified to one half of the filter, the filter hoses walls were substituted by porous zones. The model settings were based on experimental data, especially on the filter pressure drop. Unsteady simulations with different turbulence models were done. Flow field together with particles trajectories were analyzed. The results were compared with experimental observations.
Method for numerical simulations of metastable states
Heller, U.M.; Seiberg, N.
1983-06-15
We present a numerical simulation of metastable states near a first-order phase transition in the example of a U(1) lattice gauge theory with a generalized action. In order to make measurements in these states possible their decay has to be prevented. We achieve this by using a microcanonical simulation for a finite system. We then obtain the coupling constant (inverse temperature) as a function of the action density. It turns out to be nonmonotonic and hence not uniquely invertible. From it we derive the effective potential for the action density. This effective potential is not always convex, a property that seems to be in contradiction with the standard lore about its convexity. This apparent ''paradox'' is resolved in a discussion about different definitions of the effective potential.
Numerical simulation of flow through biofluid devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, Stuart E.; Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Chang, I-Dee
1990-01-01
The results of a numerical simulation of flow through an artificial heart and through an artificial tilting-disk heart valve are presented. The simulation involves solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations; the solution process is described. The details and difficulties of modeling these particular geometries are discussed. The artificial heart geometry uses a single moving grid, and the valve computation uses an overlaid-grid approach with one moving grid and one stationary grid. The equations must be solved iteratively for each discrete time step of the computations, requiring a significant amount of computing time. It is particularly difficult to analyze and present the fluid physics represented by these calculations because of the time-varying nature of the flow, and because the flows are internal. Three-dimensional graphics and scientific visualization techniques have become instrumental in solving these problems.
Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) 1999 Industry Review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lytle, John; Follen, Greg; Naiman, Cynthia; Evans, Austin
2000-01-01
The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia, and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective, high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners in the development effort and the actions taken over the past year to respond to that feedback. The NPSS development was supported in FY99 by the High Performance Computing and Communications Program.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, J.; Adams, M.; Lam, P.; Fertis, D.; Zeid, I.
1982-01-01
Second-year efforts within a three-year study to develop and extend finite element (FE) methodology to efficiently handle the transient/steady state response of rotor-bearing-stator structure associated with gas turbine engines are outlined. The two main areas aim at (1) implanting the squeeze film damper element into a general purpose FE code for testing and evaluation; and (2) determining the numerical characteristics of the FE-generated rotor-bearing-stator simulation scheme. The governing FE field equations are set out and the solution methodology is presented. The choice of ADINA as the general-purpose FE code is explained, and the numerical operational characteristics of the direct integration approach of FE-generated rotor-bearing-stator simulations is determined, including benchmarking, comparison of explicit vs. implicit methodologies of direct integration, and demonstration problems.
Numerical Simulations of the Wake of Kauai
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lane, Todd P.; Sharman, Robert D.; Frehlich, Rod G.; Brown, John M.
2006-09-01
This study uses a series of numerical simulations to examine the structure of the wake of the Hawaiian island of Kauai. The primary focus is on the conditions on 26 June 2003, which was the day of the demise of the Helios aircraft within Kauai’s wake. The simulations show that, in an east-northeasterly trade wind flow, Kauai produces a well-defined wake that can extend 40 km downstream of the island. The wake is bounded to the north and south by regions of strong vertical and horizontal shear—that is, shear lines. These shear lines mark the edge of the wake in the horizontal plane and are aligned approximately parallel to the upstream flow direction at each respective height. The highest-resolution simulations show that these shear lines can become unstable and break down through Kelvin Helmholtz instability. The breakdown generates turbulent eddies that are advected both downstream and into the recirculating wake flow. Turbulence statistics are estimated from the simulation using a technique that analyzes model-derived structure functions. A number of sensitivity studies are also completed to determine the influence of the upstream conditions on the structure of the wake. These simulations show that directional shear controls the tilt of the wake in the north south plane with height. These simulations also show that at lower incident wind speeds the wake has a qualitatively similar structure but is less turbulent. At higher wind speeds, the flow regime changes, strong gravity waves are generated, and the wake is poorly defined. These results are consistent with previous idealized studies of stratified flow over isolated obstacles.
Direct Numerical Simulations of Transient Dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porter, M.; Valdes-Parada, F.; Wood, B.
2008-12-01
Transient dispersion is important in many engineering applications, including transport in porous media. A common theoretical approach involves upscaling the micro-scale mass balance equations for convection- diffusion to macro-scale equations that contain effective medium quantities. However, there are a number of assumptions implicit in the various upscaling methods. For example, results obtained from volume averaging are often dependent on a given set of length and time scale constraints. Additionally, a number of the classical models for dispersion do not fully capture the early-time dispersive behavior of the solute for a general set of initial conditions. In this work, we present direct numerical simulations of micro-scale transient mass balance equations for convection-diffusion in both capillary tubes and porous media. Special attention is paid to analysis of the influence of a new time- decaying coefficient that filters the effects of the initial conditions. The direct numerical simulations were compared to results obtained from solving the closure problem associated with volume averaging. These comparisons provide a quantitative measure of the significance of (1) the assumptions implicit in the volume averaging method and (2) the importance of the early-time dispersive behavior of the solute due to various initial conditions.
Visualization techniques in plasma numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulhánek, P.; Smetana, M.
2004-03-01
Numerical simulations of plasma processes usually yield a huge amount of raw numerical data. Information about electric and magnetic fields and particle positions and velocities can be typically obtained. There are two major ways of elaborating these data. First of them is called plasma diagnostics. We can calculate average values, variances, correlations of variables, etc. These results may be directly comparable with experiments and serve as the typical quantitative output of plasma simulations. The second possibility is the plasma visualization. The results are qualitative only, but serve as vivid display of phenomena in the plasma followed-up. An experience with visualizing electric and magnetic fields via Line Integral Convolution method is described in the first part of the paper. The LIC method serves for visualization of vector fields in two dimensional section of the three dimensional plasma. The field values can be known only in grid points of three-dimensional grid. The second part of the paper is devoted to the visualization techniques of the charged particle motion. The colour tint can be used for particle’s temperature representation. The motion can be visualized by a trace fading away with the distance from the particle. In this manner the impressive animations of the particle motion can be achieved.
Numerical simulations of rotating axisymmetric sunspots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Botha, G. J. J.; Busse, F. H.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Rucklidge, A. M.
2008-07-01
A numerical model of axisymmetric convection in the presence of a vertical magnetic flux bundle and rotation about the axis is presented. The model contains a compressible plasma described by the non-linear MHD equations, with density and temperature gradients simulating the upper layer of the Sun's convection zone. The solutions exhibit a central magnetic flux tube in a cylindrical numerical domain, with convection cells forming collar flows around the tube. When the numerical domain is rotated with a constant angular velocity, the plasma forms a Rankine vortex, with the plasma rotating as a rigid body where the magnetic field is strong, as in the flux tube, while experiencing sheared azimuthal flow in the surrounding convection cells, forming a free vortex. As a result, the azimuthal velocity component has its maximum value close to the outer edge of the flux tube. The azimuthal flow inside the magnetic flux tube and the vortex flow is prograde relative to the rotating cylindrical reference frame. A retrograde flow appears at the outer wall. The most significant convection cell outside the flux tube is the location for the maximum value of the azimuthal magnetic field component. The azimuthal flow and magnetic structure are not generated spontaneously, but decay exponentially in the absence of any imposed rotation of the cylindrical domain.
3D finite element simulations of high velocity projectile impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ožbolt, Joško; İrhan, Barış; Ruta, Daniela
2015-09-01
An explicit three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) code is developed for the simulation of high velocity impact and fragmentation events. The rate sensitive microplane material model, which accounts for large deformations and rate effects, is used as a constitutive law. In the code large deformation frictional contact is treated by forward incremental Lagrange multiplier method. To handle highly distorted and damaged elements the approach based on the element deletion is employed. The code is then used in 3D FE simulations of high velocity projectile impact. The results of the numerical simulations are evaluated and compared with experimental results. It is shown that it realistically predicts failure mode and exit velocities for different geometries of plain concrete slab. Moreover, the importance of some relevant parameters, such as contact friction, rate sensitivity, bulk viscosity and deletion criteria are addressed.
Numerical simulation of electrophoresis separation processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ganjoo, D. K.; Tezduyar, T. E.
1986-01-01
A new Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation has been proposed for transient convection-diffusion problems. Most Petrov-Galerkin formulations take into account the spatial discretization, and the weighting functions so developed give satisfactory solutions for steady state problems. Though these schemes can be used for transient problems, there is scope for improvement. The schemes proposed here, which consider temporal as well as spatial discretization, provide improved solutions. Electrophoresis, which involves the motion of charged entities under the influence of an applied electric field, is governed by equations similiar to those encountered in fluid flow problems, i.e., transient convection-diffusion equations. Test problems are solved in electrophoresis and fluid flow. The results obtained are satisfactory. It is also expected that these schemes, suitably adapted, will improve the numerical solutions of the compressible Euler and the Navier-Stokes equations.
Constitutive Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Frp Confined Concrete Specimens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smitha, Gopinath; Ramachandramurthy, Avadhanam; Nagesh, Ranganatha Iyer; Shahulhameed, Eduvammal Kunhimoideen
2014-09-01
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are generally used for the seismic retrofit of concrete members to enhance their strength and ductility. In the present work, the confining effect of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite layers has been investigated by numerical simulation. The numerical simulation has been carried out using nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the response behaviour of CFRP-wrapped concrete cylinders. The nonlinear behaviour of concrete in compression and the linear elastic behaviour of CFRP has been modeled using an appropriate constitutive relationship. A cohesive model has been developed for modeling the interface between the concrete and CFRP. The interaction and damage failure criteria between the concrete to the cohesive element and the cohesive element to the CFRP has also been accounted for in the modeling. The response behaviour of the wrapped concrete specimen has been compared with the proposed interface model and with a perfectly bonded condition. The results obtained from the present study showed good agreement with the experimental load-displacement response and the failure pattern in the literature. Further, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to study the effect of the number of layers of CFRP on the concrete specimens. It has been observed that wrapping with two layers was found to be the optimum, beyond which the response becomes flexible but with a higher load-carrying capacity
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows
Chen, J.H.
1993-12-01
The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.
Numerical Simulation of Tangling in Jet Engine Turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cendón, David A.; Erice, Borja; Gálvez, Francisco; Sánchez-Gálvez, Vicente
2012-12-01
The numerical analysis of certain safety related problems presents serious difficulties, since the large number of components present leads to huge finite element models that can only be solved by using large and expensive computers or by making rough approaches to the problem. Tangling, or clashing, in the turbine of a jet engine airplane is an example of such problems. This is caused by the crash and friction between rotor and stator blades in the turbine after an eventual shaft failure. When facing the study of an event through numerical modelling, the accurate simulation of this problem would require the engineer to model all the rotor and stator blades existing in the turbine stage, using a small element size in all pieces. Given that the number of stator and rotor blades is usually around 200, such simulations would require millions of elements. This work presents a new numerical methodology, specifically developed for the accurate modelling of the tangling problem that, depending on the turbine configuration, is able to reduce the number of nodes up to an order of magnitude without losing accuracy. The methodology, which benefits from the cyclic configuration of turbines, is successfully applied to the numerical analysis of a hypothetical tangling event in a turbine, providing valuable data such as the rotating velocity decrease of the turbine, the braking torque and the damage suffered by the blades. The methodology is somewhat general and can be applied to any problem in which damage caused by the interaction between a rotating and static piece is to be analysed.
Numerical Simulation of Taylor Cone-Jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toledo, Ronne
The Taylor cone-jet is a particular type of electrohydrodynamic phenomenon where electrostatic stresses and surface tension effects shape the interface of the jet in a peculiar conical shape. A thin jet is issued from the cone apex that further breaks up into a fine aerosol. Due to its monodispersive properties, this fine aerosol has found a number of applications, ranging from mass spectrometry, colloidal space propulsion, combustion, nano-fabrication, coating/painting, and many others. In this study, a general non-dimensional analysis is performed to derive the governing equations and boundary conditions. In accordance with the observations of Gamero-Castano (2010), noting that droplet electric potential is insensitive to the flow rate conditions, a particular set of characteristic parameters is proposed, based on the terminal jet diameter. In order to solve the non-dimensional set of governing equations and boundary conditions, a numerical method combining the Boundary Element Method and the Finite Volume Method is developed. Results of electric current have shown good agreement with numerical and experimental data available in the literature. The main feature of the algorithm developed is related to the decoupling of the electrostatic from the hydrodynamic problem, allowing us to accurately prescribe the far field electric potential boundary conditions away from the hydrodynamic computational domain used to solve the hydrodynamics of the transition region near the cone apex.
Numerical Simulation of Seimic Behavior of Pipeline in Liquefiable Soil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Degao; Kong, Xianjing; Xu, Bin
This study focused on the behavior of a burial pipe with special reference to its stability against floatation subject to soil liquefaction. The excess pore water pressure response behaviors of soil foundations, and the effectiveness of different types of drainage or reinforcement measures were investigated using Finite Element Method (FEM). FEM numerical model is a coupled stress-flow finite element procedure, based on u-p formulation of dynamic Biot's equations (Zienkiewicz, 1982). The hyperbolic stress and strain relationship was used in the numerical model, which takes into account the stiffness and strength degradation. Pore pressure generation due to earthquake loading was calculated via the pore pressure model (Seed et al, 1979). Performance of the numerical models was studied by simulating a series of shake table tests. Excess pore pressures predicted by numerical models were compared with the pore pressure transducer records during experiments. Also, the effectiveness of different drainage measures against uplifting of pipelines was compared. It was demonstrated that the models were able to provide results in agreement with experiments.
Brush seal numerical simulation: Concepts and advances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Braun, M. J.; Kudriavtsev, V. V.
1994-01-01
The development of the brush seal is considered to be most promising among the advanced type seals that are presently in use in the high speed turbomachinery. The brush is usually mounted on the stationary portions of the engine and has direct contact with the rotating element, in the process of limiting the 'unwanted' leakage flows between stages, or various engine cavities. This type of sealing technology is providing high (in comparison with conventional seals) pressure drops due mainly to the high packing density (around 100 bristles/sq mm), and brush compliance with the rotor motions. In the design of modern aerospace turbomachinery leakage flows between the stages must be minimal, thus contributing to the higher efficiency of the engine. Use of the brush seal instead of the labyrinth seal reduces the leakage flow by one order of magnitude. Brush seals also have been found to enhance dynamic performance, cost less, and are lighter than labyrinth seals. Even though industrial brush seals have been successfully developed through extensive experimentation, there is no comprehensive numerical methodology for the design or prediction of their performance. The existing analytical/numerical approaches are based on bulk flow models and do not allow the investigation of the effects of brush morphology (bristle arrangement), or brushes arrangement (number of brushes, spacing between them), on the pressure drops and flow leakage. An increase in the brush seal efficiency is clearly a complex problem that is closely related to the brush geometry and arrangement, and can be solved most likely only by means of a numerically distributed model.
Brush seal numerical simulation: Concepts and advances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, M. J.; Kudriavtsev, V. V.
1994-07-01
The development of the brush seal is considered to be most promising among the advanced type seals that are presently in use in the high speed turbomachinery. The brush is usually mounted on the stationary portions of the engine and has direct contact with the rotating element, in the process of limiting the 'unwanted' leakage flows between stages, or various engine cavities. This type of sealing technology is providing high (in comparison with conventional seals) pressure drops due mainly to the high packing density (around 100 bristles/sq mm), and brush compliance with the rotor motions. In the design of modern aerospace turbomachinery leakage flows between the stages must be minimal, thus contributing to the higher efficiency of the engine. Use of the brush seal instead of the labyrinth seal reduces the leakage flow by one order of magnitude. Brush seals also have been found to enhance dynamic performance, cost less, and are lighter than labyrinth seals. Even though industrial brush seals have been successfully developed through extensive experimentation, there is no comprehensive numerical methodology for the design or prediction of their performance. The existing analytical/numerical approaches are based on bulk flow models and do not allow the investigation of the effects of brush morphology (bristle arrangement), or brushes arrangement (number of brushes, spacing between them), on the pressure drops and flow leakage. An increase in the brush seal efficiency is clearly a complex problem that is closely related to the brush geometry and arrangement, and can be solved most likely only by means of a numerically distributed model.
Numerical Simulations of High Enthalpy Pulse Facilities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Gregory J.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
Axisymmetric flows within shock tubes and expansion tubes are simulated including the effects of finite rate chemistry and both laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The simulations demonstrate the usefulness of computational fluid dynamics for characterizing the flows in high enthalpy pulse facilities. The modeling and numerical requirements necessary to simulate these flows accurately are also discussed. Although there is a large body of analysis which explains and quantifies the boundary layer growth between the shock and the interface in a shock tube, there is a need for more detailed solutions. Phenomena such as thermochemical nonequilibrium. or turbulent transition behind the shock are excluded in the assumptions of Mirels' analysis. Additionally there is inadequate capability to predict the influence of the boundary layer on the expanded gas behind the interface. Quantifying the gas in this region is particularly important in expansion tubes because it is the location of the test gas. Unsteady simulations of the viscous flow in shock tubes are computationally expensive because they must follow features such as a shock wave over the length of the facility and simultaneously resolve the small length scales within the boundary layer. As a result, efficient numerical algorithms are required. The numerical approach of the present work is to solve the axisymmetric gas dynamic equations using an finite-volume formulation where the inviscid fluxes are computed with a upwind TVD scheme. Multiple species equations are included in the formulation so that finite-rate chemistry can be modeled. The simulations cluster grid points at the shock and interface and translate this clustered grid with these features to minimize numerical errors. The solutions are advanced at a CFL number of less than one based on the inviscid gas dynamics. To avoid limitations on the time step due to the viscous terms, these terms are treated implicitly. This requires a block tri
Numerical simulation of premixed turbulent methane combustion
Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.
2001-12-14
In this paper we study the behavior of a premixed turbulent methane flame in three dimensions using numerical simulation. The simulations are performed using an adaptive time-dependent low Mach number combustion algorithm based on a second-order projection formulation that conserves both species mass and total enthalpy. The species and enthalpy equations are treated using an operator-split approach that incorporates stiff integration techniques for modeling detailed chemical kinetics. The methodology also incorporates a mixture model for differential diffusion. For the simulations presented here, methane chemistry and transport are modeled using the DRM-19 (19-species, 84-reaction) mechanism derived from the GRIMech-1.2 mechanism along with its associated thermodynamics and transport databases. We consider a lean flame with equivalence ratio 0.8 for two different levels of turbulent intensity. For each case we examine the basic structure of the flame including turbulent flame speed and flame surface area. The results indicate that flame wrinkling is the dominant factor leading to the increased turbulent flame speed. Joint probability distributions are computed to establish a correlation between heat release and curvature. We also investigate the effect of turbulent flame interaction on the flame chemistry. We identify specific flame intermediates that are sensitive to turbulence and explore various correlations between these species and local flame curvature. We identify different mechanisms by which turbulence modulates the chemistry of the flame.
The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: An Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lytle, John K.
2000-01-01
Advances in computational technology and in physics-based modeling are making large-scale, detailed simulations of complex systems possible within the design environment. For example, the integration of computing, communications, and aerodynamics has reduced the time required to analyze major propulsion system components from days and weeks to minutes and hours. This breakthrough has enabled the detailed simulation of major propulsion system components to become a routine part of designing systems, providing the designer with critical information about the components early in the design process. This paper describes the development of the numerical propulsion system simulation (NPSS), a modular and extensible framework for the integration of multicomponent and multidisciplinary analysis tools using geographically distributed resources such as computing platforms, data bases, and people. The analysis is currently focused on large-scale modeling of complete aircraft engines. This will provide the product developer with a "virtual wind tunnel" that will reduce the number of hardware builds and tests required during the development of advanced aerospace propulsion systems.
Numerical simulation of multi-layered textile composite reinforcement forming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, P.; Hamila, N.; Boisse, P.
2011-05-01
One important perspective in aeronautics is to produce large, thick or/and complex structural composite parts. The forming stage presents an important role during the whole manufacturing process, especially for LCM processes (Liquid Composites Moulding) or CFRTP (Continuous Fibre Reinforcements and Thermoplastic resin). Numerical simulations corresponding to multi-layered composite forming allow the prediction for a successful process to produce the thick parts, and importantly, the positions of the fibres after forming to be known. This paper details a set of simulation examples carried out by using a semi-discrete shell finite element made up of unit woven cells. The internal virtual work is applied on all woven cells of the element taking into account tensions, in-plane shear and bending effects. As one key problem, the contact behaviours of tool/ply and ply/ply are described in the numerical model. The simulation results not only improve our understanding of the multi-layered composite forming process but also point out the importance of the fibre orientation and inter-ply friction during formability.
Numerical simulation of multi-layered textile composite reinforcement forming
Wang, P.; Hamila, N.; Boisse, P.
2011-05-04
One important perspective in aeronautics is to produce large, thick or/and complex structural composite parts. The forming stage presents an important role during the whole manufacturing process, especially for LCM processes (Liquid Composites Moulding) or CFRTP (Continuous Fibre Reinforcements and Thermoplastic resin). Numerical simulations corresponding to multi-layered composite forming allow the prediction for a successful process to produce the thick parts, and importantly, the positions of the fibres after forming to be known. This paper details a set of simulation examples carried out by using a semi-discrete shell finite element made up of unit woven cells. The internal virtual work is applied on all woven cells of the element taking into account tensions, in-plane shear and bending effects. As one key problem, the contact behaviours of tool/ply and ply/ply are described in the numerical model. The simulation results not only improve our understanding of the multi-layered composite forming process but also point out the importance of the fibre orientation and inter-ply friction during formability.
Numerical simulation of polymer flows: A parallel computing approach
Aggarwal, R.; Keunings, R.; Roux, F.X.
1993-12-31
We present a parallel algorithm for the numerical simulation of viscoelastic fluids on distributed memory computers. The algorithm has been implemented within a general-purpose commercial finite element package used in polymer processing applications. Results obtained on the Intel iPSC/860 computer demonstrate high parallel efficiency in complex flow problems. However, since the computational load is unknown a priori, load balancing is a challenging issue. We have developed an adaptive allocation strategy which dynamically reallocates the work load to the processors based upon the history of the computational procedure. We compare the results obtained with the adaptive and static scheduling schemes.
3D Numerical simulations of oblique subduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malatesta, C.; Gerya, T.; Scambelluri, M.; Crispini, L.; Federico, L.; Capponi, G.
2012-04-01
In the past 2D numerical studies (e.g. Gerya et al., 2002; Gorczyk et al., 2007; Malatesta et al., 2012) provided evidence that during intraoceanic subduction a serpentinite channel forms above the downgoing plate. This channel forms as a result of hydration of the mantle wedge by uprising slab-fluids. Rocks buried at high depths are finally exhumed within this buoyant low-viscosity medium. Convergence rate in these 2D models was described by a trench-normal component of velocity. Several present and past subduction zones worldwide are however driven by oblique convergence between the plates, where trench-normal motion of the subducting slab is coupled with trench-parallel displacement of the plates. Can the exhumation mechanism and the exhumation rates of high-pressure rocks be affected by the shear component of subduction? And how uprise of these rocks can vary along the plate margin? We tried to address these questions performing 3D numerical models that simulate an intraoceanic oblique subduction. The models are based on thermo-mechanical equations that are solved with finite differences method and marker-in-cell techniques combined with multigrid approach (Gerya, 2010). In most of the models a narrow oceanic basin (500 km-wide) surrounded by continental margins is depicted. The basin is floored by either layered or heterogeneous oceanic lithosphere with gabbro as discrete bodies in serpentinized peridotite and a basaltic layer on the top. A weak zone in the mantle is prescribed to control the location of subduction initiation and therefore the plate margins geometry. Finally, addition of a third dimension in the simulations allowed us to test the role of different plate margin geometries on oblique subduction dynamics. In particular in each model we modified the dip angle of the weak zone and its "lateral" geometry (e.g. continuous, segmented). We consider "continuous" weak zones either parallel or increasingly moving away from the continental margins
Numerical Simulation of DC Coronal Heating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahlburg, Russell B.; Einaudi, G.; Taylor, Brian D.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry; Rappazzo, A. F.; Velli, Marco
2016-05-01
Recent research on observational signatures of turbulent heating of a coronal loop will be discussed. The evolution of the loop is is studied by means of numerical simulations of the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations using the HYPERION code. HYPERION calculates the full energy cycle involving footpoint convection, magnetic reconnection, nonlinear thermal conduction and optically thin radiation. The footpoints of the loop magnetic field are convected by random photospheric motions. As a consequence the magnetic field in the loop is energized and develops turbulent nonlinear dynamics characterized by the continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets: energy is deposited at small scales where heating occurs. Dissipation is non-uniformly distributed so that only a fraction of thecoronal mass and volume gets heated at any time. Temperature and density are highly structured at scales which, in the solar corona, remain observationally unresolved: the plasma of the simulated loop is multi thermal, where highly dynamical hotter and cooler plasma strands are scattered throughout the loop at sub-observational scales. Typical simulated coronal loops are 50000 km length and have axial magnetic field intensities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 Tesla. To connect these simulations to observations the computed number densities and temperatures are used to synthesize the intensities expected in emission lines typically observed with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode. These intensities are then employed to compute differential emission measure distributions, which are found to be very similar to those derived from observations of solar active regions.
Numerical Simulation of Coherent Error Correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crow, Daniel; Joynt, Robert; Saffman, Mark
A major goal in quantum computation is the implementation of error correction to produce a logical qubit with an error rate lower than that of the underlying physical qubits. Recent experimental progress demonstrates physical qubits can achieve error rates sufficiently low for error correction, particularly for codes with relatively high thresholds such as the surface code and color code. Motivated by experimental capabilities of neutral atom systems, we use numerical simulation to investigate whether coherent error correction can be effectively used with the 7-qubit color code. The results indicate that coherent error correction does not work at the 10-qubit level in neutral atom array quantum computers. By adding more qubits there is a possibility of making the encoding circuits fault-tolerant which could improve performance.
History of the numerical aerodynamic simulation program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterson, Victor L.; Ballhaus, William F., Jr.
1987-01-01
The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) program has reached a milestone with the completion of the initial operating configuration of the NAS Processing System Network. This achievement is the first major milestone in the continuing effort to provide a state-of-the-art supercomputer facility for the national aerospace community and to serve as a pathfinder for the development and use of future supercomputer systems. The underlying factors that motivated the initiation of the program are first identified and then discussed. These include the emergence and evolution of computational aerodynamics as a powerful new capability in aerodynamics research and development, the computer power required for advances in the discipline, the complementary nature of computation and wind tunnel testing, and the need for the government to play a pathfinding role in the development and use of large-scale scientific computing systems. Finally, the history of the NAS program is traced from its inception in 1975 to the present time.
Numerical simulation of three dimensional transonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sahu, Jubaraj; Steger, Joseph L.
1987-01-01
The three-dimensional flow over a projectile has been computed using an implicit, approximately factored, partially flux-split algorithm. A simple composite grid scheme has been developed in which a single grid is partitioned into a series of smaller grids for applications which require an external large memory device such as the SSD of the CRAY X-MP/48, or multitasking. The accuracy and stability of the composite grid scheme has been tested by numerically simulating the flow over an ellipsoid at angle of attack and comparing the solution with a single grid solution. The flowfield over a projectile at M = 0.96 and 4 deg angle-of-attack has been computed using a fine grid, and compared with experiment.
Numerical Simulations of Acoustically Driven, Burning Droplets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, H.-C.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.; Urban, Dave (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
This computational study focuses on understanding and quantifying the effects of external acoustical perturbations on droplet combustion. A one-dimensional, axisymmetric representation of the essential diffusion and reaction processes occurring in the vicinity of the droplet stagnation point is used here in order to isolate the effects of the imposed acoustic disturbance. The simulation is performed using a third order accurate, essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) numerical scheme with a full methanol-air reaction mechanism. Consistent with recent microgravity and normal gravity combustion experiments, focus is placed on conditions where the droplet is situated at a velocity antinode in order for the droplet to experience the greatest effects of fluid mechanical straining of flame structures. The effects of imposed sound pressure level and frequency are explored here, and conditions leading to maximum burning rates are identified.
Polarimetric bio-aerosol detection: numerical simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snow, J. William; Bicknell, W. Ed; Burke, Hsiao-hua K.
2005-11-01
This paper examines the use of bi-static lidar to remotely detect the release of aerosolized biological agent. The detection scheme exploits bio-aerosol induced changes in the Stokes parameters of scattered radiation in comparison to scattered radiation from ambient background aerosols alone. A polarization distance metric is introduced to discriminate between changes caused by the two types of aerosols. Scattering code computations are the information source. Three application scenarios are considered: outdoor arena, indoor auditorium, and building heating-ventilation-air-conditioning (HVAC) system. Numerical simulations are employed to determine sensitivity of detection to laser wavelength and to particle physical properties. Results of the study are described and details are given for the specific example of a 1.50 μm lidar system operating outdoors over a 1000-m range.
Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility feasibility study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
There were three major issues examined in the feasibility study. First, the ability of the proposed system architecture to support the anticipated workload was evaluated. Second, the throughput of the computational engine (the flow model processor) was studied using real application programs. Third, the availability reliability, and maintainability of the system were modeled. The evaluations were based on the baseline systems. The results show that the implementation of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility, in the form considered, would indeed be a feasible project with an acceptable level of risk. The technology required (both hardware and software) either already exists or, in the case of a few parts, is expected to be announced this year. Facets of the work described include the hardware configuration, software, user language, and fault tolerance.
Computing abstraction hierarchies by numerical simulation
Bundy, A.; Giunchiglia, F.; Sebastiani, R.; Walsh, T.
1996-12-31
We present a novel method for building ABSTRIPS-style abstraction hierarchies in planning. The aim of this method is to minimize the amount of backtracking between abstraction levels. Previous approaches have determined the criticality of operator preconditions by reasoning about plans directly. Here, we adopt a simpler and faster approach where we use numerical simulation of the planning process. We demonstrate the theoretical advantages of our approach by identifying some simple properties lacking in previous approaches but possessed by our method. We demonstrate the empirical advantages of our approach by a set of four benchmark experiments using the ABTWEAK system. We compare the quality of the abstraction hierarchies generated with those built by the ALPINE and HIGHPOINT algorithms.
Numerical relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of neutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haywood, Joe R.
Developments in numerical relativistic hydrodynamics over the past thirty years, along with the advent of high speed computers, have made problems needing general relativity and relativistic hydrodynamics tractable. One such problem is the relativistic evolution of neutron stars, either in a head on collision or in binary orbit. Also of current interest is the detection of gravitational radiation from binary neutron stars, black-hole neutron star binaries, binary black holes, etc. Such systems expected to emit gravitational radiation with amplitude large enough to be detected on Earth by such groups as LIGO and VIRGO. Unfortunately, the expected signal strength is below the current noise level. However, signal processing techniques have been developed which should eventually find a signal, if a good theoretical template can be found. In the cases above it is not possible to obtain an analytic solution to the Einstein equations and a numerical approximation is therefore most necessary. In this thesis the Einstein equations are written using the formalism of Arnowitt, Desser and Misner and a conformally flat metric is assumed. Numerical simulations of colliding neutron stars, having either a realistic or Gamma = 2 polytropic equation of state (EOS), are presented which confirm the rise in central density seen by [51, 89] for the softer EOS. For the binary calculation, the results of Wilson et al. [89] are confirmed, which show that the neutron stars can collapse to black holes before colliding when the EOS is realistic and we also confirm results of Miller [56] and others that there is essentially no compression, the central density does not increase, when the stiffer equation of state is used. Finally, a template for the gravitational radiation emitted from the binary is calculated and we show that the frequency of the emitted gravitational waves changes more slowly for the [89] EOS, which may result in a stronger signal in the 50-100 Hz band of LIGO.
Numerical simulation of detonation failure in nitromethane
Kipp, M.E.; Nunziato, J.W.
1981-01-01
Detonation failure in the homogeneous liquid explosive nitromethane has been observed experimentally in a wide variety of confining geometries. However, numerical simulation of these failure situations with a wave propagation code has been essentially non-existent due to the large differences between the critical diameter and the length of the reaction zone - characteristic dimensions which differ by about two orders of magnitude. This inability to spatially resolve both the reaction zone and geometries of significant size has led us to propose a new numerical technique, based on the stability criterion for rate-type material models, in which only temporal resolution of the reaction zone is required. Using an improved model for nitromethane, we have carried out a series of two-dimensional calculations which illustrate the utility of the present approach in predicting a wide range of experimental observations. Of particular computational significance is the removal of the difficulty requiring spatial resolution of the reaction zone, so that problems of practical size can be analyzed with existing computer capabilities.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.
2000-01-01
The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.
Numerical simulation of separated flows past bluff bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexandrou, Andreas Neophytou
1986-12-01
The steady two-dimensional flow past bluff bodies is simulated numerically using a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian model. The boundary layer effects, such as the location of the separation points and the rate of the generation of vorticity, are determined by a boundary layer solver. This solver uses Prandtl's boundary layer equations transformed by the Falkner-Skan transformation and then solved using a cubic spline approximation and a mean weighted residual technique. The vorticity generated at separation is discretized into elemental point vortices and convected downstream into the wake in a Lagrangian manner. The wake is modeled in a finite Eulerian computational domain using a modified Cloud-in-Cell (CIC) method. The velocity field at each time step is obtained as a solution to the rotationality condition using the finite element method in a cartesian mesh with nine-node elements and biquadratic shape functions. The biquadratic shape functions introduce a higher order interpolation scheme for the distribution of the vorticity at the nodal points than the bilinear (area) interpolation used in the original CIC method. The higher order interpolation as used in the CIC formulation performs better than the bilinear interpolation of the original method. This is demonstrated by the simulation of an isolated Rankine vortex. The ability of the CIC method to simulate the dynamics of vortex structures is also tested for the cases of flow past a flat plate and a circular cylinder.
Boundary element and finite element coupling for aeroacoustics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balin, Nolwenn; Casenave, Fabien; Dubois, François; Duceau, Eric; Duprey, Stefan; Terrasse, Isabelle
2015-08-01
We consider the scattering of acoustic perturbations in the presence of a flow. We suppose that the space can be split into a zone where the flow is uniform and a zone where the flow is potential. In the first zone, we apply a Prandtl-Glauert transformation to recover the Helmholtz equation. The well-known setting of boundary element method for the Helmholtz equation is available. In the second zone, the flow quantities are space dependent, we have to consider a local resolution, namely the finite element method. Herein, we carry out the coupling of these two methods and present various applications and validation test cases. The source term is given through the decomposition of an incident acoustic field on a section of the computational domain's boundary. Validations against analytic, another numerical method and measurements on different test cases are presented.
Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Preliminary study extension
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1978-01-01
The production of an optimized design of key elements of the candidate facility was the primary objective of this report. This was accomplished by effort in the following tasks: (1) to further develop, optimize and describe the function description of the custom hardware; (2) to delineate trade off areas between performance, reliability, availability, serviceability, and programmability; (3) to develop metrics and models for validation of the candidate systems performance; (4) to conduct a functional simulation of the system design; (5) to perform a reliability analysis of the system design; and (6) to develop the software specifications to include a user level high level programming language, a correspondence between the programming language and instruction set and outline the operation system requirements.
Numerical Simulation of Cold Pressing of Armstrong CP-Ti Powders
Sabau, Adrian S; Gorti, Sarma B; Peter, William H; Chen, Wei; Yamamoto, Yukinori
2012-01-01
Numerical simulation results for the cold pressing of Armstrong CP-Ti Powders are presented. The computational model was implemented in the commercial finite element program ABAQUSTM. Several simulation cases were conducted for cylindrical samples with different friction coefficients and different compaction pressures, under both single-action and dual-action uniaxial pressing. Numerical simulation results for the density distribution are compared against experimental data in order to validate the computational model.
Numerical simulation of tulip flame dynamics
Cloutman, L.D.
1991-11-30
A finite difference reactive flow hydrodynamics program based on the full Navier-Stokes equations was used to simulate the combustion process in a homogeneous-charge, constant-volume combustion bomb in which an oddly shaped flame, known as a ``tulip flame`` in the literature, occurred. The ``tulip flame`` was readily reproduced in the numerical simulations, producing good agreement with the experimental flame shapes and positions at various times. The calculations provide sufficient detail about the dynamics of the experiment to provide some insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the peculiar flame shape. Several factors seem to contribute to the tulip formation. The most important process is the baroclinic production of vorticity by the flame front, and this rate of production appears to be dramatically increased by the nonaxial flow generated when the initial semicircular flame front burns out along the sides of the chamber. The vorticity produces a pair of vortices behind the flame that advects the flame into the tulip shape. Boundary layer effects contribute to the details of the flame shape next to the walls of the chamber, but are otherwise not important. 24 refs.
Numerical simulation of tulip flame dynamics
Cloutman, L.D.
1991-11-30
A finite difference reactive flow hydrodynamics program based on the full Navier-Stokes equations was used to simulate the combustion process in a homogeneous-charge, constant-volume combustion bomb in which an oddly shaped flame, known as a tulip flame'' in the literature, occurred. The tulip flame'' was readily reproduced in the numerical simulations, producing good agreement with the experimental flame shapes and positions at various times. The calculations provide sufficient detail about the dynamics of the experiment to provide some insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the peculiar flame shape. Several factors seem to contribute to the tulip formation. The most important process is the baroclinic production of vorticity by the flame front, and this rate of production appears to be dramatically increased by the nonaxial flow generated when the initial semicircular flame front burns out along the sides of the chamber. The vorticity produces a pair of vortices behind the flame that advects the flame into the tulip shape. Boundary layer effects contribute to the details of the flame shape next to the walls of the chamber, but are otherwise not important. 24 refs.
Numerical simulations of phase change in microgravity
Juric, D.; Tryggvason, G.
1996-12-31
Direct numerical simulations of liquid-solid and liquid-vapor phase change are conducted under microgravity conditions. The time-dependent governing equations are solved using a two-dimensional finite-difference/front-tracking method. Large interface deformations, topology change, latent heat, surface tension and unequal material properties between the phases are included in the simulations. Results are presented for two specific problems: directional solidification of a dilute binary alloy and the rapid evaporation of a superheated liquid (vapor explosion). For the directional solidification problem, solution of the fully coupled solute and energy equations reveals the evolution of morphologically complex structures such as tip splitting, coarsening and droplet detachment from deep intercellular grooves. A variety of important solute segregation patterns such as necking, coring and banding are also observed. The boiling problem couples the phase change with fluid flow. This requires the solution of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations with interphase mass transfer. The energetic growth of instabilities on planar and circular interfaces during the unstable explosive evaporation of a superheated liquid in microgravity is demonstrated.
Numerical simulation of `DMSP` dosimeter response
Jordan, T.M. ||
1993-12-31
Four Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) dosimeters were modeled for numerical simulation of radiation response. The modeling included the hemispherical aluminum dome, the solid state detector, and the tungsten base plate. Orbits were generated for 840 km and 98 degrees inclination and used with 1965 and 1985 magnetic field models and the AP8 and AE8 data sets to obtain solar minimum and solar maximum integral fluences for protons and electrons. Adjoint Monte Carlo methods were then used to simulate the transport of these environments in the geometric models of the dosimeters. Volume average dose calculations were used to calculate the response of the LOLET (less than 1 MeV deposited per particle) channels to electrons and secondary bremsstrahlung. Monte Carlo methods were used, in conjunction with a pulse height analysis, to obtain the proton response of the LOLET and HILET (1 to 10 MeV deposited per particle) channels. The HILET and LOLET responses obtained from these calculations are in good agreement with DMSP measurements for 1984-85.
Numerical simulation of turbulence over tensegrity fabric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Haoxiang; Bewley, Thomas
2003-11-01
In this research we aim to reduce turbulent skin friction by designing and optimizing tensegrity fabrics. Such fabrics form a new class of compliant surfaces consisting of a weave of both members under tension and members under compression. Boundary conditions on the flow are handled with a time-dependent coordinate transformation. We first note that, when designing the numerical algorithm for approximating the Navier-Stokes equation in the flow domain (with moving boundaries), special care (intrinsic differentiation of a contravariant vector) is needed to handle the temporal differentiation of the momentum term when using a contravariant formulation. A Cartesian-based formulation may also be used, and has proven to be more tractable in the 3D setting. The spectral DNS flow code is coupled with a tensegrity simulation code to compute the flow/structure interaction; recent simulation results will be presented. A complex-step derivative (CSD) technique may then be used to optimize the response characteristics of the tensegrity structure in order to minimize the drag at the flow/structure interface; this strategy will also be discussed.
Numerical simulations of capillary barrier field tests
Morris, C.E.; Stormont, J.C.
1997-12-31
Numerical simulations of two capillary barrier systems tested in the field were conducted to determine if an unsaturated flow model could accurately represent the observed results. The field data was collected from two 7-m long, 1.2-m thick capillary barriers built on a 10% grade that were being tested to investigate their ability to laterally divert water downslope. One system had a homogeneous fine layer, while the fine soil of the second barrier was layered to increase its ability to laterally divert infiltrating moisture. The barriers were subjected first to constant infiltration while minimizing evaporative losses and then were exposed to ambient conditions. The continuous infiltration period of the field tests for the two barrier systems was modelled to determine the ability of an existing code to accurately represent capillary barrier behavior embodied in these two designs. Differences between the field test and the model data were found, but in general the simulations appeared to adequately reproduce the response of the test systems. Accounting for moisture retention hysteresis in the layered system will potentially lead to more accurate modelling results and is likely to be important when developing reasonable predictions of capillary barrier behavior.
Numerical simulation of LIGO input optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
None, Shivanand; Jamal, Nafis; Yoshida, Sanichiro
2005-11-01
Numerical analysis has been carried out to understand the performance of the Input Optics used in the first generation of LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) detector. The input optics is a subsystem consisting of a mode cleaner and mode-matching telescope, where all the optics are suspended and installed in vacuum. Using the end-to-end package (LIGO programming language), computer codes have been made to simulate the input optics. Giving realistic seismic noise to the suspension point of the optics and using the length sensing/alignment sensing control for the mode cleaner, the performance of the input optics has been simulated under various scenarios such as with an order of magnitude higher seismic noise than the normal level, and with/without the alignment sensing control feedback from the arm cavity to the mode-matching telescope. The results are assessed in terms of the beam pointing fluctuation of the laser beam going into the arm cavities, and its influence on the optical coupling to the arm cavities and the noise level at the gravitational wave port signal.
A nonlinear dynamic finite element approach for simulating muscular hydrostats.
Vavourakis, V; Kazakidi, A; Tsakiris, D P; Ekaterinaris, J A
2014-01-01
An implicit nonlinear finite element model for simulating biological muscle mechanics is developed. The numerical method is suitable for dynamic simulations of three-dimensional, nonlinear, nearly incompressible, hyperelastic materials that undergo large deformations. These features characterise biological muscles, which consist of fibres and connective tissues. It can be assumed that the stress distribution inside the muscles is the superposition of stresses along the fibres and the connective tissues. The mechanical behaviour of the surrounding tissues is determined by adopting a Mooney-Rivlin constitutive model, while the mechanical description of fibres is considered to be the sum of active and passive stresses. Due to the nonlinear nature of the problem, evaluation of the Jacobian matrix is carried out in order to subsequently utilise the standard Newton-Raphson iterative procedure and to carry out time integration with an implicit scheme. The proposed methodology is implemented into our in-house, open source, finite element software, which is validated by comparing numerical results with experimental measurements and other numerical results. Finally, the numerical procedure is utilised to simulate primitive octopus arm manoeuvres, such as bending and reaching. PMID:23025686
Discrete Element Method Simulation of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Stress Wave Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Zhiping; Horie, Y.; Wang, Wenqiang
2002-07-01
A DEM(Discrete Element Method) simulation of nonlinear viscoelastic stress wave problems is carried out. The interaction forces among elements are described using a model in which neighbor elements are linked by a nonlinear spring and a certain number of Maxwell components in parallel. By making use of exponential relaxation moduli, it is shown that numerical computation of the convolution integral does not require storing and repeatedly calculating strain history, so that the computational cost is dramatically reduced. To validate the viscoelastic DM2 code1, stress wave propagation in a Maxwell rod with one end subjected to a constant stress loading is simulated. Results excellently fit those from the characteristics calculation. The code is then used to investigate the problem of meso-scale damage in a plastic-bonded explosive under shock loading. Results not only show "compression damage", but also reveal a complex damage evolution. They demonstrate a unique capability of DEM in modeling heterogeneous materials.
Discrete Element Method Simulation of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Stress Wave Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wenqiang; Tang, Zhiping; Horie, Y.
2002-07-01
A DEM(Discrete Element Method) simulation of nonlinear viscoelastic stress wave problems is carried out. The interaction forces among elements are described using a model in which neighbor elements are linked by a nonlinear spring and a certain number of Maxwell components in parallel. By making use of exponential relaxation moduli, it is shown that numerical computation of the convolution integral does not require storing and repeatedly calculating strain history, so that the computational cost is dramatically reduced. To validate the viscoelastic DM2 code[1], stress wave propagation in a Maxwell rod with one end subjected to a constant stress loading is simulated. Results excellently fit those from the characteristics calculation. The code is then used to investigate the problem of meso-scale damage in a plastic-bonded explosive under shock loading. Results not only show "compression damage", but also reveal a complex damage evolution. They demonstrate a unique capability of DEM in modeling heterogeneous materials.
Development of a carburizing and quenching simulation tool: Numerical simulations of rings and gears
Anderson, C.; Goldman, P.; Rangaswamy, P.
1996-06-24
This paper describes a calculational procedure using the ABAQUS finite element code that simulates a carburizing and quench heat treat cycle for automotive gears. The procedure features a numerically efficient 2-phase constitutive model to represent transformational plasticity effects for the austenite/martensite transformation together with refined finite element meshes to capture the steep gradients in stress and composition near the gear surfaces. The procedure is illustrated on carburizing and quenching of a thick ring, and comparison of model predictions for distortion, phase distribution, and residual stress with experiment is discussed. Sensitivity of predictions to mesh refinement is studied.
Numerical simulation of "an American haboob"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vukovic, A.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Andric, J.; Kumjian, M. R.; Djurdjevic, V.; Dacic, M.; Prasad, A. K.; El-Askary, H. M.; Paris, B. C.; Petkovic, S.; Nickovic, S.; Sprigg, W. A.
2014-04-01
A dust storm of fearful proportions hit Phoenix in the early evening hours of 5 July 2011. This storm, an American haboob, was predicted hours in advance because numerical, land-atmosphere modeling, computing power and remote sensing of dust events have improved greatly over the past decade. High-resolution numerical models are required for accurate simulation of the small scales of the haboob process, with high velocity surface winds produced by strong convection and severe downbursts. Dust productive areas in this region consist mainly of agricultural fields, with soil surfaces disturbed by plowing and tracks of land in the high Sonoran Desert laid barren by ongoing draught. Model simulation of the 5 July 2011 dust storm uses the coupled atmospheric-dust model NMME-DREAM (Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model on E grid, Janjic et al., 2001; Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al., 2001; Pérez et al., 2006) with 4 km horizontal resolution. A mask of the potentially dust productive regions is obtained from the land cover and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The scope of this paper is validation of the dust model performance, and not use of the model as a tool to investigate mechanisms related to the storm. Results demonstrate the potential technical capacity and availability of the relevant data to build an operational system for dust storm forecasting as a part of a warning system. Model results are compared with radar and other satellite-based images and surface meteorological and PM10 observations. The atmospheric model successfully hindcasted the position of the front in space and time, with about 1 h late arrival in Phoenix. The dust model predicted the rapid uptake of dust and high values of dust concentration in the ensuing storm. South of Phoenix, over the closest source regions (~25 km), the model PM10 surface dust concentration reached ~2500 μg m-3, but
Numerical simulation of "An American Haboob"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vukovic, A.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Andric, J.; Kumjian, M. R.; Djurdjevic, V.; Dacic, M.; Prasad, A. K.; El-Askary, H. M.; Paris, B. C.; Petkovic, S.; Nickovic, S.; Sprigg, W. A.
2013-10-01
A dust storm of fearful proportions hit Phoenix in the early evening hours of 5 July 2011. This storm, an American haboob, was predicted hours in advance because numerical, land-atmosphere modeling, computing power and remote sensing of dust events have improved greatly over the past decade. High resolution numerical models are required for accurate simulation of the small-scales of the haboob process, with high velocity surface winds produced by strong convection and severe downbursts. Dust productive areas in this region consist mainly of agricultural fields, with soil surfaces disturbed by plowing and tracks of land in the high Sonoran desert laid barren by ongoing draught. Model simulation of the 5 July 2011 dust storm uses the coupled atmospheric-dust model NMME-DREAM with 3.5 km horizontal resolution. A mask of the potentially dust productive regions is obtained from the land cover and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Model results are compared with radar and other satellite-based images and surface meteorological and PM10 observations. The atmospheric model successfully hindcasted the position of the front in space and time, with about 1 h late arrival in Phoenix. The dust model predicted the rapid uptake of dust and high values of dust concentration in the ensuing storm. South of Phoenix, over the closest source regions (~ 25 km), the model PM10 surface dust concentration reached ~ 2500 μg m-3, but underestimated the values measured by the PM10stations within the city. Model results are also validated by the MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD), employing deep blue (DB) algorithms for aerosol loadings. Model validation included Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), equipped with the lidar instrument, to disclose the vertical structure of dust aerosols as well as aerosol subtypes. Promising results encourage further research and
Numerical Simulations of Saturn's Polar Cyclones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brueshaber, Shawn R.; Sayanagi, Kunio M.
2014-11-01
Shawn R. Brueshaber, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Western Michigan UniversityKunio M. Sayanagi, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Hampton UniversityCassini mission to Saturn has revealed evidences of a warm core cyclone centered on each of the poles of the planet. The morphology of the clouds in these cyclones resembles that of a terrestrial hurricane. The formation and maintenance mechanisms of these large polar cyclones are yet to be explained. Scott (2011, Astrophys. Geophys. Fluid Dyn) proposed that cyclonic vortices beta-drifting poleward can result in a polar cyclone, and demonstrated that beta-drifting cyclonic vortices can indeed cause accumulation of cyclonic vorticity at the pole using a 1-layer quasi-geostrophic model.The objectives of our project is to test Scott's hypothesis using a 1.5-layer shallow-water model and many-layer primitive equations model. We use the Explicit Planetary Isentropic Coordinate (EPIC) model (Dowling et al. 1998, 2004, Icarus) to perform direct numerical simulations of Saturn's polar atmosphere. To date, our project has focused on modifying the model to construct a polar rectangular model grid in order to avoid the problem of polar singularity associated with the conventional latitude-longitude grids employed in many general circulation models. We present our preliminary simulations, which show beta-drifting cyclones cause a poleward flux of cyclonic vorticity, which is consistent with Scott's results.Our study is partially supported by NASA Outer Planets Research Grant NNX12AR38G and NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Grant 1212216 to KMS.
Efficient numerical simulation of heat storage in subsurface georeservoirs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boockmeyer, A.; Bauer, S.
2015-12-01
The transition of the German energy market towards renewable energy sources, e.g. wind or solar power, requires energy storage technologies to compensate for their fluctuating production. Large amounts of energy could be stored in georeservoirs such as porous formations in the subsurface. One possibility here is to store heat with high temperatures of up to 90°C through borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) since more than 80 % of the total energy consumption in German households are used for heating and hot water supply. Within the ANGUS+ project potential environmental impacts of such heat storages are assessed and quantified. Numerical simulations are performed to predict storage capacities, storage cycle times, and induced effects. For simulation of these highly dynamic storage sites, detailed high-resolution models are required. We set up a model that accounts for all components of the BHE and verified it using experimental data. The model ensures accurate simulation results but also leads to large numerical meshes and thus high simulation times. In this work, we therefore present a numerical model for each type of BHE (single U, double U and coaxial) that reduces the number of elements and the simulation time significantly for use in larger scale simulations. The numerical model includes all BHE components and represents the temporal and spatial temperature distribution with an accuracy of less than 2% deviation from the fully discretized model. By changing the BHE geometry and using equivalent parameters, the simulation time is reduced by a factor of ~10 for single U-tube BHEs, ~20 for double U-tube BHEs and ~150 for coaxial BHEs. Results of a sensitivity study that quantify the effects of different design and storage formation parameters on temperature distribution and storage efficiency for heat storage using multiple BHEs are then shown. It is found that storage efficiency strongly depends on the number of BHEs composing the storage site, their distance and
Process control of large-scale finite element simulation software
Spence, P.A.; Weingarten, L.I.; Schroder, K.; Tung, D.M.; Sheaffer, D.A.
1996-02-01
We have developed a methodology for coupling large-scale numerical codes with process control algorithms. Closed-loop simulations were demonstrated using the Sandia-developed finite element thermal code TACO and the commercially available finite element thermal-mechanical code ABAQUS. This new capability enables us to use computational simulations for designing and prototyping advanced process-control systems. By testing control algorithms on simulators before building and testing hardware, enormous time and cost savings can be realized. The need for a closed-loop simulation capability was demonstrated in a detailed design study of a rapid-thermal-processing reactor under development by CVC Products Inc. Using a thermal model of the RTP system as a surrogate for the actual hardware, we were able to generate response data needed for controller design. We then evaluated the performance of both the controller design and the hardware design by using the controller to drive the finite element model. The controlled simulations provided data on wafer temperature uniformity as a function of ramp rate, temperature sensor locations, and controller gain. This information, which is critical to reactor design, cannot be obtained from typical open-loop simulations.
Numeric simulation of plant signaling networks.
Genoud, T; Trevino Santa Cruz, M B; Métraux, J P
2001-08-01
Plants have evolved an intricate signaling apparatus that integrates relevant information and allows an optimal response to environmental conditions. For instance, the coordination of defense responses against pathogens involves sophisticated molecular detection and communication systems. Multiple protection strategies may be deployed differentially by the plant according to the nature of the invading organism. These responses are also influenced by the environment, metabolism, and developmental stage of the plant. Though the cellular signaling processes traditionally have been described as linear sequences of events, it is now evident that they may be represented more accurately as network-like structures. The emerging paradigm can be represented readily with the use of Boolean language. This digital (numeric) formalism allows an accurate qualitative description of the signal transduction processes, and a dynamic representation through computer simulation. Moreover, it provides the required power to process the increasing amount of information emerging from the fields of genomics and proteomics, and from the use of new technologies such as microarray analysis. In this review, we have used the Boolean language to represent and analyze part of the signaling network of disease resistance in Arabidopsis. PMID:11500542
Numeric Simulation of Plant Signaling Networks1
Genoud, Thierry; Trevino Santa Cruz, Marcela B.; Métraux, Jean-Pierre
2001-01-01
Plants have evolved an intricate signaling apparatus that integrates relevant information and allows an optimal response to environmental conditions. For instance, the coordination of defense responses against pathogens involves sophisticated molecular detection and communication systems. Multiple protection strategies may be deployed differentially by the plant according to the nature of the invading organism. These responses are also influenced by the environment, metabolism, and developmental stage of the plant. Though the cellular signaling processes traditionally have been described as linear sequences of events, it is now evident that they may be represented more accurately as network-like structures. The emerging paradigm can be represented readily with the use of Boolean language. This digital (numeric) formalism allows an accurate qualitative description of the signal transduction processes, and a dynamic representation through computer simulation. Moreover, it provides the required power to process the increasing amount of information emerging from the fields of genomics and proteomics, and from the use of new technologies such as microarray analysis. In this review, we have used the Boolean language to represent and analyze part of the signaling network of disease resistance in Arabidopsis. PMID:11500542
Numerical simulations of Modified Newtonian Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Candlish, G. N.; Smith, R.; Fellhauer, M.
2016-05-01
The ΛCDM standard cosmological model is strongly supported by multiple lines of evidence, particularly from observations at large scales such as the CMB and large scale structure. There are some indications, however, of problems at smaller scales. An alternative to the CDM approach is to modify the gravitational force, as exemplified by the MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) idea. While evidence suggests MOND cannot account for dynamics at all scales without dark matter, it has been successful at galactic scales. Due to the complexity of the theory, however, most tests of MOND have extended no further than using a simple scaling relation to determine rotation curves or velocity dispersions. Therefore, to test the concept more thoroughly we require numerical simulations. We discuss the development and testing of a new N-body solver, using two distinct formulations of MOND, that is incorporated into the RAMSES code. The theory of MOND as a modification of Newtonian gravity is briefly summarised. We then show how it is implemented in the code, providing an example of an idealised test case and future applications.
Cloud interactions and merging - Numerical simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, W.-K.; Simpson, J.
1984-01-01
A total of 48 numerical experiments have been performed to study cloud interactions adn merging by means of a two-dimensional multi-cell model. Two soundings of deep convection during GATE and two different magnitudes of large-scale lifting have been used as the initial conditions and as the main forcing on the model. Over two hundred groups of cloud systems with a life history of over sixty minutes have been generated under the influence of different combinations of the stratification and large-scale lifting. The results demonstrate the increase in convective activity and in amount of precipitation with increased intensity of large-scale lifting. The results also show increased occurrence of cloud merger with increased intensity of large-scale lifting. The most unfavorable environmental conditions for cloud merging are (1) less unstable stratification of the atmosphere and (2) weaker large-scale lifting. A total of fourteen cloud systems qualify as mergers. Two selected cases will be described dynamically and thermodynamically in this paper. Although these cloud mergers have been simulated under the influence of different synoptic-scale conditions, the major physical mechanism related to the cloud merging process is the same as that proposed by Simpson. Cumulus downdrafts and associated cold outflows play a dominant role in the merging process in all cases studied.
Numerical simulations of drainage flows on Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parish, Thomas R.; Howard, Alan D.
Data collected by Viking Landers have shown that the meteorology of the near surface Martian environment is analogous to desertlike terrestrial conditions. Geological evidence such as dunes and frost streaks indicate that the surface wind is a potentially important factor in scouring of the martian landscape. In particular, the north polar basin shows erosional features that suggest katabatic wind convergence into broad valleys near the margin of the polar cap. The pattern of katabatic wind drainage off the north polar cap is similar to that observed on Earth over Antarctica or Greenland. The sensitivity is explored of Martian drainage flows to variations in terrain slope and diurnal heating using a numerical modeling approach. The model used is a 2-D sigma coordinate primitive equation system that has been used for simulations of Antarctic drainage flows. Prognostic equations include the flux forms of the horizontal scalar momentum equations, temperature, and continuity. Parameterization of both longwave (terrestrial) and shortwave (solar) radiation is included. Turbulent transfer of heat and momentum in the Martian atmosphere remains uncertain since relevant measurements are essentially nonexistent.
Numerical simulations of drainage flows on Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parish, Thomas R.; Howard, Alan D.
1992-01-01
Data collected by Viking Landers have shown that the meteorology of the near surface Martian environment is analogous to desertlike terrestrial conditions. Geological evidence such as dunes and frost streaks indicate that the surface wind is a potentially important factor in scouring of the martian landscape. In particular, the north polar basin shows erosional features that suggest katabatic wind convergence into broad valleys near the margin of the polar cap. The pattern of katabatic wind drainage off the north polar cap is similar to that observed on Earth over Antarctica or Greenland. The sensitivity is explored of Martian drainage flows to variations in terrain slope and diurnal heating using a numerical modeling approach. The model used is a 2-D sigma coordinate primitive equation system that has been used for simulations of Antarctic drainage flows. Prognostic equations include the flux forms of the horizontal scalar momentum equations, temperature, and continuity. Parameterization of both longwave (terrestrial) and shortwave (solar) radiation is included. Turbulent transfer of heat and momentum in the Martian atmosphere remains uncertain since relevant measurements are essentially nonexistent.
Direct numerical simulations of aeolian sand ripples
Durán, Orencio; Claudin, Philippe; Andreotti, Bruno
2014-01-01
Aeolian sand beds exhibit regular patterns of ripples resulting from the interaction between topography and sediment transport. Their characteristics have been so far related to reptation transport caused by the impacts on the ground of grains entrained by the wind into saltation. By means of direct numerical simulations of grains interacting with a wind flow, we show that the instability turns out to be driven by resonant grain trajectories, whose length is close to a ripple wavelength and whose splash leads to a mass displacement toward the ripple crests. The pattern selection results from a compromise between this destabilizing mechanism and a diffusive downslope transport which stabilizes small wavelengths. The initial wavelength is set by the ratio of the sediment flux and the erosion/deposition rate, a ratio which increases linearly with the wind velocity. We show that this scaling law, in agreement with experiments, originates from an interfacial layer separating the saltation zone from the static sand bed, where momentum transfers are dominated by midair collisions. Finally, we provide quantitative support for the use of the propagation of these ripples as a proxy for remote measurements of sediment transport. PMID:25331873
Direct numerical simulations of aeolian sand ripples.
Durán, Orencio; Claudin, Philippe; Andreotti, Bruno
2014-11-01
Aeolian sand beds exhibit regular patterns of ripples resulting from the interaction between topography and sediment transport. Their characteristics have been so far related to reptation transport caused by the impacts on the ground of grains entrained by the wind into saltation. By means of direct numerical simulations of grains interacting with a wind flow, we show that the instability turns out to be driven by resonant grain trajectories, whose length is close to a ripple wavelength and whose splash leads to a mass displacement toward the ripple crests. The pattern selection results from a compromise between this destabilizing mechanism and a diffusive downslope transport which stabilizes small wavelengths. The initial wavelength is set by the ratio of the sediment flux and the erosion/deposition rate, a ratio which increases linearly with the wind velocity. We show that this scaling law, in agreement with experiments, originates from an interfacial layer separating the saltation zone from the static sand bed, where momentum transfers are dominated by midair collisions. Finally, we provide quantitative support for the use of the propagation of these ripples as a proxy for remote measurements of sediment transport. PMID:25331873
Numerical simulation of noninvasive blood pressure measurement.
Hayashi, Satoru; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Atsushi; Maruyama, Masaru
2006-10-01
In this paper, a simulation model based on the partially pressurized collapsible tube model for reproducing noninvasive blood pressure measurement is presented. The model consists of a collapsible tube, which models the pressurized part of the artery, rigid pipes connected to the collapsible tube, which model proximal and distal region far from the pressurized part, and the Windkessel model, which represents the capacitance and the resistance of the distal part of the circulation. The blood flow is simplified to a one-dimensional system. Collapse and expansion of the tube is represented by the change in the cross-sectional area of the tube considering the force balance acting on the tube membrane in the direction normal to the tube axis. They are solved using the Runge-Kutta method. This simple model can easily reproduce the oscillation of inner fluid and corresponding tube collapse typical for the Korotkoff sounds generated by the cuff pressure. The numerical result is compared with the experiment and shows good agreement. PMID:16995754
Direct Numerical Simulation of Cell Printing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, Rui; He, Ping
2010-11-01
Structural cell printing, i.e., printing three dimensional (3D) structures of cells held in a tissue matrix, is gaining significant attention in the biomedical community. The key idea is to use desktop printer or similar devices to print cells into 3D patterns with a resolution comparable to the size of mammalian cells, similar to that in living organs. Achieving such a resolution in vitro can lead to breakthroughs in areas such as organ transplantation and understanding of cell-cell interactions in truly 3D spaces. Although the feasibility of cell printing has been demonstrated in the recent years, the printing resolution and cell viability remain to be improved. In this work, we investigate one of the unit operations in cell printing, namely, the impact of a cell-laden droplet into a pool of highly viscous liquids using direct numerical simulations. The dynamics of droplet impact (e.g., crater formation and droplet spreading and penetration) and the evolution of cell shape and internal stress are quantified in details.
Stochastic algorithms for the analysis of numerical flame simulations
Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.
2004-04-26
Recent progress in simulation methodologies and high-performance parallel computers have made it is possible to perform detailed simulations of multidimensional reacting flow phenomena using comprehensive kinetics mechanisms. As simulations become larger and more complex, it becomes increasingly difficult to extract useful information from the numerical solution, particularly regarding the interactions of the chemical reaction and diffusion processes. In this paper we present a new diagnostic tool for analysis of numerical simulations of reacting flow. Our approach is based on recasting an Eulerian flow solution in a Lagrangian frame. Unlike a conventional Lagrangian view point that follows the evolution of a volume of the fluid, we instead follow specific chemical elements, e.g., carbon, nitrogen, etc., as they move through the system . From this perspective an ''atom'' is part of some molecule of a species that is transported through the domain by advection and diffusion. Reactions cause the atom to shift from one chemical host species to another and the subsequent transport of the atom is given by the movement of the new species. We represent these processes using a stochastic particle formulation that treats advection deterministically and models diffusion and chemistry as stochastic processes. In this paper, we discuss the numerical issues in detail and demonstrate that an ensemble of stochastic trajectories can accurately capture key features of the continuum solution. The capabilities of this diagnostic are then demonstrated by applications to study the modulation of carbon chemistry during a vortex-flame interaction, and the role of cyano chemistry in rm NO{sub x} production for a steady diffusion flame.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cook, C. H.
1977-01-01
The results of a comprehensive numerical investigation of the basic capabilities of the finite element method (FEM) for numerical solution of compressible flow problems governed by the two-dimensional and axis-symmetric Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables are presented. The strong and weak points of the method as a tool for computational fluid dynamics are considered. The relation of the linear element finite element method to finite difference methods (FDM) is explored. The calculation of free shear layer and separated flows over aircraft boattail afterbodies with plume simulators indicate the strongest assets of the method are its capabilities for reliable and accurate calculation employing variable grids which readily approximate complex geometry and capably adapt to the presence of diverse regions of large solution gradients without the necessity of domain transformation.
Numerical simulation of pressure pulsations in Francis turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magnoli, M. V.; Schilling, R.
2012-11-01
In the last decades, hydraulic turbines have experienced the increase of their power density and the extension of their operating range, leading the fluid and mechanical dynamic effects to become significantly more pronounced. The understanding of the transient fluid flow and of the associated unsteady effects is essential for the reduction of the pressure pulsation level and improvement of the machine dynamic behaviour. In this study, the instationary fluid flow through the complete turbine was numerically calculated for an existing Francis machine with high specific speed. The hybrid turbulence models DES (detached eddy simulation) and SAS (scale adaptive simulation) allowed the accurate simulation of complex dynamic flow effects, such as the rotor-stator-interaction and the draft tube instabilities. Different operating conditions, as full load, part load, higher part load and deep part load, were successfully simulated and showed very tight agreement with the experimental results from the model tests. The transient pressure field history, obtained from the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulation and stored for each time step, was used as input for the full instationary FEA (finite element analysis) of turbine components. The assessment of the machine dynamic motion also offered the possibility to contribute to the understanding of the pressure pulsation effects and to further increase the turbine stability. This research project was developed at the Institute of Fluid Mechanics of the TU München.
Numerical Simulation of Cellular Blood Flow through a Rigid Artery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reasor, Daniel; Clausen, Jonathan; Aidun, Cyrus
2009-11-01
In blood flow, red blood cells (RBCs), the most numerous constituent of blood, influence continuum-level measures by altering the suspension at microscopic scales. The presence of RBCs alters the stress and diffusion individual cells experience, which can influence cardiovascular diseases by affecting other cells present in blood like platelets and white blood cells. Simulations of blood at a cellular level provide a tool that allows exploration of both the rheology and the stress and diffusion of individual suspended cells. In this work, a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann/finite element method is used to simulate suspension flows characteristic of blood with deformable RBCs at realistic hematocrit values. We have shown the ability to simulate thousands deformable suspensions capturing non-Newtonian flow characteristics such as shear thinning, and the results agree well with experimental observations. Simulations through rigid arteries have been deformed with as many as 2500 RBCs. This work outlines results obtained for pressure-gradient driven blood flow through a rigid artery with 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% hematocrit values. Results include the effect these deformable RBCs have on mean velocity, flow rate, radial variation of RBC concentration, and the effective viscosity for simulations at moderate to low cell capillary numbers, Ca <=0.08.
Advanced in turbulence physics and modeling by direct numerical simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reynolds, W. C.
1987-01-01
The advent of direct numerical simulations of turbulence has opened avenues for research on turbulence physics and turbulence modeling. Direct numerical simulation provides values for anything that the scientist or modeler would like to know about the flow. An overview of some recent advances in the physical understanding of turbulence and in turbulence modeling obtained through such simulations is presented.
Numerical simulation of immiscible viscous fingering using adaptive unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam, A.; Salinas, P.; Percival, J. R.; Pavlidis, D.; Pain, C.; Muggeridge, A. H.; Jackson, M.
2015-12-01
Displacement of one fluid by another in porous media occurs in various settings including hydrocarbon recovery, CO2 storage and water purification. When the invading fluid is of lower viscosity than the resident fluid, the displacement front is subject to a Saffman-Taylor instability and is unstable to transverse perturbations. These instabilities can grow, leading to fingering of the invading fluid. Numerical simulation of viscous fingering is challenging. The physics is controlled by a complex interplay of viscous and diffusive forces and it is necessary to ensure physical diffusion dominates numerical diffusion to obtain converged solutions. This typically requires the use of high mesh resolution and high order numerical methods. This is computationally expensive. We demonstrate here the use of a novel control volume - finite element (CVFE) method along with dynamic unstructured mesh adaptivity to simulate viscous fingering with higher accuracy and lower computational cost than conventional methods. Our CVFE method employs a discontinuous representation for both pressure and velocity, allowing the use of smaller control volumes (CVs). This yields higher resolution of the saturation field which is represented CV-wise. Moreover, dynamic mesh adaptivity allows high mesh resolution to be employed where it is required to resolve the fingers and lower resolution elsewhere. We use our results to re-examine the existing criteria that have been proposed to govern the onset of instability.Mesh adaptivity requires the mapping of data from one mesh to another. Conventional methods such as consistent interpolation do not readily generalise to discontinuous fields and are non-conservative. We further contribute a general framework for interpolation of CV fields by Galerkin projection. The method is conservative, higher order and yields improved results, particularly with higher order or discontinuous elements where existing approaches are often excessively diffusive.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent aerosol coagulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reade, Walter Caswell
There are numerous systems-including both industrial applications and natural occurring phenomena-in which the collision/coagulation rates of aerosols are of significant interest. Two examples are the production of fine powders (such as titanium dioxide) and the formation of rain drops in the atmosphere. During the last decade, it has become apparent that dense aerosol particles behave much differently in a turbulent fluid than has been previously assumed. Particles with a response time on the order of the small-scale fluid time scale tend to collect in regions of low vorticity. The result is a particle concentration field that can be highly non-uniform. Sundaram and Collins (1997) recently demonstrated the effect that turbulence can have on the particle collision rate of a monodisperse system. The collision rates of finite-inertia particles can be as much as two orders of magnitude greater than particles that precisely follow the fluid streamlines. Sundaram and Collins derived a general collision expression that explicitly accounted for the two phenomena that affect the collision rate-changes in the particle concentration field and changes in the particle relative velocities. The result of Sundaram and Collins has generated further interest in the turbulent-aerosol problem. This thesis shows that, in addition to changing the rate that an aerosol size distribution might form, turbulence has the potential of dramatically changing the shape of the distribution. This result is demonstrated using direct numerical simulation of a turbulent-aerosol system over a wide range of particle parameters, and a moderate range of turbulence levels. Results show that particles with a small (but finite) initial inertia have the greatest potential of forming broad size distributions. The shape of the resulting size distribution is also affected by the initial size of the particles. Observations are explained using the statistics identified by Sundaram and Collins (1997). A major
Comparison of Nonlinear Random Response Using Equivalent Linearization and Numerical Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rizzi, Stephen A.; Muravyov, Alexander A.
2000-01-01
A recently developed finite-element-based equivalent linearization approach for the analysis of random vibrations of geometrically nonlinear multiple degree-of-freedom structures is validated. The validation is based on comparisons with results from a finite element based numerical simulation analysis using a numerical integration technique in physical coordinates. In particular, results for the case of a clamped-clamped beam are considered for an extensive load range to establish the limits of validity of the equivalent linearization approach.
Using Numerical Modeling to Simulate Space Capsule Ground Landings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heymsfield, Ernie; Fasanella, Edwin L.
2009-01-01
Experimental work is being conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) to investigate ground landing capabilities of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The Orion capsule is NASA s replacement for the Space Shuttle. The Orion capsule will service the International Space Station and be used for future space missions to the Moon and to Mars. To evaluate the feasibility of Orion ground landings, a series of capsule impact tests are being performed at the NASA Langley Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR). The experimental results derived at LandIR provide means to validate and calibrate nonlinear dynamic finite element models, which are also being developed during this study. Because of the high cost and time involvement intrinsic to full-scale testing, numerical simulations are favored over experimental work. Subsequent to a numerical model validated by actual test responses, impact simulations will be conducted to study multiple impact scenarios not practical to test. Twenty-one swing tests using the LandIR gantry were conducted during the June 07 through October 07 time period to evaluate the Orion s impact response. Results for two capsule initial pitch angles, 0deg and -15deg , along with their computer simulations using LS-DYNA are presented in this article. A soil-vehicle friction coefficient of 0.45 was determined by comparing the test stopping distance with computer simulations. In addition, soil modeling accuracy is presented by comparing vertical penetrometer impact tests with computer simulations for the soil model used during the swing tests.
Numerical Simulation of Complex Turbomachinery Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chernobrovkin, A. A.; Lakshiminarayana, B.
1999-01-01
An unsteady, multiblock, Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes solver based on Runge-Kutta scheme and Pseudo-time step for turbo-machinery applications was developed. The code was validated and assessed against analytical and experimental data. It was used to study a variety of physical mechanisms of unsteady, three-dimensional, turbulent, transitional, and cooling flows in compressors and turbines. Flow over a cylinder has been used to study effects of numerical aspects on accuracy of prediction of wake decay and transition, and to modify K-epsilon models. The following simulations have been performed: (a) Unsteady flow in a compressor cascade: Three low Reynolds number turbulence models have been assessed and data compared with Euler/boundary layer predictions. Major flow features associated with wake induced transition were predicted and studied; (b) Nozzle wake-rotor interaction in a turbine: Results compared to LDV data in design and off-design conditions, and cause and effect of unsteady flow in turbine rotors were analyzed; (c) Flow in the low-pressure turbine: Assessed capability of the code to predict transitional, attached and separated flows at a wide range of low Reynolds numbers and inlet freestream turbulence intensity. Several turbulence and transition models have been employed and comparisons made to experiments; (d) leading edge film cooling at compound angle: Comparisons were made with experiments, and the flow physics of the associated vortical structures were studied; and (e) Tip leakage flow in a turbine. The physics of the secondary flow in a rotor was studied and sources of loss identified.
Numerical simulation of 3D breaking waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fraunie, Philippe; Golay, Frederic
2015-04-01
Numerical methods dealing with two phase flows basically can be classified in two ways : the "interface tracking" methods when the two phases are resolved separately including boundary conditions fixed at the interface and the "interface capturing" methods when a single flow is considered with variable density. Physical and numerical properties of the two approaches are discussed, based on some numerical experiments performed concerning 3D breaking waves. Acknowledgements : This research was supported by the Modtercom program of Region PACA.
Petrov, Nikolay V; Pavlov, Pavel V; Malov, A N
2013-06-30
Using the equations of scalar diffraction theory we consider the formation of an optical vortex on a diffractive optical element. The algorithms are proposed for simulating the processes of propagation of spiral wavefronts in free space and their reflections from surfaces with different roughness parameters. The given approach is illustrated by the results of numerical simulations. (propagation of wave fronts)
Numerical simulation of small perturbation transonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seebass, A. R.; Yu, N. J.
1976-01-01
The results of a systematic study of small perturbation transonic flows are presented. Both the flow over thin airfoils and the flow over wedges were investigated. Various numerical schemes were employed in the study. The prime goal of the research was to determine the efficiency of various numerical procedures by accurately evaluating the wave drag, both by computing the pressure integral around the body and by integrating the momentum loss across the shock. Numerical errors involved in the computations that affect the accuracy of drag evaluations were analyzed. The factors that effect numerical stability and the rate of convergence of the iterative schemes were also systematically studied.
Three-dimensional numerical simulations of three-phase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Xie, Zhizhua; Salinas, Pablo; Pain, Chris; Matar, Omar
2015-11-01
The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of three-dimensional three-phase flow problems, such as droplet impact on a gas-liquid interface and bubble rising through a liquid-liquid interface. An adaptive unstructured mesh modelling framework is employed here to study three-phase flow problems, which can modify and adapt unstructured meshes to better represent the underlying physics of multiphase problems and reduce computational effort without sacrificing accuracy. The numerical framework consists of a mixed control volume and finite element formulation, a `volume of fluid' type method for the interface capturing based on a compressive control volume advection method and second-order finite element methods, and a force-balanced algorithm for the surface tension implementation, minimising the spurious velocities often found in such flow simulations. The surface tension coefficient decomposition method has been employed to deal with surface tension pairing between different phases via a compositional approach. Numerical examples of some benchmark tests and the dynamics of three-phase flows are presented to demonstrate the ability of this method. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.
Numerical simulation on influence of bonding temperature in transient liquid phase bonding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss; Raja, M. Karthick
2016-05-01
In this article, numerical simulation of transient liquid phase bonding of ceramic/metal joint has been carried out by using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software. To increase the wettability, aluminium sheet was used as an interlayer. Hence, numerical simulation of TLP bonding process is done by varying the bonding temperature. Transient thermal analysis had been carried out for each cases and temperature distribution was predicted by the developed numerical model. From the simulation studies, it is found that the decrease in bonding temperature enhances favourable temperature distribution and eventually improves the joint efficiency of graphite/copper joints.
NUMERICAL NOISE PM SIMULATION IN CMAQ
We have found that numerical noise in the latest release of CMAQ using the yamo advection scheme when compiled on Linux cluster with pgf90 (5.0 or 6.0). We recommend to use -C option to eliminate the numerical noise.
Simulation of rotor blade element turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcfarland, R. E.; Duisenberg, Ken
1995-01-01
A piloted, motion-based simulation of Sikorsky's Black Hawk helicopter was used as a platform for the investigation of rotorcraft responses to vertical turbulence. By using an innovative temporal and geometrical distribution algorithm that preserved the statistical characteristics of the turbulence over the rotor disc, stochastic velocity components were applied at each of twenty blade-element stations. This model was implemented on NASA Ames' Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS), and ten test pilots were used to establish that the model created realistic cues. The objectives of this research included the establishment of a simulation-technology basis for future investigation into real-time turbulence modeling. This goal was achieved; our extensive additions to the rotor model added less than a 10 percent computational overhead. Using a VAX 9000 computer the entire simulation required a cycle time of less than 12 msec. Pilot opinion during this simulation was generally quite favorable. For low speed flight the consensus was that SORBET (acronym for title) was better than the conventional body-fixed model, which was used for comparison purposes, and was determined to be too violent (like a washboard). For high speed flight the pilots could not identify differences between these models. These opinions were something of a surprise because only the vertical turbulence component on the rotor system was implemented in SORBET. Because of the finite-element distribution of the inputs, induced outputs were observed in all translational and rotational axes. Extensive post-simulation spectral analyses of the SORBET model suggest that proper rotorcraft turbulence modeling requires that vertical atmospheric disturbances not be superimposed at the vehicle center of gravity but, rather, be input into the rotor system, where the rotor-to-body transfer function severely attenuates high frequency rotorcraft responses.
Taylor bubbles at high viscosity ratios: experiments and numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hewakandamby, Buddhika; Hasan, Abbas; Azzopardi, Barry; Xie, Zhihua; Pain, Chris; Matar, Omar
2015-11-01
The Taylor bubble is a single long bubble which nearly fills the entire cross section of a liquid-filled circular tube, often occurring in gas-liquid slug flows in many industrial applications, particularly oil and gas production. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of three-dimensional Taylor bubble rising in highly viscous silicone oil in a vertical pipe. An adaptive unstructured mesh modelling framework is adopted here which can modify and adapt anisotropic unstructured meshes to better represent the underlying physics of bubble rising and reduce computational effort without sacrificing accuracy. The numerical framework consists of a mixed control volume and finite element formulation, a `volume of fluid'-type method for the interface-capturing based on a compressive control volume advection method, and a force-balanced algorithm for the surface tension implementation. Experimental results for the Taylor bubble shape and rise velocity are presented, together with numerical results for the dynamics of the bubbles. A comparison of the simulation predictions with experimental data available in the literature is also presented to demonstrate the capabilities of our numerical method. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.
Numerical simulation of seasonal groundwater pumping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filimonova, Elena; Baldenkov, Mikhail
2015-04-01
Increasing scarcity and contamination of water recourses require innovative water management strategies such as combined water system. The combined water system is a complex technology comprising two separate wells, major catchment-zone well and compensation pumping well, located inside a single stream basin. The major well is supplied by the well's catchment zone or surface flow, thus depleting the stream flow. The pumping rate of a major well is determined by the difference between the current stream flow and the minimum permissible stream flow. The deficiency of the stream flow in dry seasons can be compensated for by the short-term pumping of groundwater. The compensation pumping rate is determined by the difference between water demand and the permissible water withdrawal of the major well. The source for the compensation well is the aquifer storage. The estimation of streamflow depletion caused by compensation pumping is major question to evaluate the efficiency of the combined water system. Short-term groundwater pumping can use aquifer storage instead of catchment-zone water until the drawdown reaches the edge of the stream. Traditionally pumping simulation calculates in two-step procedure. Natural conditions, an aquifer system is in an approximate dynamic equilibrium, describe by steady-state model. A steady-state solution provides an initial heads, a set of flows through boundaries, and used as initial state for transient solutions, when pumping is imposed on an aquifer system. The transient solutions provide the total change in flows through the boundaries. A difference between the transient and steady-state solutions estimates the capture and the streamflow depletion. Numerical modeling of cyclical compensation pumping has special features: the periodic solution, the seasonal changes through the boundaries and the importance even small drawdown of stream level. When seasonality is a modeling feature, traditional approach leads to mistaken values of
Numerical Analysis of a Finite Element/Volume Penalty Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maury, Bertrand
The penalty method makes it possible to incorporate a large class of constraints in general purpose Finite Element solvers like freeFEM++. We present here some contributions to the numerical analysis of this method. We propose an abstract framework for this approach, together with some general error estimates based on the discretization parameter ɛ and the space discretization parameter h. As this work is motivated by the possibility to handle constraints like rigid motion for fluid-particle flows, we shall pay a special attention to a model problem of this kind, where the constraint is prescribed over a subdomain. We show how the abstract estimate can be applied to this situation, in the case where a non-body-fitted mesh is used. In addition, we describe how this method provides an approximation of the Lagrange multiplier associated to the constraint.
Finite-element numerical modeling of atmospheric turbulent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, H. N.; Kao, S. K.
1979-01-01
A dynamic turbulent boundary-layer model in the neutral atmosphere is constructed, using a dynamic turbulent equation of the eddy viscosity coefficient for momentum derived from the relationship among the turbulent dissipation rate, the turbulent kinetic energy and the eddy viscosity coefficient, with aid of the turbulent second-order closure scheme. A finite-element technique was used for the numerical integration. In preliminary results, the behavior of the neutral planetary boundary layer agrees well with the available data and with the existing elaborate turbulent models, using a finite-difference scheme. The proposed dynamic formulation of the eddy viscosity coefficient for momentum is particularly attractive and can provide a viable alternative approach to study atmospheric turbulence, diffusion and air pollution.
Numerical simulation and immersive visualization of hairpin vortices.
Tufo, H.M.; Fischer, P.F.; Papka, M.E.; Blom, K.
1999-08-28
To better understand the vortex dynamics of coherent structures in turbulent and transitional boundary layers, we consider direct numerical simulation of the interaction between a flat-plate-boundary-layer flow and an isolated hemispherical roughness element. Of principal interest is the evolution of hairpin vortices that form an interlacing pattern in the wake of the hemisphere, lift away from the wall, and are stretched by the shearing action of the boundary layer. Using animations of unsteady three-dimensional representations of this flow, produced by the vtk toolkit and enhanced to operate in a CAVE virtual environment, we identify and study several key features in the evolution of this complex vortex topology not previously observed in other visualization formats.
Numerical simulation of a battlefield Nd:YAG laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henriksson, Markus; Sjoqvist, Lars; Uhrwing, Thomas
2005-11-01
A numeric model has been developed to identify the critical components and parameters in improving the output beam quality of a flashlamp pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with a folded Porro-prism resonator and polarization output coupling. The heating of the laser material and accompanying thermo-optical effects are calculated using the finite element partial differential equations package FEMLAB allowing arbitrary geometries and time distributions. The laser gain and the cavity are modeled with the physical optics simulation code GLAD including effects such as gain profile, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence, the Pockels cell rise-time and component aberrations. The model is intended to optimize the pumping process of an OPO providing radiation to be used for ranging, imaging or optical countermeasures.
A numerical simulation of photothermal response in laser medicine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiaoxia; Fan, Shifu; Zhao, Youquan; Xiao, Songshan
2004-03-01
In this paper, we reported a numerical solution of laser induced thermal effect in the bio-tissue. The model of photothermal effect and classical Pennes bio-heat transfer equation were introduced. Finite element method (FEM), which was realized by Matlab software, was used to calculate the temperature distribution. He-Ne laser (633 nm) was used to simulate the physical therapy in in vivo skin tissue. Under the cylinder coordinates, the three-dimension (3-D) geometry of tissue was reduced to two-dimension (2-D) computation. The results contained the radial, axial and temperature 3-D color plot. Combining the time animation display was possible. By changing the laser and tissue parameters we can get different results. This will be the initial and indispensable work of the non-destructive evaluation of the laser induced injury.
Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)
Emrich, William J. Jr.
2008-01-21
To support a potential future development of a nuclear thermal rocket engine, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The test device simulates the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components could be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes normally expected to occur as a result of nuclear fission while at the same time being exposed to flowing hydrogen. This project is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator or NTREES. The NTREES device is located at the Marshall Space flight Center in a laboratory which has been modified to accommodate the high powers required to heat the test articles to the required temperatures and to handle the gaseous hydrogen flow required for the tests. Other modifications to the laboratory include the installation of a nitrogen gas supply system and a cooling water supply system. During the design and construction of the facility, every effort was made to comply with all pertinent regulations to provide assurance that the facility could be operated in a safe and efficient manner. The NTREES system can currently supply up to 50 kW of inductive heating to the fuel test articles, although the facility has been sized to eventually allow test article heating levels of up to several megawatts.
Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Emrich, William J., Jr.
2008-01-01
To support the eventual development of a nuclear thermal rocket engine, a state-of-the-art experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The test device simulates the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components will be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes normally expected to occur as a result of nuclear fission while at the same time being exposed to flowing hydrogen. This project is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator or NTREES. The NTREES device is located at the Marshall Space flight Center in a laboratory which has been modified to accommodate the high powers required to heat the test articles to the required temperatures and to handle the gaseous hydrogen flow required for the tests. Other modifications to the laboratory include the installation of a nitrogen gas supply system and a cooling water supply system. During the design and construction of the facility, every effort was made to comply with all pertinent regulations to provide assurance that the facility could be operated in a safe and efficient manner. The NTREES system can currently supply up to 50 kW of inductive heating to the fuel test articles, although the facility has been sized to eventually allow test article heating levels of up to several megawatts.
Convected element method for simulation of angiogenesis.
Pindera, Maciej Z; Ding, Hui; Chen, Zhijian
2008-10-01
We describe a novel Convected Element Method (CEM) for simulation of formation of functional blood vessels induced by tumor-generated growth factors in a process called angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is typically modeled by a convection-diffusion-reaction equation defined on a continuous domain. A difficulty arises when a continuum approach is used to represent the formation of discrete blood vessel structures. CEM solves this difficulty by using a hybrid continuous/discrete solution method allowing lattice-free tracking of blood vessel tips that trace out paths that subsequently are used to define compact vessel elements. In contrast to more conventional angiogenesis modeling, the new branches form evolving grids that are capable of simulating transport of biological and chemical factors such as nutrition and anti-angiogenic agents. The method is demonstrated on expository vessel growth and tumor response simulations for a selected set of conditions, and include effects of nutrient delivery and inhibition of vessel branching. Initial results show that CEM can predict qualitatively the development of biologically reasonable and fully functional vascular structures. Research is being carried out to generalize the approach which will allow quantitative predictions. PMID:18365201
Numerical simulation of the 1988 midwestern drought
Chern, Jiun-Dar; Sun, Wen-Yih
1997-11-01
In this study, the Purdue Regional Model (PRM) is utilized to simulate the monthly evolution of the weather patterns during the summer of 1988. The primary goal of this study is to develop and validate the PRM. The PRM, a regional climate model, is a hydrostatic primitive-equation model that uses the Arakawa C staggered grid in the horizontal and a terrain-following vertical coordinate. The model was used to simulate the 1988 drought for one month with lateral boundary conditions. The simulation reproduced the driest events in the Midwest; however, the simulated precipitation along the Gulf coast and Florida was underestimated. This suggests that the 60 km model resolution used in the simulation was not high enough to simulate the convective precipitation associated with the sea breeze circulations. 10 refs., 5 figs.
Simulation of Rotor Blade Element Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McFarland, R. E.; Duisenberg, Ken
1996-01-01
A turbulence model has been developed for blade-element helicopter simulation. This model, called Simulation of Rotor Blade Element Turbulence (SORBET), uses an innovative temporal and geometrical distribution algorithm that preserves the statistical characteristics of the turbulence spectra over the rotor disc, while providing velocity components in real time to each of five blade-element stations along each of four blades. An initial investigation of SORBET has been performed using a piloted, motion-based simulation of the Sikorsky UH60A Black Hawk. Although only the vertical component of stochastic turbulence was used in this investigation, vertical turbulence components induce vehicle responses in all translational and rotational degrees of freedom of the helicopter. The single-degree-of-freedom configuration of SORBET was compared to a conventional full 6-degrees-of-freedom baseline configuration, where translational velocity inputs are superimposed at the vehicle center of gravity, and rotational velocity inputs are created from filters that approximate the immersion rate into the turbulent field. For high-speed flight the vehicle responses were satisfactory for both models. Test pilots could not distinguish differences between the baseline configuration and SORBET. In low-speed flight the baseline configuration received criticism for its high frequency content, whereas the SORBET model elicited favorable pilot opinion. For this helicopter, which has fully articulated blades, results from SORBET show that vehicle responses to turbulent blade-station disturbances are severely attenuated. This is corroborated by in-flight observation of the rotor tip path plane as compared to vehicle responses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Deepak; Roy, Rene; Kweon, Jin-Hwe; Choi, Jin-ho
2016-06-01
Sub-laminate damage in the form of matrix cracking and delamination was simulated by using interface cohesive elements in the finite element (FE) software ABAQUS. Interface cohesive elements were inserted parallel to the fiber orientation in the transverse ply with equal spacing (matrix cracking) and between the interfaces (delamination). Matrix cracking initiation in the cohesive elements was based on stress traction separation laws and propagated under mixed-mode loading. We expanded the work of Shi et al. (Appl. Compos. Mater. 21, 57-70 2014) to include delamination and simulated additional [45/-45/0/90]s and [02/90n]s { n = 1,2,3} CFRP laminates and a [0/903]s GFRP laminate. Delamination damage was quantified numerically in terms of damage dissipative energy. We observed that transverse matrix cracks can propagate to the ply interface and initiate delamination. We also observed for [0/90n/0] laminates that as the number of 90° ply increases past n = 2, the crack density decreases. The predicted crack density evolution compared well with experimental results and the equivalent constraint model (ECM) theory. Empirical relationships were established between crack density and applied stress by linear curve fitting. The reduction of laminate elastic modulus due to cracking was also computed numerically and it is in accordance with reported experimental measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Deepak; Roy, Rene; Kweon, Jin-Hwe; Choi, Jin-ho
2015-10-01
Sub-laminate damage in the form of matrix cracking and delamination was simulated by using interface cohesive elements in the finite element (FE) software ABAQUS. Interface cohesive elements were inserted parallel to the fiber orientation in the transverse ply with equal spacing (matrix cracking) and between the interfaces (delamination). Matrix cracking initiation in the cohesive elements was based on stress traction separation laws and propagated under mixed-mode loading. We expanded the work of Shi et al. (Appl. Compos. Mater. 21, 57-70 2014) to include delamination and simulated additional [45/-45/0/90]s and [02/90n]s {n = 1,2,3} CFRP laminates and a [0/903]s GFRP laminate. Delamination damage was quantified numerically in terms of damage dissipative energy. We observed that transverse matrix cracks can propagate to the ply interface and initiate delamination. We also observed for [0/90n/0] laminates that as the number of 90° ply increases past n = 2, the crack density decreases. The predicted crack density evolution compared well with experimental results and the equivalent constraint model (ECM) theory. Empirical relationships were established between crack density and applied stress by linear curve fitting. The reduction of laminate elastic modulus due to cracking was also computed numerically and it is in accordance with reported experimental measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shouju; Shangguan, Zichang; Cao, Lijuan
A procedure based on FEM is proposed to simulate interaction between concrete segments of tunnel linings and soils. The beam element named as Beam 3 in ANSYS software was used to simulate segments. The ground loss induced from shield tunneling and segment installing processes is simulated in finite element analysis. The distributions of bending moment, axial force and shear force on segments were computed by FEM. The commutated internal forces on segments will be used to design reinforced bars on shield linings. Numerically simulated ground settlements agree with observed values.
Numerical Simulation of Flow Field Within Parallel Plate Plastometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antar, Basil N.
2002-01-01
Parallel Plate Plastometer (PPP) is a device commonly used for measuring the viscosity of high polymers at low rates of shear in the range 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 9) poises. This device is being validated for use in measuring the viscosity of liquid glasses at high temperatures having similar ranges for the viscosity values. PPP instrument consists of two similar parallel plates, both in the range of 1 inch in diameter with the upper plate being movable while the lower one is kept stationary. Load is applied to the upper plate by means of a beam connected to shaft attached to the upper plate. The viscosity of the fluid is deduced from measuring the variation of the plate separation, h, as a function of time when a specified fixed load is applied on the beam. Operating plate speeds measured with the PPP is usually in the range of 10.3 cm/s or lower. The flow field within the PPP can be simulated using the equations of motion of fluid flow for this configuration. With flow speeds in the range quoted above the flow field between the two plates is certainly incompressible and laminar. Such flows can be easily simulated using numerical modeling with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. We present below the mathematical model used to simulate this flow field and also the solutions obtained for the flow using a commercially available finite element CFD code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, C. Y.; Leung, R. C. K.; Zhou, K.; Lam, G. C. Y.; Jiang, Z.
2011-09-01
One-step direct aeroacoustic simulation (DAS) has received attention from aerospace and mechanical high-pressure fluid-moving system manufacturers for quite some time. They aim to simulate the unsteady flow and acoustic field in the duct simultaneously in order to investigate the aeroacoustic generation mechanisms. Because of the large length and energy scale disparities between the acoustic far field and the aerodynamic near field, highly accurate and high-resolution simulation scheme is required. This involves the use of high order compact finite difference and time advancement schemes in simulation. However, in this situation, large buffer zones are always needed to suppress the spurious numerical waves emanating from computational boundaries. This further increases the computational resources to yield accurate results. On the other hand, for such problem as supersonic jet noise, the numerical scheme should be able to resolve both strong shock waves and weak acoustic waves simultaneously. Usually numerical aeroa-coustic scheme that is good for low Mach number flow is not able to give satisfactory simulation results for shock wave. Therefore, the aeroacoustic research community has been looking for a more efficient one-step DAS scheme that has the comparable accuracy to the finite-difference approach with smaller buffer regions, yet is able to give accurate solutions from subsonic to supersonic flows. The conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme is one of the possible schemes satisfying the above requirements. This paper aims to report the development of a CE/SE scheme for one-step DAS and illustrate its robustness and effectiveness with two selected benchmark problems.
Numerical Simulation of Two Phase Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, Meng-Sing
2001-01-01
Two phase flows can be found in broad situations in nature, biology, and industry devices and can involve diverse and complex mechanisms. While the physical models may be specific for certain situations, the mathematical formulation and numerical treatment for solving the governing equations can be general. Hence, we will require information concerning each individual phase as needed in a single phase. but also the interactions between them. These interaction terms, however, pose additional numerical challenges because they are beyond the basis that we use to construct modern numerical schemes, namely the hyperbolicity of equations. Moreover, due to disparate differences in time scales, fluid compressibility and nonlinearity become acute, further complicating the numerical procedures. In this paper, we will show the ideas and procedure how the AUSM-family schemes are extended for solving two phase flows problems. Specifically, both phases are assumed in thermodynamic equilibrium, namely, the time scales involved in phase interactions are extremely short in comparison with those in fluid speeds and pressure fluctuations. Details of the numerical formulation and issues involved are discussed and the effectiveness of the method are demonstrated for several industrial examples.
Numerical simulation of turbulent combustion: Scientific challenges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, ZhuYin; Lu, Zhen; Hou, LingYun; Lu, LiuYan
2014-08-01
Predictive simulation of engine combustion is key to understanding the underlying complicated physicochemical processes, improving engine performance, and reducing pollutant emissions. Critical issues as turbulence modeling, turbulence-chemistry interaction, and accommodation of detailed chemical kinetics in complex flows remain challenging and essential for high-fidelity combustion simulation. This paper reviews the current status of the state-of-the-art large eddy simulation (LES)/prob-ability density function (PDF)/detailed chemistry approach that can address the three challenging modelling issues. PDF as a subgrid model for LES is formulated and the hybrid mesh-particle method for LES/PDF simulations is described. Then the development need in micro-mixing models for the PDF simulations of turbulent premixed combustion is identified. Finally the different acceleration methods for detailed chemistry are reviewed and a combined strategy is proposed for further development.
Deb, M.K.; Kennon, S.R.
1998-04-01
A cooperative R&D effort between industry and the US government, this project, under the HPPP (High Performance Parallel Processing) initiative of the Dept. of Energy, started the investigations into parallel object-oriented (OO) numerics. The basic goal was to research and utilize the emerging technologies to create a physics-independent computational kernel for applications using adaptive finite element method. The industrial team included Computational Mechanics Co., Inc. (COMCO) of Austin, TX (as the primary contractor), Scientific Computing Associates, Inc. (SCA) of New Haven, CT, Texaco and CONVEX. Sandia National Laboratory (Albq., NM) was the technology partner from the government side. COMCO had the responsibility of the main kernel design and development, SCA had the lead in parallel solver technology and guidance on OO technologies was Sandia`s main expertise in this venture. CONVEX and Texaco supported the partnership by hardware resource and application knowledge, respectively. As such, a minimum of fifty-percent cost-sharing was provided by the industry partnership during this project. This report describes the R&D activities and provides some details about the prototype kernel and example applications.
Direct numerical simulation of sediment entrainment in turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, C.; Munjiza, A.; Avital, E.; Ma, J.; Williams, J. J. R.
2013-05-01
In this paper, the entrainment and movement of coarse particles on the bed of an open channel is numerically investigated. Rather than model the sediment transport using a concentration concept, this study treats the sediment as individual particles and investigates the interaction between turbulent coherent structures and particle entrainment. The applied methodology is a combination of the direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow, the combined finite-discrete element modeling of particle motion and collision, and the immersed boundary method for the fluid-solid interaction. In this study, flow over a water-worked rough-bed consisting of 2-3 layers of densely packed spheres is adopted and the Shields function is 0.065 which is just above the entrainment threshold to give a bed-load regime. Numerical results for turbulent flow, sediment entrainment statistics, hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles, and the interaction between turbulence coherent structures and particle entrainment are presented. It is shown that the presence of entrained particles significantly modifies the mean velocity and turbulence quantity profiles in the vicinity of a rough-bed and that the instantaneous lift force can be larger than a particle's submerged weight in a narrow region above the effective bed location, although the mean lift force is always smaller than the submerged weight. This, from a hydrodynamic point of view, presents strong evidence for a close cause-and-effect relationship between coherent structures and sediment entrainment. Furthermore, instantaneous numerical results on particle entrainment and the surrounding turbulent flow are reported which show a strong correlation between sediment entrainment and sweep events and the underlying mechanisms are discussed.
Turbulence analysis of rough wall channel flows based on direct numerical simulation
Mishra, A. V.; Bolotnov, I. A.
2012-07-01
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of rough wall channel flows was performed for various surface roughnesses. The goal of the presented research is to investigate the effect of nucleating bubbles in subcooled boiling conditions on the turbulence. The nucleating bubbles are represented by hemispherical roughness elements at the wall. The stabilized finite element based code, PHASTA, is used to perform the simulations. Validation against theoretical, experimental and numerical data is performed for smooth channel flow and rectangular rod type of roughness. The presence of roughness elements affects the flow structure within the roughness sublayer, which is estimated to be 5 times the height of roughness elements. DNS observations are consistent with this result and demonstrate the flow homogeneity above 50 viscous units. The influence of roughness elements layout and density on the turbulence parameters is also demonstrated and analyzed. (authors)
Numerical Prediction of Fatigue Damage Progress in Holed CFRP Laminates Using Cohesive Elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yashiro, Shigeki; Okabe, Tomonaga
This study presents a numerical simulation to predict damage progress in notched composite laminates under cyclic loading by using a cohesive zone model. A damage-mechanics concept was introduced directly into the fracture process in the cohesive elements in order to express crack growth by cyclic loading. This approach then conformed to the established damage mechanics and facilitated understanding the procedure and reducing computation costs. We numerically investigated the damage progress in holed CFRP cross-ply laminates under tensile cyclic loading and compared the predicted damage patterns with experiment results. The predicted damage patterns agreed with the experiment results that exhibited the extension of multiple types of damage (splits, transverse cracks, and delamination) near the hole. A numerical study indicated that the change in the distribution of in-plane shear stress due to delamination induced the extension of splits and transverse cracks near the hole.
Polarization transmission at RHIC, numerical simulations
Meot F.; Bai, M.; Liu, C.; Minty, M.; Ranjbar, V.
2012-05-20
Typical tracking simulations regarding the transmission of the polarization in the proton-proton collider RHIC are discussed. They participate in general studies aimed at understanding and improving polarization performances during polarized proton-proton runs.
Simulating Space Capsule Water Landing with Explicit Finite Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, John T.; Lyle, Karen H.
2007-01-01
A study of using an explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element code for simulating the water landing of a space capsule was performed. The finite element model contains Lagrangian shell elements for the space capsule and Eulerian solid elements for the water and air. An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) solver and a penalty coupling method were used for predicting the fluid and structure interaction forces. The space capsule was first assumed to be rigid, so the numerical results could be correlated with closed form solutions. The water and air meshes were continuously refined until the solution was converged. The converged maximum deceleration predicted is bounded by the classical von Karman and Wagner solutions and is considered to be an adequate solution. The refined water and air meshes were then used in the models for simulating the water landing of a capsule model that has a flexible bottom. For small pitch angle cases, the maximum deceleration from the flexible capsule model was found to be significantly greater than the maximum deceleration obtained from the corresponding rigid model. For large pitch angle cases, the difference between the maximum deceleration of the flexible model and that of its corresponding rigid model is smaller. Test data of Apollo space capsules with a flexible heat shield qualitatively support the findings presented in this paper.
High-order finite element methods for cardiac monodomain simulations.
Vincent, Kevin P; Gonzales, Matthew J; Gillette, Andrew K; Villongco, Christopher T; Pezzuto, Simone; Omens, Jeffrey H; Holst, Michael J; McCulloch, Andrew D
2015-01-01
Computational modeling of tissue-scale cardiac electrophysiology requires numerically converged solutions to avoid spurious artifacts. The steep gradients inherent to cardiac action potential propagation necessitate fine spatial scales and therefore a substantial computational burden. The use of high-order interpolation methods has previously been proposed for these simulations due to their theoretical convergence advantage. In this study, we compare the convergence behavior of linear Lagrange, cubic Hermite, and the newly proposed cubic Hermite-style serendipity interpolation methods for finite element simulations of the cardiac monodomain equation. The high-order methods reach converged solutions with fewer degrees of freedom and longer element edge lengths than traditional linear elements. Additionally, we propose a dimensionless number, the cell Thiele modulus, as a more useful metric for determining solution convergence than element size alone. Finally, we use the cell Thiele modulus to examine convergence criteria for obtaining clinically useful activation patterns for applications such as patient-specific modeling where the total activation time is known a priori. PMID:26300783
High-order finite element methods for cardiac monodomain simulations
Vincent, Kevin P.; Gonzales, Matthew J.; Gillette, Andrew K.; Villongco, Christopher T.; Pezzuto, Simone; Omens, Jeffrey H.; Holst, Michael J.; McCulloch, Andrew D.
2015-01-01
Computational modeling of tissue-scale cardiac electrophysiology requires numerically converged solutions to avoid spurious artifacts. The steep gradients inherent to cardiac action potential propagation necessitate fine spatial scales and therefore a substantial computational burden. The use of high-order interpolation methods has previously been proposed for these simulations due to their theoretical convergence advantage. In this study, we compare the convergence behavior of linear Lagrange, cubic Hermite, and the newly proposed cubic Hermite-style serendipity interpolation methods for finite element simulations of the cardiac monodomain equation. The high-order methods reach converged solutions with fewer degrees of freedom and longer element edge lengths than traditional linear elements. Additionally, we propose a dimensionless number, the cell Thiele modulus, as a more useful metric for determining solution convergence than element size alone. Finally, we use the cell Thiele modulus to examine convergence criteria for obtaining clinically useful activation patterns for applications such as patient-specific modeling where the total activation time is known a priori. PMID:26300783
The Effect of Element Formulation on the Prediction of Boost Effects in Numerical Tube Bending
Bardelcik, A.; Worswick, M.J.
2005-08-05
This paper presents advanced FE models of the pre-bending process to investigate the effect of element formulation on the prediction of boost effects in tube bending. Tube bending experiments are conducted with 3'' (OD) IF (Interstitial-Free) steel tube on a fully instrumented Eagle EPT-75 servo-hydraulic mandrel-rotary draw tube bender. Experiments were performed in which the bending boost was varied at three levels and resulted in consistent trends in the strain and thickness distribution within the pre-bent tubes. A numerical model of the rotary draw tube bender was used to simulate pre-bending of the IF tube with the three levels of boost from the experiments. To examine the effect of element formulation on the prediction of boost, the tube was modeled with shell and solid elements. Both models predicted the overall strain and thickness results well, but showed different trends in each of the models.
Numerical sedimentation particle-size analysis using the Discrete Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bravo, R.; Pérez-Aparicio, J. L.; Gómez-Hernández, J. J.
2015-12-01
Sedimentation tests are widely used to determine the particle size distribution of a granular sample. In this work, the Discrete Element Method interacts with the simulation of flow using the well known one-way-coupling method, a computationally affordable approach for the time-consuming numerical simulation of the hydrometer, buoyancy and pipette sedimentation tests. These tests are used in the laboratory to determine the particle-size distribution of fine-grained aggregates. Five samples with different particle-size distributions are modeled by about six million rigid spheres projected on two-dimensions, with diameters ranging from 2.5 ×10-6 m to 70 ×10-6 m, forming a water suspension in a sedimentation cylinder. DEM simulates the particle's movement considering laminar flow interactions of buoyant, drag and lubrication forces. The simulation provides the temporal/spatial distributions of densities and concentrations of the suspension. The numerical simulations cannot replace the laboratory tests since they need the final granulometry as initial data, but, as the results show, these simulations can identify the strong and weak points of each method and eventually recommend useful variations and draw conclusions on their validity, aspects very difficult to achieve in the laboratory.
Efficient finite element simulation of slot spirals, slot radomes and microwave structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gong, J.; Volakis, J. L.
1995-01-01
This progress report contains the following two documents: (1) 'Efficient Finite Element Simulation of Slot Antennas using Prismatic Elements' - A hybrid finite element-boundary integral (FE-BI) simulation technique is discussed to treat narrow slot antennas etched on a planar platform. Specifically, the prismatic elements are used to reduce the redundant sampling rates and ease the mesh generation process. Numerical results for an antenna slot and frequency selective surfaces are presented to demonstrate the validity and capability of the technique; and (2) 'Application and Design Guidelines of the PML Absorber for Finite Element Simulations of Microwave Packages' - The recently introduced perfectly matched layer (PML) uniaxial absorber for frequency domain finite element simulations has several advantages. In this paper we present the application of PML for microwave circuit simulations along with design guidelines to obtain a desired level of absorption. Different feeding techniques are also investigated for improved accuracy.
Numerical simulation of in situ bioremediation
Travis, B.J.
1998-12-31
Models that couple subsurface flow and transport with microbial processes are an important tool for assessing the effectiveness of bioremediation in field applications. A numerical algorithm is described that differs from previous in situ bioremediation models in that it includes: both vadose and groundwater zones, unsteady air and water flow, limited nutrients and airborne nutrients, toxicity, cometabolic kinetics, kinetic sorption, subgridscale averaging, pore clogging and protozoan grazing.
Numerical simulation of magmatic hydrothermal systems
Ingebritsen, S.E.; Geiger, S.; Hurwitz, S.; Driesner, T.
2010-01-01
The dynamic behavior of magmatic hydrothermal systems entails coupled and nonlinear multiphase flow, heat and solute transport, and deformation in highly heterogeneous media. Thus, quantitative analysis of these systems depends mainly on numerical solution of coupled partial differential equations and complementary equations of state (EOS). The past 2 decades have seen steady growth of computational power and the development of numerical models that have eliminated or minimized the need for various simplifying assumptions. Considerable heuristic insight has been gained from process-oriented numerical modeling. Recent modeling efforts employing relatively complete EOS and accurate transport calculations have revealed dynamic behavior that was damped by linearized, less accurate models, including fluid property control of hydrothermal plume temperatures and three-dimensional geometries. Other recent modeling results have further elucidated the controlling role of permeability structure and revealed the potential for significant hydrothermally driven deformation. Key areas for future reSearch include incorporation of accurate EOS for the complete H2O-NaCl-CO2 system, more realistic treatment of material heterogeneity in space and time, realistic description of large-scale relative permeability behavior, and intercode benchmarking comparisons. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.
DRIVER TO SUPPORT USE OF NUMERICAL SIMULATION TOOLS
2001-02-13
UNIPACK is a computer interface that simplifies and enhances the use of numerical simulation tools to design a primary geometry and/or a forming die for a powder compact and/or to design the pressing process used to shape a powder by compaction. More particularly, it is an interface that utilizes predefined generic geometric configurations to simplify the use of finite element method modeling software to simply and more efficiently design: (1) the shape and size amore » powder compact; (2) a forming die to shape a powder compact; and/or (3) the pressing process used to form a powder compact. UNIPACK is a user interface for a predictive model for powder compaction that incorporates unprecedented flexibility to design powder press tooling and powder pressing processes. UNIPACK works with the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Engineering Analysis Cide Access System (SEACAS) to generate a finite element (FE) mesh and automatically perform a FE analysis of powder compaction. UNIPACK was developed to allow a non-expert with minimal training to quickly and easily design/construct a variable dimension component or die in real time on a desktop or laptop personal computer.« less
Direct Numerical Simulation of Flow Over Passive Geometric Disturbances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vizard, Alexander
It is well understood that delaying flow separation on a bluff body allows significant drag reduction, which is attractive in many applications. With this in mind, many separation control mechanisms, both active and passive, have been developed and tested to optimize the effects of this phenomenon. Although this idea is generally accepted, the physical occurrences in the near-wall region during transition that lead to separation delay are not well understood. The current study evaluates the impact of both spherical dimples, and sandgrain style roughness on downstream flow by performing direct numerical simulations over such geometries on a zero pressure gradient flat plate. It is shown that although dimples and random roughness of similar characteristic length scales exhibit similar boundary layer characteristics, dimples are more successful in developing high momentum in the vicinity of the wall. Additionally it is shown that increasing the relative size of the rough elements does not increase the near-wall momentum, and is undesirable in controlling separation. Finally, it is shown that the impact of roughness elements on the flow is more immediate, and that, for the case of one row of dimples and an equivalent area of roughness, the roughness patch is more successful in transitioning the near-wall region to a non-laminar state. It can be concluded from variation in the span of the flowfield for a single row of dimples that the size and orientation of the disturbance region is significant to the results.
Advanced material modelling in numerical simulation of primary acetabular press-fit cup stability.
Souffrant, R; Zietz, C; Fritsche, A; Kluess, D; Mittelmeier, W; Bader, R
2012-01-01
Primary stability of artificial acetabular cups, used for total hip arthroplasty, is required for the subsequent osteointegration and good long-term clinical results of the implant. Although closed-cell polymer foams represent an adequate bone substitute in experimental studies investigating primary stability, correct numerical modelling of this material depends on the parameter selection. Material parameters necessary for crushable foam plasticity behaviour were originated from numerical simulations matched with experimental tests of the polymethacrylimide raw material. Experimental primary stability tests of acetabular press-fit cups consisting of static shell assembly with consecutively pull-out and lever-out testing were subsequently simulated using finite element analysis. Identified and optimised parameters allowed the accurate numerical reproduction of the raw material tests. Correlation between experimental tests and the numerical simulation of primary implant stability depended on the value of interference fit. However, the validated material model provides the opportunity for subsequent parametric numerical studies. PMID:22817471
Numerical simulations in the development of propellant management devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaulke, Diana; Winkelmann, Yvonne; Dreyer, Michael
Propellant management devices (PMDs) are used for positioning the propellant at the propel-lant port. It is important to provide propellant without gas bubbles. Gas bubbles can inflict cavitation and may lead to system failures in the worst case. Therefore, the reliable operation of such devices must be guaranteed. Testing these complex systems is a very intricate process. Furthermore, in most cases only tests with downscaled geometries are possible. Numerical sim-ulations are used here as an aid to optimize the tests and to predict certain results. Based on these simulations, parameters can be determined in advance and parts of the equipment can be adjusted in order to minimize the number of experiments. In return, the simulations are validated regarding the test results. Furthermore, if the accuracy of the numerical prediction is verified, then numerical simulations can be used for validating the scaling of the experiments. This presentation demonstrates some selected numerical simulations for the development of PMDs at ZARM.
Geomechanical numerical simulations of complex geologic structures
Arguello, J.G.; Stone, C.M.; Lorenz, J.C.
1996-05-01
Ability to predict mechanical response of rock in three dimensions over the spatial and time scales of geologic interest would give the oil and gas industry the ability to reduce risk on prospects, improve pre-project initial reserve estimates, and lower operating costs. A program has recently been initiated, under the auspices of the Advanced Computational Technology Initiative (ACTI), to achieve such a computational technology breakthrough by adapting the unique advanced quasistatic finite element technology developed by Sandia to the mechanics applications important to exploration and production activities within the oil and gas industry. As a precursor to that program, in an effort to evaluate the feasibility of the approach, several complex geologic structures of interest were analyzed with the existing two-dimensional quasistatic finite element code, SANTOS, developed at Sandia. Examples are presented and discussed.
A numerical simulation of auroral ionospheric electrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mallinckrodt, A. J.
1985-01-01
A computer simulation of auroral ionospheric electrodynamics in the altitude range 80 to 250 km has been developed. The routine will either simulate typical electron precipitation profiles or accept observed data. Using a model background ionosphere, ion production rates are calculated from which equilibrium electron densities and the Hall and Pedersen conductivities may be determined. With the specification of suitable boundary conditions, the entire three-dimensional current system and electric field may be calculated within the simulation region. The results of the application of the routine to a typical inverted-V precipitation profile are demonstrated. The routine is used to explore the observed anticorrelation between electric field magnitude and peak energy in the precipitating electron spectrum of an auroral arc.
Numerical simulations of plasma double layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goertz, C. K.; Borovsky, J. E.
1983-01-01
The results of analytical studies of quasi-static electric fields along geomagnetic field lines are discussed. The calculations were targeted at the structure, generation mechanisms and stability parameters. The field consists of two oppositely charged layers, either weakly or strongly charged, with an electric field between. Existence conditions are defined for the double layer field and balancing requirements are explored. Details of the simulation techniques, i.e., particle in cell and Vlasov simulations, for studying the double layer are outlined, noting that both periodic and quasi-periodic simulations are used. Solutions to Poisson's equation for fixed and floating point boundary conditions are generated. Finally, attention is also given to oblique and two-dimensional magnetic double layers.
Numerical performance of projection methods in finite element consolidation models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambolati, Giuseppe; Pini, Giorgio; Ferronato, Massimiliano
2001-12-01
Projection, or conjugate gradient like, methods are becoming increasingly popular for the efficient solution of large sparse sets of unsymmetric indefinite equations arising from the numerical integration of (initial) boundary value problems. One such problem is soil consolidation coupling a flow and a structural model, typically solved by finite elements (FE) in space and a marching scheme in time (e.g. the Crank-Nicolson scheme). The attraction of a projection method stems from a number of factors, including the ease of implementation, the requirement of limited core memory and the low computational cost if a cheap and effective matrix preconditioner is available. In the present paper, biconjugate gradient stabilized (Bi- CGSTAB) is used to solve FE consolidation equations in 2-D and 3-D settings with variable time integration steps. Three different nodal orderings are selected along with the preconditioner ILUT based on incomplete triangular factorization and variable fill-in. The overall cost of the solver is made up of the preconditioning cost plus the cost to converge which is in turn related to the number of iterations and the elementary operations required by each iteration. The results show that nodal ordering affects the perfor mance of Bi-CGSTAB. For normally conditioned consolidation problems Bi-CGSTAB with the best ILUT preconditioner may converge in a number of iterations up to two order of magnitude smaller than the size of the FE model and proves an accurate, cost-effective and robust alternative to direct methods.
Global Dynamic Numerical Simulations of Plate Tectonic Reorganizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morra, G.; Quevedo, L.; Butterworth, N.; Matthews, K. J.; Müller, D.
2010-12-01
We use a new numerical approach for global geodynamics to investigate the origin of present global plate motion and to identify the causes of the last two global tectonic reorganizations occurred about 50 and 100 million years ago (Ma) [1]. While the 50 Ma event is the most well-known global plate-mantle event, expressed by the bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain, a prominent plate reorganization at about 100 Ma, although presently little studied, is clearly indicated by a major bend in the fracture zones in the Indian Ocean and by a change in Pacific plate motion [2]. Our workflow involves turning plate reconstructions into surface meshes that are subsequently employed as initial conditions for global Boundary Element numerical models. The tectonic setting that anticipates the reorganizations is processed with the software GPlates, combining the 3D mesh of the paleo-plate morphology and the reconstruction of paleo-subducted slabs, elaborated from tectonic history [3]. All our models involve the entire planetary system, are fully dynamic, have free surface, are characterized by a spectacular computational speed due to the simultaneous use of the multi-pole algorithm and the Boundary Element formulation and are limited only by the use of sharp material property variations [4]. We employ this new tool to unravel the causes of plate tectonic reorganizations, producing and comparing global plate motion with the reconstructed ones. References: [1] Torsvik, T., Müller, R.D., Van der Voo, R., Steinberger, B., and Gaina, C., 2008, Global Plate Motion Frames: Toward a unified model: Reviews in Geophysics, VOL. 46, RG3004, 44 PP., 2008 [2] Wessel, P. and Kroenke, L.W. Pacific absolute plate motion since 145 Ma: An assessment of the fixed hot spot hypothesis. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 113, B06101, 2008 [3] L. Quevedo, G. Morra, R. D. Mueller. Parallel Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method for Crustal Dynamics, Proceeding 9th World Congress and 4th Asian
Numerical simulation of interacting vortex tubes
Pumir, A.; Kerr, R.M.
1987-04-20
The structure of the cores of interacting vortex tubes in three-dimensional incompressible hydrodynamics has been simulated by a pseudospectral method. A fast reconnection is observed for Reynolds numbers of order 1 000. At higher Reynolds numbers, the core tends to flatten, suggesting the formation of vortex ribbons.
Spectral Element Simulations of Rupture Dynamics along kinked faults
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilotte, J.; Festa, G.; Madariaga, R.
2005-12-01
Numerical simulation of earthquake source dynamics provides key elements for ground-motion prediction and insights into the physics of dynamic rupture propagation. Faulting is controlled by non-linear frictional interactions and damage within the fault zone. Important features of the earthquakes dynamics, such as rupture velocity, arrest phase and high-frequency radiation are believed to be strongly influenced by the geometry of the faults (kinks, jogs and forks). Data analysis as well as kinematic inversions have pointed out potential links between super-shear and geometry, as in the case of the Denali and Izmit earthquakes. Finally, recent laboratory experiments of sub- and super-shear rupture propagation along kink interfaces have shed new lights on these phenomena. We present here spectral element simulations of the dynamic rupture propagation along kinked and curved fault interfaces, a problem that has been experimentally investigated by Rousseau and Rosakis (2003). Depending on the state of the initial stress, we numerically analyze the mechanics of the dynamical fault branching for sub- and super-shear rupture propagation. Special interest is devoted to source directivity effects and high frequency generation related to the branching process. Implications for strong motion analysis will be discussed. This work was supported by the SPICE - Research and Training project
Numerical simulations at CEBAF using PARMELA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, H.
1993-12-01
PARMELA has been used at CEBAF for numerical modeling of the nuclear physics injector chopping system, a possible FEL laser gun injector, and the rf steering and focusing effects of the standard CEBAF SRF cavities. These applications call for the code to input field data consistently from SUPERFISH, POISSON, and MAFIA, to properly treat a focusing solenoidal lens having an actual field profile either individually or together with its adjacent rf cavity, to deal with the space charge forces, to model the longitudinal phase space matching required for bunching electrons using a phase-compressor chicane, etc. In this paper, we describe in detail these issues of general interest.
Numerical simulation of oil pool boundary evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khudobina, Yulia; Bubenchikov, Aleksey; Bubenchikov, Mikhail; Matvienko, Oleg; Libin, Eduard
2016-01-01
The study of spatial distribution of hydrocarbon resources and forecasting their geographical location is of great importance for the most complete recovery of hydrocarbons from deposits. The present study gives new mathematical results in the theory of stratified fluid flow in a porous medium. This paper analyzes the evolution of oil pool boundary basing on vortex numerical model for movement of the boundary separating fluids of different densities. It presents the investigation of how the location of light fluid regarding the heavier fluid influences on the changes in the boundary between two media in case of various shifting of the well.
Cascade processes in stratified media: experiment and direct numerical simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sibgatullin, Ilias; Brouzet, Christophe; Joubaud, Sylvain; Ermanyuk, Evgeny; Dauxois, Thierry
2016-04-01
Internal gravity waves may transfer substantial part of energy in oceans and astrophysical objects, influence the background stratification, and angular momentum. Internal waves can be generated by convection in astrophysical objects, by tidal motion and interaction with orography in oceans. Internal and inertial waves obey similar system of equations. Due to very particular type of dispersive relation and the way internal waves are reflected from surfaces, in confined domains the monochromatic internal waves after sequence of reflections may form closed paths, the "wave attractors" [1]. Presently, linear theory of wave attractors is quite elaborated and a principal interest of research is focused on nonlinear regimes and unstable configurations, overturning events and mixing. We have performed direct numerical simulation of wave attractors which closely reproduces experiments [2] being carried out in Ecole Normal Superior de Lyon (ENS de Lyon). Direct numerical simulation is realized with the help of spectral element approach and code nek5000. Triadic resonance is confirmed as the first instability which appears on the most energetic ray of the attractor at sufficiently large forcing. With further increase of the forcing amplitude the daughter waves also become unstable resulting in a sophisticated cascade process which was first observed experimentally. For very high forcing amplitude interaction of focused waves with the walls results in appearance of small-scale folded structures. Their interaction with principal flow is the subject of further research. 1. Maas, L. R. M. & Lam, F.-P. A., Geometric focusing of internal waves. J. Fluid Mech, 1995,. 300, 1-41 2. Scolan, H., Ermanyuk, E., Dauxois, T., 2013, Physical Review Letters, 110, 234501
Numerical simulation of the 1993 midwestern flood
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bosilovich, Michael Gerard
During the summer of 1993, persistent and heavy precipitation caused a long-lived catastrophic flood in the midwestern United States. In this paper, Midwest hydrology, atmospheric circulation of the 1993 summer, and feedback between the surface and precipitating systems were investigated using the Purdue Regional Model (PRM). Observational analyses of the monthly mean circulation have identified several differences between June and July 1993 that should be considered when studying the interaction of the surface and precipitation systems. The PRM is utilized to simulate the weather during each thirty day period. The PRM is verified against European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) monthly mean observational analyses. Key features, such as the upper level jet stream and trough, moisture transport and heavy precipitation are reproduced by the PRM. Furthermore, the model is able to simulate the different daily precipitation patterns observed during each month. Some model biases are identified and discussed. The verisimilitude between the model and observed circulations allows for sensitivity experiments to investigate the interaction between the surface and precipitation systems. In general, the results indicated that the June (transient cyclone period) simulations were not as sensitive to the surface anomalies as the July (stationary convective period) simulations. While a large-scale dry soil anomaly slightly decreased the moist convective instability of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), a large scale surface pressure perturbation occurred and weakened the low level jet and moisture transport from the Gulf of Mexico. Both wet and dry soil moisture anomalies, imposed across the southern Great Plains, caused a reduction in the low level jet and Midwestern precipitation. Differential heating at the surface in the control simulations associated with the gradient of soil moisture in the southern Great Plains enhanced the mean southerly wind in the PBL
Finite element simulation of pipe dynamic response
Slagis, G.C.; Litton, R.W.
1996-12-01
Nonlinear finite element dynamic analyses of the response of a pipe span to controlled-displacement, sinusoidal vibration have been performed. The objective of this preliminary study is to compare strain and acceleration response data to those generated by Beaney in the Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories experiments. Results for an unpressurized, 5 Hz, carbon steel pipe are in good agreement with the experiments. Hence, it appears that analytical simulation will be useful to assess seismic margins. Recommendations for additional studies are provided. The analyses confirm the test results--dynamic response is greatly attenuated by material plasticity. Analytical strains and accelerations are about 30% higher than test data. There are several possible explanations for the differences. To assess the effect of frequency on response, the length of the pipe span was increased. Analysis of the longer, 2 Hz, pipe span shows significantly greater cyclic strains than the 5 Hz span at the same input excitation levels.
High order hybrid numerical simulations of two dimensional detonation waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cai, Wei
1993-01-01
In order to study multi-dimensional unstable detonation waves, a high order numerical scheme suitable for calculating the detailed transverse wave structures of multidimensional detonation waves was developed. The numerical algorithm uses a multi-domain approach so different numerical techniques can be applied for different components of detonation waves. The detonation waves are assumed to undergo an irreversible, unimolecular reaction A yields B. Several cases of unstable two dimensional detonation waves are simulated and detailed transverse wave interactions are documented. The numerical results show the importance of resolving the detonation front without excessive numerical viscosity in order to obtain the correct cellular patterns.
Large-eddy simulation using the finite element method
McCallen, R.C.; Gresho, P.M.; Leone, J.M. Jr.; Kollmann, W.
1993-10-01
In a large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flows, the large-scale motion is calculated explicitly (i.e., approximated with semi-empirical relations). Typically, finite difference or spectral numerical schemes are used to generate an LES; the use of finite element methods (FEM) has been far less prominent. In this study, we demonstrate that FEM in combination with LES provides a viable tool for the study of turbulent, separating channel flows, specifically the flow over a two-dimensional backward-facing step. The combination of these methodologies brings together the advantages of each: LES provides a high degree of accuracy with a minimum of empiricism for turbulence modeling and FEM provides a robust way to simulate flow in very complex domains of practical interest. Such a combination should prove very valuable to the engineering community.
Numerical simulations of bent, disrupted radio jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loken, Chris; Burns, Jack O.
1993-01-01
We present preliminary results from three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations designed to investigate the physics of jet bending and disruption. The specific scenario considered here involves a mildly supersonic jet crossing a contact discontinuity at the interface between the interstellar medium (ISM) and the intercluster medium (ICM) and then encountering a cross-wind in the ICM. The resultant morphologies show many of the features observed in radio sources including jet flaring, bending, and extended tails.
Numerical Simulations of Plasma Jets for PLX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, L.; Messer, S.; Case, A.; Phillips, M.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Welch, D.; Thoma, C.; Bogatu, I. N.; Galkin, S.; Thompson, J. R.; Kim, J. S.; Macfarlane, J.; Golovkin, I.
2011-10-01
Two and three-dimensional simulations are performed using the hybrid particle-in-cell code LSP to study liner formation for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX). These include studies of plasma transport within small parallel-plate MiniRailguns, issues related to detachment of the jet from the nozzle, and the subsequent propagation of single jets in Cartesian coordinates. Merging of plasma jets is studied mainly in cylindrical coordinates at present. Varied number of railguns (or jets) are used in this study with initial velocity of 50-100 km/s, initial argon number density of 1016 cm-3 to 1017 cm-3, and initial temperature of ~3 eV. The effects on liner formation from jet initial profiles (density, velocity and temperature distribution) are studied to explore behavior. Simulation results are presented and compared with experimental data from merging jet experiments currently being conducted at HyperV using 1cm bore MiniRailguns. The LSP code is used to perform the simulations using improved fluid algorithms and equation-of-state models from Voss and atomic data from Prism.
Numerical Simulation of Ion Thruster Optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rawlin, Vincent K. (Technical Monitor); Farnell, Cody C.; Williams, John D.; Wilbur, Paul J.
2003-01-01
A three-dimensional simulation code (ffx) designed to analyze ion thruster optics is described. It is an extension of an earlier code and includes special features like the ability to model a wide range of grid geometries, cusp details, and mis-aligned aperture pairs to name a few. However, the principle reason for advancing the code was in the study of ion optics erosion. Ground based testing of ion thruster optics, essential to the understanding of the processes of grid erosion, can be time consuming and costly. Simulation codes that can accurately predict grid lifetimes and the physical mechanisms of grid erosion can be of great utility in the development of future ion thruster optics designed for more ambitious applications. Results of simulations are presented that describe wear profiles for several standard and nonstandard aperture geometries, such as those grid sets with square- or slotted-hole layout patterns. The goal of this paper will be to introduce the methods employed in the ffx code and to briefly demonstrate their use.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banaś, Krzysztof; Krużel, Filip; Bielański, Jan
2016-06-01
The paper presents investigations on the implementation and performance of the finite element numerical integration algorithm for first order approximations and three processor architectures, popular in scientific computing, classical CPU, Intel Xeon Phi and NVIDIA Kepler GPU. A unifying programming model and portable OpenCL implementation is considered for all architectures. Variations of the algorithm due to different problems solved and different element types are investigated and several optimizations aimed at proper optimization and mapping of the algorithm to computer architectures are demonstrated. Performance models of execution are developed for different processors and tested in practical experiments. The results show the varying levels of performance for different architectures, but indicate that the algorithm can be effectively ported to all of them. The general conclusion is that the finite element numerical integration can achieve sufficient performance on different multi- and many-core architectures and should not become a performance bottleneck for finite element simulation codes. Specific observations lead to practical advises on how to optimize the kernels and what performance can be expected for the tested architectures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zirari, M.; Abdellah El-Hadj, A.; Bacha, N.
2010-03-01
A finite element method is used to simulate the deposition of the thermal spray coating process. A set of governing equations is solving by a volume of fluid method. For the solidification phenomenon, we use the specific heat method (SHM). We begin by comparing the present model with experimental and numerical model available in the literature. In this study, completely molten or semi-molten aluminum particle impacts a H13 tool steel substrate is considered. Next we investigate the effect of inclination of impact of a partially molten particle on flat substrate. It was found that the melting state of the particle has great effects on the morphologies of the splat.
Numerical study of human vocal folds vibration using Immersed Finite Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xingshi; Zhang, Lucy; Krane, Michael
2011-11-01
The voice production procedure is a self-oscillating, fluid-structure interaction problem. In this study, the vocal folds vibration during phonation will be simulated by self-oscillated layered-structure vocal folds model, using Immersed Finite Element Method. With the numerical results, we will find out the vocal folds vibration pattern, and also show how the lung pressure, stiffness and geometry of vocal folds will affect the vocal folds vibration. With further analysis, we shall get better understanding of the dynamics of voice production. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders.
Numerical Simulations of Europa Hydrothermal Plumes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodman, J. C.; Lenferink, E.
2009-12-01
The liquid water interiors of Europa and other icy moons of the outer solar system are likely to be driven by geothermal heating from the sea floor, leading to the development of buoyant hydrothermal plumes. These plumes potentially control icy surface geomorphology, and are of interest to astrobiologists. We have performed a series of simulations of these plumes using the MITGCM. We assume in this experiment that Europa's ocean is deep (of order 100 km) and unstratified, and that plume buoyancy is controlled by temperature, not composition. A series of experiments was performed to explore a limited region of parameter space, with ocean depth H ranging from 50 to 100 km deep, source heat flux Q between 1 and 10 GW, and values of the Coriolis parameter f between 30% and 90% of the Europa average value. As predicted by earlier work, the plumes in our simulations form narrow cylindrical chimneys (a few km across) under the influence of the Coriolis effect. These plumes broaden over time until they become baroclinically unstable, breaking up into cone-shaped eddies when they become 20-35 km in diameter; the shed eddies are of a similar size. Large-scale currents in the region of the plume range between 1.5 and 5 cm/s; temperature anomalies in the plume far from the seafloor are tiny, varying between 30 and 160 microkelvin. Variations in plume size, shape, speed, and temperature are in excellent agreement with previous laboratory tank experiments, and in rough agreement with theoretical predictions. Plume dynamics and geometry are controlled by a "natural Rossby number" which depends strongly on depth H and Coriolis parameter f, but only weakly on source heat flux Q. However, some specific theoretical predictions are not borne out by these simulations. The time elapsed between startup of the source and the beginning of eddy-shedding is much less variable than predicted; also, the plume temperature varies with ocean depth H when our theory says it should not. Both of
Dynamics of a compound vesicle: numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veerapaneni, Shravan; Young, Yuan-Nan; Vlahovska, Petia; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy
2010-11-01
Vesicles (self-enclosing lipid membranes) in simple linear flows are known to exhibit rich dynamics such as tank-treading, tumbling, trembling (swinging), and vacillating breathing. Recently, vesicles have been used as a multi-functional platform for drug-delivery. In this work, the dynamics of simplified models for such compound vesicles is investigated numerically using a state-of-the-art boundary-integral code that has been validated with high accuracy and efficiency. Results show that for a vesicle enclosing a rigid particle in a simple shear flow, transition from tank-treading to tumbling is possible even in the absence of viscosity mismatch in the interior and exterior fluids. We will discuss the shape transformations, multiple particle interactions and the flow properties. Comparison with results from analytical modeling gives insights to the underlying physics for such novel dynamics.
Scramjet Propulsive Flowpath Design and Numerical Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jian-ping; Song, Wen-yan; Liu, Xin
2014-06-01
The integrated propulsive flowpath of scramjet configuration was preliminarily designed and analyzed in this paper. The flow-fields characteristics and performance of the designed two-dimensional integrated propulsive flowpath were numerically calculated under various equivalent fuel-air ratio conditions, using computational fluid dynamics methods. The calculation results were then compared with the experimental data on some typical conditions, and the flow-field and performance of the integrated scramjet flowpath with different equivalent fuel-air ratios were analyzed and discussed in detail. The investigation results from these efforts showed that: (1) the inlet function was beyond disturbances by combustion induced shock wave and pressure fluctuations under the equivalent fuel-air ratio condition of 1.0, which well satisfied the design requirements; (2) with the increasing equivalent fuel-air ratio, the combustion intensity in the combustor was significantly enhanced, resulting in an increasing net-thrust of the propulsive flowpath.
Numerical simulation of an axial blood pump.
Chua, Leok Poh; Su, Boyang; Lim, Tau Meng; Zhou, Tongming
2007-07-01
The axial blood pump with a magnetically suspended impeller is superior to other artificial blood pumps because of its small size. In this article, the distributions of velocity, path line, pressure, and shear stress in the straightener, the rotor, and the diffuser of the axial blood pump, as well as the gap zone were obtained using the commercial software, Fluent (version 6.2). The main focus was on the flow field of the blood pump. The numerical results showed that the axial blood pump could produce 5.14 L/min of blood at 100 mm Hg through the outlet when rotating at 11,000 rpm. However, there was a leakage flow of 1.06 L/min in the gap between the rotor cylinder and the pump housing, and thus the overall flow rate the impeller could generate was 6.2 L/min. The numerical results showed that 75% of the scalar shear stresses (SSs) were less than 250 Pa, and 10% were higher than 500 Pa within the whole pump. The high SS region appeared around the blade tip where a large variation of velocity direction and magnitude was found, which might be due to the steep angle variation at the blade tip. Because the exposure time of the blood cell at the high SS region within the pump was relatively short, it might not cause serious damage to the blood cells, but the improvement of blade profile should be considered in the future design of the axial pump. PMID:17584481
Numerical integration techniques for curved-element discretizations of molecule-solvent interfaces.
Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Altman, Michael D; Willis, David J; Lippow, Shaun M; Tidor, Bruce; White, Jacob K
2007-07-01
Surface formulations of biophysical modeling problems offer attractive theoretical and computational properties. Numerical simulations based on these formulations usually begin with discretization of the surface under consideration; often, the surface is curved, possessing complicated structure and possibly singularities. Numerical simulations commonly are based on approximate, rather than exact, discretizations of these surfaces. To assess the strength of the dependence of simulation accuracy on the fidelity of surface representation, here methods were developed to model several important surface formulations using exact surface discretizations. Following and refining Zauhar's work [J. Comput.-Aided Mol. Des. 9, 149 (1995)], two classes of curved elements were defined that can exactly discretize the van der Waals, solvent-accessible, and solvent-excluded (molecular) surfaces. Numerical integration techniques are presented that can accurately evaluate nonsingular and singular integrals over these curved surfaces. After validating the exactness of the surface discretizations and demonstrating the correctness of the presented integration methods, a set of calculations are presented that compare the accuracy of approximate, planar-triangle-based discretizations and exact, curved-element-based simulations of surface-generalized-Born (sGB), surface-continuum van der Waals (scvdW), and boundary-element method (BEM) electrostatics problems. Results demonstrate that continuum electrostatic calculations with BEM using curved elements, piecewise-constant basis functions, and centroid collocation are nearly ten times more accurate than planar-triangle BEM for basis sets of comparable size. The sGB and scvdW calculations give exceptional accuracy even for the coarsest obtainable discretized surfaces. The extra accuracy is attributed to the exact representation of the solute-solvent interface; in contrast, commonly used planar-triangle discretizations can only offer improved
Finite Element Aircraft Simulation of Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McFarland, R. E.
1997-01-01
A turbulence model has been developed for realtime aircraft simulation that accommodates stochastic turbulence and distributed discrete gusts as a function of the terrain. This model is applicable to conventional aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, and disc rotor model helicopter simulations. Vehicle angular activity in response to turbulence is computed from geometrical and temporal relationships rather than by using the conventional continuum approximations that assume uniform gust immersion and low frequency responses. By using techniques similar to those recently developed for blade-element rotor models, the angular-rate filters of conventional turbulence models are not required. The model produces rotational rates as well as air mass translational velocities in response to both stochastic and deterministic disturbances, where the discrete gusts and turbulence magnitudes may be correlated with significant terrain features or ship models. Assuming isotropy, a two-dimensional vertical turbulence field is created. A novel Gaussian interpolation technique is used to distribute vertical turbulence on the wing span or lateral rotor disc, and this distribution is used to compute roll responses. Air mass velocities are applied at significant centers of pressure in the computation of the aircraft's pitch and roll responses.
Numerical simulation of optically trapped particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volpe, Giorgio; Volpe, Giovanni
2014-07-01
Some randomness is present in most phenomena, ranging from biomolecules and nanodevices to financial markets and human organizations. However, it is not easy to gain an intuitive understanding of such stochastic phenomena, because their modeling requires advanced mathematical tools, such as sigma algebras, the Itô formula and martingales. Here, we discuss a simple finite difference algorithm that can be used to gain understanding of such complex physical phenomena. In particular, we simulate the motion of an optically trapped particle that is typically used as a model system in statistical physics and has a wide range of applications in physics and biophysics, for example, to measure nanoscopic forces and torques.
Numerical simulations of two-dimensional QED
Carson, S.R.; Kenway, R.D.
1986-02-01
We describe the computer simulation of two-dimensional QED on a 64 x 64 Euclidean space-time lattice using the Susskind lattice fermion action. Theorder parameter for chiral symmetry breaking and the low-lying meson masses are calculated for both the model with two continuum flavours, which arises naturally in this formulation, and the model with one continuum falvour obtained by including a nonsymmetric mass term and setting one fermion mass equal to the cut-off. Results are compared with those obtined using the quenched approximation, and with analytic predictions.
Floret Test, Numerical Simulations of the Dent, Comparison with Experiments
Lefrancois, A.; Cutting, J.; Gagliardi, F.; Tarver, C.; Tran, T.
2006-02-14
The Floret test has been developed as a screening test to study the performance of a small amount of HE. Numerical simulations have been performed recently using CTH. The objective of this study is to perform numerical simulations in order to better understand the shock waves interactions, involved in the dent formation. Different 3D wedge configurations have been tested using the Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for the HE receptor with Ls-Dyna.
Numerical Simulation of Physical and Chemical Processes in Fluidized Bed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baturin, D. A.; Gil, A. V.
2015-10-01
The paper presents a numerical simulation of the furnace with a circulating fluidized bed. Numerical study carried out for the bottom of the combustion chamber with the varying heights of volume filling. The results contours of particulate matter concentration and of velocities, as well as a graphical representation of changes in the concentration of particles on the bed height are shown. Simulation performed in Eulerian - Eulerian representation on a 2D model.
NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE SIMULATION OF HIGH INTENSITY HADRON SYNCHROTRONS.
LUCCIO, A.; D'IMPERIO, N.; MALITSKY, N.
2005-09-12
Numerical algorithms for PIC simulation of beam dynamics in a high intensity synchrotron on a parallel computer are presented. We introduce numerical solvers of the Laplace-Poisson equation in the presence of walls, and algorithms to compute tunes and twiss functions in the presence of space charge forces. The working code for the simulation here presented is SIMBAD, that can be run as stand alone or as part of the UAL (Unified Accelerator Libraries) package.
Numerical simulation of turbulent flows around airfoil and wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marx, Yves P.
1990-01-01
During the last years the simulation of compressible viscous flows has received much attention. While the numerical methods were improved drastically, a satisfactory modeling of the Reynolds stresses is still missing. In this paper, after a short description of the numerical procedure used for solving the Reynolds equations, experiments with a promising simple turbulence model are discussed.
Numerical simulation of electromagnetic turbulence in tokamaks
Waltz, R.E.
1985-02-01
Nonlinear two- and three-fluid equations are written for the time evolution of the perturbed electrostatic potential, densities, vector potential, and parallel ion motion of collisional and trapped electron plasmas in tokamak geometry. The nonlinear terms arise from the E x B/sub 0/ convection (d/dt = partial/partialt+v/sub E/ x del/sub perpendicular/) and magnetic flutter (del-tilde/sub parallel/ = del/sub parallel/+(B/sub perpendicular//B/sub 0/) x del/sub perpendicular/). Simplified two-dimensional (k/sub perpendicular/) mode coupling simulations with a fixed average parallel wavenumber (k/sub parallel/ = 1/Rq) and curvature drift (..omega../sub g/ = (L/sub n//R)..omega../sub asterisk/ ) characteristic of outward ballooning are performed. Homogeneous stationary turbulent states of the dissipative drift and interchange modes from 0< or =..beta..<..beta../sub crit/ for both the collisional and trapped electron plasmas are obtained. Transport coefficients associated with E x B and magnetic motions are calculated. The problem of simulating plasmas with high viscous Reynolds number is treated with an absorbing mantle at the largest wavenumbers.
Numerical Simulations of the Mechanics of Vitrectomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, Ethan; Eldredge, Jeff; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre
2015-11-01
Vitreous is the clear, gel-like substance that fills the cavity between the lens and retina in the eye. Treating certain eye abnormalities requires removing this substance using a minimally-invasive device called a vitreous cutter. Understanding the behavior of this viscoelastic biofluid during surgeries is essential to improving the effectiveness of the procedure. In this study, three-dimensional computational models of vitreous cutters are investigated using an immersed boundary method paired with a viscoelastic constitutive model. The solver uses a fractional-step method to satisfy continuity and traction boundary conditions to simulate the applied suction. The current work extends previous efforts to accurately model the rheological parameters measured by Sharif-Kashani et al. using the Giesekus constitutive equation [Retina, 2013]. The simulations were used to quantify both the average and time-varying flow rate through the device. Values for flow rate are compared with experimental results from Hubschman et al. [Retina, 2009]. Flow features associated with the cutting dynamics are of particular interest, as is the geometry of the cutter itself. These operational and design changes are a target for improving cutter efficacy while minimizing potential tissue damage.
Numerical Simulations of the Mechanics of Vitrectomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, Ethan; Eldredge, Jeff D.; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre
2014-11-01
Filling the cavity between the lens and retina in the eye is a clear, gel-like substance known as vitreous humor. The treatment of certain eye abnormalities necessitates the removal of this substance, in a surgical procedure called a vitrectomy, using a device called a vitreous cutter. Understanding the behavior of this viscoelastic biofluid during operations is essential to improving the effectiveness of the procedure. In this work, a three-dimensional computational model of a vitreous cutter is investigated using an immersed boundary method and a viscoelastic constitutive model. The solver uses a fractional-step method to satisfy continuity and traction boundary conditions to simulate the applied suction. The Giesekus constitutive equation is used to model the vitreous, as it captures both elastic and shear-thinning effects. Rheological parameters were obtained from the work of Sharif-Kashani et al. [Retina, 2013]. These simulations were used to quantify both the average and time-varying flow rate through the device during different stages in the cutting cycle. Characteristics of the flow field illustrate how surgical variables like cutting speed, duty cycle, and aspiration pressure affect overall flow rate and suggest targets for improving cutter efficacy.
Numerical simulation of the SOFIA flowfield
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klotz, Stephen P.
1994-01-01
This report provides a concise summary of the contribution of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to the SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project at NASA Ames and presents results obtained from closed- and open-cavity SOFIA simulations. The aircraft platform is a Boeing 747SP and these are the first SOFIA simulations run with the aircraft empennage included in the geometry database. In the open-cavity run the telescope is mounted behind the wings. Results suggest that the cavity markedly influences the mean pressure distribution on empennage surfaces and that 110-140 decibel (db) sound pressure levels are typical in the cavity and on the horizontal and vertical stabilizers. A strong source of sound was found to exist on the rim of the open telescope cavity. The presence of this source suggests that additional design work needs to be performed in order to minimize the sound emanating from that location. A fluid dynamic analysis of the engine plumes is also contained in this report. The analysis was part of an effort to quantify the degradation of telescope performance resulting from the proximity of the port engine exhaust plumes to the open telescope bay.
Numerical simulation of the SOFIA flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klotz, Stephen P.
1995-01-01
This report provides a concise summary of the contribution of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to the SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project at NASA Ames and presents results obtained from closed- and open-cavity SOFIA simulations. The aircraft platform is a Boeing 747SP and these are the first SOFIA simulations run with the aircraft empennage included in the geometry database. In the open-cavity runs the telescope is mounted behind the wings. Results suggest that the cavity markedly influences the mean pressure distribution on empennage surfaces and that 110-140 decibel (db) sound pressure levels are typical in the cavity and on the horizontal and vertical stabilizers. A strong source of sound was found to exist on the rim of the open telescope cavity. The presence of this source suggests that additional design work needs to be performed in order to minimize the sound emanating from that location. A fluid dynamic analysis of the engine plumes is also contained in this report. The analysis was part of an effort to quantify the degradation of telescope performance resulting from the proximity of the port engine exhaust plumes to the open telescope bay.
Numerical and laboratory simulations of auroral acceleration
Gunell, H.; De Keyser, J.; Mann, I.
2013-10-15
The existence of parallel electric fields is an essential ingredient of auroral physics, leading to the acceleration of particles that give rise to the auroral displays. An auroral flux tube is modelled using electrostatic Vlasov simulations, and the results are compared to simulations of a proposed laboratory device that is meant for studies of the plasma physical processes that occur on auroral field lines. The hot magnetospheric plasma is represented by a gas discharge plasma source in the laboratory device, and the cold plasma mimicking the ionospheric plasma is generated by a Q-machine source. In both systems, double layers form with plasma density gradients concentrated on their high potential sides. The systems differ regarding the properties of ion acoustic waves that are heavily damped in the magnetosphere, where the ion population is hot, but weakly damped in the laboratory, where the discharge ions are cold. Ion waves are excited by the ion beam that is created by acceleration in the double layer in both systems. The efficiency of this beam-plasma interaction depends on the acceleration voltage. For voltages where the interaction is less efficient, the laboratory experiment is more space-like.
Numerical simulations of moon-ringlet interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanninen, J.
1993-05-01
Nonaxisymmetric ring features excited by perturbations of shepherd satellites are studied in terms of direct particle simulations using Aarseth's N-body integrator combined with the calculation of particle-particle impacts. Interaction parameters typical to Saturn's F-ring are investigated. The generation of clumps by external satellites is verified, but the interparticle collisions tend to smooth sharp features. Using F-ring parameters the clumps are observed to cover the total azimuthal length, but it is not clear whether these azimuthally overlapping clumps would be detectable in the actual F-ring. Gravitational scattering by ring particles increases the velocity dispersion, smearing regular azimuthal features at least in the rings of low optical depths. Considerable accretion is observed to occur, particles sticking pairwise to each other, even if the tendency of the particles to accrete is artificially reduced in the simulations. A new explanation for the braided appearance of the F-ring is proposed, based on the interaction between the shepherding satellites and the ring containing embedded moonlets. In our model the braiding is a dynamic phenomenon: the braids are destroyed and recreated in a cyclical manner.
Numerical Simulations of a Flux Rope Ejection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagano, P.; Mackay, D. H.; Poedts, S.
2015-03-01
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most violent phenomena observed on the Sun. One of the most successful models to explain CMEs is the flux rope ejection model, where a magnetic flux rope is expelled from the solar corona after a long phase along which the flux rope stays in equilibrium while magnetic energy is being accumulated. However, still many questions are outstanding on the detailed mechanism of the ejection and observations continuously provide new data to interpret and put in the context. Currently, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) are providing new insights into the early phase of CME evolution. In particular, observations show the ejection of magnetic flux ropes from the solar corona and how they evolve into CMEs. However, these observations are difficult to interpret in terms of basic physical mechanisms and quantities, thus, we need to compare equivalent quantities to test and improve our models. In our work, we intend to bridge the gap between models and observations with our model of flux rope ejection where we consistently describe the full life span of a flux rope from its formation to ejection. This is done by coupling the global non-linear force-free model (GNLFFF) built to describe the slow low- β formation phase, with a full MHD simulation run with the software MPI-AMRVAC, suitable to describe the fast MHD evolution of the flux rope ejection that happens in a heterogeneous β regime. We also explore the parameter space to identify the conditions upon which the ejection is favoured (gravity stratification and magnetic field intensity) and we produce synthesised AIA observations (171 Å and 211 Å). To carry this out, we run 3D MHD simulation in spherical coordinates where we include the role of thermal conduction and radiative losses, both of which are important for determining the temperature distribution of the solar corona during a CME. Our model of
Numerical simulation of supersonic gap flow.
Jing, Xu; Haiming, Huang; Guo, Huang; Song, Mo
2015-01-01
Various gaps in the surface of the supersonic aircraft have a significant effect on airflows. In order to predict the effects of attack angle, Mach number and width-to-depth ratio of gap on the local aerodynamic heating environment of supersonic flow, two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite volume method, where convective flux of space term adopts the Roe format, and discretization of time term is achieved by 5-step Runge-Kutta algorithm. The numerical results reveal that the heat flux ratio is U-shaped distribution on the gap wall and maximum at the windward corner of the gap. The heat flux ratio decreases as the gap depth and Mach number increase, however, it increases as the attack angle increases. In addition, it is important to find that chamfer in the windward corner can effectively reduce gap effect coefficient. The study will be helpful for the design of the thermal protection system in reentry vehicles. PMID:25635395
Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Gap Flow
Jing, Xu; Haiming, Huang; Guo, Huang; Song, Mo
2015-01-01
Various gaps in the surface of the supersonic aircraft have a significant effect on airflows. In order to predict the effects of attack angle, Mach number and width-to-depth ratio of gap on the local aerodynamic heating environment of supersonic flow, two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite volume method, where convective flux of space term adopts the Roe format, and discretization of time term is achieved by 5-step Runge-Kutta algorithm. The numerical results reveal that the heat flux ratio is U-shaped distribution on the gap wall and maximum at the windward corner of the gap. The heat flux ratio decreases as the gap depth and Mach number increase, however, it increases as the attack angle increases. In addition, it is important to find that chamfer in the windward corner can effectively reduce gap effect coefficient. The study will be helpful for the design of the thermal protection system in reentry vehicles. PMID:25635395
Numerical simulation of the world ocean circulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takano, K.; Mintz, Y.; Han, Y. J.
1973-01-01
A multi-level model, based on the primitive equations, is developed for simulating the temperature and velocity fields produced in the world ocean by differential heating and surface wind stress. The model ocean has constant depth, free slip at the lower boundary, and neglects momentum advection; so that there is no energy exchange between the barotropic and baroclinic components of the motion, although the former influences the latter through temperature advection. The ocean model was designed to be coupled to the UCLA atmospheric general circulation model, for the study of the dynamics of climate and climate changes. But here, the model is tested by prescribing the observed seasonally varying surface wind stress and the incident solar radiation, the surface air temperature and humidity, cloudiness and the surface wind speed, which, together with the predicted ocean surface temperature, determine the surface flux of radiant energy, sensible heat and latent heat.
Numerical simulation of a porous honeycomb burner
Hackert, C.L.; Elizey, J.L.; Ezekoye, O.A.
1997-07-01
A two-dimensional simulation of a honeycomb burner using single step global chemistry is used to investigate the importance of thermal properties and boundary conditions to inert porous burners. Comparisons to available experimental results are made where possible, and a parametric study of the effects of burner properties on the flame is performed. The burner solid emissivity is found to be relatively unimportant to the achievable burning rate and radiant output fraction, so long as it is above a certain minimum value (about 0.3). In contrast, increases in solid conductivity always lead to marked increases in burning rate. The flame is shown to exhibit significant curvature on both a pore scale and burner scale.
Numerical simulation of synthesis gas incineration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazakov, A. V.; Khaustov, S. A.; Tabakaev, R. B.; Belousova, Y. A.
2016-04-01
The authors have analysed the expediency of the suggested low-grade fuels application method. Thermal processing of solid raw materials in the gaseous fuel, called synthesis gas, is investigated. The technical challenges concerning the applicability of the existing gas equipment developed and extensively tested exclusively for natural gas were considered. For this purpose computer simulation of three-dimensional syngas-incinerating flame dynamics was performed by means of the ANSYS Multiphysics engineering software. The subjects of studying were: a three-dimensional aerodynamic flame structure, heat-release and temperature fields, a set of combustion properties: a flare range and the concentration distribution of burnout reagents. The obtained results were presented in the form of a time-averaged pathlines with color indexing. The obtained results can be used for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of complex multicomponent gas incineration singularities.
Numerical simulation of tides in Ontario Lacus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vincent, David; Karatekin, Ozgür
2015-04-01
Hydrocarbons liquid filled lakes has been recently detected on Titan's surface. Most of these lakes are located in the northern latitudes but there is a substantial lake in the southern latitudes: Ontario Lacus. This lake gets our attention because of possible shoreline changes suggested by Cassini flybys over Ontario Lacus between September 2005 (T7) et January 2010 (T65). The shoreline changes could be due to evaporation-precipitation processes but could also be a consequence of tides. Previous studies showed that the maximal tidal amplitudes of Ontario Lacus would be about 0.2m (for an uniform bathymetry of 20m). In this study we simulate tidal amplitude and currents with SLIM (Second-generation Louvain-la-Neuve Ice-ocean Model, http://sites.uclouvain.be/slim/ ) which resolves 2D shallow water equation on an unstructured mesh. Unstructured mesh prevents problems like mesh discontinuities at poles and allows higher accuracy at some place like coast or straits without drastically increasing computing costs. The tide generating force modeled in this work is the gradient of tidal potential due to titan's obliquity and titan's orbital eccentricity around Saturn (other contribution such as sun tide generating force are unheeded). The uncertain input parameters such as the wind direction and amplitude, bottom friction and thermo-physical properties of hydrocarbons liquids are varied within their expected ranges. SAR data analysis can result in different bathymetry according to the method. We proceed simulations for different bathymetries: tidal amplitudes doesn't change but this is not the case for tidal currents. Using a recent bathymetry deduced from most recent RADAR/SAR observations and a finer mesh, the peak-to peak tidal amplitudes are calculated to be up to 0.6 m. which is more than a factor two larger than the previous results. The maximal offshore tidal currents magnitude is about 0.06 m/s.
A numerical method for power plant simulations
Carcasci, C.; Facchini, B.
1996-03-01
This paper describes a highly flexible computerized method of calculating operating data in a power cycle. The computerized method presented here permits the study of steam, gas and combined plants. Its flexibility is not restricted by any defined cycle scheme. A power plant consists of simple elements (turbine, compressor, combustor chamber, pump, etc.). Each power plant component is represented by its typical equations relating to fundamental mechanical and thermodynamic laws, so a power plant system is represented by algebraic equations, which are the typical equations of components, continuity equations, and data concerning plant conditions. This equation system is not linear, but can be reduced to a linear equation system with variable coefficients. The solution is simultaneous for each component and it is determined by an iterative process. An example of a simple gas turbine cycle demonstrates the applied technique. This paper also presents the user interface based on MS-Windows. The input data, the results, and any characteristic parameters of a complex cycle scheme are also shown.
Transforming Mean and Osculating Elements Using Numerical Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ely, Todd A.
2010-01-01
Mean element propagation of perturbed two body orbits has as its mathematical basis averaging theory of nonlinear dynamical systems. Averaged mean elements define the long-term evolution characteristics of an orbit. Using averaging theory, a near identity transformation can be found that transforms the mean elements back to the osculating elements that contain short period terms in addition to the secular and long period mean elements. The ability to perform the conversion is necessary so that orbit design conducted in mean elements can be converted back into osculating results. In the present work, this near identity transformation is found using the Fast Fourier Transform. An efficient method is found that is capable of recovering the osculating elements to first order
Transforming Mean and Osculating Elements Using Numerical Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ely, Todd A.
2015-03-01
Mean element propagation of perturbed two body orbits has as its mathematical basis the averaging theory of nonlinear dynamical systems. Mean elements define an orbit's long-term evolution characteristics consisting of both secular and long-period effects. Using averaging theory, a near-identity transformation can be found that transforms between the mean elements and their osculating counterparts that augment the mean elements with short period effects. The ability to perform the conversion is necessary so that orbit design conducted in either mean elements or osculating can be effectively converted between each element type. In the present work, the near-identity transformation is found using the Fast Fourier Transform. An efficient method is found that is capable of recovering the mean or osculating elements to first-order.
Numerical simulation of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miglio, E.
2015-12-01
In the Earth's crust, stress can be subdivided into tectonic background stress, overburden pressure, and pore-fluid pressure. The superposition of the first two and the variation of the third part are key factors in controlling movement along faults. Furthermore, stresses due to sedimentation and erosion contribute to the total stress field. In deglaciated regions, an additional stress must be considered: the rebound stress, which is related to rebounding of the crust and mantle after deglaciation. During the growth of a continental ice sheet, the lithosphere under the iceload is deformed and the removal of the ice load during deglaciation initiates a rebound process. The uplift is well known in formerly glaciated areas, e.g.North America and Scandinavia, and in currently deglaciating areas, e.g.Alaska, Antarctica, and Greenland. The whole process of subsiding and uplifting during the growth and melting of an iceload and all related phenomena is known as glacial isostatic adjustment. During the process of glaciation, the surface of the lithosphere is depressed underneath the ice load and compressional flexural stresses are induced in the upper lithosphere, whereas the bottom of the lithosphere experiences extensional flexural stresses; an additional vertical stress due to the ice load is present and it decreases to zero during deglaciation. During rebound, flexural stresses relax slowly. These stresses are able to change the original stress directions and regime.In this work we aim to study the effect of the GIA process in the context of petroleum engineering. The main aspect we will focus on is the mathematical and numerical modeling of the GIA including thermal effects. We plan also to include a preliminary study of the effect of the glacial erosion. All these phenomena are of paramount importance in petroleum engineering: for example some reservoir have been depleted due to tilting caused by both GIA, erosion and thermal effects.
Numerical simulation of baroclinic Jovian vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Achterberg, R. K.; Ingersoll, A. P.
1994-02-01
We examine the evolution of baroclinic vortices in a time-dependent, nonlinear numerical model of a Jovian atmosphere. The model uses a normal-mode expansion in the vertical, using the barotropic and first two baroclinic modes. Results for the stability of baroclinic vortices on an f plane in the absence of a mean zonal flow are similar to results of Earth vortex models, although the presence of a fluid interior on the Jovian planets shifts the stability boundaries to smaller length scales. The presence of a barotropic mean zonal flow in the interior stabilizes vortices against instability and significantly modifies the finite amplitude form of baroclinic instabilities. The effect of a zonal flow on a form of barotropic instability produces periodic oscillations in the latitude and longitude of the vortex as observed at the level of the cloud tops. This instability may explain some, but not all, observations of longitudinal oscillations of vortices on the outer planets. Oscillations in aspect ratio and orientation of stable vortices in a zonal shear flow are observed in this baroclinic model, as in simpler two-dimensional models. Such oscillations are also observed in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Neptune. The meridional propagation and decay of vortices on a beta plane is inhibited by the presence of a mean zonal flow. The direction of propagation of a vortex relative to the mean zonal flow depends upon the sign of the meridional potential vorticity gradient; combined with observations of vortex drift rates, this may provide a constraint on model assumption for the flow in the deep interior of the Jovian planets.
Numerical simulation of electrospray in the cone-jet mode.
Herrada, M A; López-Herrera, J M; Gañán-Calvo, A M; Vega, E J; Montanero, J M; Popinet, S
2012-08-01
We present a robust and computationally efficient numerical scheme for simulating steady electrohydrodynamic atomization processes (electrospray). The main simplification assumed in this scheme is that all the free electrical charges are distributed over the interface. A comparison of the results with those calculated with a volume-of-fluid method showed that the numerical scheme presented here accurately describes the flow pattern within the entire liquid domain. Experiments were performed to partially validate the numerical predictions. The simulations reproduced accurately the experimental shape of the liquid cone jet, providing correct values of the emitted electric current even for configurations very close to the cone-jet stability limit. PMID:23005852
Numerical and experimental simulations of the postbuckling response of laminated anisotropic panels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, Ahmed K.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Waters, W. Allen, Jr.
1990-01-01
Numerical simulations are used in conjuction with experiments to study the buckling and postbuckling responses and failure initiation of flat unstiffened composite panels. The numerical simulations are conducted using two-dimensional shear-flexible finite elements. The effect of the laminate stacking sequence on the buckling and postbuckling responses is studied. Correlation between numerical and experimental results is good through buckling, but the numerical models overestimate the postbuckling stiffness of the panels. To explain the discrepancies in the postbuckling stiffnesses, analytic sensitivity derivatives are calculated and are used to study the sensitivity of the buckling and postbuckling responses to variations in different material and lamination parameters of the panel. Experimental results indicate that failure occurs along a nodal line. Numerical results show that the location of failure initiation corresponds to that of the maximum transverse shear strain energy density in the panel, which occurs at the edge of the panel at a nodal line.
Numerical Simulations of Hot Vertical Displacement Events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunkers, K. J.; Sovinec, C. R.
2015-11-01
Loss of vertical positioning control in tokamaks leads to instability where hot confined plasma rests against the chamber wall. Resistive-MHD modeling with the NIMROD code is applied to model these events. After divertor-coil current is perturbed, resistive diffusion through the non-ideal wall sets the timescale as the simulated tokamak evolves from a diverted equilibrium to a limited configuration. Results show that plasma outflow along opening magnetic surfaces, just outside the confinement zone, approaches the local ion-acoustic speed. The projection of the plasma flow velocity into the surface-normal direction (n . V) near the surface exceeds the local E × B drift speed; near surfaces n × E is approximately the same as n ×Ewall in the nearly steady conditions. The safety factor of flux surfaces that remain intact is approximately constant over the evolution time, which is much shorter than the plasma resistive diffusion time. Assessment of external-kink stability and initial findings from 3D nonlinear computations are presented. This effort is supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, award numbers DE-FG02-06ER54850 and DE-FC02-08ER54975.
Numerical simulation of reversing buoyancy gravity currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radhakrishnan, Senthil; Lenk, Erik; Boekels, Michael; Meiburg, Eckart
2012-11-01
Sediment laden fluid propagates as an underflow when its bulk density is higher than the density of the ambient fluid. If the density of the interstitial fluid in gravity current is smaller than the density of the ambient fluid, the gravity current can become positively buoyant after sufficient particles have settled. The current then lifts off from the bottom surface and travels as a surface gravity current over the heavier ambient fluid. These types of currents, where the buoyancy reverses its direction, have been observed when sediment laden fresh water enters the sea or during volcanic eruption that creates a pyroclastic flow. We use a lock-exchange configuration with mono-disperse and bi-disperse particles to study the lofting characteristics of reversing buoyancy currents. This talk will focus on results obtained from Large-eddy Simulation of high Reynolds number currents. In particular, the deposit profiles show a sharp decay at the lift-off point unlike a ground hugging turbidity current whose deposit profile has a slow monotonic decay from the lock region.
Numerical simulation of the edge tone phenomenon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dougherty, N. S.; Liu, B. L.; Ofarrell, J. M.
1994-01-01
Time accurate Navier-Stokes computations were performed to study a class 2 (acoustic) whistle, the edge tone, and to gain knowledge of the vortex-acoustic coupling mechanisms driving production of these tones. Results were obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations for laminar compressible air flow of a two dimensional jet issuing from a slit interacting with a wedge. Cases considered were determined by varying the distance from the slit to the wedge. Flow speed was kept constant at 1,750 cm/s as was the slit thickness of 0.1 cm, corresponding to conditions in the experiments of Brown. The analytical computations revealed edge tones to be present in four harmonic stages of jet flow instability over the wedge as the jet length was varied from 0.3 to 1.6 cm. Excellent agreement was obtained in all four edge tone stage cases between the present computational results and the experimentally obtained frequencies and flow visualization results of Brown. Specific edge tone generation phenomena and further confirmation of certain theories and empirical formulas concerning these phenomena were brought to light in this analytical simulation of edge tones.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fahrenthold, Eric P.; Shivarama, Ravishankar
2004-01-01
The hybrid particle-finite element method of Fahrenthold and Horban, developed for the simulation of hypervelocity impact problems, has been extended to include new formulations of the particle-element kinematics, additional constitutive models, and an improved numerical implementation. The extended formulation has been validated in three dimensional simulations of published impact experiments. The test cases demonstrate good agreement with experiment, good parallel speedup, and numerical convergence of the simulation results.
Numerical simulation of subcooled flow boiling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Won Cheol
Sub-cooled flow boiling in a U-bend has been examined using numerical methods. An Eulerian/Eulerian mathematical description was used with a multiphase computational algorithm to predict several types of flows and to examine sub-cooled flow boiling. As a prelude to the study of sub-cooled boiling and two-phase flows, single-phase laminar and turbulent flows in a U-bend were investigated. Air-water bubbly up flow in a vertical straight duct followed by a U-bend with heat transfer was analyzed. In such a flow, as the flow develops through the U-bend the bubbles move from center and outer wall toward inner wall. After half way through the U-bend, the fluids do not have sufficient time for complete reorganization in the presence of centrifugal forces and the pressure gradients. After the U-bend, the bubbles finally reach the original distribution in about forty diameters. The heat transfer in the U-bend was also calculated and as expected heat transfer rate on the outer wall is higher than on the inner wall. For air-water bubbly two-phase flow, Nusselt numbers in the U-bend can be as high as 400 percent of the value in the straight duct on one of the walls. The method of partitioned wall heat flux was used to study sub-cooled flow boiling. For sub-cooled flow boiling in a U-bend, axial and lateral velocity distributions as well as quality and void fraction variations were analyzed. Computed axial and lateral variations of void fraction compare favorably with existing experimental data. As expected, the pressure drop for bubbly flow through the U-bend is larger than for single-phase flow by as much as fifty percent. Computed pressure drop for flow with phase change falls between the predictions of two different correlations in the literature, and thus seems reasonable. Predictions of heat transfer and void fraction under sub-cooled flow boiling using two-fluid models need better quantitative knowledge related to the mechanisms associated with bubble growth and
Numerical simulation of electric field assisted sintering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McWilliams, Brandon A.
A fully coupled thermal-electric-sintering finite element model was developed and implemented to explore electric field assisted sintering techniques (FAST). FAST is a single step processing operation for producing bulk materials from powders, in which the powder is heated by the application of electric current under pressure. This process differs from other powder processing techniques such as hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and traditional press and sinter operations where the powder or compact is heated externally, in that the powder is heated directly as a result of internal Joule heating (for conductive powders) and/or by direct conduction from the die and punches. The overall result is much more efficient heating which allows heating rates of >1000°C/min to be achieved which is desirable for sintering bulk nanocrystalline and other novel high performance materials. Previous modeling efforts on FAST have only considered the thermal-electric aspect of the problem and have neglected densification. In addition to the introduction of a sintering model, a detailed thermal-electric study of process parameters was carried out in order to identify key system variables and quantify their effect on the overall system response and subsequent thermal history of a consolidated sample. This analysis was compared to empirical data from a parallel experimental study and shown to satisfactorily predict the observed trends. This model was then integrated with a phenomenologically based sintering model to capture the densification of the sample. This fully coupled model was used to predict densification kinetics under FAST like conditions and examine the evolution of material properties as the sample transitions from a loose powder to a fully dense compact and the resulting effect on the electrical and thermal fields within the compact. This model was also used to explore the effect of non-uniform thermal, electrical, stress and density fields on the final geometry and local
Numerical simulation of photoexcited polaron states in water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Volokhova, A. V.; Lakhno, V. D.; Amirkhanov, I. V.; Puzynin, I. V.; Puzynina, T. P.; Rikhvitskiy, V. S.; Atanasova, P. Kh.
2015-10-01
We consider the dynamic polaron model of the hydrated electron state on the basis of a system of three nonlinear partial differential equations with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. A parallel numerical algorithm for the numerical solution of this system has been developed. Its effectiveness has been tested on a few multi-processor systems. A numerical simulation of the polaron states formation in water under the action of the ultraviolet range laser irradiation has been performed. The numerical results are shown to be in a reasonable agreement with experimental data and theoretical predictions.
Numerical simulation of photoexcited polaron states in water
Zemlyanaya, E. V. Volokhova, A. V.; Amirkhanov, I. V.; Puzynin, I. V.; Puzynina, T. P.; Rikhvitskiy, V. S.; Lakhno, V. D.; Atanasova, P. Kh.
2015-10-28
We consider the dynamic polaron model of the hydrated electron state on the basis of a system of three nonlinear partial differential equations with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. A parallel numerical algorithm for the numerical solution of this system has been developed. Its effectiveness has been tested on a few multi-processor systems. A numerical simulation of the polaron states formation in water under the action of the ultraviolet range laser irradiation has been performed. The numerical results are shown to be in a reasonable agreement with experimental data and theoretical predictions.
Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation to Mud Turbine for LWD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Xiaojiang; Dong, Jingxin; Shang, Jie; Zhang, Guanqi
Hydraulic performance analysis was discussed for a type of turbine on generator used for LWD. The simulation models were built by CFD analysis software FINE/Turbo, and full three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out for impeller group. The hydraulic parameter such as power, speed and pressure drop, were calculated in two kinds of medium water and mud. Experiment was built in water environment. The error of numerical simulation was less than 6%, verified by experiment. Based on this rationalization proposals would be given to choice appropriate impellers, and the rationalization of methods would be explored.
Feasibility study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lincoln, N. R.; Bergman, R. O.; Bonstrom, D. B.; Brinkman, T. W.; Chiu, S. H. J.; Green, S. S.; Hansen, S. D.; Klein, D. L.; Krohn, H. E.; Prow, R. P.
1979-01-01
A Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) was designed for the simulation of fluid flow around three-dimensional bodies, both in wind tunnel environments and in free space. The application of numerical simulation to this field of endeavor promised to yield economies in aerodynamic and aircraft body designs. A model for a NASF/FMP (Flow Model Processor) ensemble using a possible approach to meeting NASF goals is presented. The computer hardware and software are presented, along with the entire design and performance analysis and evaluation.
Numerical simulation of turbulent flow in a cyclonic separator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdanov, Dmitry; Poniaev, Sergey
2014-12-01
Numerical simulation of a turbulent flow of air with dispersed particles through a cyclonic separator is presented. Because of a high streamline curvature in the separator it is difficult to simulate the flow by using the conventional turbulent models. In this work the curvature correction term was included into the k - ω - SST turbulence model implemented in the OpenFOAM® software. Experimental data and results of numerical simulation by the commercial ANSYS Fluent® solver for a turbulent flow in a U-duct were used to validate the model. The numerical simulation of the flow in the cyclonic separator demonstrates that the implemented turbulence model successfully predicts the cyclonic separator efficiency.
Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Airflow in Nasopharynx.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shome, Biswadip; Wang, Lian-Ping; Santare, Michael H.; Szeri, Andras Z.; Prasad, Ajay K.; Roberts, David
1996-11-01
A three-dimensional numerical simulation of airflow in nasopharynx (from the soft palate to the epiglottis) was conducted, using anatomically accurate model and finite element method, to study the influence of flow characteristics on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The results showed that the pressure drop in the nasopharynx is in the range 200-500 Pa. Ten different nasopharynx geometries resulting from three OSA treatment therapies (CPAP, mandibular repositioning devices, and surgery) were compared. The results confirmed that the airflow in the nasopharynx lies in the transitional flow regime and thus, a subtle change in the morphology caused by these treatment therapies has a large effect on the airflow. The onset of turbulence can cause as much as 40% of increase in pressure drop. For the transitional flow regime, the k-ɛ turbulence model was found to be the most appropriate model, when compared to the mixing length and the k-ω model, as it correctly reproduces the limiting laminar behavior. In addition, the pressure drop increased approximately as the square of the volumetric flow rate. Supported by NIH.
Bedrock incision by bedload: insights from direct numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aubert, Guilhem; Langlois, Vincent J.; Allemand, Pascal
2016-04-01
Bedload sediment transport is one of the main processes that contribute to bedrock incision in a river and is therefore one of the key control parameters in the evolution of mountainous landscapes. In recent years, many studies have addressed this issue through experimental setups, direct measurements in the field, or various analytical models. In this article, we present a new direct numerical approach: using the classical methods of discrete-element simulations applied to granular materials, we explicitly compute the trajectories of a number of pebbles entrained by a turbulent water stream over a rough solid surface. This method allows us to extract quantitatively the amount of energy that successive impacts of pebbles deliver to the bedrock, as a function of both the amount of sediment available and the Shields number. We show that we reproduce qualitatively the behaviour observed experimentally by Sklar and Dietrich (2001) and observe both a "tool effect" and a "cover effect". Converting the energy delivered to the bedrock into an average long-term incision rate of the river leads to predictions consistent with observations in the field. Finally, we reformulate the dependency of this incision rate with Shields number and sediment flux, and predict that the cover term should decay linearly at low sediment supply and exponentially at high sediment supply.
Near-fault earthquake ground motion prediction by a high-performance spectral element numerical code
Paolucci, Roberto; Stupazzini, Marco
2008-07-08
Near-fault effects have been widely recognised to produce specific features of earthquake ground motion, that cannot be reliably predicted by 1D seismic wave propagation modelling, used as a standard in engineering applications. These features may have a relevant impact on the structural response, especially in the nonlinear range, that is hard to predict and to be put in a design format, due to the scarcity of significant earthquake records and of reliable numerical simulations. In this contribution a pilot study is presented for the evaluation of seismic ground-motions in the near-fault region, based on a high-performance numerical code for 3D seismic wave propagation analyses, including the seismic fault, the wave propagation path and the near-surface geological or topographical irregularity. For this purpose, the software package GeoELSE is adopted, based on the spectral element method. The set-up of the numerical benchmark of 3D ground motion simulation in the valley of Grenoble (French Alps) is chosen to study the effect of the complex interaction between basin geometry and radiation mechanism on the variability of earthquake ground motion.
A three-dimensional Eulerian method for the numerical simulation of high-velocity impact problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Shi-Yu; Liu, Kai-Xin; Chen, Qian-Yi
2014-03-01
In the present paper, a three-dimensional (3D) Eulerian technique for the 3D numerical simulation of high-velocity impact problems is proposed. In the Eulerian framework, a complete 3D conservation element and solution element scheme for conservative hyperbolic governing equations with source terms is given. A modified ghost fluid method is proposed for the treatment of the boundary conditions. Numerical simulations of the Taylor bar problem and the ricochet phenomenon of a sphere impacting a plate target at an angle of 60° are carried out. The numerical results are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental observations. It is proved that our computational technique is feasible for analyzing 3D high-velocity impact problems.
Springback Simulation: Impact of Some Advanced Constitutive Models and Numerical Parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haddag, Badis; Balan, Tudor; Abed-Meraim, Farid
2005-08-01
The impact of material models on the numerical simulation of springback is investigated. The study is focused on the strain-path sensitivity of two hardening models. While both models predict the Bauschinger effect, their response in the transient zone after a strain-path change is fairly different. Their respective predictions are compared in terms of sequential test response and of strip-drawing springback. For this purpose, an accurate and general time integration algorithm has been developed and implemented in the Abaqus code. The impact of several numerical parameters is also studied in order to assess the overall accuracy of the finite element prediction. For some test geometries, both material and numerical parameters are shown to clearly influence the springback behavior at a large extent. Moreover, a general trend cannot always be extracted, thus justifying the need for the finite element simulation of the stamping process.
Polyelectrolyte gels as bending actuators: modeling and numerical simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallmersperger, Thomas; Keller, Karsten; Attaran, Abdolhamid
2013-04-01
Polyelectrolyte gels are ionic electroactivematerials. They have the ability to react as both, sensors and actuators. As actuators they can be used e.g. as artificial muscles or drug delivery control; as sensors they may be used for measuring e.g. pressure, pH or other ion concentrations in the solution. In this research both, anionic and cationic polyelectrolyte gels placed in aqueous solution with mobile anions and cations are investigated. Due to external stimuli the polyelectrolyte gels can swell or shrink enormously by the uptake or delivery of solvent. In the present research a coupled multi-field problem within a continuum mechanics framework is proposed. The modeling approach introduces a set of equations governing multiple fields of the problem, including the chemical field of the ionic species, the electrical field and the mechanical field. The numerical simulation is performed by using the Finite Element Method. Within the study some test cases will be carried out to validate our model. In the works by Gülch et al., the application of combined anionic-cationic gels as grippers was shown. In the present research for an applied electric field, the change of the concentrations and the electric potential in the complete polymer is simulated by the given formulation. These changes lead to variations in the osmotic pressure resulting in a bending of different polyelectrolyte gels. In the present research it is shown that our model is capable of describing the bending behavior of anionic or cationic gels towards the different electrodes (cathode or anode).
Numerical Simulation Study of the Sanchiao Fault Earthquake Scenarios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yi-Min; Lee, Shiann-Jong
2015-04-01
Sanchiao fault is a western boundary fault of the Taipei basin located in northern Taiwan, close to the densely populated Taipei metropolitan area. Recent study indicated that there is about 40 km of the fault trace extended to the marine area offshore northern Taiwan. Combining the marine and terrestrial parts, the total fault length of Sanchiao fault could be nearly 70 kilometers which implies that this fault has potential to produce a big earthquake. In this study, we analyze several Sanchiao fault earthquake scenarios based on the recipe for predicting strong ground motion. The characterized source parameters include fault length, rupture area, seismic moment, asperity, and slip pattern on the fault plane. According to the assumption of the characterized source model, Sanchiao fault has been inferred to have the potential to produce an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) larger than 7.0. Three-dimensional seismic simulation results based upon spectral-element method (SEM) indicate that peak ground acceleration (PGA) is significantly stronger along the fault trace. The basin effect also plays an important role when wave propagates in the Taipei basin which cause seismic wave amplified and prolong the shaking for a very long time. Among all rupture scenarios, the rupture propagated from north to south is the most serious one. Owing to the rupture directivity as well as the basin effects, large PGA (>1g) was observed in the Taipei basin, especially in the northwest side. The results of these scenario earthquake simulations will provide important physically-based numerical data for earthquake mitigation and seismic hazard assessment.
Numerical Simulation of Nonlinear Ultrasonic Waves Due to Bi-material Interface Contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirose, S.; Saitoh, T.
2014-06-01
Boundary integral equations are formulated to investigate nonlinear waves generated by a debonding interface of bi-material subjected to an incident plane wave. For the numerical simulation, the IRK (Implicit Runge-Kutta method) based CQ-BEM (Convolution Quadrature-Boundary Element Method) is developed. The interface conditions for a debonding area, consisting of three phases of separation, stick, and slip, are developed for the simulation of nonlinear ultrasonic waves. Numerical results are obtained and discussed for normal incidence of a plane longitudinal wave onto the nonlinear interface with a static compressive stress.
Numerical simulation of porosity-free titanium dental castings.
Wu, M; Augthun, M; Schädlich-Stubenrauch, J; Sahm, P R; Spiekermann, H
1999-08-01
The objective of this research was to analyse, predict and control the porosity in titanium dental castings by the use of numerical simulation. A commercial software package (MAGMASOFT) was used. In the first part of the study, a model casting (two simplified tooth crowns connected by a connector bar) was simulated to analyse shrinkage porosity. Secondly, gas pores were numerically examined by means of a ball specimen with a "snake" sprue. The numerical simulation results were compared with the experimental casting results, which were made on a centrifugal casting machine. The predicted shrinkage levels coincided well with the experimentally determined levels. Based on the above numerical analyses, an optimised running and gating system design for the crown model was proposed. The numerical filling and solidification results of the ball specimen showed that this simulation model could be helpful for the explanation of the experimentally indicated gas pores. It was concluded that shrinkage porosity in titanium dental casting was predictable, and it could be minimised by improving the running and gating system design. Entrapped gas pores can be explained from the simulation results of the mould filling and solidification. PMID:10467947
Numerical simulations of plasma brush behavior in hybrid armatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawke, R. S.; Pincosy, P. A.
1993-01-01
Hybrid armatures used to accelerate projectiles in railguns are often the consequence of using a solid armature or in some cases the preferred armature type. Although hybrid armatures are often used, their design has been empirical and their performance sporadic. As a first step towards understanding hybrid design and performance, we have begun a combined numerical simulation and experimental verification effort. This paper will describe numerical simulations performed with a quasi 1-D MHD code (CONFUSE) which has been applied to simulate the behavior of plasma brushes used in hybrid armatures. The simulations have provided estimates of the plasma brush length, resistive voltage drop and temperatures corresponding to a range of; 1) brush gap size, 2) fuse thickness, and 3) magnetic pressure. The results of these simulations is presented and discussed.
Finite Element Modeling, Simulation, Tools, and Capabilities at Superform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raman, Hari; Barnes, A. J.
2010-06-01
Over the past thirty years Superform has been a pioneer in the SPF arena, having developed a keen understanding of the process and a range of unique forming techniques to meet varying market needs. Superform’s high-profile list of customers includes Boeing, Airbus, Aston Martin, Ford, and Rolls Royce. One of the more recent additions to Superform’s technical know-how is finite element modeling and simulation. Finite element modeling is a powerful numerical technique which when applied to SPF provides a host of benefits including accurate prediction of strain levels in a part, presence of wrinkles and predicting pressure cycles optimized for time and part thickness. This paper outlines a brief history of finite element modeling applied to SPF and then reviews some of the modeling tools and techniques that Superform have applied and continue to do so to successfully superplastically form complex-shaped parts. The advantages of employing modeling at the design stage are discussed and illustrated with real-world examples.
Adaptive model reduction for nonsmooth discrete element simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Servin, Martin; Wang, Da
2016-03-01
A method for adaptive model order reduction for nonsmooth discrete element simulation is developed and analysed in numerical experiments. Regions of the granular media that collectively move as rigid bodies are substituted with rigid bodies of the corresponding shape and mass distribution. The method also support particles merging with articulated multibody systems. A model approximation error is defined and used to derive conditions for when and where to apply reduction and refinement back into particles and smaller rigid bodies. Three methods for refinement are proposed and tested: prediction from contact events, trial solutions computed in the background and using split sensors. The computational performance can be increased by 5-50 times for model reduction level between 70-95 %.
Shear mixing in stellar radiative zones. II. Robustness of numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prat, V.; Guilet, J.; Viallet, M.; Müller, E.
2016-07-01
Context. Recent numerical simulations suggest that the model by Zahn (1992, A&A, 265, 115) for the turbulent mixing of chemical elements due to differential rotation in stellar radiative zones is valid. Aims: We investigate the robustness of this result with respect to the numerical configuration and Reynolds number of the flow. Methods: We compare results from simulations performed with two different numerical codes, including one that uses the shearing-box formalism. We also extensively study the dependence of the turbulent diffusion coefficient on the turbulent Reynolds number. Results: The two numerical codes used in this study give consistent results. The turbulent diffusion coefficient is independent of the size of the numerical domain if at least three large turbulent structures fit in the box. Generally, the turbulent diffusion coefficient depends on the turbulent Reynolds number. However, our simulations suggest that an asymptotic regime is obtained when the turbulent Reynolds number is larger than 103. Conclusions: Shear mixing in the regime of small Péclet numbers can be investigated numerically both with shearing-box simulations and simulations using explicit forcing. Our results suggest that Zahn's model is valid at large turbulent Reynolds numbers.
Study on the numerical schemes for hypersonic flow simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagdewe, S. P.; Shevare, G. R.; Kim, Heuy-Dong
2009-10-01
Hypersonic flow is full of complex physical and chemical processes, hence its investigation needs careful analysis of existing schemes and choosing a suitable scheme or designing a brand new scheme. The present study deals with two numerical schemes Harten, Lax, and van Leer with Contact (HLLC) and advection upstream splitting method (AUSM) to effectively simulate hypersonic flow fields, and accurately predict shock waves with minimal diffusion. In present computations, hypersonic flows have been modeled as a system of hyperbolic equations with one additional equation for non-equilibrium energy and relaxing source terms. Real gas effects, which appear typically in hypersonic flows, have been simulated through energy relaxation method. HLLC and AUSM methods are modified to incorporate the conservation laws for non-equilibrium energy. Numerical implementation have shown that non-equilibrium energy convect with mass, and hence has no bearing on the basic numerical scheme. The numerical simulation carried out shows good comparison with experimental data available in literature. Both numerical schemes have shown identical results at equilibrium. Present study has demonstrated that real gas effects in hypersonic flows can be modeled through energy relaxation method along with either AUSM or HLLC numerical scheme.
Controlled time integration for the numerical simulation of meteor radar reflections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Räbinä, Jukka; Mönkölä, Sanna; Rossi, Tuomo; Markkanen, Johannes; Gritsevich, Maria; Muinonen, Karri
2016-07-01
We model meteoroids entering the Earth's atmosphere as objects surrounded by non-magnetized plasma, and consider efficient numerical simulation of radar reflections from meteors in the time domain. Instead of the widely used finite difference time domain method (FDTD), we use more generalized finite differences by applying the discrete exterior calculus (DEC) and non-uniform leapfrog-style time discretization. The computational domain is presented by convex polyhedral elements. The convergence of the time integration is accelerated by the exact controllability method. The numerical experiments show that our code is efficiently parallelized. The DEC approach is compared to the volume integral equation (VIE) method by numerical experiments. The result is that both methods are competitive in modelling non-magnetized plasma scattering. For demonstrating the simulation capabilities of the DEC approach, we present numerical experiments of radar reflections and vary parameters in a wide range.
Error and Uncertainty Quantification in the Numerical Simulation of Complex Fluid Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy J.
2010-01-01
The failure of numerical simulation to predict physical reality is often a direct consequence of the compounding effects of numerical error arising from finite-dimensional approximation and physical model uncertainty resulting from inexact knowledge and/or statistical representation. In this topical lecture, we briefly review systematic theories for quantifying numerical errors and restricted forms of model uncertainty occurring in simulations of fluid flow. A goal of this lecture is to elucidate both positive and negative aspects of applying these theories to practical fluid flow problems. Finite-element and finite-volume calculations of subsonic and hypersonic fluid flow are presented to contrast the differing roles of numerical error and model uncertainty. for these problems.
Numerical simulation of tornado wind loading on structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maiden, D. E.
1976-01-01
A numerical simulation of a tornado interacting with a building was undertaken in order to compare the pressures due to a rotational unsteady wind with that due to steady straight winds used in design of nuclear facilities. The numerical simulations were performed on a two-dimensional compressible hydrodynamics code. Calculated pressure profiles for a typical building were then subjected to a tornado wind field and the results were compared with current quasisteady design calculations. The analysis indicates that current design practices are conservative.
Numerical simulation of three-dimensional self-gravitating flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, John V.
1993-01-01
The three-dimensional flow of a self-gravitating fluid is numerically simulated using a Fourier pseudospectral method with a logarithmic variable formulation. Two cases with zero total angular momentum are studied in detail, a 323 simulation (Run B). Other than the grid size, the primary difference between the two cases are that Run A modeled atomic hydrogen and had considerably more compressible motion initially than Run B, which modeled molecular hydrogen. The numerical results indicate that gravitational collapse can proceed in a variety of ways. In the Run A, collapse led to an elongated tube-like structure, while in the Run B, collapse led to a flatter, disklike structure.
Direct numerical simulation of wall turbulent flows with microbubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanai, Akihiro; Miyata, Hideaki
2001-03-01
The marker-density-function (MDF) method has been developed to conduct direct numerical simulation (DNS) for bubbly flows. The method is applied to turbulent bubbly channel flows to elucidate the interaction between bubbles and wall turbulence. The simulation is designed to clarify the structure of the turbulent boundary layer containing microbubbles and the mechanism of frictional drag reduction. It is deduced from the numerical tests that the interaction between bubbles and wall turbulence depends on the Weber and Froude numbers. The reduction of the frictional resistance on the wall is attained and its mechanism is explained from the modulation of the three-dimensional structure of the turbulent flow. Copyright
Numerical simulations of the QUELL experiment in SULTAN
Marinucci, C.
1995-03-01
The QUench Experiment on Long Length (QUELL) in the SULTAN Facility is planned to investigate the quench propagation and detection of a conductor with ITER relevant geometry and scaled performance. The objective of this study is to show the ability of QUELL to provide quench conditions relevant for ITER and to simulate the system performance, dealing in particular with the design aspects of the power supply, cryogenic system and heaters. The numerical analysis was performed with GANDALF - a 1-D code to analyze Dual Channel Cable-in-Conduit Conductors. A numerical convergence test and a comparison with another code and with analytical results have confirmed the validity of the simulations.
Numerical simulation of surface waves instability on a homogeneous grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korotkevich, Alexander O.; Dyachenko, Alexander I.; Zakharov, Vladimir E.
2016-05-01
We performed full-scale numerical simulation of instability of weakly nonlinear waves on the surface of deep fluid. We show that the instability development leads to chaotization and formation of wave turbulence. Instability of both propagating and standing waves was studied. We separately studied pure capillary wave, that was unstable due to three-wave interactions and pure gravity waves, that were unstable due to four-wave interactions. The theoretical description of instabilities in all cases is included in the article. The numerical algorithm used in these and many other previous simulations performed by the authors is described in detail.
Vortical flow aerodynamics - Physical aspects and numerical simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newsome, Richard W.; Kandil, Osama A.
1987-01-01
Progress in the numerical simulation of vortical flow due to three-dimensional flow separation about flight vehicles at high angles of attack and quasi-steady flight conditions is surveyed. Primary emphasis is placed on Euler and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methods where the vortices are 'captured' as a solution to the governing equations. A discussion of the relevant flow physics provides a perspective from which to assess numerical solutions. Current numerical prediction capabilities and their evolutionary development are surveyed. Future trends and challenges are identified and discussed.
Numerical simulations of time-resolved quantum electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaury, Benoit; Weston, Joseph; Santin, Matthieu; Houzet, Manuel; Groth, Christoph; Waintal, Xavier
2014-01-01
Numerical simulation has become a major tool in quantum electronics both for fundamental and applied purposes. While for a long time those simulations focused on stationary properties (e.g. DC currents), the recent experimental trend toward GHz frequencies and beyond has triggered a new interest for handling time-dependent perturbations. As the experimental frequencies get higher, it becomes possible to conceive experiments which are both time-resolved and fast enough to probe the internal quantum dynamics of the system. This paper discusses the technical aspects-mathematical and numerical-associated with the numerical simulations of such a setup in the time domain (i.e. beyond the single-frequency AC limit). After a short review of the state of the art, we develop a theoretical framework for the calculation of time-resolved observables in a general multiterminal system subject to an arbitrary time-dependent perturbation (oscillating electrostatic gates, voltage pulses, time-varying magnetic fields, etc.) The approach is mathematically equivalent to (i) the time-dependent scattering formalism, (ii) the time-resolved non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism and (iii) the partition-free approach. The central object of our theory is a wave function that obeys a simple Schrödinger equation with an additional source term that accounts for the electrons injected from the electrodes. The time-resolved observables (current, density, etc.) and the (inelastic) scattering matrix are simply expressed in terms of this wave function. We use our approach to develop a numerical technique for simulating time-resolved quantum transport. We find that the use of this wave function is advantageous for numerical simulations resulting in a speed up of many orders of magnitude with respect to the direct integration of NEGF equations. Our technique allows one to simulate realistic situations beyond simple models, a subject that was until now beyond the simulation capabilities
Building Blocks for Reliable Complex Nonlinear Numerical Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.
2005-01-01
This chapter describes some of the building blocks to ensure a higher level of confidence in the predictability and reliability (PAR) of numerical simulation of multiscale complex nonlinear problems. The focus is on relating PAR of numerical simulations with complex nonlinear phenomena of numerics. To isolate sources of numerical uncertainties, the possible discrepancy between the chosen partial differential equation (PDE) model and the real physics and/or experimental data is set aside. The discussion is restricted to how well numerical schemes can mimic the solution behavior of the underlying PDE model for finite time steps and grid spacings. The situation is complicated by the fact that the available theory for the understanding of nonlinear behavior of numerics is not at a stage to fully analyze the nonlinear Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The discussion is based on the knowledge gained for nonlinear model problems with known analytical solutions to identify and explain the possible sources and remedies of numerical uncertainties in practical computations.
Building Blocks for Reliable Complex Nonlinear Numerical Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This talk describes some of the building blocks to ensure a higher level of confidence in the predictability and reliability (PAR) of numerical simulation of multiscale complex nonlinear problems. The focus is on relating PAR of numerical simulations with complex nonlinear phenomena of numerics. To isolate sources of numerical uncertainties, the possible discrepancy between the chosen partial differential equation (PDE) model and the real physics and/or experimental data is set aside. The discussion is restricted to how well numerical schemes can mimic the solution behavior of the underlying PDE model for finite time steps and grid spacings. The situation is complicated by the fact that the available theory for the understanding of nonlinear behavior of numerics is not at a stage to fully analyze the nonlinear Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The discussion is based on the knowledge gained for nonlinear model problems with known analytical solutions to identify and explain the possible sources and remedies of numerical uncertainties in practical computations. Examples relevant to turbulent flow computations are included.
Building Blocks for Reliable Complex Nonlinear Numerical Simulations. Chapter 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This chapter describes some of the building blocks to ensure a higher level of confidence in the predictability and reliability (PAR) of numerical simulation of multiscale complex nonlinear problems. The focus is on relating PAR of numerical simulations with complex nonlinear phenomena of numerics. To isolate sources of numerical uncertainties, the possible discrepancy between the chosen partial differential equation (PDE) model and the real physics and/or experimental data is set aside. The discussion is restricted to how well numerical schemes can mimic the solution behavior of the underlying PDE model for finite time steps and grid spacings. The situation is complicated by the fact that the available theory for the understanding of nonlinear behavior of numerics is not at a stage to fully analyze the nonlinear Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The discussion is based on the knowledge gained for nonlinear model problems with known analytical solutions to identify and explain the possible sources and remedies of numerical uncertainties in practical computations. Examples relevant to turbulent flow computations are included.
Processing biobased polymers using plasticizers: Numerical simulations versus experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desplentere, Frederik; Cardon, Ludwig; Six, Wim; Erkoç, Mustafa
2016-03-01
In polymer processing, the use of biobased products shows lots of possibilities. Considering biobased materials, biodegradability is in most cases the most important issue. Next to this, bio based materials aimed at durable applications, are gaining interest. Within this research, the influence of plasticizers on the processing of the bio based material is investigated. This work is done for an extrusion grade of PLA, Natureworks PLA 2003D. Extrusion through a slit die equipped with pressure sensors is used to compare the experimental pressure values to numerical simulation results. Additional experimental data (temperature and pressure data along the extrusion screw and die are recorded) is generated on a dr. Collin Lab extruder producing a 25mm diameter tube. All these experimental data is used to indicate the appropriate functioning of the numerical simulation tool Virtual Extrusion Laboratory 6.7 for the simulation of both the industrial available extrusion grade PLA and the compound in which 15% of plasticizer is added. Adding the applied plasticizer, resulted in a 40% lower pressure drop over the extrusion die. The combination of different experiments allowed to fit the numerical simulation results closely to the experimental values. Based on this experience, it is shown that numerical simulations also can be used for modified bio based materials if appropriate material and process data are taken into account.
Numerical simulation for flow around two circular cylinders in tandem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Norio; Matsukuma, Daisuke
2005-05-01
We use a third-order upwind finite element scheme in order to perform numerical stabilization of solutions of the Navier Stokes equations and present numerical results of flow around two circular cylinders in tandem arrangement by two- and three-dimensional computations. The two circular cylinders are arranged with some spacings between the cylinders. It is well known from experimental data that the flow around two circular cylinders denotes very complicated phenomena with the variation of spacing between two cylinders. In addition, the time-averaged drag coefficients of two circular cylinders suddenly change at a certain spacing between the cylinders. We, therefore, make an investigation of such phenomena at the Reynolds number of 1000 by the use of a numerical approach, and the obtained numerical results are also qualitatively compared with experimental data.
GPU Accelerated Numerical Simulation of Viscous Flow Down a Slope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gygax, Remo; Räss, Ludovic; Omlin, Samuel; Podladchikov, Yuri; Jaboyedoff, Michel
2014-05-01
Numerical simulations are an effective tool in natural risk analysis. They are useful to determine the propagation and the runout distance of gravity driven movements such as debris flows or landslides. To evaluate these processes an approach on analogue laboratory experiments and a GPU accelerated numerical simulation of the flow of a viscous liquid down an inclined slope is considered. The physical processes underlying large gravity driven flows share certain aspects with the propagation of debris mass in a rockslide and the spreading of water waves. Several studies have shown that the numerical implementation of the physical processes of viscous flow produce a good fit with the observation of experiments in laboratory in both a quantitative and a qualitative way. When considering a process that is this far explored we can concentrate on its numerical transcription and the application of the code in a GPU accelerated environment to obtain a 3D simulation. The objective of providing a numerical solution in high resolution by NVIDIA-CUDA GPU parallel processing is to increase the speed of the simulation and the accuracy on the prediction. The main goal is to write an easily adaptable and as short as possible code on the widely used platform MATLAB, which will be translated to C-CUDA to achieve higher resolution and processing speed while running on a NVIDIA graphics card cluster. The numerical model, based on the finite difference scheme, is compared to analogue laboratory experiments. This way our numerical model parameters are adjusted to reproduce the effective movements observed by high-speed camera acquisitions during the laboratory experiments.
Numerical Simulations of the Digital Microfluidic Manipulation of Single Microparticles.
Lan, Chuanjin; Pal, Souvik; Li, Zhen; Ma, Yanbao
2015-09-01
Single-cell analysis techniques have been developed as a valuable bioanalytical tool for elucidating cellular heterogeneity at genomic, proteomic, and cellular levels. Cell manipulation is an indispensable process for single-cell analysis. Digital microfluidics (DMF) is an important platform for conducting cell manipulation and single-cell analysis in a high-throughput fashion. However, the manipulation of single cells in DMF has not been quantitatively studied so far. In this article, we investigate the interaction of a single microparticle with a liquid droplet on a flat substrate using numerical simulations. The droplet is driven by capillary force generated from the wettability gradient of the substrate. Considering the Brownian motion of microparticles, we utilize many-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD), an off-lattice mesoscopic simulation technique, in this numerical study. The manipulation processes (including pickup, transport, and drop-off) of a single microparticle with a liquid droplet are simulated. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects on the manipulation processes from the droplet size, wettability gradient, wetting properties of the microparticle, and particle-substrate friction coefficients. The numerical results show that the pickup, transport, and drop-off processes can be precisely controlled by these parameters. On the basis of the numerical results, a trap-free delivery of a hydrophobic microparticle to a destination on the substrate is demonstrated in the numerical simulations. The numerical results not only provide a fundamental understanding of interactions among the microparticle, the droplet, and the substrate but also demonstrate a new technique for the trap-free immobilization of single hydrophobic microparticles in the DMF design. Finally, our numerical method also provides a powerful design and optimization tool for the manipulation of microparticles in DMF systems. PMID:26241832
Numerical simulation of deformation and figure quality of precise mirror
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vit, Tomáš; Melich, Radek; Sandri, Paolo
2015-01-01
The presented paper shows results and a comparison of FEM numerical simulations and optical tests of the assembly of a precise Zerodur mirror with a mounting structure for space applications. It also shows how the curing of adhesive film can impact the optical surface, especially as regards deformations. Finally, the paper shows the results of the figure quality analysis, which are based on data from FEM simulation of optical surface deformations.
Direct numerical simulation of compressible free shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lele, Sanjiva K.
1989-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of compressible free shear layers in open domains are conducted. Compact finite-difference schemes of spectral-like accuracy are used for the simulations. Both temporally-growing and spatially-growing mixing layers are studied. The effect of intrinsic compressibility on the evolution of vortices is studied. The use of convective Mach number is validated. Details of vortex roll up and pairing are studied. Acoustic radiation from vortex roll up, pairing and shape oscillations is studied and quantified.
Numerical simulations and modeling for stochastic biological systems with jumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Xiaoling; Wang, Ke
2014-05-01
This paper gives a numerical method to simulate sample paths for stochastic differential equations (SDEs) driven by Poisson random measures. It provides us a new approach to simulate systems with jumps from a different angle. The driving Poisson random measures are assumed to be generated by stationary Poisson point processes instead of Lévy processes. Methods provided in this paper can be used to simulate SDEs with Lévy noise approximately. The simulation is divided into two parts: the part of jumping integration is based on definition without approximation while the continuous part is based on some classical approaches. Biological explanations for stochastic integrations with jumps are motivated by several numerical simulations. How to model biological systems with jumps is showed in this paper. Moreover, method of choosing integrands and stationary Poisson point processes in jumping integrations for biological models are obtained. In addition, results are illustrated through some examples and numerical simulations. For some examples, earthquake is chose as a jumping source which causes jumps on the size of biological population.
Numerical Simulation of Flow-Induced Structure in Complex Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Takehiro
2007-04-01
It is important to investigate the flow-induced structure for the analysis of the mechanism of flow behavior of complex fluids. The present paper includes two topics in which the flow-induced structure is numerically investigated. The first topic treats the suspensions of disc-like particles under simple shear flows. Disc-like particles were modeled by oblate spheroid particles, and the Brownian dynamics simulation was performed for suspensions of the particles interacting via the Gay-Berne potential. This simulation confirmed that this model system was applicable to the analysis of flow of suspension of disc-like particles. The second one is the numerical simulation of the deformation behavior of a droplet in shear flows. The present simulation is the first step for the numerical simulation of the flow-induced structure in emulsions. This simulation can demonstrate the deformation behavior of droplet observed in experiments and predict effects of non-Newtonian property of fluids on the droplet deformation.
Numerical simulation of piezoelectric effect of bone under ultrasound irradiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosokawa, Atsushi
2015-07-01
The piezoelectric effect of bone under ultrasound irradiation was numerically simulated using an elastic finite-difference time-domain method with piezoelectric constitutive equations (PE-FDTD method). First, to demonstrate the validity of the PE-FDTD method, the ultrasound propagation in piezoelectric ceramics was simulated and then compared with the experimental results. The simulated and experimental waveforms propagating through the ceramics were in good agreement. Next, the piezoelectric effect of human cortical bone on the ultrasound propagation was investigated by PE-FDTD simulation. The simulated result showed that the difference between the waveforms propagating through the bone without and with piezoelectricity was negligible. Finally, the spatial distributions of the electric fields in a human femur induced by ultrasound irradiation were simulated. The electric fields were changed by a bone fracture, which depended on piezoelectric anisotropy. In conclusion, the PE-FDTD method is considered to be useful for investigating the piezoelectric effect of bone.
Numerical simulation of flow in Brush Creek Valley, Colorado
Leone, J.M. Jr.; Lee, R.L.
1987-06-01
In this paper, we present some results from our three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic, finite element model applied to simulations of flow in Brush Creek Valley. These simulations are not intended to reproduce any particular experiment, but rather are to evaluate the qualitative performance of the model, to explore the major difficulties involved, and to begin sensitivity studies of the flows of interest. 2 refs., 11 figs.
An 8-node tetrahedral finite element suitable for explicit transient dynamic simulations
Key, S.W.; Heinstein, M.W.; Stone, C.M.
1997-12-31
Considerable effort has been expended in perfecting the algorithmic properties of 8-node hexahedral finite elements. Today the element is well understood and performs exceptionally well when used in modeling three-dimensional explicit transient dynamic events. However, the automatic generation of all-hexahedral meshes remains an elusive achievement. The alternative of automatic generation for all-tetrahedral finite element is a notoriously poor performer, and the 10-node quadratic tetrahedral finite element while a better performer numerically is computationally expensive. To use the all-tetrahedral mesh generation extant today, the authors have explored the creation of a quality 8-node tetrahedral finite element (a four-node tetrahedral finite element enriched with four midface nodal points). The derivation of the element`s gradient operator, studies in obtaining a suitable mass lumping and the element`s performance in applications are presented. In particular, they examine the 80node tetrahedral finite element`s behavior in longitudinal plane wave propagation, in transverse cylindrical wave propagation, and in simulating Taylor bar impacts. The element only samples constant strain states and, therefore, has 12 hourglass modes. In this regard, it bears similarities to the 8-node, mean-quadrature hexahedral finite element. Given automatic all-tetrahedral meshing, the 8-node, constant-strain tetrahedral finite element is a suitable replacement for the 8-node hexahedral finite element and handbuilt meshes.
Hybrid Numerical Methods for Multiscale Simulations of Subsurface Biogeochemical Processes
Scheibe, Timothy D.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Redden, George D.; Meakin, Paul
2007-08-01
Many subsurface flow and transport problems of importance today involve coupled non-linear flow, transport, and reaction in media exhibiting complex heterogeneity. In particular, problems involving biological mediation of reactions fall into this class of problems. Recent experimental research has revealed important details about the physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms involved in these processes at a variety of scales ranging from molecular to laboratory scales. However, it has not been practical or possible to translate detailed knowledge at small scales into reliable predictions of field-scale phenomena important for environmental management applications. A large assortment of numerical simulation tools have been developed, each with its own characteristic scale including molecular (e.g., molecular dynamics), microbial (e.g., cellular automata or particle individual-based models), pore (e.g., lattice-Boltzmann, pore network models, and discrete particle methods such as smoothed particle hydrodynamics) and continuum scales (e.g., traditional partial differential equations solved by finite difference or finite element methods). While many problems can be effectively addressed by one of these models at a single scale, some problems may require explicit integration of models across multiple scales. We are developing a hybrid multi-scale subsurface reactive transport modeling framework that integrates models with diverse representations of physics, chemistry and biology at different scales (sub-pore, pore and continuum). The modeling framework is being designed to take advantage of advanced computational technologies including parallel code components using the Common Component Architecture, parallel solvers, gridding, data and workflow management, and visualization. This paper describes the specific methods/codes being used at each scale, techniques used to directly and adaptively couple across model scales, and preliminary results of application to a
Numerical simulation of turbulence and sediment transport of medium sand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmeeckle, Mark W.
2014-06-01
A model of sand transport in water is produced by combining a turbulence-resolving large eddy simulation (LES) with a discrete element model (DEM) prescribing the motion of individual grains of medium sand. The momentum effect of each particle on the fluid is calculated at the LES cell containing the particle, and the fluid velocity and pressure, interpolated to each particle center, is used to derive fluid force on each particle in the DEM. Eleven numerical experiments are conducted of an initially flat bed of particles. The experiments span a range of motion, from essentially no motion to vigorous suspension. Hydraulic roughness is found to increase abruptly at the transition from bed load to suspended load transport. Suspended sediment extracts momentum from the flow and decreases the rate of shear. Whereas, slightly higher in the flow, vertical drag by suspended grains damps turbulence and increases the rate of shear. Vertical sediment diffusivity and effective particle settling velocity are much smaller than is commonly assumed in suspended sediment models. The bed load experiments suggest that saltation by itself is a poor model of bed load sand transport. In contrast to expectations from saltation models, the peak bed load flux occurs at essentially the same level as the bed, and grains move slowly in frequent contact with other grains. Higher- and faster-moving bed load grains that can be considered to be in saltation represent a smaller portion of the total flux. Entrainment of bed load grains occurs in response to fluid penetration of the bed by high-vorticity turbulence structures embedded within broader high speed fluid regions referred to as a sweeps or high-speed wedges.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL TUFT CORONA AND ELECTROHYDRODYNAMICS
The numerical simulation of three-dimensional tuft corona and electrohydrodynamics (EHD) is discussed. The importance of high-voltage and low-current operation in the wire-duct precipitator has focused attention on collecting high-resistivity dust. The local current density of in...
Numerical Simulation of the Perrin-Like Experiments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mazur, Zygmunt; Grech, Dariusz
2008-01-01
A simple model of the random Brownian walk of a spherical mesoscopic particle in viscous liquids is proposed. The model can be solved analytically and simulated numerically. The analytic solution gives the known Einstein-Smoluchowski diffusion law r[superscript 2] = 2Dt, where the diffusion constant D is expressed by the mass and geometry of a…
Numerical Simulation and Cold Modeling experiments on Centrifugal Casting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keerthiprasad, Kestur Sadashivaiah; Murali, Mysore Seetharam; Mukunda, Pudukottah Gopaliengar; Majumdar, Sekhar
2011-02-01
In a centrifugal casting process, the fluid flow eventually determines the quality and characteristics of the final product. It is difficult to study the fluid behavior here because of the opaque nature of melt and mold. In the current investigation, numerical simulations of the flow field and visualization experiments on cold models have been carried out for a centrifugal casting system using horizontal molds and fluids of different viscosities to study the effect of different process variables on the flow pattern. The effects of the thickness of the cylindrical fluid annulus formed inside the mold and the effects of fluid viscosity, diameter, and rotational speed of the mold on the hollow fluid cylinder formation process have been investigated. The numerical simulation results are compared with corresponding data obtained from the cold modeling experiments. The influence of rotational speed in a real-life centrifugal casting system has also been studied using an aluminum-silicon alloy. Cylinders of different thicknesses are cast at different rotational speeds, and the flow patterns observed visually in the actual castings are found to be similar to those recorded in the corresponding cold modeling experiments. Reasonable agreement is observed between the results of numerical simulation and the results of cold modeling experiments with different fluids. The visualization study on the hollow cylinders produced in an actual centrifugal casting process also confirm the conclusions arrived at from the cold modeling experiments and numerical simulation in a qualitative sense.
A review of numerical simulation of hydrothermal systems.
Mercer, J.W.; Faust, C.R.
1979-01-01
Many advances in simulating single and two-phase fluid flow and heat transport in porous media have recently been made in conjunction with geothermal energy research. These numerical models reproduce system thermal and pressure behaviour and can be used for other heat-transport problems, such as high-level radioactive waste disposal and heat-storage projects. -Authors
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF NATURAL GAS-SWIRL BURNER
Ala Qubbaj
2005-03-01
A numerical simulation of a turbulent natural gas jet diffusion flame at a Reynolds number of 9000 in a swirling air stream is presented. The numerical computations were carried out using the commercially available software package CFDRC. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The thermal, composition, flow (velocity), as well as stream function fields for both the baseline and air-swirling flames were numerically simulated in the near-burner region, where most of the mixing and reactions occur. The results were useful to interpret the effects of swirl in enhancing the mixing rates in the combustion zone as well as in stabilizing the flame. The results showed the generation of two recirculating regimes induced by the swirling air stream, which account for such effects. The present investigation will be used as a benchmark study of swirl flow combustion analysis as a step in developing an enhanced swirl-cascade burner technology.
Numerical modelling of granular subglacial deformation using the discrete element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Larsen, Nicolaj K.
2013-04-01
We apply the Discrete Element Method (DEM) to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to warm-based subglacial environments. As a method of validation of the simulated macromechanical behavior, and as a calibration benchmark, we compare results from successive laboratory ring-shear experiments on simple granular materials to results from similar numerical experiments. Overall, there is good agreement between the geotechnical behavior of the materials in the analogue and numerical experiments, and materials deform by an elasto-plastic rheology under the applied effective normal stress and shear velocity. By using the numerical approach it is possible to make a detailed analysis of the material dynamics and shear zone development during progressive shear strain. By visualizing the particles according to the sum of contact forces exerted onto them, the geometry of the heterogeneous stress network is visible in the form of force-carrying grain bridges and adjacent, volumetrically dominant, inactive zones. We demonstrate how the shear zone thickness and dilation is dependent on the effective deviatoric normal stress, where higher stresses mobilize material to greater depths. The data-parallel nature of the basic DEM formulation makes the problem ideal for utilizing the high arithmetic potential of modern general-purpose GPU's. Using the Nvidia Cuda C toolkit, the algorithm is formulated for spherical particles in three dimensions with a linear-elastic soft-body contact model.
Numerical algorithms for finite element computations on arrays of microprocessors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ortega, J. M.
1981-01-01
The development of a multicolored successive over relaxation (SOR) program for the finite element machine is discussed. The multicolored SOR method uses a generalization of the classical Red/Black grid point ordering for the SOR method. These multicolored orderings have the advantage of allowing the SOR method to be implemented as a Jacobi method, which is ideal for arrays of processors, but still enjoy the greater rate of convergence of the SOR method. The program solves a general second order self adjoint elliptic problem on a square region with Dirichlet boundary conditions, discretized by quadratic elements on triangular regions. For this general problem and discretization, six colors are necessary for the multicolored method to operate efficiently. The specific problem that was solved using the six color program was Poisson's equation; for Poisson's equation, three colors are necessary but six may be used. In general, the number of colors needed is a function of the differential equation, the region and boundary conditions, and the particular finite element used for the discretization.
Surrogates for numerical simulations; optimization of eddy-promoter heat exchangers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patera, Anthony T.; Patera, Anthony
1993-01-01
Although the advent of fast and inexpensive parallel computers has rendered numerous previously intractable calculations feasible, many numerical simulations remain too resource-intensive to be directly inserted in engineering optimization efforts. An attractive alternative to direct insertion considers models for computational systems: the expensive simulation is evoked only to construct and validate a simplified, input-output model; this simplified input-output model then serves as a simulation surrogate in subsequent engineering optimization studies. A simple 'Bayesian-validated' statistical framework for the construction, validation, and purposive application of static computer simulation surrogates is presented. As an example, dissipation-transport optimization of laminar-flow eddy-promoter heat exchangers are considered: parallel spectral element Navier-Stokes calculations serve to construct and validate surrogates for the flowrate and Nusselt number; these surrogates then represent the originating Navier-Stokes equations in the ensuing design process.
Direct numerical simulations of the elliptic instability of a vortex pair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laporte, F.; Corjon, A.
2000-05-01
The objective of this study is to perform direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the three-dimensional short-wavelength elliptic instability developing in a counter-rotating vortex pair, and to reproduce numerically a water-tank experiment. The main features of the elliptic instability are recovered by the simulations. In particular, the spatial structure and the temporal evolution of the most amplified perturbation mode during the linear regime correspond to both experimental measurements and theoretical predictions. The long-term evolution is also simulated, and the stages leading to transition to turbulence are described. Some elements resulting from simulations related to the interaction between the short-wavelength elliptic instability and the long-wavelength Crow instability are provided.
Numerical simulation studies of unsteady low Reynolds number separated flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tatineni, Mahidhar
Numerical simulations were used to study unsteady low-Reynolds-number separated flows. The studies were focused on the instability of the separation bubbles, the associated vortex shedding, and the response to imposed disturbances. The simulations were performed for separation bubbles in both low Mach number compressible and incompressible flow regimes. The compressible study consisted of unsteady simulations of flows over the Eppler 387 airfoil and the APEX airfoil. For a sufficiently high Reynolds number the simulations showed that the flow over the airfoils is inherently unsteady, with associated vortex shedding. A Fourier analysis of the unsteady flowfield revealed the presence of a dominant frequency in the flow. The dominant frequency from the numerical solution was found to agree with the most unstable frequency calculated using linear stability theory. The vortex shedding was shown to be caused by the growth of the disturbance waves corresponding to the dominant mode calculated from the linear stability analysis. In order to study the separation bubble and the vortex shedding in detail, a simpler two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) incompressible flow over a flat plate was considered. The onset of self excited vortex shedding, and the response of the separation bubble to 2-D and 3-D disturbances was studied in detail through numerical simulations. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations were solved using a fifth order finite difference scheme for spatial discretization and a fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme for time advancement. A new high-order nonuniform grid finite difference scheme was also developed for the simulations. The incompressible simulation results showed that it was possible to induce vortex shedding by imposing disturbances upstream of the separation bubble. For a sufficiently large freestream velocity gradient the separation bubble was globally unstable, leading to a growth in the size of the separation bubble and the
Numerical relativity simulations in the era of the Einstein Telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hannam, Mark; Hawke, Ian
2011-02-01
Numerical-relativity (NR) simulations of compact binaries are expected to be an invaluable tool in gravitational-wave astronomy. The sensitivity of future detectors such as the Einstein Telescope (ET) will place much higher demands on NR simulations than first- and second-generation ground-based detectors. We discuss the issues facing compact-object simulations over the next decade, with an emphasis on estimating where the accuracy and parameter space coverage will be sufficient for ET and where significant work is needed.
Collapse of a Liquid Column: Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruchaga, Marcela A.; Celentano, Diego J.; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.
2007-03-01
This paper is focused on the numerical and experimental analyses of the collapse of a liquid column. The measurements of the interface position in a set of experiments carried out with shampoo and water for two different initial column aspect ratios are presented together with the corresponding numerical predictions. The experimental procedure was found to provide acceptable recurrence in the observation of the interface evolution. Basic models describing some of the relevant physical aspects, e.g. wall friction and turbulence, are included in the simulations. Numerical experiments are conducted to evaluate the influence of the parameters involved in the modeling by comparing the results with the data from the measurements. The numerical predictions reasonably describe the physical trends.
Numerical simulation of turbulence and sediment transport of medium sand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmeeckle, M. W.
2012-12-01
Eleven numerical simulations, ranging from no transport to bedload to vigorous suspension transport, are presented of a combined large eddy simulation (LES) and distinct element model (DEM) of an initially flat bed of medium sand. The fluid and particles are fully coupled in momentum. The friction coefficient, defined here as the squared ratio of the friction velocity to the depth-averaged velocity, is in good agreement with well-known rough bed relations at no transport and increases with the intensity of bedload transport. The friction coefficient nearly doubles in value at the onset of sediment suspension owing to a rapid increase of the depth over which particles and fluid exchange momentum. The friction coefficient decreases with increasing suspension intensity because of increasingly stable stratification. Fluid Reynolds stress and time-averaged velocity profiles in the bedload regime agree well with previous experiments and simulations. Also consistent with previous studies of suspended sediment, there is an increase in slope of the lower portion of the velocity profile that has been modeled in the past using stably stratified eddy viscosity closures or an adjusted von Karman constant. Stokes numbers in the simulations, using an estimated lagrangian integral time scale, are less than unity. As such, particles faithfully follow the fluid, except for particle settling and grain-grain interactions near the bed. Fluid-particle velocity correlation coefficients approach one in portions of the flow where volumetric sediment concentrations are below about ten percent. Bedload entrainment is critically connected to vertical velocity fluctuations. When a fluid packet approaches the bed from the interior of the flow (i.e. a sweep), fluid is forced into the bed, and at the edges of the sweep, fluid is forced out of the bed. Much of the particle entrainment occurs at these sweep edges. Fluid velocity statistics following the particles reveal that moving bedload
The Role of Numerical Simulation in Advancing Plasma Propulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turchi, P. J.; Mikellides, P. G.; Mikellides, I. G.
1999-11-01
Plasma thrusters often involve a complex set of interactions among several distinct physical processes. While each process can yield to separate mathematical representation, their combination generally requires numerical simulation. We have extended and used the MACH2 code successfully to simulate both self-field and applied-field magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters and, more recently, ablation-fed pulsed plasma microthrusters. MACH2 provides a framework in which to compute 2-1/2 dimensional, unsteady, MHD flows in two-temperature LTE. It couples to several options for electrical circuitry and allows access to both analytic formulas and tabular values for material properties and transport coefficients, including phenomenological models for anomalous transport. Even with all these capabilities, however, successful modeling demands comparison with experiment and with analytic solutions in idealized limits, and careful combination of MACH2 results with separate physical reasoning. Although well understood elsewhere in plasma physics, the strengths and limitations of numerical simulation for plasma propulsion needs further discussion.
Numerical simulation of three-dimensional self-gravitating flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, J. V.
1994-01-01
The three-dimensional flow of a self-gravitating fluid is numerically simulated using a Fourier pseudospectral method with a logarithmic variable formulation. Two cases with zero total angular momentum are studied in detail, a 32(exp 3) simulation (Run A) and a 64(exp 3) simulation (Run B). Other than the grid size, the primary differences between the two cases are that Run A modeled atomic hydrogen and had considerably more compressible motion initially than Run B, which modeled molecular hydrogen. ('Compressible motion' is that part of the velocity which has zero curl, but non-zero divergence). The numerical results indicate that gravitational collapse can proceed in a variety of ways. In Run A, collapse led to an elongated tube-like structure, while in Run B, collapse led to a flatter, disk-like structure.
An Innovative Ski-Boot: Design, Numerical Simulations and Testing
Corazza, Stefano; Cobelli, Claudio
2005-01-01
The present work is concerned with the design of an innovative ski-boot. In order to optimize ergonomics and biomechanical behavior of the ski-boot it is important to take into account the orientation of the leg with respect to the ground. The SGS system (Stance Geometry System) developed in this work allows the skier to adjust for posture in the frontal plane by rotating the sole of the boot about the antero-posterior axis (ski-boot is then locked in the desired position before skiing). A simplified model of the effect of ski-boot deformation on skiing behavior is used to evaluate the minimal stiffness the system must have. An experimental analysis on the ski slopes was carried out to provide ski-boot deformations and loading data in different skiing conditions, to be used in numerical simulations. Finite Elements Method (FEM) simulations were performed for optimal design of the joint between ski-boot and sole. The active loads and local ski-boot deformations during small- and large-radius turns were experimentally determined and used to validate a FEM model of the ski-boot. The model was used to optimize the design for maximum stiffness and to demonstrate the efficacy of virtual design supported by proper experimental data. Mean loads up to 164% body weight were measured on the outer ski during turning. The new SGS design system allows the adjustment of lateral stance before using the ski-boot, optimizing the ski-boot stiffness through FEM analysis. Innovative aspects of this work included not only the stance geometry system ski-boot but also the setup of a virtual design environment that was validated by experimental evidence. An entire dataset describing loads during skiing has been obtained. The optimized SGS ski-boot increases intrinsic knee stability due to proper adjustment of lateral stance, guaranteeing appropriate stiffness of the ski-boot system. Key Points Load acting during different phases of active skiing have been investigated in both qualitative
Configuration Management File Manager Developed for Numerical Propulsion System Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Follen, Gregory J.
1997-01-01
One of the objectives of the High Performance Computing and Communication Project's (HPCCP) Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is to provide a common and consistent way to manage applications, data, and engine simulations. The NPSS Configuration Management (CM) File Manager integrated with the Common Desktop Environment (CDE) window management system provides a common look and feel for the configuration management of data, applications, and engine simulations for U.S. engine companies. In addition, CM File Manager provides tools to manage a simulation. Features include managing input files, output files, textual notes, and any other material normally associated with simulation. The CM File Manager includes a generic configuration management Application Program Interface (API) that can be adapted for the configuration management repositories of any U.S. engine company.
Development of a carburizing and quenching simulation tool: numerical simulations of rings and gears
Anderson, C.; Godlman, P.; Rangaswamy, P.
1996-10-01
The ability to accurately calculate temperatures, stresses and metallurgical transformations in a single calculation or in a sequence of calculations is the key to prediction of distortion, residual stress and phase distribution in quench hardened automotive parts. Successful predictions in turn rely on the adequacy of the input data to the calculational procedure. These data include mechanical and thermal properties of the alloy phases over the range of temperature and strain rates experienced during the heat treat process, the mathematical description of the transformation kinetics, and the accuracy of the heat transfer boundary conditions. In this presentation we describe a calculational procedure using the ABAQUS{sup (1)} finite element code that simulates a carburizing and quench heat treat cycle for automotive gears. The calculational procedure features a numerically efficient 2-phase constitutive model, developed as part of the NCMS-Heat Treatment Distortion Prediction program, to represent transformational plasticity effects for the austenite/martensite Deformation together with refined finite element meshes to capture the steep gradients in stress and composition near the gear surfaces. The calculational procedure is illustrated on carburizing and quenching of a thick ring and comparison of model predictions for distortion, phase distribution, and residual stress with experimental measurements are discussed. Included in this model study is an investigation of the sensitivity of the predictions to mesh refinement.
Numerical simulation of damage evolution for ductile materials and mechanical properties study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Amri, A.; Hanafi, I.; Haddou, M. E. Y.; Khamlichi, A.
2015-12-01
This paper presents results of a numerical modelling of ductile fracture and failure of elements made of 5182H111 aluminium alloys subjected to dynamic traction. The analysis was performed using Johnson-Cook model based on ABAQUS software. The modelling difficulty related to prediction of ductile fracture mainly arises because there is a tremendous span of length scales from the structural problem to the micro-mechanics problem governing the material separation process. This study has been used the experimental results to calibrate a simple crack propagation criteria for shell elements of which one has often been used in practical analyses. The performance of the proposed model is in general good and it is believed that the presented results and experimental-numerical calibration procedure can be of use in practical finite-element simulations.
Numerical simulation of earth fissures due to groundwater withdrawal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, J.; Yu, J.; Gong, X.
2015-11-01
Excessive groundwater withdrawal can cause land subsidence and earth fissures. The initiation and propagation of earth fissures are related to tensile failure and crack propagation in soils. Based on fracture mechanics, the crack band model (CBM), one of the smear crack models which is relatively easy to construct and convenient to be integrated into standard finite element codes is used in this paper. The calculated results of CBM are less dependent on the sizes of finite elements. The model was applied to simulate the formation and propagation of earth fissures in the hydrostratigraphic units with a bedrock ridge. The simulated positions and patterns of earth fissures coincide with field observations, suggesting that the modeling approach is adept to simulate the initiation and propagation of earth fissures due to groundwater withdrawal.
Numerical simulation of shock interaction with above-ground structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baum, Joseph D.; Lohner, Rainald
1994-05-01
This final report for DNA contract DNA 001-89-C-0098 for the time period May 15, 1989 to Dec 31, 1992 describes the results of several of the computations conducted under this research effort. The numerical simulations conducted simulated shock wave diffraction phenomenon about complex-geometry two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures. Since a significant part of this effort was composed of parametric studies that have been delivered to the sponsors, the Defense Nuclear Agency and the Air Force Ballistic Missile Organization (BMO), and conducted under the now defunct Rail Garrison project, we included in this report a detailed description of the results of the major computations, and a brief summary of all the repetitive computations. The final report is divided into three sections. Chapter 1 describes in detail the two-dimensional numerical methodology and typical two-dimensional computation, i.e., the application of the numerical methodology to the simulation of shock interaction with a typical 2-D train (a 2-D cut at the center of a 3-D train). Chapter 2 describes the numerical development of a passive shock reflector, a major effort undertaken in this project. The objective of this effort was to design a passive device that, while allowing the ventilation of the enclosure under steady conditions, will prevent blast waves impinging on the wall from entering the enclosure when the structure is impacted by a shock.
CFD numerical simulation of air natural convection over a heated cylindrical surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flori, M.; Vîlceanu, L.
2015-06-01
In this study a CFD numerical simulation is used to describe the fluid flow and heat transfer in air surrounding a heated horizontal cylinder. The model is created in 2D space dimension involving a finite element solver of Navier-Stokes equations. As natural convection phenomenon is induced by a variable fluid density field with temperature rising, the Boussinesq approximation was coupled to the model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherniaev, Aleksandr; Telichev, Igor
2014-12-01
This paper presents a methodology for numerical simulation of the formation of the front wall damage in composite overwrapped pressure vessels under hypervelocity impact. Both SPH particles and Lagrangian finite elements were employed in combination for numerical simulations. Detailed numerical models implementing two filament winding patterns with different degree of interweaving were developed and used to simulate 2.5 km/s and 5.0 km/s impacts of 5 mm-diameter spherical aluminum-alloy projectile. Obtained results indicate that winding pattern may have a pronounced effect on vessel damage in case of orbital debris impact, influencing propagation of the stress waves in composite material.
Applications of numerical methods to simulate the movement of contaminants in groundwater.
Sun, N Z
1989-01-01
This paper reviews mathematical models and numerical methods that have been extensively used to simulate the movement of contaminants through the subsurface. The major emphasis is placed on the numerical methods of advection-dominated transport problems and inverse problems. Several mathematical models that are commonly used in field problems are listed. A variety of numerical solutions for three-dimensional models are introduced, including the multiple cell balance method that can be considered a variation of the finite element method. The multiple cell balance method is easy to understand and convenient for solving field problems. When the advection transport dominates the dispersion transport, two kinds of numerical difficulties, overshoot and numerical dispersion, are always involved in solving standard, finite difference methods and finite element methods. To overcome these numerical difficulties, various numerical techniques are developed, such as upstream weighting methods and moving point methods. A complete review of these methods is given and we also mention the problems of parameter identification, reliability analysis, and optimal-experiment design that are absolutely necessary for constructing a practical model. PMID:2695327
Thermal numerical simulator for laboratory evaluation of steamflood oil recovery
Sarathi, P.
1991-04-01
A thermal numerical simulator running on an IBM AT compatible personal computer is described. The simulator was designed to assist laboratory design and evaluation of steamflood oil recovery. An overview of the historical evolution of numerical thermal simulation, NIPER's approach to solving these problems with a desk top computer, the derivation of equations and a description of approaches used to solve these equations, and verification of the simulator using published data sets and sensitivity analysis are presented. The developed model is a three-phase, two-dimensional multicomponent simulator capable of being run in one or two dimensions. Mass transfer among the phases and components is dictated by pressure- and temperature-dependent vapor-liquid equilibria. Gravity and capillary pressure phenomena were included. Energy is transferred by conduction, convection, vaporization and condensation. The model employs a block centered grid system with a five-point discretization scheme. Both areal and vertical cross-sectional simulations are possible. A sequential solution technique is employed to solve the finite difference equations. The study clearly indicated the importance of heat loss, injected steam quality, and injection rate to the process. Dependence of overall recovery on oil volatility and viscosity is emphasized. The process is very sensitive to relative permeability values. Time-step sensitivity runs indicted that the current version is time-step sensitive and exhibits conditional stability. 75 refs., 19 figs., 19 tabs.
Numerical simulation of landfill aeration using computational fluid dynamics.
Fytanidis, Dimitrios K; Voudrias, Evangelos A
2014-04-01
The present study is an application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the numerical simulation of landfill aeration systems. Specifically, the CFD algorithms provided by the commercial solver ANSYS Fluent 14.0, combined with an in-house source code developed to modify the main solver, were used. The unsaturated multiphase flow of air and liquid phases and the biochemical processes for aerobic biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste were simulated taking into consideration their temporal and spatial evolution, as well as complex effects, such as oxygen mass transfer across phases, unsaturated flow effects (capillary suction and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity), temperature variations due to biochemical processes and environmental correction factors for the applied kinetics (Monod and 1st order kinetics). The developed model results were compared with literature experimental data. Also, pilot scale simulations and sensitivity analysis were implemented. Moreover, simulation results of a hypothetical single aeration well were shown, while its zone of influence was estimated using both the pressure and oxygen distribution. Finally, a case study was simulated for a hypothetical landfill aeration system. Both a static (steadily positive or negative relative pressure with time) and a hybrid (following a square wave pattern of positive and negative values of relative pressure with time) scenarios for the aeration wells were examined. The results showed that the present model is capable of simulating landfill aeration and the obtained results were in good agreement with corresponding previous experimental and numerical investigations. PMID:24525420
Numerical analysis of tire/contact pressure using finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pranoto, Sarwo Edy; Hidayat, Royan; Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Bayuseno, Athanasius P.
2016-04-01
The interaction between the road surface and vehicle's tire may significantly determine the stability of a vehicle. We could study the tire contact-pressure to road surfaces through a numerical simulation in this present study. In particular, the main purpose of the study was to present an illustration of the effect of the varied loads to the tire, which would affect the contact pressure on the road surface sand stress distribution on the tire by employing a commercial ABAQUS software, based on the finite element method. To make the process of data analysis easier, the tire was assumed to be made from natural rubber which composition consisted of 2 layers of the inner tire and 1 layer of carcass. In pre-conditions, the tire was given air pressure as much as 17 psi, and loads as much as 2 KN, 6 KN, and 10 KN; then, the air pressure was increased to be 30 psi; consequently, the simulation results of stress distribution and deformation on each of loads condition would be acquired. The simulation results indicated that the loads carried by the tire on the vehicle were an important factor to determine the tire-stress profile.
Simulation for the expansion of the wildfire with numerical weather simulation MM5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, K.; Honma, T.
2008-12-01
1. Background Frequent occurrence of wildfires all over the world is considered as one of major resources of greenhouse gases. For example, a lot of wildfires in Alaska occur in summer. Now, the satellites of NOAA and Terra/Aqua are watching the earth and the wildfire are detected. Of course, to detection wildfire is very important, but the influence on inhabitants is more important. Our purpose is to make the numerical simulation of the wildfire spread in the small area with numerical weather simulation MM5. We think this will be useful to help fire fighting and global environment such as the replace of CO2. 2. Numerical Wildfire Spread Simulation There are many type of the numerical simulation of wildfire spread. In our simulation, the wildfire velocity is based on the Rhothermel equation and other parts are made of the cell automata. The area of the wildfire is the uniform vegetation consisted of the boreal forest (Picea mariana). The main factor of the expansion speed is wind velocity and speed. The continuous change of the weather is simulated with regional meteorological simulation MM5. The real spread of the Boundary Fire are observed by Alaska Fire Service. In this study, we validate the simulation result with the AFS data. 3. The Simulation Results We are constructing the simulation with Boundary Fire in 2004 in central Alaska. MM5 is very useful to reconstruct or forecast the distribution of local weather. We show the examples of the results in the poster. 4. Conclusion We constructed the numerical simulation model of wildfire spread with numerical weather simulation MM5. The result of simulation is being verified by the observed data by AFS .
Numerical simulation of the flow field around a complete aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shang, J. S.; Scherr, S. J.
1986-01-01
The present effort represents a first attempt of numerical simulation of the flow field around a complete aircraft-like, lifting configuration utilizing the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical solution generated for the experimental aircraft concept X24C-10D at a Mach number of 5.95 not only exhibited accurate prediction of detailed flow properties but also of the integrated aerodynamic coefficients. In addition, the present analysis demonstrated that a page structure of data collected into cyclic blocks is an efficient and viable means for processing the Navier-Stokes equations on the CRAY XMP-22 computer with external memory device.
Graphics interfaces and numerical simulations: Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández, L.; González, A.; Salas, G.; Santillán, A.
2007-08-01
Preliminary results associated to the computational development and creation of the Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory (MVSO) are presented. Basically, the MVSO prototype consists of two parts: the first, related to observations that have been made during the past ten years at the Solar Observation Station (EOS) and at the Carl Sagan Observatory (OCS) of the Universidad de Sonora in Mexico. The second part is associated to the creation and manipulation of a database produced by numerical simulations related to solar phenomena, we are using the MHD ZEUS-3D code. The development of this prototype was made using mysql, apache, java and VSO 1.2. based GNU and `open source philosophy'. A graphic user interface (GUI) was created in order to make web-based, remote numerical simulations. For this purpose, Mono was used, because it is provides the necessary software to develop and run .NET client and server applications on Linux. Although this project is still under development, we hope to have access, by means of this portal, to other virtual solar observatories and to be able to count on a database created through numerical simulations or, given the case, perform simulations associated to solar phenomena.
Fish Pectoral Fin Hydrodynamics; Part II: Numerical Simulations and Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, H.; Madden, P. G.
2005-11-01
High-fidelity numerical simulations are being used to examine the key hydrodynamic features and thrust performance of the pectoral fin of a bluegill sunfish which is moving at a constant forward velocity. The numerical modeling approach employs a parallelized immersed boundary solver which can perform direct (DNS) or large-eddy simulation (LES) of flow past highly deformable bodies such as fish pectoral fins. The three-dimensional, time-dependent fin kinematics is obtained via a stereo-videographic technique and experiments also provide PIV data which is used to validate the numerical simulations. The primary objectives of the CFD effort are to quantify the thrust performance of the bluegill sunfish pectoral fin as well as to establish the mechanisms responsible for thrust production. Simulations show that the pectoral fin produces a relatively large amount of thrust at all phases in the fin motion while limiting the magnitude of the transverse forces. The motion of the fin produces a distinct system of connected vortices which are examined in detail in order to gain insight into the thrust producing mechanisms.
Numerical simulations of the thermoacoustic computed tomography breast imaging system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiser, William Lester, Jr.
A thermoacoustic wave is produced when an object absorbs energy and experiences a subsequent thermal expansion. We have developed a Thermoacoustic Computed Tomography (TACT) breast imaging system to exploit the thermoacoustic phenomena as a method of soft tissue imaging. By exposing the breast to short pulses of 434 MHz microwaves, ultrasonic pulses are generated and detected with a hemispherical transducer array submersed in a water bath. Filtering and back projecting the transducer signals generates a 3-D image that maps the localized microwave absorption properties of the breast. In an effort to understand the factors limiting image quality, the TACT system was numerically simulated. The simulations were used to generate the transducer signals that would be collected by the TACT system during a scan of an object. These simulated data streams were then fed into the system image reconstruction software to provide images of simulated phantoms. The effects of transducer diameter, transducer response, transducer array geometry and stimulating pulse width on the spatial and contrast resolution of the system were quantified using the simulations. The spatial resolution was highly dependent upon location in the imaging volume. This was due to the off axis response of transducers of finite aperture. Simulated data were compared with experimental data, obtained by imaging a parallel-piped resolution phantom, to verify the accuracy of the simulation code. A contrast-detail phantom was numerically simulated to determine the ability of the system to image spheres of diameters <1 cm with absorption values on the order of physiologic saline, when located in a background of noise. The results of the contrast-detail analysis were dependent on the location of the spheres in the imaging volume and the diameter of the simulated transducers. This work sets the foundation for the initial image quality studies of the TACT system. Improvements to the current imaging system, based on
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Xing-Jian; Meng, Guang; Peng, Juan-Chun
2006-11-01
The aim of this study is to investigate the efficiency of a system identification technique known as observer/Kalman filter identification (OKID) technique in the numerical simulation and experimental study of active vibration control of piezoelectric smart structures. Based on the structure responses determined by finite element method, an explicit state space model of the equivalent linear system is developed by employing OKID approach. The linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) algorithm is employed for controller design. The control law is then incorporated into the ANSYS finite element model to perform closed loop simulations. Therefore, the control law performance can be evaluated in the context of a finite element environment. Furthermore, a complete active vibration control system comprising the cantilever plate, the piezoelectric actuators, the accelerometers and the digital signal processor (DSP) board is set up to conduct the experimental investigation. A state space model characterizing the dynamics of the physical system is developed from experimental results using OKID approach for the purpose of control law design. The controller is then implemented by using a floating point TMS320VC33 DSP. Numerical examples by employing the proposed numerical simulation method, together with the experimental results obtained by using the active vibration control system, have demonstrated the validity and efficiency of OKID method in application of active vibration control of piezoelectric smart structures.
Applications of granular-dynamics numerical simulations to asteroid surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richardson, D. C.; Michel, P.; Schwartz, S. R.; Yu, Y.; Ballouz, R.-L.; Matsumura, S.
2014-07-01
Spacecraft images and indirect observations including thermal inertia measurements indicate most small bodies have surface regolith. Evidence of granular flow is also apparent in the images. This material motion occurs in very low gravity, therefore in a totally different gravitational environment than on the Earth. Upcoming sample-return missions to small bodies, and possible future manned missions, will involve interaction with the surface regolith, so it is important to develop tools to predict the surface response. We have added new capabilities to the N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav [1,2] that permit the simulation of granular dynamics, including multi-contact physics and friction forces, using the soft-sphere discrete-element method [3]. The numerical approach has been validated through comparison with laboratory experiments (e.g., [3,4]). (1) We carried out impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes under Earth's gravity [5] and compared the results to laboratory experiments [6] in support of JAXA's Hayabusa 2 asteroid sample-return mission. We tested different projectile shapes and confirmed that the 90-degree cone was the most efficient at excavating mass when impacting 5-mm-diameter glass beads. Results are sensitive to the normal coefficient of restitution and the coefficient of static friction. Preliminary experiments in micro-gravity for similar impact conditions show both the amount of ejected mass and the timescale of the impact process increase, as expected. (2) It has been found (e.g., [7,8]) that ''fresh'' (unreddened) Q-class asteroids have a high probability of recent planetary encounters (˜1 Myr; also see [9]), suggesting that surface refreshening may have occurred due to tidal effects. As an application of the potential effect of tidal interactions, we carried out simulations of Apophis' predicted 2029 encounter with the Earth to see whether regolith motion might occur, using a range of plausible material parameters
Numerical simulation of X-ray fluorescence production using MCNPX code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kyeong Ja; Park, Junghun Park
Numerical simulation for the production of X-ray fluorescence by an active X-ray spectrometer was accomplished by MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-particle eXtended) Code. Purpose of this study is to cross check between the simulation result and the actual measurement to validate the numerical simulation for prospective usage for various possible cases of measurements which are not easily accessible in a laboratory environment. This study was initiated as a conjunction of Phase A study for the SELENE-2 science payload proposed in 2011. The active X-ray Spectrometer includes an X-ray spectrometer and a pyroelectric crystal-used X-ray generator. For Phase A study, we used both XRS and XRG available from the commercial company, Amptek Inc. Numerical simulation is important to optimize both instrument design and geometry of measurement to perform the best measurement output of an experiment planned. The main purpose of this study is to understand the production of X-ray fluorescence by an active X-ray spectrometer which could be onboard for future planetary spacecraft. For the numerical simulation, we used the lunar simulant FSJ-1 composition, and the input parameters for X-ray flux and energy distribution were accessed from the information of the X-ray generator, Cool-X. The parameters for geometry setting were defined as the experimental setting used for the actual measurement. It was found that the spectrum of numerical simulation is compared well with the actual measurement at the laboratory setting with respect to the number of elements, peak counts, and energy spectrum. To find optimal distance and geometry settings toward the production of X-ray fluorescence, multiple simulations at various geometry settings are currently under investigation.
Simulation of guided wave propagation near numerical Brillouin zones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kijanka, Piotr; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Packo, Pawel
2016-04-01
Attractive properties of guided waves provides very unique potential for characterization of incipient damage, particularly in plate-like structures. Among other properties, guided waves can propagate over long distances and can be used to monitor hidden structural features and components. On the other hand, guided propagation brings substantial challenges for data analysis. Signal processing techniques are frequently supported by numerical simulations in order to facilitate problem solution. When employing numerical models additional sources of errors are introduced. These can play significant role for design and development of a wave-based monitoring strategy. Hence, the paper presents an investigation of numerical models for guided waves generation, propagation and sensing. Numerical dispersion analysis, for guided waves in plates, based on the LISA approach is presented and discussed in the paper. Both dispersion and modal amplitudes characteristics are analysed. It is shown that wave propagation in a numerical model resembles propagation in a periodic medium. Consequently, Lamb wave propagation close to numerical Brillouin zone is investigated and characterized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Lian; Li, Xu; Zhu, Shanan; He, Bin
2011-04-01
Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) was recently introduced as a noninvasive electrical conductivity imaging approach with high spatial resolution close to ultrasound imaging. In this study, we test the feasibility of the MAT-MI method for breast tumor imaging using numerical modeling and computer simulation. Using the finite element method, we have built three-dimensional numerical breast models with varieties of embedded tumors for this simulation study. In order to obtain an accurate and stable forward solution that does not have numerical errors caused by singular MAT-MI acoustic sources at conductivity boundaries, we first derive an integral forward method for calculating MAT-MI acoustic sources over the entire imaging volume. An inverse algorithm for reconstructing the MAT-MI acoustic source is also derived with spherical measurement aperture, which simulates a practical setup for breast imaging. With the numerical breast models, we have conducted computer simulations under different imaging parameter setups and all the results suggest that breast tumors that have large conductivity in contrast to the surrounding tissue as reported in the literature may be readily detected in the reconstructed MAT-MI images. In addition, our simulations also suggest that the sensitivity of imaging breast tumors using the presented MAT-MI setup depends more on the tumor location and the conductivity contrast between the tumor and its surrounding tissue than on the tumor size.
The experimental and numerical investigation of pistol bullet penetrating soft tissue simulant.
Wang, Yongjuan; Shi, Xiaoning; Chen, Aijun; Xu, Cheng
2015-04-01
Gelatin, a representative simulant for soft tissue of the human body, was used to study the effects of 9 mm pistol bullet's penetration. The behavior of a bullet penetrating gelatin was quantified by the temporary cavity sizes in ballistic gelatin and the pressure values of bullet's impact. A numerical simulation model of a bullet penetrating the soft tissue simulant gelatin was built using the finite element method (FEM). The model was validated by the comparison between the numerical results and the experimental results. During a bullet penetrating ballistic gelatin, four stages were clearly observed in both the experiment and the numerical simulation: a smooth attenuation stage, a rolling stage, a full penetration stage, and a stage of expansion and contraction. The cavity evolution, equivalent stress field and the strain field in gelatin were analyzed by numerical simulation. Moreover, the effects of the bullet's impact velocities and angles of incidence on the temporary cavity in gelatin, its velocity attenuation, and its rolling angle were investigated, as well as the bullet's resistance and energy variation. The physical process and the interactive mechanism during a pistol bullet penetrating gelatin were comprehensively revealed. This may be significant for research in wound ballistics. PMID:25747327
Lefrancois, A.; Hare, D.; L'Eplattenier, P.; Burger, M.
2006-02-13
Isentropic compression experiments and numerical simulations on LX-04 (HMX / Viton 85/15) were performed respectively at Z accelerator facility from Sandia National Laboratory and at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in order to study the isentrope and associated Hugoniot of this HE. 2D and 3D configurations have been calculated here to test the new beta version of the electromagnetism package coupled with the dynamics in Ls-Dyna and compared with the ICE Z shot 1067 on LX 04. The electromagnetism module is being developed in the general-purpose explicit and implicit finite element program LS-DYNA{reg_sign} in order to perform coupled mechanical/thermal/electromagnetism simulations. The Maxwell equations are solved using a Finite Element Method (FEM) for the solid conductors coupled with a Boundary Element Method (BEM) for the surrounding air (or vacuum). More details can be read in the references.
Numerical simulations of internal wave generation by convection in water.
Lecoanet, Daniel; Le Bars, Michael; Burns, Keaton J; Vasil, Geoffrey M; Brown, Benjamin P; Quataert, Eliot; Oishi, Jeffrey S
2015-06-01
Water's density maximum at 4°C makes it well suited to study internal gravity wave excitation by convection: an increasing temperature profile is unstable to convection below 4°C, but stably stratified above 4°C. We present numerical simulations of a waterlike fluid near its density maximum in a two-dimensional domain. We successfully model the damping of waves in the simulations using linear theory, provided we do not take the weak damping limit typically used in the literature. To isolate the physical mechanism exciting internal waves, we use the spectral code dedalus to run several simplified model simulations of our more detailed simulation. We use data from the full simulation as source terms in two simplified models of internal-wave excitation by convection: bulk excitation by convective Reynolds stresses, and interface forcing via the mechanical oscillator effect. We find excellent agreement between the waves generated in the full simulation and the simplified simulation implementing the bulk excitation mechanism. The interface forcing simulations overexcite high-frequency waves because they assume the excitation is by the "impulsive" penetration of plumes, which spreads energy to high frequencies. However, we find that the real excitation is instead by the "sweeping" motion of plumes parallel to the interface. Our results imply that the bulk excitation mechanism is a very accurate heuristic for internal-wave generation by convection. PMID:26172801
Numerical simulation of H2/air detonation using unstructured mesh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Togashi, Fumiya; Löhner, Rainald; Tsuboi, Nobuyuki
2009-06-01
To explore the capability of unstructured mesh to simulate detonation wave propagation phenomena, numerical simulation of H2/air detonation using unstructured mesh was conducted. The unstructured mesh has several adv- antages such as easy mesh adaptation and flexibility to the complicated configurations. To examine the resolution dependency of the unstructured mesh, several simulations varying the mesh size were conducted and compared with a computed result using a structured mesh. The results show that the unstructured mesh solution captures the detailed structure of detonation wave, as well as the structured mesh solution. To capture the detailed detonation cell structure, the unstructured mesh simulations required at least twice, ideally 5times the resolution of structured mesh solution.
Numerical simulation of cavitating turbulent flow through a Francis turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, L.; Liu, J. T.; Wu, Y. L.; Liu, S. H.
2012-11-01
The unsteady cavitating turbulent flow in a Francis turbine is simulated based on governing equations of the mixture model for cavity-liquid two-phase flows with the RNG k-epsilon turbulence model in the present paper. An improved mass transfer expression in the mixture model is obtained based on evaporation and condensation mechanics with considering the effects of the non-dissolved gas, the turbulence, the tension of interface at cavity and the effect of phase change rate and so on. The governing equations of the mixture model for the unsteady cavitating-liquid flow is solved by a direct coupling method numerically with the finite volume method (FVM) using the unstructured tetrahedron grid and the structured hexahedral grid system. This direct coupling simulation was successfully applied to simulate the cavitating two-phase turbulent flow through a Francis turbine. The simulated external results agreed well with the experimental results.
Numerical design of advanced multi-element airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mathias, Donovan L.; Cummings, Russell M.
1994-01-01
The current study extends the application of computational fluid dynamics to three-dimensional high-lift systems. Structured, overset grids are used in conjunction with an incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver to investigate flow over a two-element high-lift configuration. The computations were run in a fully turbulent mode using the one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model. The geometry consisted of an unswept wing which spanned a wind tunnel test section. Flows over full and half-span Fowler flap configurations were computed. Grid resolution issues were investigated in two dimensional studies of the flapped airfoil. Results of the full-span flap wing agreed well with experimental data and verified the method. Flow over the wing with the half-span was computed to investigate the details of the flow at the free edge of the flap. The results illustrated changes in flow streamlines, separation locations, and surface pressures due to the vortex shed from the flap edge.
Numerical Simulation of nZVI at the Field Scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chowdhury, A. I.; Krol, M.; Sleep, B. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.
2014-12-01
Nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) has been used at a number of contaminated sites over the last decade. At most of these sites, significant decreases in contaminant concentrations have resulted from the application of nZVI. However, limited work has been completed investigating nZVI mobility at the field-scale. In this study a three dimensional, three phase, finite difference numerical simulator (CompSim) was used to simulate nZVI and polymer transport in a variably saturated site. The model was able to accurately predict the field observed head data without parameter fitting. In addition, the numerical simulator estimated the amount of nZVI delivered to the saturated and unsaturated zones as well as the phase of nZVI (i.e., attached or aqueous phase). The simulation results showed that the injected slurry migrated radially outward from the injection well, and therefore nZVI transport was governed by injection velocity as well as viscosity of the injected solution. A suite of sensitivity analyses was performed to investigate the impact of different injection scenarios (e.g. different volume and injection rate) on nZVI migration. Simulation results showed that injection of a higher volume of nZVI delivered more iron particles at a given distance; however, not necessarily to a greater distance proportionate to the increase in volume. This study suggests that on-site synthesized nZVI particles are mobile in the subsurface and the numerical simulator can be a valuable tool for optimum design of nZVI applications.
A fast method of numerical quadrature for p-version finite element matrices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinnant, Howard E.
1993-01-01
A new technique of numerical quadrature especially suited for p-version finite element matrices is presented. This new technique separates the integrand into two parts, and numerically operates on each part separately. The objective of this scheme is to minimize the computational cost of integrating the entire element matrix as opposed to minimizing the cost of integrating a single function. The efficiency of the new technique is compared with Gaussian quadrature and found to take a small fraction of the computational effort.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jankovic, I.
2002-05-01
Flow and transport in porous formations are analyzed using numerical simulations. Hydraulic conductivity is treated as a spatial random function characterized by a probability density function and a two-point covariance function. Simulations are performed for a multi-indicator conductivity structure developed by Gedeon Dagan (personal communication). This conductivity structure contains inhomogeneities (inclusions) of elliptical and ellipsoidal geometry that are embedded in a homogeneous background. By varying the distribution of sizes and conductivities of inclusions, any probability density function and two-point covariance may be reproduced. The multi-indicator structure is selected since it yields simple approximate transport solutions (Aldo Fiori, personal communication) and accurate numerical solutions (based on the Analytic Element Method). The dispersion is examined for two conceptual models. Both models are based on the multi-indicator conductivity structure. The first model is designed to examine dispersion in aquifers with continuously varying conductivity. The inclusions in this model cover as much area/volume of the porous formation as possible. The second model is designed for aquifers that contain clay/sand/gravel lenses embedded in otherwise homogeneous background. The dispersion in both aquifer types is simulated numerically. Simulation results are compared to those obtained using simple approximate solutions. In order to infer transport statistics that are representative of an infinite domain using the numerical experiments, the inclusions are placed in a domain that was shaped as a large ellipse (2D) and a large spheroid (3D) that were submerged in an unbounded homogeneous medium. On a large scale, the large body of inclusions behaves like a single large inhomogeneity. The analytic solution for a uniform flow past the single inhomogeneity of such geometry yields uniform velocity inside the domain. The velocity differs from that at infinity and
Characterizing Electron Temperature Gradient Turbulence Via Numerical Simulation
Nevins, W M; Candy, J; Cowley, S; Dannert, T; Dimits, A; Dorland, W; Estrada-Mila, C; Hammett, G W; Jenko, F; Pueschel, M J; Shumaker, D E
2006-05-22
Numerical simulations of electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence are presented which characterize the ETG fluctuation spectrum, establish limits to the validity of the adiabatic ion model often employed in studying ETG turbulence, and support the tentative conclusion that plasmaoperating regimes exist in which ETG turbulence produces sufficient electron heat transport to be experimentally relevant. We resolve prior controversies regarding simulation techniques and convergence by benchmarking simulations of ETG turbulence from four microturbulence codes, demonstrating agreement on the electron heat flux, correlation functions, fluctuation intensity, and rms flow shear at fixed simulation cross section and resolution in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. Excellent convergence of both continuum and particle-in-cell codes with time step and velocity-space resolution is demonstrated, while numerical issues relating to perpendicular (to the magnetic field) simulation dimensions and resolution are discussed. A parameter scan in the magnetic shear, s, demonstrates that the adiabatic ion model is valid at small values of s (s < 0.4 for the parameters used in this scan) but breaks down at higher magnetic shear. A proper treatment employing gyrokinetic ions reveals a steady increase in the electron heat transport with increasing magnetic shear, reaching electron heat transport rates consistent with analyses of experimental tokamak discharges.
Numerical Simulation of Cast Distortion in Gas Turbine Engine Components
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inozemtsev, A. A.; Dubrovskaya, A. S.; Dongauser, K. A.; Trufanov, N. A.
2015-06-01
In this paper the process of multiple airfoilvanes manufacturing through investment casting is considered. The mathematical model of the full contact problem is built to determine stress strain state in a cast during the process of solidification. Studies are carried out in viscoelastoplastic statement. Numerical simulation of the explored process is implemented with ProCASTsoftware package. The results of simulation are compared with the real production process. By means of computer analysis the optimization of technical process parameters is done in order to eliminate the defect of cast walls thickness variation.
Direct numerical simulations of electrophoresis of charged colloids.
Kim, Kang; Nakayama, Yasuya; Yamamoto, Ryoichi
2006-05-26
We propose a numerical method to simulate electrohydrodynamic phenomena in charged colloidal dispersions. This method enables us to compute the time evolutions of colloidal particles, ions, and host fluids simultaneously by solving Newton, advection-diffusion, and Navier-Stokes equations so that the electrohydrodynamic couplings can be fully taken into account. The electrophoretic mobilities of charged spherical particles are calculated in several situations. The comparisons with approximation theories show quantitative agreements for dilute dispersions without any empirical parameters; however, our simulation predicts notable deviations in the case of dense dispersions. PMID:16803214
Numerical simulation of transition control in boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laurien, E.; Kleiser, L.
The transition process from laminar to turbulent boundary layers is simulated by numerical integration of the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Spatially periodic wave disturbances in a parallel Blasius flow are assumed. A spectral method with real-space Chebyshev collocation in the normal direction is employed. Both the classical K-type and the subharmonic type of transition are investigated. Good agreement with measurements and flow visualizations of transition experiments is obtained. Control of transition by wave superposition is simulated using periodic wall suction/blowing. It is shown that 2D control works well at an early stage but fails after significant 3D disturbances have developed.
Numerical Simulation of a Spatially Evolving Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatski, T. B.; Erlebacher, G.
2002-01-01
The results from direct numerical simulations of a spatially evolving, supersonic, flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow, with free-stream Mach number of 2.25 are presented. The simulated flow field extends from a transition region, initiated by wall suction and blowing near the inflow boundary, into the fully turbulent regime. Distributions of mean and turbulent flow quantities are obtained and an analysis of these quantities is performed at a downstream station corresponding to Re(sub x)= 5.548 x10(exp 6) based on distance from the leading edge.
Numerical simulation of the shock compaction of copper powder
Benson, D.J. ); Nellis, W.J. )
1994-07-10
The shock compaction of an aggregate of randomly distributed copper particles with a nonuniform size distribution is simulated using an Eulerian hydrocode. A shock Hugoniot for a copper powder is calculated from a series of shock compaction simulations and compared to experimental results. The powder particles are modeled as rods in two dimensions. The particle size distribution is generated from a representative powder size distribution via a simple Monte-Carlo method and is initially numerically packed to a dense powder compact using the pseudo-gravity method. [copyright] 1994 American Institute of Physics
Numerical simulation of the circulation of the atmosphere of Titan
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hourdin, F.; Levan, P.; Talagrand, O.; Courtin, Regis; Gautier, Daniel; Mckay, Christopher P.
1992-01-01
A three dimensional General Circulation Model (GCM) of Titan's atmosphere is described. Initial results obtained with an economical two dimensional (2D) axisymmetric version of the model presented a strong superrotation in the upper stratosphere. Because of this result, a more general numerical study of superrotation was started with a somewhat different version of the GCM. It appears that for a slowly rotating planet which strongly absorbs solar radiation, circulation is dominated by global equator to pole Hadley circulation and strong superrotation. The theoretical study of this superrotation is discussed. It is also shown that 2D simulations systemically lead to instabilities which make 2D models poorly adapted to numerical simulation of Titan's (or Venus) atmosphere.
Numerical simulation of three-dimensional tuft corona and electrohydrodynamics
Yamamoto, T.; Sparks, L.E.
1986-01-01
The numerical simulation of three-dimensional tuft corona and electrohydrodynamics (EHD) is discussed. The importance of high-voltage and low-current operation in the wire-duct precipitator has focused attention on collecting high-resistivity dust. The local current density of individual tufts is considerably higher even at a low average current level and, therefore, could contribute to both the formation of back corona in the collected-dust layer and the generation of the secondary flow. Numerical simulation for three-dimensional tuft corona is successfully solved. The electrical characteristics of tuft corona are investigated, and the structure and role of the three-dimensional secondary flow and EHD in relation to transport of the fine particles are described.
Development of a numerical simulation model of the cardiovascular system.
Geertsema, A A; Rakhorst, G; Mihaylov, D; Blanksma, P K; Verkerke, G J
1997-12-01
A numerical simulation model of the cardiovascular system has been developed. It consists of a model of the left atrium, the left ventricle, the coronary vascular system, the aorta, the arterial system, and the venous system. The input of the complete model is the elastance (pressure/volume ratio) developed by the left ventricle. The shape of this elastance is constant in different circumstances. Left ventricular (LV) myocardial oxygen consumption and the amount of oxygen offered to the left ventricle can be calculated with the model. The model has been validated using data from a patient suffering from coronary artery disease. The measured clinical hemodynamical waveforms could be fitted to those generated by the model. With the numerical simulation model, it is possible to predict the functioning of the left ventricle under different circumstances. This makes it possible to study in vitro various pathological clinical situations. PMID:9423983
Numerical aerodynamic simulation program long haul communications prototype
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cmaylo, Bohden K.; Foo, Lee
1987-01-01
This document is a report of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Long Haul Communications Prototype (LHCP). It describes the accomplishments of the LHCP group, presents the results from all LHCP experiments and testing activities, makes recommendations for present and future LHCP activities, and evaluates the remote workstation accesses from Langley Research Center, Lewis Research Center, and Colorado State University to Ames Research Center. The report is the final effort of the Long Haul (Wideband) Communications Prototype Plan (PT-1133-02-N00), 3 October 1985, which defined the requirements for the development, test, and operation of the LHCP network and was the plan used to evaluate the remote user bandwidth requirements for the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Processing System Network.
Simulating Prosthetic Heart Valve Hemodynamics: Numerical Model Development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Liang
2005-11-01
Since the first successful implantation of a prosthetic heart valve four decades ago, over 50 different designs have been developed including both mechanical and bio-prosthetic valves. Valve implants, however, are associated with increased risk of blood clotting, a trend which is believed to be linked to the complex hemodynamics induced by the prosthesis. To understand prosthetic valve hemodynamics under physiological conditions, we develop a numerical method capable of simulating flows in realistic prosthetic heart valves in anatomical geometries. The method employs a newly developed hybrid numerical technique that integrates the chimera overset grid approach with a Cartesian, sharp-interface immersed boundary methodology. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by applying it to simulate pulsatile flow in both bileaflet and tri-leaflet valves moving with prescribed leaflet kinematics.
Numerical simulation of asymmetric particle precipitation by pitch angle diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thorne, Richard M.; Abel, Robert W.; Summers, Danny
1996-11-01
A numerical simulation code is developed to evaluate the loss rate of particles trapped in a mirror magnetic field geometry with asymmetric loss cones. The one-dimensional model can accommodate particle diffusion at any prescribed rate and loss cones of any prescribed sizes, and it incorporates the important effect of atmospheric backscattering. Numerical solutions for the loss cone particle distribution function calculated for the case of equal loss cones provide an acceptable simulation of the well-known modified Bessel function solution. The code provides the first quantitative solutions for any specified rate of pitch angle scattering for the general case of arbitrary asymmetry in loss cone size. In the case of weak or moderate diffusion the ratio of particle precipitation fluxes into the two loss cones can provide a sensitive measurement of the rate of particle scattering, but to utilize this important diagnostic property, one must also have information on the fraction of particles that are backscattered from the atmosphere.
Numerical Relativity Simulations for Black Hole Merger Astrophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.
2010-01-01
Massive black hole mergers are perhaps the most energetic astronomical events, establishing their importance as gravitational wave sources for LISA, and also possibly leading to observable influences on their local environments. Advances in numerical relativity over the last five years have fueled the development of a rich physical understanding of general relativity's predictions for these events. Z will overview the understanding of these event emerging from numerical simulation studies. These simulations elucidate the pre-merger dynamics of the black hole binaries, the consequent gravitational waveform signatures ' and the resulting state, including its kick velocity, for the final black hole produced by the merger. Scenarios are now being considered for observing each of these aspects of the merger, involving both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic astronomy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, P.; Shi, D. Y.; Ying, L.; Shen, G. Z.; Chang, Y.; Liu, W. Q.
2013-05-01
Thermal-mechanical-transformation coupled theoretical model for hot stamping and rheological behavior of high strength steel at elevated temperatures were obtained through non-isothermal and isothermal tensile tests respectively in this work. The static explicit finite element equations for hot stamping were proposed based on thermal-mechanical-transformation coupled constitutive laws and nonlinear, large deformation analysis. According to these equations, the hot stamping module of KMAS (King Mesh Analysis System) was developed for the numerical simulation of sheet metal forming at elevated temperatures. Afterwards, the hot stamping simulation of a typical B-pillar conducted by the KMAS software was compared to the experiment. The comparison consists of the following sides: temperature distribution, thickness distribution and martensite fraction. The good agreement between numerical simulation and the experiment confirms that the multi-field coupled constitutive laws and the KMAS software can predict hot stamping process accurately.
Numerical Simulations of the Geodynamo and Scaling Laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oruba, L.; Dormy, E.
2013-12-01
State of the art numerical models of the Geodynamo are still performed in a parameter regime extremely remote from the values relevant to the physics of the Earth core. In order to establish a connection between dynamo modeling and the geophysical motivation, it is necessary to use scaling laws. Such laws establish the dependency of essential quantities (such as the magnetic field strength) on measured or controlled quantities. They allow for a direct confrontation of advanced models with geophysical constraints. We will present a detailed analysis of scaling laws based on a wide database of 185 direct numerical simulations (courtesy of U. Christensen) and test various existing scaling laws. Our main concern is to stress the risks of a direct numerical fit free from physical insight. We show that different a priori hypothesis can yield contradictory dependences, in particular concerning the dependence of the magnetic field strength on the rotation rate as well as on the viscosity.
Numerical simulation of shock wave diffraction by TVD schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, Victor Y. C.; Yee, H. C.
1987-01-01
An upwind total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme and a predictor-corrector symmetric TVD scheme were used to numerically simulate the blast wave diffraction on a stationary object. The objective is to help design an optimum configuration so that lateral motion is minimized and at the same time vortex shedding and flow separation are reduced during a blast wave encounter. Results are presented for a generic configuration for both a coarse grid and a fine grid to illustrate the global and local diffraction flow fields. Numerical experiments for the shock wave reflection on a wedge are also included to validate the current approach. Numerical study indicated that these TVD schemes are more stable and produced higher shock resolution than classical shock capturing methods such as the explicit MacCormack scheme.
Numerical simulation for the high performance industrial reheating furnace design
Murakami, Hideki; Saito, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Junnichi; Hida, Atsushi
1999-07-01
The high performance industrial furnace, providing significant energy savings, low pollutant emission and high control ability on heating, has been developing. For designing the process, numerical simulations of a slab reheating furnace, with the advanced combustion system adopting highly preheated air have been performed, using a three-dimensional unsteady mathematical model. An essential feature of the model is the incorporation of the three-dimensional turbulent model (LES) and the Radiative Energy Absorption Distribution (READ) method. Numerical results has been verified with experimental results, velocity data of a water-model and heat flux data of a large unit furnace. The results have been, also, visualized by the thermal particle method. The numerical results lead to the conclusion that the regenerative burner system developed has the large advantage of heating slabs uniformly in a wide reheating furnace, and suggest possibility of a compact reheating furnace.
Numerical model for learning concepts of streamflow simulation
DeLong, L.L.
1993-01-01
Numerical models are useful for demonstrating principles of open-channel flow. Such models can allow experimentation with cause-and-effect relations, testing concepts of physics and numerical techniques. Four PT is a numerical model written primarily as a teaching supplement for a course in one-dimensional stream-flow modeling. Four PT options particularly useful in training include selection of governing equations, boundary-value perturbation, and user-programmable constraint equations. The model can simulate non-trivial concepts such as flow in complex interconnected channel networks, meandering channels with variable effective flow lengths, hydraulic structures defined by unique three-parameter relations, and density-driven flow.The model is coded in FORTRAN 77, and data encapsulation is used extensively to simplify maintenance and modification and to enhance the use of Four PT modules by other programs and programmers.
Numerical Simulations of the Metallicity Distribution in Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies
Ripamonti, Emanuele; Tolstoy, E.; Helmi, A.; Battaglia, G.; Abel, T.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park
2006-12-12
Recent observations show that the number of stars with very low metallicities in the dwarf spheroidal satellites of the Milky Way is low, despite the low average metallicities of stars in these systems. We undertake numerical simulations of star formation and metal enrichment of dwarf galaxies in order to verify whether this result can be reproduced with ''standard'' assumptions. The answer is likely to be negative, unless some selection bias against very low metallicity stars is present in the observations.
Numerical simulation of flow in the wet scrubber for desulfurization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novosád, Jan; Vít, Tomáš
2015-05-01
This article deals with numerical simulation of flow and chemical reactions in absorber for desulfurization of flue-gas. The objective of the work is the investigation of effect of different nozzles types and their placement in spray layers. These nozzles distribute lime suspension into flue gas stream. The research includes two types of nozzles and four different arrangements of nozzles and spray layers. Conclusion describes the effect of nozzle types and their arrangements on the suspension concentration in absorber.
Numerical simulation of melting ice around a floating by microwaves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lakzian, Esmail; Parsian, Armin; Lakzian, Kazem
2016-03-01
In this paper a new method in using microwaves is provided for melting the ice around a floating equipment in a freezing condition in cold regions. The numerical simulation's results for validation are compared with the simple model's experimental data. Using microwave in melting the ice around a floating equipment is caused by lack of the mechanical wear, low energy dissipation factor and acceptable defrosting process speed in small lakes.
EXTENDED SCALING LAWS IN NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE
Mason, Joanne; Cattaneo, Fausto; Perez, Jean Carlos; Boldyrev, Stanislav E-mail: cattaneo@flash.uchicago.edu E-mail: boldyrev@wisc.edu
2011-07-10
Magnetized turbulence is ubiquitous in astrophysical systems, where it notoriously spans a broad range of spatial scales. Phenomenological theories of MHD turbulence describe the self-similar dynamics of turbulent fluctuations in the inertial range of scales. Numerical simulations serve to guide and test these theories. However, the computational power that is currently available restricts the simulations to Reynolds numbers that are significantly smaller than those in astrophysical settings. In order to increase computational efficiency and, therefore, probe a larger range of scales, one often takes into account the fundamental anisotropy of field-guided MHD turbulence, with gradients being much slower in the field-parallel direction. The simulations are then optimized by employing the reduced MHD equations and relaxing the field-parallel numerical resolution. In this work we explore a different possibility. We propose that there exist certain quantities that are remarkably stable with respect to the Reynolds number. As an illustration, we study the alignment angle between the magnetic and velocity fluctuations in MHD turbulence, measured as the ratio of two specially constructed structure functions. We find that the scaling of this ratio can be extended surprisingly well into the regime of relatively low Reynolds number. However, the extended scaling easily becomes spoiled when the dissipation range in the simulations is underresolved. Thus, taking the numerical optimization methods too far can lead to spurious numerical effects and erroneous representation of the physics of MHD turbulence, which in turn can affect our ability to identify correctly the physical mechanisms that are operating in astrophysical systems.
Boltzmann Fluctuations in Numerical Simulations of Nonequilibrium Lattice Threshold Systems
Rundle, J.B.; Klein, W.; Gross, S.; Turcotte, D.L.
1995-08-21
Nonequilibrium threshold systems such as slider blocks are now used to model a variety of dynamical systems, including earthquake faults, driven neural networks, and sliding charge density waves. We show that for general mean field models driven at low rates fluctuations in the internal energy field are characterized by Boltzmann statistics. Numerical simulations confirm this prediction. Our results indicate that mean field models can be effectively treated as equilibrium systems.
Numerical simulations of the decay of primordial magnetic turbulence
Kahniashvili, Tina; Brandenburg, Axel; Tevzadze, Alexander G.; Ratra, Bharat
2010-06-15
We perform direct numerical simulations of forced and freely decaying 3D magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in order to model magnetic field evolution during cosmological phase transitions in the early Universe. Our approach assumes the existence of a magnetic field generated either by a process during inflation or shortly thereafter, or by bubble collisions during a phase transition. We show that the final configuration of the magnetic field depends on the initial conditions, while the velocity field is nearly independent of initial conditions.
Numerical simulation of the blood flow in the human cardiovascular system.
Zácek, M; Krause, E
1996-01-01
This paper describes a numerical model of the human cardiovascular system. The model is composed of 15 elements connected in series representing the main parts of the system. Each element is composed of a rigid connecting tube and an elastic reservoir. The blood flow is described by a one-dimensional time-dependent Bernoulli equation. The action of the ventricles is simulated with a Hill's three-element model, adapted for the left and right heart. The closing of the four heart valves is simulated with the aid of time-dependent drag coefficients. Closing is achieved by letting the drag coefficient approach infinity. The resulting system of 32 non-linear ordinary differential equations is solved numerically with the Runge-Kutta method. The results of the simulation (pressure-time and volume-time dependence for the atria and ventricles and pressure forms in the aorta at a heart rate of 70 beats per minute) agree with the physiological data given in the literature. The model's input aortic impedance is 31.5 dyn s cm-5 which agrees with literature data given for aortic input impedance in man 26-80 dyn s cm-5). Long-term stability of the system was achieved. The cardiovascular system presented here can also be simulated at higher and varying heart rates--up to 200 beats per minute. The results of calculations for some pathological changes (e.g. valvular abnormalities) are discussed. PMID:8839013
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reckinger, Scott J.; Livescu, Daniel; Vasilyev, Oleg V.
2016-05-01
An investigation of compressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) requires efficient numerical methods, advanced boundary conditions, and consistent initialization in order to capture the wide range of scales and vortex dynamics present in the system, while reducing the computational impact associated with acoustic wave generation and the subsequent interaction with the flow. An advanced computational framework is presented that handles the challenges introduced by considering the compressive nature of RTI systems, which include sharp interfacial density gradients on strongly stratified background states, acoustic wave generation and removal at computational boundaries, and stratification dependent vorticity production. The foundation of the numerical methodology described here is the wavelet-based grid adaptivity of the Parallel Adaptive Wavelet Collocation Method (PAWCM) that maintains symmetry in single-mode RTI systems to extreme late-times. PAWCM is combined with a consistent initialization, which reduces the generation of acoustic disturbances, and effective boundary treatments, which prevent acoustic reflections. A dynamic time integration scheme that can handle highly nonlinear and potentially stiff systems, such as compressible RTI, completes the computational framework. The numerical methodology is used to simulate two-dimensional single-mode RTI to extreme late-times for a wide range of flow compressibility and variable density effects. The results show that flow compressibility acts to reduce the growth of RTI for low Atwood numbers, as predicted from linear stability analysis.
Numerical simulation of armored vehicles subjected to undercarriage landmine blasts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erdik, A.; Kilic, S. A.; Kilic, N.; Bedir, S.
2015-05-01
Landmine threats play a crucial role in the design of armored personnel carriers. Therefore, a reliable blast simulation methodology is valuable to the vehicle design development process. The first part of this study presents a parametric approach for the quantification of the important factors such as the incident overpressure, the reflected overpressure, the incident impulse, and the reflected impulse for the blast simulations that employ the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation. The effects of mesh resolution, mesh topology, and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) parameters are discussed. The simulation results are compared with the calculations of the more established CONventional WEaPons (CONWEP ) approach based on the available experimental data. The initial findings show that the spherical topology provides advantages over the Cartesian mesh domains. Furthermore, the FSI parameters play an important role when coarse Lagrangian finite elements are coupled with fine Eulerian elements at the interface. The optimum mesh topology and the mesh resolution of the parametric study are then used in the landmine blast simulation. The second part of the study presents the experimental blast response of an armored vehicle subjected to a landmine explosion under the front left wheel in accordance with the NATO AEP-55 Standard. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental measurements.
Zhang, Qiang; Li, Faqi; Feng, Ruo; Xu, Jianyi; Bai, Jin; Wang, Zhibiao; Wang, Yaojun
2003-04-01
Knowledge of the extent of the "heated necrosis element" from a single exposure in target tissue created by an ultrasonic beam is critical for the application of focal ultrasound (US) surgery (FUS). This study uses the O'Nell and Pennes formulas to simulate the heated necrosis element from an annular focused transducer and to examine its dependence on exposure dosage, as well as some design parameters of the transducer. Several conclusions may be drawn from our numerical results: 1. With increasing exposure, the heated necrosis element increases, but its contour becomes plumper and the influence of sound intensity I is found to be greater than that of the exposure time t. 2. To get a similar heated necrosis element, the exposure approximately satisfies a relation: It(0. 4 3)=constant. 3. Increasing the US frequency or the outer-radius of the annular transducer leads to a decrease in the heated necrosis volume. PMID:12749928
Transient productivity index for numerical well test simulations
Blanc, G.; Ding, D.Y.; Ene, A.
1997-08-01
The most difficult aspect of numerical simulation of well tests is the treatment of the Bottom Hole Flowing (BHF) Pressure. In full field simulations, this pressure is derived from the Well-block Pressure (WBP) using a numerical productivity index which accounts for the grid size and permeability, and for the well completion. This productivity index is calculated assuming a pseudo-steady state flow regime in the vicinity of the well and is therefore constant during the well production period. Such a pseudo-steady state assumption is no longer valid for the early time of a well test simulation as long as the pressure perturbation has not reached several grid-blocks around the well. This paper offers two different solutions to this problem: (1) The first one is based on the derivation of a Numerical Transient Productivity Index (NTPI) to be applied to Cartesian grids; (2) The second one is based on the use of a Corrected Transmissibility and Accumulation Term (CTAT) in the flow equation. The representation of the pressure behavior given by both solutions is far more accurate than the conventional one as shown by several validation examples which are presented in the following pages.
Numerical Simulation of Microbiological Growth in the Capillary Fringe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hron, P.; Jost, D.; Engwer, C.; Ippisch, O.; Bastian, P.
2012-04-01
The capillary fringe (CF) is a highly dynamic zone in a porous media at the interface between water-saturated aquifer and vadose zone, where steep biogeochemical gradients and thus high bioactivities are expected. In recent years, considerable effort has been undertaken to deepen the understanding of the physical (flow, diffusion, dispersion), geochemical (dissolution, precipitation) and biological (metabolism, excretion, biofilm formation) processes in the CF. We developed a numerical simulator for multiphase multicomponent flow in porous media which is able to consider simultaneously multiphase flow, component transport, phase exchange, geochemical reactions and microbiological processes. A splitting approach for phase transport, component transport and reaction/phase exchanges allows the usage of higher-order discretizations for the component transport. This reduces numerical dispersion significantly, which is especially important in the simulation of reactive flow. In a flow-through laboratory experiment performed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, within the project "Dynamic Capillary Fringes - A Multidisciplinary Approach", the oxygen phase transfer, the growth and the transport of a bacteria (green fluorescent Escherichia coli) were investigated. The results of numerical simulations of the E. coli growth in the CF with a high nutrient supply under steady-state and transient flow conditions are compared to the experimental data.
The numerical simulation based on CFD of hydraulic turbine pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, X. H.; Kong, F. Y.; Liu, Y. Y.; Zhao, R. J.; Hu, Q. L.
2016-05-01
As the functions of hydraulic turbine pump including self-adjusting and compensation with each other, it is far-reaching to analyze its internal flow by the numerical simulation based on CFD, mainly including the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump.The three-dimensional models of hydraulic turbine pump are made by Pro/Engineer software;the internal flow fields in hydraulic turbine and pump are simulated numerically by CFX ANSYS software. According to the results of the numerical simulation in design condition, the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump are analyzed respectively .The findings show that the static pressure decreases systematically and the pressure gradient is obvious in flow area of hydraulic turbine; the static pressure increases gradually in pump. The flow trace is regular in suction chamber and flume without spiral trace. However, there are irregular traces in the turbine runner channels which contrary to that in flow area of impeller. Most of traces in the flow area of draft tube are spiral.
Numerical Homogenization of Jointed Rock Masses Using Wave Propagation Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gasmi, Hatem; Hamdi, Essaïeb; Bouden Romdhane, Nejla
2014-07-01
Homogenization in fractured rock analyses is essentially based on the calculation of equivalent elastic parameters. In this paper, a new numerical homogenization method that was programmed by means of a MATLAB code, called HLA-Dissim, is presented. The developed approach simulates a discontinuity network of real rock masses based on the International Society of Rock Mechanics (ISRM) scanline field mapping methodology. Then, it evaluates a series of classic joint parameters to characterize density (RQD, specific length of discontinuities). A pulse wave, characterized by its amplitude, central frequency, and duration, is propagated from a source point to a receiver point of the simulated jointed rock mass using a complex recursive method for evaluating the transmission and reflection coefficient for each simulated discontinuity. The seismic parameters, such as delay, velocity, and attenuation, are then calculated. Finally, the equivalent medium model parameters of the rock mass are computed numerically while taking into account the natural discontinuity distribution. This methodology was applied to 17 bench fronts from six aggregate quarries located in Tunisia, Spain, Austria, and Sweden. It allowed characterizing the rock mass discontinuity network, the resulting seismic performance, and the equivalent medium stiffness. The relationship between the equivalent Young's modulus and rock discontinuity parameters was also analyzed. For these different bench fronts, the proposed numerical approach was also compared to several empirical formulas, based on RQD and fracture density values, published in previous research studies, showing its usefulness and efficiency in estimating rapidly the Young's modulus of equivalent medium for wave propagation analysis.
Numerical fracture simulation of compact and bend specimens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shivakumar, K. N.; Newman, J. C., Jr.
An elastic-plastic finite-element analysis with a critical crack-tip-opening displacement criterion was used to simulate fracture of various size compact and bend specimens made of HY-130 steel. From the calculated load-crack-extension and load-displacement curves, J-resistance (J-R) curves were determined by several methods. The simulated 3-R curves were insensitive to specimen size up to maximum load but were sensitive to specimen configuration for crack extensions greater than 10 percent of the initial uncracked ligament length.
Numerical fracture simulation of compact and bend specimens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, K. N.; Newman, J. C., Jr.
1988-01-01
An elastic-plastic finite-element analysis with a critical crack-tip-opening displacement criterion was used to simulate fracture of various size compact and bend specimens made of HY-130 steel. From the calculated load-crack-extension and load-displacement curves, J-resistance (J-R) curves were determined by several methods. The simulated 3-R curves were insensitive to specimen size up to maximum load but were sensitive to specimen configuration for crack extensions greater than 10 percent of the initial uncracked ligament length.
The Numerical Performance of Wavelets for PDEs: The Multi-Scale Finite Element
Christon, M.A.; Roach, D.W.
1998-12-23
The research summarized in this paper is part of a multiyear effort focused on evaluating the viability of wavelet bases for the solution of partial differential equations. The primary objective for this work has been to establish a foundation for hierarchical/wavelet simulation methods based upon numerical performance, computational efficiency, and the ability to exploit the hierarchical adaptive nature of wavelets. This work has demonstrated that hierarchical bases can be effective for problems with a dominant elliptic character. However, the strict enforcement of orthogonality in the usual L 2 sense is less desirable than orthogonality in the energy norm. This conclusion has led to the development of a multi-scale lineax finite element based on a hierarchical change-of-basis. This work considers the numerical and computational performance of the hierarchical Schauder basis in a Galerkin context. A unique row-column lumping procedure is developed with multi-scale solution strategies for 1-D and 2-D elliptic partial differential equations.
Zheng, Zhupeng; Lei, Ying; Xue, Xin
2014-01-01
Numerical simulation based on finite element method is conducted to predict the location of pitting corrosion in reinforced concrete. Simulation results show that it is feasible to predict corrosion monitoring based on ultrasonic guided wave in reinforced concrete, and wavelet analysis can be used for the extremely weak signal of guided waves due to energy leaking into concrete. The characteristic of time-frequency localization of wavelet transform is adopted in the corrosion monitoring of reinforced concrete. Guided waves can be successfully used to identify corrosion defects in reinforced concrete with the analysis of suitable wavelet-based function and its scale. PMID:25013865
Numerical Simulation of Monitoring Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete Based on Ultrasonic Guided Waves
Zheng, Zhupeng; Lei, Ying; Xue, Xin
2014-01-01
Numerical simulation based on finite element method is conducted to predict the location of pitting corrosion in reinforced concrete. Simulation results show that it is feasible to predict corrosion monitoring based on ultrasonic guided wave in reinforced concrete, and wavelet analysis can be used for the extremely weak signal of guided waves due to energy leaking into concrete. The characteristic of time-frequency localization of wavelet transform is adopted in the corrosion monitoring of reinforced concrete. Guided waves can be successfully used to identify corrosion defects in reinforced concrete with the analysis of suitable wavelet-based function and its scale. PMID:25013865
Comparison of symbolic and numerical integration methods for an assumed-stress hybrid shell element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rengarajan, Govind; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Aminpour, Mohammad A.
1993-01-01
Hybrid shell elements have long been regarded with reserve by the commercial finite element developers despite the high degree of reliability and accuracy associated with such formulations. The fundamental reason is the inherent higher computational cost of the hybrid approach as compared to the displacement-based formulations. However, a noteworthy factor in favor of hybrid elements is that numerical integration to generate element matrices can be entirely avoided by the use of symbolic integration. In this paper, the use of the symbolic computational approach is presented for an assumed-stress hybrid shell element with drilling degrees of freedom and the significant time savings achieved is demonstrated through an example.
Numerical simulations of localized high field 1H MR spectroscopy
Kaiser, Lana G.; Young, Karl; Matson, Gerald B.
2008-01-01
The limited bandwidths of volume selective RF pulses in localized in vivo MRS experiments introduce spatial artifacts that complicate spectral quantification of J-coupled metabolites. These effects are commonly referred to as a spatial interference or “4 compartment” artifacts and are more pronounced at higher field strengths. The main focus of this study is to develop a generalized approach to numerical simulations that combines full density matrix calculations with 3D localization to investigate the spatial artifacts and to provide accurate prior knowledge for spectral fitting. Full density matrix calculations with 3D localization using experimental pulses were carried out for PRESS (TE=20, 70 ms), STEAM (TE=20, 70 ms) and LASER (TE=70 ms) pulse sequences and compared to non-localized simulations and to phantom solution data at 4 Tesla. Additional simulations at 1.5 and 7 Tesla were carried out for STEAM and PRESS (TE=20 ms). Four brain metabolites that represented a range from weak to strong J-coupling networks were included in the simulations (lactate, N-acetylaspartate, glutamate and myo-inositol). For longer TE, full 3D localization was necessary to achieve agreement between the simulations and phantom solution spectra for the majority of cases in all pulse sequence simulations. For short echo time (TE=20 ms), ideal pulses without localizing gradients gave results that were in agreement with phantom results at 4 T for STEAM, but not for PRESS (TE=20). Numerical simulations that incorporate volume localization using experimental RF pulses are shown to be a powerful tool for generation of accurate metabolic basis sets for spectral fitting and for optimization of experimental parameters. PMID:18789736
Numerical Quadrature and Operator Splitting in Finite Element Methods for Cardiac Electrophysiology
Krishnamoorthi, Shankarjee; Sarkar, Mainak; Klug, William S.
2015-01-01
SUMMARY We examine carefully the numerical accuracy and computational efficiency of alternative formulations of the finite-element solution procedure for the mono-domain equations of cardiac electrophysiology (EP), focusing on the interaction of spatial quadrature implementations with operator splitting, examining both nodal and Gauss quadrature methods, and implementations that mix nodal storage of state variables with Gauss quadrature. We evaluate the performance of all possible combinations of “lumped” approximations of consistent capacitance and mass matrices. Most generally we find that quadrature schemes and lumped approximations that produce decoupled nodal ionic equations allow for the greatest computational efficiency, this being afforded through the use of asynchronous adaptive time-stepping of the ionic state-variable ODEs. We identify two lumped approximation schemes that exhibit superior accuracy, rivaling that of the most expensive variationally consistent implementations. Finally we illustrate some of the physiological consequences of discretization error in EP simulation relevant to cardiac arrhythmia and fibrillation. These results suggest caution with the use of semi-automated free-form tetrahedral and hexahedral meshing algorithms available in most commercially available meshing software, which produce non-uniform meshes having a large distribution of element sizes. PMID:23873868
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Bui, Tinh Quoc; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Lim, Chee Wah
2014-02-01
Numerical modeling of the Lamb wave propagation in functionally graded materials (FGMs) by a two-dimensional time-domain spectral finite element method (SpFEM) is presented. The high-order Chebyshev polynomials as approximation functions are used in the present formulation, which provides the capability to take into account the through thickness variation of the material properties. The efficiency and accuracy of the present model with one and two layers of 5th order spectral elements in modeling wave propagation in FGM plates are analyzed. Different excitation frequencies in a wide range of 28-350 kHz are investigated, and the dispersion properties obtained by the present model are verified by reference results. The through thickness wave structure of two principal Lamb modes are extracted and analyzed by the symmetry and relative amplitude of the vertical and horizontal oscillations. The differences with respect to Lamb modes generated in homogeneous plates are explained. Zero-crossing and wavelet signal processing-spectrum decomposition procedures are implemented to obtain phase and group velocities and their dispersion properties. So it is attested how this approach can be practically employed for simulation, calibration and optimization of Lamb wave based nondestructive evaluation techniques for the FGMs. The capability of modeling stress wave propagation through the thickness of an FGM specimen subjected to impact load is also investigated, which shows that the present method is highly accurate as compared with other existing reference data.
The numerical integration and 3-D finite element formulation of a viscoelastic model of glass
Chambers, R.S.
1994-08-01
The use of glasses is widespread in making hermetic, insulating seals for many electronic components. Flat panel displays and fiber optic connectors are other products utilizing glass as a structural element. When glass is cooled from sealing temperatures, residual stresses are generated due to mismatches in thermal shrinkage created by the dissimilar material properties of the adjoining materials. Because glass is such a brittle material at room temperature, tensile residual stresses must be kept small to ensure durability and avoid cracking. Although production designs and the required manufacturing process development can be deduced empirically, this is an expensive and time consuming process that does not necessarily lead to an optimal design. Agile manufacturing demands that analyses be used to reduce development costs and schedules by providing insight and guiding the design process through the development cycle. To make these gains, however, viscoelastic models of glass must be available along with the right tool to use them. A viscoelastic model of glass can be used to simulate the stress and volume relaxation that occurs at elevated temperatures as the molecular structure of the glass seeks to equilibrate to the state of the supercooled liquid. The substance of the numerical treatment needed to support the implementation of the model in a 3-D finite element program is presented herein. An accurate second-order, central difference integrator is proposed for the constitutive equations, and numerical solutions are compared to those obtained with other integrators. Inherent convergence problems are reviewed and fixes are described. The resulting algorithms are generally applicable to the broad class of viscoelastic material models. First-order error estimates are used as a basis for developing a scheme for automatic time step controls, and several demonstration problems are presented to illustrate the performance of the methodology.
Restoration of cloud contaminated ocean color images using numerical simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xuefei; Mao, Zhihua; Chen, Jianyu; Huang, Haiqing
2015-10-01
It is very hard to access cloud-free remote sensing data, especially for the ocean color images. A cloud removal approach from ocean color satellite images based on numerical modeling is introduced. The approach removes cloud-contaminated portions and then reconstructs the missing data utilizing model simulated values. The basic idea is to create the relationship between cloud-free patches and cloud-contaminated patches under the assumption that both of them are influenced by the same marine hydrodynamic conditions. Firstly, we find cloud-free GOCI (the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) retrieved suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) in the East China Sea before and after the time of cloudy images, which are set as initial field and validation data for numerical model, respectively. Secondly, a sediment transport model based on COHERENS, a coupled hydrodynamic-ecological ocean model for regional and shelf seas, is configured. The comparison between simulated results and validation images show that the sediment transport model can be used to simulate actual sediment distribution and transport in the East China Sea. Then, the simulated SSCs corresponding to the cloudy portions are used to remove the cloud and replace the missing values. Finally, the accuracy assessments of the results are carried out by visual and statistical analysis. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively remove cloud from GOCI images and reconstruct the missing data, which is a new way to enhance the effectiveness and availability of ocean color data, and is of great practical significance.
Towards an Automated Full-Turbofan Engine Numerical Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, John A.; Turner, Mark G.; Norris, Andrew; Veres, Joseph P.
2003-01-01
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the high-fidelity numerical simulation of a modern high-bypass turbofan engine. The simulation utilizes the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) thermodynamic cycle modeling system coupled to a high-fidelity full-engine model represented by a set of coupled three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) component models. Boundary conditions from the balanced, steady-state cycle model are used to define component boundary conditions in the full-engine model. Operating characteristics of the three-dimensional component models are integrated into the cycle model via partial performance maps generated automatically from the CFD flow solutions using one-dimensional meanline turbomachinery programs. This paper reports on the progress made towards the full-engine simulation of the GE90-94B engine, highlighting the generation of the high-pressure compressor partial performance map. The ongoing work will provide a system to evaluate the steady and unsteady aerodynamic and mechanical interactions between engine components at design and off-design operating conditions.
Direct numerical simulation of nonpremixed flame-wall interactions
Wang, Yi; Trouve, Arnaud
2006-02-01
The objective of the present study is to use detailed numerical modeling to obtain basic information on the interaction of nonpremixed flames with cold wall surfaces. The questions of turbulent fuel-air-temperature mixing, flame extinction, and wall-surface heat transfer are studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The DNS configuration corresponds to an ethylene-air diffusion flame stabilized in the near-wall region of a chemically inert solid surface. Simulations are performed with adiabatic or isothermal wall boundary conditions and with different turbulence intensities. The simulations feature flame extinction events resulting from excessive wall cooling and convective heat transfer rates up to 90 kW/m{sup 2}. The structure of the simulated wall flames is studied in terms of a classical mass-mixing variable, the fuel-air based mixture fraction, and a less familiar heat loss variable, the excess enthalpy variable, introduced to provide a measure of nonadiabatic behavior due to wall cooling. In addition to the flame structure, extinction events are also studied in detail and a modified flame extinction criterion that combines the concepts of mixture fraction and excess enthalpy is proposed and then tested against the DNS data. (author)
Numerical Simulation of Ferrofluid Flow for Subsurface Environmental Engineering Applications
Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Moridis, George J.
1997-05-05
Ferrofluids are suspensions of magnetic particles of diameter approximately 10 nm stabilized by surfactants in carrier liquids. The large magnetic susceptibility of ferrofluids allows the mobilization of ferrofluid through permeable rock and soil by the application of strong external magnetic fields. We have developed simulation capabilities for both miscible and immiscible conceptualizations of ferrofluid flow through porous media in response to magnetic forces arising from the magnetic field of a rectangular permanent magnet. The flow of ferrofluid is caused by the magnetization of the particles and their attraction toward a magnet, regardless of the orientation of the magnet. The steps involved in calculating the flow of ferrofluid are (1) calculation of the external magnetic field, (2) calculation of the gradient of the external magnetic field, (3) calculation of the magnetization of the ferrofluid, and (4) assembly of the magnetic body force term and addition of this term to the standard pressure gradient and gravity force terms. We compare numerical simulations to laboratory measurements of the magnetic field, fluid pressures, and the two-dimensional flow of ferrofluid to demonstrate the applicability of the methods coded in the numerical simulators. We present an example of the use of the simulator for a field-scale application of ferrofluids for barrier verification.
Numerical simulation of supersonic wake flow with parallel computers
Wong, C.C.; Soetrisno, M.
1995-07-01
Simulating a supersonic wake flow field behind a conical body is a computing intensive task. It requires a large number of computational cells to capture the dominant flow physics and a robust numerical algorithm to obtain a reliable solution. High performance parallel computers with unique distributed processing and data storage capability can provide this need. They have larger computational memory and faster computing time than conventional vector computers. We apply the PINCA Navier-Stokes code to simulate a wind-tunnel supersonic wake experiment on Intel Gamma, Intel Paragon, and IBM SP2 parallel computers. These simulations are performed to study the mean flow in the near wake region of a sharp, 7-degree half-angle, adiabatic cone at Mach number 4.3 and freestream Reynolds number of 40,600. Overall the numerical solutions capture the general features of the hypersonic laminar wake flow and compare favorably with the wind tunnel data. With a refined and clustering grid distribution in the recirculation zone, the calculated location of the rear stagnation point is consistent with the 2D axisymmetric and 3D experiments. In this study, we also demonstrate the importance of having a large local memory capacity within a computer node and the effective utilization of the number of computer nodes to achieve good parallel performance when simulating a complex, large-scale wake flow problem.
Numerical simulation of hydrogen plasma in MPCVD reactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Di
A numerical study was conducted to build a model able to estimate the plasma properties under different working conditions for pure hydrogen plasma in a MPCVD reactor. A plasma model based on standing wave assumption and a linear estimation of ne and coupled the EM simulation, heat transfer simulation and UDF calculations of plasma properties was built in COMSOL Muitiphysics and tested with six different working conditions. The reliability of COMSOL EM solver was tested through comparing the simulation results with a benchmark EM solver, ANSYS HFSS. The validities of two assumptions made about the electrical field, standing wave assumption and sinusoidal oscillation field assumption, were tested by a PDE solver in COMSOL for utilizing the drift-diffusion model of ne.
Numerical simulation of radiative heat loss in an experimental burner
Cloutman, L.D.; Brookshaw, L.
1993-09-01
We describe the numerical algorithm used in the COYOTE two-dimensional, transient, Eulerian hydrodynamics program to allow for radiative heat losses in simulations of reactive flows. The model is intended primarily for simulations of industrial burners, but it is not confined to that application. It assumes that the fluid is optically thin and that photons created by the fluid immediately escape to free space or to the surrounding walls, depending upon the application. The use of the model is illustrated by simulations of a laboratory-scale experimental burner. We find that the radiative heat losses reduce the local temperature of the combustion products by a modest amount, typically on the order of 50 K. However, they have a significant impact on NO{sub x} production.
Numerical simulation of plasma processes driven by transverse ion heating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Nagendra; Chan, C. B.
1993-01-01
The plasma processes driven by transverse ion heating in a diverging flux tube are investigated with numerical simulation. The heating is found to drive a host of plasma processes, in addition to the well-known phenomenon of ion conics. The downward electric field near the reverse shock generates a doublestreaming situation consisting of two upflowing ion populations with different average flow velocities. The electric field in the reverse shock region is modulated by the ion-ion instability driven by the multistreaming ions. The oscillating fields in this region have the possibility of heating electrons. These results from the simulations are compared with results from a previous study based on a hydrodynamical model. Effects of spatial resolutions provided by simulations on the evolution of the plasma are discussed.
Numerical simulation of experiments in the Giant Planet Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, M. J.; Davy, W. C.
1979-01-01
Utilizing a series of existing computer codes, ablation experiments in the Giant Planet Facility are numerically simulated. Of primary importance is the simulation of the low Mach number shock layer that envelops the test model. The RASLE shock-layer code, used in the Jupiter entry probe heat-shield design, is adapted to the experimental conditions. RASLE predictions for radiative and convective heat fluxes are in good agreement with calorimeter measurements. In simulating carbonaceous ablation experiments, the RASLE code is coupled directly with the CMA material response code. For the graphite models, predicted and measured recessions agree very well. Predicted recession for the carbon phenolic models is 50% higher than that measured. This is the first time codes used for the Jupiter probe design have been compared with experiments.
Numerical simulations of Kadomtsev-Petviashvili soliton interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Infeld, E.; Senatorski, A.; Skorupski, A. A.
1995-04-01
The Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation generalizes that of Korteweg and de Vries to two space dimensions and arises in various weakly dispersive media. Two very different species of soliton solutions are known for one variant, KPI. The first species to be discovered are line solitons, the second are two dimensional lumps. This paper describes numerical simulations, consistent with all constraints of the equation, in which very distorted line solitons break up into smaller line solitons and arrays of lumps. The arrays can interact with one another. In some cases, aspects of the results of the simulations can be understood in the light of specially constructed exact solutions. Simulations in which initial conditions fail to satisfy the constraints of the equation are also described.
Numerical simulation of a compressible homogeneous, turbulent shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feiereisen, W. J.; Reynolds, W. C.; Ferziger, J. H.
1981-03-01
A direct, low Reynolds number, numerical simulation was performed on a homogeneous turbulent shear flow. The full compressible Navier-Stokes equations were used in a simulation on the ILLIAC IV computer with a 64,000 mesh. The flow fields generated by the code are used as an experimental data base, to examine the behavior of the Reynols stresses in this simple, compressible flow. The variation of the structure of the stresses and their dynamic equations as the character of the flow changed is emphasized. The structure of the tress tensor is more heavily dependent on the shear number and less on the fluctuating Mach number. The pressure-strain correlation tensor in the dynamic uations is directly calculated in this simulation. These correlations are decomposed into several parts, as contrasted with the traditional incompressible decomposition into two parts. The performance of existing models for the conventional terms is examined, and a model is proposed for the 'mean fluctuating' part.
Numerical Simulation of Liquid Nitrogen Chilldown of a Vertical Tube
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Darr, Samuel; Hu, Hong; Schaeffer, Reid; Chung, Jacob; Hartwig, Jason; Majumdar, Alok
2015-01-01
This paper presents the results of a one-dimensional numerical simulation of the transient chilldown of a vertical stainless steel tube with liquid nitrogen. The direction of flow is downward (with gravity) through the tube. Heat transfer correlations for film, transition, and nucleate boiling, as well as critical heat flux, rewetting temperature, and the temperature at the onset of nucleate boiling were used to model the convection to the tube wall. Chilldown curves from the simulations were compared with data from 55 recent liquid nitrogen chilldown experiments. With these new correlations the simulation is able to predict the time to rewetting temperature and time to onset of nucleate boiling to within 25% for mass fluxes ranging from 61.2 to 1150 kg/(sq m s), inlet pressures from 175 to 817 kPa, and subcooled inlet temperatures from 0 to 14 K below the saturation temperature.
Numerical simulation of flow generated in a closed water areas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Narisu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Katayama, Yuki; Watanabe, Masaji
2016-02-01
Techniques to analyze the bottom topography in a closed water area are described. Positioning data are recorded with a global positioning system, and depth data are recorded with an echo sounder. Positioning data and depth data are synchronized to generate three-dimensional topographical data. Errors due to ship's movement are corrected using outputs from a clinometer and a compass. The change due to sedimentation is investigated for the bottom topography of Kojima Lake. We describe numerical techniques based on a finite-element method and an explicit time integration method to analyze flow generated in Kojima Lake.
Numerical Simulation of Airfoil Vibrations Induced by Compressible Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feistauer, Miloslav; Kučera, Václav; Šimánek, Petr
2010-09-01
The paper is concerned with the numerical solution of interaction of compressible flow and a vibrating airfoil with two degrees of freedom, which can rotate around an elastic axis and oscillate in the vertical direction. Compressible flow is described by the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations written in the ALE form. This system is discretized by the semi-implicit discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DGFEM) and coupled with the solution of ordinary differential equations describing the airfoil motion. Computational results showing the flow induced airfoil vibrations are presented.
Numerical simulation and modeling of combustion in scramjets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Ryan James
In the last fifteen years the development of a viable scramjet has quickly approached the following long term goals: responsive sub-orbital space access; long-range, prompt global strike; and high-speed transportation. Nonetheless, there are significant challenges that need to be resolved. These challenges include high skin friction drag and high heat transfer rates, inherent to vehicles in sustained, hypersonic flight. Another challenge is sustaining combustion. Numerical simulation and modeling was performed to provide insight into reducing skin friction drag and sustaining combustion. Numerical simulation was used to investigate boundary layer combustion, which has been shown to reduce skin friction drag. The objective of the numerical simulations was to quantify the effect of fuel injection parameters on boundary layer combustion and ultimately on the change in the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate. A qualitative analysis of the results suggest that the reduction in the skin friction coefficient depends on multiple parameters and potentially an interaction between parameters. Sustained combustion can be achieved through a stabilized detonation wave. Additionally, stabilizing a detonation wave will yield rapid combustion. This will allow for a shorter and lighter-weight engine system, resulting in less required combustor cooling. A stabilized detonation wave was numerically modeled for various inlet and geometric cases. The effect of fuel concentration, inlet Mach number, and geometric configuration on the stability of a detonation wave was quantified. Correlations were established between fuel concentration, inlet speed, geometric configuration and parameters characterizing the detonation wave. A linear relationship was quantified between the fuel concentration and the parameters characterizing the detonation wave.
[Numerical finite element modeling of custom car seat using computer aided design].
Huang, Xuqi; Singare, Sekou
2014-02-01
A good cushion can not only provide the sitter with a high comfort, but also control the distribution of the hip pressure to reduce the incidence of diseases. The purpose of this study is to introduce a computer-aided design (CAD) modeling method of the buttocks-cushion using numerical finite element (FE) simulation to predict the pressure distribution on the buttocks-cushion interface. The buttock and the cushion model geometrics were acquired from a laser scanner, and the CAD software was used to create the solid model. The FE model of a true seated individual was developed using ANSYS software (ANSYS Inc, Canonsburg, PA). The model is divided into two parts, i.e. the cushion model made of foam and the buttock model represented by the pelvis covered with a soft tissue layer. Loading simulations consisted of imposing a vertical force of 520N on the pelvis, corresponding to the weight of the user upper extremity, and then solving iteratively the system. PMID:24804486
Direct numerical simulation of sharkskin denticles in turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boomsma, A.; Sotiropoulos, F.
2016-03-01
The hydrodynamic function of sharkskin has been under investigation for the past 30 years. Current literature conflicts on whether sharkskin is able to reduce skin friction similar to riblets. To contribute insights toward reconciling these conflicting views, direct numerical simulations are carried out to obtain detailed flow fields around realistic denticles. A sharp interface immersed boundary method is employed to simulate two arrangements of actual sharkskin denticles (from Isurus oxyrinchus) in a turbulent boundary layer at Reτ ≈ 180. For comparison, turbulent flow over drag-reducing scalloped riblets is also simulated with similar flow conditions and with the same numerical method. Although the denticles resemble riblets, both sharkskin arrangements increase total drag by 44%-50%, while the riblets reduce drag by 5%. Analysis of the simulated flow fields shows that the turbulent flow around denticles is highly three-dimensional and separated, with 25% of the total drag being form drag. The complex three-dimensional shape of the denticles gives rise to a mean flow dominated by strong secondary flows in sharp contrast with the mean flow generated by riblets, which is largely two-dimensional. The so resulting three-dimensionality of sharkskin flows leads to an increase in the magnitude of the turbulent statistics near the denticles, which further contributes to increasing the total drag. The simulations also show that, at least for the simulated arrangements, sharkskin, in sharp contrast with drag-reducing riblets, is unable to isolate high shear stress near denticle ridges causing a significant portion of the denticle surface to be exposed to high mean shear.
A novel enriched CB shell element method for simulating arbitrary crack growth in pipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuang, Zhuo; Cheng, Binbin
2011-08-01
In this work, a novel numerical method is developed for simulating arbitrary crack growth in pipes with the idea of enriched shape functions which can represent the discontinuity independent of the mesh. The concept of the enriched shape functions is introduced into the continuum-based (CB) shell element. Due to the advantage of CB shell element, the shell thickness variation and surface connection can be concerned during the deformation. The stress intensity factors of the crack in the CB shell element are calculated by using the `equivalent domain integral' method for 3D arbitrary non-planar crack. The maximum energy release rate is used as a propagation criterion. This method is proved able to capture arbitrary crack growth path in pipes which is independent of the element mesh. Numerical examples of different fracture patterns in pipes are presented here.
3D finite element simulation of TIG weld pool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, X.; Asserin, O.; Gounand, S.; Gilles, P.; Bergheau, J. M.; Medale, M.
2012-07-01
The aim of this paper is to propose a three-dimensional weld pool model for the moving gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process, in order to understand the main factors that limit the weld quality and improve the productivity, especially with respect to the welding speed. Simulation is a very powerful tool to help in understanding the physical phenomena in the weld process. A 3D finite element model of heat and fluid flow in weld pool considering free surface of the pool and traveling speed has been developed for the GTAW process. Cast3M software is used to compute all the governing equations. The free surface of the weld pool is calculated by minimizing the total surface energy. The combined effects of surface tension gradient, buoyancy force, arc pressure, arc drag force to drive the fluid flow is included in our model. The deformation of the weld pool surface and the welding speed affect fluid flow, heat flow and thus temperature gradients and molten pool dimensions. Welding trials study is presented to compare our numerical results with macrograph of the molten pool.
Numerical simulation of airflow in the human nose.
Weinhold, Ivo; Mlynski, Gunter
2004-09-01
Unobstructed air passageways as well as sufficient contact of the air stream with the mucous membrane are essential for the correct function of the nose. For that, local flow phenomena, which often cannot be captured by standard diagnostic methods, are important. We developed and validated a method for the numerical simulation of the nasal airflow. Two anatomically correct, transparent resin models of human nasal cavities, manufactured by a special casting technology, and the nasal cavities of two patients were reconstructed as Computer Aided Design models based on computed tomography (CT) scans. One of the nasal models and one clinical case represented a normal nasal anatomy, while the others were examples of pathological alterations. The velocity and pressure fields in these reconstructed cavities were calculated for the entire range of physiological nasal inspiration using commercially available computational fluid dynamics software. To validate the results rhinoresistometric data were measured and characteristic streamlines were videotaped for the resin models. The numerical results were in good agreement with the experimental data for the investigated cases. An example of a complex clinical case demonstrates the potential benefit of the developed simulation method for rhinosurgical planning. The results support the assumption that even under the specific conditions of the clinical practice the application of numerical simulation of nasal airflow phenomena may become realistic in the near future. However, important technical issues such as a completely automated reconstruction of the nasal cavity still need to be resolved before such simulations are efficient and cost effective enough to become a standard tool for the rhinologist. PMID:14652769
Numerical Simulation of Textile Composite Stamping On Double Dome
Xiongqi Peng; Zia Ur Rehman
2011-05-04
Stamping is one of the most effective ways to form textile composites in industry for providing high-strength, low-weight and cost-effective products. This paper presents a fully continuum mechanics-based approach for stamping simulation of textile fiber reinforced composites by using finite element (FE) method. A previously developed non-orthogonal constitutive model is used to represent the anisotropic mechanical behavior of textile composites under large deformation during stamping. Simulation are performed on a balanced plain weave composite with 0 deg./90 deg. and {+-}45 deg. as initial yarn orientation over a benchmark double dome device. Simulation results show good agreement with experimental output in terms of a number of parameters selected for comparison.
Numerical simulations of waves in a magnetically structured atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Espinola, Thomas Peter
A physical model for simulating waves in a stellar atmosphere was developed from a combination of basic fluid mechanics, plasma physics, and electrodynamics. The model was three dimensional and included the effects of gravity, magnetic fields, and viscosity. An algorithm was developed to numerically implement this model. The resulting program used an explicit time integration scheme based on Runge-Kutta and a combination of finite difference and spectral methods to evaluate the spatial derivatives. A number of numerical boundary conditions were developed—the most successful used a modified Sommerfeld radiation condition. The program was written and coded in Fortran on a Vax computer. Additional routines were written to evaluate the required fast fourier transforms and to graph and display the data. The program was tested on a large number of one and two dimensional problems for which the solutions were known. These problems included acoustic waves, Alfvén waves, magnetoacoustic waves, shocks, rarefactions, and contact discontinuities. The numerical results agreed with the analytic solutions of the physical problems to within the precision requested of the simulation. The program proved to be stable and robust for all the problems attempted. This program was then used to simulate three problems for which analytic solutions are not known. All three simulations concerned the propagation of waves in magnetically structured atmospheres and may be applied to outstanding problems in solar physics. First, the interactions of non-linear waves and a flux slab were studied. From the result it is apparent that sources of shocks and rarefactions, such as the solar convection zone, do not concentrate the magnetic field in flux sheaths. Next I used the program to simulate the interaction of non-linear waves with a flux tube. The results suggest that the magnetic fields in flux tubes are also not concentrated by pairs of passing shocks and rarefactions; however, a complete
Field Study and Numerical Simulation of Sub Slab Ventilation Systems
Bonnefous, Y.C.; Gadgil, A.J.; Fisk, W.J.; Prill, R.J.; Nematollahi, A.R.
1992-05-01
The effectiveness of the technique of subslab ventilation (SSV) for limiting radon entry into basements was investigated through complementary experimentation and numerical modeling. Subslab pressure fields resulting from SSV were measured in six well-characterized basements, each with a different combination of soil and aggregate permeability. The relationship between air velocity and pressure gradient was measured in the laboratory for the three types of aggregate installed beneath the basement slabs. A new numerical model of SSV was developed and verified with the field data. This model simulates non-Darcy flow in the aggregate. We demonstrate that non-Darcy effects significantly impact SSV performance. Field data and numerical simulations indicate that increasing the aggregate permeability within the investigated range of 2 x 10{sup -8} m{sup 2} to 3 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2} substantially improves the extension of the subslab pressure field due to SSV operation. Sealing of cracks in the slab and excavation of a small pit where the SSV pipe penetrates the slab also dramatically improve this pressure field extension. Our findings are consistent with the results of prior field studies; however, the studies reported here have improved our understanding of factors affecting SSV performance. The dependence of SSV performance on the relevant parameters are currently under investigation with the model.