Science.gov

Sample records for element profile measurements

  1. Sediment profiles of less commonly determined elements measured by Laser Ablation ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Dolor, Marvourneen K; Helz, George R; McDonough, William F

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic influences on trace element profiles in dated sediments from estuaries have been often documented, with the vast majority of studies focusing on a short list of high-abundance trace elements. Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) provides a new approach that minimizes sample preparation and contamination while yielding data on a much larger list of elements simultaneously. We present concentrations and enrichment factor profiles for 22 elements at a locality that is 50 km southeast of Baltimore, the principal industrial city on Chesapeake Bay. Samples representing deposition over almost the entire 20th century were obtained from two archived cores collected 20 years apart. The following elements exhibit profiles consistent with a strong anthropogenic influence, i.e. enrichment after 1920 followed by decline after ca.1980, possibly reflecting increased regulatory efforts: Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Tl, Pb and Bi. As expected, the redox-sensitive elements: Mo, Re and U have similar profiles to one another. Previously, the potentially hazardous elements, Ag, In, Sb, Te, Tl and Bi, have been measured only rarely in estuarine sediments and never in Chesapeake Bay. Our discovery that their profiles track those of well-known pollutants underscores a need to investigate their sources, transport and biogeochemical behavior. Several rarely determined trace elements, Ga, Ge and Nb, exhibit trendless profiles, as do the major elements, Ti and Fe.

  2. Siderophile Element Profile Measurements in Iron Meteorites Using Laser Ablation ICP-MS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, H. C.; Watson, E. B.; McDonough, W. F.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of siderophile elements during cooling of iron meteorites can lead to insight into the general thermal histories of the meteorites as well as their respective parent bodies. Traditionally trace element analyses in meteorites have been done using techniques that only measure the average concentration in each phase. With these methods, all of the spatial information with respect to the distribution of an element within one phase is lost. Measuring concentration profiles of trace elements in meteorites is now possible, with the advent of high-resolution analytical techniques such as laser ablation, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) with spatial resolution <20 microns. [e.g. 1,2] and secondary ion mass spectrometry [3]. These profiles can give more insight into both the partitioning and diffusive behavior of siderophile elements in metal systems relevant to iron meteorites, as well as parent body cooling rates.

  3. Nondestructive elemental depth-profiling analysis by muonic X-ray measurement.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Kazuhiko; Kubo, Michael K; Nagatomo, Takashi; Higemoto, Wataru; Ito, Takashi U; Kawamura, Naritoshi; Strasser, Patrick; Shimomura, Koichiro; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Takao; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Shinohara, Atsushi; Saito, Tsutomu

    2015-05-05

    Elemental analysis of materials is fundamentally important to science and technology. Many elemental analysis methods have been developed, but three-dimensional nondestructive elemental analysis of bulk materials has remained elusive. Recently, our project team, dreamX (damageless and regioselective elemental analysis with muonic X-rays), developed a nondestructive depth-profiling elemental analysis method after a decade of research. This new method utilizes a new type of probe; a negative muon particle and high-energy muonic X-rays emitted after the muon stops in a material. We performed elemental depth profiling on an old Japanese gold coin (Tempo-Koban) using a low-momentum negative muon beam and successfully determined that the Au concentration in the coin gradually decreased with depth over a micrometer length scale. We believe that this method will be a promising tool for the elemental analysis of valuable samples, such as archeological artifacts.

  4. Vertical profile measurements of soil air suggest immobilization of gaseous elemental mercury in mineral soil.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Daniel; Pokharel, Ashok K; Moore, Christopher

    2014-02-18

    Evasion of gaseous elemental Hg (Hg(0)g) from soil surfaces is an important source of atmospheric Hg, but the volatility and solid-gas phase partitioning of Hg(0) within soils is poorly understood. We developed a novel system to continuously measure Hg(0)g concentrations in soil pores at multiple depths and locations, and present a total of 297 days of measurements spanning 14 months in two forests in the Sierra Nevada mountains, California, U.S. Temporal patterns showed consistent pore Hg(0)g concentrations below levels measured in the atmosphere (termed Hg(0)g immobilization), ranging from 66 to 94% below atmospheric concentrations throughout multiple seasons. The lowest pore Hg(0)g concentrations were observed in the deepest soil layers (40 cm), but significant immobilization was already present in the top 7 cm. In the absence of sinks or sources, pore Hg(0)g levels would be in equilibrium with atmospheric concentrations due to the porous nature of the soil matrix and gas diffusion. Therefore, we explain decreases in pore Hg(0)g in mineral soils below atmospheric concentrations--or below levels found in upper soils as observed in previous studies--with the presence of an Hg(0)g sink in mineral soils possibly related to Hg(0)g oxidation or other processes such as sorption or dissolution in soil water. Surface chamber measurements showing daytime Hg(0)g emissions and nighttime Hg(0)g deposition indicate that near-surface layers likely dominate net atmospheric Hg(0)g exchange resulting in typical diurnal cycles due to photochemcial reduction at the surface and possibly Hg(0)g evasion from litter layers. In contrast, mineral soils seem to be decoupled from this surface exchange, showing consistent Hg(0)g uptake and downward redistribution--although our calculations indicate these fluxes to be minor compared to other mass fluxes. A major implication is that once Hg is incorporated into mineral soils, it may be unlikely subjected to renewed Hg(0)g re-emission from

  5. Deconvolution of NICISS profiles involving elements of similar masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridings, Christiaan; Andersson, Gunther G.

    2014-12-01

    Neutral impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy uses the backscattering of projectiles to determine the concentration depth profiles of elements in soft matter systems. As such, the measured profiles are the actual concentration depth profiles convoluted with the inelastic energy loss distribution of the projectile. The inelastic loss distribution depends on the element from which the projectile is backscattered. In the case that two elements of similar masses are detected, their profiles can overlap within these energy loss distributions. In this case the standard deconvolution procedure used must be modified to exclude the energy loss straggling of the projectiles in the bulk to adequately deconvolute the profiles of two elements at the same time.

  6. Resistance heating elements with specific heating profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschberg, M. H.

    1976-01-01

    Bundled, interrupted, resistance heating elements provide specific heating profiles. Design allows for easily tailored lengths and locations of "hot sections" and larger surface areas for heat radiation.

  7. Profiles in Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Larry H.; Wright, Benjamin Drake; Linacre, John Michael; Webster, Linda; Andrich, David

    1998-01-01

    Four of the articles in this section profile major figures in measurement: (1) Sir Francis Galton (Larry Ludlow); (2) Georg Rasch (Benjamin Wright); (3) Benjamin Wright (John Michael Linacre); and (4) David Andrich (Linda Webster). The fifth article, by David Andrich, presents insights gained into the Rasch model. (SLD)

  8. Profiles in Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Larry H.; Wright, Benjamin Drake; Linacre, John Michael; Webster, Linda; Andrich, David

    1998-01-01

    Four of the articles in this section profile major figures in measurement: (1) Sir Francis Galton (Larry Ludlow); (2) Georg Rasch (Benjamin Wright); (3) Benjamin Wright (John Michael Linacre); and (4) David Andrich (Linda Webster). The fifth article, by David Andrich, presents insights gained into the Rasch model. (SLD)

  9. Simultaneous depth-profiling of electrical and elemental properties of ion-implanted arsenic in silicon by combining secondary-ion mass spectrometry with resistivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, N. S.; Wong, C. S.; McNally, P. J.

    2016-07-01

    A method is proposed to extract the electrical data for surface doping profiles of semiconductors in unison with the chemical profile acquired by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)—a method we call SIMSAR (secondary-ion mass spectrometry and resistivity). The SIMSAR approach utilizes the inherent sputtering process of SIMS, combined with sequential four-point van der Pauw resistivity measurements, to surmise the active doping profile as a function of depth. The technique is demonstrated for the case of ion-implanted arsenic doping profiles in silicon. Complications of the method are identified, explained, and corrections for these are given. While several techniques already exist for chemical dopant profiling and numerous for electrical profiling, since there is no technique which can measure both electrical and chemical profiles in parallel, SIMSAR has significant promise as an extension of the conventional dynamic SIMS technique, particularly for applications in the semiconductor industry.

  10. Simultaneous depth-profiling of electrical and elemental properties of ion-implanted arsenic in silicon by combining secondary-ion mass spectrometry with resistivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Bennett, N S; Wong, C S; McNally, P J

    2016-07-01

    A method is proposed to extract the electrical data for surface doping profiles of semiconductors in unison with the chemical profile acquired by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)-a method we call SIMSAR (secondary-ion mass spectrometry and resistivity). The SIMSAR approach utilizes the inherent sputtering process of SIMS, combined with sequential four-point van der Pauw resistivity measurements, to surmise the active doping profile as a function of depth. The technique is demonstrated for the case of ion-implanted arsenic doping profiles in silicon. Complications of the method are identified, explained, and corrections for these are given. While several techniques already exist for chemical dopant profiling and numerous for electrical profiling, since there is no technique which can measure both electrical and chemical profiles in parallel, SIMSAR has significant promise as an extension of the conventional dynamic SIMS technique, particularly for applications in the semiconductor industry.

  11. Depth profiling of light elements using a nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terwagne, G.; Bodart, F.; Demortier, G.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper, we present some examples of depth profiling of light elements with a nuclear microprobe performed at LARN during the last decade. Some new possibilities of ion beam microanalysis of light elements with our 2 MV Tandetron accelerator are also discussed. The first example of application consists of depth profiling of nitrogen and aluminium on a SiAl alloy implanted with nitrogen. The nuclear microprobe was used to determine three-dimensional distribution of aluminium, silicon and nitrogen in a specific grain of the implanted alloy. The nitrogen depth profile was measured using the well known 15N(p,αγ) 12C nuclear resonant reaction at 429 keV. The aluminium depth profile was measured with the resonant nuclear reaction 27Al(p,γ) 28Si at 991.8 keV. Depth profiling of carbon and oxygen is also possible using nuclear reactions induced by 3He particles. Nuclear reactions like 12C( 3He,p i) 14N ( i=0,1,2) or 16O( 3He,α 0) 15O were used to measure local wear tracks on a diamond coating after a fretting test against a Cr steel ball. PIXE microprobe and nuclear reactions induced by deuterons were also used to characterise the gold-silicon alloy formed by the diffusion of silicon into gold foils. The nuclear reaction 28Si(d,p) 29Si in a transmission geometry was used in order to depth profile silicon especially in the grain boundaries of the gold-silicon alloy. Some new perspectives of depth profiling light elements are also presented using our new 2 MV Tandetron accelerator, such as high energy 4He microbeams for depth profiling of carbon or nitrogen.

  12. Altered elemental profiles in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

    PubMed

    Johansson, E; Lindh, U; Westermarck, T; Heiskala, H; Santavuori, P

    1990-09-01

    The elemental profiles of thrombocytes and mononuclear cells were investigated in five patients with Infantile and eight with Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. The patients with the infantile form had suffered from the disease for a year and those with the juvenile form for some six years. The thrombocytes exhibited increased concentrations of calcium and magnesium, but the same concentrations of iron and zinc as found in healthy subjects. The mononuclear cells exhibited an increased concentration of iron and a reduced concentration of zinc. The elevated concentrations of magnesium, calcium and iron in the thrombocytes and mononuclear cells may represent the end products of ceroid pigmentation. Five patients with Juvenile and one with Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis were treated with antioxidants along with vitamins E, B2 and B6, but this treatment did not affect significantly the concentration of iron in the mononuclear cells. However, selenium was detected in some mononuclear cells in all the patients so treated. This was unexpected since iron (III), being antagonistic to selenium in the form of selenite--which was the antioxidant given--forms a stable complex which cannot be broken down biologically.

  13. Measurement of whole tire profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongyue; Jiao, Wenguang

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, a precision measuring device is developed for obtaining characteristic curve of tire profile and its geometric parameters. It consists of a laser displacement measurement unit, a closed-loop precision two-dimensional coordinate table, a step motor control system and a fast data acquisition and analysis system. Based on the laser trigonometry, a data map of tire profile and coordinate values of all points can be obtained through corresponding data transformation. This device has a compact structure, a convenient control, a simple hardware circuit design and a high measurement precision. Experimental results indicate that measurement precision can meet the customer accuracy requirement of +/-0.02 mm.

  14. Accurate optical CD profiler based on specialized finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrero, Jesus; Perçin, Gökhan

    2012-03-01

    As the semiconductor industry is moving to very low-k1 patterning solutions, the metrology problems facing process engineers are becoming much more complex. Choosing the right optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology technique is essential for bridging the metrology gap and achieving the required manufacturing volume throughput. The critical dimension scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) measurement is usually distorted by the high aspect ratio of the photoresist and hard mask layers. CD-SEM measurements cease to correlate with complex three-dimensional profiles, such as the cases for double patterning and FinFETs, thus necessitating sophisticated, accurate and fast computational methods to bridge the gap. In this work, a suite of computational methods that complement advanced OCD equipment, and enabling them to operate at higher accuracies, are developed. In this article, a novel method for accurately modeling OCD profiles is presented. A finite element formulation in primal form is used to discretize the equations. The implementation uses specialized finite element spaces to solve Maxwell equations in two dimensions.

  15. Neutron depth profiling of elemental concentration using a focused beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Mayer, Huaiyu H.; Lamaze, G. P.; Mildner, David F. R.; Downing, Robert G.

    1997-02-01

    Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) is a nondestructive analytical technique for measuring the concentration of certain light elements as a function of depth near the surface of a solid matrix. The concentration profile is determined by analyzing the energy spectrum of the charged particles emitted as a result of neutron capture by the elements. The measurement sensitivity is directly proportional to the neutron beam current density. A more intense neutron beam achieved by focusing improves sensitivity for specimens of small area. In addition, a narrowly focused beam adds lateral spatial resolution to the technique, which is advantageous compared with that obtained by collimating the beam size using apertures. Capillary neutron lenses have been shown to focus a neutron beam to sub-millimeter spot size. Preliminary tests have been performed in the NDP geometry using such a focusing device. A lateral resolution in the sub-millimeter range is demonstrated by a specimen of non-uniform lateral distribution composed of a row of borosilicate glass fibers.

  16. Measuring Venus' Bulk Elemental Composition with BECA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, A. M.; Grau, J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Miles, J.; Peplowski, P. N.; Perkins, L.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Starr, R. D.

    2016-10-01

    The Bulk Elemental Composition Analyzer (BECA) instrument uses high energy neutrons and gamma rays to measure the bulk elemental composition of Venus beneath a landed probe. We will present the results of a BECA prototype tested at NASA/GSFC.

  17. Elemental profiles in Emory mouse lens

    SciTech Connect

    Bagchi, M.; Emanuel, K. )

    1991-01-01

    Energy dispersive x-ray microprobe analysis was used to determine the distribution of chloride, potassium, phosphorus and sulfur in the epithelial cells of the lenses obtained from 3 to 7 month old Emory mice and 7 month old cataract resistant strain of Emory mice. Rapidly frozen lenses were fractured in the frozen state and lyophilized. The anterior epithelial cells were analyzed from equator to equator. The results show that the epithelial cells of the 7 month old Emory mouse lens have considerably higher amounts of chloride, sulfur, potassium and phosphorus. Presence of increased amount of potassium in the epithelial cells is intriguing. The data obtained from these experiments show that the changes in the elemental levels of epithelial cells are similar to observed alteration found in the lens fiber mass of 7 month old Emory mouse.

  18. Acoustic and Perceptual Measurements of Prosody Production on the Profiling Elements of Prosodic Systems in Children by Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Joshua John; Paul, Rhea

    2013-01-01

    Prosody production atypicalities are a feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but behavioral measures of performance have failed to provide detail on the properties of these deficits. We used acoustic measures of prosody to compare children with ASDs to age-matched groups with learning disabilities and typically developing peers. Overall,…

  19. Acoustic and Perceptual Measurements of Prosody Production on the Profiling Elements of Prosodic Systems in Children by Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Joshua John; Paul, Rhea

    2013-01-01

    Prosody production atypicalities are a feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but behavioral measures of performance have failed to provide detail on the properties of these deficits. We used acoustic measures of prosody to compare children with ASDs to age-matched groups with learning disabilities and typically developing peers. Overall,…

  20. Profiling elements in Puerh tea from Yunnan province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianyang; Ma, Guicen; Chen, Liyan; Liu, Ting; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-09-01

    Puerh tea, as the most representative Chinese dark tea, has attracted global interest in recent years. Profiling the levels of metal elements in Puerh tea is very important since its presence is related to human health. In this study, 41 elements in 98 Puerh tea samples from Yunnan province, China including Puerh raw tea and Puerh ripe tea were evaluated by microwave digestion combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry . The content of toxic elements, essential elements and rare earth elements of Puerh tea from different regions was discussed in detail. The concentrations of Ba, Cr, As, Pb, Bi, Fe, Zn, V, Mn, Be, Ag and Tl showed significant differences (p < 0.05) by ANOVA analysis. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were used to describe the relationship of Puerh tea from different regions. This study provided a comprehensive database for Puerh tea quality control and intake risk assessment.

  1. Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-07-01

    The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements.

  2. SAGE II aerosol correlative observations - Profile measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, M. T.; Rosen, J. M.; Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, Pi-Huan; Livinfston, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of the aerosol extinction measurements from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared with profiles from five correlative experiments between November 1984 and July 1986. The correlative profiles were derived from six-channel dustsonde measurements and two-wavelength lidar backscatter data. The correlation between the dustsonde- and lidar-derived measurements and the SAGE II data is good, validating the SAGE II lower stratospheric aerosol extinction measurements.

  3. Measurement of Elements in the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Balloon-borne winch system; stratospheric free radicals; stratospheric sounding; copper vapor lasers; ozone measurement; NO2 analysis; chlorine chemistry; trace elements; and ClO observations are discussed.

  4. Trace Elements in Ovaries: Measurement and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Ceko, Melanie J; O'Leary, Sean; Harris, Hugh H; Hummitzsch, Katja; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, research in the field of trace element biology and human and animal health has largely depended on epidemiological methods to demonstrate involvement in biological processes. These studies were typically followed by trace element supplementation trials or attempts at identification of the biochemical pathways involved. With the discovery of biological molecules that contain the trace elements, such as matrix metalloproteinases containing zinc (Zn), cytochrome P450 enzymes containing iron (Fe), and selenoproteins containing selenium (Se), much of the current research focuses on these molecules, and, hence, only indirectly on trace elements themselves. This review focuses largely on two synchrotron-based x-ray techniques: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence imaging that can be used to identify the in situ speciation and distribution of trace elements in tissues, using our recent studies of bovine ovaries, where the distribution of Fe, Se, Zn, and bromine were determined. It also discusses the value of other techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, used to garner information about the concentrations and elemental state of the trace elements. These applications to measure trace elemental distributions in bovine ovaries at high resolutions provide new insights into possible roles for trace elements in the ovary.

  5. Trends in ozone profile measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, H.; Aikin, A.; Barnes, R.; Chandra, S.; Cunnold, D.; Deluisi, J.; Gille, J. C.; Hudson, R.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L.

    1989-01-01

    From an examination of the agreements and differences between different satellite instruments, it is difficult to believe that existing satellite instruments determine upper stratospheric ozone much better than 4 pct.; by extension, it probably would require at least a 4 pct. change to be reliably detected as a change. The best estimates of the vertical profiles of ozone change in the upper stratosphere between 1979 and 1986 are judged to be those given by the two SAGE satellite instruments. SAGE-2 minus SAGE-1 gives a much lower ozone reduction than that given by the archived Solar Backscatter UV data. The average SAGE profiles of ozone changes between 20 and 50 degs north and between 20 and 50 degs south are given. The SAGE-1 and SAGE-2 comparison gives an ozone reduction of about 4 pct. at 25 km over temperate latitudes. Five ground based Umkehr stations between 36 and 52 degs north, corrected for the effects of volcanic aerosols, report an ozone reduction between 1979 and 1987 at Umkehr layer 8 of 9 + or - 5 pct. The central estimate of upper stratospheric ozone reduction given by SAGE at 40 km is less than the central value estimated by the Umkehr method at layer 8.

  6. Measuring perception of elements in outdoor environments

    Treesearch

    George H. Moeller; Robert MacLachlan; Douglas A. Morrison

    1974-01-01

    The meanings of 10 concepts that describe elements of natural outdoor environments were measured with the semantic differential technique. Each concept was evaluated on three factors of meaning - evaluation, potency, and activity. Sixty recreationists were surveyed from each of three user groups - campers, picnickers, and wilderness hikers. Similarities and differences...

  7. Elemental profiles and signatures of fugitive dusts from Chinese deserts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Cao, Junji; Tang, Yanrong; Arimoto, Richard; Shen, Zhenxing; Wu, Feng; Han, Yongming; Wang, Gehui; Zhang, Jiaquan; Li, Guohui

    2014-02-15

    Elemental profiles were determined for size-separated fugitive dust particles produced from Chinese desert and gobi soils. Seventeen surface soil samples from six Chinese deserts were collected, composited, resuspended, and sampled through TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 inlets onto Teflon® filters, which were analyzed for twenty-six elements. Two major dust sources could be distinguished based on differences in crustal and enriched elements-the northwestern (NW) region (Taklimakan Desert, Xinjiang Gobi, and Anxinan Gobi) and northern (N) region (Ulan Buh Desert, Central Inner Mongolia Desert, and Erenhot Gobi). The N sources showed lower concentrations of mineral elements (Fe, K, Na, Ti, Mn, Cr, and Rb in PM10, and Fe, K, Ti, Mn, Co, and V in PM2.5) and higher levels of contaminants (S, Zn, Mo, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, and As) than the NW ones, especially in PM2.5. Enrichment factors for Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, As, Mo, and Cd calculated relative to the upper continental crust showed enrichments of one to two orders-of-magnitude, and they were much higher for N sources than NW ones, implying stronger anthropogenic impacts in north China. Aerosol elemental concentrations during dust events at Horqin, Beijing, and Xi'an matched the mass percentages of mineral elements from their presumptive sources better than the alternative ones, validating the differences between the NW and N sources. Additionally, Na/S, Mg/S, Fe/Al, K/Al, Si/Fe, and Na/Al ratios were suggested to differentiate the two dust source regions. The elemental ratios of Ca/Al, K/Al, Fe/Al, and Ti/Fe in the source regions matched those in aerosols collected downwind, and they can be considered as possible source indicators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring velocity profiles by the LDA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamil, Šimeček; Katarína, Ratkovská

    2017-09-01

    This article describes in details an experiment, which was done by the method Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA). The experiment used the wind tunnel in the laboratory at the Department of Power System Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. The result of measuring was air velocity profiles in the wind tunnel in cases with or without an obstacle in the airflow. The measurements take place in three planes perpendicular to the axis of the wind tunnel in the middle of the height of the tunnel end. Because the LDA method measures the velocity only in separated points, it is necessary to use traverse systems in the direction of measuring lines to make the velocity profiles. The results of this experiment are histograms (diagrams which show numbers of particulars values of velocity) and velocity profiles (for whole lines). These velocity profiles are compared with the results of the same experiment, which was measured by the method Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV).

  9. Element-specific density profiles in interacting biomembrane models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneck, Emanuel; Rodriguez-Loureiro, Ignacio; Bertinetti, Luca; Marin, Egor; Novikov, Dmitri; Konovalov, Oleg; Gochev, Georgi

    2017-03-01

    Surface interactions involving biomembranes, such as cell-cell interactions or membrane contacts inside cells play important roles in numerous biological processes. Structural insight into the interacting surfaces is a prerequisite to understand the interaction characteristics as well as the underlying physical mechanisms. Here, we work with simplified planar experimental models of membrane surfaces, composed of lipids and lipopolymers. Their interaction is quantified in terms of pressure-distance curves using ellipsometry at controlled dehydrating (interaction) pressures. For selected pressures, their internal structure is investigated by standing-wave x-ray fluorescence (SWXF). This technique yields specific density profiles of the chemical elements P and S belonging to lipid headgroups and polymer chains, as well as counter-ion profiles for charged surfaces.

  10. Complete Subsurface Elemental Composition Measurements With PING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Probing In situ with Neutrons and Gamma rays (PING) instrument will measure the complete bulk elemental composition of the subsurface of Mars as well as any other solid planetary body. PING can thus be a highly effective tool for both detailed local geochemistry science investigations and precision measurements of Mars subsurface reSOurces in preparation for future human exploration. As such, PING is thus fully capable of meeting a majority of both ncar and far term elements in Challenge #1 presented for this conference. Measuring the ncar subsurface composition of Mars will enable many of the MEPAG science goals and will be key to filling an important Strategic Knowledge Gap with regard to In situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) needs for human exploration. [1, 2] PING will thus fill an important niche in the Mars Exploration Program.

  11. Efficient finite element method for grating profile reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruming; Sun, Jiguang

    2015-12-01

    This paper concerns the reconstruction of grating profiles from scattering data. The inverse problem is formulated as an optimization problem with a regularization term. We devise an efficient finite element method (FEM) and employ a quasi-Newton method to solve it. For the direct problems, the FEM stiff and mass matrices are assembled once at the beginning of the numerical procedure. Then only minor changes are made to the mass matrix at each iteration, which significantly saves the computation cost. Numerical examples show that the method is effective and robust.

  12. Eddy current measurement of tube element spacing

    DOEpatents

    Latham, Wayne Meredith; Hancock, Jimmy Wade; Grut, Jayne Marie

    1998-01-01

    A method of electromagnetically measuring the distance between adjacent tube elements in a heat exchanger. A cylindrical, high magnetic permeability ferrite slug is placed in the tube adjacent the spacing to be measured. A bobbin or annular coil type probe operated in the absolute mode is inserted into a second tube adjacent the spacing to be measured. From prior calibrations on the response of the eddy current coil, the signals from the coil, when sensing the presence of the ferrite slug, are used to determine the spacing between the tubes.

  13. Compliant transducer measures artery profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, C.; Culler, V. H.; Crawford, D. W.; Spears, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Instrument consisting of compliant fingers with attached semiconductor pickups measures inside contours of narrow vessels. Instrument, originally designed to monitor human arteries, is drawn through vessel to allow finges to follow contours. Lead wires transmit electrical signals to external processing equipment.

  14. Elemental profiles reflect plant adaptations to the environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elemental concentrations in plants are determined by interactions with the soil. Soil is one of the key environmental influences (along with water, light, gas and other organisms) of plant success and drivers of speciation and adaptation. Environmental conditions influence common measures of adaptat...

  15. Alpha Virginis: line-profile variations and orbital elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, David; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Olguín, Enrique; Ilyin, Ilya; Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Lara, Bruno; Moreno, Edmundo

    2016-05-01

    Context. Alpha Virginis (Spica) is a B-type binary system whose proximity and brightness allow detailed investigations of the internal structure and evolution of stars undergoing time-variable tidal interactions. Previous studies have led to the conclusion that the internal structure of Spica's primary star may be more centrally condensed than predicted by theoretical models of single stars, raising the possibility that the interactions could lead to effects that are currently neglected in structure and evolution calculations. The key parameters in confirming this result are the values of the orbital eccentricity e, the apsidal period U, and the primary star's radius, R1. Aims: The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact that Spica's line profile variability has on the derivation of its orbital elements and to explore the use of the variability for constraining R1. Methods: We use high signal-to-noise and high spectral resolution observations obtained in 2000, 2008, and 2013 to derive the orbital elements from fits to the radial velocity curves. We produce synthetic line profiles using an ab initio tidal interaction model. Results: The general variations in the line profiles can be understood in terms of the tidal flows, whose large-scale structure is relatively fixed in the rotating binary system reference frame. Fits to the radial velocity curves yield e = 0.108 ± 0.014. However, the analogous RV curves from theoretical line profiles indicate that the distortion in the lines causes the fitted value of e to depend on the argument of periastron; i.e., on the epoch of observation. As a result, the actual value of e may be as high as 0.125. We find that U = 117.9 ± 1.8, which is in agreement with previous determinations. Using the value R1 = 6.8 R⊙ derived by Palate et al. (2013) the value of the observational internal structure constant k2,obs is consistent with theory. We confirm the presence of variability in the line profiles of the secondary star. RV

  16. Profiling DNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation at Retrotransposable Elements.

    PubMed

    de la Rica, Lorenzo; Stanley, Jatinder S; Branco, Miguel R

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification controlling the transcriptional activity of mammalian retrotransposable elements. Its oxidation to DNA hydroxymethylation has been linked to DNA demethylation and reactivation of retrotransposons. Here we describe in detail protocols for three methods to measure DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation at specific genomic targets: glucMS-qPCR, and two sequencing approaches (pyrosequencing and high-throughput sequencing) for analyzing bisulfite- and oxidative bisulfite-modified DNA. All three techniques provide absolute measurements of methylation and hydroxymethylation levels at single-base resolution. Differences between the methods are discussed, mainly with respect to throughput and target coverage. These constitute the core techniques that are used in our laboratory for accurately surveying the epigenetics of retrotransposable elements.

  17. MIR Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Racette, P.; Chang, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    Three subjects related to atmospheric water vapor profiling using the 183.3 GHz absorption line are discussed in this paper. First, data acquired by an airborne millimeter-wave imaging radiometer (MIR) over ocean surface in the western Pacific are used to estimate three-dimensional (3-D) distribution of atmospheric water vapor. The instrument's radiometric measurements with mixed vertical and horizontal polarizations require modifications to the retrieval algorithm used in the past. It is demonstrated that, after the modifications, the new algorithm can provide adequate retrieval of water vapor profiles, even though the measured data are of mixed polarizations. Next, the retrieved profiles, in terms of water vapor mixing ratio rho (g/kg), are compared with those measured in near concurrence by dropsondes from a research aircraft in the western Pacific and by a ground-based Raman lidar at Wallops Island, Virginia. The ratio of the standard deviation to the mean rho is found to be 0.12 at 0.25 km altitude and gradually degraded to 0.67 at the highest altitude of the retrieval of 10.25 km. Finally, the effect of the "initial guess" relative humidity profile on the final retrieved product is analyzed with respect to the condition for the convergent retrieval. It is found that the effect is minimal if the initial profile is not unrealistically different from the true one. If the initial profile is very different from the true one, the final retrieved product could be subject to a substantial error. Tightening of the convergent condition in the retrieval helped reduce magnitude of the error, but not remove it totally. It is concluded that an initial profile based on climatology is likely to provide most reliable retrieval results.

  18. Noncontact vibration measurements using magnetoresistive sensing elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassini, R.; Rossi, G.

    2016-06-01

    Contactless instrumentations is more and more used in turbomachinery testing thanks to the non-intrusive character and the possibility to monitor all the components of the machine at the same time. Performances of blade tip timing (BTT) measurement systems, used for noncontact turbine blade vibration measurements, in terms of uncertainty and resolution are strongly affected by sensor characteristics and processing methods. The sensors used for BTT generate pulses, used for precise measurements of turbine blades time of arrival. Nowadays proximity sensors used in this application are based on optical, capacitive, eddy current and microwave measuring principle. Pressure sensors has been also tried. This paper summarizes the results achieved using a novel instrumentation based on the magnetoresistive sensing elements. The characterization of the novel probe has been already published. The measurement system was validated in test benches and in a real jet-engine comparing different sensor technologies. The whole instrumentation was improved. The work presented in this paper focuses on the current developments. In particular, attention is given to the data processing software and new sensor configurations.

  19. Apparatus for laser beam profile measurements

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, N.P.; Gettemy, D.J.

    1985-01-30

    Apparatus for measuring the spatial intensity profile of the output beam from a continuous-wave laser oscillator. The rapid and repetitive passing of a small aperture through the otherwise totally blocked output beam of the laser under investigation provides an easily interpretable, real-time measure of the intensity characteristics thereof when detected by a single detector and the signal generated thereby displayed on an oscilloscope synthronized to the motion of the aperture.

  20. Element profiles in hair and nails of children reflect the uptake from food and the environment.

    PubMed

    Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Admiraal, Wim; Osano, Odipo; Kraak, Michiel H S

    2012-07-01

    The present study evaluated if the element profiles in hair and nails of children from the Lake Victoria region in Kenya reflect uptake from food and the environment. To this purpose, the element concentrations in hair and nails were related to element concentrations measured in food items, water, and soil. The highest intake of most elements occurred via ingestion of the fish Rastrineobola argentea, which is consumed in higher quantities than other fish and food items. Element concentrations in hair and nails were correlated to food and soil in element-specific patterns. Multivariate analysis combining principal component analysis and multidimensional scaling enabled us to cluster individuals from specific sites and to relate differences between sites to food-consumption patterns and environmental exposures. Site-specific differences in macroelement concentrations among the children were attributed to patterns of food consumption, while those in microelement concentrations reflected differences in geochemical background. It is concluded that the simultaneous analysis of elements in human hair and nails allows separation of populations based on food consumption and geochemical background. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  1. LASER PROFILE MEASUREMENTS OF AN H BEAM.

    SciTech Connect

    CONNOLLY,R.; CAMERON,P.; CUPOLO,J.; GRAU,M.; KESSELMAN,M.; LIAW,C.J.; SIKORA,R.

    2001-06-18

    A non-intercepting beam profile monitor for He beams is being developed at Brookhaven National Lab. An H{sup {minus}} ion has a first ionization potential of 0.75eV. Electrons can be removed from an H{sup {minus}} beam by passing light from a near-infrared laser through it. Experiments have been performed on the BNL linac to measure the transverse profile of a 750keV beam by using a Nd:YAG laser to photoneutralize narrow slices of the beam. The laser beam is scanned across the ion beam neutralizing the portion of the beam struck by the laser. The electrons are removed from the ion beam and the beam current notch is measured.

  2. LASER PROFILE MEASUREMENTS OF AN H BEAM.

    SciTech Connect

    CONNOLLY,R.; CAMERON,P.; CUPOLO,J.; GRAU,M.; KESSELMAN,M.; LIAW,C.J.; SIKORA,R.

    2001-05-12

    A non-intercepting beam profile monitor for H{sup {minus}} beams is being developed at Brookhaven National Lab. An H{sup {minus}} ion has a first ionization potential of 0.75eV. Electrons can be removed from an H{sup {minus}} beam by passing light from a near-infrared laser through it. Experiments have been performed on the BNL linac to measure the transverse profile of a 750keV beam by using a Nd:YAG laser to photoneutralize narrow slices of the beam. The laser beam is scanned across the ion beam neutralizing the portion of the beam struck by the laser. The electrons are removed from the ion beam and the beam current notch is measured.

  3. Profiling of illicit cocaine seized in China by ICP-MS analysis of inorganic elements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuimei; Hua, Zhendong; Meng, Xin

    2017-07-01

    For the first time in China, the inorganic element profiling of cocaine specimens was performed at the National Narcotics Laboratory. An inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 26 inorganic elements, including sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), aluminuim (Al), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), thallium (Tl), lead (Pb), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in illicit cocaine samples. Ultrasonic assisted dissolution was applied for sample preparation. Minimum sample preparation and analysis time were required, which was suitable for routine analysis. After the analysis of 183 cocaine samples seized from 2011 to 2015, the element concentration ranges of cocaine sample were obtained. Based on the quantitative data set of 26 inorganic elements in 131 linked/un-linked cocaine samples, fifty combinations of pre-treatment methods and distance/correlation measurements were tested for their potential discrimination power for cocaine profiling, and normalization+standardization+logarithm (N+S+L)/Cosine correlation exhibited the best result. After hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) analysis of 183 cocaine samples, 21 groups of linked samples were found within and between provinces, which provide intelligence for case connection and revealing of the distribution networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. BOREAS RSS-17 Dielectric Constant Profile Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); McDonald, Kyle C.; Zimmerman, Reiner; Way, JoBea

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-17 team acquired and analyzed imaging radar data from the ESA's ERS-1 over a complete annual cycle at the BOREAS sites in Canada in 1994 to detect shifts in radar backscatter related to varying environmental conditions. This data set consists of dielectric constant profile measurements from selected trees at various BOREAS flux tower sites. The relative dielectric constant was measured at C-band (frequency = 5 GHz) as a function of depth into the trunk of three trees at each site, Measurements were made during April 1994 with an Applied Microwave Corporation field PDP fitted with a 0.358-cm (0.141-inch) diameter coaxial probe tip. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  5. Brief communication "Snow profile associated measurements (SPAM) - a new instrument for quick snow profile measurements"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, P.

    2011-06-01

    A new instrument concept (SPAM) for snow profile associated measurements is presented. The potential of the concept is demonstrated by presenting preliminary results obtained with the prototype instrument. With this concept it is possible to retrieve rapid snow profiles of e.g. light extinction, reflectance, temperature and snow layer structure with high vertical resolution. As a side-product, also snow depth is retrieved.

  6. Profile of Trace Elements in Selected Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Diabetes in Eritrea

    PubMed Central

    Kareru, Patrick; Keriko, Joseph; Girmay, Berhane; Medhanie, Ghebrehiwet; Debretsion, Semere

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the profile of certain trace elements having therapeutic properties related to diabetes mellitus. The investigated plants were Aloe camperi, Meriandra dianthera, Lepidium sativum, Brassica nigra, and Nigella sativa. These plants are traditionally used in the management of diabetes in Eritrea. The elemental analysis was conducted using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) techniques. The accuracy of the methods was verified using in-house reference materials (CRMs) and no significant differences were observed between the measured and certified values. The analysis displayed variable concentrations of the different trace elements including Zn, Cr, V, Mn, and Se in the plants. Moreover, the levels of major elements, such as Mg, Ca, K, Na, and Ba, and heavy metals, such as Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, As, and Pb, were determined and found to be in the permissible limit defined by WHO. Among the plants, Meriandra dianthera showed the highest levels of Mn, Cr, V, and other elements and the values were significantly different (P < 0.05). PMID:27795982

  7. Connectivity Measures in EEG Microstructural Sleep Elements

    PubMed Central

    Sakellariou, Dimitris; Koupparis, Andreas M.; Kokkinos, Vasileios; Koutroumanidis, Michalis; Kostopoulos, George K.

    2016-01-01

    During Non-Rapid Eye Movement sleep (NREM) the brain is relatively disconnected from the environment, while connectedness between brain areas is also decreased. Evidence indicates, that these dynamic connectivity changes are delivered by microstructural elements of sleep: short periods of environmental stimuli evaluation followed by sleep promoting procedures. The connectivity patterns of the latter, among other aspects of sleep microstructure, are still to be fully elucidated. We suggest here a methodology for the assessment and investigation of the connectivity patterns of EEG microstructural elements, such as sleep spindles. The methodology combines techniques in the preprocessing, estimation, error assessing and visualization of results levels in order to allow the detailed examination of the connectivity aspects (levels and directionality of information flow) over frequency and time with notable resolution, while dealing with the volume conduction and EEG reference assessment. The high temporal and frequency resolution of the methodology will allow the association between the microelements and the dynamically forming networks that characterize them, and consequently possibly reveal aspects of the EEG microstructure. The proposed methodology is initially tested on artificially generated signals for proof of concept and subsequently applied to real EEG recordings via a custom built MATLAB-based tool developed for such studies. Preliminary results from 843 fast sleep spindles recorded in whole night sleep of 5 healthy volunteers indicate a prevailing pattern of interactions between centroparietal and frontal regions. We demonstrate hereby, an opening to our knowledge attempt to estimate the scalp EEG connectivity that characterizes fast sleep spindles via an “EEG-element connectivity” methodology we propose. The application of the latter, via a computational tool we developed suggests it is able to investigate the connectivity patterns related to the

  8. An Analysis of the Automated Meteorological Profiling System Low Resolution Flight Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, Frank B.; Overbey, B. Glenn

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the quality of thermodynamic and wind data measured by or derived from the Low Resolution Flight Element (LRFE) of the Automated Meteorological Profiling System (AMPS). The AMPS LRFE replaced the Meteorological Sounding System (MSS), which was used to provide vertical profiles of thermodynamic and low-resolution wind data in support of spacecraft launch operations at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. Air temperature, relative humidity, and height, which are directly measured by the LRFE, are used to derive air pressure and density. Test flights were conducted where an LRFE sonde and an MSS sonde were attached to the same balloon and the two profiles were compared. MSS data was used as the standard reference data. The objective of the thermodynamic testing was to determine a) if the LRFE met Space Shuttle Program (SSP) accuracy requirements outlined in the Space Shuttle Launch and Landing Program Requirements Document (PRD) and/or, b) if the LRFE met or exceeded MSS data quality. AMPS uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine wind speed and direction. In order to provide a basis for comparison, either an AMPS High Resolution Flight Element (HRFE) or a radar tracked Jimsphere was released simultaneously with each AMPS LRFE at CCAFS. The goal of these tests was to determine if the LRFE wind data met the requirement for low-resolution wind data defined in the Shuttle PRD. Based on the available data, the LRFE is shown to produce more consistent thermodynamic measurements than the MSS. The LRFE is also shown to meet the Shuttle PRD requirements for low resolution wind data.

  9. Measurements of fusion product emission profiles in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.D.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Hendel, H.W.; Lovberg, J.; Murphy, T.J.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Tait, G.D.; Zweben, S.J.

    1986-11-01

    The techniques and results of fusion product emission profile measurements are reviewed. While neutron source strength profile measurements have been attempted by several methods, neutron scattering is a limitation to the results. Profile measurements using charged fusion products have recently provided an alternative since collimation is much easier for the charged particles.

  10. Source Attribution of Cyanides Using Anionic Impurity Profiling, Stable Isotope Ratios, Trace Elemental Analysis and Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Mirjankar, Nikhil S; Fraga, Carlos G; Carman, April J; Moran, James J

    2016-02-02

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) for chemical threat agents (CTAs), such as cyanides, are being investigated to provide an evidentiary link between CTAs and specific sources to support criminal investigations and prosecutions. Herein, stocks of KCN and NaCN were analyzed for trace anions by high performance ion chromatography (HPIC), carbon stable isotope ratio (δ(13)C) by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The collected analytical data were evaluated using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), Fisher-ratio (F-ratio), interval partial least-squares (iPLS), genetic algorithm-based partial least-squares (GAPLS), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), K nearest neighbors (KNN), and support vector machines discriminant analysis (SVMDA). HCA of anion impurity profiles from multiple cyanide stocks from six reported countries of origin resulted in cyanide samples clustering into three groups, independent of the associated alkali metal (K or Na). The three groups were independently corroborated by HCA of cyanide elemental profiles and corresponded to countries each having one known solid cyanide factory: Czech Republic, Germany, and United States. Carbon stable isotope measurements resulted in two clusters: Germany and United States (the single Czech stock grouped with United States stocks). Classification errors for two validation studies using anion impurity profiles collected over five years on different instruments were as low as zero for KNN and SVMDA, demonstrating the excellent reliability associated with using anion impurities for matching a cyanide sample to its factory using our current cyanide stocks. Variable selection methods reduced errors for those classification methods having errors greater than zero; iPLS-forward selection and F-ratio typically provided the lowest errors. Finally, using anion profiles to classify cyanides to a specific stock

  11. Measuring Sparticles with the Matrix Element

    SciTech Connect

    Alwall, Johan; Freitas, Ayres; Mattelaer, Olivier; /INFN, Rome3 /Rome III U. /Louvain U.

    2012-04-10

    We apply the Matrix Element Method (MEM) to mass determination of squark pair production with direct decay to quarks and LSP at the LHC, showing that simultaneous mass determination of squarks and LSP is possible. We furthermore propose methods for inclusion of QCD radiation effects in the MEM. The goal of the LHC at CERN, scheduled to start this year, is to discover new physics through deviations from the Standard Model (SM) predictions. After discovery of deviations from the SM, the next step will be classification of the new physics. An important first goal in this process will be establishing a mass spectrum of the new particles. One of the most challenging scenarios is pair-production of new particles which decay to invisible massive particles, giving missing energy signals. Many methods have been proposed for mass determination in such scenarios (for a recent list of references, see e.g. [1]). In this proceeding, we report the first steps in applying the Matrix Element Method (MEM) in the context of supersymmetric scenarios giving missing energy signals. After a quick review of the MEM, we will focus on squark pair production, a process where other mass determination techniques have difficulties to simultaneously determine the LSP and squark masses. Finally, we will introduce methods to extend the range of validity of the MEM, by taking into account initial state radiation (ISR) in the method.

  12. Source Attribution of Cyanides using Anionic Impurity Profiling, Stable Isotope Ratios, Trace Elemental Analysis and Chemometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Mirjankar, Nikhil S.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Carman, April J.; Moran, James J.

    2016-01-08

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) for chemical threat agents (CTAs) are being investigated to provide an evidentiary link between CTAs and specific sources to support criminal investigations and prosecutions. In a previous study, anionic impurity profiles developed using high performance ion chromatography (HPIC) were demonstrated as CAS for matching samples from eight potassium cyanide (KCN) stocks to their reported countries of origin. Herein, a larger number of solid KCN stocks (n = 13) and, for the first time, solid sodium cyanide (NaCN) stocks (n = 15) were examined to determine what additional sourcing information can be obtained through anion, carbon stable isotope, and elemental analyses of cyanide stocks by HPIC, isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. The HPIC anion data was evaluated using the variable selection methods of Fisher-ratio (F-ratio), interval partial least squares (iPLS), and genetic algorithm-based partial least squares (GAPLS) and the classification methods of partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLSDA), K nearest neighbors (KNN), and support vector machines discriminate analysis (SVMDA). In summary, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of anion impurity profiles from multiple cyanide stocks from six reported country of origins resulted in cyanide samples clustering into three groups: Czech Republic, Germany, and United States, independent of the associated alkali metal (K or Na). The three country groups were independently corroborated by HCA of cyanide elemental profiles and corresponded to countries with known solid cyanide factories. Both the anion and elemental CAS are believed to originate from the aqueous alkali hydroxides used in cyanide manufacture. Carbon stable isotope measurements resulted in two clusters: Germany and United States (the single Czech stock grouped with United States stocks). The carbon isotope CAS is believed to

  13. Profiling Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) of Family Health History based on the Clinical Element Models

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehoon; Hulse, Nathan C.; Wood, Grant M.; Oniki, Thomas A.; Huff, Stanley M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we developed a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) profile to support exchanging a full pedigree based family health history (FHH) information across multiple systems and applications used by clinicians, patients, and researchers. We used previously developed clinical element models (CEMs) that are capable of representing the FHH information, and derived essential data elements including attributes, constraints, and value sets. We analyzed gaps between the FHH CEM elements and existing FHIR resources. Based on the analysis, we developed a profile that consists of 1) FHIR resources for essential FHH data elements, 2) extensions for additional elements that were not covered by the resources, and 3) a structured definition to integrate patient and family member information in a FHIR message. We implemented the profile using an open-source based FHIR framework and validated it using patient-entered FHH data that was captured through a locally developed FHH tool. PMID:28269871

  14. Profiling Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) of Family Health History based on the Clinical Element Models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehoon; Hulse, Nathan C; Wood, Grant M; Oniki, Thomas A; Huff, Stanley M

    2016-01-01

    In this study we developed a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) profile to support exchanging a full pedigree based family health history (FHH) information across multiple systems and applications used by clinicians, patients, and researchers. We used previously developed clinical element models (CEMs) that are capable of representing the FHH information, and derived essential data elements including attributes, constraints, and value sets. We analyzed gaps between the FHH CEM elements and existing FHIR resources. Based on the analysis, we developed a profile that consists of 1) FHIR resources for essential FHH data elements, 2) extensions for additional elements that were not covered by the resources, and 3) a structured definition to integrate patient and family member information in a FHIR message. We implemented the profile using an open-source based FHIR framework and validated it using patient-entered FHH data that was captured through a locally developed FHH tool.

  15. Measurement of inner and/or outer profiles of pipes using ring beam devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakayama, T.; Yoshizawa, T.

    2009-11-01

    Inner profile measurement is an important matter in such fields as medicine, dentistry and anthropology as well as mechanical engineering and industry. Here we propose a measurement method for inner diameter of pipes and/or holes. The key device in this technique is a ring beam device which consists of a conical mirror and a laser diode. And the fundamental principle is based on optical sectioning without any contact probe. The optically sectioned profile of an inner wall of a pipe-like object is analyzed to give the inner profile in addition to the inner diameter. This optical instrument with a simple and small configuration is now under development for practical uses. In the hitherto-tried experimental works, the availability of this instrument has been highly evaluated and usability for practical applications is expected, especially, for measurement and inspection of mechanical components and elements besides pipes. This ring beam device consisting of a conical mirror and a LD is assembled to form a disklike light beam sheet. We show measurement result of pipes and holes, and, at the same time, report a compact inner profile measuring instrument. Both the ring beam device and a miniaturized CCD camera are fabricated in a glass tube. Availability of this instrument is shown by measuring the inner profiles of various pipes. In response to this trial, there appeared a strong request that not only the internal but external profiles should be measured simultaneously. Therefore we propose an improved method for measuring the external profile in addition to the internal profile. In our arrangement, one pair of concaved conical mirrors is used for the external profile measurement. In combination with the inner profile measurement technique, simultaneous measurement of the inner and outer profiles becomes attainable. A measurement result on a bevel gear shows availability of newly proposed principle. Now we are aiming to realize simultaneous measurement of the internal

  16. Edge profiles in K shell photoabsorption spectra of gaseous hydrides of 3p elements and homologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauko, R.; Gomilšek, J. Padežnik; Kodre, A.; Arčon, I.; Aquilanti, G.

    2017-10-01

    Photoabsorption spectra of gaseous hydrides of 3p elements (PH3, H2S, HCl) are measured in the energy region of photoexcitations pertaining to K edge. The analysis of the edge profile is extended to hydrides of 4p series (GeH4, AsH3, H2Se, HBr) from an earlier experiment, and to published spectra of 2p hydrides (CH4, NH3, H2O, HF) and noble gases Ar, Kr and Ne and SiH4. The edge profiles are modelled with a linear combination of lorentzian components, describing excitations to individual bound states and to continuum. Transition energies and probabilities are also calculated in the non-relativistic molecular model of the ORCA code, in good agreement with the experiment. Edge profiles in the heavier homologues are closely similar, the symmetry of the molecule governs the transitions to the lowest unoccupied orbitals. In 2p series the effect of the strong nuclear potential prevails. Transitions to higher, atomic-like levels remain very much the same as in free atoms.

  17. The effect of dead elements on the accuracy of Doppler ultrasound measurements.

    PubMed

    Vachutka, Jaromir; Dolezal, Ladislav; Kollmann, Christian; Klein, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of multiple dead elements in an ultrasound probe on the accuracy of Doppler ultrasound measurements. For this work, we used a specially designed ultrasound imaging system, the Ultrasonix Sonix RP, that provides the user with the ability to disable selected elements in the probe. Using fully functional convex, linear, and phased array probes, we established a performance baseline by measuring the parameters of a laminar parabolic flow profile. These same parameters were then measured using probes with 1 to 10 disabled elements. The acquired velocity spectra from the functional probes and the probes with disabled elements were then analyzed to determine the overall Doppler power, maximum flow velocity, and average flow velocity. Color Flow Doppler images were also evaluated in a similar manner. The analysis of the Doppler spectra indicates that the overall Doppler power as well as the detected maximum and average velocities decrease with the increasing number of disabled elements. With multiple disabled elements, decreases in the detected maximum and average velocities greater than 20% were recorded. Similar results were also observed with Color Flow Doppler measurements. Our results confirmed that the degradation of the ultrasound probe through the loss of viable elements will negatively affect the quality of the Doppler-derived diagnostic information. We conclude that the results of Doppler measurements cannot be considered accurate or reliable if there are four or more contiguous dead elements in any given probe.

  18. Analysis of Strip Profile in Flat Rolling by the Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. H.; Lee, W. H.; Hwang, S. M.

    2004-06-01

    A full, finite element (FE)-based approach is presented for the precision analysis of the strip profile in flat rolling. Basic FE models for the analysis of the mechanical behavior of the strip and of the rolls are described in detail. Also described is an iterative strategy for a rigorous treatment of the mechanical contact occurring at the roll-strip interface and at the roll-roll interface. Then, presented is an integrated FE process model for the coupled analysis of the mechanical behavior of the strip, work roll, and backup roll in four-high mill. A series of process simulation are conducted and the results are compared with the measurements made in hot and cold rolling experiments.

  19. Time-resolved measurements of equilibrium profiles in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, B. H.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Yates, T. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Caspary, K.; McCollam, K. J.; Prager, S. C.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Craig, D.

    2007-11-01

    Based on the high-speed, three-wave, far-infrared polarimeter-interferometer measurement of Bpol profiles and external coil measurements of Btave and Btw, a new method is developed to derive Btor and other equilibrium profiles (J// and q) with high time resolution. Using Faraday's law, the inductive electric field (E//) profile is also deduced from the temporal derivatives of the time-resolved magnetic field profiles. The derived B(0) values have excellent agreement with direct measurements using a Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic. Evolution of equilibrium profiles during single sawtooth events in MST, both the slow linear ramp and crash phases, are presented. Profile scaling with plasma current Ip and reversal parameter F is also explored. MHD stability is tested from the spatial gradients of the J// and q profiles, and correlation with fluctuation mode amplitude is investigated. Future improvements to equilibrium reconstruction are expected by measuring Btor(r,t) directly via Cotton-Mouton interferometry.

  20. A Comparison of the Automated Meteorological Profiling System High Resolution Flight Element to the Kennedy Space Center 50 MHz Doppler Wind Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.; Leahy, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Wind profile measurement and the simulation of aerodynamic loads on a launch vehicle play an important role in determining launch capability and post launch assessment of the vehicle's performance. To date, all United States range certified wind profile measurement systems have been based on balloon tracking. Since the 1960's, the standard used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Air Force at the Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) for detailed wind profile measurements has been the radar tracked, aerodynamically stabilized Jimsphere balloon system. Currently, the Air Force is nearing certification and operational implementation of the Automated Meteorological Profiling System (AMPS) at CCAS and Vandenburg Air Force Base (VAFB). AMPS uses the Global Positioning System for tracking the Jimsphere balloon. It is anticipated that the AMPS/Jimsphere, named the High Resolution Flight Element (HRFE), will have equivalent, or better resolution than the radar tracked Jimsphere, especially when the balloon is far downrange, at a low elevation angle. By the 1980's, the development of Doppler Wind Profilers (DWP) had become sufficiently advanced to justify an experimental measurement program at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In 1989 a 50 MHz DWP was installed at KSC. In principal, the 50 MHz DWP has the capability to track the evolution of wind profile dynamics within 5 minutes of a launch. Because of fundamental differences in the measurement technique, there is a significant time and space differential between 50 MHz DWP and HRFE wind profiles. This paper describes a study to quantify these differences from a sample of 50 MHz DWP/HRFE pairs obtained during the AMPS certification test program.

  1. Elemental profile in amniotic fluid of some Nigerian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, M I; Ogunfowokan, A O; Orji, E O

    2011-06-01

    In this study concentration level of calcium, cadmium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were determined in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women, aged 15 - 45 years enrolled at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile - Ife. This was with a view to predict the body burden of the metals in the pregnant women and assess the health implications of the toxic elements to the pregnant women and their fetuses. Fifty samples of the amniotic fluid were collected from the pregnant women. The efficiency of extraction of trace metals using conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM) and microwave induced acid digestion method (MWD) was determined by recovery experiments. Levels of trace metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The high percentage recoveries obtained from MWD made it a more efficient method than the CDM and hence its adoption for sample digestion. Statistical analysis of data using descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that age; education and profession have effects on the levels of the trace metals. The mean levels of most of the toxic metals obtained in this study were lower than the recommended limits of trace metals in women whole blood.

  2. Isotopic and elemental profiling of ammonium nitrate in forensic explosives investigations.

    PubMed

    Brust, Hanneke; Koeberg, Mattijs; van der Heijden, Antoine; Wiarda, Wim; Mügler, Ines; Schrader, Marianne; Vivo-Truyols, Gabriel; Schoenmakers, Peter; van Asten, Arian

    2015-03-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is frequently encountered in explosives in forensic casework. It is widely available as fertilizer and easy to implement in explosive devices, for example by mixing it with a fuel. Forensic profiling methods to determine whether material found on a crime scene and material retrieved from a suspect arise from the same source are becoming increasingly important. In this work, we have explored the possibility of using isotopic and elemental profiling to discriminate between different batches of AN. Variations within a production batch, between different batches from the same manufacturer, and between batches from different manufacturers were studied using a total of 103 samples from 19 different fertilizer manufacturers. Isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) was used to analyze AN samples for their (15)N and (18)O isotopic composition. The trace-elemental composition of these samples was studied using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). All samples were analyzed for the occurrence of 66 elements. 32 of these elements were useful for the differentiation of AN samples. These include magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and strontium (Sr). Samples with a similar elemental profile may be differentiated based on their isotopic composition. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to calculate likelihood ratios and demonstrated the power of combining elemental and isotopic profiling for discrimination between different sources of AN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Subsurface In Situ Elemental Composition Measurements with PING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Ann; McClanahan, Timothy; Bodnarik, Julia; Evans, Larry; Nowicki, Suzanne; Schweitzer, Jeffrey; Starr, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Probing In situ with Neutron and Gamma rays (PING) instrument, that can measure the subsurface elemental composition in situ for any rocky body in the solar system without the need for digging into the surface. PING consists of a Pulsed Neutron Generator (PNG), a gamma ray spectrometer and neutron detectors. Subsurface elements are stimulated by high-energy neutrons to emit gamma rays at characteristic energies. This paper will show how the detection of these gamma rays results in a measurement of elemental composition. Examples of the basalt to granite ratios for aluminum and silicon abundance are provided.

  4. Stresses in Copper Damascene Lines: In-situ Measurements and Finite Element Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gergaud, P.; Baldacci, A.; Thomas, O.; Rivero, C.; Sicardy, O.; Micha, J.-S.

    2006-02-07

    The mechanical properties of thin damascene Cu lines are investigated by in-situ x-ray diffraction, in-situ curvature measurements and finite element calculations. At variance with the behavior of blanket films, 0.3 {mu}m lines exhibit a thermo-elastic behavior which is well reproduced by finite element calculations. The curvature measurements confirm this pure elastic behavior. The triaxial stress state in the lines may explain the lack of plasticity at reduced temperatures because different stress tensor element make the resolved stress cancel out. Profile analysis of the X-ray peaks are compared to the strain distribution deduced from the finite element calculations. The good agreement confirms the large strain inhomogeneities in the lines due to interfacial effects.

  5. Local Heat Flux Measurements with Single and Small Multi-element Coaxial Element-Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregg; Protz, Christopher; Bullard, Brad; Hulka, James

    2006-01-01

    To support NASA's Vision for Space Exploration mission, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a program in 2005 to improve the capability to predict local thermal compatibility and heat transfer in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. The ultimate objective was to predict and hence reduce the local peak heat flux due to injector design, resulting in a significant improvement in overall engine reliability and durability. Such analyses are applicable to combustion devices in booster, upper stage, and in-space engines with regeneratively cooled chamber walls, as well as in small thrust chambers with few elements in the injector. In this program, single and three-element injectors were hot-fire tested with liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants at The Pennsylvania State University Cryogenic Combustor Laboratory from May to August 2005. Local heat fluxes were measured in a 1-inch internal diameter heat sink combustion chamber using Medtherm coaxial thermocouples and Gardon heat flux gauges, Injector configurations were tested with both shear coaxial elements and swirl coaxial elements. Both a straight and a scarfed single element swirl injector were tested. This paper includes general descriptions of the experimental hardware, instrumentation, and results of the hot-fire testing for three coaxial shear and swirl elements. Detailed geometry and test results the for shear coax elements has already been published. Detailed test result for the remaining 6 swirl coax element for the will be published in a future JANNAF presentation to provide well-defined data sets for development and model validation.

  6. Co-occurrence profiles of trace elements in potable water systems: a case study.

    PubMed

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Costa, Costas N

    2014-11-01

    Potable water samples (N = 74) from 19 zip code locations in a region of Greece were profiled for 13 trace elements composition using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The primary objective was to monitor the drinking water quality, while the primary focus was to find novel associations in trace elements occurrence that may further shed light on common links in their occurrence and fate in the pipe scales and corrosion products observed in urban drinking water distribution systems. Except for arsenic at two locations and in six samples, rest of the analyzed elements was below maximum contaminant levels, for which regulatory values are available. Further, we attempted to hierarchically cluster trace elements based on their covariances resulting in two groups; one with arsenic, antimony, zinc, cadmium, and copper and the second with the rest of the elements. The grouping trends were partially explained by elements' similar chemical activities in water, underscoring their potential for co-accumulation and co-mobilization phenomena from pipe scales into finished water. Profiling patterns of trace elements in finished water could be indicative of their load on pipe scales and corrosion products, with a corresponding risk of episodic contaminant release. Speculation was made on the role of disinfectants and disinfection byproducts in mobilizing chemically similar trace elements of human health interest from pipe scales to tap water. It is warranted that further studies may eventually prove useful to water regulators from incorporating the acquired knowledge in the drinking water safety plans.

  7. The prediction of transducer element performance from in air measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    A technique has been developed which accurately predicts the performance of underwater acoustic arrays prior to array construction. The technique is based upon the measurement of lumped-parameter equivalent circuit values for each element in the array, and is accurate in predicting the array transmit, receive and beam pattern response. The measurement procedure determines the shunt electrical and motional circuit elements from electrical imittance measurements. The electromechanical transformation ratio is derived from in-air measurements of the radiating face velocity and the input current to the transducer at resonance. The equivalent circuit values of a group of Tonpilz-type transducers were measured, and the self and mutual interaction acoustic loadings for a specific array geometry were calculated. The response of the elements was then predicted for water-loaded array conditions. Based on the predictions, a selection scheme was developed which minimized the effects of inter-element variability on array performance. The measured transmitting, receiving and beam pattern characteristics of a test array, built using the selected elements, were compared to predictions made before the array was built. The results indicated that the technique is accurate over a wide frequency range.

  8. PIXE measurement applied to trace elemental analysis of human tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M.; Matsugi, E.; Miyasaki, K.; Yamagata, T.; Inoue, M.; Ogata, H.; Shimoura, S.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE measurement was applied for trace elemental analyses of 40 autoptic human kidneys. To investigate the reproducibility of the PIXE data, 9 targets obtained from one human liver were examined. The targets were prepared by wet-digestion using nitric and sulfuric acid. Yttrium was used as an internal standard. The extracted elemental concentrations for K, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd were in reasonable agreement with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and flame photometry (FP). Various correlations among the elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Cd were examined individually for the renal cortex and renal medulla.

  9. Lunar Elemental Abundances from Gamma-Ray and Neutron Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Vaniman, D. T.

    1999-01-01

    The determination of elemental abundances is one of the highest science objectives of most lunar missions. Such multi-element abundances, ratios, or maps should include results for elements that are diagnostic or important in lunar processes, including heat-producing elements (such as K and Th), important incompatible elements (Th and rare earth elements), H (for polar deposits and regolith maturity), and key variable elements in major lunar provinces (such as Fe and Ti in the maria). Both neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy can be used to infer elemental abundances; the two complement each other. These elemental abundances need to be determined with high accuracy and precision from measurements such as those made by the gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) and neutron spectrometers (NS) on Lunar Prospector. As presented here, a series of steps, computer codes, and nuclear databases are needed to properly convert the raw gamma-ray and neutron measurements into good elemental abundances, ratios, and/or maps. Lunar Prospector (LP) is the first planetary mission that has measured neutrons escaping from a planet other than the Earth. The neutron spectrometers on Lunar Prospector measured a wide range of neutron energies. The ability to measure neutrons with thermal (E < 0.1 eV), epithermal (E about equal 0.1 - 1000 eV), and fast (E about 0.1-10 MeV) energies maximizes the scientific return, being especially sensitive to both H (using epithermal neutrons) and thermal-neutron-absorbing elements. Neutrons are made in the lunar surface by the interaction of galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles with the atomic nuclei in the surface. Most neutrons are produced with energies above about 0.1 MeV. The flux of fast neutrons in and escaping from the Moon depends on es the intensity of the cosmic rays (which vary with solar activity) and the elemental composition of the surface. Variations in the elemental composition of the lunar surface can affect the flux of fast neutrons by about 25

  10. Measuring discharge with ADCPs: Inferences from synthetic velocity profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehmann, C.R.; Mueller, D.S.; Oberg, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic velocity profiles are used to determine guidelines for sampling discharge with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). The analysis allows the effects of instrument characteristics, sampling parameters, and properties of the flow to be studied systematically. For mid-section measurements, the averaging time required for a single profile measurement always exceeded the 40 s usually recommended for velocity measurements, and it increased with increasing sample interval and increasing time scale of the large eddies. Similarly, simulations of transect measurements show that discharge error decreases as the number of large eddies sampled increases. The simulations allow sampling criteria that account for the physics of the flow to be developed. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  11. Preschool Children's Performance on Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Fiona E.; Smyth, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C) has not been used widely to assess prosodic abilities of preschool children. This study was therefore aimed at investigating typically developing 4-year-olds' performance on PEPS-C. PEPS-C was presented to 30 typically developing 4-year-olds recruited in southern Ireland. Children were…

  12. Preschool Children's Performance on Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Fiona E.; Smyth, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C) has not been used widely to assess prosodic abilities of preschool children. This study was therefore aimed at investigating typically developing 4-year-olds' performance on PEPS-C. PEPS-C was presented to 30 typically developing 4-year-olds recruited in southern Ireland. Children were…

  13. Modulatory role of vanadium on trace element profile in diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, A.; Selvaraj, S.; Sudarshan, M.; Dutta, R. K.; Ghugre, S. S.; Chintalapudi, S. N.

    2000-09-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis was employed in the present study to investigate the chemopreventive potential of vanadium in influencing trace elemental profile and antioxidant status in chemical carcinogenesis. The elements with Z=15-40 were studied. Data reveal remarkable alterations in elemental composition in the hepatic tissue of diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced Sprague-Dawley male rats (intraperitoneal (ip) dose: 200 mg/kg body weight) after four weeks of induction. Several elements like Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb showed large depletion while other elements like Fe, Ca, K, Br showed large enhancement in comparison to that of the normal control animals. These elements compete for binding sites in the cell, change its enzymatic activity and exert direct or indirect action on the carcinogenic process. Supplementary vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum in drinking water) has shown effective modulation by alteration in the concentration of trace elements in the tumorigenic tissue ( P<0.001-0.005). Data reflect a definite correlation between elemental composition, antioxidant status in the initiation phase of carcinogenesis and the period of exposure to vanadium. The possibility of selecting vanadium as a therapeutic agent for chemoprevention is discussed in the light of its influence in maintaining trace elemental homeostasis, a parameter of importance in cancer prevention research.

  14. Measurement of the first ionization potential of lawrencium, element 103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T. K.; Asai, M.; Borschevsky, A.; Stora, T.; Sato, N.; Kaneya, Y.; Tsukada, K.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Eliav, E.; Ichikawa, S.; Kaldor, U.; Kratz, J. V.; Miyashita, S.; Nagame, Y.; Ooe, K.; Osa, A.; Renisch, D.; Runke, J.; Schädel, M.; Thörle-Pospiech, P.; Toyoshima, A.; Trautmann, N.

    2015-04-01

    The chemical properties of an element are primarily governed by the configuration of electrons in the valence shell. Relativistic effects influence the electronic structure of heavy elements in the sixth row of the periodic table, and these effects increase dramatically in the seventh row--including the actinides--even affecting ground-state configurations. Atomic s and p1/2 orbitals are stabilized by relativistic effects, whereas p3/2, d and f orbitals are destabilized, so that ground-state configurations of heavy elements may differ from those of lighter elements in the same group. The first ionization potential (IP1) is a measure of the energy required to remove one valence electron from a neutral atom, and is an atomic property that reflects the outermost electronic configuration. Precise and accurate experimental determination of IP1 gives information on the binding energy of valence electrons, and also, therefore, on the degree of relativistic stabilization. However, such measurements are hampered by the difficulty in obtaining the heaviest elements on scales of more than one atom at a time. Here we report that the experimentally obtained IP1 of the heaviest actinide, lawrencium (Lr, atomic number 103), is electronvolts. The IP1 of Lr was measured with 256Lr (half-life 27 seconds) using an efficient surface ion-source and a radioisotope detection system coupled to a mass separator. The measured IP1 is in excellent agreement with the value of 4.963(15) electronvolts predicted here by state-of-the-art relativistic calculations. The present work provides a reliable benchmark for theoretical calculations and also opens the way for IP1 measurements of superheavy elements (that is, transactinides) on an atom-at-a-time scale.

  15. Measurement of the first ionization potential of lawrencium, element 103.

    PubMed

    Sato, T K; Asai, M; Borschevsky, A; Stora, T; Sato, N; Kaneya, Y; Tsukada, K; Düllmann, Ch E; Eberhardt, K; Eliav, E; Ichikawa, S; Kaldor, U; Kratz, J V; Miyashita, S; Nagame, Y; Ooe, K; Osa, A; Renisch, D; Runke, J; Schädel, M; Thörle-Pospiech, P; Toyoshima, A; Trautmann, N

    2015-04-09

    The chemical properties of an element are primarily governed by the configuration of electrons in the valence shell. Relativistic effects influence the electronic structure of heavy elements in the sixth row of the periodic table, and these effects increase dramatically in the seventh row--including the actinides--even affecting ground-state configurations. Atomic s and p1/2 orbitals are stabilized by relativistic effects, whereas p3/2, d and f orbitals are destabilized, so that ground-state configurations of heavy elements may differ from those of lighter elements in the same group. The first ionization potential (IP1) is a measure of the energy required to remove one valence electron from a neutral atom, and is an atomic property that reflects the outermost electronic configuration. Precise and accurate experimental determination of IP1 gives information on the binding energy of valence electrons, and also, therefore, on the degree of relativistic stabilization. However, such measurements are hampered by the difficulty in obtaining the heaviest elements on scales of more than one atom at a time. Here we report that the experimentally obtained IP1 of the heaviest actinide, lawrencium (Lr, atomic number 103), is 4.96(+0.08)(-0.07) electronvolts. The IP1 of Lr was measured with (256)Lr (half-life 27 seconds) using an efficient surface ion-source and a radioisotope detection system coupled to a mass separator. The measured IP1 is in excellent agreement with the value of 4.963(15) electronvolts predicted here by state-of-the-art relativistic calculations. The present work provides a reliable benchmark for theoretical calculations and also opens the way for IP1 measurements of superheavy elements (that is, transactinides) on an atom-at-a-time scale.

  16. Measuring Weld Profiles By Computer Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pascua, Antonio G.; Roy, Jagatjit

    1990-01-01

    Noncontacting, nondestructive computer tomography system determines internal and external contours of welded objects. System makes it unnecessary to take metallurgical sections (destructive technique) or to take silicone impressions of hidden surfaces (technique that contaminates) to inspect them. Measurements of contours via tomography performed 10 times as fast as measurements via impression molds, and tomography does not contaminate inspected parts.

  17. AC Circuit Measurements with a Differential Hall Element Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkins, Matthew W.; Nicks, B. Scott; Quintero, Pedro A.; Meisel, Mark W.

    2013-03-01

    As the biomedical field grows, there is an increasing need to quickly and efficiently characterize more samples at room temperature. An automated magnetometer was commissioned to do these room temperature magnetic characterizations. This magnetometer, which is inspired by a Differential Hall Element Magnetometer,[2] uses two commercially available Hall elements wired in series. One Hall element measures the external magnetic field of a 9 T superconducting magnet and the other measures the same external field plus the field due to the magnetization of the sample that sits on top of the Hall element. The difference between these two Hall elements is taken while a linear stepper motor sweeps through the external magnetic field. The linear motor and data acquisition are controlled by a LabVIEW program. Recently, the system was outfitted for AC circuit measurements and these data will be compared to DC circuit data. In addition, the lowest signal to noise ratio will be found in order to deduce the smallest amount of sample needed to register an accurate coercive field. Supported by the NSF via NHMFL REU (DMR-0654118), a single investigator grant (DMR-1202033 to MWM) and by the UF Undergraduate Scholars Program.

  18. Acceleration of matrix element computations for precision measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Oleg; Gutierrez, Gaston; Wang, M. H.L.S.; Ye, Zhenyu

    2014-11-25

    The matrix element technique provides a superior statistical sensitivity for precision measurements of important parameters at hadron colliders, such as the mass of the top quark or the cross-section for the production of Higgs bosons. The main practical limitation of the technique is its high computational demand. Using the example of the top quark mass, we present two approaches to reduce the computation time of the technique by a factor of 90. First, we utilize low-discrepancy sequences for numerical Monte Carlo integration in conjunction with a dedicated estimator of numerical uncertainty, a novelty in the context of the matrix element technique. We then utilize a new approach that factorizes the overall jet energy scale from the matrix element computation, a novelty in the context of top quark mass measurements. The utilization of low-discrepancy sequences is of particular general interest, as it is universally applicable to Monte Carlo integration, and independent of the computing environment.

  19. Systems of elements preserving measure on varieties of groups

    SciTech Connect

    Timoshenko, E I

    2013-12-31

    It is proved that for any l, 1≤l≤r, a system of elements (v{sub 1},…,v{sub l}) of a free metabelian group S of rank r≥2 is primitive if and only if it preserves measure on the variety of metabelian groups A{sup 2}. From this we obtain the result that a system of elements (v{sub 1},…,v{sub l}) is primitive in the group S if and only if it is primitive in its profinite completion S-hat . Furthermore, it is proved that there exist a variety M and a nonprimitive element v∈F{sub r}(M) such that v preserves measure on M. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  20. Tropospheric Wind Profile Measurements with a Direct Detection Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce M.; Li, Steven X.; Korb, C. Laurence; Chen, Huailin; Mathur, Savyasachee

    1998-01-01

    Research has established the importance of global tropospheric wind measurements for large scale improvements in numerical weather prediction. In addition, global wind measurements provide data that are fundamental to the understanding and prediction of global climate change. These tasks are closely linked with the goals of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise and Global Climate Change programs. NASA Goddard has been actively involved in the development of direct detection Doppler lidar methods and technologies to meet the wind observing needs of the atmospheric science community. In this paper we describe a recently developed prototype wind lidar system using a direct detection Doppler technique for measuring wind profiles from the surface through the troposphere. This system uses a pulsed ND:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm as the transmitter. The laser pulse is directed to the atmosphere using a 40 cm diameter scan mirror. The portion of the laser energy backscattered from aerosols and molecules is collected by a 40 cm diameter telescope and coupled via fiber optics into the Doppler receiver. Single photon counting APD's are used to detect the atmospheric backscattered signal. The principle element of the receiver is a dual bandpass tunable Fabry Perot etalon which analyzes the Doppler shift of the incoming laser signal using the double edge technique. The double edge technique uses two high resolution optical filters having bandpasses offset relative to one another such that the 'edge' of the first filter's transmission function crosses that of the second at the half power point. The outgoing laser frequency is located approximately at the crossover point. Due to the opposite going slopes of the edges, a Doppler shift in the atmospheric backscattered laser frequency produces a positive change in signal for one filter and a negative change in the second filter. Taking the ratio of the two edge channel signals yields a result which is directly proportional to the

  1. Tropospheric Wind Profile Measurements with a Direct Detection Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce M.; Li, Steven X.; Korb, C. Laurence; Chen, Huailin; Mathur, Savyasachee

    1998-01-01

    Research has established the importance of global tropospheric wind measurements for large scale improvements in numerical weather prediction. In addition, global wind measurements provide data that are fundamental to the understanding and prediction of global climate change. These tasks are closely linked with the goals of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise and Global Climate Change programs. NASA Goddard has been actively involved in the development of direct detection Doppler lidar methods and technologies to meet the wind observing needs of the atmospheric science community. In this paper we describe a recently developed prototype wind lidar system using a direct detection Doppler technique for measuring wind profiles from the surface through the troposphere. This system uses a pulsed ND:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm as the transmitter. The laser pulse is directed to the atmosphere using a 40 cm diameter scan mirror. The portion of the laser energy backscattered from aerosols and molecules is collected by a 40 cm diameter telescope and coupled via fiber optics into the Doppler receiver. Single photon counting APD's are used to detect the atmospheric backscattered signal. The principle element of the receiver is a dual bandpass tunable Fabry Perot etalon which analyzes the Doppler shift of the incoming laser signal using the double edge technique. The double edge technique uses two high resolution optical filters having bandpasses offset relative to one another such that the 'edge' of the first filter's transmission function crosses that of the second at the half power point. The outgoing laser frequency is located approximately at the crossover point. Due to the opposite going slopes of the edges, a Doppler shift in the atmospheric backscattered laser frequency produces a positive change in signal for one filter and a negative change in the second filter. Taking the ratio of the two edge channel signals yields a result which is directly proportional to the

  2. Multi-element silicon detector for x-ray flux measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.C.; Goulding, F.S.; Sommer, H.A.; Walton, J.T.; Hughes, E.B.; Rolfe, J.; Zeman, H.D.

    1981-10-01

    A 30-element Si(Li) detector has been fabricated to measure the one-dimensional flux profile of 33 KeV x-rays from a synchrotron radiation beam. The device, which is fabricated from a single 39 mm x 15 mm silicon wafer, is a linear array of 0.9 mm x 7 mm elements with a 1 mm center-to-center spacing. It is 5 mm thick and when operated at room temperature has an average leakage current of 10 nA/element. The x-ray flux in each element is determined by measuring the current with a high quality operational amplifier followed by a current digitizer. This detector is being used to study the use of synchrotron radiation for non-invasive imaging of coronary arteries. The experiment uses the difference in the transmitted flux of a monochromatized x-ray beam above and below the iodine K-edge. Measurements have been made on plastic phantoms and on excised animal hearts with iodinated arteries. The images obtained indicate that a 256-element device with similar properties, but with 0.6 mm element spacing, will make a very effective detector for high-speed medical imaging.

  3. Wind profiler mixing depth and entrainment measurements with chemical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Angevine, W.M.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D.D.; Buhr, M.P.; Fehsenfeld, F.C.; Kok, G.L.

    1994-12-31

    Wind profiling radars operating at 915 MHz have been present at a number of regional air quality studies. The profilers can provide a continuous, accurate record of the depth of the convective mixed layer with good time resolution. Profilers also provide information about entrainment at the boundary layer top. Mixing depth data from several days of the Rural Oxidants in the Southern Environment II (ROSE II) study in Alabama in June, 1992 are presented. For several cases, chemical measurements from aircraft and ground-based instruments are shown to correspond to mixing depth and entrainment zone behavior observed by the profiler.

  4. Some measurements for determining strangeness matrix elements in the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, E.M.; Pollock, S.J.; Ying, S.; Frederico, T.; Krein,; Williams, A.G.

    1991-12-31

    Some experiments to measure strangeness matrix elements of the proton are proposed. Two of these suggestions are described in some detail, namely electro-production of phi mesons and the difference between neutrino and antineutrino scattering for isospin zero targets such as deuterium.

  5. Some measurements for determining strangeness matrix elements in the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, E.M.; Pollock, S.J.; Ying, S. ); Frederico, T. , Sao Jose dos Campos, SP . Inst. de Estudos Avancados); Krein, . Inst. de Fisica Teorica); Williams, A.G. )

    1991-01-01

    Some experiments to measure strangeness matrix elements of the proton are proposed. Two of these suggestions are described in some detail, namely electro-production of phi mesons and the difference between neutrino and antineutrino scattering for isospin zero targets such as deuterium.

  6. Incorporating Perceived Importance of Service Elements into Client Satisfaction Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the need for incorporating perceived importance of service elements into client satisfaction measures. Method: A secondary analysis of client satisfaction data from 112 clients of an elderly case management setting was conducted. Results: This study found that the relationship between global…

  7. Incorporating Perceived Importance of Service Elements into Client Satisfaction Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the need for incorporating perceived importance of service elements into client satisfaction measures. Method: A secondary analysis of client satisfaction data from 112 clients of an elderly case management setting was conducted. Results: This study found that the relationship between global…

  8. Hyperaccumulation of zinc by Noccaea caerulescens results in a cascade of stress responses and changes in the elemental profile.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Siavash; Baker, Alan J M; Roessner, Ute; Johnson, Alexander A T; Bacic, Antony; Callahan, Damien L

    2014-09-01

    Noccaea caerulescens (J. & C. Presl) F. K. Meyer is a metal hyperaccumulating plant which can accumulate more than 2% zinc (Zn) dry tissue mass in its aerial tissues. At this concentration Zn is toxic to most plants due to inhibition of enzyme function, oxidative damage and mineral deficiencies. In this study the elemental and metabolite profiles of N. caerulescens plants grown in four different Zn concentrations were measured. This revealed broad changes in the metabolite and elemental profiles with the hyperaccumulation of Zn. The Zn treated plants exhibited no typical signs of stress such as chlorosis or reduced biomass, however, a range of metabolic stress responses, such as the modification of galactolipids and the major membrane lipids of plastids, and increases in oxylipins, which are precursors to the signalling molecules jasmonic and abscisic acids, as well as the increased synthesis of glucosinolates, was observed. Increases in particular organic acids and the ubiquitous metal cation chelator nicotianamine were also observed. The small molecule metabolite changes observed, however, did not account for the extreme Zn concentrations in the leaf tissue showing that the increase in nicotianamine production most likely negates Fe deficiency. The elemental analyses also revealed significant changes in other essential micronutrients, in particular, significantly lower Mn concentrations in the high Zn accumulating plants, yet higher Fe concentrations. This comprehensive elemental and metabolite analysis revealed novel metabolite responses to Zn and offers evidence against organic acids as metal-storage ligands in N. caerulescens.

  9. Velocity Profile measurements in two-phase flow using multi-wave sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddinika, M. K.; Ito, D.; Takahashi, H.; Kikura, H.; Aritomi, M.

    2009-02-01

    Two-phase flow has been recognized as one of the most important phenomena in fluid dynamics. In addition, gas-liquid two-phase flow appears in various industrial fields such as chemical industries and power generations. In order to clarify the flow structure, some flow parameters have been measured by using many effective measurement techniques. The velocity profile as one of the important flow parameter, has been measured by using ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) technique. This technique can measure velocity distributions along a measuring line, which is a beam formed by pulse ultrasounds. Furthermore, a multi-wave sensor can measure the velocity profiles of both gas and liquid phase using UVP method. In this study, two types of multi-wave sensors are used. A sensor has cylindrical shape, and another one has square shape. The piezoelectric elements of each sensor have basic frequencies of 8 MHz for liquid phase and 2 MHz for gas phase, separately. The velocity profiles of air-water bubbly flow in a vertical rectangular channel were measured by using these multi-wave sensors, and the validation of the measuring accuracy was performed by the comparison between the velocity profiles measured by two multi-wave sensors.

  10. Measurement of stratospheric HOCl - Concentration profiles, including diurnal variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Johnson, D. G.; Traub, W. A.

    1989-01-01

    Determinations have been made of concentration profiles of HOCl in the earth's stratosphere, including the diurnal variation. Measurements of the rotational Q2 branch at 99.5/cm and of five RR(J3) transitions between 143 and 159/cm were made using far-infrared thermal emission spectroscopy. The spectra were obtained during a balloon flight of the FIRS 2 far-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer and telescope from Palestine, Texas on May 12-13, 1988. From these measurements, altitude profiles of HOCl from 23 to 42 km are obtained. Daytime and nighttime average profiles of HOCl, as well as measurements on a 30-min time scale through the sunset transition at a single (35 km) altitude are presented. The measured profiles are lower than the current predictions from several modeling groups by a factor of approximately 0.6.

  11. A surface-profile measuring system for synchrotron radiation mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, S.; Higashi, Y.; Haya, S.; Otsuka, M.; Yamamoto, H.

    1992-01-01

    The optical head for a new surface-profile measuring system was constructed on the basis of the Twyman-Green interferometer with heterodyne phase detection method. Stability in optical path difference (OPD) was within 2 nm for a fixed point under the well shielded condition. The measured OPD map at the null fringe condition shows the possibility for direct or segment measurement method of aspheric and/or large size mirrors in SR optics. Based on experiments, a new surface-profile measuring system by phase measurement interferometry and segment method is designed. Designed features of the system are briefly reported.

  12. A surface-profile measuring system for synchrotron radiation mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, S. ); Higashi, Y. ); Haya, S.; Otsuka, M.; Yamamoto, H. )

    1992-01-01

    The optical head for a new surface-profile measuring system was constructed on the basis of the Twyman--Green interferometer with heterodyne phase detection method. Stability in optical path difference (OPD) was within 2 nm for a fixed point under the well shielded condition. The measured OPD map at the null fringe condition shows the possibility for direct or segment measurement method of aspheric and/or large size mirrors in SR optics. Based on experiments, a new surface-profile measuring system by phase measurement interferometry and segment method is designed. Designed features of the system are briefly reported.

  13. Direct mass measurements of the heaviest elements with Penning traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, M.

    2015-12-01

    Penning-trap mass spectrometry (PTMS) is a mature technique to provide atomic masses with highest precision. Applied to radionuclides it enables us to investigate their nuclear structure via binding energies and derived quantities such as nucleon separation energies. Recent progress in slowing down radioactive ion beams in buffer gas cells in combination with advanced ion-manipulation techniques has opened the door to access even the elements above fermium by PTMS. Such elements are produced in complete fusion-evaporation reactions of heavy ions with lead, bismuth, and actinide targets at very low rates. Pioneering high-precision mass measurements of nobelium and lawrencium isotopes have been performed with SHIPTRAP at the GSI Darmstadt, Germany. These have illustrated that direct mass measurements provide reliable anchor points to pin down decay chains and that they allow mapping nuclear shell effects, the reason for the very existence of the heaviest elements. Thus, accurate masses contribute to our understanding of these exotic nuclei with extreme proton numbers. In this article experimental challenges in mass measurements of the heaviest elements with Penning traps are discussed. Some illustrative examples of the nuclear structure features displayed based on the presently known masses are given.

  14. Improving prokaryotic transposable elements identification using a combination of de novo and profile HMM methods.

    PubMed

    Kamoun, Choumouss; Payen, Thibaut; Hua-Van, Aurélie; Filée, Jonathan

    2013-10-11

    Insertion Sequences (ISs) and their non-autonomous derivatives (MITEs) are important components of prokaryotic genomes inducing duplication, deletion, rearrangement or lateral gene transfers. Although ISs and MITEs are relatively simple and basic genetic elements, their detection remains a difficult task due to their remarkable sequence diversity. With the advent of high-throughput genome and metagenome sequencing technologies, the development of fast, reliable and sensitive methods of ISs and MITEs detection become an important challenge. So far, almost all studies dealing with prokaryotic transposons have used classical BLAST-based detection methods against reference libraries. Here we introduce alternative methods of detection either taking advantages of the structural properties of the elements (de novo methods) or using an additional library-based method using profile HMM searches. In this study, we have developed three different work flows dedicated to ISs and MITEs detection: the first two use de novo methods detecting either repeated sequences or presence of Inverted Repeats; the third one use 28 in-house transposase alignment profiles with HMM search methods. We have compared the respective performances of each method using a reference dataset of 30 archaeal and 30 bacterial genomes in addition to simulated and real metagenomes. Compared to a BLAST-based method using ISFinder as library, de novo methods significantly improve ISs and MITEs detection. For example, in the 30 archaeal genomes, we discovered 30 new elements (+20%) in addition to the 141 multi-copies elements already detected by the BLAST approach. Many of the new elements correspond to ISs belonging to unknown or highly divergent families. The total number of MITEs has even doubled with the discovery of elements displaying very limited sequence similarities with their respective autonomous partners (mainly in the Inverted Repeats of the elements). Concerning metagenomes, with the exception of

  15. Regularised finite element model updating using measured incomplete modal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-Peng; Maung, Than Soe

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents an effective approach for directly updating finite element model from measured incomplete vibration modal data with regularised algorithms. The proposed method is based on the relationship between the perturbation of structural parameters such as stiffness change and the modal data measurements of the tested structure such as measured mode shape readings. In order to adjust structural parameters at detailed locations, structural updating parameters will be selected at critical point level to reflect the modelling errors at the connections of structural elements. These updating parameters are then evaluated by an iterative or a direct solution procedure, which gives optimised solutions in the least squares sense without requiring an optimisation technique. In order to reduce the influence of modal measurement uncertainty, the Tikhonov regularisation method incorporating the L-curve criterion is employed to produce reliable solutions for the chosen updating parameters. Numerical simulation investigations and experimental studies for the laboratory tested space steel frame structure are undertaken to verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed methods for adjusting the stiffness at the joints of structural members. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods provide reliable estimates of finite element model updating using the measured incomplete modal data.

  16. Altered elemental profile as indicator of homeostatic imbalance in pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy; Das, Arabinda K; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2002-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a potential precancerous condition of the oral cavity and oropharynx. The etiopathogenesis of this complex precancerous condition is still obscure. In addition to deleterious oral habits, malnutrition, and possible genetic predisposition, altered bioelemental status is also likely to play an important role in its pathogenesis. The present study analyzed 68 elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy in oral mucosa of normal and OSF individuals and some interesting alterations in elemental profile in the diseased tissue have been noted, indicating a homeostatic imbalance. These bioelemental alterations leading to homeostatic imbalance might be considered as an important biological event in the pathogenesis of OSF.

  17. Multi-elemental profiling and chemo-metric validation revealed nutritional qualities of Zingiber officinale.

    PubMed

    Pandotra, Pankaj; Viz, Bhavana; Ram, Gandhi; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Gupta, Suphla

    2015-04-01

    Ginger rhizome is a valued food, spice and an important ingredient of traditional systems of medicine of India, China and Japan. An Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) based multi-elemental profiling was performed to assess the quantitative complement of elements, nutritional quality and toxicity of 46 ginger germplasms, collected from the north western Himalayan India. The abundance of eighteen elements quantified in the acid digested rhizomes was observed to be K>Mg>Fe>Ca>Na>Mn>Zn>Ba>Cu>Cr>Ni>Pb>Co>Se>As>Be>Cd. Toxic element, Hg was not detected in any of the investigated samples. Chemometric analyses showed positive correlation among most of the elements. No negative correlation was observed in any of the metals under investigation. UPGMA based clustering analysis of the quantitative data grouped all the 46 samples into three major clusters, displaying 88% similarity in their metal composition, while eighteen metals investigated grouped into two major clusters. Quantitatively, all the elements analyzed were below the permissible limits laid down by World Health Organization. The results were further validated by cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to understand the ionome of the ginger rhizome. The study suggested raw ginger to be a good source of beneficial elements/minerals like Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn and will provide platform for understanding the functional and physiological status of ginger rhizome.

  18. Geochemical landscapes as drivers of trace and toxic element profiles in wild red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    French, Andrew S; Shaw, David; Gibb, Stuart W; Taggart, Mark A

    2017-12-01

    Tissue concentrations of essential trace and toxic elements in red deer (Cervus elaphus) are associated with the plants, soil and water they ingest. As such, variation in tissue concentrations is associated with variation in local geochemistry and bioavailability of elements. Physiological factors such as liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) infection, breeding status, and in-tissue element interactions may also affect tissue concentrations, though their effects in red deer are not well understood. The primary objective of this study was therefore to survey wild red deer liver element concentrations across a range of geographically distinct populations during the Scottish red deer stalking season; and, in so doing, establishes element reference ranges while also exploring geographic and temporal variation and physiological factors. Livers were sampled from carcasses intended for human consumption on nine hunting estates during two seasons (2012-13, 2013-14). Samples were digested and analysed by ICP-OES for essential trace elements (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn) and for Cd. Data (n=787) were modelled against cull location, date, and F. hepatica diagnosis. Interactions between elements within liver, and differences in element profiles between estates, were explored by principal component analysis. Our results revealed marked geographic variation in Cd, Cu and Se, where up to four-fold differences in median element concentrations occurred between estates, and, in males, Mn, Mo and Zn declined as the breeding season approached. In both sexes, within-liver associations (Cd-Cu-Se and Mn-Mo-Zn) were found. In females, liver Zn was greater on average in individuals that were not infected with F. hepatica. This study is the first to quantify geographic variation in Scottish red deer liver element concentrations; the drivers of which remain to be explored (and may be management related), and, the consequence of which may affect sub-clinical health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  19. An international comparison of involute gear profile and helix measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazer, R. C.; Bicker, R.; Cox, B.; Harary, H.; Härtig, F.

    2004-02-01

    The results from the first international comparison of profile and helix measurements between the national metrological institutes (NMIs) or their representatives of Germany, USA and UK are presented. The comparison was organized and coordinated by the UK National Gear Metrology Laboratory. The results from measurements on a 200 mm diameter helix master and a 200 mm diameter profile show that differences in slope error parameters are within the measurement uncertainty claimed by individual NMIs. The results should become the basis for the mutual acceptance of measurands for gears, in the calibration measurement capability list of EUROMET.

  20. Profile measurement taken with liquid-crystal gratings.

    PubMed

    Kakunai, S; Sakamoto, T; Iwata, K

    1999-05-01

    Profile measurement taken with liquid-crystal gratings and a phase-shifting technique is proposed, and its effectiveness is verified by experiment. The surface profile is obtained by measurement of the phase distributions of the sinusoidal gratings deformed by an object's surface. The liquid-crystal grating gives an accurate phase shift, an arbitrary projection pitch, and a constant surface brightness compared with conventional gratings such as a laser interference fringe grating and a Ronchi grating. Therefore a flexible measuring system may be developed with it. Two gratings with different pitches are used to measure an object with large steps. A two-color projection system can be used to produce such gratings simultaneously. Locally varying reflectivity on a surface can also be compensated by adjustment of the color component of the projected grating with a liquid-crystal grating. Thus the contrast in the projected grating can be made uniform, and a good profile measurement can be accomplished.

  1. New radiosonde techniques to measure radiation profiles through the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf; Romanens, Gonzague; Levrat, Gilbert

    2013-04-01

    Solar and thermal radiation fluxes are usually measured at Earth's surface and at the top of the atmosphere. Here we show radiosonde techniques that allow measuring radiation flux profiles and the radiation budget from the Earth's surface to above 30 km in the stratosphere. During two-hour flights solar shortwave and thermal longwave irradiance, downward and upward, is measured with four individual sensors at one-second resolution, along with standard PTU radiosonde profiles. Daytime and nighttime shortwave and longwave radiation measurements, and 24 hours surface measurements, allow determining radiation budget- and total net radiation profiles through the atmosphere. We use a double balloon technique to prevent pendulum motion during the ascent and to keep the sonde as horizontal as possible. New techniques using auto controlled airplanes are now investigated to retrieve the sonde after release at a certain altitude and to land it if possible at the launch station.

  2. In-situ measurement of aerosol organic and elemental carbon, Southern California Air Quality Study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turpin, B.J.; Huntzicker, J.J.

    1989-09-09

    An in situ carbon analyzer measured particulate organic and elemental carbon with two hour time resolution during the Southern California Air Quality Study. Organic and elemental carbon concentrations showed strong diurnal variations. Peak concentrations occurred during the daylight hours in the summer and at night in the fall. The maximum concentrations observed in the fall (maximum total carbon = 88 micrograms carbon per cubic meter) were two to three times higher than the summer maxima (maximum total carbon = 36 micrograms carbon per cubic meter). On several summer days the profiles of organic and elemental carbon were quite similar, and good correlations, comparable to those observed during the fall, were observed between organic and elemental carbon, suggesting that the organic aerosol on those days was principally primary. Comparison of the diurnal profile of organic carbon with those of elemental carbon and ozone provided evidence for considerable secondary formation of organic aerosol during three sampling periods.

  3. Method and apparatus for measuring irradiated fuel profiles

    DOEpatents

    Lee, David M.

    1982-01-01

    A new apparatus is used to substantially instantaneously obtain a profile of an object, for example a spent fuel assembly, which profile (when normalized) has unexpectedly been found to be substantially identical to the normalized profile of the burnup monitor Cs-137 obtained with a germanium detector. That profile can be used without normalization in a new method of identifying and monitoring in order to determine for example whether any of the fuel has been removed. Alternatively, two other new methods involve calibrating that profile so as to obtain a determination of fuel burnup (which is important for complying with safeguards requirements, for utilizing fuel to an optimal extent, and for storing spent fuel in a minimal amount of space). Using either of these two methods of determining burnup, one can reduce the required measurement time significantly (by more than an order of magnitude) over existing methods, yet retain equal or only slightly reduced accuracy.

  4. Nutrient Intake Is Associated with Longevity Characterization by Metabolites and Element Profiles of Healthy Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Da; Zhao, Shancang; Li, Danlei; Chang, Fang; Tian, Xiangxu; Huang, Guohong; Zhu, Zhenjun; Liu, Dong; Dou, Xiaowei; Li, Shubo; Zhao, Mouming; Li, Quanyang

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between diet and metabolites as well as element profiles in healthy centenarians are important but remain inconclusive. Therefore, to test the interesting hypothesis that there would be distinctive features of metabolites and element profiles in healthy centenarians, and that these would be associated with nutrient intake; the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), total bile acids and ammonia in feces, phenol, p-cresol, uric acid, urea, creatinine and ammonia in urine, and element profiles in fingernails were determined in 90 healthy elderly people, including centenarians from Bama county (China)—a famous longevous region—and elderly people aged 80–99 from the longevous region and a non-longevous region. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis was used for pattern recognition. As a result, the centenarians showed a distinct metabolic pattern. Seven characteristic components closely related to the centenarians were identified, including acetic acid, total SCFA, Mn, Co, propionic acid, butyric acid and valeric acid. Their concentrations were significantly higher in the centenarians group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the dietary fiber intake was positively associated with butyric acid contents in feces (r = 0.896, p < 0.01), and negatively associated with phenol in urine (r = −0.326, p < 0.01). The results suggest that the specific metabolic pattern of centenarians may have an important and positive influence on the formation of the longevity phenomenon. Elevated dietary fiber intake should be a path toward health and longevity. PMID:27657115

  5. Nutrient Intake Is Associated with Longevity Characterization by Metabolites and Element Profiles of Healthy Centenarians.

    PubMed

    Cai, Da; Zhao, Shancang; Li, Danlei; Chang, Fang; Tian, Xiangxu; Huang, Guohong; Zhu, Zhenjun; Liu, Dong; Dou, Xiaowei; Li, Shubo; Zhao, Mouming; Li, Quanyang

    2016-09-19

    The relationships between diet and metabolites as well as element profiles in healthy centenarians are important but remain inconclusive. Therefore, to test the interesting hypothesis that there would be distinctive features of metabolites and element profiles in healthy centenarians, and that these would be associated with nutrient intake; the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), total bile acids and ammonia in feces, phenol, p-cresol, uric acid, urea, creatinine and ammonia in urine, and element profiles in fingernails were determined in 90 healthy elderly people, including centenarians from Bama county (China)-a famous longevous region-and elderly people aged 80-99 from the longevous region and a non-longevous region. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis was used for pattern recognition. As a result, the centenarians showed a distinct metabolic pattern. Seven characteristic components closely related to the centenarians were identified, including acetic acid, total SCFA, Mn, Co, propionic acid, butyric acid and valeric acid. Their concentrations were significantly higher in the centenarians group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the dietary fiber intake was positively associated with butyric acid contents in feces (r = 0.896, p < 0.01), and negatively associated with phenol in urine (r = -0.326, p < 0.01). The results suggest that the specific metabolic pattern of centenarians may have an important and positive influence on the formation of the longevity phenomenon. Elevated dietary fiber intake should be a path toward health and longevity.

  6. An improved sensing element for skin-friction balance measurements. [supersonic drag measuring instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    A nulling, parallel-linkage sensing element has been developed for a skin-friction balance in order to minimize the introduction of extraneous forces. Advantages of the present element over the conventional single-pivot sensing element include its insensitivity to element misalignment and off-center normal forces. Wind tunnel tests of the effects of gap size and element misalignment on parallel-linkage balance measurements indicate the greater sensitivity of the device to misalignment at small gap sizes and large lip sizes, as well as its relative insensitivity to off-center normal forces. It is concluded that a parallel-linkage device with a small lip is virtually insensitive to gap size and element misalignment, representing an improvement in skin-friction-measuring characteristics.

  7. An autonomous profiler for near surface temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Brian; Minnett, Peter J.

    This paper describes the profiling instrument SkinDeEP (Skin Depth Experimental Profiler), which measures the temperature of the water column from a depth of about 6 meters to the surface with high resolution thermometers. The instrument operates in an autonomous mode as it has the capability to change buoyancy by inflating a neoprene bladder attached to the body of the profiler. Measurements are recorded only during the ascending phase of the profile so as to minimize disturbances at the surface. Results from deployment of the profiler show strong temperature gradients within the bulk waters under conditions of high insolation. These data were compared to the skin temperatures as measured by the M-AERI (Marine—Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer), a high accuracy infrared spectroradiometer. The corresponding bulk-skin temperature differences, ΔT, were shown to have strong dependence on the depth of the bulk measurement during the daytime with low wind speeds, but at higher wind speeds, the depth dependence vanishes. One set of profiles under nighttime conditions is also presented, showing the presence of overturning and thus a heterogeneous temperature structure within the bulk.

  8. Trace element measurement for assessment of dog food safety.

    PubMed

    De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A; Elias, Camila; Bacchi, Márcio Arruda; Bode, Peter

    2017-02-12

    The quality of dog diets depends on adequate ingredients capable of providing optimal nutrition and free of contaminants, for promoting long-term health. Trace elements in 95 samples of dry food for dog puppies (n = 32) and adults (n = 63) of various brands were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mass fractions of most elements were within the permissible limits for dogs. Aluminum, antimony, and uranium presented fairly high levels in some samples, which may imply health risks. Aluminum mass fractions ranged from <21 to 11,900 mg/kg, in same brand, super-premium dog food. Antimony mass fractions ranged up to 5.14 mg/kg, with the highest values measured in six samples of dog food from the same producer. The mass fractions of uranium was found up to 4 mg/kg in commercial brands from five different producers.

  9. Reevaluating Reaction Rates from Diffusion Profiles in Minerals and Effects on Trace Element Thermometers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, M. J.; Penniston-Dorland, S.

    2016-12-01

    The overgrowth of one mineral upon another (corona) can be associated with a diffusion profile in the reactant (core) crystal. In principle, these profiles can be used to infer reaction rates using a steady state reaction model (constant velocity movement of the reactant/product grain boundary). In practice, however, natural data do not conform to these models. Assuming mass conservation and equilibrium partitioning between the two reactant and product minerals, steady state reaction predicts an exponential profile. Rutile that was overgrown by titanite sometimes show quasi-exponentially decreasing profiles in trace elements, suggesting reaction rates might be inferred. However, the steady-state reaction model also predicts that: (1) The mass excess in the diffusion profile in rutile should be balanced by a mass deficit in titanite, (2) Titanite should be zoned and exhibit a compositional trend complementary to the profile in rutile, and (3) Trace element partitioning between titanite and rutile should be maintained as the corona develops and should be preserved at the rutile-titanite interface. None of these three predictions are observed in natural titanite overgrowths on rutile, rather titanite is generally unzoned and significant trace element mass deficits or excesses indicate partial to complete interaction with other matrix minerals. Reaction rates might still be obtainable if titanite and rutile rim compositions continuously equilibrate with the matrix during reaction. If so, however, temperatures from Zr-in-titanite (ZiT) and Zr-in-rutile (ZiR) should be identical. Yet commonly they are not, even accounting for potentially low activities of zircon and quartz at the reaction interface, rather T(ZiT) > T(ZiR). Explanations for the diffusion profiles in rutile range from steadily increasing or decreasing reaction rates, or even post-reaction development of a diffusion profile with a fixed boundary condition. While reaction rates cannot be quantified, the

  10. A New Rapid Method for Measuring the Vertical Head Profile.

    PubMed

    Keller, Carl

    2017-03-01

    This study describes a new technique for measuring the head profile in a geologic formation. The technique provides rapid, low cost information on the depth of water-producing zones and aquitards in heterogeneous aquifers, yielding estimates of hydraulic heads in each zone while identifying any potential for cross contamination between zones. The measurements can be performed in a typical borehole in just a few hours. The procedure uses both the continuous transmissivity profile obtained by the installation (eversion) of a flexible borehole liner into an open borehole and the subsequent removal (inversion) of the same liner from the borehole. The method is possible because of the continuous transmissivity profile (T profile described by Keller et al. 2014) obtained by measuring the rate of liner eversion under a constant driving head. The hydraulic heads of producing zones are measured using the reverse head profile (RHP) method (patent no. 9,008,971) based on a stepwise inversion of the borehole liner. As each interval of the borehole is uncovered by inversion of the liner, the head beneath the liner is allowed to equilibrate to a steady-state value. The individual hydraulic heads contributing to each measurement are calculated using the measured transmissivity for each zone. Application of the RHP method to a sedimentary bedrock borehole in New Jersey verified that it reproduced the head distribution obtained the same day in the same borehole instrumented with a multilevel sampling system.

  11. Elastoplastic notch root strains - Measurements versus finite-element predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tregoning, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    A study intended to experimentally and computationally probe the nature of the elastoplastic strain fields created by notches with various levels of constraint is presented. An interferometric strain/displacement gage is used to measure both the axial and lateral strain at the center of a machined and polished notch. The monotonic response of various notches is determined using 3D finite-element calculations.

  12. Ion probe measurement of rare earth elements in biogenic phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, P.; Albarede, F. )

    1989-12-01

    The rare earth element (REE) distributions in individuals fish teeth and conodonts have been measured by ion probe. Concentrations and La/Yb ratios show little variations, except in the enamel, which suggests that REE uptake from the sedimented biogenic debris takes place at the water-sediment interface as an essentially quantitative process without fractionation. Late diagenetic disturbances remained of marginal importance. Hence, REE in phosphatic debris might reflect the input from the overlying water column.

  13. A Significant Contribution of INAA in Autoradiography for Elemental Profile Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaweerat, Sasiphan; Ratanatongchai, Wichian; Channuie, Jatechan

    Autoradiography has been carried out occasionally at the out-of-pool neutron radiography (NR) facility of the Thai Research Reactor-1/M1 for more than a decade. Because of low and uncertain neutron flux at exposure position, the technique is not well recognized. The first attempt to conduct neutron activation autoradiography (NAAR) using in-pool irradiation facility was initiated in Thailand in early 2014. The technique combines fundamental concepts of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and autoradiography to fulfil their limitations. The elemental composition obtained from INAA, however, is for the whole sample and it is not possible to map specific location of particular elements. Autoradiography, on the other hand, provides visual images without elemental information. Here, a near triangle of 1.5 cm x 3.0 cm metal Buddha image was irradiated using the in-pool dry irradiation facility. Irradiation times were 10 seconds and 15 minutes and decay times were varied. In parallel to elemental analysis, the irradiated sample was placed in good contact with an imaging plate to record self- emitting radiation. At a condition of irradiation, autoradiographic image and elemental appearances in INAA spectrum were compared. The structural profile in complementary with elemental information will help address questions regarding provenance, manufacturing technology, traditional beliefs which can be further applied to conservation methodology and authenticity approval.

  14. Development of an inner profile measurement instrument using a ring beam device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, T.; Wakayama, T.

    2010-11-01

    Inner profile measurement is an important matter in such fields as medicine, dentistry and anthropology as well as mechanical engineering and other industrial applications. Here we describe recent development of our measurement principle for inner diameter of pipes and/or holes. The key device in this technique is a ring beam device which consists of a conical mirror and a laser diode. And the fundamental principle is based on optical sectioning without using any contact type stylus. The optically sectioned profile of an inner wall of a pipe-like object is analyzed to give the inner profile in addition to the inner diameter. This optical instrument with a simple and small configuration is now under development for practical uses. In our hitherto trial experimental works, the availability of this instrument has been evaluated in many cases and availability for practical applications is expected, especially, for measurement and inspection of mechanical components and elements besides pipes. This ring beam device consisting of a conical mirror and a LD is assembled to form a disk-like light sheet. We show measurement result of pipes and holes, and, at the same time, report a compact inner profile measuring instrument at this point. Both the ring beam device and a miniaturized CCD camera are fabricated into a glass tube. Availability of this instrument is shown by measuring the inner profiles of various pipes. In response to this trial, there appeared a strong request that not only the internal but external profiles should be measured simultaneously. Therefore we propose potentially possible method for measurement of external profile at the same time with internal profile. If one pair of concave mirrors are used in our arrangement, external profile is captured. In combination with inner profile measurement technique, simultaneous measurement of inner and outer profiles becomes attainable. A measurement result on a bevel gear shows availability of here proposed

  15. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent

    PubMed Central

    Borell, Esther M.; Fine, Maoz; Shaked, Yeala

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy) also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments—the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone’s tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data suggests that A

  16. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Fine, Maoz; Shaked, Yeala

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy) also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments-the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone's tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data suggests that A. viridis

  17. Compact Instrument for Measuring Profile of a Light Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanyan, Valeri

    2004-01-01

    The beamviewer is an optical device designed to be attached to a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector for measuring the spatial distribution of intensity of a beam of light (the beam profile ) at a designated plane intersecting the beam. The beamviewer-and-CCD combination is particularly well suited for measuring the radiant- power profile (for a steady beam) or the radiant-energy profile (for a pulsed beam) impinging on the input face or emerging from the output face of a bundle of optical fibers. The beamviewer and-CCD combination could also be used as a general laboratory instrument for profiling light beams, including beams emerging through small holes and laser beams in free space.

  18. Study on error analysis and accuracy improvement for aspheric profile measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huimin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Fang, Fengzhou

    2017-06-01

    Aspheric surfaces are important to the optical systems and need high precision surface metrology. Stylus profilometry is currently the most common approach to measure axially symmetric elements. However, if the asphere has the rotational alignment errors, the wrong cresting point would be located deducing the significantly incorrect surface errors. This paper studied the simulated results of an asphere with rotational angles around X-axis and Y-axis, and the stylus tip shift in X, Y and Z direction. Experimental results show that the same absolute value of rotational errors around X-axis would cause the same profile errors and different value of rotational errors around Y-axis would cause profile errors with different title angle. Moreover, the greater the rotational errors, the bigger the peak-to-valley value of profile errors. To identify the rotational angles in X-axis and Y-axis, the algorithms are performed to analyze the X-axis and Y-axis rotational angles respectively. Then the actual profile errors with multiple profile measurement around X-axis are calculated according to the proposed analysis flow chart. The aim of the multiple measurements strategy is to achieve the zero position of X-axis rotational errors. Finally, experimental results prove the proposed algorithms achieve accurate profile errors for aspheric surfaces avoiding both X-axis and Y-axis rotational errors. Finally, a measurement strategy for aspheric surface is presented systematically.

  19. Edge profile measurements using Thomson scattering on the KSTAR tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. H. Ko, W. H.; Oh, S.; Lee, W. R.; Kim, K. P.; Lee, K. D.; Jeon, Y. M.; Yoon, S. W.; Cho, K. W.; Narihara, K.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Hatae, T.; Yatsuka, E.; Ono, T.; Hong, J. H.

    2014-11-15

    In the KSTAR Tokamak, a “Tangential Thomson Scattering” (TTS) diagnostic system has been designed and installed to measure electron density and temperature profiles. In the edge system, TTS has 12 optical fiber bundles to measure the edge profiles with 10–15 mm spatial resolution. These 12 optical fibers and their spatial resolution are not enough to measure the pedestal width with a high accuracy but allow observations of L-H transition or H-L transitions at the edge. For these measurements, the prototype ITER edge Thomson Nd:YAG laser system manufactured by JAEA in Japan is installed. In this paper, the KSTAR TTS system is briefly described and some TTS edge profiles are presented and compared against the KSTAR Charge Exchange Spectroscopy and other diagnostics. The future upgrade plan of the system is also discussed in this paper.

  20. A very high sensitivity RF pulse profile measurement system.

    SciTech Connect

    Christodoulou, Christos George; Lai, Jesse B.

    2009-06-01

    A technique for characterizing the pulse profile of a radio-frequency (RF) amplifier over a very wide power range under fast-pulsing conditions is presented. A pulse-modulated transmitter is used to drive a device under test (DUT) with a phase-coded signal that allows for an increased measurement range beyond standard techniques. A measurement receiver that samples points on the output pulse power profile and performs the necessary signal processing and coherent pulse integration, improving the detectability of low-power signals, is described. The measurement technique is applied to two sample amplifiers under fast-pulsing conditions with a pulsewidth of 250 ns at 3-GHz carrier frequency. A full measurement range of greater than 160 dB is achieved, extending the current state of the art in pulse-profiling techniques.

  1. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric temperature and pressure profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and methodology of using differential absorption lidar techniques for the remote measurement of atmospheric pressure profiles, surface pressure, and temperature profiles from ground, air, and space-based platforms are presented. Pressure measurements are effected by means of high resolution measurement of absorption at the edges of the oxygen A band lines where absorption is pressure dependent due to collisional line broadening. Temperature is assessed using measurements of the absorption at the center of the oxygen A band line originating from a quantum state with high ground state energy. The population of the state is temperature dependent, allowing determination of the temperature through the Boltzmann term. The results of simulations of the techniques using Voigt profile and variational analysis are reported for ground-based, airborne, and Shuttle-based systems. Accuracies in the 0.5-1.0 K and 0.1-0.3% range are projected.

  2. Lower atmospheric temperature profile measurements using a Raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D.

    1986-01-01

    A Raman lidar system was used to measure the temperature profile of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The system consists of a tripled Nd-YAG laser and a 1.5 meter diameter telescope. Two photomultipliers are used at the output of the telescope to allow for measurements at both the laser wavelength and at the Raman shifted wavelength due to atmospheric nitrogen. The signal from the photomultipliers is recorded as photon counts in 1 microsec bins. The results of a number of laser shots are summed together to provide atmospheric returns which have acceptable signal to noise characteristics. Measurements of the Raman nitrogen return were acquired up to an altitude in excess of 20 km. Temperature profiles were retrieved from the attenuation corrected Raman nitrogen return assuming the atmosphere to be in hydrostatic equilibrium and using the ideal gas law. Retrieved temperature profiles are shown compared with independent temperature measurements.

  3. Review of surface profile measurement techniques based on optical interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Xie, Fang; Ma, Sen; Dong, Lianlian

    2017-06-01

    With the fast development of modern science and technology, two or three-dimensional surface profile measurement techniques with high resolution and large dynamic range are urgently required. Among them, the techniques based on optical interferometry have been widely used for their good properties of non-contact, high resolution, large dynamic measurement range and well-defined traceability route to the definition of meter. A review focused on surface profile measurement techniques of optical interferometry is introduced in this paper with a detailed classification sorted by operating principles. Examples in each category are discussed and analyzed for better understanding.

  4. A new method for comparing and matching snow profiles, application for profiles measured by penetrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenmuller, Pascal; Pilloix, Thibault

    2016-05-01

    Hardness has long been recognized as a good predictor of snow mechanical properties and therefore as an indicator of snowpack stability at the measured point. Portable digital penetrometers enable the amassing of a large number of snow stratigraphic hardness profiles. Numerous probings can be performed to assess the snowpack spatial variability and to compensate for measurement errors. On a decameter scale, continuous internal layers are typically present in the snowpack. The variability in stratigraphic features observed in the measurement set mainly originates from the measured variations in internal layer thickness due to either a real heterogeneity in the snowpack or to errors in depth measurement. For the purpose of real time analysis of snowpack stability, a great amount of data collected by digital penetrometers must be quickly synthesized into a characterization representative of the test site. This paper presents a method with which to match and combine several hardness profiles by automatically adjusting their layer thicknesses. The objectives are to synthesize the information collected by several profiles into one representative profile of the measurement set, disentangle information about hardness and depth variabilities, and quantitatively compare hardness profiles measured by different penetrometers. The method was tested by using co-located hardness profiles measured with three different penetrometers --- the snow micropenetrometer (SMP), the Avatech SP1 and the ramsonde --- during the winter 2014-2015 at two sites in the French Alps. When applied to the SMP profiles of both sites, the method reveals a low spatial variability of hardness properties, which is usually masked by depth variations. The developed algorithm is further used to evaluate the new portable penetrometer SP1. The hardness measured with this instrument is shown to be in good agreement with the SMP measurements, but errors in the recovered depth are notable, with a standard

  5. Acoustic temperature profile measurement technique for large combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateshan, S. P.; Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Back, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    Measurement of times of flight of sound waves can be used to determine temperatures in a gas. This paper describes a system, based on this principle, that is capable of giving the temperature profile in a nonisothermal gas volume, for example, prevalent in a large furnace. The apparatus is simple, rugged, accurate, and capable of being automated for process control applications. It is basically an acoustic waveguide where the outside temperature profile is transferred to a chosen gas contained inside the guide.

  6. Fricke dosimeter gel measurements of the profiles of shielded fields.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Luis F; Moreira, Marcos V; Costa, Jhonatha J L; Oliveira, Lucas N; Caldas, Linda V E; de Almeida, Adelaide

    2013-12-01

    In radiation therapy, the shielding of normal tissue can be made using Cerrobend® blocks or a multileaf collimator. In this work, profiles of shielded fields collimated by Cerrobend blocks were obtained through the Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) dosimeter irradiated with 6 MV photon beams. The results show that the FXG system can be used in profile measurements of small fields in radiotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation on the Trace Elemental Profile of Sewage Workers in Kolkata, an Indian Megacity

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Rajlaxmi; Ram, Sidharth Sankar; Biswas, Arunnangshu; Ray, Siddhartha Sankar; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Chakraborty, Anindita; Mathummal, Sudarshan; Chakrabarti, Sila

    2015-01-01

    Background Environmental pollution has become a global health risk. Exposure to pollutants at the work place, i.e. occupational exposure, is one of the areas that need immediate attention. The civic drainage workers are exposed to pollutants present in the wastewater they handle and most of them are toxic heavy metals. Exposure to such pollutants may be a health hazard, since it can lead to the imbalance in nutrient elements status. Design and Methods In the present study, profiling of trace elements in the blood of drainage worker population from an Indian megacity, Kolkata, was carried out by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and compared with the control group population of the same area. Results The elements detected by EDXRF spectrometry include P, S, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, and Rb. By using ANOVA with 5% significance level, we observed significant alterations in the trace elements status, iron over loading, selenium deficiency, and in Cu-Zn ratio. Gender specific variations within the same population were also observed. Conclusions The results indicate that the drainage workers have altered elemental profile in comparison to that of control population. Significance for public health Environmental pollution is a global health risk and awareness among sewage workers is growing very slowly in many developing countries. Due to this fact, workers are often exposed to different pollutants which are responsible for several health complications. Imbalances in the presence of trace elements in blood are a symptom of different health status and could also indicate new health perspectives for the future. In the present scenario, this paper is essential since this kind of analysis has not been done yet, especially regarding the health status of sewage workers. We hope this initial study will be a starting point for future investigations. PMID:26425493

  8. Beyond FIRO-B--three new theory-derived measures--Element B: behavior, Element F: feelings, Element S: self.

    PubMed

    Schutz, W

    1992-06-01

    Although the FIRO-B instrument has been used widely for a large number of purposes, it was not designed as a general purpose instrument. Several years ago, after revising the FIRO theory underlying the instrument based on over 20 years' experience with the instrument and related activities, the author revised the FIRO-B extensively, so extensively it was given a new name, Element B. The new instrument is much stronger both theoretically and psychometrically while at the same time retaining the simplicity and shortness of the original. In addition, two new instruments based on the same theory were designed, developed, and tested. They measure feelings (Element F) and self-concept (Element S). All three instruments have, over the past 10 years, been used primarily as training instruments. When given in conjunction with other methods, they have been used for improving self-awareness, teamwork, morale, and productivity in such organizations as Procter & Gamble, AT&T, NASA, Amdahl Corporation, the Swedish Army, and about 100 companies in Japan. Included is a comment on scales anchored both logically, using methods such as facet design and unidimensional scaling, and empirically, such as the "big five."

  9. A new method for measuring the rotational accuracy of rolling element bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ye; Zhao, Xiangsong; Gao, Weiguo; Hu, Gaofeng; Zhang, Shizhen; Zhang, Dawei

    2016-12-01

    The rotational accuracy of a machine tool spindle has critical influence upon the geometric shape and surface roughness of finished workpiece. The rotational performance of the rolling element bearings is a main factor which affects the spindle accuracy, especially in the ultra-precision machining. In this paper, a new method is developed to measure the rotational accuracy of rolling element bearings of machine tool spindles. Variable and measurable axial preload is applied to seat the rolling elements in the bearing races, which is used to simulate the operating conditions. A high-precision (radial error is less than 300 nm) and high-stiffness (radial stiffness is 600 N/μm) hydrostatic reference spindle is adopted to rotate the inner race of the test bearing. To prevent the outer race from rotating, a 2-degrees of freedom flexure hinge mechanism (2-DOF FHM) is designed. Correction factors by using stiffness analysis are adopted to eliminate the influences of 2-DOF FHM in the radial direction. Two capacitive displacement sensors with nano-resolution (the highest resolution is 9 nm) are used to measure the radial error motion of the rolling element bearing, without separating the profile error as the traditional rotational accuracy metrology of the spindle. Finally, experimental measurements are performed at different spindle speeds (100-4000 rpm) and axial preloads (75-780 N). Synchronous and asynchronous error motion values are evaluated to demonstrate the feasibility and repeatability of the developed method and instrument.

  10. Absolute beam emittance measurements at RHIC using ionization profile monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.; Connolly, R; Liu, C.; Summers, T.; Tepikian, S.

    2014-08-15

    In the past, comparisons between emittance measurements obtained using ionization profile monitors, Vernier scans (using as input the measured rates from the zero degree counters, or ZDCs), the polarimeters and the Schottky detectors evidenced significant variations of up to 100%. In this report we present studies of the RHIC ionization profile monitors (IPMs). After identifying and correcting for two systematic instrumental errors in the beam size measurements, we present experimental results showing that the remaining dominant error in beam emittance measurements at RHIC using the IPMs was imprecise knowledge of the local beta functions. After removal of the systematic errors and implementation of measured beta functions, precise emittance measurements result. Also, consistency between the emittances measured by the IPMs and those derived from the ZDCs was demonstrated.

  11. Electrosurgical vessel sealing tissue temperature: experimental measurement and finite element modeling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Roland K; Chastagner, Matthew W; Dodde, Robert E; Shih, Albert J

    2013-02-01

    The temporal and spatial tissue temperature profile in electrosurgical vessel sealing was experimentally measured and modeled using finite element modeling (FEM). Vessel sealing procedures are often performed near the neurovascular bundle and may cause collateral neural thermal damage. Therefore, the heat generated during electrosurgical vessel sealing is of concern among surgeons. Tissue temperature in an in vivo porcine femoral artery sealed using a bipolar electrosurgical device was studied. Three FEM techniques were incorporated to model the tissue evaporation, water loss, and fusion by manipulating the specific heat, electrical conductivity, and electrical contact resistance, respectively. These three techniques enable the FEM to accurately predict the vessel sealing tissue temperature profile. The averaged discrepancy between the experimentally measured temperature and the FEM predicted temperature at three thermistor locations is less than 7%. The maximum error is 23.9%. Effects of the three FEM techniques are also quantified.

  12. Trace element measurement in Saliva by NAA and PIXE techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hamidian, M.R.; Vahid Golpayegani, M.; Shojai, S. )

    1993-01-01

    The activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties of saliva, especially in some illnesses in which the activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties alter, sometimes have severe effects on sedimentation and tooth decay. Long-standing investigations have shown the relationship between salivary gland activity and saliva composition in dental carries. Many modern techniques have been employed to measure important elements in saliva. The major elements in saliva include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, phosphorus, iodine, and fluorine. It should be pointed out that the amount of minerals changes when the diet changes. The major constituent of saliva is water with a density of 1.007 g/cm[sup 3] in which 0.6% is solid, 0.3% organic material and 0.3% inorganic material. In addition to other effects, the acidity (pH) of saliva has a strong effect on tooth sedimentation. Type of work, degree of stress, and mental condition affect salivary gland activity. When the acidity of salivary fluid in the mouth and consequently over the teeth drops, sedimentation increases. In this paper, the results of trace element measurement in saliva are presented.

  13. Local Heat Flux Measurements with Single Element Coaxial Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregg; Protz, Christopher; Bullard, Brad; Hulka, James

    2006-01-01

    To support the mission for the NASA Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a program in 2005 to improve the capability to predict local thermal compatibility and heat transfer in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. The ultimate objective was to predict and hence reduce the local peak heat flux due to injector design, resulting in a significant improvement in overall engine reliability and durability. Such analyses are applicable to combustion devices in booster, upper stage, and in-space engines, as well as for small thrusters with few elements in the injector. In this program, single element and three-element injectors were hot-fire tested with liquid oxygen and ambient temperature gaseous hydrogen propellants at The Pennsylvania State University Cryogenic Combustor Laboratory from May to August 2005. Local heat fluxes were measured in a 1-inch internal diameter heat sink combustion chamber using Medtherm coaxial thermocouples and Gardon heat flux gauges. Injectors were tested with shear coaxial and swirl coaxial elements, including recessed, flush and scarfed oxidizer post configurations, and concentric and non-concentric fuel annuli. This paper includes general descriptions of the experimental hardware, instrumentation, and results of the hot-fire testing for three of the single element injectors - recessed-post shear coaxial with concentric fuel, flush-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel, and scarfed-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel. Detailed geometry and test results will be published elsewhere to provide well-defined data sets for injector development and model validatation.

  14. Elemental depth profiling in transparent conducting oxide thin film by X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence combined analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotella, H.; Caby, B.; Ménesguen, Y.; Mazel, Y.; Valla, A.; Ingerle, D.; Detlefs, B.; Lépy, M.-C.; Novikova, A.; Rodriguez, G.; Streli, C.; Nolot, E.

    2017-09-01

    The optical and electrical properties of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films are strongly linked with the structural and chemical properties such as elemental depth profile. In R&D environments, the development of non-destructive characterization techniques to probe the composition over the depth of deposited films is thus necessary. The combination of Grazing-Incidence X-ray Fluorescence (GIXRF) and X-ray reflectometry (XRR) is emerging as a fab-compatible solution for the measurement of thickness, density and elemental profile in complex stacks. Based on the same formalism, both techniques can be implemented on the same experimental set-up and the analysis can be combined in a single software in order to refine the sample model. While XRR is sensitive to the electronic density profile, GIXRF is sensitive to the atomic density (i. e. the elemental depth profile). The combination of both techniques allows to get simultaneous information about structural properties (thickness and roughness) as well as the chemical properties. In this study, we performed a XRR-GIXRF combined analysis on indium-free TCO thin films (Ga doped ZnO compound) in order to correlate the optical properties of the films with the elemental distribution of Ga dopant over the thickness. The variation of optical properties due to annealing process were probed by spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. We studied the evolution of atomic profiles before and after annealing process. We show that the blue shift of the band gap in the optical absorption edge is linked to a homogenization of the atomic profiles of Ga and Zn over the layer after the annealing. This work demonstrates that the combination of the techniques gives insight into the material composition and makes the XRR-GIXRF combined analysis a promising technique for elemental depth profiling.

  15. Elemental depth profiling of fluoridated hydroxyapatite: saving your dentition by the skin of your teeth?

    PubMed

    Müller, Frank; Zeitz, Christian; Mantz, Hubert; Ehses, Karl-Heinz; Soldera, Flavio; Schmauch, Jörg; Hannig, Matthias; Hüfner, Stefan; Jacobs, Karin

    2010-12-21

    Structural and chemical changes that arise from fluoridation of hydroxyapatite (Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)OH or "HAp"), as representing the synthetic counterpart of tooth enamel, are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Elemental depth profiles with a depth resolution on the nanometer scale were determined to reveal the effect of fluoridation in neutral (pH = 6.2) and acidic agents (pH = 4.2). With respect to the chemical composition and the crystal structure, XPS depth profiling reveals different effects of the two treatments. In both cases, however, the fluoridation affects the surface only on the nanometer scale, which is in contrast to recent literature with respect to XPS analysis on dental fluoridation, where depth profiles of F extending to several micrometers were reported. In addition to the elemental depth profiles, as published in various other studies, we also present quantitative depth profiles of the compounds CaF(2), Ca(OH)(2), and fluorapatite (FAp) that were recently proposed by a three-layer model concerning the fluoridation of HAp in an acidic agent. The analysis of our experimental data exactly reproduces the structural order of this model, however, on a scale that differs by nearly 2 orders of magnitude from previous predictions. The results also reveal that the amount of Ca(OH)(2) and FAp is small compared to that of CaF(2). Therefore, it has to be asked whether such narrow Ca(OH)(2) and FAp layers really can act as protective layers for the enamel.

  16. Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Shore, Lawrence [Edison, NJ; Matlin, Ramail [Berkeley, NJ

    2011-03-08

    A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

  17. Illumination Profile & Dispersion Variation Effects on Radial Velocity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieves, Nolan; Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil B.; Ma, Bo; Li, Rui; SDSS-III

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS) measures radial velocities using a fiber-fed dispersed fixed-delay interferometer (DFDI) with a moderate dispersion spectrograph. This setup allows a unique insight into the 2D illumination profile from the fiber on to the dispersion grating. Illumination profile investigations show large changes in the profile over time and fiber location. These profile changes are correlated with dispersion changes and long-term radial velocity offsets, a major problem within the MARVELS radial velocity data. Characterizing illumination profiles creates a method to both detect and correct radial velocity offsets, allowing for better planet detection. Here we report our early results from this study including improvement of radial velocity data points from detected giant planet candidates. We also report an illumination profile experiment conducted at the Kitt Peak National Observatory using the EXPERT instrument, which has a DFDI mode similar to MARVELS. Using profile controlling octagonal-shaped fibers, long term offsets over a 3 month time period were reduced from ~50 m/s to within the photon limit of ~4 m/s.

  18. Multichannel detectors for profile measurements in clinical proton fields

    SciTech Connect

    Nichiporov, Dmitri; Solberg, Keith; Hsi Wen; Wolanski, Mark; Mascia, Anthony; Farr, Jonathan; Schreuder, Andries

    2007-07-15

    Two beam profile measurement detectors have been developed at Indiana University Cyclotron Facility to address the need for a tool to efficiently verify dose distributions created with active methods of clinical proton beam delivery. The multipad ionization chamber (MPIC) has 128 ionization chambers arranged in one plane and is designed to measure lateral profiles in fields up to 38 cm in diameter. The MPIC pads have a 5 mm pitch for fields up to 20 cm in diameter and a 7 mm pitch for larger fields, providing the accuracy of field size determination about 0.5 mm. The multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) detector contains 122 small-volume ionization chambers stacked at a 1.82 mm step (water-equivalent) for depth-dose profile measurements. The MLIC detector can measure profiles up to 20 cm in depth, and determine the 80% distal dose fall-off with about 0.1 mm precision. Both detectors can be connected to the same set of electronics modules, which comprise the detectors' data acquisition system. The detectors have been tested in clinical proton fields produced with active methods of beam delivery such as uniform scanning and energy stacking. This article describes detector performance tests and discusses their results. The test results indicate that the MPIC and MLIC detectors can be used for dosimetric characterization of clinical proton fields. The detectors offer significant time savings during measurements in actively delivered beams compared with traditional measurements using a water phantom.

  19. Determination of precipitation profiles from airborne passive microwave radiometric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummerow, Christian; Hakkarinen, Ida M.; Pierce, Harold F.; Weinman, James A.

    1991-01-01

    This study presents the first quantitative retrievals of vertical profiles of precipitation derived from multispectral passive microwave radiometry. Measurements of microwave brightness temperature (Tb) obtained by a NASA high-altitude research aircraft are related to profiles of rainfall rate through a multichannel piecewise-linear statistical regression procedure. Statistics for Tb are obtained from a set of cloud radiative models representing a wide variety of convective, stratiform, and anvil structures. The retrieval scheme itself determines which cloud model best fits the observed meteorological conditions. Retrieved rainfall rate profiles are converted to equivalent radar reflectivity for comparison with observed reflectivities from a ground-based research radar. Results for two case studies, a stratiform rain situation and an intense convective thunderstorm, show that the radiometrically derived profiles capture the major features of the observed vertical structure of hydrometer density.

  20. Thirty Stage Annular Centrifugal Contactor Thermal Profile Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    David H. Meikrantz; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law

    2010-02-01

    A thirty stage 5 cm annular centrifugal contactor cascade has been assembled and tested to obtain thermal profiles during both ambient and heated input conditions of operation. Thermocouples were installed on every stage as well as feed inputs and Real-time data was taken during experiments lasting from two to eight hours at total flow rates of 0.5 to 1.4 liters per minute. Ambient temperature profile results show that only a small amount of heat is generated by the mechanical energy of the contactors. Steady state temperature profiles mimic the ambient temperature of the lab but are higher toward the middle of the cascade. Heated inlet solutions gave temperature profiles with smaller temperature gradients, more driven by the temperature of the inlet solutions than ambient lab temperature. Temperature effects of solution mixing, even at rotor speeds of 4000 rpm, were not measurable.

  1. Trace element profiles in modern horse molar enamel as tracers of seasonality: Evidence from micro-XRF, LA-ICP-MS and stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Winter, Niels; Goderis, Steven; van Malderen, Stijn; Vanhaecke, Frank; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    A combination of laboratory micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μXRF) and stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis shows that trace element profiles from modern horse molars reveal a seasonal pattern that co-varies with seasonality in the oxygen isotope records of enamel carbonate from the same teeth. A combination of six cheek teeth (premolars and molars) from the same individual yields a seasonal isotope and trace element record of approximately three years recorded during the growth of the molars. This record shows that reproducible measurements of various trace element ratios (e.g., Sr/Ca, Zn/Ca, Fe/Ca, K/Ca and S/Ca) lag the seasonal pattern in oxygen isotope records by 2-3 months. Laser Ablation-ICP-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis on a cross-section of the first molar of the same individual is compared to the bench-top tube-excitation μXRF results to test the robustness of the measurements and to compare both methods. Furthermore, trace element (e.g. Sr, Zn, Mg & Ba) profiles perpendicular to the growth direction of the same tooth, as well as profiles parallel to the growth direction are measured with LA-ICP-MS and μXRF to study the internal distribution of trace element ratios in two dimensions. Results of this extensive complementary line-scanning procedure shows the robustness of state of the art laboratory micro-XRF scanning for the measurement of trace elements in bioapatite. The comparison highlights the advantages and disadvantages of both methods for trace element analysis and illustrates their complementarity. Results of internal variation within the teeth shed light on the origins of trace elements in mammal teeth and their potential use for paleo-environmental reconstruction.

  2. Use of polarimetry to measure the current profile in MTX

    SciTech Connect

    Nevins, W.M.; Hooper, E.B.; Bernstein, I.B.

    1987-07-14

    It is possible in principle to measure the poloidal magnetic field profile, and hence, the profile of the plasma current measuring the change in the polarization of a sequence of microwave beams that pass through the plasma. Actual measurements of the plasma current profile would be very interesting in connection with Lower-Hybrid (or EC) current drive experiments since this would provide direct information on modification of the current profile by the application of rf power. A microwave polarimetry diagnostic on MTX as part of the microwave interferometer is being considered. This diagnostic would be constructed in collaboration with Neville Luhmann and Tony Peebles at UCLA. The diagnostic would utilize the multicord far-infrared interferometer which is designed to operate at a base wavelength of 0.185 mm. This paper reviews the understanding of the physics issues raised by this diagnostic, concurring with Luhmann and Peebles' conclusion that the polarimetry measurements would be easier at longer wavelengths. An increase of only a factor of 2 in the wavelength would make a substantial difference since the signal to be measured goes as lambda/sup 4/. Hence, in this paper operation at longer wavelengths (0.337 mm and 0.447 mm) in addition to operation at 0.119 and 0.185 mm will be considered.

  3. A Comparison of Stellar Elemental Abundance Techniques and Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Young, Patrick A.; Pagano, Michael D.; Desch, Steven J.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Adibekyan, Vardan; Blanco-Cuaresma, Sergi; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Delgado Mena, Elisa; Liu, Fan; Nordlander, Thomas; Sousa, Sergio G.; Korn, Andreas; Gruyters, Pieter; Heiter, Ulrike; Jofré, Paula; Santos, Nuno C.; Soubiran, Caroline

    2016-09-01

    Stellar elemental abundances are important for understanding the fundamental properties of a star or stellar group, such as age and evolutionary history, as well as the composition of an orbiting planet. However, as abundance measurement techniques have progressed, there has been little standardization between individual methods and their comparisons. As a result, different stellar abundance procedures determine measurements that vary beyond the quoted error for the same elements within the same stars. The purpose of this paper is to better understand the systematic variations between methods and offer recommendations for producing more accurate results in the future. We invited a number of participants from around the world (Australia, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) to calculate 10 element abundances (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Fe, Ni, Ba, and Eu) using the same stellar spectra for four stars (HD 361, HD 10700, HD 121504, and HD 202206). Each group produced measurements for each star using (1) their own autonomous techniques, (2) standardized stellar parameters, (3) a standardized line list, and (4) both standardized parameters and a line list. We present the resulting stellar parameters, absolute abundances, and a metric of data similarity that quantifies the homogeneity of the data. We conclude that standardization of some kind, particularly stellar parameters, improves the consistency between methods. However, because results did not converge as more free parameters were standardized, it is clear there are inherent issues within the techniques that need to be reconciled. Therefore, we encourage more conversation and transparency within the community such that stellar abundance determinations can be reproducible as well as accurate and precise.

  4. Nonintrusive temperature measurements in SSME preburner element flowfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, R. J.; Fisher, S. C.

    1986-10-01

    Combustion gas temperatures in a coaxial Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) preburner element were measured nonintrusively using OH emission spectroscopy. Low resolution spectra of 1 Sigma + to 2 Pi electronic transition obtained experimentally were compared with theoretical predictions to indicate temperatures in the axisymmetric flame. Emission spectra were taken of the flame at three axial locations for a range of mixture ratios from 0.39 to 1.24. The lower end of the mixture ratio range was near the ignition limit for this configuration. Measured flame temperatures were found to be insensitive to overall mixture ratio. The measured temperatures indicate a diffusion flame structure characterized by local flame mixture ratios less than stoichiometric but larger than the overall (well-mixed) element mixture ratio. The OH band intensity for the lower mixture ratios tended to decrease from a maximum at ignition to a much lower steady state value over a time period of seconds. Considering the volume of the combustor and the fact that the ignition sequence includes an oxidizer lead, the decreasing intensity is suspected to be related to a depletion of oxygen in the recirculating chamber gases.

  5. Pellet ablation and temperature profile measurements in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, D.K.; Schmidt, G.L.; Cavallo, A.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.; Johnson, D.; Mansfield, D.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.; Taylor, G.

    1988-01-01

    Single and multiple deuterium pellets have been injected into a variety of TFTR plasmas, including ohmically heated plasmas with wide range of electron temperatures, neutral beam heated plasmas at several NBI powers and high T/sub e/, post NBI plasmas. Pellet penetration into these plasmas was determined by measuring the pellet speed and duration of the H/sub ..cap alpha..//D/sub ..cap alpha../ light emission during pellet ablation in the plasma. These penetration measurements are compared to the predicted penetration computed using the ablation model developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The plasma density profiles before and after pellet injection are used to estimate the number of particles deposited in the plasma. The plasma particle increase compared to the estimated number of atoms in the pellet yields a measure of the fueling efficiency of pellets in TFTR. The ablation cloud parameters are discussed based on polychromater measurements of the H/sub ..cap alpha..//D/sub ..cap alpha../ line emission from the neutral cloud surrounding the pellet. The electron temperature profile evolution after pellet injection is examined for the case of multiple pellet injection into an ohmically heated plasma. The ORNL pellet ablation code was used to compare measured pellet penetration depths with a theoretical model. The measured input parameters to the model are the electron density and temperature profiles, the neutral beam heating profile, the neutral density profile, the pellet size, pellet speed and pellet composition. The free parameter in the model is the thickness of the neutral cloud surrounding the pellet. This parameter is adjusted to arrive at a reasonable agreement between measured and calculated pellet penetration depths. The output of the model which is directly comparable to experiment is the calculated ablation rate. It is assumed that the broad-band H/sub ..cap alpha..//D/sub ..cap alpha../ emission is proportional to the ablation rate.

  6. Modeling dune response using measured and equilibrium bathymetric profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fauver, Laura A.; Thompson, David M.; Sallenger, Asbury H.

    2007-01-01

    Coastal engineers typically use numerical models such as SBEACH to predict coastal change due to extreme storms. SBEACH model inputs include pre-storm profiles, wave heights and periods, and water levels. This study focuses on the sensitivity of SBEACH to the details of pre-storm bathymetry. The SBEACH model is tested with two initial conditions for bathymetry, including (1) measured bathymetry from lidar, and (2) calculated equilibrium profiles. Results show that longshore variability in the predicted erosion signal is greater over measured bathymetric profiles, due to longshore variations in initial surf zone bathymetry. Additionally, patterns in predicted erosion can be partially explained by the configuration of the inner surf zone from the shoreline to the trough, with surf zone slope accounting for 67% of the variability in predicted erosion volumes.

  7. Validation of Suomi NPP OMPS Limb Profiler Ozone Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, S. N.; Flynn, L. E.; McCormick, M. P.; Anderson, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Limb Profiler makes measurements of limb-scattered solar radiances over Ultraviolet and Visible wavelengths. These measurements are used in retrieval algorithms to create high vertical resolution ozone profiles to help to monitor the evolution of the atmospheric ozone layer. NOAA is in the process of implementing these algorithms to make near-real-time versions of these products. The main objective of this project was to generate estimates of the accuracy and precision of the OMPS Limb products by analysis of matchup comparisons with similar products from the International Space Station Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (ISS SAGE III) and Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS Aura MLS). The studies investigated the sources of errors; classified them with respect to height, geographic location, and atmospheric and observation conditions; and worked with the algorithm developers to attempt to develop corrections and adjustments for them

  8. Creating diversified response profiles from a single quenchometric sensor element by using phase-resolved luminescence.

    PubMed

    Tehan, Elizabeth C; Bukowski, Rachel M; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Titus, Albert H; Cartwright, Alexander N; Bright, Frank V

    2015-01-05

    We report a new strategy for generating a continuum of response profiles from a single luminescence-based sensor element by using phase-resolved detection. This strategy yields reliable responses that depend in a predictable manner on changes in the luminescent reporter lifetime in the presence of the target analyte, the excitation modulation frequency, and the detector (lock-in amplifier) phase angle. In the traditional steady-state mode, the sensor that we evaluate exhibits a linear, positive going response to changes in the target analyte concentration. Under phase-resolved conditions the analyte-dependent response profiles: (i) can become highly non-linear; (ii) yield negative going responses; (iii) can be biphasic; and (iv) can exhibit super sensitivity (e.g., sensitivities up to 300 fold greater in comparison to steady-state conditions).

  9. Creating Diversified Response Profiles from a Single Quenchometric Sensor Element by Using Phase-Resolved Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Tehan, Elizabeth C.; Bukowski, Rachel M.; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P.; Titus, Albert H.; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Bright, Frank V.

    2015-01-01

    We report a new strategy for generating a continuum of response profiles from a single luminescence-based sensor element by using phase-resolved detection. This strategy yields reliable responses that depend in a predictable manner on changes in the luminescent reporter lifetime in the presence of the target analyte, the excitation modulation frequency, and the detector (lock-in amplifier) phase angle. In the traditional steady-state mode, the sensor that we evaluate exhibits a linear, positive going response to changes in the target analyte concentration. Under phase-resolved conditions the analyte-dependent response profiles: (i) can become highly non-linear; (ii) yield negative going responses; (iii) can be biphasic; and (iv) can exhibit super sensitivity (e.g., sensitivities up to 300 fold greater in comparison to steady-state conditions). PMID:25569752

  10. Detection and depth profiling of hazardous elements using N-SCAN prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, F.H.; Congedo, T.V.; Dulloo, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    A low-background method of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) has been developed and demonstrated. This method employs a pulsed electronic neutron generator, a high resolution, high purity germanium detector, and microsecond coordination of neutron pulsing and gamma detection through a computer-controlled acquisition interface module. The system has been used to detect trace amounts of hazardous elements in concretes and soils to provide depth profiles of contaminant burden down to nearly 1 ft in packed soil, and also to perform rapid identification of the contents of munitions bearing simulants of chemical weapons agents.

  11. A top quark mass measurement using a matrix element method

    SciTech Connect

    Linacre, Jacob Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of the mass of the top quark is presented, using top-antitop pair (t$\\bar{t}$) candidate events for the lepton+jets decay channel. The measurement makes use of Tevatron p$\\bar{p}$ collision data at centre-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV, collected at the CDF detector. The top quark mass is measured by employing an unbinned maximum likelihood method where the event probability density functions are calculated using signal (t$\\bar{t}$) and background (W+jets) matrix elements, as well as a set of parameterised jet-to-parton mapping functions. The likelihood function is maximised with respect to the top quark mass, the fraction of signal events, and a correction to the jet energy scale (JES) of the calorimeter jets. The simultaneous measurement of the JES correction (ΔJES) provides an in situ jet energy calibration based on the known mass of the hadronically decaying W boson. Using 578 lepton+jets candidate events corresponding to 3.2 fb -1 of integrated luminosity, the top quark mass is measured to be mt = 172.4± 1.4 (stat+ΔJES) ±1.3 (syst) GeV=c2, one of the most precise single measurements to date.

  12. A Comparison of Modeled Pollutant Profiles With MOZAIC Aircraft Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we use measurements performed under the MOZAIC program to evaluate vertical profiles of meteorological parameters, CO, and ozone that were simulated for the year 2006 with several versions of the WRF/CMAQ modeling system. Model updates, including WRF nudging strate...

  13. A Comparison of Modeled Pollutant Profiles With MOZAIC Aircraft Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we use measurements performed under the MOZAIC program to evaluate vertical profiles of meteorological parameters, CO, and ozone that were simulated for the year 2006 with several versions of the WRF/CMAQ modeling system. Model updates, including WRF nudging strate...

  14. Optical fan blade profile measurement in rotating turbomachinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davinson, I.; Mutton, J. E.; Parker, R.; Parnell, A.; Roberts, J. P.

    1990-06-01

    An optical technique for measuring the profile of a fan blade at a range of radial heights in a rotating turbofan by laser triangulation has been developed and tested. The technique has been successfully used on fan rigs and on full size engines. The data thus obtained is now being used to verify the current models of fan blade behavior.

  15. Acceleration of matrix element computations for precision measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Brandt, Oleg; Gutierrez, Gaston; Wang, M. H.L.S.; ...

    2014-11-25

    The matrix element technique provides a superior statistical sensitivity for precision measurements of important parameters at hadron colliders, such as the mass of the top quark or the cross-section for the production of Higgs bosons. The main practical limitation of the technique is its high computational demand. Using the example of the top quark mass, we present two approaches to reduce the computation time of the technique by a factor of 90. First, we utilize low-discrepancy sequences for numerical Monte Carlo integration in conjunction with a dedicated estimator of numerical uncertainty, a novelty in the context of the matrix elementmore » technique. We then utilize a new approach that factorizes the overall jet energy scale from the matrix element computation, a novelty in the context of top quark mass measurements. The utilization of low-discrepancy sequences is of particular general interest, as it is universally applicable to Monte Carlo integration, and independent of the computing environment.« less

  16. Surface photovoltage measurements and finite element modeling of SAW devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, Christine

    2012-03-01

    Over the course of a Summer 2011 internship with the MEMS department of Sandia National Laboratories, work was completed on two major projects. The first and main project of the summer involved taking surface photovoltage measurements for silicon samples, and using these measurements to determine surface recombination velocities and minority carrier diffusion lengths of the materials. The SPV method was used to fill gaps in the knowledge of material parameters that had not been determined successfully by other characterization methods. The second project involved creating a 2D finite element model of a surface acoustic wave device. A basic form of the model with the expected impedance response curve was completed, and the model is ready to be further developed for analysis of MEMS photonic resonator devices.

  17. Conditioning a segmented stem profile model for two diameter measurements

    Treesearch

    Raymond L. Czaplewski; Joe P. Mcclure

    1988-01-01

    The stem profile model of Max and Burkhart (1976) is conditioned for dbh and a second upper stem measurement. This model was applied to a loblolly pine data set using diameter outside bark at 5.3m (i.e., height of 17.3 foot Girard form class) as the second upper stem measurement, and then compared to the original, unconditioned model. Variance of residuals was reduced...

  18. Distribution of micromotion in implants and alveolar bone with different thread profiles in immediate loading: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pei-Kun; Chen, Yung-Chuan; Huang, Ching-Chieh; Lu, Wei-Hua; Chen, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Hsun-Heng

    2012-01-01

    To detect the differences in the distribution of micromotion within implants and alveolar bone with different implant thread designs during immediate loading. A three-dimensional finite element model with contact elements was used to simulate the contact behavior between the implant and alveolar bone. Implants with four different thread designs were created: Acme (trapezoidal) thread (AT), buttress thread (BT), square thread (ST), and a standard V-thread (VT). To simulate immediate loading, the model was designed without osseointegration between the implant and alveolar bone. A load of 300 N was applied axially to the model, and the micromovements were measured. The maximum micromotion values of the ST, AT, VT, and BT models were 8.53, 9.57, 11.00, and 15.00 µm, respectively. All micromotion was located near the interface of cortical and cancellous bone. Different thread designs showed different distribution of micromotion during loading. This indicates that initial stability in immediate loading may be affected by thread design. The ST profile showed the most favorable result in the study. An implant with an ST profile might provide the best primary stability in an immediate loading situation.

  19. Radar meteor atmospheric speeds determined from echo profile measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggaley, W. J.; Bennett, R. G. T.; Taylor, A. D.

    1997-05-01

    A backscatter radar echo from meteoric ionization is produced from the contributions from successive Fresnel zones as the meteor passes the specular condition. The time variation of the reflection coefficient given in terms of the Fresnel Function is related to the creation rate of zones and hence to meteoroid atmospheric speed. Such echo-profile speeds have been measured using the AMOR facility (New Zealand) and compared with meteoroid speeds simultaneously obtained using both spaced - station timing and whole - profile Fresnel oscillation patterns. The close agreement achieved confirms this simple technique - available to single station radar systems - as valuable in establishing meteoroid speeds.

  20. Measurements of electron density profiles using an angular filter refractometer

    SciTech Connect

    Haberberger, D. Ivancic, S.; Hu, S. X.; Boni, R.; Barczys, M.; Craxton, R. S.; Froula, D. H.

    2014-05-15

    A novel diagnostic technique, angular filter refractometry (AFR), has been developed to characterize high-density, long-scale-length plasmas relevant to high-energy-density physics experiments. AFR measures plasma densities up to 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} with a 263-nm probe laser and is used to study the plasma expansion from CH foil and spherical targets that are irradiated with ∼9 kJ of ultraviolet (351-nm) laser energy in a 2-ns pulse. The data elucidate the temporal evolution of the plasma profile for the CH planar targets and the dependence of the plasma profile on target radius for CH spheres.

  1. Lidar method of measurement of atmospheric extinction and ozone profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooney, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    A description of a method of measurement of atmospheric extinction and of ozone profiles by use of the backscatter signal from a monostatic lidar is given. The central feature of the procedure involves a measurement of the ratio of the Raman backscatter returns of both the oxygen and nitrogen atmospheric content. Because the ratio of the number density of both species is known to high accuracy, the measurement itself becomes a measure of the ratio of two transmissions to altitude along with a ratio of the two system constants. The calibration measurement for determining the value of the ratio of the two system constants or electro-optical conversion constants is accomplished by a lidar measurement of identical atmospheric targets while at the same time interchanging the two optical filters in the two optical channels of the receiver. More details of the procedure are discussed. Factoring this calibrated value into the measured O2/N2 profile ratio provides a measured value of the ratio of the two transmissions. Or equivalently, it provides a measurement of the difference of the two extinction coefficients at the O2 and N2 Raman wavelengths as a function of the height.

  2. Blood viscosity measurement: an integral method using Doppler ultrasonic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaud, P.; Bensalah, A.

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this work is to present a new indirect and noninvasive method for the measurement of the Newtonian blood viscosity. Based on an integral form of the axial Navier-Stokes equation, this method is particularly suited for in vivo investigations using ultrasonic arterial blood velocity profiles. Its main advantage is that it is applicable to periodic as well as non periodic flows. Moreover it does not require classical filtering methods enhancing signal to noise ratio of the physiological signals. This method only requires the knowledge of the velocimetric data measured inside a spatially and temporally optimized zone of the Doppler velocity profiles. The results obtained using numerical simulation as well as in vitro or in vivo experiments prove the effectiveness of the method. It is then well adapted to the clinical environment as a systematic quasi on-line method for the measurement of the blood viscosity.

  3. Measurement uncertainty in the profile detection on solar troughs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansoni, P.; Fontani, D.; Francini, F.; Toccafondi, S.; Messeri, M.; Coraggia, S.; Mercatelli, L.; Jafrancesco, D.; Sani, E.

    2013-04-01

    Surface profile control on solar concentrators is fundamental since the mirror can be imperfectly manufactured. Optical profilometric measurements are generally addressed to detect small localised irregularities. The paper presents an optical profilometer for linear solar collectors, which are typically employed in thermal plants and more recently in concentrating photovoltaic systems. The profilometer includes a source of parallel rays and a target placed at the collector focal distance. It was developed simulating profile measurements on linear parabolic mirrors; then the method was validated by tests on a practical realisation. The device examines the reflector surface operating on a plane transversal to the linear collector axis; then the detection is repeated displacing the optical profilometer along the collector axis. This experimentation allowed to deeply examine and reduce the errors of the measurement procedure.

  4. Ultrasonic Velocity Profile Measurement for Thermal Convection of Liquid Gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasaka, Yuji; Kitaura, Hidekazu; Yoshida, Masataka; Takeda, Yasushi; Yanagisawa, Takatoshi

    2004-11-01

    Thermal convection caused by vertical temperature gradient in a slab shape container filled with liquid Gallium is investigated experimentally as low Prandtl number convection. Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler (UVP) measured instantaneous profiles of the horizontal velocity component along the span direction of the container. The results represent a convective flow pattern and its temporal fluctuation. The measured flow pattern is compared with visualized convective pattern in normal Pr liquid convection. The measurement was achieved for the range of Rayleigh number R, approximately 100 ≤ R/R_c ≤ 600, where R_c is critical Rayleigh number for Rayleigh-Bénard problem. Transition of flow pattern and variation of velocity fluctuation with respect to R is discussed.

  5. Improved Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Profiles Using AIRS and TES Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, J. X.; Sun, Z.; Tangborn, A.; Barnet, C.; Luo, M.; Diskin, G.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric CO concentrations are simultaneously measured by EOS A-train satellite sensors, which include AIRS on Aqua, TES and MLS on Aura. Based on the heritage of the A-train system, the combined datasets from these sensors will provide the best available three-dimensional trace gas information that incorporates the uniqueness of AIRS large spatial coverage, TES high vertical resolutions, and MLS measurements at the upper troposphere and stratosphere. This presentation introduces a new technique that combines TES CO profile measurements with AIRS retrievals by using them as a priori profiles, which reflect near real-time observations taken within only 15 minutes. The combined datasets in this fashion will extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower atmosphere, which is especially important for air quality studies. The portion of this study for non- coincident profiles will provide the opportunity to propagate TES CO vertical measurement sensitivity horizontally. For AIRS pixels that are located away from nadir objective analysis techniques will be used to populate the observations. Weightings for TES and MLS L2 products will be based on AIRS observed variances and the averaging kernels of TES and MLS. The collocated AIRS and TES datasets are combined and overlapped with DACOM in situ CO measurements from INTEX-B field campaign for validation.

  6. State of the art of compact optical 3D profile measurement apparatuses: from outer surface to inner surface measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Toru; Wakayama, Toshitaka

    2013-06-01

    This paper is not an original paper, but a review paper passed on our previous papers. We have been developing a few apparatuses for 2D and/or 3D profile measurement because these systems, especially 3D profiling systems, have become indispensable tools in manufacturing industry. However, in surface profile measurement, conventional systems have several short comings including being very large in size and heavy in weight. Therefore we propose to realize a compact portable apparatus on the basis of pattern projection method using a single MEMS mirror scanning. On the other hand, in the case of inner profile measurement for pipes or tubes, we propose to use optical section method by means of disk beam produced by a conical mirror. In these systems development of elements and devices such as a MEMS mirror and/or cone mirror play important role to apply our fundamental principles to practical apparatuses. We introduce the state of the art of these systems including commercialized products for practical purpose.

  7. Estimating Nocturnal Respiration from Profile Measurements in a Subalpine Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. E.; Turnipseed, A. A.

    2001-12-01

    Estimates of nocturnal respiration of forest ecosystems derived from vertical profile measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and wind velocity offer an effective means of supplementing, or at times, replacing eddy covariance and chamber measurements. For example, under near calm conditions, stable atmospheric stratification leads to situations in which application of eddy covariance methodology is ill-suited. An alternative approach under these conditions is to sum changes in subcanopy airspace storage and advection of CO2 to estimate ecosystem respiration. Profile measurements of wind velocity and CO2 concentration were conducted in a subalpine forest (mostly lodgepole pine, ingleman spruce, and aspen) on sloping (6-7%) terrain, about 8 km east of the continental divide, northwest of Boulder, Colorado. The profiles were measured from three locations at multiple levels, ranging from 1m above ground to 33m (more than twice canopy height). All measurements were averaged over half-hour intervals. A single infrared gas analyzer, located 73m from either profile location, measured concentrations from which change in storage and advection were calculated. Under typical nocturnal conditions during the growing season (May-Sept.), katabatic winds develop near sunset and strengthen during the night reaching 0.5-0.9 m/s. Due to considerable temporal variability in wind speed and in CO2 concentration, advective and storage fluxes were highly variable. Mid-summer concentration differences with downslope distance typically averaged about 0.1 ppm/m between heights of 1-6m. Advective flux was typically several times larger than storage flux, ranging from about 5-15 micromole/m2/s shortly after drainage (katabatic) flow began, then decreasing through the night with temperature. On nearly calm nights during the May-August 2001 growing season, advective flux often reached about one-third the daytime uptake by the forest.

  8. Ultrasoft X-ray Measurements of Impurity Profiles in NSTX*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.; Vero, R.; Fournier, K.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Menard, J.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Efthimion, P.; Kaye, S.; Leblanc, B.; Mueller, P.; Synakowski, E.; Maingi, R.; Houlberg, W.

    2001-10-01

    Three arrays of absolute photodiodes and several calibrated spectrometers measure the emission profiles and impurity spectra in the ultrasoft and soft X-ray range in NSTX. A multilayer mirror array for C VI Ly-alpha was also recently installed. Impurity density profiles are estimated by modeling these data with an atomic physics and impurity transport computational package. Many ohmic discharges show evidence for strong impurity peaking, which is reduced by either sawtooth crashes or early Reconnection Events. The peaking is associated with strong 1/1 activity. Peripheral impurity accumulation and cold island formation are observed in ELM-free H-modes.The profiles in center-stack -limited NBI discharges on the other hand, exhibit a pronounced 'well' at r/a <0.5-0.6. Modeling this profile requires a discontinuity in the core particle transport, suggesting the existence of a 'natural' internal barrier. Sheared MHD rotation is often observed at the radius of this discontinuity. Neon injection experiments were performed for a preliminary quantitative estimate of the impurity transport. The time-dependent simulation of the Ne profiles seems to support a large decrease in particle diffusion at about mid-radius. Comparison with neo-classical predictions will be discussed. *Work supported by DoE grant No. DE-FG02-99ER54523

  9. Transcriptome-wide measurement of ribosomal occupancy by ribosome profiling.

    PubMed

    Aeschimann, Florian; Xiong, Jieyi; Arnold, Andreas; Dieterich, Christoph; Grosshans, Helge

    2015-09-01

    Gene expression profiling provides a tool to analyze the internal states of cells or organisms, and their responses to perturbations. While global measurements of mRNA levels have thus been widely used for many years, it is only through the recent development of the ribosome profiling technique that an analogous examination of global mRNA translation programs has become possible. Ribosome profiling reveals which RNAs are being translated to what extent and where the translated open reading frames are located. In addition, different modes of translation regulation can be distinguished and characterized. Here, we present an optimized, step-by-step protocol for ribosome profiling. Although established in Caenorhabditis elegans, our protocol and optimization approaches should be equally usable for other model organisms or cell culture with little adaptation. Next to providing a protocol, we compare two different methods for isolation of single ribosomes and two different library preparations, and describe strategies to optimize the RNase digest and to reduce ribosomal RNA contamination in the libraries. Moreover, we discuss bioinformatic strategies to evaluate the quality of the data and explain how the data can be analyzed for different applications. In sum, this article seeks to facilitate the understanding, execution, and optimization of ribosome profiling experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements for the LANSCE Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, John D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Martinez, Derwin; Pillai, Chandra; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Sedillo, James Daniel; Smith, Brian G.

    2012-05-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing beam profile measurement systems, commonly known as Wire Scanners (WS). Using the principal of secondary electron emission, the WS measurement system moves a wire or fiber across an impinging particle beam, sampling a projected transverse-beam distribution. Because existing WS actuators and electronic components are either no longer manufactured or home-built with antiquated parts, a new WS beam profile measurement is being designed, fabricated, and tested. The goals for these new WS's include using off-the-shelf components while eliminating antiquated components, providing quick operation while allowing for easy maintainability, and tolerating external radioactivation. The WS measurement system consists of beam line actuators, a cable plant, an electronics processor chassis, and software located both in the electronics chassis (National Instruments LabVIEW) and in the Central Control Room (EPICS-based client software). This WS measurement system will measure Hand H{sup +} LANSCE-facility beams and will also measure less common beams. This paper describes these WS measurement systems.

  11. Trace element profiles of the oxyanions of selenium in the development of murine hepatoma and the effect of Se supplementation on the essential trace element concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Tariq, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    To determine trace quantities of selenium in tissue samples a simplified pre-concentration procedure is developed based upon sample digestion and separation of selenium from the bulk by solvent extraction and its determination by radioisotope induced x-ray fluorescence (RIXRF) spectrometry. Signal to background ratio is improved and interference from Br and As peaks is significantly reduced. Submicrogram quantities of selenium in animal tissues can be analyzed. The distribution and retention of selenate and selenite in C57L/J mice was investigated using intra-ocular injection of [sup 75]Se. The distribution and retention of species were studied during the progression of BBW756 murine hepatoma. Comparison is made with the normal distribution of selenium studied by RIXRF method. The distribution of the two oxidation states measured as activity of [sup 75]Se was almost identical but differed from the normal trace elemental profile, TEP. The excretion rates of the two selenium species in the initial phase are different with more selenate being excreted than selenite in the first two days. The whole body excretion rates followed a pure first order pattern after day two. This was not true for the individual organs of the animals. Selenium has shown both inhibiting and enhancing effects on the development of various cancer types. The effects of selenium supplementation on the development of BW7756 murine hepatoma have been monitored. Various non-lethal levels of Se are administrated in either drinking water or by intraperitoneal injection. The inhibitory effects are not specific to any stage of tumor development and the decrease in tumor growth is related to the general toxicity of the element. Supplementation of selenium at 2 [mu]g/ml level in the drinking water of the mice strongly influenced the concentration levels of Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, and Rb. The effect of selenite supplementation on the tissue levels of these elements is significantly different than that of selenate.

  12. Measurements of Reynolds stress profiles in unstratified tidal flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, M.T.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Burau, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for measuring profiles of turbulence quantities using a broadband acoustic doppler current profiler (ADCP). The method follows previous work on the continental shelf and extends the analysis to develop estimates of the errors associated with the estimation methods. ADCP data was collected in an unstratified channel and the results of the analysis are compared to theory. This comparison shows that the method provides an estimate of the Reynolds stresses, which is unbiased by Doppler noise, and an estimate of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) which is biased by an amount proportional to the Doppler noise. The noise in each of these quantities as well as the bias in the TKE match well with the theoretical values produced by the error analysis. The quantification of profiles of Reynolds stresses simultaneous with the measurement of mean velocity profiles allows for extensive analysis of the turbulence of the flow. In this paper, we examine the relation between the turbulence and the mean flow through the calculation of u*, the friction velocity, and Cd, the coefficient of drag. Finally, we calculate quantities of particular interest in turbulence modeling and analysis, the characteristic lengthscales, including a lengthscale which represents the stream-wise scale of the eddies which dominate the Reynolds stresses. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Anatomy, histology and elemental profile of long bones and ribs of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Siengdee, Puntita; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Brown, Janine L; Klinhom, Sarisa; Pitakarnnop, Tanita; Angkawanish, Taweepoke; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the morphology and elemental composition of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula and rib). Computerized tomography was used to image the intraosseous structure, compact bones were processed using histological techniques, and elemental profiling of compact bone was conducted using X-ray fluorescence. There was no clear evidence of an open marrow cavity in any of the bones; rather, dense trabecular bone was found in the bone interior. Compact bone contained double osteons in the radius, tibia and fibula. The osteon structure was comparatively large and similar in all bones, although the lacuna area was greater (P < 0.05) in the femur and ulna. Another finding was that nutrient foramina were clearly present in the humerus, ulna, femur, tibia and rib. Twenty elements were identified in elephant compact bone. Of these, ten differed significantly across the seven bones: Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Zr, Ag, Cd, Sn and Sb. Of particular interest was the finding of a significantly larger proportion of Fe in the humerus, radius, fibula and ribs, all bones without an open medullary cavity, which is traditionally associated with bone marrow for blood cell production. In conclusion, elephant bones present special characteristics, some of which may be important to hematopoiesis and bone strength for supporting a heavy body weight.

  14. Measurement of elemental concentration of aerosols using spark emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Prasoon K; Kulkarni, Pramod

    A coaxial microelectrode system has been used to collect and analyse the elemental composition of aerosol particles in near real-time using spark emission spectroscopy. The technique involves focused electrostatic deposition of charged aerosol particles onto the flat tip of a microelectrode, followed by introduction of spark discharge. A pulsed spark discharge was generated across the electrodes with input energy ranging from 50 to 300 mJ per pulse, resulting in the formation of controlled pulsed plasma. The particulate matter on the cathode tip is ablated and atomized by the spark plasma, resulting in atomic emissions which are subsequently recorded using a broadband optical spectrometer for element identification and quantification. The plasma characteristics were found to be very consistent and reproducible even after several thousands of spark discharges using the same electrode system. The spark plasma was characterized by measuring the excitation temperature (~7000 to 10 000 K), electron density (~10(16) cm(-3)), and evolution of spectral responses as a function of time. The system was calibrated using particles containing Pb, Si, Na and Cr. Absolute mass detection limits in the range 11 pg to 1.75 ng were obtained. Repeatability of spectral measurements varied from 2 to 15%. The technique offers key advantages over similar microplasma-based techniques such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, as: (i) it does not require any laser beam optics and eliminates any need for beam alignment, (ii) pulse energy from dc power supply in SIBS system can be much higher compared to that from laser source of the same physical size, and (iii) it is quite conducive to compact, field-portable instrumentation.

  15. Measurement of elemental concentration of aerosols using spark emission spectroscopy†

    PubMed Central

    Diwakar, Prasoon K.

    2015-01-01

    A coaxial microelectrode system has been used to collect and analyse the elemental composition of aerosol particles in near real-time using spark emission spectroscopy. The technique involves focused electrostatic deposition of charged aerosol particles onto the flat tip of a microelectrode, followed by introduction of spark discharge. A pulsed spark discharge was generated across the electrodes with input energy ranging from 50 to 300 mJ per pulse, resulting in the formation of controlled pulsed plasma. The particulate matter on the cathode tip is ablated and atomized by the spark plasma, resulting in atomic emissions which are subsequently recorded using a broadband optical spectrometer for element identification and quantification. The plasma characteristics were found to be very consistent and reproducible even after several thousands of spark discharges using the same electrode system. The spark plasma was characterized by measuring the excitation temperature (~7000 to 10 000 K), electron density (~1016 cm−3), and evolution of spectral responses as a function of time. The system was calibrated using particles containing Pb, Si, Na and Cr. Absolute mass detection limits in the range 11 pg to 1.75 ng were obtained. Repeatability of spectral measurements varied from 2 to 15%. The technique offers key advantages over similar microplasma-based techniques such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, as: (i) it does not require any laser beam optics and eliminates any need for beam alignment, (ii) pulse energy from dc power supply in SIBS system can be much higher compared to that from laser source of the same physical size, and (iii) it is quite conducive to compact, field-portable instrumentation. PMID:26491209

  16. Measuring elemental time and duty cycle using automated video processing.

    PubMed

    Akkas, Oguz; Lee, Cheng-Hsien; Hu, Yu Hen; Yen, Thomas Y; Radwin, Robert G

    2016-11-01

    A marker-less 2D video algorithm measured hand kinematics (location, velocity and acceleration) in a paced repetitive laboratory task for varying hand activity levels (HAL). The decision tree (DT) algorithm identified the trajectory of the hand using spatiotemporal relationships during the exertion and rest states. The feature vector training (FVT) method utilised the k-nearest neighbourhood classifier, trained using a set of samples or the first cycle. The average duty cycle (DC) error using the DT algorithm was 2.7%. The FVT algorithm had an average 3.3% error when trained using the first cycle sample of each repetitive task, and had a 2.8% average error when trained using several representative repetitive cycles. Error for HAL was 0.1 for both algorithms, which was considered negligible. Elemental time, stratified by task and subject, were not statistically different from ground truth (p < 0.05). Both algorithms performed well for automatically measuring elapsed time, DC and HAL. Practitioner Summary: A completely automated approach for measuring elapsed time and DC was developed using marker-less video tracking and the tracked kinematic record. Such an approach is automatic, repeatable, objective and unobtrusive, and is suitable for evaluating repetitive exertions, muscle fatigue and manual tasks.

  17. Measuring mercury and other elemental components in tree rings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillan, C.; Hollerman, W.A.; Doyle, T.W.; Lewis, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in measuring heavy metal pollution, such as mercury, using tree ring analysis. Since 1970, this method has provided a historical snapshot of pollutant concentrations near hazardous waste sites. Traditional methods of analysis have long been used with heavy metal pollutants such as mercury. These methods, such as atomic fluorescence and laser ablation, are sometimes time consuming and expensive to implement. In recent years, ion beam techniques, such as Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), have been used to measure large numbers of elements. Most of the existing research in this area has been completed for low to medium atomic number pollutants, such as titanium, cobalt, nickel, and copper. Due to the reduction of sensitivity, it is often difficult or impossible to use traditional low energy (few MeV) PIXE analysis for pollutants with large atomic numbers. For example, the PIXE detection limit for mercury was recently measured to be about 1 ppm for a spiked Southern Magnolia wood sample [ref. 1]. This presentation will compare PIXE and standard chemical concentration results for a variety of wood samples.

  18. Measuring mercury and other elemental components in tree rings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillan, C.; Hollerman, W.A.; Doyle, T.W.; Lewis, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in measuring heavy metal pollution, such as mercury, using tree ring analysis. Since 1970, this method has provided a historical snapshot of pollutant concentrations near hazardous waste sites. Traditional methods of analysis have long been used with heavy metal pollutants such as mercury. These methods, such as atomic fluorescence and laser ablation, are sometimes time consuming and expensive to implement. In recent years, ion beam techniques, such as Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), have been used to measure large numbers of elements. Most of the existing research in this area has been completed for low to medium atomic number pollutants, such as titanium, cobalt, nickel, and copper. Due to the reduction of sensitivity, it is often difficult or impossible to use traditional low energy (few MeV) PIXE analysis for pollutants with large atomic numbers. For example, the PIXE detection limit for mercury was recently measured to be about 1 ppm for a spiked Southern Magnolia wood sample [ref. 1]. This presentation will compare PIXE and standard chemical concentration results for a variety of wood samples. Copyright 2004 by ISA.

  19. Elemental profiling of laser cladded multilayer coatings by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lednev, V. N.; Sdvizhenskii, P. A.; Filippov, M. N.; Grishin, M. Ya.; Filichkina, V. A.; Stavertiy, A. Ya.; Tretyakov, R. S.; Bunkin, A. F.; Pershin, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    Multilayer tungsten carbide wear resistant coatings were analyzed by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Coaxial laser cladding technique was utilized to produce tungsten carbide coating deposited on low alloy steel substrate with additional inconel 625 interlayer. EDX and LIBS techniques were used for elemental profiling of major components (Ni, W, C, Fe, etc.) in the coating. A good correlation between EDX and LIBS data was observed while LIBS provided additional information on light element distribution (carbon). A non-uniform distribution of tungsten carbide grains along coating depth was detected by both LIBS and EDX. In contrast, horizontal elemental profiling showed a uniform tungsten carbide particles distribution. Depth elemental profiling by layer-by-layer LIBS analysis was demonstrated to be an effective method for studying tungsten carbide grains distribution in wear resistant coating without any sample preparation.

  20. Heterodyne moiré interferometry for measuring corneal surface profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wei-Yao; Chen, Kun-Huang; Chen, Der-Chin; Tseng, Jung-Kai; Chen, Shyan-Tarng; Sun, Han-Ying; Chen, Jing-Heng; Hsu, Ken Y.

    2014-03-01

    This study proposes an accurate method for reconstructing the corneal surface profile. By applying a constant velocity to the projection grating along the grating plane, a series of sampling points of the sinusoidal wave, which behaves in the manner of heterodyne interferometric signals, can be recorded using a CMOS camera. The phase distribution of the moiré fringes can then be obtained using the IEEE 1241 least-square sine fitting algorithm and two-dimensional (2D) phase unwrapping. Finally, the corneal surface profile can be reconstructed by substituting the phase distribution into a specially derived equation. To validate the proposed method, the corneal surface of a pig eyeball was measured. The measurement resolution was approximately 3.5 μm. Because of the introduction of the Talbot effect, the projection moiré method, and heterodyne interferometry, this approach provides the advantages of a simple optical setup, ease of operation, high stability, and high resolution.

  1. Measuring velocity and temperature profile sectional pipeline behind confuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siažik, Ján; Malcho, Milan; Lenhard, Richard; Novomestský, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    The article deals with the measuring of temperature and velocity profile in area behind confuser in real made scale model of bypass. For proper operation of the equipment it is necessary to know the actual flow in the pipe. Bypasses have wide application and can be also associated with devices for heat recovery, heat exchangers different designs in which may be used in certain circumstances. In the present case, the heat that would otherwise has not been used is used for heating of insulators, and heating the air in the spray-dryer. The measuring principle was verify how the above-mentioned temperature and velocity profile decomposition above confuser on real made scale model.

  2. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, John D.; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gonzales, Fermin; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Kutac, Vincent G.; Martinez, Derwin; Sedillo, James Daniel; Pillai, Chandra; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Smith, Brian G.

    2012-05-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H{sup -} beams of different beam energy and current conditions. In addition, the WS measurement-system beam tests verified actuator control systems for minimum profile bin repeatability and speed, checked for actuator backlash and positional stability, tested the replacement of simple broadband potentiometers with narrow band resolvers, and tested resolver use with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input and Output (cRIO) Virtual Instrumentation. These beam tests also have verified how trans-impedance amplifiers react with various types of beam line background noise and how noise currents were not generated. This paper will describe these beam development tests and show some resulting data.

  3. Toxic element profiles in selected medicinal plants growing on serpentines in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Dolja; Karadjova, Irina

    2013-12-01

    Populations of medicinal plants growing on serpentines and their respective soils were analyzed for Fe, Ni, Mn, Cr, Co, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Aqua regia extraction and 0.43 M acetic acid extraction were used for the quantification of pseudototal and bioavailable fractions, respectively, of elements in soil and nitric acid digestion for determination of total element content in plants. Screening was performed to (1) document levels of toxic metals in herbs extensively used in preparation of products and standardized extracts, (2) compare accumulation abilities of ferns and seed plants, and (3) estimate correlations between metal content in plants and their soils. The toxic element content of plants varied from site to site on a large scale. The concentrations of Fe and Ni were elevated while those of Cu, Zn, and Pb were close to average values usually found in plants. The highest concentrations for almost all elements were measured in both Teucrium species. Specific differences in metal accumulation between ferns and seed plants were not recorded. The investigated species are not hyperaccumulators but can accumulate toxic elements, in some cases exceeding permissible levels proposed by the World Health Organization and European Pharmacopoeia. The harvesting of medicinal plants from serpentines could be hazardous to humans.

  4. Prediction of flow profiles in arteries from local measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, S. C.; Atabek, H. B.

    1971-01-01

    This paper develops an approximate numerical method for calculating flow profiles in arteries. The theory takes into account the nonlinear terms of the Navier-Stokes equations as well as the large deformations of the arterial wall. The method, assuming axially symmetric flow, determines velocity distribution and wall shear at a given location from the locally measured values of the pressure, pressure gradient, and pressure-radius relation. The computed results agree well with the corresponding experimental data.

  5. Characterization and calibration of 2nd generation slope measuring profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, Frank; Buchheim, Jana; Zeschke, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    High spectral resolution and nanometer sized foci of 3rd generation SR beamlines can only be achieved by means of ultra precise optical elements. The improved brilliance and the coherence of free electron lasers (FEL) even push the accuracy limits and make the development of a new generation of ultra precise reflective optical elements mandatory. Typical elements are wave front preserving plane mirrors (lengths of up to 1 m, residual slope errors ˜0.05 μrad (rms) and values of 0.1 nm (rms) for the micro-roughness) and curved optical elements like spheres, toroids or elliptical cylinder (residual slope error ˜0.25 μrad (rms) and better). These challenging specifications and the ongoing progress in finishing technology need to be matched by improved accuracy metrology instruments. We will discuss the results of recent developments in the field of metrology made in the BESSY-II-optics laboratory (BOL) at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB), by the use of vertical angle comparator (VAC) in use to calibrate the nanometer optical component measuring machine (NOM). The BESSY-NOM represents an ultra accurate type of slope measuring instruments characterized by an accuracy of 0.05 μrad (rms) for plane substrates and 0.2 μrad (rms) for significant curved surfaces.

  6. Elemental profiling of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes as a function of geospatial variability in a Napa Valley vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Angela; Hopfer, Helene; Nelson, Jenny; Ebeler, Sue; Jenkins, Christopher; Plant, Richard; Smart, David

    2015-04-01

    A primary tenant of the concept of geoscience and wine is that elemental composition of soils may be reflected in the elemental profile of fruit and discerned in the organoleptic assessment of wine. The extremely varied soil composition at the vineyard level in the Napa Valley region of California provides an ideal setting to study elemental pattern correlations between grape berries and soil samples. In the Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon is a wine grape variety of substantial economic value. Elemental profiling of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in function of origin will provide a better understanding of the relationship between elemental accumulation in berries and soil element composition. The aim of this study was to explore the geospatial variability of elemental patterns in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes with respect to the soil elemental profiles at thirty-six geo-referenced vines in a 4 ha vineyard. Sixty-eight elements were determined via inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS); this allowed for elemental profiling of both soil and berries at each sampling site. It was found that for the soil samples twenty-two elements contributed to a significant difference between sampling points, and thirty for the berries. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) showed that soil and berry elemental composition varied as a function of location in the vineyard. For the soil PCA, rare earth metals such as Dy, Ho, Ce, Er, Yb and Tm were driving separation towards the southern section of the vineyard while K, Ga, V, Al, Mg and P were correlated with the northern section. In the berry samples the Lanthanides, Gd, Pr, Yb, Dy, Er and Ho, also showed a higher influence in driving separation towards the southern section while Sr, Mo, Ba, Mg, P, K, Cd, Cu, B, Rb and Ti characterized the elemental profile of the northern part of the block. These findings showed that the rare earth metals, in particular Yb, Dy, Er and Ho, were the most distinguishing elemental

  7. 128 slice computed tomography dose profile measurement using thermoluminescent dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehhon, N.; Hashim, S.; Karim, M. K. A.; Ang, W. C.; Musa, Y.; Bahruddin, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing use of computed tomography (CT) in clinical practice marks the needs to understand the dose descriptor and dose profile. The purposes of the current study were to determine the CT dose index free-in-air (CTDIair) in 128 slice CT scanner and to evaluate the single scan dose profile (SSDP). Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) were used to measure the dose profile of the scanner. There were three sets of CT protocols where the tube potential (kV) setting was manipulated for each protocol while the rest of parameters were kept constant. These protocols were based from routine CT abdominal examinations for male adult abdomen. It was found that the increase of kV settings made the values of CTDIair increased as well. When the kV setting was changed from 80 kV to 120 kV and from 120 kV to 140 kV, the CTDIair values were increased as much as 147.9% and 53.9% respectively. The highest kV setting (140 kV) led to the highest CTDIair value (13.585 mGy). The p-value of less than 0.05 indicated that the results were statistically different. The SSDP showed that when the kV settings were varied, the peak sharpness and height of Gaussian function profiles were affected. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of dose profiles for all protocols were coincided with the nominal beam width set for the measurements. The findings of the study revealed much information on the characterization and performance of 128 slice CT scanner.

  8. Neutron emission profiles and energy spectra measurements at JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, L.; Conroy, S.; Belli, F.; Gorini, G.; Horton, L.; Joffrin, E.; Lerche, E.; Murari, A.; Popovichev, S.; Riva, M.; Syme, B.; JET EFDA Contributors

    2014-08-01

    The Joint European Toras (JET, Culham, UK) is the largest tokamak in the world. It is devoted to nuclear fusion experiments of magnetic confined Deuterium (D) or Deuterium-Tritium (DT) plasmas. JET has been upgraded over the years and recently it has also become a test facility of the components designed for ITER, the next step fusion machine under construction in Cadarache (France). JET makes use of many different diagnostics to measure the physical quantities of interest in plasma experiments. Concerning D or DT plasmas neutron production, various types of detectors are implemented to provide information upon the neutron total yield, emission profile and energy spectrum. The neutron emission profile emitted from the JET plasma poloidal section is reconstructed using the neutron camera (KN3). In 2010 KN3 was equipped with a new digital data acquisition system capable of high rate neutron measurements (<0.5 MCps). A similar instrument will be implemented on ITER and it is currently in its design phase. Various types of neutron spectrometers with different view lines are also operational on JET. One of them is a new compact spectrometer (KM12) based on organic liquid scintillating material which was installed in 2010 and implements a similar digital data acquisition system as for KN3. This article illustrates the measurement results of KN3 neutron emission profiles and KM 12 neutron energy spectra from the latest JET D experimental campaign C31.

  9. NO2 lidar profile measurements for satellite interpretation and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volten, H.; Brinksma, E. J.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; Hains, J.; Bergwerff, J. B.; van der Hoff, G. R.; Apituley, A.; Dirksen, R. J.; Calabretta-Jongen, S.; Swart, D. P. J.

    2009-12-01

    Satellite instruments are efficient detectors of air pollutants such as NO2. However, the interpretation of satellite retrievals is not a trivial matter. We describe a novel instrument, the RIVM NO2 mobile lidar, to measure tropospheric NO2 profiles for the interpretation and validation of satellite data. During the DANDELIONS campaign in 2006 we obtained an extensive collection of lidar NO2 profiles, coinciding with OMI and SCIAMACHY overpasses. On clear days and early mornings a comparison between lidar and in situ measurements showed excellent agreement. At other times the in situ monitors with molybdenum converters suffered from NOy interference. The lidar NO2 profiles indicated a well-mixed boundary layer, with high NO2 concentrations in the boundary layer and concentrations above not differing significantly from zero. The boundary layer concentrations spanned a wide range, which likely depends on the wind directions and on the intensity of local (rush hour) traffic which varies with the day of the week. Large diurnal differences were mainly driven by the height of the boundary layer, although direct photolysis or photochemical processes also contribute. Small-scale temporal and spatial variations in the NO2 concentrations of the order of 20-50% were measured, probably indicative of small-scale eddies. A preliminary comparison between satellite and lidar data shows that the satellite data tend to overestimate the amount of NO2 in the troposphere compared to the lidar data.

  10. A new profile roughness measurement approach for involute helical gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulin, G.; Zhang, J.; Frazer, R. C.; Shaw, B. A.; Sewell, I.

    2017-05-01

    With increasing quality requirements of involute gear contact surfaces resulting from grinding, superfinishing, polishing and coatings of various types, surface characterization at the roughness scale is becoming more important. Typical gear roughness measurements are made in an arbitrary coordinate system using roughness measuring instruments which are difficult to relate to gear meshing action and therefore gear functionality. A method has been developed which allows well defined, repeatable measurements to be taken using conventional roughness measuring instruments and then transform the results into the functional gear meshing coordinate system. As part of the method a mathematical model describing the gear geometry and alignment method was developed. The method has been validated by standard gear profile measurement.

  11. Oceanic crustal thickness from seismic measurements and rare earth element inversions

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.S.; McKenzie, D.; O'Nions, R.K. )

    1992-12-10

    Seismic refraction results show that the igneous section of oceanic crust averages 7.1 [plus minus] 0.8 km thick away from anomalous regions such as fracture zones and hot-spots, with extremal bounds of 5.0-8.5 km. Rare earth element inversions of the melt distribution in the mantle source region suggest that sufficient melt is generated under normal oceanic spreading centers to produce an 8.3 [plus minus] 1.5 km thick igneous crust. The difference between the thickness estimates from seismics and from rare earth element inversions is not significant given the uncertainties in the mantle source composition. The inferred igneous thickness increases to 10.3 [plus minus] 1.7 km (seismic measurements) and 10.7 [plus minus] 1.6 km (rare earth element inversions) where spreading centers intersect the regions of hotter than normal mantle surrounding mantle plumes. This is consistent with melt generation by decompression of the hotter mantle as it rises beneath spreading centers. Maximum inferred melt volumes are found on aseismic ridges directly above the central rising cores of mantle plumes, and average 20 [plus minus] 1 and 18 [plus minus] 1 km for seismic profiles and rare earth element inversions respectively. Both seismic measurements and rare earth element inversions show evidence for variable local crustal thinning beneath fracture zones, though some basalts recovered from fracture zones are indistinguishable geochemically from those generated on normal ridge segments away from fracture zones. The authors attribute the decreased mantle melting on very slow-spreading ridges to the conductive heat loss that enables the mantle to cool as it rises beneath the rift.

  12. Finite element algorithm reproducing hip squeak measured in experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jaeyoung

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the frequency spectrum of squeak noise in hip joint system is measured in experiment. The numerical reproduction of hip squeak signal involves the formulation of the finite element geometry, the analytical contact kinematics such as Hertz theory and Coulomb's law and the mode-discretization. For general approach, the contact kinematics are analytically modeled to easily adjust the contact location, the contact area, the rotation direction, the pressure distribution, the friction law, and so on. Furthermore the friction stress vectors act on the 3-dimensional spherical contact surfaces where they can be divided into the steady-sliding and its transverse slip directions. Numerical calculations for the various contact parameters are conducted to investigate the possibility of hip squeak occurrence and the nonlinear oscillations after the onset of squeak are also solved. In the transient analysis, the periodic limit cycle of hip squeaking is shown to be the stick-slip type oscillation. Then the numerical frequency spectrum is qualitatively compared with hip squeak signal measured in experiment. The stick-slip oscillation during hip squeaking and its contact behavior will be also discussed over the contact area within one period.

  13. Ultrasonic Imaging for Poling Uniformity Measurements in PZT Ceramic Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, E.E.

    2000-03-14

    This report summarizes the results of a project sponsored by Honeywell Corporation (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.) Federal Manufacturing and Technologies/Kansas City (FM and T/KC) and conducted jointly with the University of Missouri, Rolla, titled ''Ultrasonic Imaging for Poling Uniformity Measurements in PZT Ceramic Elements.'' In this three-month research project, a series of experiments was performed on soft and hard lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) structures to determine the effectiveness of ultrasonic measurements as a nondestructive method of evaluating poling quality and uniformity. The study revealed that acoustic velocity correlates well with the degree of poling of PZT structures, as predicted by elastic theory. Additionally, time-of-flight (TOF) imaging was shown to be an ideal tool for viewing the spatial distribution of poled material and of material affected by the electric field beyond the edge of electroded regions. Finally, the effectiveness of ultrasonic methods for flaw detection and evaluation of PZT/stainless steel bonds was also demonstrated.

  14. Measurements of Cosmic Ray Elemental Spectra with CREAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment has accumulated ˜156 days of exposure during five flights around Antarctica within a period of six years. The instrument is configured with complementary and redundant particle detectors to search for spectral features and/or abundance changes that might be related to the spectral "knee" at ˜3 x 1015 eV. Energy measurements are made with a transition radiation detector and an ionization calorimeter. Charge measurements are made with timing, pixelated Si, and Cherenkov detectors to minimize the effect of backscattered particles. High energy cosmic-ray data were collected over a wide energy range from ˜ 1010 to ˜ 1015 eV at an average altitude of ˜38.5 km with ˜3.9 g/cm2 atmospheric overburden. All cosmic-ray elements from protons (Z = 1) to iron nuclei (Z = 26) are separated with excellent charge resolution. Individual energy spectra of the major primary nuclei from protons to iron as well as the all-particle spectrum will be presented, and implications of the results will be discussed.

  15. Measurements of temperature profiles at the exit of small rockets.

    PubMed

    Griggs, M; Harshbarger, F C

    1966-02-01

    The sodium line reversal technique was used to determine the reversal temperature profile across the exit of small rockets. Measurements were made on one 73-kg thrust rocket, and two 23-kg thrust rockets with different injectors. The large rocket showed little variation of reversal temperature across the plume. However, the 23-kg rockets both showed a large decrease of reversal temperature from the axis to the edge of the plume. In addition, the sodium line reversal technique of temperature measurement was compared with an infrared technique developed in these laboratories.

  16. Shock induced melting in aluminum: Wave profile measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Furnish, Michael D.; Reinhart, William D.

    2000-04-01

    We have developed launch capabilities that can propel macroscopic plates to hypervelocities (8 to 16 km/s). This capability has been used to determine the first time-resolved wave-profile measurements unsing velocity interferometry techniques at impact velocities of 10 km/s. These measurements show that aluminum continues to exhibit normal release behavior to 161 GPa with complete loss of strength in the shocked state. Results of these experiments are discussed and compared with the results of lower-pressure experiments conducted at lower impact velocities.

  17. Measurement of CT scanner dose profiles in a filmless department.

    PubMed

    Thomson, F J

    2005-09-01

    The measurement of the FWHM of the slice thickness radiation dose profile of a CT scanner using a prototype low sensitivity CR imaging plate has been investigated, as an alternative to the traditional method using envelope-packed industrial film. Using a standard Agfa clinical CR system to acquire the image, the FWHM of the dose profile can be accurately measured using readily available Public Domain software. An Agfa 18 x 24 cm CR cassette gives a pixel pitch of 113.5 microm, but with interpolation, the measurement accuracy can be less than 1 pixel. For a nominal 10 mm collimation, 15 successive measurements of the FWHM using CR gave an average width of 10.00 mm with a standard deviation of 0.02 mm. This may be compared with 4 successive measurements using film and a dual exposure technique to define the optical density at half peak height, yielding an average width of 9.98 mm with a SD of 0.03 mm. This prototype NDT plate is not a commercial product, but a radiotherapy plate with a similar sensitivity is available commercially and should give similar results.

  18. Validation of streamflow measurements made with acoustic doppler current profilers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberg, K.; Mueller, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and other international agencies have collaborated to conduct laboratory and field validations of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements of streamflow. Laboratory validations made in a large towing basin show that the mean differences between tow cart velocity and ADCP bottom-track and water-track velocities were -0.51 and -1.10%, respectively. Field validations of commercially available ADCPs were conducted by comparing streamflow measurements made with ADCPs to reference streamflow measurements obtained from concurrent mechanical current-meter measurements, stable rating curves, salt-dilution measurements, or acoustic velocity meters. Data from 1,032 transects, comprising 100 discharge measurements, were analyzed from 22 sites in the United States, Canada, Sweden, and The Netherlands. Results of these analyses show that broadband ADCP streamflow measurements are unbiased when compared to the reference discharges regardless of the water mode used for making the measurement. Measurement duration is more important than the number of transects for reducing the uncertainty of the ADCP streamflow measurement. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  19. Water Vapor Profiling From CoSSIR Radiometric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Chang, L. A.; Monosmith, B.; Zhang, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Previous millimeter-wave radiometry for water vapor profiling, by either airborne or satellite sensors, has been limited to frequencies less than or equal to 183 GHz. The retrievals are generally limited to an altitude range of 0-10 km. The additional measurements at the frequencies of 380.2 plus or minus 0.8, 380.2 plus or minus 1.8, 380.2 plus or minus 3.3, and 380.2 plus or minus 6.2 GHz provided by the new airborne Compact Scanning Submillimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSSIR) can extend this profiling capability up to an altitude of about 15 km. Furthermore, the retrievals can be performed over both land and water surfaces in the tropics without much difficulty. These properties are demonstrated by recent CoSSIR measurements on board the NASA WB-57 aircraft during CR-AVE in January 2006. Retrievals of water vapor mixing ratio were performed at eight altitude levels of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 km from CoSSIR data sets acquired at observational angles of 0 and 53.4 degrees, and the results were compared with other available measurements from the same aircraft and near-concurrent satellites. A comparison of the variations of mixing ratios retrieved from CoSSIR and those derived from the Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) in the aircraft vicinity, along the path of the transit flight on January 14, 2006, appears to show some connection, although the measurements were referring to different altitudes. A very good agreement was found between the collocated values of total precipitable water derived from the CoSSIR-retrieved water vapor profiles and those estimated from TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager)

  20. Water Vapor Profiling From CoSSIR Radiometric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Chang, L. A.; Monosmith, B.; Zhang, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Previous millimeter-wave radiometry for water vapor profiling, by either airborne or satellite sensors, has been limited to frequencies less than or equal to 183 GHz. The retrievals are generally limited to an altitude range of 0-10 km. The additional measurements at the frequencies of 380.2 plus or minus 0.8, 380.2 plus or minus 1.8, 380.2 plus or minus 3.3, and 380.2 plus or minus 6.2 GHz provided by the new airborne Compact Scanning Submillimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSSIR) can extend this profiling capability up to an altitude of about 15 km. Furthermore, the retrievals can be performed over both land and water surfaces in the tropics without much difficulty. These properties are demonstrated by recent CoSSIR measurements on board the NASA WB-57 aircraft during CR-AVE in January 2006. Retrievals of water vapor mixing ratio were performed at eight altitude levels of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 km from CoSSIR data sets acquired at observational angles of 0 and 53.4 degrees, and the results were compared with other available measurements from the same aircraft and near-concurrent satellites. A comparison of the variations of mixing ratios retrieved from CoSSIR and those derived from the Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) in the aircraft vicinity, along the path of the transit flight on January 14, 2006, appears to show some connection, although the measurements were referring to different altitudes. A very good agreement was found between the collocated values of total precipitable water derived from the CoSSIR-retrieved water vapor profiles and those estimated from TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager)

  1. Enrichment Factor and profiles of elemental composition of PM 2.5 in the city of Guadalajara, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mena, Leonel; Murillo-Tovar, Mario; Ramírez-Muñíz, Martín; Colunga-Urbina, Edith; de la Garza-Rodríguez, Iliana; Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the Enrichment Factors and elemental composition profiles of the PM2.5 were used to suggest the emission sources. The selected sites were Miravalle and Centro, and in both cases there were high values lead, Cadmium, Cobalt, Chromium, Cupper, Molybdenum, Nickel, Antimony, Selenium and Zinc for EF (>5), suggesting an anthropogenic origin. The remaining elements (Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Strontium and Titanium) had Enrichment Factors <5, attributable to a geological origin, probably due to the suspension of particles from motor vehicles or wind. Comparing the elemental composition profiles of the two sites allowed establishing similarities with some reference profiles (SPECIATE database Version 4.2-EPA) from sources such as Paved Road Dust (PRD) and Industrial Soil (IS) and profiles of combustion sources such as Diesel Exhaust (DE). Through the estimation the Enrichment Factors and of the elemental composition profiles of two different sites in the city, it was possible to suggest not only the general type of emission source (geological or anthropogenic), but also more specific sources based on elemental composition of PM2.5.

  2. Differential phase reflectometry for edge profile measurements on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.R.; Wilgen, J.B.; Bigelow, T.S.; England, A.C.; Murakami, M.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Collazo, I.; Wilson, J.R.

    1994-06-01

    Edge electron density profile measurements, including the scrape-off layer, have been made during ICRF heating with the two-frequency differential phase reflectometer installed in an ICRF antenna on TFTR. This system probes the plasma using the extraordinary mode with two signals swept from 90 to 118 GHz while maintaining a fixed difference frequency of 125 MHz. The extraordinary mode is used to obtain density profiles in the range of 1 {times} 10{sup 11} to 3 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} in high-field (4.5- to 4.9-T) full size (R{sub 0} = 2.62 m, a = .96 m) TFTR plasmas. The reflectometer launcher is located in an ICRF antenna and views the plasma through a small penetration in the center of the Faraday shield. A 26 m long overmoded waveguide run connects the launcher to the reflectometer microwave electronics. Profile measurements made with this reflectometer system will be presented along with a discussion of the characteristics of this differential phase reflectometer and data analysis.

  3. Measurements of Electron Density Profile and Fluctuations on HSX*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, C.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, D. T.; Anderson, F. S. B.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Probert, P.; Radder, J.; Talmadge, J. N.

    2001-10-01

    The 288 GHz interferometer system on the quasi-helical stellarator HSX views the plasma cross section along 9 adjacent chords with 1.5 cm spacing. At this frequency refraction is manageable but requires correction when performing inversions. The interferometer has sensitivity n_edl = 8 x 10^11 cm-2 and frequency response up to 1 MHz. Improved time response permits measurement of high-frequency density fluctuations as well as fast changes to the equilibrium profile. First results from HSX with 2nd harmonic ECH at 28 GHz, using a 5 chord version of the interferometer, indicate that the density profile is quite peaked for both quasi-helically symmetric (QHS) plasmas and those where the quasisymmetry is broken (mirror mode) for ne = 1 x 10^12 cm-3. However, for densities ne = 3 x 10^11 cm-3, the profile for the QHS plasma (high stored energy) is narrower when compared to the mirror mode (low stored energy). Density profile variation with plasma configuration and resonant heating location using the 9 channel interferometer will be described. For high density HSX plasmas, ne > 3 x 10^12 cm-3, coherent oscillations are observed in the line-integrated density traces which are out of phase across the magnetic axis. These m=1 oscillations are observed at frequencies of 1-2 kHz and result in a periodic displacement of the density profile. *Supported by USDOE under grant DE-FG03-01ER-54615, Task III and DE-FG02-93ER54222.

  4. Geomorphic controls on mineral weathering, elemental transport, and production of mineral surface area in a schist bedrock weathering profile, Piedmont Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenell, B.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Mahoney, J. B.; Lepak, L.

    2013-12-01

    We assess a deep chemical weathering profile in the context of geomorphic evolution in the Laurels Schist, a late proterozoic greenschist formation in the Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory located in the Piedmont region in southeastern Pennsylvania. Two 21-meter deep rotosonic drill cores were sampled at the ridge top and footslope positions in a first-order, forested watershed. The top meter was sampled at high-resolution in a soil pit adjacent to each drill core and along a hillslope transect to assess geomorphic controls on the weathering profile. Weathering processes in soil and saprolite were examined by observing changes in mineralogy, including the emergence of secondary phyllosilicate and oxide minerals; measuring specific surface area of bulk soil and saprolite; and by quantifying elemental mass changes of major and minor rock-forming elements. Mineral profiles were assessed using clay and bulk XRD, and reveal that kaolinite, a common secondary phyllosilicate, is present above 1.5 meters in the weathering profile. Specific surface area (SSA) values decrease with increasing depth to a critical depth around 2 meters, where the values of untreated (carbon-loaded) and muffled (carbon removed by heating) mineral grains converge to baseline SSA values below 10 m2g-1, indicating that carbon is sorbed with mineral surface area in the upper 2 meters. Immobile element concentrations decrease with increasing depth up to 3 meters, indicating that the preferential removal of mobile elements extends beyond the depth of C-mineral adsorption. Variability of immobile elements in the deep weathering profile reveal variations that could be the result of weathering in fractures but are more likely inherited by the rock composition and particle size of pre-metamorphosed parent rock.

  5. A technique for measuring hypersonic flow velocity profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartrell, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    A technique for measuring hypersonic flow velocity profiles is described. This technique utilizes an arc-discharge-electron-beam system to produce a luminous disturbance in the flow. The time of flight of this disturbance was measured. Experimental tests were conducted in the Langley pilot model expansion tube. The measured velocities were of the order of 6000 m/sec over a free-stream density range from 0.000196 to 0.00186 kg/cu m. The fractional error in the velocity measurements was less than 5 percent. Long arc discharge columns (0.356 m) were generated under hypersonic flow conditions in the expansion-tube modified to operate as an expansion tunnel.

  6. Ultra-narrow linewidth measurement based on Voigt profile fitting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo; Meng, Zhou; Wang, Jianfei; Chen, Wei

    2015-03-09

    We study the method of Voigt profile fitting for ultra-narrow linewidth measurement. It filters out the effect of the spectrum broadening due to the 1/f frequency noise and extracts out the Lorentzian lineshape from the measured spectrum. The resolution is thus greatly promoted than the direct measurement from the self-heterodyne technique. We apply this method to an ultra-narrow-linewidth (~40 Hz by heterodyne beat technique) Brillouin/erbium fiber laser. The linewidth estimated from Voigt fitting method is indicated to be more accurate. In contrast, the linewidths estimated direct from the 3-dB and the 20-dB heterodyne-spectrum width are far over the true linewidth of the BEFL. The Voigt fitting method provides an efficient tool for ultra-narrow-linewidth measurement. And compared with heterodyne beat technique, it is applicable for all types of lasers.

  7. Suppression of CCR impacts metabolite profile and cell wall composition in Pinus radiata tracheary elements.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Armin; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Goeminne, Geert; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Steward, Diane; Torr, Kirk; Donaldson, Lloyd; Boerjan, Wout; Ralph, John

    2013-01-01

    Suppression of the lignin-related gene cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) in the Pinus radiata tracheary element (TE) system impacted both the metabolite profile and the cell wall matrix in CCR-RNAi lines. UPLC-MS/MS-based metabolite profiling identified elevated levels of p-coumaroyl hexose, caffeic acid hexoside and ferulic acid hexoside in CCR-RNAi lines, indicating a redirection of metabolite flow within phenylpropanoid metabolism. Dilignols derived from coniferyl alcohol such as G(8-5)G, G(8-O-4)G and isodihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (IDDDC) were substantially depleted, providing evidence for CCR's involvement in coniferyl alcohol biosynthesis. Severe CCR suppression almost halved lignin content in TEs based on a depletion of both H-type and G-type lignin, providing evidence for CCR's involvement in the biosynthesis of both lignin types. 2D-NMR studies revealed minor changes in the H:G-ratio and consequently a largely unchanged interunit linkage distribution in the lignin polymer. However, unusual cell wall components including ferulate and unsaturated fatty acids were identified in TEs by thioacidolysis, pyrolysis-GC/MS and/or 2D-NMR in CCR-RNAi lines, providing new insights into the consequences of CCR suppression in pine. Interestingly, CCR suppression substantially promoted pyrolytic breakdown of cell wall polysaccharides, a phenotype most likely caused by the incorporation of acidic compounds into the cell wall matrix in CCR-RNAi lines.

  8. High time resolution ion temperature profile measurements on PBX

    SciTech Connect

    Gammel, G.; Kaita, R.; Fonck, R.; Jaehnig, K.; Powell, E.

    1986-05-01

    Ion temperature profiles with a time resolution of 2 to 5 ms have been measured on PBX by charge-exchange-recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and a neutral-particle charge-exchange analyzer (NPA). The sightlines of both diagnostics crossed the trajectory of a near-perpendicular heating beam, which enhanced the local neutral density (proportional to signal strength) and provided spatial resolution. The time resolution of these two independent techniques is sufficient to see sawtooth oscillations and other MHD activity. Effects of these phenomena on the toroidal rotation velocity profile, v/sub phi/(r), are clearly observed by CXRS. For example, a sharp drop in the central v/sub phi/ occurs at the sawtooth crash, followed by a linear rise during the quiescent phase. The NPA results are compared with those from CXRS.

  9. Optical center alignment technique based on inner profile measurement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakayama, Toshitaka; Yoshizawa, Toru

    2014-05-01

    Center alignment is important technique to tune up the spindle of various precision machines in manufacturing industry. Conventionally such a tool as a dial indicator has been used to adjust and to position the axis by manual operations of a technical worker. However, it is not easy to precisely control its axis. In this paper, we developed the optical center alignment technique based on inner profile measurement using a ring beam device. In this case, the center position of the cylinder hole can be determined from circular profile detected by optical sectioning method using a ring beam device. In our trials, the resolution of the center position is proved less than 10 micrometers in extreme cases. This technique is available for practical applications in machine tool industry.

  10. Ozone Profile Retrievals from GOME-2 UV/Visible Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zoogman, P.; Chance, K.; Nowlan, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    It has been shown that adding visible measurements in the Chappuis band to ultraviolet (UV) measurements in the Hartley/Huggins bands can significantly enhance retrieval sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone from backscattered solar radiances due to deeper photon penetration in the visible to the surface than in the ultraviolet. The first NASA Eearth Venture Instrument TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) instrument is being developed to measure backscattered solar radiation in two channels (~290-490 and 540-740 nm) and make atmospheric pollution measurements over North America from the Geostationary orbit; the primary purpose of including the second channel is to improve lower tropospheric ozone retrieval for air quality monitoring. However, this retrieval enhancement has yet to be solidly demonstrated from existing measurements due to the weak ozone absorption in the visible and strong interference from surface reflectance. We present retrievals from GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring and Experiment-2) UV and visible measurements using the SAO optimal estimation based ozone profile retrieval algorithm, to directly explore the retrieval improvement in lower tropospheric ozone from additional visible measurements. To reduce the retrieval interference from surface reflectance, we add characterization of surface spectral reflectance in the visible into the ozone profile algorithm based on existing surface reflectance spectra and MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) climatology. We evaluate the retrieval performance of UV/visible retrieval over the UV retrieval in terms of retrieved lower tropospheric ozone and increase in degree of free for signal (DFS) over the globe in different seasons, and we validate both retrievals against ozonesonde measurements.

  11. Gene Expression Profiling in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms After Finite Element Rupture Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Philipp; Schiele, Sandra; Ginsbach, Philip; Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar; Hakimi, Maani; Böckler, Dittmar; Lorenzo-Bermejo, Justo; Dihlmann, Susanne

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the association between local biomechanical rupture risk calculations from finite element analysis (FEA) and whole-genome profiling of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall to determine if AAA wall regions with highest and lowest estimated rupture risk show different gene expression patterns. Six patients (mean age 74 years; all men) scheduled for open surgery to treat asymptomatic AAAs (mean diameter 55.2±3.5 mm) were recruited for the study. Rupture risk profiles were estimated by FEA from preoperative computed tomography angiography data. During surgery, AAA wall samples of ~10 mm(2) were extracted from the lowest and highest rupture risk locations identified by the FEA. Twelve samples were processed for RNA extraction and subsequent whole genome expression profiling. Expression of single genes and of predefined gene groups were compared between vessel wall areas with highest and lowest predicted rupture risk. Normalized datasets comprised 15,079 gene transcripts with expression above background. In biopsies with high rupture risk, upregulation of 18 and downregulation of 18 genes was detected when compared to the low-risk counterpart. Global analysis of predefined gene groups revealed expression differences in genes associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation (p<0.001), matrix metalloproteinase activity (p<0.001), and chemokine signaling (p<0.001). Increased expression of genes involved in degrading ECM components was present in AAA wall regions with highest biomechanical stress, supporting the thesis of mechanotransduction. More experimental studies with cooperation of multicenter vascular biobanks are necessary to understand AAA etiologies and identify further parameters of FEA model complementation.

  12. Wheel-rail profile matching based on finite element method for Beijing metro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia-huan; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Xiao-dong; Zhu, Huang-shi; Zhang, Lin; Shang, Weipeng

    2017-09-01

    An instrument that measures wheel-rail appearance is used to measure the size of the wheel and rail in the section of the Baishiqiao South Station of Beijing Metro Line 6 to develop a finite element entity. Different working conditions such as axle load and traction are considered. The results show that: Under axle load, the matching performance of wheel I/rail II is improved, its contact area is the largest, and its equivalent stress and contact force are minimal; Under traction force, the matching performance of wheel I/rail II is improved, and the shear stress and equivalent stress are minimal, and thus is ideal.

  13. Serial profile of vitamins and trace elements during the acute phase of allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nannya, Yasuhito; Shinohara, Akihito; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2014-03-01

    Currently, we utilize vitamins and trace elements formulations that are not prepared specifically for patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and adequacy of this strategy has not been evaluated. We prospectively measured blood level of vitamins and trace elements in 15 patients once per week at 6 time points around the acute phase of allogeneic HSCT. We provided standard nutrition support, including administration of parenteral nutrition with vitamin and trace elements formulation in case of impairment of oral intake. Most patients had vitamin B1 deficiency from the start of preparative regimens. Vitamin C deficiency was prominent throughout the acute phase of HSCT and this was significantly associated with high inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein and ferritin. Remarkable vitamin K overload associated with administration of parenteral supplementation and ferritin overload caused by repeated transfusions was observed. Moderate deficiency of zinc was at least partially linked to gastrointestinal loss by diarrhea. We revealed several features of vitamin and trace element status in the acute phase of HSCT and provided a basis for attempts to improve the nutritional condition in HSCT recipients.

  14. Measuring Neutron Star Radii via Pulse Profile Modeling with NICER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Morsink, Sharon; Bauböck, Michi

    2016-11-01

    The Neutron-star Interior Composition Explorer is an X-ray astrophysics payload that will be placed on the International Space Station. Its primary science goal is to measure with high accuracy the pulse profiles that arise from the non-uniform thermal surface emission of rotation-powered pulsars. Modeling general relativistic effects on the profiles will lead to measuring the radii of these neutron stars and to constraining their equation of state. Achieving this goal will depend, among other things, on accurate knowledge of the source, sky, and instrument backgrounds. We use here simple analytic estimates to quantify the level at which these backgrounds need to be known in order for the upcoming measurements to provide significant constraints on the properties of neutron stars. We show that, even in the minimal-information scenario, knowledge of the background at a few percent level for a background-to-source countrate ratio of 0.2 allows for a measurement of the neutron star compactness to better than 10% uncertainty for most of the parameter space. These constraints improve further when more realistic assumptions are made about the neutron star emission and spin, and when additional information about the source itself, such as its mass or distance, are incorporated.

  15. Neutral Helium Profile Measurements in the WVU Helicon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesee, Amy; Hardin, Robert; Scime, Earl; Connor, Spencer

    2006-10-01

    We report spatially resolved measurements of excited state neutral helium density, temperature, and flow velocities in the WVU helicon plasma source (HELIX). While ion dynamics are studied extensively, neutral particle characteristics such as density and temperature are frequently neglected in low temperature plasmas and assumed to be spatially uniform. Measurement of the neutral flow is also important, specifically for researchers who use line integrated spectroscopy, since flows along the line of sight can artificially broaden the line width of emission lines. Recent work by Holland et al. on spontaneous flow shear illustrates the need for spatially resolved measurement profiles of the neutral particle parameters. Inclusion of a spatially varying ion-neutral momentum dampening parameter in theoretical models would not only give a more comprehensive understanding of the physics, but could lead to increased shear. Profile measurements were made using the 2D stage described in Hardin et al. C. Holland, J. H. Yu, A. James et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 195002 (2006). R. Hardin, X. Sun, E. Scime, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4091 (2004).

  16. Measurement of aesthetic proportions in the profile view of Koreans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jong Hwan; Jang, Yong Ju; Park, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Bong-Jae

    2009-02-01

    We have evaluated the usefulness of direct soft tissue measurements in profile photographs for determining the nasal proportions and angles of young Korean individuals and those of rhinoplasty patients, and we compared these findings with existing norms of Caucasian populations. We retrospectively compared preoperative profile measurements of nasal length, nasal tip projection, dorsal height, radix height, nasolabial angle, and nasofrontal angle in 123 patients who underwent rhinoplasty, with measurements in 21 young Korean adults. Rhinoplasty patients were grouped by preoperative diagnosis as deviated nose without saddle or hump, saddle nose, hump nose, and low radix. The young Koreans had a nasal length to nasal tip projection to dorsal height to radix height ratio of 2:0.97:0.61:0.28. Dorsal height differed significantly among groups of rhinoplasty patients. Those with low radix had the lowest dorsal and radix height, whereas those with saddle nose had the smallest nasal tip projection. The average nasolabial and nasofrontal angles were 78.5 degrees and 82.7 degrees, respectively, in young male Koreans and 126.0 degrees and 133.6 degrees, respectively, in young female Koreans. In the deviated nose group, all parameters except for nasofrontal angle were significantly changed after rhinoplasty. In the saddle nose group, nasal tip projection and dorsal height were significantly increased, whereas, in the hump nose group, nasal tip projection and nasolabial angle were significantly altered. Direct soft tissue measurement on profile photographs is useful for assessing nasal characteristics and postrhinoplasty outcomes. Compared with Caucasians, young Koreans had relatively lower dorsum and radix and more acute nasolabial angle, but similar nasofrontal angle.

  17. Elemental profiling of Noah's Ark shell (Arca noae, Linnaeus, 1758) by plasma optical spectrometry and chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    Kobelja, Kristina; Nemet, Ivan; Župan, Ivan; Čulin, Jelena; Rončević, Sanda

    2016-12-01

    Determination of metal content in biominerals provides essential information with respect to relations between biomineralization processes and environmental status. Mussels are species that have a great potential as bio-marker species and therefore, they are in the focus of numerous biomineralization and ecological studies. In this study, elemental profile of mussel shell of Noah's Ark (Arca noe, Linnaeus, 1758), which inhabit eastern Adriatic Sea was obtained by determination of seventeen elements content using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Shell samples were collected from marine protected area and from marine shipping route in eastern Adriatic Sea. The accuracy of applied analytical procedure based on microwave decomposition of shell samples was tested by use of reference materials of limestone and by matrix-matched standards. By aid of chemometric methods, the elemental profile along with variability of elements content of shell was obtained. The impact of different environment on elements content was established by use of multivariate statistical PCA method. Discernment between two groups of samples was manifested. Among results of main, minor and trace elements content, the last one which denoted to Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, and Mn was expressed as principal distinctive feature of shell samples collected from different sampling sites. Elemental profiling of mussel shell Noah's Ark provides novel insight in species status as well as in environmental status on the observed locations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Composite measures for profiling hospitals on bariatric surgery performance

    PubMed Central

    Dimick, Justin B.; Birkmeyer, Nancy J.; Finks, Jonathan F.; Share, David A.; English, Wayne J.; Carlin, Arthur M.; Birkmeyer, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to develop a novel composite measure for profiling hospital performance with bariatric surgery. Design, Setting, and Patients Using clinical registry data from the Michigan Bariatric Surgery Collaborative (MBSC), we studied all patients undergoing bariatric surgery from 2008 to 2010. For gastric bypass surgery, we used empirical Bayes techniques to create a composite measure by combining several measures, including serious complications, reoperations, and readmissions; hospital and surgeon volume; and outcomes with other, related procedures. Hospitals were ranked based on 2008-09 and placed in one of 3 groups: 3-star (top third), 2-star (middle third), and 1-star (bottom third). We assessed how well these ratings predicted outcomes in the next year (2010), compared to other widely used measures. Main Outcome Measures Risk-adjusted serious complications. Results Composite measures explained a larger proportion of hospital-level variation in serious complication rates with gastric bypass than other measures. For example, the composite measure explained 89% of the variation compared to only 28% for risk-adjusted complication rates alone. Composite measures also appeared better at predicting future performance compared to individual measures. When ranked on the composite measure, 1-star hospitals (bottom 20%), had 2-fold higher serious complication rates (4.6% vs. 2.4%; OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.5) compared to 3-star (top 20%) hospitals. Differences in serious complications rates between 1-star and 3-star hospitals were much smaller when hospitals were ranked using serious complications (4.0% vs. 2.7%; OR 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-2.9) and hospital volume (3.3% vs. 3.2%; OR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.4 to 1.7) Conclusions Composite measures are much better at explaining hospital-level variation in serious complications and predicting future performance than other approaches. In this preliminary study, it appears that such composite measures may be better than existing

  19. Effects of Carbon Depth Profile on INS Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielopolski, L.

    2007-12-01

    Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) is a new system for measuring carbon in soil in situ that is non-destructive. In addition the INS can be used in stationary or scanning modes of operation enabling type of measurements not possible till now. It is based on counting 4.44 MeV characteristic gamma rays emitted from carbon nuclei undergoing inelastic neutron scattering with fast, 14 MeV, neutrons. Because of the attenuation of the neutrons, on their way in, and of the gamma rays, on their way out, the large volume of about 0.3 m3 sampled by the INS system causes it to respond preferentially to carbon atoms located near the surface. Thus, the carbon signal depends on the variations in the carbon depth profile; however, this dependence is reduced by an averaging process resulting from the large footprint of about 1 m2 of the INS system. The encountered variability in the depth profiles on small 30 cm scale and on large field size scale is presented for various fields. We also show results of Monte Carlo simulations of the INS response to various carbon depth profiles. Experimentally we show that depending on the field conditions, i.e. profound variability in the carbon depth profile or extensive changes in the carbon distribution in the field, the scanning results with the INS system may differ from the mean value calculated from few INS discrete stationary measurements. Since the static measurements are analogous to conventional chemical analysis using soil cores, it raises the question which type of measurement is more representative of the field carbon content; the discrete chemical analysis using geostatistical considerations or continuous field scanning made possible with the INS system. Clearly the new INS methodology introduces novel capabilities for soil carbon analysis not possible with the conventional approach of dry combustion. The advantages and pitfalls of the INS system with the need to defining practical new calibration concepts for it are discussed in

  20. Atmospheric Temperature Profile Measurements Using Mobile High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razenkov, Ilya I.; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    2016-06-01

    The High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) designed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison discriminates between Mie and Rayleigh backscattering [1]. It exploits the Doppler effect caused by thermal motion of molecules, which broadens the spectrum of the transmitted laser light. That allows for absolute calibration of the lidar and measurements of the aerosol volume backscatter coefficient. Two iodine absorption filters with different absorption line widths (a regular iodine vapor filter and Argon buffered iodine filter) allow for atmospheric temperature profile measurements. The sensitivity of the measured signal-to-air temperature ratio is around 0.14%/K. The instrument uses a shared telescope transmitter-receiver design and operates in eyesafe mode (the product of laser average power and telescope aperture equals 0.1 Wm2 at 532 nm).

  1. Development of a new generation of optical slope measuring profiler

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Takacs, Peter Z.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Assoufid, Lahsen; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas

    2010-09-16

    A collaboration, including all DOE synchrotron labs, industrial vendors of x-ray optics, and with active participation of the HBZ-BESSY-II optics group has been established to work together on a new slope measuring profiler -- the optical slope measuring system (OSMS). The slope measurement accuracy of the instrument is expected to be<50 nrad for the current and future metrology of x-ray optics for the next generation of light sources. The goals were to solidify a design that meets the needs of mirror specifications and also be affordable; and to create a common specification for fabrication of a multi-functional translation/scanning (MFTS) system for the OSMS. This was accomplished by two collaborative meetings at the ALS (March 26, 2010) and at the APS (May 6, 2010).

  2. Measurement of photonic nanojet generated by square-profile microstep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafeev, S. S.; Kotlyar, V. V.

    2015-03-01

    It was numerically and experimentally shown that square-profile microsteps with width of 0.4 μm, 0.5 μm, 0.6 μm, 0.8 μm and height of 500 nm illuminated by linearly polarized laser light with wavelength λ = 633 nm formed near its' surface photonic nanojets with intensity that is 6 times higher than the intensity of incident light. Experimentally measured diameters of photonic nanojets were equal to 0.44λ, 0.43λ, 0.39λ and 0.47λ (less than the diffraction limit 0.51λ).

  3. Measurement of the lunar neutron density profile. [Apollo 17 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolum, D. S.; Burnett, D. S.; Furst, M.; Weiss, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    An in situ measurement of the lunar neutron density from 20 to 400 g/sq cm depth between the lunar surface was made by the Apollo 17 Lunar Neutron Probe Experiment using particle tracks produced by the B10(n, alpha)Li7 reaction. Both the absolute magnitude and depth profile of the neutron density are in good agreement with past theoretical calculations. The effect of cadmium absorption on the neutron density and in the relative Sm149 to Gd157 capture rates obtained experimentally implies that the true lunar Gd157 capture rate is about one half of that calculated theoretically.

  4. The assessment of geometrical effects on Compton profile measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gigante, G.E.; Hanson, A.L.

    1988-10-01

    Energy dispersive measurements of Compton scattered x rays for analyses have become important with the development of high efficiency, high energy resolution detectors for 50--200 keV x rays. The Compton scattered x ray peak is an inherently broad peak resulting in part from the momentum distribution of the target electrons, referred to as the Compton profile. Hence, information from the width of the Compton peak can be used to study the momentum distribution. The actual peak width also depends on geometrical and attenuation effects. We have begun to assess the geometrical effects and present some of the results. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  5. LA-ICP-MS depth profiling perspective on cleaning protocols for elemental analyses in planktic foraminifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Lael; Spero, Howard J.; Russell, Ann D.; Fehrenbacher, Jennifer S.

    2013-08-01

    Measurements of trace metal ratios in foraminiferal calcite are routinely used to reconstruct paleoceanographic conditions. Analyses using solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) require dissolution of the entire foraminifer shell. The potential exists for contamination from adherent clays, mineralized coatings, and other diagenetic components that confound the biogenic trace metal signal. We present results from a cleaning experiment on fossil specimens of the planktic foraminifer Orbulina universa that were cracked into several shell fragments and subjected to different cleaning protocols. We use laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) depth profiling to evaluate the effects of reductive, oxidative, and chelating (diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid) cleaning protocols on shell Mg/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios. Using the natural pattern of intrashell Mg/Ca heterogeneity exhibited by O. universa, we demonstrate that reductive and oxidative cleaning can dissolve shell calcite from available surfaces, although intrashell Mg/Ca minima and maxima are unaffected. High-resolution depth profiles can be used to identify areas of heterogeneous intrashell Ba/Ca, which can be excluded from computations of whole-shell Ba/Ca. The size and density of shell pores plays a major role in the degree of contamination from sedimentary material. We demonstrate an approach for computing whole-shell Me/Ca ratios from LA-ICP-MS depth profiles that accounts for potential contamination and diagenetic overprinting.

  6. Precision Measurements of Solar Energetic Particle Elemental Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, H.; Stone, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Data from the Cosmic Ray Subsystem (CRS) aboard the Voyager 1 and 2 spaceraft were used to determined, solar energetic particle abundances or upper limits for all elements with Z 30 from a combined set of 10 solar flares during the 1977 to 1982 time period. Statistically meaningful abundances were determined for several rare elements including P, C1, K, Ti and Mn, while the precision of the mean abundances for the more abundant elements was proved. When compared to solar photospheric spectroscopic abundances, these new SEP abundances more clearly exhibit the step-function dependence on first ionization potential previously reported.

  7. Measurement of ion profiles in TFTR neutral beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; O`Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1992-02-01

    A technique is described whereby the ion dumps inside the TFTR Neutral Beam Test Stand were used to measure thermal profiles of the full-, half-, and third-energy ions. 136 thermocouples were installed on the full-energy ion dump, allowing full beam contours. Additional linear arrays across the widths of the half- and third-energy ion dumps provided a measure of the shape, in the direction parallel to the grid rails, of the half- and third-energy ions, and, hence, of the molecular ions extracted from the source. As a result of these measurements it was found that the magnet was more weakly focusing, by a factor of two, than expected, explaining past overheating of the full-energy ion dump. Hollow profiles on the half- and third-energy ion dumps were observed, suggesting that extraction of D{sub 2}+ and D{sub 3}+ are primarily from the edge of the ion source. If extraction of half-energy ions is from the edge of the accelerator, a divergence parallel to the grid rails of 0.6{degrees}{plus_minus}0.1{degrees} results. It is postulated that a nonuniform gas profile near the accelerator is the cause of the hollow partial-energy ion profiles; the pressure being depressed over the accelerator by particles passing through this highly transparent structure. Primary electrons reaching the accelerator produce nonuniform densities of D{sub 2}+ through the ionization of this across the full-energy dump was examined as a means of reducing the power density. By unbalancing the current in the two coils of the magnet, on a shot by shot basis, by up to 2:1 ratio, it was possible to move the centerline of the full-energy ion beam sideways by {approximately}12.5 cm. The adoption of such a technique, with a ramp of the coil imbalance from 2:1 to 1:2 over a beam pulse, could reduce the power density by a factor of {ge}1.5.

  8. Measurement of ion profiles in TFTR neutral beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1992-02-01

    A technique is described whereby the ion dumps inside the TFTR Neutral Beam Test Stand were used to measure thermal profiles of the full-, half-, and third-energy ions. 136 thermocouples were installed on the full-energy ion dump, allowing full beam contours. Additional linear arrays across the widths of the half- and third-energy ion dumps provided a measure of the shape, in the direction parallel to the grid rails, of the half- and third-energy ions, and, hence, of the molecular ions extracted from the source. As a result of these measurements it was found that the magnet was more weakly focusing, by a factor of two, than expected, explaining past overheating of the full-energy ion dump. Hollow profiles on the half- and third-energy ion dumps were observed, suggesting that extraction of D{sub 2}+ and D{sub 3}+ are primarily from the edge of the ion source. If extraction of half-energy ions is from the edge of the accelerator, a divergence parallel to the grid rails of 0.6{degrees}{plus minus}0.1{degrees} results. It is postulated that a nonuniform gas profile near the accelerator is the cause of the hollow partial-energy ion profiles; the pressure being depressed over the accelerator by particles passing through this highly transparent structure. Primary electrons reaching the accelerator produce nonuniform densities of D{sub 2}+ through the ionization of this across the full-energy dump was examined as a means of reducing the power density. By unbalancing the current in the two coils of the magnet, on a shot by shot basis, by up to 2:1 ratio, it was possible to move the centerline of the full-energy ion beam sideways by {approximately}12.5 cm. The adoption of such a technique, with a ramp of the coil imbalance from 2:1 to 1:2 over a beam pulse, could reduce the power density by a factor of {ge}1.5.

  9. Normalized velocity profiles of field-measured turbidity currents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Jingping

    2010-01-01

    Multiple turbidity currents were recorded in two submarine canyons with maximum speed as high as 280 cm/s. For each individual turbidity current measured at a fixed station, its depth-averaged velocity typically decreased over time while its thickness increased. Some turbidity currents gained in speed as they traveled downcanyon, suggesting a possible self-accelerating process. The measured velocity profiles, first in this high resolution, allowed normalizations with various schemes. Empirical functions, obtained from laboratory experiments whose spatial and time scales are two to three orders of magnitude smaller, were found to represent the field data fairly well. The best similarity collapse of the velocity profiles was achieved when the streamwise velocity and the elevation were normalized respectively by the depth-averaged velocity and the turbidity current thickness. This normalization scheme can be generalized to an empirical function Y = exp(–αXβ) for the jet region above the velocity maximum. Confirming theoretical arguments and laboratory results of other studies, the field turbidity currents are Froude-supercritical.

  10. Progress in measuring detonation wave profiles in PBX9501

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, R.L.; Sheffield, S.A.; Alcon, R.R.

    1998-12-31

    The authors have measured detonation wave profiles in PBX9501 (95 wt% HMX and 5 wt% binders) using VISAR. Planar detonations were produced by impacting the explosive with projectiles launched in a 72 mm bore gas gun. Particle velocity wave profiles were measured at the explosive/window interface using two VISARs with different fringe constants. Windows with very thin vapor deposited aluminum mirrors were used for all experiments. PMMA windows provided an undermatch, and LiF (Lithium Fluoride) windows provided an overmatch to the explosive, reacted and unreacted. While the present experiments do not have adequate time resolution to adequately resolve the ZND spike condition, they do constrain it to lie between 38.7 and 53.4 Gpa or 2.4 and 3.3 km/s. Accurate knowledge of the CJ state places the reaction zone length at 35 {+-} 12 ns ({approx} 0.3 mm). The present experiments do not show any effect of the window on the reaction zone; both window materials result in the same reaction zone length.

  11. Pre-correction of projected gratings for surface profile measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cuiru; Lu, Hua

    2008-11-01

    This paper discusses errors caused by unequal grating pitch in applying the phase-shifted digital grating projection method for object profile measurement. To address the related issues, a new scheme is proposed to effectively improve the uniformity of the projected grating pitch across the object surface with no additional hardware cost. The improvement is mainly realized via a grating pitch pre-correction algorithm assisted by Digital Speckle/Image Correlation (DSC/DIC). DIC is utilized to accurately determine the surface grating pitch variation when an originally equal-pitched grating pattern is slant projected to the surface. With the actual pitch distribution function determined, a pre-corrected grating with unequal pitch is generated and projected, and the iterative algorithm reaches a constant pitched surface grating. The mapping relationship between the object surface profile (or out-of-plane displacement) and the fringe phase changes is obtained with a real-time subtraction based calibration. A quality guide phase unwrapping method is also adopted in the fringe processing. Finally, a virtual reference phase plane obtained by a 3-point plane fitting algorithm is subtracted to eliminate the carrier phase. The study shows that a simple optical system implemented with the mentioned improvements remarkably increase the accuracy and the efficiency of the measurement.

  12. Estimation of road profile variability from measured vehicle responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauriat, W.; Mattrand, C.; Gayton, N.; Beakou, A.; Cembrzynski, T.

    2016-05-01

    When assessing the statistical variability of fatigue loads acting throughout the life of a vehicle, the question of the variability of road roughness naturally arises, as both quantities are strongly related. For car manufacturers, gathering information on the environment in which vehicles evolve is a long and costly but necessary process to adapt their products to durability requirements. In the present paper, a data processing algorithm is proposed in order to estimate the road profiles covered by a given vehicle, from the dynamic responses measured on this vehicle. The algorithm based on Kalman filtering theory aims at solving a so-called inverse problem, in a stochastic framework. It is validated using experimental data obtained from simulations and real measurements. The proposed method is subsequently applied to extract valuable statistical information on road roughness from an existing load characterisation campaign carried out by Renault within one of its markets.

  13. Measurement of multipath delay profile in land mobile satellite channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikegami, Tetsushi; Arakaki, Yoshiya; Wakana, Hiromitsu; Suzuki, Ryutaro

    1993-01-01

    Mobile satellite communication channel has been evaluated mainly with fading statistics of signal. When bandwidth of transmitting signal becomes wider, frequency selectivity of fading becomes a significant factor of the channel. Channel characteristics, not only signal variation but multipath delay spread should be evaluated. A multipath measurement system is proposed and developed for mobile satellite applications. With this system and ETS-V satellite, multipath delay profiles are measured in various environments including Tokyo metropolis and Sapporo city at 1.5 GHz. Results show that the maximum excess delay is within 1 microsec and the maximum delay spread is 0.2 microsecs at elevation angles of 40 to 47 degrees. In wideband signal transmission of about 1 MHz and more, designers should consider the effect of selective fading due to the multipath of land mobile satellite channel.

  14. Excimer laser drilling of bone: shock wave and profile measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviridov, Alexander P.; Dmitriev, A. K.; Karoutis, Athanase D.; Christodoulou, P. N.; Helidonis, Emmanuel S.

    1995-01-01

    The shock wave generation in stapes models during laser ear surgery is experimentally investigated. The intensity absolute measurements of shock waves generated by excimer laser in the treated bone are performed. It is shown that the roughness of the crater bottom profile depends on the laser beam fluence. It is revealed that in the pulse repetition regime of bone drilling there exists an optimal laser beam fluence, which provides as high a rate of drilling as the smooth bottom of the crater. For ArF and KrF excimer lasers the optimal fluence is equal to about 0.4 - 0.5 J/cm2 at the repetition rate 5 Hz. The amplitude of shock wave induced at these parameters of laser beam in the back side of the bone sample of 1.1 mm thickness was measured to be about 25 bar and the corresponding pressure gradient 0.35 bar/micrometers .

  15. The profile of the rare earth elements in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jon; Haley, Brian

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed the dissolved rare earth element (REE) content of three water column profiles (two shelf sites and one deep basin site) in the Canada Basin in order to better constrain the behavior of REEs in the Arctic Ocean. Dissolved concentrations of the REEs in the surface are 1.3-1.9 times higher than deep water (>500 m) concentrations, which are constant with depth (La: 19-23 pM, Nd: 14-17 pM, Yb: 4.0-4.3 pM). The dominant source of REEs to the surface waters of the Canada Basin is most likely Pacific water flowing through the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea and/or the Mackenzie River. Dissolved REEs in the intermediate and deep waters are constant and appear to behave conservatively, allowing us to investigate this aspect of REE behavior in the oceans. Calculated deep ocean residence times of the REEs in the Canada Basin range from 450 to 700 years and match the age of these waters. We postulate that these values are likely applicable to global deep ocean reservoirs and that observed deviations from this conservative value can help to constrain nonconservative processes acting on the REEs.

  16. Preschool children's performance on Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C).

    PubMed

    Gibbon, Fiona E; Smyth, Heather

    2013-07-01

    Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C) has not been used widely to assess prosodic abilities of preschool children. This study was therefore aimed at investigating typically developing 4-year-olds' performance on PEPS-C. PEPS-C was presented to 30 typically developing 4-year-olds recruited in southern Ireland. Children were judged to have completed the test if they produced analysable responses to >95% of the items. The children's scores were compared with data from typically developing 5-6-year-olds. The majority (83%) of 4-year-olds were able to complete the test. The children scored at chance or weak ability levels on all subtests. The 4-year-olds had lower scores than 5-6-year-olds in all subtests, apart from one, with the difference reaching statistical significance in 8 out of 12 subtests. The results indicate that PEPS-C could be a valuable tool for assessing prosody in young children with typical development and some groups of young children with communication disorders.

  17. Profiles of non-essential trace elements in ewe and goat milk and their yoghurt, Torba yoghurt and whey.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Hasan; Güler, Zehra; Park, Young W

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the profiles of non-essential trace elements in ewes' and goats' milk and manufactured products, such as yoghurt, torba yoghurt and whey, as well as changes in trace element content during Torba yoghurt-making processes. Concentrations of non-essential trace elements in ewe (Awassi) and goat (Damascus) milk and their yoghurt, torba yoghurt and whey were quantitatively determined by simultaneous inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), after microwave digestion. Aluminium, antimony, arsenic, boron, beryllium, cadmium, nickel, lead, silver, titanium, thallium and vanadium were determined for both types of milk and their products. Barium was not detected in goats' milk or their products. Among all trace elements, boron was the most abundant and beryllium was least present in milk and the manufactured products. The results showed that goats' and ewes' milk and their manufactured products may be a source of 13 non-essential trace elements.

  18. VisibleWind: wind profile measurements at low altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Tom; Bradford, Bill; Marchant, Alan; Apedaile, Tom; Wright, Cordell

    2009-09-01

    VisibleWindTM is developing an inexpensive rapid response system, for accurately characterizing wind shear and small scale wind phenomena in the boundary layer and for prospecting suitable locations for wind power turbines. The ValidWind system can also collect reliable "ground truth" for other remote wind sensors. The system employs small (0.25 m dia.) lightweight balloons and a tracker consisting of an Impulse 200 XL laser rangefinder coupled to a PC for automated data recording. Experiments on balloon trajectories demonstrate that the laser detection of range (+/- 0.5 m), together with measured azimuth and altitude, is an inexpensive, convenient, and capable alternative to other wind tracking methods. The maximum detection range has been increased to 2200 meters using micro-corner-cube retroreflector tape on balloons. Low power LEDs enable nighttime tracking. To avoid large balloon gyrations about the mean trajectory, we use balloons having low ascent rates and subcritical Reynolds numbers. Trajectory points are typically recorded every 4 - 7 seconds. Atmospheric features observed under conditions of inversions or "light and variable winds" include abrupt onsets of shear at altitudes of 100-250 m, velocity changes of order 1-3 m/s within layers of 10-20 m thickness, and veering of the wind direction by 180 degrees or more as altitude increases from 300 to 500 m. We have previously reported comparisons of balloon-based wind profiles with the output of a co-located sodar. Even with the Impulse rangefinder, our system still requires a "man in the loop" to track the balloon. A future system enhancement will automate balloon tracking, so that laser returns are obtained automatically at 1 Hz. While balloon measurements of large-scale, high altitude wind profiles are well known, this novel measurement system provides high-resolution, real-time characterization of the fluctuating local wind fields at the bottom of the boundary layer where wind power turbines and other

  19. Diagnostic developments for velocity and temperature measurements in uni-element rocket environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippart, Kenneth D.

    1995-08-01

    Velocity and temperature measurements were taken within a uni-element rocket combustion chamber for hydrogen-oxygen propellants using laser Doppler velocimetry, thermocouples, and a thermocouple-based temperature rake developed for this effort. Velocity and turbulence profiles were obtained for firings with a gaseous oxygen (GO2)/gaseous hydrogen (GH2) coaxial shear injector at axial locations of 1.6 mm (0.063 in.), 6.4 mm (0.25 in.), 12.7 mm (0.5 in.), 25.4 mm (1 in.) and 50.8 mm (2 in.). Aluminum oxide particles of various sizes seeded the flow in an attempt to explain the discrepancies. While cold-flow simulations were promising, hot-fire results for the various particles were virtually identical and still lower than earlier data. The hot-firings were self-consistent and question the reproducibility of the previous data. Velocity measurements were made closer to the injector than the preceding work. Asymmetries were noted in all profiles. The shear layer displayed high turbulence levels. The central flow near the injector resembled turbulent pipe flow. Recirculation zones existed at the chamber walls and became smaller as the flow evolved downstream. The combusting flow region expanded with increasing axial distance. A thermocouple-instrumented coaxial injector was fired with GO2/GH2 propellants. The injector exit plane boundary conditions were determined. The feasibility of a thermocouple-based temperature rake was established. Tests at three axial positions for air/GM2 firings revealed asymmetric profiles. Temperatures increased with increasing axial distance.

  20. An analysis of the origin of differences between measured and simulated fields produced by a 15-element ultrasound phased array.

    PubMed

    Aitkenhead, Adam H; Mills, John A; Wilson, Adrian J

    2010-03-01

    Modeling provides an attractive approach for the design of phased array ultrasound transducers for hyperthermia. However, measurements on physical transducers reveal differences from the idealized field profiles predicted by simulation. In this paper we report a method of analyzing the origins of these differences. The measured performance of a 15-element sparse phased array is described and compared with simulated fields calculated using the point source method. It highlighted two notable differences: First, that the focal region was located closer to the surface of the physical transducer than in the simulated fields; and second, that numerous intensity maxima were present between the surface of the transducer and the focal zone in the experimental data, but not in the simulated fields. We identified six factors that could potentially affect the field but were not taken into account by the default simulations, and we performed a sensitivity analysis on these: (i) Variation in the amplitude of the output from each element, (ii) the presence of square-wave harmonics in the drive signals, (iii) nonpistonlike vibration of elements, (iv) quantization of the applied phases, (v) errors in the spatial positioning of each element; and (vi) interelement cross-coupling. Both the independent impact of each factor and the interactions between multiple factors were analyzed by using a full-factorial experimental design composed of 64 (2(6)) simulations. The results indicated that nonpistonlike motion of elements is likely to be the primary cause of differences between the measured and modelled fields. Determination of the precise vibrational modes of elements in an array is complex and would require full finite element analysis. However, the simple vibrational mode considered within the present work, corresponding to the addition of a surface Rayleigh wave originating at the element center and propagating radially, produced simulation results that were in good agreement with

  1. Development of a probe for inner profile measurement and flaw detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Toru; Wakayama, Toshitaka; Kamakura, Yoshihisa

    2011-08-01

    It is one of the important necessities to precisely measure the inner diameter and/or the inner profile of pipes, tubes and other objects similar in shape. Especially in mechanical engineering field, there are many requests from automobile industry because the inner surface of engine blocks and other die casts are strongly required to be inspected and measured by non-contact methods (not by the naked eyes inspection using a borescope). If the inner diameter is large enough like water pipes or drain pipes, complicated and large equipment may be applicable. However, small pipes with a diameter ranging from 10mm to 100mm are difficult to be inspected by such a large instrument as is used for sewers inspection. And we have proposed an instrument which has no moving elements such as a rotating mirror or a prism for scanning a beam. Our measurement method is based on optical sectioning using triangulation. This optically sectioned profile of an inner wall of pipe-like objects is analyzed to produce numerical data of inner diameter or profile. Here, we report recent development of the principle and applications of the optical instrument with a simple and compact configuration. In addition to profile measurement, we found flaws and defects on the inner wall were also detected by using the similar principle. Up to now, we have developed probes with the diameter of 8mm to 25mm for small size objects and another probe (80 mm in diameter) for such a larger container with the dimensional size of 600mm.

  2. Surface profile measurement using spatially dispersed short coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mothana A.; Martin, Haydn; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2014-04-01

    Improved online techniques for surface profile measurement can be beneficial in high/ultra-precision manufacturing, in terms of enabling manufacture and reducing costs. This paper introduces a spatially dispersed short-coherence interferometer sourced by a super luminescent diode. This technique uses a broadband light source, which is spatially dispersed across a surface using a reflective grating and a scan lens. In this way, the phase data pertaining to surface at height is spectrally encoded. The light reflected from the surface is interfered with a reference beam in a Michelson interferometer, after which the resulting fringes are interrogated by a spectrometer. Phase shifting interferometry is used to extract the spectrally encoded phase information by analysing four captured frames using a Carré algorithm procedure; in this way, surface height can be determined across a profile on a sample. The short coherent light utilized in this interferometric technique means it has the potential for an application as a remote probe through an optical fibre link. This paper describes the concept of a spatially dispersed short coherence interferometer and provides some of the initial experimental results.

  3. Elements of Information Inquiry, Evolution of Models & Measured Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel; Baker, Katie

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 Paula Montgomery, founding editor of School Library Media Activities Monthly and former branch chief of school media services for the Maryland State Department of Education, published a guide to teaching information inquiry. Her staff also illustrated the elements of information inquiry as a recursive cycle with interaction among the…

  4. Detection of Additional Elements from the Mars Odyssey GRS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, L. G.; Reedy, R. C.; Starr, R. D.; Kerry, K. E.; Boynton, W. V.

    2008-03-01

    Analysis of data by the Odyssey GRS has produced compositional maps for six elements. Analysis has produced preliminary results for Al, Ca, S, and U that may be mapped at lower resolutions. Additional results for Na, Mn, and Cr are more difficult, but possible.

  5. Precision Measurement of Transition Matrix Elements via Light Shift Cancellation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    two zeros, so that simultaneous fits to both zeros accurately determine R6p, independent of the other pa - rameters. With the addition of sufficiently...data set. The extracted matrix elements are insensitive to the exclusion value. [35] U. Volz and H. Schmoranzer, Phys. Scr. T65, 48 (1996). [36] See

  6. On Machine Capacitance Dimensional and Surface Profile Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resnick, Ralph

    1993-01-01

    A program was awarded under the Air Force Machine Tool Sensor Improvements Program Research and Development Announcement to develop and demonstrate the use of a Capacitance Sensor System including Capacitive Non-Contact Analog Probe and a Capacitive Array Dimensional Measurement System to check the dimensions of complex shapes and contours on a machine tool or in an automated inspection cell. The manufacturing of complex shapes and contours and the subsequent verification of those manufactured shapes is fundamental and widespread throughout industry. The critical profile of a gear tooth; the overall shape of a graphite EDM electrode; the contour of a turbine blade in a jet engine; and countless other components in varied applications possess complex shapes that require detailed and complex inspection procedures. Current inspection methods for complex shapes and contours are expensive, time-consuming, and labor intensive.

  7. Reconstruction of sub-femtosecond longitudinal bunch profile measurement data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weikum, M. K.; Andonian, G.; Assmann, R. W.; Dorda, U.; Sheng, Z. M.

    2017-07-01

    With a current trend towards shorter electron beams with lengths on the order of few femtoseconds (fs) to sub-femtoseconds both in conventional and novel accelerator communities, the need for diagnostics with equivalent attosecond resolution is increasing. The proposed design for a sub-femtosecond diagnostic by Andonian et al. (2011, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 14 072802) is one such example that combines a laser deflector with an RF deflecting cavity to streak the electron beam in the horizontal and vertical direction. In this paper, we present a tool for the reconstruction of the longitudinal beam profile from this diagnostic data, which can be used both for the analysis of planned experiments and testing of different beam scenarios with respect to their specific setup requirements. Applying this method, the usefulness of the device for measurements in a number of example scenarios, including plasma-accelerated and ultrashort RF-accelerated electron beams, is discussed.

  8. On machine capacitance dimensional and surface profile measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resnick, Ralph

    1993-02-01

    A program was awarded under the Air Force Machine Tool Sensor Improvements Program Research and Development Announcement to develop and demonstrate the use of a Capacitance Sensor System including Capacitive Non-Contact Analog Probe and a Capacitive Array Dimensional Measurement System to check the dimensions of complex shapes and contours on a machine tool or in an automated inspection cell. The manufacturing of complex shapes and contours and the subsequent verification of those manufactured shapes is fundamental and widespread throughout industry. The critical profile of a gear tooth; the overall shape of a graphite EDM electrode; the contour of a turbine blade in a jet engine; and countless other components in varied applications possess complex shapes that require detailed and complex inspection procedures. Current inspection methods for complex shapes and contours are expensive, time-consuming, and labor intensive.

  9. Weathering of granodioritic crust, long-term storage of elements in weathering profiles, and petrogenesis of siliciclastic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesbitt, H. Wayne; Markovics, G.

    1997-04-01

    The bulk composition and mineralogy of the Toorongo Granodiorite, Australia, are similar to average upper continental crust (AUCC). Weathering characteristics of the Toorongo profile consequently provide insight into large-scale chemical weathering of the upper crust. In situ weathered materials of the profile do not reflect parent granodiorite composition in quartz-plagioclase-K-feldspar (Q-P-K) or in quartz-feldspar-rock fragment (Q-F-L) compositional space. Intensive in situ weathering precludes sands, derived from mature weathering profiles through erosion, from reflecting their provenance. Where intensive chemical weathering has occurred, clay minerals and oxyhydroxides of the profile, and by inference muds derived therefrom, contain much more chemical information about provenance than do associated sands. Actinides, rare earth elements (REEs), many transition metals, and metalloids have accumulated in deep parts of the weathering profile at concentrations much greater than observed in the fresh granodiorite. Mass balance considerations require the bulk of these elements to have been derived from previously weathered, and now eroded, granodiorite. These elements were, and are, continually cycled from the intensely weathered uppermost soil zone to deeper, less weathered, zones of the profile where they accumulate. The profile therefore represents a large, continental elemental storage reservoir, the storage capacity of which has increased over time. Wherever erosion is sufficiently slow and chemical weathering sufficiently rapid, mature weathering profiles may become large, long-term storage reservoirs for actinides, REEs, and many other elements. The total REE contents of extremely weathered soil material are somewhat less than in the parent granodiorite, but they are enriched twofold to threefold in the zone of intermediate weathering relative to parent. Similar variations in total REEs are observed in some muds when normalized to their source (AUCC). These

  10. Computer programs for optical dendrometer measurements of standing tree profiles

    Treesearch

    Jacob R. Beard; Thomas G. Matney; Emily B. Schultz

    2015-01-01

    Tree profile equations are effective volume predictors. Diameter data for building these equations are collected from felled trees using diameter tapes and calipers or from standing trees using optical dendrometers. Developing and implementing a profile function from the collected data is a tedious and error prone task. This study created a computer program, Profile...

  11. Discrimination among spawning concentrations of Lake Superior lake herring based on trace element profiles in sagittae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Shoesmith, John A.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1996-01-01

    Little is known about the stock structure of lake herring Coregonus artedi in Lake Superior, and recent increases in harvestable stock sizes has led to expanded exploitation in some areas. Research on marine teleosts has demonstrated that chemical differences in sagittal otoliths can be used for identification of fish stocks. We used plasma emission spectrophotometry to measure the concentrations of 10 trace elements in the sagittal otoliths from lake herring captured at eight spawning sites in Lake Superior and from Little Star Lake, an inland lake outside the Lake Superior basin. Discriminant function analysis indicated that elemental concentrations provided site-specific information but that considerable overlap existed among some locations, especially those in western Lake Superior. Correct classification rates varied from 12.0% to 86.1% and were generally higher for spawning locations from embayments in eastern Lake Superior and for the outgroup population from Little Star Lake. The results presented here demonstrate the potential usefulness of this technique for strictly freshwater species, especially those that live in highly oligotrophic waters such as Lake Superior.

  12. Temperature Profile Measurements During Heat Treatment of BSCCO 2212 Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Tollestrup, Alvin; /Fermilab

    2011-04-14

    The temperature profile of two different BSCCO 2212 coils has been analyzed. The profiles are obtained from thermocouples imbedded in the windings during the heat treatment that activates the 2212. The melting and freezing of the 2212 is clearly observed. A model that describes the data and can be used to guide the processing of new coils has been developed. We have obtained the thermal history of two BSCCO coils, one from NHMFL (1) that had 10 layers of 1 mm diameter wire with 0.15 mm insulation and a second coil from OST that had 24 layers with similar insulation and conductor size. Both coils had thermocouples imbedded in the windings and excellent recordings of the temperature over the whole reaction cycle were available for analysis. There are several features that we will address in this note. Measurements have shown that the I{sub c} of the conductor is a sensitive function of its thermal history. This brings up the question of the absolute accuracy of the thermometry in the range around 882 C, the MP of 2212. The reference for the treatment profile is really related to this MP and to small deviations around it. Since the heat of fusion of 2212 is rather large, it generates a clear signal during the melting and cooling transition that automatically generates the relative temperature markers. The physics is the same as the way ice in water maintains an isothermal environment until it is all melted. A related question is the thermal response time of the coil package. The temperature cycles that are being used to optimize strand and small coils can have rapid changes easily implemented whereas a large coil may have such a large thermal time constant that the optimum cycle may not be attainable. A simple analytical model that works well for small solenoids has been developed and an ANSYS (5) program that works for larger coils with more complicated geometry has been set up but will not be discussed in this note.

  13. Analysis of the laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process through experimental measurement and finite element modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, Alexander Jay

    The objective in this work is to provide rigourous experimental measurements to aid in the development of laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing (AM). A specialized enclosed instrumented measurement system is designed to provide in situ experimental measurements of temperature and distortion. Experiments include comparisons of process parameters, materials and LPBF machines. In situ measurements of distortion and temperature made throughout the build process highlight inter-layer distortion effects previously undocumented for laser powder bed fusion. Results from these experiments are also be implemented in the development and validation of finite element models of the powder bed build process. Experimental analysis is extended from small-scale to larger part-scale builds where experimental post-build measurements are used in analysis of distortion profiles. Experimental results provided from this study are utilized in the validation of a finite element model capable of simulating production scale parts. The validated finite element model is then implemented in the analysis of the part to provide information regarding the distortion evolution process. A combination of experimental measurements and simulation results are used to identify the mechanism that results in the measured distortion profile for this geometry. Optimization of support structure primarily focuses on the minimization of material use and scan time, but no information regarding failure criteria for support structure is available. Tensile test samples of LPBF built support structure are designed, built, and tested to provide measurements of mechanical properties of the support structure. Experimental tests show that LPBF built support structure has only 30-40% of the ultimate tensile strength of solid material built in the same machine. Experimental measurement of LPBF built support structure provides clear failure criteria to be utilized in the future design and implementation of

  14. Downhole temperature tool accurately measures well bore profile

    SciTech Connect

    Cloud, W.B. )

    1992-07-20

    This paper reports that an inexpensive temperature tool provides accurate temperatures measurements during drilling operations for better design of cement jobs, workovers, well stimulation, and well bore hydraulics. Valid temperature data during specific wellbore operations can improve initial job design, fluid testing, and slurry placement, ultimately enhancing well bore performance. This improvement applies to cement slurries, breaker activation for slurries, breaker activation for stimulation and profile control, and fluid rheological properties for all downhole operations. The temperature tool has been run standalone mounted inside drill pipe, on slick wire line and braided cable, and as a free-falltool. It has also been run piggyback on both directional surveys (slick line and free-fall) and standard logging runs. This temperature measuring system has been used extensively in field well bores to depths of 20,000 ft. The temperature tool is completely reusable in the field, ever similar to the standard directional survey tools used on may drilling rigs. The system includes a small, rugged, programmable temperature sensor, a standard body housing, various adapters for specific applications, and a personal computer (PC) interface.

  15. Cylindrical surface profile and diameter measuring tool and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, James R. (Inventor); Kissel, Ralph R. (Inventor); Smith, Earnest C. (Inventor); Oliver, Charles E. (Inventor); Redmon, John W., Sr. (Inventor); Wallace, Charles C. (Inventor); Swanson, Charles P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A tool is shown having a cross beam assembly made of beams joined by a center box structure. The assembly is adapted to be mounted by brackets to the outer end of a cylindrical case. The center box structure has a vertical shaft rotatably mounted therein and extending beneath the assembly. Secured to the vertical shaft is a radius arm which is adapted to rotate with the shaft. On the longer end of the radius arm is a measuring tip which contacts the cylindrical surface to be measured and which provides an electric signal representing the radius of the cylindrical surface from the center of rotation of the radius arm. An electric servomotor rotates the vertical shaft and an electronic resolver provides an electric signal representing the angle of rotation of the shaft. The electric signals are provided to a computer station which has software for its computer to calculate and print out the continuous circumference profile of the cylindrical surface, and give its true diameter and the deviations from the ideal circle.

  16. Cylindrical surface profile and diameter measuring tool and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, James R. (Inventor); Kissel, Ralph R. (Inventor); Oliver, Charles E. (Inventor); Smith, Earnest C. (Inventor); Redmon, John W. (Inventor); Wallace, Charles C. (Inventor); Swanson, Charles P. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A tool is shown having a cross beam assembly (15) made of beams (18, 19, 20, 21) joined by a center box structure (23). The assembly (15) is adapted to be mounted by brackets (16) to the outer end of a cylindrical case (11). The center box structure (23) has a vertical shaft (25) rotatably mounted therein and extending beneath the assembly (15). Secured to the vertical shaft (25) is a radius arm (28) which is adapted to rotate with shaft (25). On the longer end of the radius arm (28) is a measuring tip (30) which contacts the cylindrical surface to be measured and which provides an electric signal representing the radius of the cylindrical surface from the center of rotation of the radius arm (28). An electric servomotor (49) rotates the vertical shaft (25) and an electronic resolver (61) provides an electric signal representing the angle of rotation of the shaft (25). The electric signals are provided to a computer station (73) which has software for its computer to calculate and print out the continuous circumference profile of the cylindrical surface, and give its true diameter and the deviations from the ideal circle.

  17. Radiation profiles measured through clouds using a return glider radiosonde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf; Kivi, Rigel

    2016-04-01

    With new and improved radiation sensors in a small glider aircraft vertical flights through clouds have been conducted. This new Return Glider Radiosonde (RG-R) is lifted up with double balloon technique to keep the radiation instruments as horizontal as possible during ascent. The RG-R is equipped with a routine radiosonde to transmit the data to a ground station and an autopilot to fly the glider radiosonde back to the launch site, where it lands autonomous with a parachute. The RG-R was successfully tested and deployed for tropospheric and stratospheric radiation measurements up to 30 hPa (24 km altitude) at the GRUAN sites Payerne (Switzerland) and Sodankylä (Finland). Radiation profiles and the radiation budget through the atmosphere during different daytimes and under cloud-free and cloudy situations will be shown in relation to temperature and humidity at the surface and in the atmosphere. The RG-R flight characteristics and new measurement possibilities will also be discussed.

  18. A multi-element profile of housedust in relation to exterior dust and soils in the city of Ottawa, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, P E; Subramanian, K S; Jessiman, B J

    2001-02-21

    This paper presents multi-element profiles of indoor dust versus exterior soils and dusts from 50 residences located in 10 neighborhoods across Ottawa, the capital city of Canada. Mercury concentrations were determined using nitric-sulphuric acid digestion and cold vapor AAS. Concentrations of 31 other elements were determined using nitric-hydrofluoric acid digestion and ICP-MS. Comparisons of household dust, garden soil and street dust at the individual residence scale and at the community scale were based on a consistent 100-250-microm particle size fraction. Results showed housedust samples to contain significantly higher concentrations of many key elements, including lead, cadmium, antimony and mercury, than either street dust or garden soil samples. Also, housedust profiles revealed a distinct multi-element signature in relation to exterior dust and soil samples. Interestingly, garden soil contained higher concentrations of aluminum, barium and thallium than either house or street dust. Geometric mean concentrations (mg/kg) of these elements in household dust/garden soil were: lead 233/42; cadmium 4.42/0.27; antimony 5.54/0.25; mercury 1.728/0.055; aluminum 24281/55677; barium 454/763; and thallium 0.14/0.29. Street dust contained lower geometric mean concentrations than garden soil for 23 out of a total of 32 elements. In general, indoor/outdoor concentration ratios varied widely from one element to another, and from one residence to another within the community. In the case of Ottawa, which is a city with a low concentration of heavy industries, it would be difficult-to-impossible to accurately predict indoor dust concentrations based on exterior soil data. It is concluded that dust generated from sources within the house itself can contribute significantly to exposures to certain elements, such as lead, cadmium, antimony and mercury.

  19. Trace Element Abundance Measurements on Cosmic Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George

    1996-01-01

    The X-Ray Microprobe on beamline X-26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was used to determine the abundances of elements from Cr through Sr in individual interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected from the Earth's stratosphere and the Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope (STXM) on beamline X-1A at the NSLS was used to determine the carbon abundances and spatial distributions in IDPs. In addition, modeling was performed in an attempt to associate particular types of IDPs with specific types of parent bodies, and thus to infer the chemistry, mineralogy, and structural properties of those parent bodies.

  20. Damage Detection in Concrete Elements with Surface Wave Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Unlimited ERNEST A. HAYGOOD, Captain, USAF Executive Officer DTTC S ELECTE JUL 0 9 1992 33 Au 92-17924 188 DAMAGE DETECTION IN CONCRETE ELEMENTS WITH...RECOMMENDATIONS ON WIDOW LENGTH 2.7 PARAMETERS INVOLVED 3. ANALYTICAL FORMULATION 37 3.1 MODAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE SUPPORTED BEAM USING BEAM THEORY 3.1.1...4 1.0c ooo O S . ... - - --. ............. 4".?... 02 0 2.000 le~ 4.000 le~ 6.000 le~ 3.000 le~ 1.000 2C0 FnEQ1UENC-y (HZ) Fiur .1-2 rssPoe SetrmPhse

  1. Optimal sets of measurement data for profile reconstruction in scatterometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, H.; Rathsfeld, A.; Scholze, F.; Bär, M.; Dersch, U.

    2007-06-01

    We discuss numerical algorithms for the determination of periodic surface structures from light diffraction patterns. With decreasing feature sizes of lithography masks, increasing demands on metrology techniques arise. Scatterometry as a non-imaging indirect optical method is applied to simple periodic line structures in order to determine parameters like side-wall angles, heights, top and bottom widths and to evaluate the quality of the manufacturing process. The numerical simulation of diffraction is based on the finite element solution of the Helmholtz equation. The inverse problem seeks to reconstruct the grating geometry from measured diffraction patterns. Restricting the class of gratings and the set of measurements, this inverse problem can be reformulated as a non-linear operator equation in Euclidean spaces. The operator maps the grating parameters to special efficiencies of diffracted plane wave modes. We employ a Gauss-Newton type iterative method to solve this operator equation. The reconstruction properties and the convergence of the algorithm, however, is controlled by the local conditioning of the non-linear mapping. To improve reconstruction and convergence, we determine optimal sets of efficiencies optimizing the condition numbers of the corresponding Jacobians. Numerical examples are presented for "chrome on glass" masks under the wavelength 632.8 nm and for EUV masks.

  2. AERIAL MEASUREMENTS OF CONVECTION CELL ELEMENTS IN HEATED LAKES

    SciTech Connect

    Villa-Aleman, E; Saleem Salaymeh, S; Timothy Brown, T; Alfred Garrett, A; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Linda Nichols, L

    2007-12-19

    Power plant-heated lakes are characterized by a temperature gradient in the thermal plume originating at the discharge of the power plant and terminating at the water intake. The maximum water temperature discharged by the power plant into the lake depends on the power generated at the facility and environmental regulations on the temperature of the lake. Besides the observed thermal plume, cloud-like thermal cells (convection cell elements) are also observed on the water surface. The size, shape and temperature of the convection cell elements depends on several parameters such as the lake water temperature, wind speed, surfactants and the depth of the thermocline. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Clemson University are collaborating to determine the applicability of laboratory empirical correlations between surface heat flux and thermal convection intensity. Laboratory experiments at Clemson University have demonstrated a simple relationship between the surface heat flux and the standard deviation of temperature fluctuations. Similar results were observed in the aerial thermal imagery SRNL collected at different locations along the thermal plume and at different elevations. SRNL will present evidence that the results at Clemson University are applicable to cooling lakes.

  3. Aerial measurements of convection cell elements in heated lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa-Aleman, E.; Salaymeh, S. R.; Brown, T. B.; Garrett, A. J.; Nichols, L. S.; Pendergast, M. M.

    2008-03-01

    Power plant-heated lakes are characterized by a temperature gradient in the thermal plume originating at the discharge of the power plant and terminating at the water intake. The maximum water temperature discharged by the power plant into the lake depends on the power generated at the facility and environmental regulations on the temperature of the lake. Besides the observed thermal plume, cloud-like thermal cells (convection cell elements) are also observed on the water surface. The size, shape and temperature of the convection cell elements depends on several parameters such as the lake water temperature, wind speed, surfactants and the depth of the thermocline. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Clemson University are collaborating to determine the applicability of laboratory empirical correlations between surface heat flux and thermal convection intensity. Laboratory experiments at Clemson University have demonstrated a simple relationship between the surface heat flux and the standard deviation of temperature fluctuations. Similar results were observed in the aerial thermal imagery SRNL collected at different locations along the thermal plume and at different elevations. SRNL will present evidence that the results at Clemson University are applicable to cooling lakes.

  4. Line Profile Measurements of the Lunar Exospheric Sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Line, Michael R.; Roesler, Fred L.; Lupie, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    We report ongoing results of a program to measure the lunar sodium exospheric line profile from near the lunar limb out to two lunar radii (approx 3500 km). These observations are conducted from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce telescope using a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,600 (1.7 km/s) to measure line widths and velocity shifts of the Na D2 (5889 950 A) emission line in equatorial and polar regions at different lunar phases. The typical field of view (FOV) is 3 arcmin (approx 360 km) with an occasional smaller 1 arcmin FOV used right at the limb edge. The first data were obtained from full Moon to 3 days following full Moon (waning phase) in March 2009 as part of a demonstration run aimed at establishing techniques for a thorough study of temperatures and velocity variations in the lunar sodium exosphere. These data indicate velocity displacements from different locations off the lunar limb range between 150 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/- 20 to +/- 50 m/s depending on brightness. The measured Doppler line widths for observations within 10.5 arcmin of the east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 deg and 40 deg lunar phase imply temperatures ranging decreasing from 3250 +/- 260K to 1175 +/- 150K. Additional data is now being collected on a quarterly basis since March 2011 and preliminary results will be reported.

  5. Line Profile Measurements of the Lunar Exospheric Sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Line, Michael R.; Roesler, Fred L.; Lupie, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    We report ongoing results of a program to measure the lunar sodium exospheric line profile from near the lunar limb out to two lunar radii (approx 3500 km). These observations are conducted from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce telescope using a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,600 (1.7 km/s) to measure line widths and velocity shifts of the Na D2 (5889 950 A) emission line in equatorial and polar regions at different lunar phases. The typical field of view (FOV) is 3 arcmin (approx 360 km) with an occasional smaller 1 arcmin FOV used right at the limb edge. The first data were obtained from full Moon to 3 days following full Moon (waning phase) in March 2009 as part of a demonstration run aimed at establishing techniques for a thorough study of temperatures and velocity variations in the lunar sodium exosphere. These data indicate velocity displacements from different locations off the lunar limb range between 150 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/- 20 to +/- 50 m/s depending on brightness. The measured Doppler line widths for observations within 10.5 arcmin of the east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 deg and 40 deg lunar phase imply temperatures ranging decreasing from 3250 +/- 260K to 1175 +/- 150K. Additional data is now being collected on a quarterly basis since March 2011 and preliminary results will be reported.

  6. Optimal tuning and calibration of bendable mirrors with slope measuring profilers

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, Wayne; Kirschman, Jonathan; MacDowell, Alastair; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2009-06-22

    We describe a technique to optimally tune and calibrate bendable x-ray optics for sub-micron focusing. The focusing is divided between two elliptically cylindrical reflecting elements, a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) pair. Each optic is shaped by applying unequal bending couples to each end of a flat mirror. The developed technique allowsoptimal tuning of these systems using surface slope data obtained with a slope measuring instrument, the long trace profiler (LTP). Due to the near linearity of the problem, the minimal set of data necessary for the tuning of each bender, consists of only three slope traces measured before and after a single adjustment of each bending couple. The data are analyzed with software realizing a method of regression analysis with experimentally found characteristic functions of the benders. The resulting approximation to the functional dependence of the desired shape provides nearly final settings. Moreover, the characteristic functions of the benders found in the course of tuning, can be used for retuning to a new desired shape without removal from the beamline and re-measuring. We perform a ray trace, using profiler data for the finally tuned optics, predicting the performance to be expected during use of the optics on the beamline.

  7. Experimental determination of the effect of detector size on profile measurements in narrow photon beams.

    PubMed

    Pappas, E; Maris, T G; Papadakis, A; Zacharopoulou, F; Damilakis, J; Papanikolaou, N; Gourtsoyiannis, N

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate experimentally the detector size effect on narrow beam profile measurements. Polymer gel and magnetic resonance imaging dosimetry was used for this purpose. Profile measurements (Pm(s)) of a 5 mm diameter 6 MV stereotactic beam were performed using polymer gels. Eight measurements of the profile of this narrow beam were performed using correspondingly eight different detector sizes. This was achieved using high spatial resolution (0.25 mm) two-dimensional measurements and eight different signal integration volumes A X A X slice thickness, simulating detectors of different size. "A" ranged from 0.25 to 7.5 mm, representing the detector size. The gel-derived profiles exhibited increased penumbra width with increasing detector size, for sizes >0.5 mm. By extrapolating the gel-derived profiles to zero detector size, the true profile (Pt) of the studied beam was derived. The same polymer gel data were also used to simulate a small-volume ion chamber profile measurement of the same beam, in terms of volume averaging. The comparison between these results and actual corresponding small-volume chamber profile measurements performed in this study, reveal that the penumbra broadening caused by both volume averaging and electron transport alterations (present in actual ion chamber profile measurements) is a lot more intense than that resulted by volume averaging effects alone (present in gel-derived profiles simulating ion chamber profile measurements). Therefore, not only the detector size, but also its composition and tissue equivalency is proved to be an important factor for correct narrow beam profile measurements. Additionally, the convolution kernels related to each detector size and to the air ion chamber were calculated using the corresponding profile measurements (Pm(s)), the gel-derived true profile (Pt), and convolution theory. The response kernels of any desired detector can be derived, allowing the elimination of the errors

  8. Spectroscopic Measurements of Optical Elements for Submillimeter Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, J.; Paine, S.; Papa, D. C.

    1996-03-01

    As submillimeter receivers improve in performance, more attention needs to be given to the design of lenses and windows, because input and coupling losses are responsible for an increasingly larger fraction of the total system noise. In order to optimize the designs, accurate measurements of optical and thermal contraction properties are needed. We discuss techniques of dispersive Fourier transform spectroscopy by which optical constants, thermal contraction coefficients, and surface reflectivities may be measured. Measurements of the optical constants of TPX, Teflon (PTFE), polyethylene, and Teflon-AF, a new material, are presented over the frequency range 0.3 to 2.5 THz. Thermal contraction properties for Teflon are presented. Reflection measurements are presented for a quartz window with a machined matching layer; properties of wire-meshes and wire-grids are also measured.

  9. Experimental study and finite element analysis based on equivalent load method for laser ultrasonic measurement of elastic constants.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yu; Liu, Changsheng; Zhang, Fengpeng; Qiu, Zhaoguo

    2016-07-01

    The laser ultrasonic generation of Rayleigh surface wave and longitudinal wave in an elastic plate is studied by experiment and finite element method. In order to eliminate the measurement error and the time delay of the experimental system, the linear fitting method of experimental data is applied. The finite element analysis software ABAQUS is used to simulate the propagation of Rayleigh surface wave and longitudinal wave caused by laser excitation on a sheet metal sample surface. The equivalent load method is proposed and applied. The pulsed laser is equivalent to the surface load in time and space domain to meet the Gaussian profile. The relationship between the physical parameters of the laser and the load is established by the correction factor. The numerical solution is in good agreement with the experimental result. The simple and effective numerical and experimental methods for laser ultrasonic measurement of the elastic constants are demonstrated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Elemental analysis by means of X-ray attenuation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesareo, Roberto; Giannini, Marino

    1980-03-01

    Radioactive sources of 109Cd, 241Am and 57Co were employed to measure the attenuation coefficient of biological materials such as whole blood, red blood cells, plasma, urine, water and of materials of interest for computed tomography, such as plexiglas, polyethylene, nylon, teflon, etc. The experimental errors range between 0.3% and 1%. A method is also presented which allows quantitative analysis of materials by measuring their attenuation coefficient at various monoenergetic X-ray energies. As an example, attenuation measurements at 60 keV and 122 keV were employed in order to determine the concentration of lead and copper in silver alloys.

  11. Measuring Protoplanetary Disk Gas Surface Density Profiles with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jonathan P.; McPartland, Conor

    2016-10-01

    The gas and dust are spatially segregated in protoplanetary disks due to the vertical settling and radial drift of large grains. A fuller accounting of the mass content and distribution in disks therefore requires spectral line observations. We extend the modeling approach presented in Williams & Best to show that gas surface density profiles can be measured from high fidelity 13CO integrated intensity images. We demonstrate the methodology by fitting ALMA observations of the HD 163296 disk to determine a gas mass, M gas = 0.048 M ⊙, and accretion disk characteristic size R c = 213 au and gradient γ = 0.39. The same parameters match the C18O 2-1 image and indicate an abundance ratio [12CO]/[C18O] of 700 independent of radius. To test how well this methodology can be applied to future line surveys of smaller, lower mass T Tauri disks, we create a large 13CO 2-1 image library and fit simulated data. For disks with gas masses 3-10 M Jup at 150 pc, ALMA observations with a resolution of 0.″2-0.″3 and integration times of ˜20 minutes allow reliable estimates of R c to within about 10 au and γ to within about 0.2. Economic gas imaging surveys are therefore feasible and offer the opportunity to open up a new dimension for studying disk structure and its evolution toward planet formation.

  12. Instantaneous velocity profile measurements in a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Instantaneous wall shear stress and streamwise velocities have been measured simultaneously in a flat-plate, turbulent boundary layer at moderate Reynolds number in an effort to provide experimental support for large eddy simulations. Data were obtained using a buried-wire, wall shear gage and a hot-wire rake positioned in the log region of the flow. Fluctuations of the instantaneous U(+) versus Y(+) profiles about a mean law of the wall are shown to be significant and complex. Peak cross-correlation values between wall shear stress and the velocities are high, and reflect the passage of a large structure inclined at a small angle to the wall. Estimates of this angle are consistent with those made by other investigators. Conditional sampling techniques were used to detect the passage of various sizes and types of flow disturbances (events), and to estimate their mean frequency of occurrence. Events characterized by large aand sudden streamwise accelerations were found to be highly coherent throughout the log region and were strongly correlated with large fluctuations in wall shear stress. Phase randomness between the near-wall quantities and the outer velocities was small. The results suggest that the flow events detected by conditional sampling applied to velocities in the log region may be related to the bursting process.

  13. Characterization of photoresist and simulation of a developed resist profile for the fabrication of gray-scale diffractive optic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong Rak; Sierchio, Justin; Zaverton, Melissa; Kim, Youngsik; Milster, Tom D.

    2012-02-01

    We have characterized a photoresist used for the fabrication of gray-scale diffractive optic elements in terms of Dill's and Mack's model parameters. The resist model parameters were employed for the simulations of developed resist profiles for sawtooth patterns executed by solving the Eikonal equation with the fast-marching method. The simulated results were shown to be in good agreement with empirical data.

  14. Convergent evolution in structural elements of proteins investigated using cross profile analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evolutionary relations of similar segments shared by different protein folds remain controversial, even though many examples of such segments have been found. To date, several methods such as those based on the results of structure comparisons, sequence-based classifications, and sequence-based profile-profile comparisons have been applied to identify such protein segments that possess local similarities in both sequence and structure across protein folds. However, to capture more precise sequence-structure relations, no method reported to date combines structure-based profiles, and sequence-based profiles based on evolutionary information. The former are generally regarded as representing the amino acid preferences at each position of a specific conformation of protein segment. They might reflect the nature of ancient short peptide ancestors, using the results of structural classifications of protein segments. Results This report describes the development and use of "Cross Profile Analysis" to compare sequence-based profiles and structure-based profiles based on amino acid occurrences at each position within a protein segment cluster. Using systematic cross profile analysis, we found structural clusters of 9-residue and 15-residue segments showing remarkably strong correlation with particular sequence profiles. These correlations reflect structural similarities among constituent segments of both sequence-based and structure-based profiles. We also report previously undetectable sequence-structure patterns that transcend protein family and fold boundaries, and present results of the conformational analysis of the deduced peptide of a segment cluster. These results suggest the existence of ancient short-peptide ancestors. Conclusions Cross profile analysis reveals the polyphyletic and convergent evolution of β-hairpin-like structures, which were verified both experimentally and computationally. The results presented here give us new insights into the

  15. Method and apparatus for measuring irradiated fuel profiles

    DOEpatents

    Lee, D.M.

    1980-03-27

    A new apparatus is used to substantially instantaneously obtain a profile of an object, for example a spent fuel assembly, which profile (when normalized) has unexpectedly been found to be substantially identical to the normalized profile of the burnup monitor Cs-137 obtained with a germanium detector. That profile can be used without normalization in a new method of identifying and monitoring in order to determine for example whether any of the fuel has been removed. Alternatively, two other new methods involve calibrating that profile so as to obtain a determination of fuel burnup (which is important for complying with safeguards requirements, for utilizing fuel to an optimal extent, and for storing spent fuel in a minimal amount of space).

  16. Shape factors for elements of the infiltration profile in surface irrigation:Generic approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Advanced mathematical models of surface irrigation are based on the equations of motion applied to a series of cells comprising the surface stream and an infiltration profile. In the simulation, a mass balance must be preserved amongst the inflow, surface stream, infiltrated profile, and runoff vol...

  17. Diagnosing the traffic impact on roadside soils through a multianalytical data analysis of the concentration profiles of traffic-related elements.

    PubMed

    Carrero, Jose Antonio; Arrizabalaga, Iker; Bustamante, Julen; Goienaga, Naiara; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-08-01

    The road traffic has become one of the most serious environmental problems in many cities and the main source of pollution of urban soils. To diagnose properly the magnitude of such impacts on roadside soils, eight urban and metropolitan soils were selected as a function of traffic density, distance to the road and years of operation, for which the concentration of 60 elements (major, minor and trace elements) were measured by semi-quantitative ICP-MS after acid digestion, as a first step in assessing the traffic impact. With this information, a comprehensive study was carried out focusing on the quantitative analysis of the concentration of 46 elements from the 8 sampling areas, analyzing the vertical and horizontal distributions of the metals in the roadside soils. The chemometric analysis showed that only the traffic-related elements accumulate in topsoil and present a high decreasing profile with depth and the distance to the road; however, this clear behavior takes places only in old roads that have undergone the traffic impact for a long time, but not in new roads or roads with low traffic density. Finally, the geoaccumulation indexes are suggested to be used instead of the local guidelines to assess the pollution state of the roadside soils, especially for the emerging trace elements like Antimony.

  18. Novel approach for quantitatively estimating element retention and material balances in soil profiles of recharge basins used for wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Eshel, Gil; Lin, Chunye; Banin, Amos

    2015-01-01

    We investigated changes in element content and distribution in soil profiles in a study designed to monitor the geochemical changes accruing in soil due to long-term secondary effluent recharge, and its impact on the sustainability of the Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) system. Since the initial elemental contents of the soils at the studied site were not available, we reconstructed them using scandium (Sc) as a conservative tracer. By using this approach, we were able to produce a mass-balance for 18 elements and evaluate the geochemical changes resulting from 19 years of effluent recharge. This approach also provides a better understanding of the role of soils as an adsorption filter for the heavy metals contained in the effluent. The soil mass balance suggests 19 years of effluent recharge cause for a significant enrichment in Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mg, K, Na, S and P contents in the upper 4m of the soil profile. Combining the elements lode record during the 19 years suggest that Cr, Ni, and P inputs may not reach the groundwater (20 m deep), whereas the other elements may. Conversely, we found that 58, 60, and 30% of the initial content of Mn, Ca and Co respectively leached from the upper 2-m of the soil profile. These high percentages of Mn and Ca depletion from the basin soils may reduce the soil's ability to buffer decreases in redox potential pe and pH, respectively, which could initiate a reduction in the soil's holding capacity for heavy metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Relevance for food sciences of quantitative spatially resolved element profile investigations in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain.

    PubMed

    Pongrac, Paula; Kreft, Ivan; Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Regvar, Marjana; Germ, Mateja; Vavpetic, Primoz; Grlj, Natasa; Jeromel, Luka; Eichert, Diane; Budic, Bojan; Pelicon, Primoz

    2013-07-06

    Bulk element concentrations of whole grain and element spatial distributions at the tissue level were investigated in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain grown in Zn-enriched soil. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used for bulk analysis, whereas micro-proton-induced X-ray emission was used to resolve the two-dimensional localization of the elements. Soil Zn application did not significantly affect the grain yield, but did significantly increase the grain Ca, Fe and Zn concentrations, and decrease the grain Na, P and Mo concentrations; bulk Mg, S, K, Mn, Cu, Cd and Pb concentrations remained unchanged. These changes observed in bulk element concentrations are the reflection of tissue-specific variations within the grain, revealing that Zn application to soil can lead to considerable alterations in the element distributions within the grain, which might ultimately influence the quality of the milling fractions. Spatially resolved investigations into the partitioning of the element concentrations identified the tissues with the highest element concentrations, which is of utmost importance for accurate prediction of element losses during the grain milling and polishing processes.

  20. Relevance for food sciences of quantitative spatially resolved element profile investigations in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain

    PubMed Central

    Pongrac, Paula; Kreft, Ivan; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Regvar, Marjana; Germ, Mateja; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša; Jeromel, Luka; Eichert, Diane; Budič, Bojan; Pelicon, Primož

    2013-01-01

    Bulk element concentrations of whole grain and element spatial distributions at the tissue level were investigated in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain grown in Zn-enriched soil. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used for bulk analysis, whereas micro-proton-induced X-ray emission was used to resolve the two-dimensional localization of the elements. Soil Zn application did not significantly affect the grain yield, but did significantly increase the grain Ca, Fe and Zn concentrations, and decrease the grain Na, P and Mo concentrations; bulk Mg, S, K, Mn, Cu, Cd and Pb concentrations remained unchanged. These changes observed in bulk element concentrations are the reflection of tissue-specific variations within the grain, revealing that Zn application to soil can lead to considerable alterations in the element distributions within the grain, which might ultimately influence the quality of the milling fractions. Spatially resolved investigations into the partitioning of the element concentrations identified the tissues with the highest element concentrations, which is of utmost importance for accurate prediction of element losses during the grain milling and polishing processes. PMID:23676898

  1. Technical Profile of Seven Data Element Dictionary/Directory Systems. Computer Science & Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong-Hong, Belkis; Marron, Beatrice

    A Data Element Dictionary/Directory (DED/D) is a software tool that is used to control and manage data elements in a uniform manner. It can serve data base administrators, systems analysts, software designers, and programmers by providing a central repository for information about data resources across organization and application lines. This…

  2. Thermal strain along optical fiber in lightweight composite FOG : Brillouin-based distributed measurement and finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Sanada, Teruhisa; Takeda, Nobuo; Mitani, Shinji; Mizutani, Tadahito; Sasaki, Yoshinobu; Shinozaki, Keisuke

    2014-05-01

    Thermal strain significantly affects stability of fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) performance. This study investigates thermal strain development in a lightweight carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) FOG under thermal vacuum condition simulating space environment. First, we measure thermal strain distribution along an optical fiber in a CFRP FOG using a Brillouin-based high-spatial resolution system. The key strain profile is clarified and the strain development is simulated using finite element analysis. Finally, several constituent materials for FOG are quantitatively compared from the aspect of the maximum thermal strain and the density, confirming the clear advantage of CFRP.

  3. Applying velocity profiling technology to flow measurement at the Orinda water treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, M.A.; Kachur, S.; Lackenbauer, S.

    1998-07-01

    A new type of flow measurement technology, velocity profiling, was tested in the South Channel of the Orinda Water Treatment Plant. This new technology allowed installation in the difficult hydraulic conditions of the South Channel, without interrupting plant operation. The advanced technology of velocity profiling enables flow measurements to be obtained in sites normally unusable by more traditional methods of flow rate measurement.

  4. Rare earth elements in weathering profiles and sediments of Minnesota: Implications for provenance studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morey, G.B.; Setterholm, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The relative abundance of rare earth elements in sediments has been suggested as a tool for determining their source rocks. This correlation requires that weathering, erosion, and sedimentation do not alter the REE abundances, or do so in a predictable manner. We find that the rare earth elements are mobilized and fractionated by weathering, and that sediments derived from the weathered materials can display modifications of the original pattern of rare earth elements of some due to grain-size sorting of the weathered material. However, the REE distribution pattern of the provenance terrane can be recognized in the sediments.

  5. Significance of trace element profile of blood of persons with multiple caries versus sound teeth.

    PubMed

    Riyat, Manminder; Sharma, Dinesh Chandra

    2010-05-01

    In order to determine any possible relation between chemical composition of a person's blood to formation of dental caries, whole blood was analyzed for 35 inorganic elements (Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Mn, Ti, P, Li, Be, B, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Y, Nb, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, W, Pb, Bi, Zr, and F) in the 15 people having sound teeth as well as an equal number of those having multiple caries. The results showed the absence of 13 elements (Si, Al, Mn, Ti, Be, Co, As, Y, Cd, Ba, La, Ce, and Zr) in the blood of both groups. Of the remaining 22 elements, the results of only seven elements (Fe, P, B, V, Sr, Sn, and F) were significantly different between the two groups. The most remarkable finding of this study was significantly decreased amount of phosphorus, strontium, and fluorine and perhaps increased boron in the blood of persons with caries.

  6. Multiband reflectometry system for density profile measurement with high temporal resolution on JET tokamaka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirinelli, A.; Alper, B.; Bottereau, C.; Clairet, F.; Cupido, L.; Fessey, J.; Hogben, C.; Meneses, L.; Sandford, G.; Walsh, M. J.; JET-EFDA Contributors

    2010-10-01

    A new system has been installed on the JET tokamak consisting of six independent fast-sweeping reflectometers covering four bands between 44 and 150 GHz and using orthogonal polarizations. It has been designed to measure density profiles from the plasma edge to the center, launching microwaves through 40 m of oversized corrugated waveguides. It has routinely produced density profiles with a maximum repetition rate of one profile every 15 μs and up to 100 000 profiles per pulse.

  7. Elemental atmospheric pollution assessment via moss-based measurements in Portland, Oregon

    Treesearch

    Demetrios Gatziolis; Sarah Jovan; Geoffrey Donovan; Michael Amacher; Vicente Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Mosses accumulate pollutants from the atmosphere and can serve as an inexpensive screening tool for mapping air quality and guiding the placement of monitoring instruments. We measured 22 elements using 346 moss samples collected across Portland, Oregon, in December 2013. Our objectives were to develop citywide maps showing concentrations of each element in moss and...

  8. Quantitative Two-Dimensional Dopant Profile Measurement on Semiconductors by Scanning Probe Microscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yunji

    1995-01-01

    A Scanning Capacitance Microscope (SCM) has been built to measure two-dimensional (2D) dopant density profiles on semiconductor materials. A quasi-one-dimensional(1D) analytical model has been constructed for inverting the measured SCM data to dopant profile. Local Capacitance -Voltage (C-V) measurements have been performed on n ^+/n and p^+/n ion implanted silicon wafers and systematic results have been obtained. Dopant profile measurements by SCM have been performed on both top surfaces and cross-sectional surfaces of ion implanted silicon wafers. After inversion, a good agreement has been found between the SCM profile and the profiles obtained by other independent methods such as Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Spreading Resistance Profiling (SRP), and process simulation (SUPREM IV). The dissertation presented here consists of four chapters. The first chapter introduces the dopant profile measurement and gives a review of existing doping profiling methods. The advantages of SCM for dopant profile measurement are discussed in this chapter. The second chapter concentrates on the instrumentation of SCM, SCM tip preparation, and silicon sample preparation for dopant profile measurement by SCM. The third chapter describes the tip/sample modeling by which the measured capacitance signal is inverted to dopant profile. The calculation of the electrostatic force between a tip and semiconductor sample as a function of dopant density is also presented in this chapter. Finally, in the fourth chapter, the SCM measurement results are presented and the inverted 2D profiles are compared with the results obtained by other independent methods. A discussion about measurement sensitivity, spatial resolution, modeling errors, and future works is presented.

  9. 3D-profile measurement of advanced semiconductor features by reference metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Iwaki, Yuuki; Takahashi, Satoru; Kawada, Hiroki; Ikota, Masami; Lorusso, Gian F.; Horiguchi, Naoto

    2016-03-01

    A method of sub-nanometer uncertainty for the 3D-profile measurement using TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) images is proposed to standardize 3D-profile measurement through reference metrology. The proposed method has been validated for profiles of Si lines, photoresist features and advanced-FinFET (Fin-shaped Field-Effect Transistor) features in our previous investigations. However, efficiency of 3D-profile measurement using TEM is limited by measurement time including processing of the sample. In this article, we demonstrate a novel on-wafer 3D-profile metrology as "FIB-to-CDSEM method" with FIB (Focused Ion Beam) slope cut and CD-SEM (Critical Dimension Secondary Electron Microscope) measuring. Using the method, a few micrometer wide on a wafer is coated and cut by 45 degree slope using FIB tool. Then, the wafer is transferred to CD-SEM to measure the cross section image by top down CD-SEM measurement. We apply FIB-to-CDSEM method to CMOS sensor device. 3D-profile and 3D-profile parameters such as top line width and side wall angles of CMOS sensor device are evaluated. The 3D-profile parameters also are measured by TEM images as reference metrology. We compare the 3D-profile parameters by TEM method and FIB-to-CDSEM method. The average values and correlations on the wafer are agreed well between TEM and FIB-to- CDSEM methods.

  10. Tropospheric O3 measurement by simultaneous differential absorption lidar and null profiling and comparison with sonde measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuchi, Tetsuo; Fujii, Takashi; Cao, Nianwen; Nemoto, Koshichi; Takeuchi, Nobuo

    2001-09-01

    A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system consisting of two identical tunable laser systems and a single optical receiver is applied to measurement of O3 concentration profiles in the lower troposphere. Each laser is capable of emitting two wavelengths on alternate pulses, so the system is capable of simultaneous measurement of two species in the same wavelength region. We set the two lasers to emit at identical wavelength pairs consisting of on wavelength 285.0 nm and off wavelength 290.1 nm for simultaneous measurement of two null profiles, one at each wavelength, and two DIAL profiles, or O3 concentration profiles. Null profiles are useful in estimating instrumental error and checking the vertical range interval in which the DIAL profiles are accurate. Null and DIAL profiles are obtained for vertical range 1000 to 4000 m using neutral density filters of different transmissions to prevent the strong return signals from close range from saturating the photodetector. The obtained O3 concentration profiles agree with simultaneous O3 sonde measurements. An evaluation of the measurement error shows that the average O3 measurement error for vertical range 1000 to 4000 m was 3.4 ppb, or 8% relative to the average O3 concentration of 42.3 ppb, most of which is due to statistical error. The error due to differential Mie attenuation and differential backscatter gradient was found to be 0.5 ppb.

  11. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry and accurate mass measurements for high-throughput food lipids profiling.

    PubMed

    Vichi, Stefania; Cortés-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, accurate mass measurements by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry with Orbitrap-Exactive working at resolving power R: 100,000 (m/z 200, full width at half maximum) with an accuracy better than 2 ppm in all the mass range (m/z 200 to 2000) were used to show a detailed molecular composition of diverse edible oils and fats. Flow injection was used to introduce samples into the mass spectrometer, obtaining a complete analysis of each sample in less than 10 min, including blanks. Meticulous choice of organic solvents and optimization of the ion source and Orbitrap mass analyzer parameters were carried out, in order to achieve reproducible mass spectra giving reliable elemental compositions of the lipid samples and to prevent carry over. More than 200 elemental compositions attributable to diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols (TAGs), and their oxidation products have been found in the spectra of food lipids from different origin. Several compounds with very close molecular mass could only be resolved through ultrahigh resolution, allowing detailed and robust TAG profiling with a high characterization potential. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Nanoscale measurement of trace element distributions in Spartina alterniflora root tissue during dormancy

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Cochran, J. Kirk; ...

    2017-01-18

    Here, this article reports a nanometer-scale investigation of trace element (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, S and Zn) distributions in the root system Spartina alterniflora during dormancy. The sample was collected on a salt marsh island in Jamaica Bay, New York, in April 2015 and the root was cross-sectioned with 10 μm resolution. Synchrotron X-ray nanofluorescence was applied to map the trace element distributions in selected areas of the root epidermis and endodermis. The sampling resolution was 60 nm to increase the measurement accuracy and reduce the uncertainty. The results indicate that the elemental concentrations in the epidermis,more » outer endodermis and inner endodermis are significantly (p < 0.01) different. The root endodermis has relatively higher concentrations of these elements than the root epidermis. Furthermore, this high resolution measurement indicates that the elemental concentrations in the outer endodermis are significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those in the inner endodermis. These results suggest that the Casparian strip may play a role in governing the aplastic transport of these elements. Pearson correlation analysis on the average concentrations of each element in the selected areas shows that most of the elements are significantly (p < 0.05) correlated, which suggests that these elements may share the same transport pathways.« less

  13. Nanoscale measurement of trace element distributions in Spartina alterniflora root tissue during dormancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Cochran, J. Kirk; Zhu, Qingzhi; Hu, Wen; Yan, Hanfei; Li, Li; Huang, Xiaojing; Chu, Yong S.; Liu, Houjun; Yoo, Shinjae; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a nanometer-scale investigation of trace element (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, S and Zn) distributions in the root system Spartina alterniflora during dormancy. The sample was collected on a salt marsh island in Jamaica Bay, New York, in April 2015 and the root was cross-sectioned with 10 μm resolution. Synchrotron X-ray nanofluorescence was applied to map the trace element distributions in selected areas of the root epidermis and endodermis. The sampling resolution was 60 nm to increase the measurement accuracy and reduce the uncertainty. The results indicate that the elemental concentrations in the epidermis, outer endodermis and inner endodermis are significantly (p < 0.01) different. The root endodermis has relatively higher concentrations of these elements than the root epidermis. Furthermore, this high resolution measurement indicates that the elemental concentrations in the outer endodermis are significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those in the inner endodermis. These results suggest that the Casparian strip may play a role in governing the aplastic transport of these elements. Pearson correlation analysis on the average concentrations of each element in the selected areas shows that most of the elements are significantly (p < 0.05) correlated, which suggests that these elements may share the same transport pathways.

  14. Nanoscale measurement of trace element distributions in Spartina alterniflora root tissue during dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Cochran, J. Kirk; Zhu, Qingzhi; Hu, Wen; Yan, Hanfei; Li, Li; Huang, Xiaojing; Chu, Yong S.; Liu, Houjun; Yoo, Shinjae; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a nanometer-scale investigation of trace element (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, S and Zn) distributions in the root system Spartina alterniflora during dormancy. The sample was collected on a salt marsh island in Jamaica Bay, New York, in April 2015 and the root was cross-sectioned with 10 μm resolution. Synchrotron X-ray nanofluorescence was applied to map the trace element distributions in selected areas of the root epidermis and endodermis. The sampling resolution was 60 nm to increase the measurement accuracy and reduce the uncertainty. The results indicate that the elemental concentrations in the epidermis, outer endodermis and inner endodermis are significantly (p < 0.01) different. The root endodermis has relatively higher concentrations of these elements than the root epidermis. Furthermore, this high resolution measurement indicates that the elemental concentrations in the outer endodermis are significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those in the inner endodermis. These results suggest that the Casparian strip may play a role in governing the aplastic transport of these elements. Pearson correlation analysis on the average concentrations of each element in the selected areas shows that most of the elements are significantly (p < 0.05) correlated, which suggests that these elements may share the same transport pathways. PMID:28098254

  15. Applications of the lateral shearing interferometer in measurement of synchrotron radiation optical elements

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wu-ming; Takacs, P.Z.; Siddons, D.P.

    1987-11-01

    The use of a single plate shearing, or Murty, interferometer for measuring the surface quality of several optical elements is reviewed and several results are given. The principle of the Murty interferometer is also explained. (LEW)

  16. Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macintosh, Henry G.

    An introduction to profiles is presented with examples provided to permit an overall appraisal of the potential of profiles, of the principles upon which they might be based, and of the problems that will have to be overcome if their potential is to be realized in practice. The larger scale examples of profiles discussed are the Scottish Pupil…

  17. Mean horizontal wind profiles measured in the atmospheric boundary layer about a simulated block building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Connell, J. R.; Hutto, M. L.; Fichtl, G.

    1977-01-01

    Instrumented wind towers are used to measure the three components of wind about a simulated block building. The mean horizontal wind profiles over the building are compared with wind profiles measured in the absence of the building and the wind speed deficit in the wake of the building is correlated. The turbulence intensity is of the order of 20% in the undisturbed flow whereas the free stream turbulence intensity of wind-tunnel studies is generally not more than 5%. The velocity profiles measured in the undisturbed flow zones support the representation of a neutrally stable atmospheric boundary layer with a logarithmic wind profile.

  18. Automated system for identification of atomic elements and calculation of lines profiles in emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Wilder; Restrepo, Elisabeth; Devia, Alfonso

    2001-04-01

    A database was designed starting from the Kurucz cd-rom N0 23 of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. In this database the different atomic elements are ordered by wavelength with their ionization levels. Also, there are other data like statistic weight, Einstein's coefficient, information about energy levels, constant of damping, among others. The spectra of the discharge are processed using a digital filtrate technique, with the purpose of reducing the noise present in the data to locate the points where the maximum amplitudes are presented. Starting from these results, consultations dynamic SQL are made, these obtain the elements present in these regions from the database. Finally, by means of the use of statistical methods it is determined which are the elements that have the highest probability of conform with the plasma. .

  19. Single-step spatial rotation error separation technique for the ultraprecision measurement of surface profiles.

    PubMed

    Hou, Maosheng; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Weiqian; Wang, Fan; Liu, Entao; Ji, Lin

    2014-01-20

    To improve the measurement accuracy of the profilometer for large optical surfaces, a new single-step spatial rotation error separation technique (SSEST) is proposed to separate the surface profile error and spindle spatial rotation error, and a novel SSEST-based system for surface profile measurement is developed. In the process of separation, two sets of measured results at the ith measurement circle are obtained before and after the rotation of error separation table, the surface profile error and spatial rotation error of spindle can be determined using discrete Fourier-transform and harmonic analysis. Theoretical analyses and experimental results indicate that SSEST can accurately separate spatial rotation error of spindle from the measured surface profile results within the range of 1-100 upr and improve the accuracy of surface profile measurements.

  20. Measurement of dynamic interaction between a vibrating fuel element and its support

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, N.J.; Tromp, J.H.; Smith, B.A.W.

    1996-12-01

    Flow-induced vibration of CANDU{reg_sign} fuel can result in fretting damage of the fuel and its support. A WOrk-Rate Measuring Station (WORMS) was developed to measure the relative motion and contact forces between a vibrating fuel element and its support. The fixture consists of a small piece of support structure mounted on a micrometer stage. This arrangement permits position of the support relative to the fuel element to be controlled to within {+-} {micro}m. A piezoelectric triaxial load washer is positioned between the support and micrometer stage to measure contact forces, and a pair of miniature eddy-current displacement probes are mounted on the stage to measure fuel element-to-support relative motion. WORMS has been utilized to measure dynamic contact forces, relative displacements and work-rates between a vibrating fuel element and its support. For these tests, the fuel element was excited with broadband random force excitation to simulate flow-induced vibration due to axial flow. The relationship between fuel element-to-support gap or preload (i.e., interference or negative gap) and dynamic interaction (i.e., relative motion, contact forces and work-rates) was derived. These measurements confirmed numerical simulations of in-reactor interaction predicted earlier using the VIBIC code.

  1. Elemental profiles of freshwater mussels treated with silver nanoparticles: A metallomic approach.

    PubMed

    Gagné, F; Turcotte, P; Pilote, M; Auclair, J; André, C; Gagnon, C

    2016-10-01

    Nanoparticles released into the environment could pose a risk to resident organisms that feed on suspended particles in aquatic ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of silver nanoparticles (nanoAg) of different sizes in freshwater mussels using a multi-elemental (metallomic) approach in order to determine signature effects of nanoparticulate and ionic Ag. Mussels were exposed to three concentrations (0.8, 4 and 20μg/L) of 20-nm and 80-nm nanoAg and AgNO3 for 48h at 15°C. After the exposure period, mussels were placed in clean, aerated water for a depuration step and analyzed for the following total elements in gill, digestive gland and gonad tissues: Al, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Na, Ni, Se, Sr, Th, U, V and Zn. Metallothioneins (MT; digestive gland only) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were also determined in gills, digestive glands and gonads. The 20-nm-diameter nanoAg was detected in all three tissues at 20μg/L, while the 80-nm nanoAg was detected more strongly in the digestive gland. Ionic Ag was found at higher levels in gills than in other tissues. Correlation analysis revealed that gonad Ag levels were significantly correlated with Al (r=0.28), V (r=0.28), Cr (r=0.31), Co (r=0.32), Se (r=0.34) and MT levels (r=0.28). Indeed, the MT levels in the digestive gland were significantly increased by 20-nm nanoAg (20μg/L) and 80-nm nanoAg (4μg/L) and AgNO3 (<0.8μg/L). LPO was observed in gills, digestive glands and even gonads for all Ag forms. Discriminant function analysis revealed that all forms of Ag differed from each other and from unexposed mussels, where ionic Ag was more closely related to the 80-nm-diameter nanoAg. Factorial analysis revealed that Ba, Ca, Co, Mn, Sr, U and Zn had consistently high factorial weights in all tissues; that explained 80% of the total variance. Moreover, the following elements showed strong correlations (r>0.7) with each other: Sr, Ba, Zn, Ca, Mg Cr, Mn and U

  2. Reproducibility of trace element profiles in a specimen of the deep-water bamboo coral Keratoisis sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Daniel J.; Williams, B.; Allard, G.; Ghaleb, B.; Fallon, S.; Ross, S. W.; Risk, M.

    2011-09-01

    Bamboo corals (Order Gorgonacea, Family Isididae) are attractive prospects for deep-sea paleoceanographic reconstruction, capturing trace elements in their calcitic skeletons that may serve as environmental proxies with subdecadal resolution over multi-century timescales. We study the reproducibility and fidelity of trace-element profiles (Ba, Mg, Sr, Mn, U, Pb) in a 420-year-old specimen of the bamboo coral Keratoisis sp. from the SE USA. Using laser-ablation ICP-MS to obtain multiple replicate profiles, we use spectral techniques to distinguish noise and irreproducible variations from fully reproducible geochemical fluctuations that are candidates for environmental signals. By quantifying variability between profiles, we assess the fidelity with which the corals potentially record environmental information. Barium is the most reproducible element in the skeleton, with large fluctuations along different growth radii reproducing to within 4%. Both Mg and Sr have very uniform levels within the coral, but display low-amplitude irreproducible variations that might represent an internal biological process. In the case of Mg, which has been proposed as a paleotemperature proxy, this irreproducibility would represent an intrinsic uncertainty of ˜±0.1 to 0.4 °C. Both Mn and Pb contain some irreproducibility superimposed upon broad reproducible profiles that may be environmental signals. Some of the irreproducible Pb fluctuations correlate with cracks and dark bands in the sample suggesting detrital or surface contamination. Uranium displays large amplitude variations which are not reproducible along different radii. This suggests that uranium cannot be used for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, and may show signs of early diagenesis - a possibility that could complicate attempts to date young Keratoisis sp. samples by U-series geochemistry. The highly reproducible Ba signal allows precise alignment of profiles and thus we can show that growth rate along one radius can

  3. Influence of extraneous supplementation of zinc on trace elemental profile leading to prevention of dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Vijayta Dani; Garg, M L; Dhawan, D

    2010-10-01

    Trace elemental analyses of cancerous tissue is a less explored field of inquiry in cancer research. If the deficiency or excess of a particular trace element can be linked to the cancer, studies can be initiated to see its controlled administration to check the growth of cancer. The present study explored the prophylactic potential of zinc in experimental colon carcinogenesis and also its interaction with other trace metals, which gets altered during the development of colon cancer. Rats were segregated into four groups viz., normal control, dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treated, zinc treated, DMH+zinc treated. Initiation and induction of colon carcinogenesis was achieved through weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/Kg body weight) dissolved in 1 mM EDTA-normal saline (pH 6.5), for 8 and 16 weeks, respectively. Zinc was supplemented at a dose level of 227 mg/L in drinking water, for 8 and 16 weeks. The elemental analyses of colonic samples were carried out using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF). Zinc administration to DMH treated rats significantly decreased the tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity with simultaneous decrement in tumor size. EDXRF studies revealed that the concentrations of the elements zinc, chromium, manganese and copper were decreased, whereas the concentration levels of iron were found to be increased in the colon tissues following 8 and 16 weeks of DMH treatment. However, zinc supplementation to DMH-treated rats significantly improved the altered levels of elements when compared to DMH-treated animals indicating the chemopreventive role of zinc. In conclusion, DMH induced colon carcinogenesis is accompanied by altered trace element profile and zinc has a positive beneficial effect against chemically-induced colonic carcinogenesis.

  4. Multi-Elemental Profiling of Tibial and Maxillary Trabecular Bone in Ovariectomised Rats

    PubMed Central

    Han, Pingping; Lu, Shifeier; Zhou, Yinghong; Moromizato, Karine; Du, Zhibin; Friis, Thor; Xiao, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Atomic minerals are the smallest components of bone and the content of Ca, being the most abundant mineral in bone, correlates strongly with the risk of osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women have a far greater risk of suffering from OP due to low Ca concentrations in their bones and this is associated with low bone mass and higher bone fracture rates. However, bone strength is determined not only by Ca level, but also a number of metallic and non-metallic elements in bone. Thus, in this study, the difference of metallic and non-metallic elements in ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis tibial and maxillary trabecular bone was investigated in comparison with sham operated normal bone by laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a rat model. The results demonstrated that the average concentrations of 25Mg, 28Si, 39K, 47Ti, 56Fe, 59Co, 77Se, 88Sr, 137Ba, and 208Pb were generally higher in tibia than those in maxilla. Compared with the sham group, Ovariectomy induced more significant changes of these elements in tibia than maxilla, indicating tibial trabecular bones are more sensitive to changes of circulating estrogen. In addition, the concentrations of 28Si, 77Se, 208Pb, and Ca/P ratios were higher in tibia and maxilla in ovariectomised rats than those in normal bone at all time-points. The present study indicates that ovariectomy could significantly impact the element distribution and concentrations between tibia and maxilla. PMID:27338361

  5. The combined impact of vineyard origin and processing winery on the elemental profile of red wines.

    PubMed

    Hopfer, Helene; Nelson, Jenny; Collins, Thomas S; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-04-01

    The combined effects of vineyard origin and winery processing have been studied in 65 red wines samples. Grapes originating from five different vineyards within 40 miles of each other were processed in at least two different wineries. Sixty-three different elements were determined with inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and wines were classified according to vineyard origin, processing winery, and the combination of both factors. Vineyard origin as well as winery processing have an impact on the elemental composition of wine, but each winery and each vineyard change the composition to a different degree. For some vineyards, wines showed a characteristic elemental pattern, independent of the processing winery, but the same was found for some wineries, with similar elemental pattern for all grapes processed in these wineries, independent of the vineyard origin. Studying the combined effects of grapegrowing and winemaking provides insight into the determination of geographical origin of red wines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Trace elements in a Pliocene-Pleistocene lignite profile from the Afsin-Elbistan field, eastern Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Karayigit, A.I.; Gayer, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    The authors present the results of proximate and ultimate analyses, mineralogical determination, and trace element analysis of a lignite profile from the Afsin-Elbistan field (eastern Turkey). The lignite, which developed during the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition under freshwater lacustrine conditions, contains white gastropod (Planorbidae) shells composed of calcite and a little aragonite. Other identifiable mineral constituents, analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction, include quartz, pyrite, clay minerals, and rare feldspares. Petrographical studies demonstrate the immature nature of these lignites and very low degree of compaction during diagenesis. The mean concentrations of trace elements in the lignite, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), show relative enrichment in Mo (avg. 20 ppm), W (avg. 15 ppm) and U (avg. 25 ppm) when compared to the global range for most coals, while the others (Ti, p, Sc, Be, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Cs, Ba, Y, Ta, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu) fall within their global ranges. Many of the trace elements show a good correlation with the ash yield, implying an inorganic affinity. However, Mo and Sr show a negative correlation with the ash yield and are thought to be organically associated. A lack of correlation of U with either the ash yield or the coal sulfur content, together with its relative enrichment, suggests secondary mobility of this element.

  7. Non-parametrically Measuring Dark Matter Profiles in the Milky Way's Dwarf Spheroidals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardel, John; Gebhardt, K.

    2013-01-01

    The Milky Way's population of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellites has received much attention as a test site for the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model for structure formation. Dynamical modeling, using the motions of the stars to trace the unknown mass distribution, is well-suited to test predictions of CDM by measuring the radial density profiles of the dark matter (DM) halos in which the dSphs reside. These studies reveal DM profiles with constant-density cores, in contrast to the cuspy profiles predicted from DM-only simulations. To resolve this discrepancy, many believe that feedback from baryons can alter the DM profiles and turn cusps into cores. Since it is difficult to simulate these complex baryonic processes with high fidelity, there are not many robust predictions for how feedback should affect the dSphs. We therefore do not know the type of DM profile to look for in these systems. This motivates a study to measure the DM profiles of dSphs non-parametrically to detect profiles other than the traditional cored and cuspy profiles most studies explore. I will present early results from a study using orbit-based models to non-parametrically measure the DM profiles of several of the bright Milky Way dSphs. The DM profiles measured will place observational constraints on the effects of feedback in low-mass galaxies.

  8. Ocean Profile Measurements During the Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys Ocean Profiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    S, V, internal waves/mixing Clouds and the Evolution of the SIZ in Beaufort and Chukchi Seas Schweiger Lindsay, Zhang, Maslanik, Lawrence...Atmospheric profiles (dropsondes, micro-aircraft), cloud top/base heights UpTempO buoys for understanding and prediction…. Steele UpTempO buoy...apparent and generally consistent with the pattern in previous years. The appearance of warm near-surface water in the developing open water regions

  9. Turbulence in planetary occultations. II - Effects on atmospheric profiles derived from Doppler measurements. III - Effects on atmospheric profiles derived from intensity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haugstad, B. S.

    1978-01-01

    The nature and magnitude of turbulence-induced errors in atmospheric profiles derived from Doppler measurements made during radio occultations are investigated. It is found that turbulence in planetary atmospheres induces both fluctuating and systematic errors in derived profiles, but the errors of both types are very small. Consideration of the occultation of Mariner 10 by Venus and of the Pioneer occultations by Jupiter shows that the rms fractional errors in the atmospheric profiles derived from these observations were less than 0.01 in both temperature and pressure, while the fractional systematic errors were typically of the order of 1 millionth. The extent to which atmospheric profiles derived from radio and optical intensity measurements are affected by turbulence is also examined. The results indicate that turbulence in planetary atmospheres has only a marginal effect on derived profiles in the weak-scattering limit and that the turbulence-induced errors in this case are always much larger than the corresponding errors in profiles derived from radio Doppler measurements.

  10. Overview on the profile measurement of turbine blade and its development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junhui; Wang, Zhao; Gao, Jianmin; Yu, Yanguang

    2010-10-01

    Turbine machinery has an extraordinary wide range of applications in the aviation, aerospace, automotive, energy and many other industries. The turbine blade is one of the most important parts of turbine machinery, and the characteristic parameters, pressure ratio of the engine and rotating speed of the turbine are all related to the shape and size of blades. Therefore, the profile measurement of turbine blade is an essential issue in the blade machining processing, however, it is difficult and particular to establish the profile measurement of turbine blade because of its complicated shapes and space angles of the blades, and the specific stringent environmental requirements need a more appropriate measurement method to the Turbine Blade profile measurement. This paper reviews the recent research and development on the Turbine Blade profile measurement methods, which mainly describes several common and advanced measurement methods, such as the traditional coordinate measuring machines, some optical measurement methods with the characteristics of non-contact like optical theodolite, three-dimensional photography, laser interferometry, as well as the laser triangulation method studied more recently and so on. Firstly, the measuring principles, the key technical issues and the applications in the Turbine Blade profile measurement of the methods which are mentioned above are described respectively in detail, and the characteristics of those methods are analyzed in this paper. Furthermore, the scope of application and limitations of those measurement methods are summed up. Finally, some views on the current research focus and perspective trend of the Turbine Blade profile measurement technology are presented.

  11. Cannabis profiling based on its elemental composition--is it possible?

    PubMed

    Kuras, Marzena Joanna; Wachowicz, Marek Jan

    2011-09-01

    Elemental composition of 85 cannabis samples was established using GF AAS and ICP OES methods. The robustness of the method was determined by analyzing eight independently prepared replicates from a single cannabis plant. The accuracy of the method was established by analyzing four plant certified reference material samples. The ability of discriminant analysis using elemental compositions to distinguish between fiber cannabis samples collected from four different regions of Poland was evaluated. Then, a classification model was developed that correctly classified selected samples of known origin. Cannabis samples confiscated by law enforcement agencies have also been subjected to discriminant analysis. A classification model has been developed for four locations in Poland (Białystok, Kościerzyna, the environs of Skarżysko Kamienna, and Bydgoszcz), to help determine where samples of unknown origin could have been grown. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Origin-Oriented Elemental Profile of Fine Ambient Particulate Matter in Central European Suburban Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Majewski, Grzegorz; Błaszczak, Barbara; Klejnowski, Krzysztof; Rogula-Kopiec, Patrycja

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour samples of fine ambient particulate matter (PM2.5; particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 µm) were collected in a suburban (quasi-rural) area in Racibórz (Poland) between 1 January 2011 and 26 December 2012. The samples were analyzed for the contents of 28 elements. Sources of PM2.5 were identified and the contribution of each source to the PM2.5 concentration was assessed using an enrichment factor (EF) analysis, a principal component analysis (PCA), and multi-linear regression analysis (MLRA). In the cold season (January–March and October–December 2011–2012), the mean ambient concentration of PM2.5 in Racibórz was 48.7 ± 39.4 µg·m−3, which was much higher than at other suburban or rural sites in Europe. Additionally the ambient concentrations of some toxic PM2.5-bound elements were also high, i.e., the mean ambient concentrations of PM2.5-bound As, Cd, and Pb were 11.3 ± 11.5, 5.2 ± 2.5, and 34.0 ± 34.2 ng·m−3, respectively. In the warm season (April–September 2011–2012), the PM2.5 and PM2.5-bound element concentrations in Racibórz were comparable to the concentrations noted at other suburban (or rural) sites in Europe. Our findings suggest that elemental composition and concentrations of PM2.5 in Racibórz are mainly influenced by anthropogenic emissions, i.e., the energy production based on coal and biomass combustion, traffic, and industry. PMID:27428988

  13. Potentially-toxic and essential elements profile of AH1N1 patients in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Mireya; Bautista, Edgar G.; Velázquez-González, Antonio; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, Felipe; Tzintzun, Guadalupe; García-Arreola, María Elena; Castillejos, Manuel; Hernández, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    During spring of 2009, a new influenza virus AH1N1 spread in the world causing acute respiratory illness and death, resulting in the first influenza pandemic since 1968. Blood levels of potentially-toxic and essential elements of 40 pneumonia and confirmed AH1N1 were evaluated against two different groups of controls, both not infected with the pandemic strain. Significant concentrations of potentially-toxic elements (lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, arsenic) along with deficiency of selenium or increased Zn/Cu ratios characterized AH1N1 cases under study when evaluated versus controlled cases. Deficiency of selenium is progressively observed from controls I (influenza like illness) through controls II (pneumonia) and finally pneumonia -AH1N1 infected patients. Cases with blood Se levels greater than the recommended for an optimal cut-off to activate glutathione peroxidase (12.5 μg/dL) recovered from illness and survived. Evaluation of this essential element in critical pneumonia patients at the National Institutes is under evaluation as a clinical trial. PMID:23422930

  14. Transposable Elements versus the Fungal Genome: Impact on Whole-Genome Architecture and Transcriptional Profiles.

    PubMed

    Castanera, Raúl; López-Varas, Leticia; Borgognone, Alessandra; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Pérez, Gúmer; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Grigoriev, Igor V; Stajich, Jason E; Ramírez, Lucía

    2016-06-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are exceptional contributors to eukaryotic genome diversity. Their ubiquitous presence impacts the genomes of nearly all species and mediates genome evolution by causing mutations and chromosomal rearrangements and by modulating gene expression. We performed an exhaustive analysis of the TE content in 18 fungal genomes, including strains of the same species and species of the same genera. Our results depicted a scenario of exceptional variability, with species having 0.02 to 29.8% of their genome consisting of transposable elements. A detailed analysis performed on two strains of Pleurotus ostreatus uncovered a genome that is populated mainly by Class I elements, especially LTR-retrotransposons amplified in recent bursts from 0 to 2 million years (My) ago. The preferential accumulation of TEs in clusters led to the presence of genomic regions that lacked intra- and inter-specific conservation. In addition, we investigated the effect of TE insertions on the expression of their nearby upstream and downstream genes. Our results showed that an important number of genes under TE influence are significantly repressed, with stronger repression when genes are localized within transposon clusters. Our transcriptional analysis performed in four additional fungal models revealed that this TE-mediated silencing was present only in species with active cytosine methylation machinery. We hypothesize that this phenomenon is related to epigenetic defense mechanisms that are aimed to suppress TE expression and control their proliferation.

  15. Elemental profiles in feather samples from a mercury-contaminated lake in central california

    PubMed

    Cahill; Anderson; Elbert; Perley; Johnson

    1998-07-01

    Flight feathers from six bird species at Clear Lake, CA were analyzed to determine the extent and distribution of mercury contamination from an abandoned mercury mine and associated levels of 14 other elements. Feather samples were collected from adult and juvenile osprey (Pandion haliaetus), including juvenile osprey from three additional comparison sites; adult western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis); adult great blue herons (Ardea herodias); adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos); adult turkey vultures (Cathartes aura); and juvenile double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). Samples were analyzed by a multielemental x-ray fluorescence method. The osprey from Clear Lake showed significantly elevated mercury concentrations relative to the comparison sites. Different species at Clear Lake had different mercury concentrations based on trophic status; osprey exhibited the highest mercury concentrations and the mallards showed the lowest. Lastly, we quantified differences in elemental concentrations, including mercury, between adult and juvenile osprey from Clear Lake. Elements known to be nutrients, such as sulfur and zinc, did not vary significantly among species or sites. Reproductive success of osprey at Clear Lake was monitored from 1992 to 1996 to determine if osprey reproduction was depressed. During this five-year period, the breeding population grew from 10 to 20 nesting pairs and the average reproductive rate was 1.4 fledglings per nesting attempt. Although the osprey showed the highest mercury levels of any species sampled, their reproduction does not appear to be depressed.

  16. Transposable Elements versus the Fungal Genome: Impact on Whole-Genome Architecture and Transcriptional Profiles

    DOE PAGES

    Castanera, Raul; Lopez-Varas, Leticia; Borgognone, Alessandra; ...

    2016-06-13

    Transposable elements (TEs) are exceptional contributors to eukaryotic genome diversity. Their ubiquitous presence impacts the genomes of nearly all species and mediates genome evolution by causing mutations and chromosomal rearrangements and by modulating gene expression. We performed an exhaustive analysis of the TE content in 18 fungal genomes, including strains of the same species and species of the same genera. Our results depicted a scenario of exceptional variability, with species having 0.02 to 29.8% of their genome consisting of transposable elements. A detailed analysis performed on two strains of Pleurotus ostreatus uncovered a genome that is populated mainly by Classmore » I elements, especially LTR-retrotransposons amplified in recent bursts from 0 to 2 million years (My) ago. The preferential accumulation of TEs in clusters led to the presence of genomic regions that lacked intra- and inter-specific conservation. In addition, we investigated the effect of TE insertions on the expression of their nearby upstream and downstream genes. Our results showed that an important number of genes under TE influence are significantly repressed, with stronger repression when genes are localized within transposon clusters. Our transcriptional analysis performed in four additional fungal models revealed that this TE-mediated silencing was present only in species with active cytosine methylation machinery. We hypothesize that this phenomenon is related to epigenetic defense mechanisms that are aimed to suppress TE expression and control their proliferation.« less

  17. Potential of Vinca rosea extracts in modulating trace element profile: a chemopreventive approach.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Bidhan; Sudarshan, Mathummal; Boruah, Mandira; Chakraborty, Anindita

    2007-01-01

    Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was used as cancer-inducing agent in the experimental animals. Vinca rosea extract was supplemented with the drinking water as a chemopreventive agent. After 4 wk of treatment, animals were sacrificed and livers were excised. Nuclei and mitochondria were separated by differential centrifugation. The proton-induced X-ray emission technique has been used as the analytical method. Elemental analysis were performed for whole liver, nuclei, and mitochondria.V. rosea plant parts were also analyzed for elemental contents. Treatment with DEN caused an increase of Ni, Zn, and Cr levels in the whole liver and nuclei. There is an increase in Fe concentration in the liver, although the level decreased in mitochondria. The concentrations of Br and Ca were unchanged in the liver as a whole, but there were substantial increases of Br in nuclei and mitochondria, whereas Ca levels depleted drastically in these two organelles. Vinca extracts were effective in reverting the changes in the elemental concentration in the hepatic tissue as a whole, but were not that effective at subcellular levels.

  18. Transposable Elements versus the Fungal Genome: Impact on Whole-Genome Architecture and Transcriptional Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Castanera, Raúl; López-Varas, Leticia; Borgognone, Alessandra; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Ramírez, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are exceptional contributors to eukaryotic genome diversity. Their ubiquitous presence impacts the genomes of nearly all species and mediates genome evolution by causing mutations and chromosomal rearrangements and by modulating gene expression. We performed an exhaustive analysis of the TE content in 18 fungal genomes, including strains of the same species and species of the same genera. Our results depicted a scenario of exceptional variability, with species having 0.02 to 29.8% of their genome consisting of transposable elements. A detailed analysis performed on two strains of Pleurotus ostreatus uncovered a genome that is populated mainly by Class I elements, especially LTR-retrotransposons amplified in recent bursts from 0 to 2 million years (My) ago. The preferential accumulation of TEs in clusters led to the presence of genomic regions that lacked intra- and inter-specific conservation. In addition, we investigated the effect of TE insertions on the expression of their nearby upstream and downstream genes. Our results showed that an important number of genes under TE influence are significantly repressed, with stronger repression when genes are localized within transposon clusters. Our transcriptional analysis performed in four additional fungal models revealed that this TE-mediated silencing was present only in species with active cytosine methylation machinery. We hypothesize that this phenomenon is related to epigenetic defense mechanisms that are aimed to suppress TE expression and control their proliferation. PMID:27294409

  19. Near-wall velocity profile measurement for nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjirakat, Anoop; Sadr, Reza

    2016-01-01

    We perform near-wall velocity measurements of a SiO2-water nanofluid inside a microchannel. Nanoparticle image velocimetry measurements at three visible depths within 500 nm of the wall are conducted. We evaluate the optical properties of the nanofluid and their effect on the measurement technique. The results indicate that the small effect of the nanoparticles on the optical properties of the suspension have a negligible effect on the measurement technique. Our measurements show an increase in nanofluid velocity gradients near the walls, with no measurable slip, relative to the equivalent basefluid flow. We conjecture that particle migration induced by shear may have caused this increase. The effect of this increase in the measured near wall velocity gradient has implications on the viscosity measurement for these fluids.

  20. Evaluation of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler measurements of river discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morlock, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The standard deviations of the ADCP measurements ranged from approximately 1 to 6 percent and were generally higher than the measurement errors predicted by error-propagation analysis of ADCP instrument performance. These error-prediction methods assume that the largest component of ADCP discharge measurement error is instrument related. The larger standard deviations indicate that substantial portions of measurement error may be attributable to sources unrelated to ADCP electronics or signal processing and are functions of the field environment.

  1. Validation of the "Security Needs Assessment Profile" for measuring the profiles of security needs of Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Siu, B W M; Au-Yeung, C C Y; Chan, A W L; Chan, L S Y; Yuen, K K; Leung, H W; Yan, C K; Ng, K K; Lai, A C H; Davies, S; Collins, M

    2017-05-17

    Mapping forensic psychiatric services with the security needs of patients is a salient step in service planning, audit and review. A valid and reliable instrument for measuring the security needs of Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients was not yet available. This study aimed to develop and validate the Chinese version of the Security Needs Assessment Profile for measuring the profiles of security needs of Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients. The Security Needs Assessment Profile by Davis was translated into Chinese. Its face validity, content validity, construct validity and internal consistency reliability were assessed by measuring the security needs of 98 Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients. Principal factor analysis for construct validity provided a six-factor security needs model explaining 68.7% of the variance. Based on the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, the internal consistency reliability was rated as acceptable for procedural security (0.73), and fair for both physical security (0.62) and relational security (0.58). A significant sex difference (p=0.002) in total security score was found. The Chinese version of the Security Needs Assessment Profile is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing the security needs of Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Constraints on Galactic Cosmic-Ray Origins from Elemental and Isotopic Composition Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; deNolfo, G. A.; Israel, M. H.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A,; Stone, E. C.; vonRosevinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    The most recent measurements by the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite of ultra-heavy cosmic ray isotopic and elemental abundances will be presented. A range of isotope and element ratios, most importantly Ne-22/Ne-20, Fe-58/Fe-56, and Ga-31/Ge -32 show that the composition is consistent with source material that is a mix of approx 80% ISM (with Solar System abundances) and 20% outflow/ejecta from massive stars. In addition, our data show that the ordering of refractory and volatile elements with atomic mass is greatly improved when compared to an approx 80%/20% mix rather than pure ISM, that the refractory and volatile elements have similar slopes, and that refractory elements are preferentially accelerated by a factor of approx 4. We conclude that these data are consistent with an OB association origin of GCRs.

  3. Measurements of elemental composition in background aerosol on the west coast of Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öblad, M.; Selin, E.

    Concentrations of 14 elements in long distance transported aerosol have been measured in a rural site on the W coast of Sweden. The measurements were made during one winter and two summer periods, 1981-1984. Sampling was made with a dichotomous virtual impactor. Element analysis was made by photon induced X-ray fluorescence. The element concentrations were related to air mass trajectories. A strong dependence of the concentration variations with air mass history is found for most elements, in particular Pb, S, V, Zn and Cl. Median concentrations for the 14 elements in the two size fractions are reported and compared with previous measurements in central Sweden at the same latitude. Significant deviations are found for S and V. Concentrations of particulate S have proven to be very insensitive to locally produced SO 2 emissions. This makes measurements of fine particulate S on the Swedish W coast an excellent tool for checking the S transport from other countries to Sweden. The ratios Br/Pb in fine particles and the coarse/fine ratios for particulate lead have, together with air mass trajectories, been used to suggest source areas for automotive lead. The soil derived elements, Fe, Ca, Ti and Mn, also demonstrate variations with air mass trajectories. Enrichment factors for coarse particles of Ca, Mn and Ti with iron as a reference show variations that we believe are typical for the soil of the source area.

  4. Deconvolution-based correction of alkali beam emission spectroscopy density profile measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Pusztai, I.; Pokol, G.; Refy, D.; Por, G.; Dunai, D.; Anda, G.; Zoletnik, S.; Schweinzer, J.

    2009-08-15

    A deconvolution-based correction method of the beam emission spectroscopy (BES) density profile measurement is demonstrated by its application to simulated measurements of the COMPASS and TEXTOR tokamaks. If the line of sight is far from tangential to the flux surfaces, and the beam width is comparable to the scale length on which the light profile varies, the observation may cause an undesired smoothing of the light profile, resulting in a non-negligible underestimation of the calculated density profile. This effect can be reduced significantly by the emission reconstruction method, which gives an estimate of the emissivity along the beam axis from the measured light profile, taking the finite beam width and the properties of the measurement into account in terms of the transfer function of the observation. Characteristics and magnitude of the mentioned systematic error and its reduction by the introduced method are studied by means of the comprehensive alkali BES simulation code RENATE.

  5. EAST equilibrium current profile reconstruction using polarimeter-interferometer internal measurement constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, J. P.; Lao, L. L.; Liu, H. Q.; Ding, W. X.; Zeng, L.; Luo, Z. P.; Ren, Q. L.; Huang, Y.; Huang, J.; Brower, D. L.; Hanada, K.; Chen, D. L.; Sun, Y. W.; Shen, B.; Gong, X. Z.; Xiao, B. J.; Wan, B. N.

    2017-03-01

    The first equilibrium reconstruction of EAST current-density profile based on internal Faraday rotation measurements provided by the POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) diagnostic is demonstrated using the EFIT equilibrium reconstruction code. EFIT incorporates 11 simultaneous line-integrated density and Faraday effect measurements from POINT to self-consistently reconstruct the equilibrium toroidal current density profile using a Faraday rotation reconstruction algorithm. It is shown that the POINT measurements can be applied to improve the accuracy of core plasma current density and q profile on EAST. Comparisons of magnetic surfaces and the q profile reconstructed using external magnetic data against those using magnetic and POINT data are presented. Equilibrium reconstructions using POINT data are found to be consistent with sawtooth phenomena. The sensitivity of equilibrium reconstruction to POINT measurements indicates Faraday rotation provides important constraints for determining the current profile.

  6. Note: A non-invasive electronic measurement technique to measure the embedded four resistive elements in a Wheatstone bridge sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Ravelo Arias, S. I.; Ramírez Muñoz, D.; Ferreira, R.; Freitas, P.

    2015-06-15

    The work shows a measurement technique to obtain the correct value of the four elements in a resistive Wheatstone bridge without the need to separate the physical connections existing between them. Two electronic solutions are presented, based on a source-and-measure unit and using discrete electronic components. The proposed technique brings the possibility to know the mismatching or the tolerance between the bridge resistive elements and then to pass or reject it in terms of its related common-mode rejection. Experimental results were taken in various Wheatstone resistive bridges (discrete and magnetoresistive integrated bridges) validating the proposed measurement technique specially when the bridge is micro-fabricated and there is no physical way to separate one resistive element from the others.

  7. Note: A non-invasive electronic measurement technique to measure the embedded four resistive elements in a Wheatstone bridge sensor.

    PubMed

    Ravelo Arias, S I; Ramírez Muñoz, D; Cardoso, S; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P

    2015-06-01

    The work shows a measurement technique to obtain the correct value of the four elements in a resistive Wheatstone bridge without the need to separate the physical connections existing between them. Two electronic solutions are presented, based on a source-and-measure unit and using discrete electronic components. The proposed technique brings the possibility to know the mismatching or the tolerance between the bridge resistive elements and then to pass or reject it in terms of its related common-mode rejection. Experimental results were taken in various Wheatstone resistive bridges (discrete and magnetoresistive integrated bridges) validating the proposed measurement technique specially when the bridge is micro-fabricated and there is no physical way to separate one resistive element from the others.

  8. Single kernel ionomic profiles are highly heritable indicators of genetic and environmental influences on elemental accumulation in maize grain (Zea mays)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ionome, or elemental profile, of a maize kernel represents at least two distinct ideas. First, the collection of elements within the kernel are food, feed and feedstocks for people, animals and industrial processes. Second, the ionome of the kernel represents a developmental end point that can s...

  9. The Effect of Growth Kinetics on the Development of Element- and Isotope Profiles in Single Mineral Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, E. B.; Mueller, T.

    2008-12-01

    The formation of a rock texture is the consequence of multiple interacting processes controlling the crystallization history of minerals, and is typically recorded in several ways and on different scales. Recent advances in microanalysis enable observation of compositional (elemental as well as isotopic) variations on progressively decreasing (sub-mm) scales, and theoretical approaches for simulating realistic, disequilibrium kinetic effects are becoming increasingly sophisticated. Here we present some new perspectives arising from the continuing development of our numerical approach for describing kinetically controlled element uptake and isotope fractionation during diffusion-controlled mineral growth. We assume a spherical grain growing under local equilibrium at the interface with a spherical matrix of a given size and composition. It has been shown previously that the uptake of a component in a growing crystal depends critically upon the ratio of the crystal growth rate (R) to the diffusivity (D) of that component in the growth medium. Highly compatible (or incompatible) elements potentially will be depleted (or accumulated) near the surface of the growing crystal, forming a disequilibrium compositional boundary layer against the advancing interface. Equilibration of this boundary layer with the bulk reservoir depends mainly on D of the species of interest, and because D is now known to vary with mass of an isotope of a given element, signficant isotope fractionation is predicted to occur during progressive mineral growth under some circumstances. In the present study we focus specifically on the role of crystal-growth kinetics [R=f(time)] in controlling isotope profiles recorded in crystals. We show that the amount of fractionation, and especially the shape of the resulting radial isotope profiles, is quite sensitive to the assumed growth law or history. Differences in the initial grain size - as might apply in the case of xenocrysts in magma - have a

  10. Geostatistical validation and cross-validation of magnetometric measurements of soil pollution with Potentially Toxic Elements in problematic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabijańczyk, Piotr; Zawadzki, Jarosław

    2016-04-01

    Field magnetometry is fast method that was previously effectively used to assess the potential soil pollution. One of the most popular devices that are used to measure the soil magnetic susceptibility on the soil surface is a MS2D Bartington. Single reading using MS2D device of soil magnetic susceptibility is low time-consuming but often characterized by considerable errors related to the instrument or environmental and lithogenic factors. In this connection, measured values of soil magnetic susceptibility have to be usually validated using more precise, but also much more expensive, chemical measurements. The goal of this study was to analyze validation methods of magnetometric measurements using chemical analyses of a concentration of elements in soil. Additionally, validation of surface measurements of soil magnetic susceptibility was performed using selected parameters of a distribution of magnetic susceptibility in a soil profile. Validation was performed using selected geostatistical measures of cross-correlation. The geostatistical approach was compared with validation performed using the classic statistics. Measurements were performed at selected areas located in the Upper Silesian Industrial Area in Poland, and in the selected parts of Norway. In these areas soil magnetic susceptibility was measured on the soil surface using a MS2D Bartington device and in the soil profile using MS2C Bartington device. Additionally, soil samples were taken in order to perform chemical measurements. Acknowledgment The research leading to these results has received funding from the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme operated by the National Centre for Research and Development under the Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2009-2014 in the frame of Project IMPACT - Contract No Pol-Nor/199338/45/2013.

  11. The Australian MRI-Linac Program: measuring profiles and PDD in a horizontal beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begg, J.; George, A.; Alnaghy, S. J.; Causer, T.; Alharthi, T.; Glaubes, L.; Dong, B.; Goozee, G.; Liney, G.; Holloway, L.; Keall, P.

    2017-02-01

    The Australian MRI-Linac consists of a fixed horizontal photon beam combined with a MRI. Commissioning required PDD and profiles measured in a horizontal set-up using a combination of water tank measurements and gafchromic film. To validate the methodology, measurements were performed comparing PDD and profiles measured with the gantry angle set to 0 and 90° on a conventional linac. Results showed agreement to within 2.0% for PDD measured using both film and the water tank at gantry 90° relative to PDD acquired using gantry 0°. Profiles acquired using a water tank at both gantry 0 and 90° showed agreement in FWHM to within 1 mm. The agreement for both PDD and profiles measured at gantry 90° relative to gantry 0° curves indicates that the methodology described can be used to acquire the necessary beam data for horizontal beam lines and in particular, commissioning the Australian MRI-linac.

  12. Elemental Analyses of Hanford Surface Neutron Moisture Measurement Calibration Standard Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    Elemental analyses have been performed on twenty samples taken from the moisture standards prepared to use in performing experimental calibrations of the surface neutron moisture measurement system. These standards consisted of mixtures of sand, hydrated alumina, and boron carbide. Elemental analyses were performed primarily to discover the quantities of any strong thermal neutron absorbers that may have been present in the mixture in unknown trace quantities.

  13. Calculation and Measurement of Coil Inductance Profile in Tubular Linear Reluctance Motor and its Validation by Three Dimensional FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosallanejad, Ali; Shoulaie, Abbas

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports a study of coil inductance profile in all positions of plunger in tubular linear reluctance motors (TLRMs) with open type magnetic circuits. In this paper, maximum inductance calculation methods in winding of tubular linear reluctance motors are described based on energy method. Furthermore, in order to calculate the maximum inductance, equivalent permeability is measured. Electromagnetic finite-element analysis for simulation and calculation of coil inductance in this motor is used. Simulation results of coil inductance calculation using 3-D FEM with coil current excitation is compared to theoretical and experimental results. The comparison yields a good agreement.

  14. Wake profile measurements of fixed and oscillating flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, F. K.

    1984-01-01

    Although the potential of laser velocimetry for the non-intrusive measurement of complex shear flows has long been recognized, there have been few applications in other small, closely controlled laboratory situations. Measurements in large scale, high speed wind tunnels are still a complex task. To support a study of periodic flows produced by an oscillating edge flap in the Ames eleven foot wind tunnel, this study was done. The potential for laser velocimeter measurements in large scale production facilities are evaluated. The results with hot wire flow field measurements are compared.

  15. A lidar system for measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Dombrowski, Mark; Korb, C. Laurence; Milrod, Jeffry; Walden, Harvey

    1987-01-01

    The design and operation of a differential absorption lidar system capable of remotely measuring the vertical structure of tropospheric pressure and temperature are described. The measurements are based on the absorption by atmospheric oxygen of the spectrally narrowband output of two pulsed alexandrite lasers. Detailed laser output spectral characteristics, which are critical to successful lidar measurements, are presented. Spectral linewidths of 0.026 and 0.018 per cm for the lasers were measured with over 99.99 percent of the energy contained in three longitudinal modes.

  16. Comparison of Dilution, Filtration, and Microwave Digestion Sample Pretreatments in Elemental Profiling of Wine by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Godshaw, Joshua; Hopfer, Helene; Nelson, Jenny; Ebeler, Susan E

    2017-09-25

    Wine elemental composition varies by cultivar, geographic origin, viticultural and enological practices, and is often used for authenticity validation. Elemental analysis of wine by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is challenging due to the potential for non-spectral interferences and plasma instability arising from organic matrix components. Sample preparation mitigates these interferences, however, conflicting recommendations of best practices in ICP-MS analysis of wine have been reported. This study compared direct dilution, microwave-assisted acid digestion, and two filtration sample pretreatments, acidification prior to filtration and filtration followed by acidification, in elemental profiling of one white and three red table wines by ICP-MS. Of 43 monitored isotopes, 37 varied by sample preparation method, with significantly higher results of 17 isotopes in the microwave-digested samples. Both filtration treatments resulted in lower results for 11 isotopes compared to the other methods. Finally, isotope dilution determination of copper based on natural abundances and the (63)Cu:(65)Cu instrument response ratio agreed with external calibration and confirmed a significant sample preparation effect. Overall, microwave digestion did not compare favorably, and direct dilution was found to provide the best compromise between ease of use and result accuracy and precision, although all preparation strategies were able to differentiate the wines.

  17. Vertical profile of elemental concentrations in aerosol particles in the Bermuda area during GCE/CASE/WATOX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, G.; Sievering, H.

    1990-06-01

    During the 1988 Global Change Expedition/Coordinated Air-Sea Experiment/Western Atlantic Ocean Experiment (GCE/CASE/WATOX) joint effort, research was conducted to determine elemental concentrations in atmospheric aerosol particles near Bermuda, to construct a three-level (15, 150, and 2600 m ASL) vertical profile of these concentrations, and to ascertain the source of the particles. Samples were collected by the NOAA King Air aircraft and NOAA ship Mt. Mitchell on July 24-28, 1988. Concentration determinations were made for 16 elements through the use of an X ray fluorescence instrument designed for analysis of small-mass samples. A layering effect was found; concentrations of several elements at 150 m were more than twice their respective concentrations at 15 m and 2600 m. Enrichment factors, V/Mn ratio, and correlations between concentrations suggest a Saharan mineral source, despite air mass back trajectories that show no direct continental input for up to 10 days prior to sample collection. Estimated total mineral aerosol concentrations at 15 m, 150 m, and 2600 m are 1.5, 4.1, and 2.1 μg m-3.

  18. Traceability of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Miller by ICP-MS multi-element profile and chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Mottese, Antonio Francesco; Naccari, Clara; Vadalà, Rossella; Bua, Giuseppe Daniel; Bartolomeo, Giovanni; Rando, Rossana; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-06-02

    Opuntia ficus-indica L. Miller fruits, particularly 'Ficodindia dell'Etna' of Biancavilla (POD), 'Fico d'india tradizionale di Roccapalumba' with protected brand and samples from an experimental field in Pezzolo (Sicily) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in order to determine the multi-element profile. A multivariate chemometric approach, specifically principal component analysis (PCA), was applied to individuate how mineral elements may represent a marker of geographic origin, which would be useful for traceability. PCA has allowed us to verify that the geographical origin of prickly pear fruits is significantly influenced by trace element content, and the results found in Biancavilla PDO samples were linked to the geological composition of this volcanic areas. It was observed that two principal components accounted for 72.03% of the total variance in the data and, in more detail, PC1 explains 45.51% and PC2 26.52%, respectively. This study demonstrated that PCA is an integrated tool for the traceability of food products and, at the same time, a useful method of authentication of typical local fruits such as prickly pear. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. In Situ Aerosol Profile Measurements and Comparisons with SAGE 3 Aerosol Extinction and Surface Area Profiles at 68 deg North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Under funding from this proposal three in situ profile measurements of stratospheric sulfate aerosol and ozone were completed from balloon-borne platforms. The measured quantities are aerosol size resolved number concentration and ozone. The one derived product is aerosol size distribution, from which aerosol moments, such as surface area, volume, and extinction can be calculated for comparison with SAGE III measurements and SAGE III derived products, such as surface area. The analysis of these profiles and comparison with SAGE III extinction measurements and SAGE III derived surface areas are provided in Yongxiao (2005), which comprised the research thesis component of Mr. Jian Yongxiao's M.S. degree in Atmospheric Science at the University of Wyoming. In addition analysis continues on using principal component analysis (PCA) to derive aerosol surface area from the 9 wavelength extinction measurements available from SAGE III. Ths paper will present PCA components to calculate surface area from SAGE III measurements and compare these derived surface areas with those available directly from in situ size distribution measurements, as well as surface areas which would be derived from PCA and Thomason's algorithm applied to the four wavelength SAGE II extinction measurements.

  20. Profile of trace elements in Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera) from Tucholskie Forest.

    PubMed

    Jarzyńska, Grażyna; Gucia, Magdalena; Kojta, Anna K; Rezulak, Katarzyna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine 19 elements contents and bioconcentration potential in fruiting bodies of Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera) collected from the Tucholskie Forest complex in Poland. Also discussed were Cd, Pb and Hg contents of edible caps in relation to the current regulatory standards. K, P and Mg were particularly abundant in caps and stipes, median values were 38-49, 13, and 1.6-1.6 mg/g dry weight, and followed by Ca, Na and Rb at 110-540, 44-240 and 20-50 μg/g dw, respectively. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn were from less than 50 to 180 μg/g dw, while concentrations of other elements were ∼l.0 μg/g dw or less. Cu, K, Ag, Cd, Na, Rb, Zn and Hg were bioconcentrated (BCF >1), while Al, Ba, Fe, Mn, Co, Sr, Pb and Cr were not bioaccumulated (BCF <1). Cd and Pb content of Parasol Mushroom's edible caps collected from some sites in the Tucholskie Forest exceed the maximum levels set in the EU for cultivated mushrooms.

  1. A new technique for measurements of the urethra pressure profile.

    PubMed

    Asmussen, M; Ulmsten, U

    1976-01-01

    A new standardized technique for continuous recording of the urethral pressure profile simultaneously with intravesical pressure has been developed. The pressures were recorded using two micr-transducers enclosed in a thin Dacron catheter. The catheter moved with a constant speed through the urethra with the aid of a specially designed instrument. This instrument is described. Twenty-five healthy women were examined. The patients were divided into two groups: (A) 10 postmenopausal women, and (B) 15 fertile women. The results of the recordings showed that the functional length and the absolute length of the urethra could be reproduced with an error of less than 1 mm. The maximal pressure amplitude was significantly less in group A.

  2. Toward Stochastic Parameterization Based on Profiler Measurements of Vertical Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penland, C.; Koepke, A.; Williams, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    Parameterizations in General Circulation Models (GCMs) that account for uncertainty due to both unresolved, sub-grid scale processes and errors in assumptions made in the formulation of the parameterization itself are needed to represent the full probability distribution function of resolved processes in the model. In this study, we develop a probabilistic description of vertical velocity based on profiler data collected at Darwin during the time period November 2005 to February 2006. Data collected at one-minute resolution are analyzed at the one-minute, ten-minute and hourly timescales, including fits to the Stochastically-Generated Skew (SGS) distributions. The SGS distributions are associated with linear dynamics, including correlated additive and multiplicative noise. As expected, we find that the stochastic approximation to nonlinear dynamics becomes more appropriate as the timescale is increased by coarse-graining.

  3. Preliminary Study to Test the Feasibility of Sex Identification of Human (Homo sapiens) Bones Based on Differences in Elemental Profiles Determined by Handheld X-ray Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Brown, Janine L; Klinhom, Sarisa; Pitakarnnop, Tanita; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2016-09-01

    Sex assignment of human remains is a crucial step in forensic anthropological studies. The aim of this study was to examine elemental differences between male and female bones using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and determine if elemental profiling could be used for sex discrimination. Cranium, humerus, and os coxae of 60 skeletons (30 male, 30 female) from the Chiang Mai University Skeletal Collection were scanned by XRF and differences in elemental profiles between male and female bones determined using discriminant analysis. In the cranium, three elements (S, Ca, Pb) were significantly higher in males and five elements (Si, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ag) plus light elements (atomic number lower than 12) were higher in females. In humerus and os coxae, nine elements were significantly higher in male and one element was higher in female samples. The accuracy rate for sex estimation was 60, 63, and 61 % for cranium, humerus, and os coxae, respectively, and 67 % when data for all three bones were combined. We conclude that there are sex differences in bone elemental profiles; however, the accuracy of XRF analyses for discriminating between male and female samples was low compared to standard morphometric and molecular methods. XRF could be used on small samples that cannot be sexed by traditional morphological methods, but more work is needed to increase the power of this technique for gender assignment.

  4. A measurement system for vertical seawater profiles close to the air-sea interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Richard P.; Schuster, Ute; Watson, Andrew J.; Yang, Ming Xi; Hopkins, Frances E.; Stephens, John; Bell, Thomas G.

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes a near-surface ocean profiler, which has been designed to precisely measure vertical gradients in the top 10 m of the ocean. Variations in the depth of seawater collection are minimized when using the profiler compared to conventional CTD/rosette deployments. The profiler consists of a remotely operated winch mounted on a tethered yet free-floating buoy, which is used to raise and lower a small frame housing sensors and inlet tubing. Seawater at the inlet depth is pumped back to the ship for analysis. The profiler can be used to make continuous vertical profiles or to target a series of discrete depths. The profiler has been successfully deployed during wind speeds up to 10 m s-1 and significant wave heights up to 2 m. We demonstrate the potential of the profiler by presenting measured vertical profiles of the trace gases carbon dioxide and dimethylsulfide. Trace gas measurements use an efficient microporous membrane equilibrator to minimize the system response time. The example profiles show vertical gradients in the upper 5 m for temperature, carbon dioxide and dimethylsulfide of 0.15 °C, 4 µatm and 0.4 nM respectively.

  5. Tethered acoustic doppler current profiler platforms for measuring streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehmel, Michael S.; Stewart, James A.; Morlock, Scott E.

    2003-01-01

    A tethered-platform design with a trimaran hull and 900-megahertz radio modems is now commercially available. Continued field use has resulted in U.S. Geological Survey procedures for making tethered-platform discharge measurements, including methods for tethered-boat deployment, moving-bed tests, and measurement of edge distances.

  6. An array for measuring detailed soil temperature profiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil temperature dynamics can provide insights into soil variables which are much more difficult or impossible to measure. We designed an array to measure temperature at precise depth increments. Data was collected to determine if the construction materials influence surface and near-surface tempera...

  7. Comparison of raindrop size distributions measured by radar wind profiler and by airplane

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.R.; Ethier, S.A. ); Baumgardner, D. ); Carter, D.A.; Ecklund, W.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Wind profilers are radars that operate in the VHF and UHF bands and are designed for detecting the weak echoes reflected by the optically clear atmosphere. An unexpected application of wind profilers has been the revival of an old method of estimating drop size distributions in rain from the Doppler spectrum of the received signal. Originally attempted with radars operating at microwave frequencies, the method showed early promise but was seriously limited in application because of the crucial sensitivity of the estimated drop sizes to the vertical air velocity, a quantity generally unknown and, at that time, unmeasurable. Profilers have solved this problem through their ability to measure, under appropriate conditions, both air motions and drop motions. This paper compares the drop sizes measured by a UHF profiler at two altitudes in a shower with those measured simultaneously by an instrumented airplane. The agreement is satisfactory, lending support to this new application of wind profilers. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Synergetic ground-based methods for remote measurements of ozone vertical profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeyev, Yuriy; Kostsov, Vladimir; Virolainen, Yana

    2013-05-01

    The technique of combining ground-based measurements in infrared and microwave spectral regions in order to achieve higher accuracy of ozone profile retrieval in extensive altitude ranges is described and analyzed. The information content, errors, altitude ranges and vertical resolution of ozone profile retrieval have been studied on the basis of numerical simulation of synergetic experiments. Optimal conditions of measurements are defined and requirements to additional information are formulated. The first results on ozone vertical profile retrieval using groundbased measurements of FTIR-spectrometer and microwave radiometer are given.

  9. A strontium isotope and trace element profile through the Partridge River Troctolite, Duluth complex, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Norman K.; Molling, Philip A.

    1981-10-01

    Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios down a 2,315 foot-long core (DDH-295) through the Partridge River Troctolite are lower in the depth range 710-1,410 feet (0.70443±22) than in the underlying and overlying rocks (0.70500±18). These initial ratio variations define three zones (I, II, and III) thought to be three intrusive units within the troctolite. The best estimate of the Rb-Sr age of the troctolite is 1,050±105 m.y. The olivine compositions and the abundances of the incompatible trace elements Zr, Y, and Rb show identical variations down the core, with downward repetitions of olivine iron-enrichment and incompatible trace element enrichments. Discontinuities in the olivine compositions and incompatible trace element abundances match the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio discontinuities in the core. The strontium isotope data imply that involatile components of the Proterozoic Virginia Formation and other Archaean rocks were not significantly assimilated by the troctolites, for only three out of the twenty-three initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios depart from normal magmatic values. These three anomalous ratios are not systematically related to the Cu-Ni sulphide mineralization and may be the result of secondary calcite in the troctolite. The strontium isotope systematics of the Virginia Formation xenoliths and underlying hornfelses are highly disturbed as a result of Rb loss. The apparently inverted fractionation sequences in the troctolites are interpreted in terms of downward increases in intercumulus liquid in repeated magma batches and controlled by plagioclase flotation. The amount of intercumulus liquid is estimated to range from 7 to 61 weight per cent. The Cu-Ni sulphides are concentrated in the lower 250 feet of zone I (immediately above the Virginia Formation) and through 400 feet of core across the contact between zones I and II, more than 750 feet above the base. Because the sulphide-bearing troctolites are not systematically related to disturbances in the magmatic initial 87Sr

  10. PNNL/Euratom glass fiber-optic, spent-fuel profile measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, S.M.; Smart, J.E.; Hansen, R.R.

    1999-07-01

    Discussions between Euratom and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) revealed a need for a neutron detection system that could measure the neutron profile down the entire length of a CASTOR in one measurement. The CASTORS (dry storage casks for spent fuel and vitrified wastes) are {approximately}6 m high and 2 x 2 m square in cross section. Neutron profiles of the CASTORS are desirable for both content identification and verification. Profile measurements have traditionally been done with {sup 3}He-based detectors {approximately}1 m high that scan the length of a CASTOR as they are lifted by a crane. Geometric reproducibility errors plague this type of measurement; hence, the ability to simultaneously measure the neutron profile over the entire length of the CASTOR became highly desirable. Use of the PNNL-developed neutron-sensitive glass fibers in the construction of a 6-m-high detector was proposed, and design and construction of the detector began.

  11. Temporal variability of the trade wind inversion: Measured with a boundary layer vertical profiler. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Grindinger, C.M.

    1992-05-01

    This study uses Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP) data, from the summer of 1991, to show a boundary layer wind profiler can be used to measure the trade wind inversion. An algorithm has been developed for the profiler that objectively measures the depth of the moist oceanic boundary layer. The Hilo inversion, measured by radiosonde, is highly correlated with the moist oceanic boundary layer measured by the profiler at Paradise Park. The inversion height on windward Hawaii is typically 2253 + or - 514 m. The inversion height varies not only on a daily basis, but on less than an hourly basis. It has a diurnal, as well as a three to four day cycle. There appears to be no consistent relationship between inversion height and precipitation. Currently, this profiler is capable of making high frequency (12 minute) measurements of the inversion base variation, as well as other features.

  12. Sports participation and alcohol use among adolescents: the impact of measurement and other research design elements.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Gatti, Margaret E; Thompson, Nancy J

    2011-06-01

    Sports participation, while offering numerous developmental benefits for adolescents, has been associated with alcohol use in prior research. However, the relationship between sports participation and alcohol use among adolescents remains unclear, particularly how research design elements impact evidence of this relationship. We reviewed the evidence regarding sports participation and alcohol use among adolescents, with a focus on examining the potential impact of research design elements on this evidence. Studies were assessed for eligibility and coded based on research design elements including: study design, sampling method, sample size, and measures of sports participation and alcohol use. Fifty-four studies were assessed for eligibility, 29 of which were included in the review. Nearly two-thirds used a cross-sectional design and a random sampling method, with sample sizes ranging from 178 to 50,168 adolescents (Median = 1,769). Sixteen studies used a categorical measure of sports participation, while 7 applied an index-type measure and 6 employed some other measure of sports participation. Most studies assessed alcohol-related behaviors (n = 18) through categorical measures, while only 6 applied frequency only measures of alcohol use, 1 study applied quantity only measures, and 3 studies used quantity and frequency measures. Sports participation has been defined and measured in various ways, most of which do not differentiate between interscholastic and community-based contexts, confounding this relationship. Stronger measures of both sports participation and alcohol use need to be applied in future studies to advance our understanding of this relationship among youths.

  13. Measurements of dimensional accuracy using linear and scanning profile techniques.

    PubMed

    Harrison, A; Huggett, R; Zissis, A

    1992-01-01

    Various measurement methods have been described for the determination of dimensional accuracy and stability of denture base materials. This investigation introduces a computerised coordinate measuring machine (CCMM) and compares it with two methods routinely used for assessment of the accuracy of fit of denture base materials. The results demonstrate that the three methods (digital calipers, optical comparator, and CCMM) are acceptable for linear measurement. The CCMM was also used in its scanning mode to define and to quantify the contour changes of the resin bases. The advantages of the CCMM become apparent when two-dimensional changes require assessment.

  14. Intercomparison of aerosol extinction profiles retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieß, U.; Klein Baltink, H.; Beirle, S.; Clémer, K.; Hendrick, F.; Henzing, B.; Irie, H.; de Leeuw, G.; Li, A.; Moerman, M. M.; van Roozendael, M.; Shaiganfar, R.; Wagner, T.; Wang, Y.; Xie, P.; Yilmaz, S.; Zieger, P.

    2016-07-01

    A first direct intercomparison of aerosol vertical profiles from Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observations, performed during the Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI) in summer 2009, is presented. Five out of 14 participants of the CINDI campaign reported aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) as deduced from observations of differential slant column densities of the oxygen collision complex (O4) at different elevation angles. Aerosol extinction vertical profiles and AOT are compared to backscatter profiles from a ceilometer instrument and to sun photometer measurements, respectively. Furthermore, the near-surface aerosol extinction coefficient is compared to in situ measurements of a humidity-controlled nephelometer and dry aerosol absorption measurements. The participants of this intercomparison exercise use different approaches for the retrieval of aerosol information, including the retrieval of the full vertical profile using optimal estimation and a parametrised approach with a prescribed profile shape. Despite these large conceptual differences, and also differences in the wavelength of the observed O4 absorption band, good agreement in terms of the vertical structure of aerosols within the boundary layer is achieved between the aerosol extinction profiles retrieved by the different groups and the backscatter profiles observed by the ceilometer instrument. AOTs from MAX-DOAS and sun photometer show a good correlation (R>0.8), but all participants systematically underestimate the AOT. Substantial differences between the near-surface aerosol extinction from MAX-DOAS and from the humidified nephelometer remain largely unresolved.

  15. MEASURING VERTICAL PROFILES OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY WITH IN SITU DIRECT-PUSH METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) staff developed a field procedure to measure hydraulic conductivity using a direct-push system to obtain vertical profiles of hydraulic conductivity. Vertical profiles were obtained using an in situ field device-composed of a
    Geopr...

  16. Field tests of a down-hole TDR profiling water content measurement system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate soil profile water content monitoring at multiple depths has previously been possible only using the neutron probe (NP), but with great effort and at unsatisfactory intervals. Despite the existence of several capacitance systems for profile water content measurements, accuracy and spatial r...

  17. MEASURING VERTICAL PROFILES OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY WITH IN SITU DIRECT-PUSH METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) staff developed a field procedure to measure hydraulic conductivity using a direct-push system to obtain vertical profiles of hydraulic conductivity. Vertical profiles were obtained using an in situ field device-composed of a
    Geopr...

  18. Sinusoidal phase modulating interferometry system for 3D profile measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En, Bo; Fa-jie, Duan; Chang-rong, Lv; Fu-kai, Zhang; Fan, Feng

    2014-07-01

    We describe a fiber-optic sinusoidal phase modulating (SPM) interferometer for three-dimensional (3D) profilometry, which is insensitive to external disturbances such as mechanical vibration and temperature fluctuation. Sinusoidal phase modulation is created by modulating the drive voltage of the piezoelectric transducer (PZT) with a sinusoidal wave. The external disturbances that cause phase drift in the interference signal and decrease measuring accuracy are effectively eliminated by building a closed-loop feedback system. The phase stability can be measured with a precision of 2.75 mrad, and the external disturbances can be reduced to 53.43 mrad for the phase of fringe patterns. By measuring the dynamic deformation of the rubber membrane, the RMSE is about 0.018 mm, and a single measurement takes less than 250 ms. The feasibility for real-time application has been verified.

  19. A measurement model of multiple intelligence profiles of management graduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Heamalatha; Awang, Siti Rahmah

    2017-05-01

    In this study, developing a fit measurement model and identifying the best fitting items to represent Howard Gardner's nine intelligences namely, musical intelligence, bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence, mathematical/logical intelligence, visual/spatial intelligence, verbal/linguistic intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, naturalist intelligence and spiritual intelligence are the main interest in order to enhance the opportunities of the management graduates for employability. In order to develop a fit measurement model, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was applied. A psychometric test which is the Ability Test in Employment (ATIEm) was used as the instrument to measure the existence of nine types of intelligence of 137 University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) management graduates for job placement purposes. The initial measurement model contains nine unobserved variables and each unobserved variable is measured by ten observed variables. Finally, the modified measurement model deemed to improve the Normed chi-square (NC) = 1.331; Incremental Fit Index (IFI) = 0.940 and Root Mean Square of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.049 was developed. The findings showed that the UTeM management graduates possessed all nine intelligences either high or low. Musical intelligence, mathematical/logical intelligence, naturalist intelligence and spiritual intelligence contributed highest loadings on certain items. However, most of the intelligences such as bodily kinaesthetic intelligence, visual/spatial intelligence, verbal/linguistic intelligence interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence possessed by UTeM management graduates are just at the borderline.

  20. Experimental measurement of tympanic membrane response for finite element model validation of a human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Tae-Soo; Baek, Moo-Jin; Lee, Dooho

    2013-01-01

    The middle ear consists of a tympanic membrane, ligaments, tendons, and three ossicles. An important function of the tympanic membrane is to deliver exterior sound stimulus to the ossicles and inner ear. In this study, the responses of the tympanic membrane in a human ear were measured and compared with those of a finite element model of the middle ear. A laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) was used to measure the dynamic responses of the tympanic membrane, which had the measurement point on the cone of light of the tympanic membrane. The measured subjects were five Korean male adults and a cadaver. The tympanic membranes were stimulated using pure-tone sine waves at 18 center frequencies of one-third octave band over a frequency range of 200 Hz ~10 kHz with 60 and 80 dB sound pressure levels. The measured responses were converted into the umbo displacement transfer function (UDTF) with a linearity assumption. The measured UDTFs were compared with the calculated UDTFs using a finite element model for the Korean human middle ear. The finite element model of the middle ear consists of three ossicles, a tympanic membrane, ligaments, and tendons. In the finite element model, the umbo displacements were calculated under a unit sound pressure on the tympanic membrane. The UDTF of the finite element model exhibited good agreement with that of the experimental one in low frequency range, whereas in higher frequency band, the two response functions deviated from each other, which demonstrates that the finite element model should be updated with more accurate material properties and/or a frequency dependent material model.

  1. Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Profiles seven Black, Native American, and Chicano artists and art teachers: Hale A. Woodruff, Allan Houser, Luis Jimenez, Betrand D. Phillips, James E. Pate, I, and Fernando Navarro. This article is part of a theme issue on multicultural art. (SJL)

  2. Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Profiles seven Black, Native American, and Chicano artists and art teachers: Hale A. Woodruff, Allan Houser, Luis Jimenez, Betrand D. Phillips, James E. Pate, I, and Fernando Navarro. This article is part of a theme issue on multicultural art. (SJL)

  3. The use of ultrasonic property measurements as the basis for finite element analysis of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, E. I.; Kline, R. A.; Cruse, G.; Striz, A. G.

    1991-01-01

    In this work, the use of ultrasonic property measurements as the basis for finite element analysis of full scale composite components is presented. The approach utilizes multiple velocity measurements at oblique angles of incidence and quantitative analysis of radiographic images for the local determination of each of the nine orthotropic moduli in a woven carbon-carbon composite. These values were then used as input into a finite element code (NASTRAN) to analyze the response of the material to load: here, diametric compression. The predicted response was then compared with strain gage results at several locations to validate the approach.

  4. [Measurement of trace elements in blood serum by atomic absorption spectroscopy with electrothermal atomization].

    PubMed

    Rogul'skiĭ, Iu V; Danil'chenko, S N; Lushpa, A P; Sukhodub, L F

    1997-09-01

    Describes a method for measuring trace elements Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mo in the blood serum using non-flame atomization (KAC 120.1 complex). Optimal conditions for preparing the samples were defined, temperature regimens for analysis of each element selected, and original software permitting automated assays created. The method permits analysis making use of the minimal samples: 0.1 ml per 10 parallel measurements, which is 100 times less than needed for atomic absorption spectroscopy with flame atomization of liquid samples. Metrological characteristics of the method are assessed.

  5. The measurement of elemental abundances above 10 sup 15 eV at a lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Swordy, S.P. )

    1990-03-15

    At {approx}10{sup 15} eV the slope of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays becomes significantly steeper than at lower energies. The measurement of relative elemental abundances at these energies is expected to provide a means to resolve the origin of this feature and greatly contribute to the understanding of the sources of cosmic rays. We describe a moon based detector for making well resolved elemental measurements at these energies using hadronic calorimetry. This detector is particularly well suited for a site on the lunar surface because there is no overlying layer of atmosphere and the large mass required can be provided by the lunar regolith.

  6. Interpretation of combined wind profiler and aircraft-measured tropospheric winds and clear air turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, D. W.; Syrett, William J.; Fairall, C. W.

    1991-01-01

    In the first experiment, it was found that wind profilers are far better suited for the detailed examination of jet stream structure than are weather balloons. The combination of good vertical resolution with not previously obtained temporal resolution reveals structural details not seen before. Development of probability-derived shear values appears possible. A good correlation between pilot reports of turbulence and wind shear was found. In the second experiment, hourly measurements of wind speed and direction obtained using two wind profiling Doppler radars during two prolonged jet stream occurrences over western Pennsylvania were analyzed. In particular, the time-variant characteristics of derived shear profiles were examined. Profiler data dropouts were studied in an attempt to determine possible reasons for the apparently reduced performance of profiling radar operating beneath a jet stream. Richardson number and wind shear statistics were examined along with pilot reports of turbulence in the vicinity of the profiler.

  7. Monitoring sodium chloride concentrations and density profiles in solar ponds by electrical conductivity and temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Fynn, R.P.; Short, T.H.; Badger, P.C.; Sciarini, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A simple accurate and semi-automatic system was developed for monitoring sodium chloride concentrations and density profiles in a solar pond. The profile meter, which measures pond solution conductivity and temperature, and the equations which convert this data into salt concentration and/or brine density, are covered in detail so that any potential users may construct their own equipment. The use of the profile meter, its advantages and disadvantages, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the day-to-day profile monitoring that the conductivity-temperature method enables, and the use of the meter during modification of the pond profiles. A program is also available to calculate the pond profile using a Hewlett-Packard HP-97 programmable calculator.

  8. metagene Profiles Analyses Reveal Regulatory Element's Factor-Specific Recruitment Patterns.

    PubMed

    Joly Beauparlant, Charles; Lamaze, Fabien C; Deschênes, Astrid; Samb, Rawane; Lemaçon, Audrey; Belleau, Pascal; Bilodeau, Steve; Droit, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    ChIP-Sequencing (ChIP-Seq) provides a vast amount of information regarding the localization of proteins across the genome. The aggregation of ChIP-Seq enrichment signal in a metagene plot is an approach commonly used to summarize data complexity and to obtain a high level visual representation of the general occupancy pattern of a protein. Here we present the R package metagene, the graphical interface Imetagene and the companion package similaRpeak. Together, they provide a framework to integrate, summarize and compare the ChIP-Seq enrichment signal from complex experimental designs. Those packages identify and quantify similarities or dissimilarities in patterns between large numbers of ChIP-Seq profiles. We used metagene to investigate the differential occupancy of regulatory factors at noncoding regulatory regions (promoters and enhancers) in relation to transcriptional activity in GM12878 B-lymphocytes. The relationships between occupancy patterns and transcriptional activity suggest two different mechanisms of action for transcriptional control: i) a "gradient effect" where the regulatory factor occupancy levels follow transcription and ii) a "threshold effect" where the regulatory factor occupancy levels max out prior to reaching maximal transcription. metagene, Imetagene and similaRpeak are implemented in R under the Artistic license 2.0 and are available on Bioconductor.

  9. Doppler Lidar Measurements of Tropospheric Wind Profiles Using the Aerosol Double Edge Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce M.; Li, Steven X.; Mathur, Savyasachee; Korb, C. Laurence; Chen, Huailin

    2000-01-01

    The development of a ground based direct detection Doppler lidar based on the recently described aerosol double edge technique is reported. A pulsed, injection seeded Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm is used to make range resolved measurements of atmospheric winds in the free troposphere. The wind measurements are determined by measuring the Doppler shift of the laser signal backscattered from atmospheric aerosols. The lidar instrument and double edge method are described and initial tropospheric wind profile measurements are presented. Wind profiles are reported for both day and night operation. The measurements extend to altitudes as high as 14 km and are compared to rawinsonde wind profile data from Dulles airport in Virginia. Vertical resolution of the lidar measurements is 330 m and the rms precision of the measurements is a low as 0.6 m/s.

  10. Elasticity of foam bubbles measured by profile analysis tensiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakashev, S. I.; Tsekov, R.; Manev, E. D.; Nguyen, A. V.

    2010-10-01

    Elastic modulus of foam bubbles, stabilized with tetraethylene glycol octyl ether (C8E4) and 1 × 10-5 M NaCl, was determined by cyclic expansion and shrinking of foam bubbles with frequency of 0.1 Hz and volumetric amplitude of 2 mm3. The film tension was monitored by a commercial profile analysis tensiometer (Sinterface Technologies, GmbH). The elastic moduli of foam bubbles were obtained as a function of surfactant concentration in the range of 2 × 10-3-1 × 10-2 M. The theory of Lucassen and van den Tempel [1] for the elastic modulus of a single liquid/air interface at a given frequency was employed. In the theoretical analysis the bulk diffusion coefficient of surfactant molecules was considered as a unknown model parameter which was obtained by matching the theory with the experimental data. Hence, the dependence of the bulk diffusion coefficient of C8E4 molecules upon the C8E4 concentration was obtained. The diffusion coefficient reached a maximum at 5 × 10-3 M C8E4 (D = 8.5 × 10-11 m2/s). In the experimental surfactant concentration range (2 × 10-3-1 × 10-2 M, CMC = 7.5 × 10-3 M) the foam bubbles were relatively dry, with visible interferometric fringes corresponding to thin films stabilized by repulsion of the electrostatic disjoining pressure. Hence, the overall dynamics of periodical expansion and shrinking of the foam bubbles occurred within the thin film state.

  11. Simply Scan—Optical Methods for Elemental Carbon Measurement in Diesel Exhaust Particulate

    PubMed Central

    Forder, James A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a performance assessment of three optical methods, a Magee Scientific OT21 Transmissometer, a Hach-Lange Microcolor II difference gloss meter, and a combination of an office scanner with Adobe Photoshop software. The optical methods measure filter staining as a proxy for elemental carbon in diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) exposure assessment and the suitability of each as a replacement for the existing Bosch meter optical method. Filters loaded with DEP were produced from air in a non-coal mine and the exhaust gases from a mobile crane. These were measured with each apparatus and then by combustion to obtain a reference elemental carbon value. The results from each apparatus were then plotted against both the Bosch number and reference elemental carbon values. The equations of the best fit lines for these plots were derived, and these gave functions for elemental carbon and Bosch number from the output of each new optical method. For each optical method, the range of DEP loadings which can be measured has been determined, and conversion equations for elemental carbon and Bosch number have been obtained. All three optical methods studied will effectively quantify blackness as a measure of elemental carbon. Of these the Magee Scientific OT21 transmissometer has the best performance. The Microcolor II and scanner/photoshop methods will in addition allow conversion to Bosch number which may be useful if historical Bosch data are available and functions for this are described. The scanner/photoshop method demonstrates a technique to obtain measurements of DEP exposure without the need to purchase specialized instrumentation. PMID:24939982

  12. Simply scan--optical methods for elemental carbon measurement in diesel exhaust particulate.

    PubMed

    Forder, James A

    2014-08-01

    This article describes a performance assessment of three optical methods, a Magee Scientific OT21 Transmissometer, a Hach-Lange Microcolor II difference gloss meter, and a combination of an office scanner with Adobe Photoshop software. The optical methods measure filter staining as a proxy for elemental carbon in diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) exposure assessment and the suitability of each as a replacement for the existing Bosch meter optical method. Filters loaded with DEP were produced from air in a non-coal mine and the exhaust gases from a mobile crane. These were measured with each apparatus and then by combustion to obtain a reference elemental carbon value. The results from each apparatus were then plotted against both the Bosch number and reference elemental carbon values. The equations of the best fit lines for these plots were derived, and these gave functions for elemental carbon and Bosch number from the output of each new optical method. For each optical method, the range of DEP loadings which can be measured has been determined, and conversion equations for elemental carbon and Bosch number have been obtained. All three optical methods studied will effectively quantify blackness as a measure of elemental carbon. Of these the Magee Scientific OT21 transmissometer has the best performance. The Microcolor II and scanner/photoshop methods will in addition allow conversion to Bosch number which may be useful if historical Bosch data are available and functions for this are described. The scanner/photoshop method demonstrates a technique to obtain measurements of DEP exposure without the need to purchase specialized instrumentation.

  13. Direct measurements of safety factor profiles with motional Stark effect for KSTAR tokamak discharges with internal transport barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, J.; Chung, J.

    2017-06-01

    The safety factor profile evolutions have been measured from the plasma discharges with the external current drive mechanism such as the multi-ion-source neutral beam injection for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) for the first time. This measurement has been possible by the newly installed motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system that utilizes the polarized Balmer-alpha emission from the energetic neutral deuterium atoms induced by the Stark effect under the Lorentz electric field. The 25-channel KSTAR MSE diagnostic is based on the conventional photoelastic modulator approach with the spatial and temporal resolutions less than 2 cm (for the most of the channels except 2 to 3 channels inside the magnetic axis) and about 10 ms, respectively. The strong Faraday rotation imposed on the optical elements in the diagnostic system is calibrated out from a separate and well-designed polarization measurement procedure using an in-vessel reference polarizer during the toroidal-field ramp-up phase before the plasma experiment starts. The combination of the non-inductive current drive during the ramp-up and shape control enables the formation of the internal transport barrier where the pitch angle profiles indicate flat or slightly hollow profiles in the safety factor.

  14. Comparison of Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Aircraft, and Radiosonde Measurements From the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements from a profiling microwave radiometer are compared to measurements from a research aircraft and radiosondes. Data compared is temperature, water vapor, and liquid water profiles. Data was gathered at the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) at Mirabel Airport outside Montreal, Canada during December 1999 and January 2000. All radiometer measurements were found to lose accuracy when the radome was wet. When the radome was not wetted, the radiometer was seen to indicate an inverted distribution of liquid water within a cloud. When the radiometer measurements were made at 15 deg. instead of the standard zenith, the measurements were less accurate.

  15. Automated acoustic intensity measurements and the effect of gear tooth profile on noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atherton, William J.; Pintz, Adam; Lewicki, David G.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic intensity measurements were made at NASA Lewis Research Center on a spur gear test apparatus. The measurements were obtained with the Robotic Acoustic Intensity Measurement System developed by Cleveland State University. This system provided dense spatial positioning, and was calibrated against a high quality acoustic intensity system. The measured gear noise compared gearsets having two different tooth profiles. The tests evaluated the sound field of the different gears for two speeds and three loads. The experimental results showed that gear tooth profile had a major effect on measured noise. Load and speed were found to have an effect on noise also.

  16. Metagenomic Profiling of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Mobile Genetic Elements in a Tannery Wastewater Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Huang, Kailong; Miao, Yu; Shi, Peng; Liu, Bo; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics are often used to prevent sickness and improve production in animal agriculture, and the residues in animal bodies may enter tannery wastewater during leather production. This study aimed to use Illumina high-throughput sequencing to investigate the occurrence, diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in aerobic and anaerobic sludge of a full-scale tannery wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Metagenomic analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria dominated in the WWTP, but the relative abundance of archaea in anaerobic sludge was higher than in aerobic sludge. Sequencing reads from aerobic and anaerobic sludge revealed differences in the abundance of functional genes between both microbial communities. Genes coding for antibiotic resistance were identified in both communities. BLAST analysis against Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB) further revealed that aerobic and anaerobic sludge contained various ARGs with high abundance, among which sulfonamide resistance gene sul1 had the highest abundance, occupying over 20% of the total ARGs reads. Tetracycline resistance genes (tet) were highly rich in the anaerobic sludge, among which tet33 had the highest abundance, but was absent in aerobic sludge. Over 70 types of insertion sequences were detected in each sludge sample, and class 1 integrase genes were prevalent in the WWTP. The results highlighted prevalence of ARGs and MGEs in tannery WWTPs, which may deserve more public health concerns. PMID:24098424

  17. Trace element profiles in sediments as proxies of dead zone history; rhenium compared to molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Helz, George R; Adelson, Jordan M

    2013-02-05

    Warm-season dead zones-volumes of coastal water containing too little O(2) to support macrofauna-are a growing global menace. Trace elements that are deposited in sediments in response to reducing or sulfidic conditions can provide proxy records for reconstructing dead zone evolution. Based on relative enrichment in reduced vs oxidized marine sediments, Re seems promising as a dead zone proxy. Here, Re is determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry in sediments underlying the summertime dead zone in Chesapeake Bay. Contrary to expectation, Re becomes only modestly (∼2-fold) elevated during the 20th century and fails to track the historic record of summertime O(2) depletion. Rhenium enrichments are watershed-specific and apparently controlled by anthropogenic sources, not by redox-linked authigenic processes. In contrast, Mo enrichments do track historic O(2) depletion. Three factors cause redox control to override anthropogenic control in the case of Mo: relative to weathering fluxes, anthropogenic Mo fluxes are weaker than Re fluxes; during anoxic periods, Mn refluxing amplifies Mo but not Re concentrations near the sediment surface; and high pore water sulfide-polysulfide promotes Mo fixation in pyrite while promoting formation of organo-Re adducts; the latter are too mobile and reactive to preserve a reliable historic record under seasonally fluctuating redox conditions.

  18. Metagenomic profiling of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile genetic elements in a tannery wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Huang, Kailong; Miao, Yu; Shi, Peng; Liu, Bo; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics are often used to prevent sickness and improve production in animal agriculture, and the residues in animal bodies may enter tannery wastewater during leather production. This study aimed to use Illumina high-throughput sequencing to investigate the occurrence, diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in aerobic and anaerobic sludge of a full-scale tannery wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Metagenomic analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria dominated in the WWTP, but the relative abundance of archaea in anaerobic sludge was higher than in aerobic sludge. Sequencing reads from aerobic and anaerobic sludge revealed differences in the abundance of functional genes between both microbial communities. Genes coding for antibiotic resistance were identified in both communities. BLAST analysis against Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB) further revealed that aerobic and anaerobic sludge contained various ARGs with high abundance, among which sulfonamide resistance gene sul1 had the highest abundance, occupying over 20% of the total ARGs reads. Tetracycline resistance genes (tet) were highly rich in the anaerobic sludge, among which tet33 had the highest abundance, but was absent in aerobic sludge. Over 70 types of insertion sequences were detected in each sludge sample, and class 1 integrase genes were prevalent in the WWTP. The results highlighted prevalence of ARGs and MGEs in tannery WWTPs, which may deserve more public health concerns.

  19. Surface Depletion Correction to Carrier Profiles by Hall Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    geometry L . J . van der Pauw (14:6) has shown that it is necessary to measure the voltage accross two adjacent contacts when a current is passing...Physics, 53: 6906-6910 (October 1982) 13. Henisch, H. K. Rectifying Semiconductor Contacts. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1957 14. L . J . van der Pauw . "A

  20. Measuring Resiliency in Youth: The Resiliency Attitudes and Skills Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtes, Karen P.; Allen, Lawrence R.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development and validation of a self-report instrument for measuring resiliency in youth for recreation and other social services, noting that the instrument is not yet ready for use under all conditions and that while use of structural equation modeling removes some subjectivity, results of this type of analysis are still left to…

  1. THE SuperTIGER Instrument: Measurement of Elemental Abundances of Ultra-Heavy Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Bose, R. G.; Braun, D. L.; Brandt, T. J.; Daniels, W. M.; DowKonnt, P. F.; Fitzsimmons, S. P.; Hahne, D. J.; Hams, T.; Israel, M. H.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The SuperTIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) instrument was developed to measure the abundances of galactic cosmic-ray elements from Ne-10 to Zr-40 with individual element resolution and the high statistics needed to test models of cosmic-ray origins. SuperTIGER also makes exploratory measurements of the abundances of elements with 40 < Z < or = 60 and measures the energy spectra of the more abundant elements for Z < or = 30 from about 0.8 to 10 GeV/nucleon. This instrument is an enlarged and higher resolution version of the earlier TIGER instrument. It was designed to provide the largest geometric acceptance possible and to reach as high an altitude as possible, flying on a standard long-duration 1.11 million cu m balloon. SuperTIGER was launched from Williams Field, McMurdo Station, Antarctica, on 2012 December 8, and made about 2.7 revolutions around the South Pole in 55 days of flight, returning data on over 50 x 10(exp 6) cosmic-ray nuclei with Z > or = 10, including approx.1300 with Z > 29 and approx.60 with Z > 49. Here, we describe the instrument, the methods of charge identification employed, the SuperTIGER balloon flight, and the instrument performance.

  2. The superTIGER instrument: Measurement of elemental abundances of ultra-heavy galactic cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Binns, W. R.; Bose, R. G.; Braun, D. L.; Dowkontt, P. F.; Israel, M. H.; Moore, P.; Murphy, R. P.; Olevitch, M. A.; Rauch, B. F.; Brandt, T. J.; Daniels, W. M.; Fitzsimmons, S. P.; Hahne, D. J.; Hams, T.; Link, J. T.; Mitchell, J. W.; Sakai, K.; and others

    2014-06-10

    The SuperTIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) instrument was developed to measure the abundances of galactic cosmic-ray elements from {sub 10}Ne to {sub 40}Zr with individual element resolution and the high statistics needed to test models of cosmic-ray origins. SuperTIGER also makes exploratory measurements of the abundances of elements with 40 < Z ≤ 60 and measures the energy spectra of the more abundant elements for Z ≤ 30 from about 0.8 to 10 GeV/nucleon. This instrument is an enlarged and higher resolution version of the earlier TIGER instrument. It was designed to provide the largest geometric acceptance possible and to reach as high an altitude as possible, flying on a standard long-duration 1.11 million m{sup 3} balloon. SuperTIGER was launched from Williams Field, McMurdo Station, Antarctica, on 2012 December 8, and made about 2.7 revolutions around the South Pole in 55 days of flight, returning data on over 50 × 10{sup 6} cosmic-ray nuclei with Z ≥ 10, including ∼1300 with Z > 29 and ∼60 with Z > 49. Here, we describe the instrument, the methods of charge identification employed, the SuperTIGER balloon flight, and the instrument performance.

  3. The SUPERTIGER Instrument: Measurement of Elemental Abundances of Ultra-Heavy Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binns, W. R.; Bose, R. G.; Braun, D. L.; Brandt, T. J.; Daniels, W. M.; Dowkontt, P. F.; Fitzsimmons, S. P.; Hahne, D. J.; Hams, T.; Israel, M. H.; Klemic, J.; Labrador, A. W.; Link, J. T.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Moore, P.; Murphy, R. P.; Olevitch, M. A.; Rauch, B. F.; Sakai, K.; San Sebastian, F.; Sasaki, M.; Simburger, G. E.; Stone, E. C.; Waddington, C. J.; Ward, J. E.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2014-06-01

    The SuperTIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) instrument was developed to measure the abundances of galactic cosmic-ray elements from 10Ne to 40Zr with individual element resolution and the high statistics needed to test models of cosmic-ray origins. SuperTIGER also makes exploratory measurements of the abundances of elements with 40 < Z <= 60 and measures the energy spectra of the more abundant elements for Z <= 30 from about 0.8 to 10 GeV/nucleon. This instrument is an enlarged and higher resolution version of the earlier TIGER instrument. It was designed to provide the largest geometric acceptance possible and to reach as high an altitude as possible, flying on a standard long-duration 1.11 million m3 balloon. SuperTIGER was launched from Williams Field, McMurdo Station, Antarctica, on 2012 December 8, and made about 2.7 revolutions around the South Pole in 55 days of flight, returning data on over 50 × 106 cosmic-ray nuclei with Z >= 10, including ~1300 with Z > 29 and ~60 with Z > 49. Here, we describe the instrument, the methods of charge identification employed, the SuperTIGER balloon flight, and the instrument performance.

  4. Association of trace elements with lipid profiles and glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus in northern Sardinia, Italy: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Peruzzu, Angela; Solinas, Giuliana; Asara, Yolande; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice; Tolu, Francesco; Malaguarnera, Lucia; Montella, Andrea; Madeddu, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Sardinia is an Italian region with a high incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to determine the associations of trace elements with lipid profiles and glycaemic control in patients with T1DM. A total of 192 patients with T1DM who attended the Unit of Diabetology and Metabolic Diseases in Sassari, Italy, were enrolled. Trace elements zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, and iron were measured in whole blood by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The correlations between metabolic variables and the levels of trace elements were determined. Zinc was positively correlated with total cholesterol (P=0.023), low-density lipoprotein (P=0.0015), and triglycerides (P=0.027). Iron as significantly correlated with TC (P=0.0189), LDL (P=0.0121), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P=0.0466). In males, Cr was positively correlated with HDL (P=0.0079) and Se, in females was correlated with TG (P=0.0113). The mean fasting plasma glucose was166.2mgdL(-1). Chromium was correlated with fasting plasma glucose (P=0.0149), particularly in males (P=0.0038). Overall, 63.5% of the patients had moderate HbA1c (7-9%). Copper was significantly correlated with HbA1c% in males (P=0.0155). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that trace elements show different associations with lipid levels and glycaemic control in T1DM. Zinc, Fe, and Se were associated with lipid levels whereas Cu and Cr were associated with HbA1c%.

  5. Continuous Profiles of Cloud Microphysical Properties for the Fixed Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M; Jensen, K

    2006-06-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program defined a specific metric for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2006 to produce and refine a one-year continuous time series of cloud microphysical properties based on cloud radar measurements for each of the fixed ARM sites. To accomplish this metric, we used a combination of recently developed algorithms that interpret radar reflectivity profiles, lidar backscatter profiles, and microwave brightness temperatures into the context of the underlying cloud microphysical structure.

  6. Intercomparison between ozone profiles measured above Spitsbergen by lidar and sonde techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabian, Rolf; Vondergathen, Peter; Ehlers, J.; Krueger, Bernd C.; Neuber, Roland; Beyerle, Georg

    1994-01-01

    This paper compares coincident ozone profile measurements by electrochemical sondes and lidar performed at Ny-Alesund/Spitsbergen. A detailed height dependent statistical analysis of the differences between these complementary methods was performed for the overlapping altitude region (13-35 km). The data set comprises ozone profile measurements conducted between Jan. 1989 and Jan. 1991. Differences of up to 25 percent were found above 30 km altitude.

  7. An overtone CO laser application for lidar measurements of profiles of atmospheric meteorological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskii, O. A.; Kharchenko, O. V.; Yakovlev, S. V.

    2014-11-01

    Possibilities of using an overtone CO laser in the mid-IR range for lidar measurements of air humidity and temperature profiles by the differential absorption method have been studied. Wavelengths for lidar measurements of meteorological parameters are selected. Spatial and spectrally resolved lidar signals, as well as random errors of retrieval of profiles of the atmospheric meteorological parameters, have been calculated using the wavelengths.

  8. Evaluation of Daytime Boundary Layer Heights from a Mesoscale Model Using Profilers/RASS Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    With in-situ measurements, most likely we have balloon soundings, dropsondes, or aircraft slant - path penetrations that go through the mixed layer top...RASS works through the properties of sound wave propagation . The RASS system, usually composed of four acoustic sources (one on each side of the...resulting backscatter and effectively measuring the speed of sound propagation . The profiler can compute virtual temperature (Tv) profiles because the speed

  9. Optical critical dimension (OCD) measurments for profile monitoring and control: applications for mask inspection and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoobler, Ray J.; Apak, Ebru

    2003-12-01

    Optical Critical Dimension (OCD) measurements using Normal-Incidence Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (polarized reflectance) allow for the separation of transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes of light reflected from an anisotropic sample as found in a periodic grating structure. This can provide the means for determining linewidths and analyzing complex profiles for a variety of structures found in mask fabrication. The normal-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometer maintains much of the simplicity in mechanical design found in a standard reflectometer and the additional polarizing element has no effect on the footprint making the system amenable for integration, inline monitoring and advanced process control. The rigourous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) method provides an exact method for calculating the diffraction of electromagnetic waves by periodic grating structures. We have extended OCD technology to critical measurement points in the mask fabrication process: After development inspection (ADI), where OCD evaluates mask writer performance and after etch inspection (AEI) for monitoring and control of etched quartz structures for phase shift applications. The determination of important, critical dimensions via optical techniques is appealing for several reasons: the method is non-destructive to photoresist and the sample is not subject to charging effects; the technique is capable of measuring the critical dimensions of grating structures down to approximately 40 nm; minimal facilities are required for installation (no high vacuum, cooling or shielding of electromagnetic fields); like optical thin film metrology, OCD technology can be integrated into process tools enabling Advanced Process Control (APC) of the etch process. Results will be presented showing the capabilities of OCD metrology for ADI and AEI applications. Comparisons will be made with both CD-SEM and X-SEM and the application to monitoring/controlling the quartz etch process will be discussed.

  10. Compensation method for the alignment angle error of a gear axis in profile deviation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Suping; Liu, Yongsheng; Wang, Huiyi; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Takeda, Ryuhei

    2013-05-01

    In the precision measurement of involute helical gears, the alignment angle error of a gear axis, which was caused by the assembly error of a gear measuring machine, will affect the measurement accuracy of profile deviation. A model of the involute helical gear is established under the condition that the alignment angle error of the gear axis exists. Based on the measurement theory of profile deviation, without changing the initial measurement method and data process of the gear measuring machine, a compensation method is proposed for the alignment angle error of the gear axis that is included in profile deviation measurement results. Using this method, the alignment angle error of the gear axis can be compensated for precisely. Some experiments that compare the residual alignment angle error of a gear axis after compensation for the initial alignment angle error were performed to verify the accuracy and feasibility of this method. Experimental results show that the residual alignment angle error of a gear axis included in the profile deviation measurement results is decreased by more than 85% after compensation, and this compensation method significantly improves the measurement accuracy of the profile deviation of involute helical gear.

  11. Motional Stark Effect Measurements of q-Profiles in JET Optimised Shear Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratton, B. C.; Hawkes, N. C.; Challis, C. D.; Drozdov, V.; Lomas, P.; Joffrin, E.; Litaudon, X.; Lotte, P.; Mazon, D.; Deangelis, R.; Rachlew, E.; Reyes-Cortes, S.

    2000-10-01

    A Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic is used to measure the magnetic field pitch angle in JET discharges. The q-profile is deduced from EFIT magnetic equilibrium reconstructions constrained by MSE data. Measurements have concentrated primarily on the Optimised Shear (OS) regime in which the details of the q-profile play an important role in the formation of internal transport barriers, leading to improved confinement. q-profiles in the target and high-power phases of OS plasmas with various heating scenarios (NBI + ICRF, NBI only, and NBI + LHCD) and pre-heat timings are presented and are correlated with ITB formation in the high-power phase.

  12. Measuring Gap Fraction, Element Clumping Index and LAI in Sierra Forest Stands Using a Full-Waveform Ground-Based Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Feng; Strahler, Alan H.; Crystal L. Schaaf; Yao, Tian; Yang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Zhuosen; Schull, Mitchell A.; Roman, Miguel O.; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Olofsson, Pontus; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Echidna Validation Instrument (EVI), a ground-based, near-infrared (1064 nm) scanning lidar, provides gap fraction measurements, element clumping index measurements, effective leaf area index (LAIe) and leaf area index (LAI) measurements that are statistically similar to those from hemispherical photos. In this research, a new method integrating the range dimension is presented for retrieving element clumping index using a unique series of images of gap probability (Pgap) with range from EVI. From these images, we identified connected gap components and found the approximate physical, rather than angular, size of connected gap component. We conducted trials at 30 plots within six conifer stands of varying height and stocking densities in the Sierra National Forest, CA, in August 2008. The element clumping index measurements retrieved from EVI Pgap image series for the hinge angle region are highly consistent (R2=0.866) with those of hemispherical photos. Furthermore, the information contained in connected gap component size profiles does account for the difference between our method and gap-size distribution theory based method, suggesting a new perspective to measure element clumping index with EVI Pgap image series and also a potential advantage of three dimensional Lidar data for element clumping index retrieval. Therefore further exploration is required for better characterization of clumped condition from EVI Pgap image series.

  13. Measuring Gap Fraction, Element Clumping Index and LAI in Sierra Forest Stands Using a Full-Waveform Ground-Based Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Feng; Strahler, Alan H.; Crystal L. Schaaf; Yao, Tian; Yang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Zhuosen; Schull, Mitchell A.; Roman, Miguel O.; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Olofsson, Pontus; Ni-Meister, Wenge; Jupp, David L. B.; Lovell, Jenny L.; Culvenor, Darius S.; Newnham, Glenn J.

    2012-01-01

    The Echidna Validation Instrument (EVI), a ground-based, near-infrared (1064 nm) scanning lidar, provides gap fraction measurements, element clumping index measurements, effective leaf area index (LAIe) and leaf area index (LAI) measurements that are statistically similar to those from hemispherical photos. In this research, a new method integrating the range dimension is presented for retrieving element clumping index using a unique series of images of gap probability (Pgap) with range from EVI. From these images, we identified connected gap components and found the approximate physical, rather than angular, size of connected gap component. We conducted trials at 30 plots within six conifer stands of varying height and stocking densities in the Sierra National Forest, CA, in August 2008. The element clumping index measurements retrieved from EVI Pgap image series for the hinge angle region are highly consistent (R2=0.866) with those of hemispherical photos. Furthermore, the information contained in connected gap component size profiles does account for the difference between our method and gap-size distribution theory based method, suggesting a new perspective to measure element clumping index with EVI Pgap image series and also a potential advantage of three dimensional Lidar data for element clumping index retrieval. Therefore further exploration is required for better characterization of clumped condition from EVI Pgap image series.

  14. Multi-elemental measurements of air particulate pollution at a site in mexico city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barfoot, K. M.; Vargas-Aburto, C.; Macarthur, J. D.; Jaider, A.; Garcia-Santibanez, F.; Fuentes-Gea, V.

    The total mass and elemental concentrations in 24-h samples of air particulate matter, collected during the winter of 1980-1981 on the outskirts of Mexico City, have been measured. The elemental analysis was achieved with proton induced X-ray emission. For the elements S, Cl, Ti, Fc, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb, mean concentrations of 8,0.9,0.3, 3.7,0.2,0.3,0.35 and 2.5 μ m -3 of air were measured. The high correlation ( r = 0.91) between Pb and Br, and the Br/Pb ratio of 0.15 strongly indicate that automobile exhaust is the major source of lead at this site in Mexico City.

  15. Measuring depth profiles of residual stress with Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Enloe, W.S.; Sparks, R.G.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Knowledge of the variation of residual stress is a very important factor in understanding the properties of machined surfaces. The nature of the residual stress can determine a part`s susceptibility to wear deformation, and cracking. Raman spectroscopy is known to be a very useful technique for measuring residual stress in many materials. These measurements are routinely made with a lateral resolution of 1{mu}m and an accuracy of 0.1 kbar. The variation of stress with depth; however, has not received much attention in the past. A novel technique has been developed that allows quantitative measurement of the variation of the residual stress with depth with an accuracy of 10nm in the z direction. Qualitative techniques for determining whether the stress is varying with depth are presented. It is also demonstrated that when the stress is changing over the volume sampled, errors can be introduced if the variation of the stress with depth is ignored. Computer aided data analysis is used to determine the depth dependence of the residual stress.

  16. Regional differences in collagen stable isotope and tissue trace element profiles in populations of long-tailed duck breeding in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Hobson, Keith A; Malone, Brian J

    2005-06-15

    Adult long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) were collected from nine locations across their breeding grounds in northern Canada and measurements of stable isotopes of carbon (delta(13)C), nitrogen (delta(15)N) and sulfur (delta(34)S) in bone collagen were used to investigate if relative use of freshwater habitats such as the Great Lakes (with expected depleted stable isotope profiles) compared with coastal marine environments (with expected enriched stable isotope foodweb profiles) could explain tissue trace element profiles. Contrary to expectation, all three stable isotopes did not covary in our sample, suggesting that mechanisms other than simple freshwater vs. marine isotopic gradients were involved among populations. All three stable isotopes varied significantly with collection location and both delta(15)N and delta(13)C values varied significantly between sexes suggesting that males exploit either a different food base or occur in different geographic areas than females for at least part of the year. The delta(34)S data, in particular, suggested that many of the birds breeding in the western Canadian Arctic probably overwinter in the Great Lakes along with many of the birds breeding in Hudson Bay. Males at the majority of collection locations had higher concentrations of hepatic Hg (1.1-8 microg/g dw), Cu (25-40 mug/g dw), Se (7.3-27 mug/g dw) and renal Cd (33-129 microg/g dw) than females. Concentrations of Hg, Cu and Cd were well below toxicological threshold levels found in the literature. However, hepatic Se concentrations in 64% of the females exceeded 10 mug/g dw and concentrations in 8% of the birds measured exceeded 33 microg/g dw suggesting levels of potential concern.

  17. Differential nuclease sensitivity profiling of chromatin reveals biochemical footprints coupled to gene expression and functional DNA elements in maize.

    PubMed

    Vera, Daniel L; Madzima, Thelma F; Labonne, Jonathan D; Alam, Mohammad P; Hoffman, Gregg G; Girimurugan, S B; Zhang, Jinfeng; McGinnis, Karen M; Dennis, Jonathan H; Bass, Hank W

    2014-10-01

    The eukaryotic genome is organized into nucleosomes, the fundamental units of chromatin. The positions of nucleosomes on DNA regulate protein-DNA interactions and in turn influence DNA-templated events. Despite the increasing number of genome-wide maps of nucleosome position, how global changes in gene expression relate to changes in nucleosome position is poorly understood. We show that in nucleosome occupancy mapping experiments in maize (Zea mays), particular genomic regions are highly susceptible to variation introduced by differences in the extent to which chromatin is digested with micrococcal nuclease (MNase). We exploited this digestion-linked variation to identify protein footprints that are hypersensitive to MNase digestion, an approach we term differential nuclease sensitivity profiling (DNS-chip). Hypersensitive footprints were enriched at the 5' and 3' ends of genes, associated with gene expression levels, and significantly overlapped with conserved noncoding sequences and the binding sites of the transcription factor KNOTTED1. We also found that the tissue-specific regulation of gene expression was linked to tissue-specific hypersensitive footprints. These results reveal biochemical features of nucleosome organization that correlate with gene expression levels and colocalize with functional DNA elements. This approach to chromatin profiling should be broadly applicable to other species and should shed light on the relationships among chromatin organization, protein-DNA interactions, and genome regulation.

  18. The effects of tibia profile, distraction angle, and knee load on wedge instability and hinge fracture: A finite element study.

    PubMed

    Weng, Pei-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hsien; Luo, Chu-An; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Tsuang, Yang-Hwei; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Lin, Shang-Chih

    2017-04-01

    Several plate systems for high tibial osteotomy (HTO) have been developed to stabilize the opening wedge of an osteotomized tibia. Among them, the TomoFix system, having a quasi-straight and T-shaped design, has been widely adopted in the literature. However, this system is implemented by inserting a lag (i.e., cortical) screw through the proximal combi-hole, to deform the plate and pull the distal tibia toward the plate. This process potentially induces plate springback and creates an elastic preload on the osteotomized tibia, especially at the lateral hinge of the distracted wedge. Using the finite-element method, this study aims to investigate the contoured effect of lag-screw application on the biomechanical behavior of the tibia-plate construct. Two tibial profiles (normal and more concave), three distraction angles (6°, 9°, and 12°), and three knee loads (intraoperative: contouring plate; postoperative: weight and nonweight bearing) are systematically varied in this study. The wedge instability and fracture risk at the lateral hinge are chosen as the comparison indices. The results show the necessity of preoperative planning for a precontoured procedure, rather than elastic deformation using a lag screw. Within the intraoperative period, a more concave tibial profile and/or reduced distraction angle (i.e., 6° or 9°) necessitate a higher compressive load to elastically deform the plate, thereby deteriorating the lateral-hinge fracture risk. A precontoured plate is recommended in the case that the proximal tibia is highly concave and the distraction angle is insufficient to stretch the tibial profile.

  19. Assessing the Suitability of Historical PM(2.5) Element Measurements for Trend Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hyslop, Nicole P; Trzepla, Krystyna; White, Warren H

    2015-08-04

    The IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments) network has characterized fine particulate matter composition at locations throughout the United States since 1988. A main objective of the network is to evaluate long-term trends in aerosol concentrations. Measurements inevitably advance over time, but changes in measurement technique have the potential to confound the interpretation of long-term trends. Problems of interpretation typically arise from changing biases, and changes in bias can be difficult to identify without comparison data that are consistent throughout the measurement series, which rarely exist. We created a consistent measurement series for exactly this purpose by reanalyzing the 15-year archives (1995-2009) of aerosol samples from three sites - Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Mount Rainier National Park, and Point Reyes National Seashore-as single batches using consistent analytical methods. In most cases, trend estimates based on the original and reanalysis measurements are statistically different for elements that were not measured above the detection limit consistently over the years (e.g., Na, Cl, Si, Ti, V, Mn). The original trends are more reliable for elements consistently measured above the detection limit. All but one of the 23 site-element series with detection rates >80% had statistically indistinguishable original and reanalysis trends (overlapping 95% confidence intervals).

  20. Using elemental profiles and stable isotopes to trace the origin of green coffee beans on the global market.

    PubMed

    Santato, Alessandro; Bertoldi, Daniela; Perini, Matteo; Camin, Federica; Larcher, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    A broad elemental profile incorporating 54 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er, Tm, Yb, Re, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi and U) in combination with δ(2) H, δ(13) C, δ(15) N and δ(18) O was used to characterise the composition of 62 green arabica (Coffea arabica) and robusta (Coffea canephora) coffee beans grown in South and Central America, Africa and Asia, the four most internationally renowned areas of production. The δ(2) H, Mg, Fe, Co and Ni content made it possible to correctly assign 95% of green coffee beans to the appropriate variety. Canonical discriminant analysis, performed using δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(18) O, Li, Mg, P, K, Mn, Co, Cu, Se, Y, Mo, Cd, La and Ce correctly traced the origin of 98% of coffee beans. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Estimation of volcanic ash emission profiles using ceilometer measurements and transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ka Lok; Geiß, Alexander; Gasteiger, Josef; Wagner, Frank; Wiegner, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the number of active remote sensing systems grows rapidly, since several national weather services initiated ceilometer networks. These networks are excellent tools to monitor the dispersion of volcanic ash clouds and to validate chemical transport models. Moreover, it is expected that the can be used to refine model calculations to better predict situations that might be dangerous for aviation. As a ceilometer can be considered as a simple single-wavelength backscatter lidar, quantitative aerosol profile information, i.e., the aerosol backscatter coefficient (βp) profile, can be derived provided that the ceilometer is calibrated. Volcanic ash concentration profile can then be estimated by using prior optical properties of volcanic ash. These profiles are then used for the inverse calculation of the emission profile of the volcanic eruption, thus, improving one of the most critical parameters of the numerical simulation. In this study, the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) is used to simulate the dispersion of volcanic ash. We simulate the distribution of ash for a given time/height grid, in order to compute the sensitivity functions for each measurements. As an example we use ceilometer measurements of the German weather service to reconstruct the temporal and spatial emission profile of Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010. We have also examined the sensitivity of the retrieved emission profiles to different measurement parameters, e.g., geolocation of the measurement sites, total number of measurement sites, temporal and vertical resolution of the measurements, etc. The first results show that ceilometer measurements in principle are feasible for the inversion of volcanic ash emission profiles.

  2. Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhangyi; Song, Hongxin; Chui, Toco Yuen Ping; Petrig, Benno L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To quantitatively model the changes in blood velocity profiles for different cardiac phases in human retinal vessels. Methods. An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) was used to measure blood velocity profiles in three healthy subjects. Blood velocity was measured by tracking erythrocytes moving across a scanning line. From the radial position of the cells within the lumen, the blood velocity profile was computed. The cardiac pulsatility was recorded with a cardiac signal monitor. Results. The shape of the blood velocity profile in retinal arteries changed systematically during the cardiac cycle, with the flattest profile occurring during the diastolic phase. The measured blood velocity profiles were typically flatter than the commonly assumed parabolic shape. The flatness increased with decreasing vessel size. For the large veins (>80 μm), the ratio of the centerline velocity to the cross-sectional average velocity was between 1.50 and 1.65. This ratio decreased to 1.36 in the smallest vein studied (32 μm). Velocity profiles downstream from a venous confluence showed two peaks at 120 μm from the confluence, but a single velocity peak 500 μm downstream from the confluence. Conclusions. The cardiac cycle influences the blood flow velocity profiles systematically in retinal arteries but not in veins. Parabolic flow was not found in even the largest vessels studied, and deviations from parabolic flow increased in smaller vessels. The measurements are sensitive enough to measure the dual-humped blood velocity profile at a vein confluence. PMID:21467177

  3. Measurement of the profile of solar He I resonance lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E.; Judge, D. L.; Carlson, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    The analysis of data obtained by a rocket-borne helium-filled spectrometer employing a curve-of-growth technique in 1977 and 1980 is used in an investigation of the 584-A helium resonance line from the full solar disk. Between 6.5 and 13% of the Gaussian core area was found to be missing through self-reversal. Line widths from 1980 and 1977 were 101 + or - 10 mA and 128 + or - 20 mA full width at half maximum, respectively. No consistent relationship is found between the measured widths and solar activity.

  4. The Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale: A Measurement System for Global Variables in Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) is a measurement system for applying numbers to global variables in two-dimensional art (drawing and painting). While it was originally developed for use with the single-picture assessment ("Draw a person picking an apple from a tree" [PPAT]), researchers can also apply many of the 14 scales of the…

  5. DEMONSTRATION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN: XRF TECHNOLOGIES OF MEASURING TRACE ELEMENTS IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of field portable/mobile technologies for measuring trace elements in soil and sediments was conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The demonstration took place from January 24 to 28, 200...

  6. Orbital Estimation Using Two-Body Classical Orbital Elements as Measurement Updates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    xii I. Introduction .. .. ... ...... ...... ....... 1 II. Truth Model. .. ..... ..... ...... ....... 4 Coordinate Frame...and transmit two-body orbital elements to SDC as measurement updates. This would significantly reduce the data load at SDC. The truth model used in...estimate. The approach taken in this thesis is divided into three parts. First, a truth model will be developed to simulate an actual satellite orbit

  7. The Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale: A Measurement System for Global Variables in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Linda M.

    2001-01-01

    Outlines the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS), a measurement system for applying numbers to global variables in two-dimensional art. Developed for use with the single-picture assessment, researchers can apply many of the 14 scales of the FEATS to other types of drawings. Discusses how art therapists who are studying other assessments can…

  8. Actinide, Elemental, and Fission Product Measurements by ICPMS at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Tovo, L.L.; Waller, P.R.; Clymire, J.; Jones, V.D.; Boyce, W.T.

    1998-03-01

    VG Elemental Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICPMS), PlasmaQuad 1 (PQ1) Model No. 4, installed in a radiohood, is used by the Savannah River Technology Center to provide non-routine mass measurements for environmental monitoring, waste tank characterization studies, isotope ratios for criticality determinations, and the measurement of elemental, fission product, and actinide mass distributions of the glass product from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Modifications to improve instrument reliability, sample preparation, and data handling, as well as modifications to the laboratory that permit measurements in a radioactive environment will be discussed. Based on our operating experience, two laboratory facilities are being prepared for additional instruments to operate in a radioactive environment. A separate instrument is being installed for non-radioactive measurements and method development.

  9. Non-contact high precision measurement of surface form tolerances and central thickness for optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Ying

    2010-10-01

    The traditional contact measuring methods could not satisfy the current optical elements measuring requirements. Noncontact high precision measuring theory, principle and instrument of the surface form tolerances and central thickness for optical elements were studied in the paper. In comparison with other types of interferometers, such as Twyman-Green and Mach-Zehnder, a Fizeau interferometer has the advantages of having fewer optical components, greater accuracy, and is easier to use. Some relations among the 3/A(B/C), POWER/PV and N/ΔN were studied. The PV with POWER removed can be the reference number of ΔN. The chromatic longitudinal aberration of a special optical probe can be used for non-contanct central thickness measurement.

  10. Four reference soil and rock samples for measuring element availability in the Western Energy Regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Severson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Attaining acceptable precision in extractable element determinations is more difficult than in total element determinations. In total element determinations, dissolution of the sample is qualitatively checked by the clarity of the solution and the absence of residues. These criteria cannot be used for extracts. Possibilities for error are introduced in virtually every step in soil extractions. Therefore, the use of reference materials whose homogeneity and element content are reasonably well known is essential for determination of extractable elements. In this report, estimates of homogeneity and element content are presented for four reference samples. Bulk samples of about 100 kilograms of each sample were ground to pass an 80-mesh sieve. The samples were homogenized and split using a Jones-type splitter. Fourteen splits of each reference sample were analyzed for total content of Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and Zn; DTPA-extractable Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn; exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and Na; cation exchange capacity water-saturation-extractable Ca, Mg, K, Na, C1, and SO4; soil pH; and hot-water-extractable boron. Error measured between splits was small, indicating that the samples were homogenized adequately and that the laboratory procedure provided reproducible results.

  11. Stretch-dependent changes in surface profiles of the human crystalline lens during accommodation: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Pour, Hooman Mohammad; Kanapathipillai, Sangarapillai; Zarrabi, Khosrow; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur

    2015-03-01

    A non-linear isotropic finite element (FE) model of a 29-year-old human crystalline lens was constructed to study the effects of various geometrical parameters on lens accommodation. The model simulates dis-accommodation by stretching of the lens and predicts the change in surface profiles of the lens capsule, cortex and nucleus at select states of stretching/accommodation. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) is used to develop a stretch-dependent mathematical model relating the lens sagittal height to the radial position of the lens surface as a function of dis-accommodative stretch. A load analysis is performed to compare the finite element results to empirical results from lens stretcher studies. Using the predicted geometrical changes, the optical response of the whole eye during accommodation was analysed by ray-tracing. Aspects of lens shape change relative to stretch were evaluated, including change in diameter, central thickness and accommodation. Maximum accommodation achieved was 10.29 D. From the multiple regression analysis, the stretch-dependent mathematical model of the lens shape related lens curvatures as a function of lens ciliary stretch well (maximum mean-square residual error 2.5 × 10(-3 ) μm, p < 0.001). The results are compared with those from in vitro studies. The finite element and ray-tracing predictions are consistent with Ex Vivo Accommodation Simulator (EVAS) studies in terms of load and power change versus change in thickness. The mathematical stretch-dependent model of accommodation presented may have utility in investigating lens behaviour at states other than the relaxed or fully accommodated states. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  12. Development of a magnetic vector potential profile measurement using a Heavy Ion Beam Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fimognari, P. J.; Demers, D. R.; Crowley, T. P.

    2015-11-01

    Measurement of the plasma current density profile remains a fundamental need in toroidal confinement. Establishing this unique capability within the fusion program is invaluable to stability and transport studies. Inference of localized values of the magnetic vector potential, which will enable current density profile studies, can be accomplished through measurement of the toroidal velocity of secondary ions produced through electron-impact ionization of a heavy ion beam in an axisymmetric plasma. We are developing a specialized detector to measure particle velocity and the techniques necessary to unfold the magnetic vector potential profile, and hence the poloidal flux and current density profiles. Initial modeling of the velocity detector has been performed. Simulations are enabling estimation of anticipated sensitivity to, and resolution of, equilibrium and fluctuating quantities. Results of this work and forward looking plans will be presented. This work is supported by US DoE award no. DE-SC0006077.

  13. TH-C-18A-04: Validation of Dosimetric Measurement of CT Radiation Profile Width

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, D; Al-Senan, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The ACR now requires that the CT radiation profile width be measured at all clinically used collimations. We developed a method for measuring the profile width using dosimetry alone to allow a faster and simpler measurement of beam widths. Methods: A pencil ionization chamber is used to take two dose-length product measurements in air for a wide collimation. One of these is taken with a 1cm tungsten mask on the pencil chamber. The difference between these measurements is the calibration factor, or the DLP in air per unit length. By dividing the doselength product for any given collimation by this factor, we can rapidly determine the beam profile width.We measured the beam width for all available detector configurations and focal spot sizes on three different CT scanners from two different manufacturers. The measurements were done using film, CR cassette, and the present dosimetric method. Results: The beam widths measured dosimetrically are approximately 2% wider than those measured using film or computed radiography; this difference is believed due to off-focus or scattered radiation. After correcting for this, the dosimetric beam widths match the film and CR widths with an RMS difference of approximately 0.2mm. The measured beam widths are largely insensitive to errors in positioning of the mask, or to tilt errors in the pencil chamber. Conclusion: Using the present method, radiation profile widths can be measured quickly, with an accuracy better than 1mm.

  14. Elemental composition of ambient aerosols measured with high temporal resolution using an online XRF spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furger, Markus; Cruz Minguillón, María; Yadav, Varun; Slowik, Jay G.; Hüglin, Christoph; Fröhlich, Roman; Petterson, Krag; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-06-01

    The Xact 625 Ambient Metals Monitor was tested during a 3-week field campaign at the rural, traffic-influenced site Härkingen in Switzerland during the summer of 2015. The field campaign encompassed the Swiss National Day fireworks event, providing increased concentrations and unique chemical signatures compared to non-fireworks (or background) periods. The objective was to evaluate the data quality by intercomparison with other independent measurements and test its applicability for aerosol source quantification. The Xact was configured to measure 24 elements in PM10 with 1 h time resolution. Data quality was evaluated for 10 24 h averages of Xact data by intercomparison with 24 h PM10 filter data analysed with ICP-OES for major elements, ICP-MS for trace elements, and gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry for Hg. Ten elements (S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, Pb) showed excellent correlation between the compared methods, with r2 values ≥ 0.95. However, the slopes of the regressions between Xact 625 and ICP data varied from 0.97 to 1.8 (average 1.28) and thus indicated generally higher Xact elemental concentrations than ICP for these elements. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed, but further investigations are needed. For the remaining elements no conclusions could be drawn about their quantification for various reasons, mainly detection limit issues. An indirect intercomparison of hourly values was performed for the fireworks peak, which brought good agreement of total masses when the Xact data were corrected with the regressions from the 24 h value intercomparison. The results demonstrate that multi-metal characterization at high-time-resolution capability of Xact is a valuable and practical tool for ambient monitoring.

  15. Extending Penning trap mass measurements with SHIPTRAP to the heaviest elements

    SciTech Connect

    Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Herfurth, F.; Hofmann, S.; Blaum, K.; Droese, C.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Eibach, M.; Eliseev, S.; Haettner, E.; Plass, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C.; Hessberger, F. P.; Ramirez, E. Minaya; Nesterenko, D.; and others

    2013-03-19

    Penning-trap mass spectrometry of radionuclides provides accurate mass values and absolute binding energies. Such mass measurements are sensitive indicators of the nuclear structure evolution far away from stability. Recently, direct mass measurements have been extended to the heavy elements nobelium (Z=102) and lawrencium (Z=103) with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP. The results probe nuclear shell effects at N=152. New developments will pave the way to access even heavier nuclides.

  16. A comparison between acoustic mode measurements and acoustic finite element analysis performed for SAAB SF 340

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goeransson, P.; Green, I.

    1986-03-01

    In order to verify an acoustic finite element package, measured and calculated eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies for Saab SF 340 cabin acoustics were compared. The measurements were performed in an acoustic mockup. For the analysis, a two dimensional model of the cross section of the fuselage was used. The comparison shows quite good agreement, the discrepancies being due to the representation of the flexible wall of the fuselage as rigid in the analysis.

  17. Extending Penning trap mass measurements with SHIPTRAP to the heaviest elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Blaum, K.; Droese, C.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eibach, M.; Eliseev, S.; Haettner, E.; Herfurth, F.; Heßberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Marx, G.; Ramirez, E. Minaya; Nesterenko, D.; Novikov, Yu. N.; Plaß, W. R.; Rodríguez, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schweikhard, L.; Thirolf, P. G.; Weber, C.

    2013-03-01

    Penning-trap mass spectrometry of radionuclides provides accurate mass values and absolute binding energies. Such mass measurements are sensitive indicators of the nuclear structure evolution far away from stability. Recently, direct mass measurements have been extended to the heavy elements nobelium (Z=102) and lawrencium (Z=103) with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP. The results probe nuclear shell effects at N=152. New developments will pave the way to access even heavier nuclides.

  18. Measuring the CKM matrix element V{sub tb} at D-zero and CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Heinson, A.P.

    1997-07-01

    I present measurements by the CDF collaboration of the Standard Model three generation CKM matrix element V{sub tb} and of a special case extension with additional assumptions, using current Tevatron t{anti t} data. I then show how we can significantly improve the precision on V{sub tb} and at the same time extend the measurement so it is not constrained by Standard Model assumptions, using single top production at the upgraded Tevatron.

  19. Quantum tomography for measuring experimentally the matrix elements of an arbitrary quantum operation.

    PubMed

    D'Ariano, G M; Lo Presti, P

    2001-05-07

    Quantum operations describe any state change allowed in quantum mechanics, including the evolution of an open system or the state change due to a measurement. We present a general method based on quantum tomography for measuring experimentally the matrix elements of an arbitrary quantum operation. As input the method needs only a single entangled state. The feasibility of the technique for the electromagnetic field is shown, and the experimental setup is illustrated based on homodyne tomography of a twin beam.

  20. Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

    2010-11-01

    The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29Lkg(-1) in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85Lkg(-1) for whole, small-bodied fish. The logCRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were approximately 4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts.

  1. Measurement of peeling mode edge current profile dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bongard, M W; Fonck, R J; Hegna, C C; Redd, A J; Schlossberg, D J

    2011-07-15

    Peeling modes, an instability mechanism underlying deleterious edge localized mode (ELM) activity in fusion-grade plasmas, are observed at the edge of limited plasmas in a low aspect ratio tokamak under conditions of high edge current density (J(edge) ∼ 0.1  MA/m2) and low magnetic field (B ∼ 0.1  T). They generate edge-localized, electromagnetic activity with low toroidal mode numbers n≤3 and amplitudes that scale strongly with measured J(edge)/B instability drive, consistent with theory. ELM-like field-aligned, current-carrying filaments form from an initial current-hole J(edge) perturbation that detach and propagate outward.

  2. Vertical profile measurements of carbonylsulfide in the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Schmidt, U.

    Measurements of COS in the altitude region between 17 and 30 km were made, using a whole air sampling technique with subsequent gaschromatographic analysis. The data show COS mixing-ratios from about 200 pptv at 17 km decreasing to less then 20 pptv at about 28 km. This behaviour is in qualitative agreement with the model-calculations by Turco et al. (1981). From the correlation with CFCl3 and CF2Cl2 the lifetime with respect to removal in the stratosphere is calculated to be 69±28 years. This corresponds to a sink of between 47 and 112 * 109 g of COS per year in the stratosphere. Comparing this number to the estimated fluxes needed to sustain the background sulfuric-acid aerosol confirms that most of the non-volcanic aerosol is produced by the oxidation of COS in the stratosphere.

  3. SU-E-P-24: Simplified EDW Profile Measurements Using Two Commonly Available Detector Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, T; Arentsen, L; Watanabe, Y; Alaei, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) profiles are needed as part of the commissioning of a treatment planning system. This work compares the acquisition of EDW profiles using a linear diode array (LDA) with two commonly used detector arrays available in the clinics, with the goal of identifying the simplest approach for these measurements. Methods: The measurements of EDW profiles were performed on a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator for 6, 10, and 18 MV photon beams for all seven wedge angles at four depths. The measurements were done using the LDA 99 in Blue Phantom2 (IBA Dosimetry), and IC Profiler and MapCHECK2 (Sun Nuclear) in solid water phantoms. The water phantom was set up at 100 cm SSD, whereas the two other devices were set up at 75 cm due to the size limitations of the devices. The largest possible field size was used. The average and maximum percentage differences were examined within the central 90% of the field and in the penumbra. Results: Dose profiles measured with IC Profiler were in a good agreement with LDA 99 data. The average percentage difference within the field did not exceed 0.5% for all energies. MapCHECK2 measurements matched well with LDA 99 for 10 and 18 MV (within 0.3%) with discrepancies of up to 1.4% observed for the 6 MV beam. The maximum percentage differences for both devices in the penumbra exhibited larger variations than LDA 99 results due to differences in detector spacing and high dose gradient, as expected. Conclusion: Common linac QA devices such as IC Profiler or MapCHECK2 provide EDW beam profile data of reasonable accuracy as compared to measurements performed using a linear diode array in a water phantom, saving the expense and time involved in acquiring and setting up a LDA.

  4. Coarse-fine vertical scanning based optical profiler for structured surface measurement with large step height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Liu, Xiaojun; Lei, Zili; Li, Qian; Yang, Xiao; Chen, Liangzhou; Lu, Wenlong

    2015-02-01

    White light interference (WLI) optical profiler had been used widely for structured surface measurement. To achieve high measuring accuracy, piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) was usually used as the vertical scanning unit, which was normally less than 100um and only for small range structured surface measurement. With the development of advanced manufacturing technology, precision structured surfaces with large step height were appearing. To satisfy the measurement requirements of this kind of precision structured surfaces, WLI optical profiler with large range had to be developed. In this paper, an optical profiler was proposed, in which a coarse-fine vertical scanning system was adopted to expand its measurement range to 10mm while its resolution still at nanometer level.

  5. A novel non-contact profiler design for measuring synchrotron radiation mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yao; Takacs, P.Z.; Furenlid, K.; DeBiasse, R.A. ); Wang, Run-Wen . Shanghai Inst. of Optics and Fine Mechanics)

    1990-08-01

    A novel optical profiler is described in this paper for measurement of surface profiles of synchrotron radiation (SR) mirrors. The measurement is based on a combination of an optical heterodyne technique and a precise phase measurement procedure without a reference surface. A Zeeman two-frequency He-Ne laser is employed as the light source. The common-path optical system, which uses a birefringent lens as the beam splitter, minimizes the effects of air turbulence, sample vibration and temperature variation. A special autofocus system allows the profiler to measure the roughness and shape of a sample surface. The optical system is mounted on a large linear air-bearing slide, and is capable of scanning over distances covering the spatial period range from several microns to nearly one meter with a high measurement accuracy. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using a real-time dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Evans, Joshua D.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Dohatcu, Andreea C.; Politte, David G.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Several areas of computed tomography (CT) research require knowledge about the intensity profile of the x-ray fan beam that is introduced by a bow tie filter. This information is considered proprietary by CT manufacturers, so noninvasive measurement methods are required. One method using real-time dosimeters has been proposed in the literature. A commercially available dosimeter was used to apply that method, and analysis techniques were developed to extract fan beam profiles from measurements. Methods: A real-time ion chamber was placed near the periphery of an empty CT gantry and the dose rate versus time waveform was recorded as the x-ray source rotated about the isocenter. In contrast to previously proposed analysis methods that assumed a pointlike detector, the finite-size ion chamber received varying amounts of coverage by the collimated x-ray beam during rotation, precluding a simple relationship between the source intensity as a function of fan beam angle and measured intensity. A two-parameter model for measurement intensity was developed that included both effective collimation width and source-to-detector distance, which then was iteratively solved to minimize the error between duplicate measurements at corresponding fan beam angles, allowing determination of the fan beam profile from measured dose-rate waveforms. Measurements were performed on five different scanner systems while varying parameters such as collimation, kVp, and bow tie filters. On one system, direct measurements of the bow tie profile were collected for comparison with the real-time dosimeter technique. Results: The data analysis method for a finite-size detector was found to produce a fan beam profile estimate with a relative error between duplicate measurement intensities of <5%. It was robust over a wide range of collimation widths (e.g., 1–40 mm), producing fan beam profiles that agreed with a relative error of 1%–5%. Comparison with a direct measurement technique on

  7. MESSENGER Measurements of Radioactive Elements on Mercury: Implications for the Planet's Formation and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, L. G.; Peplowski, P. N.; Hauck, S. A.; McCoy, T. J.; Boynton, W. V.; Ebel, D. S.; Goldsten, J. O.; Hamara, D. K.; Lawrence, D. J.; McNutt, R. L.; Rhodes, E. A.; Nittler, L. R.; Sprague, A. L.; Solomon, S. C.; Starr, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Measurements of the surface composition of Mercury offers a window into the epoch of planet formation in the inner solar system. Mercury likely preserves a more complete record of early crustal formation than do Venus, Earth, or Mars, each of which experienced extensive and prolonged resurfacing and near-surface alteration since earliest crustal formation. The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemisty, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft was inserted into Mercury orbit on 18 March 2011 and carries a suite of instruments designed for remote sensing of elemental and mineralogical composition including a Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS). We report measured surface abundances of radioactive elements on Mercury and their implications for hypotheses regarding the planet's formation and thermal evolution. The average surface abundances of radioactive elements over the region of Mercury measured by the GRS are 1150 ± 220 ppm K, 220 ± 60 ppb Th, and 90 ± 20 ppb U. Ratios of the moderately volatile incompatible element K to the refractory incompatible elements Th and U provide insights into the volatile inventory of planetary bodies. The measured K/Th ratio for Mercury (5200 ± 1800) is comparable to values for the other terrestrial planets. By contrast, the lunar K/Th value (360) is an order of magnitude lower, indicative of the depletion of lunar volatiles relative to Earth. Mercury's K/Th ratio, combined with the high abundance of the volatile element sulfur measured by the MESSENGER X-Ray Spectrometer, indicates that the planet has a volatile inventory similar to those of the other terrestrial planets. Hypotheses proposed to explain the unusually high ratio of metal to silicate on Mercury also carry predictions for the ratios of volatile to refractory elements that can be tested against the K, Th, and U abundances measured by MESSENGER. The abundance of K, relative to Th and U, is inconsistent with physical models for the formation of Mercury requiring extreme

  8. Establishment of a room temperature molten salt capability to measure fundamental thermodynamic properties of actinide elements

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.; Costa, D.A.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a six-month, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this work was to establish a capability for the measurement of fundamental thermodynamic properties of actinide elements in room temperature molten salts. This capability will be used to study in detail the actinide chloro- and oxo-coordination chemistries that dominate in the chloride-based molten salt media. Uranium will be the first actinide element under investigation.

  9. Fatigue assessment of an existing steel bridge by finite element modelling and field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwad, J.; Alencar, G.; Correia, J.; Jesus, A.; Calçada, R.; Kripakaran, P.

    2017-05-01

    The evaluation of fatigue life of structural details in metallic bridges is a major challenge for bridge engineers. A reliable and cost-effective approach is essential to ensure appropriate maintenance and management of these structures. Typically, local stresses predicted by a finite element model of the bridge are employed to assess the fatigue life of fatigue-prone details. This paper illustrates an approach for fatigue assessment based on measured data for a connection in an old bascule steel bridge located in Exeter (UK). A finite element model is first developed from the design information. The finite element model of the bridge is calibrated using measured responses from an ambient vibration test. The stress time histories are calculated through dynamic analysis of the updated finite element model. Stress cycles are computed through the rainflow counting algorithm, and the fatigue prone details are evaluated using the standard SN curves approach and the Miner’s rule. Results show that the proposed approach can estimate the fatigue damage of a fatigue prone detail in a structure using measured strain data.

  10. Carbon monoxide (CO) vertical profiles derived from joined TES and MLS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming; Read, William; Kulawik, Susan; Worden, John; Livesey, Nathaniel; Bowman, Kevin; Herman, Robert

    2013-09-01

    (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) nadir and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) limb measurements from the Aura satellite are used to jointly estimate an atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) profile with extended vertical range compared to profiles retrieved from the individual measurement. We describe the algorithms, the processing procedures, the prototyping results, and the evaluations for this new joint product. TES and MLS "stand-alone" CO profile retrievals are largely complementary, with TES being largely sensitive to lower to middle troposphere while MLS measures CO in the upper troposphere and above. We pair TES nadir and MLS limb tangent locations within 6-8 min and within 220 km. The paired radiance measurements of the two instruments in each location are optimally combined to retrieve a single CO profile along with other trace gases whose signal interferes with that from CO. This combined CO profile has a vertical resolution and vertical range that is an improvement over the two stand-alone products, especially in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. For example, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) between surface and 50 hPa for TES alone are < 2, and for the combined CO profiles are 2-4. This new Aura CO product will be made available to the public using TES V005 and MLS V003 processing results and will provide a unique data set for studying tropospheric transport of air pollutants and troposphere-stratospheric exchange processes.

  11. Technical Note: Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using radiochromic film

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Dohatcu, Andreea C.; Evans, Joshua D.; Politte, David G.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a noninvasive technique to measure the intensity profile of the fan beam in a computed tomography (CT) scanner that is cost effective and easily implemented without the need to access proprietary scanner information or service modes. Methods: The fabrication of an inexpensive aperture is described, which is used to expose radiochromic film in a rotating CT gantry. A series of exposures is made, each of which is digitized on a personal computer document scanner, and the resulting data set is analyzed to produce a self-consistent calibration of relative radiation exposure. The bow tie profiles were analyzed to determine the precision of the process and were compared to two other measurement techniques, direct measurements from CT gantry detectors and a dynamic dosimeter. Results: The radiochromic film method presented here can measure radiation exposures with a precision of ∼6% root-mean-square relative error. The intensity profiles have a maximum 25% root-mean-square relative error compared with existing techniques. Conclusions: The proposed radiochromic film method for measuring bow tie profiles is an inexpensive (∼$100 USD + film costs), noninvasive method to measure the fan beam intensity profile in CT scanners. PMID:26127044

  12. Technical Note: Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using radiochromic film

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Dohatcu, Andreea C.; Evans, Joshua D.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Politte, David G.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To provide a noninvasive technique to measure the intensity profile of the fan beam in a computed tomography (CT) scanner that is cost effective and easily implemented without the need to access proprietary scanner information or service modes. Methods: The fabrication of an inexpensive aperture is described, which is used to expose radiochromic film in a rotating CT gantry. A series of exposures is made, each of which is digitized on a personal computer document scanner, and the resulting data set is analyzed to produce a self-consistent calibration of relative radiation exposure. The bow tie profiles were analyzed to determine the precision of the process and were compared to two other measurement techniques, direct measurements from CT gantry detectors and a dynamic dosimeter. Results: The radiochromic film method presented here can measure radiation exposures with a precision of ∼6% root-mean-square relative error. The intensity profiles have a maximum 25% root-mean-square relative error compared with existing techniques. Conclusions: The proposed radiochromic film method for measuring bow tie profiles is an inexpensive (∼$100 USD + film costs), noninvasive method to measure the fan beam intensity profile in CT scanners.

  13. Line profile measurement of advanced-FinFET features by reference metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Iwaki, Yuuki; Takahashi, Satoru; Kawada, Hiroki; Ikota, Masami; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Lorusso, Gian F.; Horiguchi, Naoto

    2015-03-01

    A novel method of sub-nanometer uncertainty for the line profile measurement using TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) images is proposed to calibrate CD-SEM (Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope) line width measurement and to standardize line profile measurement through reference metrology. The proposed method has been validated for profile of Si line and photoresist features in our previous investigations. In this article, we apply the methodology to line profile measurements of advanced-FinFET (Fin-shaped Field-Effect Transistor) features. The FinFET features are sliced as thin specimens of 100 nm thickness by FIB (Focused Ion Beam) micro sampling system. Cross-sectional images of the specimens are obtained then by TEM. The profiles of fin, hardmask and dummy gate of FinFET features are evaluated using TEM images. The width of fin, the length of hardmask, and the length of dummy gate of FinFET features are measured and compared to CD-SEM measurement. The TEM results will be used to implement CD-SEM and CD-AFM reference metrology.

  14. Garnet/high-silica rhyolite trace element partition coefficients measured by ion microprobe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, T.W.; Bacon, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Garnet/liquid trace element partition coefficients have been measured in situ by ion microprobe in a rhyolite from Monache Mountain, California. Partition coefficients are reported for La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Dy, Er, Yb, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Sr, Y, and Zr. The in situ analyses avoid the problem of contamination of the garnet phase by trace element-rich accessory minerals encountered in traditional bulk phenocryst/matrix partitioning studies. The partitioning pattern for the rare earth elements (REEs, excluding Eu) is smooth and rises steeply from the light to the heavy REEs with no sharp kinks or changes in slope, unlike patterns for garnet /silicic liquid REE partitioning determined by bulk methods. This difference suggests that the previous determinations by bulk methods are in error, having suffered from contamination of the phenocryst separates. ?? 1992.

  15. Laser ablation ICP-MS profiling and semiquantitative determination of trace element concentrations in desert tortoise shells: Documenting the uptake of elemental toxicants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seltzer, M.D.; Berry, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    The outer keratin layer (scute) of desert tortoise shells consists of incrementally grown laminae in which various bioaccumulated trace elements are sequestered during scute deposition. Laser ablation ICP-MS examination of laminae in scutes of dead tortoises revealed patterns of trace elemental distribution from which the chronology of elemental uptake can be inferred. These patterns may be of pathologic significance in the case of elemental toxicants such as arsenic, which has been linked to both shell and respiratory diseases. Laser ablation transects, performed along the lateral surfaces of sectioned scutes, offered the most successful means of avoiding exogenous contamination that was present on the scute exterior. Semiquantitative determination of elemental concentrations was achieved using sulfur, a keratin matrix element, as an internal standard. The results presented here highlight the potential of laser ablation ICP-MS as a diagnostic tool for investigating toxic element uptake as it pertains to tortoise morbidity and mortality.

  16. Relative vegetation profiles in a Neotropical forest: comparison of lidar instrumentation and field-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, F. B.; Palace, M. W.; Ducey, M.; Czarnecki, C.; Zanin Shimbo, J.; Mota e Silva, J.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are considered to be some of the most structurally complex forests in the world. Understanding vegetation height structure in these forests can aid in understanding the spatial temporal components of disturbance, from blowdowns to gap dynamics. Vegetation profiles can be used to better estimate carbon storage and flux across the landscape. Using light detection and ranging (lidar) data collected at La Selva, Costa Rica from four instruments (three airborne, one terrestrial) at four times since 2005, and field data collected in January 2012, we generated relative vegetation profiles for twenty plots in La Selva. Relative vegetation profiles were derived from lidar data by accounting for obscured plant material through a log transformation of the cumulative proportion of observations (percent canopy closure). Profiles were derived from field data using two different sets of allometric equations describing crown shape and tree height. We conducted a cluster analysis on similarity matrices developed in R (version 2.14.1) using three different metrics (sum of squares, Kullback-Leibler divergence, Kolmogorov-Smirnov D statistic) and identified general similarity between lidar profiles. Results were consistent across each of the three similarity metrics. Three distinct clusters were found, with profiles from three airborne lidar instruments, two profiles from a terrestrial lidar instrument, and profiles derived from field data forming the clusters. Our results indicate that although estimating lidar relative vegetation profiles from field data was not possible, terrestrial lidar relative vegetation profiles are generally similar to airborne relative vegetation profiles. Given the rapidity and repeatability of terrestrial lidar measurements, these results show promise for terrestrial lidar instruments to collect plot-specific data on forest structure and vertical distribution of plant material. Furthermore, identifying relationships between terrestrial and

  17. Measuring vertical oxygen profiles in the hyporheic zone using planar optodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieweg, M.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Schmidt, C.

    2012-04-01

    On of the key parameters, controlling biogeochemical reactions in the hyporheic zone (HZ) is the distribution of oxygen. A reliable measurement of the vertical oxygen distribution is an important tool to understand the dynamic fluctuations of the aerobic zone within the HZ. With repeated measurements of continuous profiles, mixing of surface water and groundwater as well as the consumption of oxygen can be evaluated. We present a novel approach for the in situ measurements of vertical oxygen distribution in the riverbed using a planar optode. The luminescence based optode measurement enables a non invasive measurement without consumption of oxygen, no creation of preferential flow paths and only minimal disturbance of the flow field. Possible atmospheric contamination by pumping pore water into a vessel can be avoided and the readings are independent of flow velocity. A self manufactured planar optode is wrapped around an acrylic tube and installed in the riverbed. The measurement is performed by vertically moving a profiler-piston inside the acrylic tube. The piston holds a robust polymer optical fibre which emits a modulated light signal through the acrylic glass to the optode-foil and transmits the induced luminescence signal back to a commercially available trace oxygen meter. Temperature compensation is accomplished using a depth-oriented temperature probe nearby and processing the raw data within a Matlab script. Robust and unbiased oxygen profiles are obtained by averaging multiple consecutive measurements. To ensure a constant velocity of the profiler for replicating the exact measuring depths, an electric motor device is used. First results at our test site show a variable oxygen profile down to 40 cm depth which is strongly influenced by stream level and upwelling groundwater conditions. The measured oxygen profiles will serve as input parameter for a 3D solute transport and chemical reaction subsurface model of the HZ.

  18. In situ measurements of the compressibility of pure and trace element doped synthetic zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Westrenen, W.; Frank, M. R.; Fei, Y.; Hanchar, J. M.; Finch, R. J.; Zha, C.-S.

    2003-04-01

    The ability of zircon to incorporate and retain trace elements and isotopic information makes it an indispensable tool for geochemists and geochronologists. In recent years, it has become apparent that trace element uptake is often limited mainly by mineral structure and compressibility (e.g. Blundy and Wood, Nature 1994). Understanding the uptake of trace elements into zircon therefore requires accurate knowledge of crystal-structural changes as a function of pressure, temperature, and trace element doping levels (e.g. Finch et al., Am Min 2001). We have determined the room temperature compressibility of pure, synthetic zircon (ZrSiO_4) and zircon doped with around 10 wt% of (REE + P) impurities. Samples were grown from a Li-Mo flux (Hanchar et al., Am Min 2001). Room temperature unit cell volumes of powdered samples were measured in situ in a diamond anvil cell at pressures up to 30 GPa, using angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques at CHESS. A third order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state was fitted to our data. The best fit room temperature bulk modulus for pure zircon K = 201 ± 1 GPa, with K' = 4.0 ± 0.2 and room pressure unit cell volume V_0 = 260.76 ± 0.04 Å^3. This bulk modulus is over 11% lower than suggested by earlier studies on natural (Hf-bearing) zircon samples (e.g. Hazen and Finger, Am Min 1979), which only covered pressures up to 4.8 GPa. In addition, we observe the start of the transformation of zircon to reidite (scheelite-structured ZrSiO_4) at a pressure of 19.7 GPa, over 3 GPa lower than previously measured for natural (impure) zircon (Knittle and Williams, Am Min 1993). Results for trace element doped zircon are significantly different, with K = 184 ± 1 GPa, K' = 4.8 ± 0.2, and V_0 = 263.94 ± 0.08 Å^3. In this case the reidite structure does not appear until P exceeds 22.5 GPa. Our results suggest that trace element concentration levels may have a significant effect on the compressibility and phase transition

  19. Measured and predicted temperature profiles along MEMS bridges at pressures from 0.05 to 625 torr.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2010-10-01

    We will present experimental and computational investigations of the thermal performance of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as a function of the surrounding gas pressure. Lowering the pressure in MEMS packages reduces gas damping, providing increased sensitivity for certain MEMS sensors; however, such packaging also dramatically affects their thermal performance since energy transfer to the environment is substantially reduced. High-spatial-resolution Raman thermometry was used to measure the temperature profiles on electrically heated, polycrystalline silicon bridges that are nominally 10 microns wide, 2.25 microns thick, 12 microns above the substrate, and either 200 or 400 microns long in nitrogen atmospheres with pressures ranging from 0.05 to 625 Torr. Finite element modeling of the thermal behavior of the MEMS bridges is performed and compared to the experimental results. Noncontinuum gas effects are incorporated into the continuum finite element model by imposing temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces that are determined from noncontinuum simulations. The experimental and simulation results indicate that at pressures below 0.5 Torr the gas-phase heat transfer is negligible compared to heat conduction through the thermal actuator legs. As the pressure increases above 0.5 Torr, the gas-phase heat transfer becomes more significant. At ambient pressures, gas-phase heat transfer drastically impacts the thermal performance. The measured and simulated temperature profiles are in qualitative agreement in the present study. Quantitative agreement between experimental and simulated temperature profiles requires accurate knowledge of temperature-dependent thermophysical properties, the device geometry, and the thermal accommodation coefficient.

  20. Genetic Algorithm for Opto-thermal Skin Hydration Depth Profiling Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.; Xiao, Perry; Imhof, R. E.

    2013-09-01

    Stratum corneum is the outermost skin layer, and the water content in stratum corneum plays a key role in skin cosmetic properties as well as skin barrier functions. However, to measure the water content, especially the water concentration depth profile, within stratum corneum is very difficult. Opto-thermal emission radiometry, or OTTER, is a promising technique that can be used for such measurements. In this paper, a study on stratum corneum hydration depth profiling by using a genetic algorithm (GA) is presented. The pros and cons of a GA compared against other inverse algorithms such as neural networks, maximum entropy, conjugate gradient, and singular value decomposition will be discussed first. Then, it will be shown how to use existing knowledge to optimize a GA for analyzing the opto-thermal signals. Finally, these latest GA results on hydration depth profiling of stratum corneum under different conditions, as well as on the penetration profiles of externally applied solvents, will be shown.

  1. Improved measures for the cross-national comparison of age profiles of internal migration.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Aude; Bell, Martin; Charles-Edwards, Elin

    2014-01-01

    We develop and demonstrate the application of a concise set of measures intended to encapsulate key features of the age profile of internal migration and highlight the significant differences that exist between nations in these profiles. Model schedules have been the most common method of comparing internal migration patterns but issues related to the estimation and interpretation of their parameters hinder their use for cross-national comparison. We demonstrate that the interpretation of exponential coefficients as rates of ascent and descent does not best reflect the slopes of migration age profiles, and we propose more consistent measures based on the rate of change in migration intensity. We demonstrate, through correlation and factor analysis, that most of the inter-country variance in migration age profiles is captured by the age at and intensity of peak migration. The application of these two indicators to 25 countries reveals significant differences between regions.

  2. Measurements of the density profile in oxidized graphite by X-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioka, I.; Yoda, S.

    1988-01-01

    A computed tomography (CT) has been applied to the measurement of the density profile in nuclear-grade isotropic graphite (IG-11) having an oxidation gradient. The density profile of oxidized graphite was estimated from the CT number of oxidized graphite as the basis of the CT number and density of unoxidized graphite. On the other hand, the density profile of oxidized graphite was calculated from the weight loss and volume of the removed layer which were incrementally ground from the exterior surface. The agreement between the estimated and the measured results was good in regard to the density profile of oxidized graphite. Further, some tomograms of nuclear-grade graphites with artificial defects were tested using the X-ray CT scanner. The features of the defects in the graphite were also verified from the tomograms, but the accurate dimension of these defects could not be obtained.

  3. Electronic BAR Gauge: a customized optical rail profile measurement system for rail-grinding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachinsky, Gordon S.

    1995-06-01

    The dynamic interaction that occurs at the rail/wheel interface of any rail system is significantly influenced by rail and wheel profiles. In an effort to enhance this interaction, railways and transit systems often employ rail grinding as a means to maintain a defined rail profile. The cost to perform this procedure can be very high, sometimes exceeding $DLR25,000 per day for the use of a large grinding machine (with up to 128 grinding motors-each motor being 20 hp or more). Because of this, it is imperative that the work be done efficiently and accurately. In recent years there has been substantial research into the optimization of rail profiles. The National Research Council (NRC) of Canada is one research facility that has generated a unique, precise set of specified profiles for use in heavy-haul railway operations. To implement these profiles in a consistent manner, during rail grinding operations, requires some type of measurement system that provides feedback to the field staff. Up until recently, this has been accomplished with a manual BAR gauge that is fitted with a set of accurate profile templates. The BAR gauge, which initially was fitted with four specified templates, is now equipped with ten such templates. To obtain the full potential of benefits from these profiles requires more precise grinding than that which has been achieved in the past. The other problem with the current manual profile measurement (BAR) method is that it is somewhat slow and cumbersome and the differences between profiles is quite small (i.e. 0.020 inch or less). In order to enhance their rail grinding management support, ARM pursued an automated system that would optically measure rail profiles very fast and accurately from a hy-rail vehicle and compare them with the NRC profiles. Another important feature that was desired in this system was the ability to measure the relative position of one profile with respect to the other (i.e. left versus right rail). Such a system

  4. Computations of Disturbance Amplification Behind Isolated Roughness Elements and Comparison with Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan; Li, Fei; Bynum, Michael; Kegerise, Michael; King, Rudolph

    2015-01-01

    Computations are performed to study laminar-turbulent transition due to isolated roughness elements in boundary layers at Mach 3.5 and 5.95, with an emphasis on flow configurations for which experimental measurements from low disturbance wind tunnels are available. The Mach 3.5 case corresponds to a roughness element with right-triangle planform with hypotenuse that is inclined at 45 degrees with respect to the oncoming stream, presenting an obstacle with spanwise asymmetry. The Mach 5.95 case corresponds to a circular roughness element along the nozzle wall of the Purdue BAMQT wind tunnel facility. In both cases, the mean flow distortion due to the roughness element is characterized by long-lived streamwise streaks in the roughness wake, which can support instability modes that did not exist in the absence of the roughness element. The linear amplification characteristics of the wake flow are examined towards the eventual goal of developing linear growth correlations for the onset of transition.

  5. Evolution of Metallic Trace Elements in Contaminated River Sediments: Geochemical Variation Along River Linear and Vertical Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanbar, Hussein; Montarges-Pelletier, Emmanuelle; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Losson, Benoit; Manceau, Luc; Bauer, Allan; Bihannic, Isabelle; Gley, Renaud; El Samrani, Antoine; Kobaissi, Ahmad; Kazpard, Veronique; Villieras, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    Metal pollution in riverine systems poses a serious threat that jeopardizes water and sediment quality, and hence river dwelling biota. Since those metallic pollutants can be transported for long distances via river flow, river management has become a great necessity, especially in times where industrial activities and global climate change are causing metal release and spreading (by flooding events). These changes are able to modify river hydrodynamics, and as a consequence natural physico-chemical status of different aquatic system compartments, which in turn alter metal mobility, availability and speciation. Vertical profiles of sediments hold the archive of what has been deposited for several tenths of years, thus they are used as a tool to study what had been deposited in rivers beds. The studied area lies in the Orne river, northeastern France. This river had been strongly modified physically and affected by steelmaking industrial activities that had boosted in the middle of the last century. This study focuses on several sites along the linear of the Orne river, as well as vertical profiles of sediments. Sediment cores were collected at sites where sedimentation is favoured, and in particular upstream two dams, built in the second half of the XXth century for industrial purposes. Sediment cores were sliced into 2-5cm layers, according to suitability, and analysed for physical and physico-chemical properties, elemental content and mineralogy. Data of the vertical profile in a sediment core is important to show the evolution of sediments as a function of depth, and hence age, in terms of nature, size and constituents. The physical properties include particle size distribution (PSD) and water content. In addition, the physico-chemical properties, such as pH and oxido-reduction potential (ORP) of interstitial water from undisturbed cores were also detected. Total elemental content of sediment and available ones of extracted interstitial waters was detected using

  6. A new measurement of the Her X-1 X-ray pulse profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Boldt, E. A.; Rothschild, R. E.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    A triple peaked 1.24 sec. pulse profile in a 1-minute rocket borne exposure to Her X-1 was measured, in contrast to the doublepeaked profiles expected from models which maximize the X ray emission at the magnetic equator of an accreting neutron star. The profile exhibits statistically significant energy dependence, with the emission approximately greater than 12 keV having narrower peaks which lag (by approximately 5% of the pulse period) the corresponding peaks at lower energies. Approximately one third of the total emission from the source is nonpulsed.

  7. Effect of beam profile measurement on arc therapy plan quality assurance: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Leonard H; Malajovich, Irina; Reyhan, Meral L; Xue, Jinyu; Park, Joo Han

    2017-05-01

    We present an example when profile measurement and modeling of an Elekta Agility multileaf collimator (MLC) had a large effect specifically on arc therapy plan quality assurance (QA) results using ArcCheck. ArcCheck absolute dose measurements of these plans were systematically lower than planned by 3-10%. Failing QA results were seen even with unmodulated static and conformal arcs. Furthermore, the effect was found to be dependent on collimator angle, with worse results associated with near-zero collimator angles. In contrast, step-and-shoot QA results were not affected. Changing the beam model to match steeper profile measurements obtained using a different measurement device resolved the problem. This case study demonstrates that conventional gamma index analysis can be sensitive to small profile modeling changes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. Full-field step profile measurement with sinusoidal wavelength scanning interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Samuel; Sasaki, Osami; Suzuki, Takamasa

    2014-05-01

    A sinusoidal wavelength scanning interferometer is proposed for 3-D profile measurement. The interference phase-shift signal generated by the sinusoidal wavelength scanning contains information of optical path difference (OPD) covering nm-mm scale structure. The interference phase-shift signal was obtained by the four-step phase shifting method. The sinusoidal wavelength shifting bandwidth of 5.7 nm with a frequency of approximately 180 Hz was performed by the Littman-Metcalf external resonator-type tunable laser with a center of 772.1 nm. The full-field step-height surface profile measurement and 3-D surface measurement were conducted by a CCD image sensor with an accuracy of few tens nm. The surface profile of gauge blocks with a step-height of up to 10 μm was successfully measured.

  9. Radiation profiles through the atmosphere measured by an auto controlled glider aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    In 2011 radiation measurements through the atmosphere were made with a balloon borne short- and longwave net radiometer. These measurements were very promising and therefore new and improved sensors from Kipp&Zonen were used to equip a glider aircraft together with the standard Swiss radiosonde from Meteolabor AG. The glider serves as returning platform for the expensive and well calibrated radiation sensors. Double balloon technique is used to prevent pendulum motion during the ascent and to keep the radiation instruments as horizontal as possible. The built-in autopilot allows to return the gliderradiosonde to the launch site or to land it on predefined open space, which makes recovery much easier. The new return gliderradiosonde technique as well as new measurement possibilities will be shown. First measurements show radiation profiles through the atmosphere during different cloud conditions. Radiation profiles during different daytimes show the temporal resolution of vertical radiation profiles trough the atmosphere.

  10. Finite element analysis of resistivity measurement with van der Pauw method in a diamond anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaowei; Gao, Chunxiao; Han, Yonghao; Li, Ming; He, Chunyuan; Hao, Aimin; Zhang, Dongmei; Yu, Cuiling; Zou, Guangtian; Ma, Yanzhang

    2007-06-01

    Using finite element analysis, the authors studied the steady current field distribution under the configuration of van der Pauw method [L. J. van der Pauw, Philips Tech. Rev. 20, 220 (1958)] for resistivity measurement in a diamond anvil cell. Based on the theoretical analysis, the authors obtained the theoretical accuracy curve of the van der Pauw method. This method provides accurate determination of sample resistivity when the ratio of sample thickness to its diameter is less than 0.45. They found that the contact area between electrode and sample is a key factor in the resistivity measurement accuracy and its size is dependent on the sample diameter for a given measurement accuracy.

  11. Method for measuring compliances and crack length by strain gauge and 3D finite element calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Riedle, J.; Wulf, J.; Schmauder, S.

    1995-05-01

    A method for determining compliances and crack lengths of round CT specimen geometries (RCT) by measuring the notch opening displacement (NOD) with strain gauges, combined with 3D finite element calculations to correlate the NOD to the loading point displacements, is presented. The method has been verified for tungsten and it is shown that measured and calculated compliances are in excellent agreement. A general equation is presented correlating compliances and NOD which allows to implicitly determine crack lengths by simply measuring the NOD of RCT specimens. 5 refs.

  12. Reconstruction of q- and p-profiles in ITER using External and Internal Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Leonid E. Zakharov, Elizabeth L. Foley, Fred M. Levinton, and Howard Y. Yuh

    2007-08-02

    *This manuscript is in Russian* A method of calculation of uncertainties in equilibrium construction of q- and p-profiles in ITER using external magnetic measurements as well as signals from the plasma core on the Motion Stark line polarization (MSE-LP) and line shift (MSE-LS) is described. It is shown that recently proposed by Nova Photonics use of MSE-LS signal significantly improves the reconstruction of plasma profiles, which determine the magnetic configuration.

  13. Research and validation of key measurement technologies of large aperture optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Renhui; Chen, Lei; Jiang, Chao; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Huiqin; Zhou, Binbin; Song, Le

    2015-07-01

    A lot of optical components with large aperture are employed in high-power solid-state laser driver. These optical components are with high requirement on the surface shape, optical homogeneity and stress distribution. In order to test these parameters, different types of interferometers, surface profilers and stress meters from different manufacturers are needed. But the problem is the products from different manufacturers may provide different test results. To solve the problem, the research and verification of the key measurement technologies of large aperture optical components are carried out in this paper. The absolute flatness and optical homogeneity measurement methods are analyzed. And the test results of different interferometric software are compared. The test results from different surface profilers and stress meters are also compared. The consistency and reliability of different test software are obtained with the comparing results, which will guide users to select a suitable product.

  14. Dysarthria Impact Profile: Development of a Scale to Measure Psychosocial Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshe, Margaret; Peach, Richard K.; Miller, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Background: The psychosocial impact of acquired dysarthria on the speaker is well recognized. To date, speech-and-language therapists have no instrument available to measure this construct. This has implications for outcome measurement and for planning intervention. This paper describes the Dysarthria Impact Profile (DIP), an instrument that has…

  15. Dysarthria Impact Profile: Development of a Scale to Measure Psychosocial Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshe, Margaret; Peach, Richard K.; Miller, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Background: The psychosocial impact of acquired dysarthria on the speaker is well recognized. To date, speech-and-language therapists have no instrument available to measure this construct. This has implications for outcome measurement and for planning intervention. This paper describes the Dysarthria Impact Profile (DIP), an instrument that has…

  16. Measuring the Quality of Inclusive Practices: Findings from the Inclusive Classroom Profile Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soukakou, Elena P.; Winton, Pam J.; West, Tracey A.; Sideris, John H.; Rucker, Lia M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP), an observation measure designed to assess the quality of classroom practices in inclusive preschool programs. The measure was field tested in 51 inclusive classrooms. Results confirmed and extended previous research findings, providing…

  17. Experimental validation of finite element model for proximal composite femur using optical measurements.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Lorenzo; Väänänen, Sami P; Amin Yavari, Saber; Weinans, Harrie; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Zadpoor, Amir A; Isaksson, Hanna

    2013-05-01

    Patient-specific finite element models have been used to predict femur strength and fracture risk in individuals. Validation of the adopted finite element modelling procedure against mechanical testing data is a crucial step when aiming for clinical applications. The majority of the works available in literature used data from strain gages to validate the model, thus having up to 15 experimental measurements. Optical techniques, such as digital image correlation, can help to improve the models by providing a continuous field of deformation data over a femoral surface. The main objective of this study was to validate finite element models of six composite femora against strain data from digital image correlation, obtained during fracture tests performed in quasi-axial loading configuration. The finite element models were obtained from CT scans, by means of a semi-automatic segmentation. The principal strains both during the elastic phase and close to the fracture were compared, and showed a correlation coefficient close to 0.9. In the linear region, the slope and intercept were close to zero and unity, while for the case when fracture load was simulated, the slope decreased somewhat. The accuracy of the obtained results is comparable with the state-of-the-art literature, with the significant improvement of having around 50,000 data points for each femur. This large number of measurements allows a more comprehensive validation of the predictions by the finite element models, since thousand of points are tracked along the femoral neck and trochanter region, i.e., the sites that are most critical for femur fracture. Moreover, strain measurement biases due to the strain gage reinforcement effect, were avoided. The combined experimental-numerical approach proved to be ready for application to in-vitro tests of human cadaver femurs, thus helping to develop a suitable mechanistic fracture risk criterion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An interlaboratory comparison study on the measurement of elements in PM10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatkin, Sinan; Belis, Claudio A.; Gerboles, Michel; Calzolai, Giulia; Lucarelli, Franco; Cavalli, Fabrizia; Trzepla, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    An inter-laboratory comparison study was conducted to measure elemental loadings on PM10 samples, collected in Ispra, a regional background/rural site in Italy, using three different XRF (X-ray Fluorescence) methods, namely Epsilon 5 by linear calibration, Quant'X by the standardless analysis, and PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) with linear calibration. A subset of samples was also analyzed by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry). Several metrics including method detection limits (MDLs), precision, bias from a NIST standard reference material (SRM 2783) quoted values, relative absolute difference, orthogonal regression and the ratio of the absolute difference between the methods to claimed uncertainty were used to compare the laboratories. The MDLs were found to be comparable for many elements. Precision estimates were less than 10% for the majority of the elements. Absolute biases from SRM 2783 remained less than 20% for the majority of certified elements. The regression results of PM10 samples showed that the three XRF laboratories measured very similar mass loadings for S, K, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Br, Sr and Pb with slopes within 20% of unity. The ICP-MS results confirmed the agreement and discrepancies between XRF laboratories for Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cu, Sr and Pb. The ICP-MS results are inconsistent with the XRF laboratories for Fe and Zn. The absolute differences between the XRF laboratories generally remained within their claimed uncertainties, showing a pattern generally consistent with the orthogonal regression results.

  19. Topological detector: measuring continuous dosimetric quantities with few-element detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhaohui; Brivio, Davide; Sajo, Erno; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2016-08-01

    A prototype topological detector was fabricated and investigated for quality assurance of radiation producing medical devices. Unlike a typical array or flat panel detector, a topological detector, while capable of achieving a very high spatial resolution, consists of only a few elements and therefore is much simpler in construction and more cost effective. The key feature allowing this advancement is a geometry-driven design that is customized for a specific dosimetric application. In the current work, a topological detector of two elements was examined for the positioning verification of the radiation collimating devices (jaws, MLCs, and blades etc). The detector was diagonally segmented from a rectangular thin film strip (2.5 cm  ×  15 cm), giving two contiguous but independent detector elements. The segmented area was the central portion of the strip measuring 5 cm in length. Under irradiation, signals from each detector element were separately digitized using a commercial multichannel data acquisition system. The center and size of an x-ray field, which were uniquely determined by the collimator positions, were shown mathematically to relate to the difference and sum of the two signals. As a proof of concept, experiments were carried out using slit x-ray fields ranging from 2 mm to 20 mm in size. It was demonstrated that, the collimator positions can be accurately measured with sub-millimeter precisions.

  20. Increasing the Efficiency of Electron Microprobe Measurements of Minor and Trace Elements in Rutile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, O. K.; Mattinson, C. G.; Donovan, J.; Hernández Uribe, D.; Sains, A.

    2016-12-01

    Minor and trace element contents of rutile, an accessory mineral found in numerous lithologic settings, has many applications for interpreting earth systems. While these applications vary widely, they share a need for precise and accurate elemental measurements. The electron microprobe can be used to measure rutile compositions, although long X-ray counting times are necessary to achieve acceptable precision. Continuum ("background") intensity can be estimated using the iterative Mean Atomic Number (MAN) method of Donovan and Tingle (1996), obviating the need for direct off-peak background measurements, and reducing counting times by half. For this study, several natural and synthetic rutiles were measured by electron microprobe. Data was collected once but reduced twice, using off-peak and an MAN background corrections, allowing direct comparison of the two methods without influence of other variables (counting time, analyte homogeneity, beam current, calibration standards, etc.). These measurements show that, if a "blank" correction (Donovan et al., 2011, 2016) is used, minor and trace elements of interest can be measured in rutile using the MAN background method in half the time of traditional off-peak measurements, without sacrificing accuracy or precision (Figure 1). This method has already been applied to Zr-in-rutile thermometry of ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks from the North Qaidam terrane in northwest China. Finally, secondary fluorescence of adjacent phases by continuum X-rays can lead to artificially elevated concentrations. For example, when measuring Zr, care should be taken to avoid analytical spots within 100 microns of zircon or baddeleyite crystals. References: 1) J.J. Donovan and T.N Tingle (1996) J. Microscopy, 2(1), 1-7 2) J.J. Donovan, H.A. Lowers, and B.G. Rusk (2011) Am. Mineral., 96, 274­282 3) J.J. Donovan, J.W. Singer and J.T. Armstrong (2016) Am. Mineral., 101, 1839-1853 4) G.L. Lovizotto et al. (2009) Chem. Geol., 261, 346-369

  1. Measurement of temperature profiles in turbulent pipe flow of polymer and surfactant drag-reducing solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasljevic, K.; Aguilar, G.; Matthys, E. F.

    2007-08-01

    A device was built to measure temperature profiles of turbulent pipe flows of various drag-reducing fluids. It is easy to use and reliable. We measured temperature profiles over a range of conditions leading to accurate measurements down to y+≈10, for tests carried over Reynolds numbers (Re) between 10 000 and 90 000. The effects of high heat fluxes and buoyancy, in particular, were quantified to ascertain the parameter range for accurate measurements. Temperature profiles measured for type-A polymer solution and for cationic surfactant solutions allowed us to see strong similarity between velocity and temperature profiles for drag-reducing surfactant solutions. A comparison between the slopes of the thermal and velocity buffer layers resulted in calculated turbulent Prandtl numbers between 6 and 9 for those drag-reducing solutions. We also used this tool to investigate drag reduction for a nonionic surfactant solution, which showed a significantly different fan-type profile, and also for a type-B drag-reducing polymer solution (Xanthan gum).

  2. Image processing techniques for measuring non-uniform film thickness profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Nitta, S.V.; Liu, An-Hong; Plawsky, J.L.; Wayner, P.C. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The long term objective of this research program is to determine the fluid flow and drying characteristics of thin liquid/solid films using image processing techniques such as Image Analyzing Interferometry (IAI) and Image Scanning Ellipsometry (ISE). The primary purpose of this paper is to present experimental data on the effectiveness of IAI and ISE to measure nonuniform film thickness profiles. Steady-state, non-isothermal profiles of evaporating films were measured using IAI. Transient thickness profiles of a draining film were measured using ISE. The two techniques are then compared and contrasted. The ISE can be used to measure transient as well as steady-state profiles of films with thickness ranging from 1 nm to > 20 {mu}m, whereas IAI can be used to directly measure Steady-state and transient profiles of only films thicker than about 100 nm. An evaluation of the reflected intensity can be used to extend the use of the IAI below 100 nm.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Regulatory Elements between Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by Genome-Wide Transcription Start Site Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yu; Nagarajan, Harish; Seo, Joo-Hyun; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide transcription start site (TSS) profiles of the enterobacteria Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were experimentally determined through modified 5′ RACE followed by deep sequencing of intact primary mRNA. This identified 3,746 and 3,143 TSSs for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. Experimentally determined TSSs were then used to define promoter regions and 5′ UTRs upstream of coding genes. Comparative analysis of these regulatory elements revealed the use of multiple TSSs, identical sequence motifs of promoter and Shine-Dalgarno sequence, reflecting conserved gene expression apparatuses between the two species. In both species, over 70% of primary transcripts were expressed from operons having orthologous genes during exponential growth. However, expressed orthologous genes in E. coli and K. pneumoniae showed a strikingly different organization of upstream regulatory regions with only 20% identical promoters with TSSs in both species. Over 40% of promoters had TSSs identified in only one species, despite conserved promoter sequences existing in the other species. 662 conserved promoters having TSSs in both species resulted in the same number of comparable 5′ UTR pairs, and that regulatory element was found to be the most variant region in sequence among promoter, 5′ UTR, and ORF. In K. pneumoniae, 48 sRNAs were predicted and 36 of them were expressed during exponential growth. Among them, 34 orthologous sRNAs between two species were analyzed in depth, and the analysis showed that many sRNAs of K. pneumoniae, including pleiotropic sRNAs such as rprA, arcZ, and sgrS, may work in the same way as in E. coli. These results reveal a new dimension of comparative genomics such that a comparison of two genomes needs to be comprehensive over all levels of genome organization. PMID:22912590

  4. Prevalence and genetic profiling of tetracycline resistance (Tet-R) genes and transposable element (Tn916) in environmental Enterococcus species.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Sindhu; Bin-Asif, Hassan; Hasan, Khwaja Ali; Rehman, Marium; Ali, Syed Abid

    2017-10-01

    Resistance against antimicrobial agents in enterococci is a global concern that not only challenges infection therapy but also make them reservoir of antibiotic resistance in human and animal alike. This study was conducted to establish tetracycline resistance profiles, prevalence of tet genes and transposable element (Tn916) in enterococcal soil and clinical isolates. Enterococci (n = 1210) from different environmental niche were collected and subjected to molecular identification. In total, 361 isolates showed tetracycline resistance at the breakpoint of 32 μg ml(-1). MICs (32-512 μg ml(-1)) were established by both agar and micro-broth dilution methods. Soil isolates (n = 76) were further investigated for Tet genes (tet-A, C, K, L, M, S, O) and Tn916. Major resistance was observed in E. faecium 67% followed by E. faecalis 22%, E. hirae 8% and E. casseliflavus 2.6%. Results revealed that tet(L) was more frequently found in E. faecium 74.5%, while tet(M) was in high prevalence in E. faecalis 82.3%. Tn916 was detected in both clinical and soil isolates (i.e. 43.3% and 19.7%, respectively). RAPD-PCR analysis showed high diversity among the investigated isolates. Cumulatively, our results revealed high-level tetracycline resistance and the presence of multiple Tet genes and transposable element Tn916 in enterococci. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Soft-x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect and element-specific hysteresis measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M.

    1997-04-01

    Interest in the utilization of x-ray magneto-optical properties to provide element-specific magnetic information, combined with recent development of tunable linear polarizers for spectroscopic polarization measurement, have led the authors to the study of magneto-optical rotation (MOR) near core levels of magnetic atoms in magnetic multilayer and alloy films. Their initial observation of Faraday rotation (in transmission) demonstrated that for Fe MOR is easily measured and is larger at its L{sub 3} resonance than in the near-visible spectral regions. This work also demonstrated that the spectroscopic behavior of the MOR signal in transmission, resulting from the differential reaction of left- and right-circular components of a linearly polarized beam, is related to the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), or differential absorption, as expected by a Kramers-Kronig transformation. Thus MCD measurements using circular polarization and MOR measurements using linear polarization can provide complementary, and in some cases equivalent, information. On beamline 6.3.2 the authors have begun to investigate soft x-ray MOR in the reflection geometry, the x-ray magneto-optic Kerr effect (XMOKE). Early measurements have demonstrated the ability to measure element-specific hysteresis loops and large rotations compared to analogous near-visible measurements. The authors are investigating the spectral dependence of the XMOKE signal, and have initiated systematic materials studies of sputter-deposited films of Fe, Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}x} alloys, and Fe/Cr multilayers.

  6. Time-resolved characterization of diesel particulate emissions. 2. Instruments for elemental and organic carbon measurements.

    PubMed

    Moosmüller, H; Arnott, W P; Rogers, C F; Bowen, J L; Gillies, J A; Pierson, W R; Collins, J F; Durbin, T D; Norbeck, J M

    2001-05-15

    The measurement of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) mass for particles emitted by diesel vehicles is currently accomplished using particle collection on filters, followed by analysis using the thermal/optical reflectance carbon analysis method (TOR) or one of its variations. Such filter methods limit time resolution to a minimum of several minutes, making it impossible to study emissions during transient operating conditions. Testing of five different measurement methods has demonstrated that fast response measurement of diesel exhaust particulate EC and OC concentrations, consistent with TOR filter measurements, is feasible using existing technology. EC mass concentrations are best measured through determination of particulate light absorption with a photoacoustic instrument or determination of light extinction with a smoke meter. The photoacoustic instrument has the better dynamic range and sensitivity, whereas the smoke meter is a simpler instrument. Fast response OC measurements cannot be made with any single instrument tested. However, a combination of real time weighing as implemented in the tapered element oscillating microbalance with the photoacoustic instrument has been shown to be capable of determining OC concentrations with good time response. The addition of a nephelometer to the OC measurement could potentially improve time resolution, freedom from interferences, and sensitivity.

  7. Community-based dementia day programmes: Common elements and outcome measures.

    PubMed

    Weir, Annie; Fouche, Christa

    2017-04-01

    Dementia Day programmes are considered important in supporting the well-being of both people living with dementia and their caregivers. There is, however, limited evidence on the effectiveness of these programmes. This article reports on a study undertaken in New Zealand on the effectiveness of community-based dementia day programmes. The small-scale pilot study was aimed at investigating the elements that make up an effective client-focused dementia day programme and the methods employed by organisations to measure the outcomes of these programmes. A mixed methods approach was employed with multiple stakeholders. The research revealed that effective day programmes comprised five core elements, and that surveys, reporting and auditing processes are routinely used to measure the quality of outcomes of day programmes. Although these findings are reflective of a specific context, it raises concerns about the nature and availability of evidence informing decisions regarding the design and implementation of day programmes internationally.

  8. Impact Stress Measurement Using Piezoelectric Probes with PZT and Lithium Niobate Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mears, A.; Routley, N. R.; Kendall, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Previous gas gun experiments using low density foam flyers examined the dynamic response of Dynasen CA-1136 piezoelectric probes having lead zirconate titanate (PZT) elements for impact stresses in the range 0.07 to 0.3 GPa. Recent experiments have extended the dataset down to 0.01 GPa, compared PZT based probes with lithium niobate based probes and compared the measured stresses from manganin gauges with the stresses from the piezoelectric probes. For 0.1 g/cm3 polystyrene and 0.3 g/cm3 polyurethane foams impacting probes with APC 850 PZT elements and generating stresses around 0.1 GPa, the effective piezoelectric charge coefficient was close to three times the PZT manufacturer's value of 400 pC/N. As the impact stress was reduced the coefficient decreased towards 400 pC/N. The measured stresses from the lithium niobate probes were close to the stresses obtained from the manganin gauges.

  9. Are two-dimensional measured frontal plane angles related to three-dimensional measured kinematic profiles during running?

    PubMed

    Dingenen, Bart; Staes, Filip F; Santermans, Lieselot; Steurs, Lien; Eerdekens, Maarten; Geentjens, Jurre; Peers, Koen H E; Thysen, Maarten; Deschamps, Kevin

    2017-03-04

    To investigate the temporal relationship between two-dimensional measured frontal plane joint angles and three-dimensional measured kinematic profiles during the stance phase of running, and to assess the intra- and intertester reliability of the two-dimensional angles. Observational study. Research laboratory. Fifteen injury-free elite athletes. Contralateral pelvic drop (CPD), femoral adduction (FA), hip adduction (HA) and knee valgus (KV) were measured at the deepest landing position during midstance with two-dimensional video analysis during running. CPD, HA and knee abduction were measured continuously during the entire stance phase through three-dimensional motion analysis. One-dimensional statistical parametric mapping was used to examine the temporal relationships between the two-dimensional angles and three-dimensional kinematic profiles. In addition, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to assess the intra- and intertester reliability of the two-dimensional angles. Two-dimensional CPD, FA and HA were significantly related to the three-dimensional HA kinematic profile. Two-dimensional CPD was significantly related to the three-dimensional CPD kinematic profile. No significant relationship was found between two-dimensional KV and three-dimensional knee abduction. Excellent intra- and intertester reliability was found for the two-dimensional angles (ICC 0.90-0.99). These findings support implementing two-dimensional video analysis to evaluate CPD and HA during running. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of proton production cross sections of (sup 10)Be and (sup 26)Al from elements found in lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisterson, J. M.; Kim, K.; Englert, P. A. J.; Caffee, M.; Jull, A. J. T.; Donahue, D. J.; McHargue, L.; Castaneda, C.; Vincent, J.; Reedy, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic rays penetrate the lunar surface and interact with the lunar rocks to produce both radionuclides and stable nuclides. Production depth profiles for long-lived radionuclides produce in lunar rocks are measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). For a particular radionuclide these production depth profiles can be interpreted to give an estimate for the solar proton flux over a time period characterized by the half life of the radionuclide under study. This analysis is possible if and only if all the cross sections for the interactions of all cosmic ray particles with all elements found in lunar rocks are well known. In practice, the most important cross sections needed are the proton production cross sections, because 98% of solar cosmic rays and (similar to)87% of galactic cosmic rays are protons. The cross sections for the production of long-lived radionuclides were very difficult to measure before the development of AMS and only in recent years has significant progress been made in determining these essential cross sections. Oxygen and silicon are major constituents of lunar rocks. We have reported already C-14 production cross sections from O and Si for proton energies 25-500 MeV, and O(p,x)(sup 10)Be from 58 160 MeV[6]. Here we present new measurements for the cross sections O(p,x)Be-10,O(p,x)Be-7, Si(p,x)Be-7,Si(p,x)Al-26, and Si(p,x)Na-22 from approximately 30 - 500 MeV.

  11. Measurement of proton production cross sections of (sup 10)Be and (sup 26)Al from elements found in lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisterson, J. M.; Kim, K.; Englert, P. A. J.; Caffee, M.; Jull, A. J. T.; Donahue, D. J.; McHargue, L.; Castaneda, C.; Vincent, J.; Reedy, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic rays penetrate the lunar surface and interact with the lunar rocks to produce both radionuclides and stable nuclides. Production depth profiles for long-lived radionuclides produce in lunar rocks are measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). For a particular radionuclide these production depth profiles can be interpreted to give an estimate for the solar proton flux over a time period characterized by the half life of the radionuclide under study. This analysis is possible if and only if all the cross sections for the interactions of all cosmic ray particles with all elements found in lunar rocks are well known. In practice, the most important cross sections needed are the proton production cross sections, because 98% of solar cosmic rays and (similar to)87% of galactic cosmic rays are protons. The cross sections for the production of long-lived radionuclides were very difficult to measure before the development of AMS and only in recent years has significant progress been made in determining these essential cross sections. Oxygen and silicon are major constituents of lunar rocks. We have reported already C-14 production cross sections from O and Si for proton energies 25-500 MeV, and O(p,x)(sup 10)Be from 58 160 MeV[6]. Here we present new measurements for the cross sections O(p,x)Be-10,O(p,x)Be-7, Si(p,x)Be-7,Si(p,x)Al-26, and Si(p,x)Na-22 from approximately 30 - 500 MeV.

  12. Measurement of proton production cross sections of {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al from elements found in lunar rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, J.M.; Kim, K.; Englert, P.A.J.

    1996-07-01

    Cosmic rays penetrate the lunar surface and interact with the lunar rocks to produce both radionuclides and stable nuclides. Production depth profiles for long-lived radionuclides produce in lunar rocks are measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). For a particular radionuclide these production depth profiles can be interpreted to give an estimate for the solar proton flux over a time period characterized by the half life of the radionuclide under study. This analysis is possible if and only if all the cross sections for the interactions of all cosmic ray particles with all elements found in lunar rocks are well known. In practice, the most important cross sections needed are the proton production cross sections, because 98% of solar cosmic rays and {similar_to}87% of galactic cosmic rays are protons. The cross sections for the production of long-lived radionuclides were very difficult to measure before the development of AMS and only in recent years has significant progress been made in determining these essential cross sections. Oxygen and silicon are major constituents of lunar rocks. We have reported already {sup 14}C production cross sections from O and Si for proton energies 25-500 MeV, and O(p,x){sup 10}Be from 58 160 MeV[6]. Here we present new measurements for the cross sections O(p,x){sup 10}Be,O(p,x){sup 7}Be, Si(p,x){sup 7}Be,Si(p,x){sup 26}Al, and Si(p,x){sup 22}Na from {approximately}30 - 500 MeV.

  13. Compliance profile of the human cornea as measured by atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Last, Julie A.; Thomasy, Sara M.; Croasdale, Christopher R.; Russell, Paul; Murphy, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to accurately determine the elastic modulus of each layer of the human cornea is a crucial step in the design of better corneal prosthetics. In addition, knowledge of the elastic modulus will allow design of substrates with relevant mechanical properties for in vitro investigations of cellular behavior. Previously, we have reported elastic modulus values for the anterior basement membrane and Descemet’s membrane of the human cornea, the surfaces in contact with the epithelial and endothelial cells, respectively. We have completed the compliance profile of the stromal elements of the human cornea by obtaining elastic modulus values for Bowman’s layer and the anterior stroma. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the elastic modulus, which is a measure of the tissue stiffness and is inversely proportional to the compliance. The elastic response of the tissue allows analysis with the Hertz equation, a model that provides a relationship between the indentation force and depth and is a function of the tip radius and the modulus of the substrate. The elastic modulus values for each layer of the cornea are: 7.5 ± 4.2 kPa (anterior basement membrane), 109.8 ± 13.2 kPa (Bowman’s layer), 33.1 ± 6.1 kPa (anterior stroma), and 50 ± 17.8 kPa (Descemet’s membrane). These results indicate that the biophysical properties, including elastic modulus, of each layer of the human cornea are unique and may play a role in the maintenance of homeostasis as well as in the response to therapeutic agents and disease states. The data will also inform the design and fabrication of improved corneal prosthetics. PMID:22421334

  14. Measurements of Neutron-absorbing Elements on Mercury's Surface with the MESSENGER Neutron Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David J.; Feldman, William C.; Goldsten, John O.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Blewett, David T.; Boynton, William V.; Evans, Larry G.; Nittler, Larry R.; Rhodes, Edgar A.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2010-05-01

    The Neutron Spectrometer (NS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission has made measurements of cosmic-ray-generated thermal neutrons during each of MESSENGER's three Mercury flybys. These thermal neutron data have allowed us to make the first direct measurements of Mercury's surface elemental composition. Specifically, we show that Mercury's surface is enriched in neutron-absorbing elements and has a measured macroscopic neutron absorption cross section of (70-130) × 10^(-4) cm^2/g, which is similar to the neutron absorption of lunar basalts from Mare Fecunditatis. The expected neutron-absorbing elements are Fe and Ti, with possible trace amounts of Gd and Sm. Fe and Ti, in particular, are important for understanding Mercury's formation and how its surface may have changed over time through magmatic processes. With the neutron Doppler filter technique - a neutron energy separation technique based on spacecraft velocity - we demonstrate that Mercury's surface composition cannot be matched by prior models having characteristically low abundances of Fe, Ti, Gd, and Sm. While neutron spectroscopy alone cannot separate the relative contributions of individual neutron-absorbing elements, these results provide strong new constraints on the nature of Mercury's surface materials. For example, if all the measured neutron absorption were due to the presence of a Fe-Ti oxide and that oxide were ilmenite, then Mercury's surface would have an ilmenite content of 14 to 31 wt.%. This result is in agreement with the inference from color imaging and visible-near-infrared spectroscopy that Mercury's overall low reflectance is consistent with a surface composition that is enriched in Fe-Ti oxides. The incorporation of substantial Fe and Ti in oxides would imply that the oxygen fugacity of basalts on Mercury is at the upper range of oxygen fugacity inferred for basalts on the Moon.

  15. Measurement of temperature profiles in flames by emission-absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, F. S.; Arnold, C. B.; Lindquist, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to explore the use of infrared and ultraviolet emission-absorption spectroscopy for determination of temperature profiles in flames. Spectral radiances and absorptances were measured in the 2.7-micron H2O band and the 3064-A OH band in H2/O2 flames for several temperature profiles which were directly measured by a sodium line-reversal technique. The temperature profiles, determined by inversion of the infrared and ultraviolet spectra, showed an average disagreement with line-reversal measurements of 50 K for the infrared and 200 K for the ultraviolet at a temperature of 2600 K. The reasons for these discrepancies are discussed in some detail.

  16. Stratospheric H2O and HNO3 profiles derived from solar occultation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, H.; Fergg, F.; Rabus, D.; Burkert, P.

    1985-04-01

    Compact two-channel radiometers for solar occultation experiments have been constructed in order to measure stratospheric trace gases. The instruments can be used as filter- or correlation-type radiometers, depending on the trace gas under investigation. Within the LIMS correlative measurement program, balloon flights were performed with a payload of up to four of these two-channel radiometers. From the filter-type measurements, profiles of the trace gases H2O and HNO3 are inferred for the height region between the tropopause and the balloon float level. The data evaluation also includes a comprehensive analysis of the error sources and their effect on the accuracy of the trace gas profiles. The derived H2O and HNO3 profiles are assessed against the observations of other authors and are discussed in the light of the trace gas distributions calcualted from photochemical models.

  17. Influence of ion chamber response on in-air profile measurements in megavoltage photon beams.

    PubMed

    Tonkopi, E; McEwen, M R; Walters, B R B; Kawrakow, I

    2005-09-01

    This article presents an investigation of the influence of the ion chamber response, including buildup caps, on the measurement of in-air off-axis ratio (OAR) profiles in megavoltage photon beams using Monte Carlo simulations with the EGSnrc system. Two new techniques for the calculation of OAR profiles are presented. Results of the Monte Carlo simulations are compared to measurements performed in 6, 10 and 25 MV photon beams produced by an Elekta Precise linac and shown to agree within the experimental and simulation uncertainties. Comparisons with calculated in-air kerma profiles demonstrate that using a plastic mini phantom gives more accurate air-kerma measurements than using high-Z material buildup caps and that the variation of chamber response with distance from the central axis must be taken into account.

  18. Fiber Optic Picosecond Laser Pulse Transmission Line for Hydrogen Ion Beam Profile Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yun; Huang, Chunning; Aleksandrov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    We present a fiber optic laser pulse transmission line for non-intrusive longitudinal profile measurement of the hydrogen ion (H-) beam at the front-end of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator. The 80.5 MHz, 2.5 ps, multi-killowatt optical pulses are delivered to the accelerator beam line through a large mode area polarization maintaining optical fiber to ensure a high measurement stability. The transmission efficiency, output laser beam quality, pulse jitter and pulse width broadening over a 100-ft fiber line are experimentally investigated. A successful measurement of the H- beam microbunch (~130 ps) profile is obtained. Our experiment is the first demonstration of particle beam profile diagnostics using fiber optic laser pulse transmission line.

  19. Surface profile measurement in white-light scanning interferometry using a three-chip color CCD

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Suodong; Quan Chenggen; Zhu Rihong; Tay, Cho Jui; Chen Lei

    2011-05-20

    White-light scanning interferometry (WLSI) is a useful technique to measure surface profile when a test object contains discontinuous structures or microstructures. A black and white CCD camera is usually utilized to capture interferograms, and a series of corresponding algorithms is used to achieve the profile measurement. However, the color information in the interferograms is lost. A novel profile measurement method that uses phase information in different color channels (red-green-blue) of an interferogram obtained using a three-chip color CCD in WLSI is proposed. The phase values are extracted by a windowed Fourier transform algorithm. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  20. Wind velocity profiles measured by the smoke-trail method at the Eastern Test Range, 1964

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, J. C.; Rhyne, R. H.; Henry, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-six detailed wind profiles measured by the smoke trail technique at the Eastern Test Range during the first seven months of 1964 are presented as plots of west-to-east and south-to-north velocity components at height intervals of 25 meters. The overall altitude ranges of the profiles vary from about 2.6 to 19.1 km. The wind measurements, which were made under a variety of conditions, include velocities in excess of the 90- and 95-percent highest values for the Eastern Test Range. The report also includes a listing of the wind profiles, their maximum velocities and direction of the maximum velocities, measured by the smoke trail method at the Eastern Test Range from 1962 to 1964.

  1. Profile measurement of transparent inclined surface with transmitted differential interference contrast shearing interferometer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sheng-Kang; Chen, Wei-Lun; Liu, Ting-Kun; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2012-08-27

    A quantitative phase shifting differential interference contrast (PS-DIC) shearing interferometer is adopted to measure the profile of transparent specimen with inclined surface. The effects of the incline angle on DIC measurement accuracy were studied. The optical model of the test system was constructed and the measurement of surface with various incline angles ranging from 5° to 60° was simulated. The experiments validate the simulation model and show the feasibility of profile reconstruction of inclined structure. It is interested to find that even with an inclined angle of 15°, unwrapping technique is required to make the measurement more accurate. In addition, the measurement can be further improved by taking into account the effects of the change in shear distance on the optical path difference. This study provides useful information that should be considered for complex geometry measurement with quantitative DIC technique.

  2. Non-contact precision profile measurement to rough-surface objects with optical frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoe, Taro; Takahashi, Satoru; Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    2016-12-01

    In this research, we developed a new method for the high precision and contactless profile measurement of rough-surfaced objects using optical frequency combs. The uncertainty of the frequency beats of an optical frequency comb is very small (relative uncertainty is 10-10 in our laboratory). In addition, the wavelengths corresponding to these frequency beats are long enough to measure rough-surfaced objects. We can conduct high-precision measurement because several GHz frequency beats can be used if the capability of the detector permits. Moreover, two optical frequency combs with Rb-stabilized repetition frequencies are used for the measurement instead of an RF frequency oscillator; thus, we can avoid the cyclic error caused by the RF frequency oscillator. We measured the profile of a wood cylinder with a rough surface (diameter is approximately 113.2 mm) and compared the result with that of coordinate measuring machine (CMM).

  3. Constraints on Galactic Cosmic-Ray Origins from Elemental Composition Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Denolfo, G. A.; Israel, M. H.; Lave, K. A.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    We present measurements of the abundances of ultra-heavy (Z>29) cosmic rays made by the CRIS instrument on NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer satellite. The data set corresponds to 6413 days of data collection between December 4, 1997 and May 31, 2016. The charge resolution that we obtain is excellent, exhibiting essentially complete separation of adjacent charges in the Z>28 range. We detected 196 events over the charge range of Z =30-40. Our measured abundances show that the ordering of refractory and volatile elements with atomic mass is greatly improved when compared to a mix of massive star outflow and SN ejecta with normal ISM, rather than pure ISM. Additionally, the refractory and volatile elements have similar slopes and refractory elements are preferentially accelerated by a factor of 4. The measured abundances support a model in which 20% of cosmic ray source material is from massive star outflow and ejecta and 80% is from normal ISM. Our abundances show generally good agreement with the TIGER and SuperTIGER results. This research is supported by NASA under Grant # NNX13AH66G.

  4. Exploration of microwave plasma source cavity ring-down spectroscopy for elemental measurements.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yixiang; Wang, Chuji; Winstead, Christopher B

    2003-05-01

    We are exploring sensitive techniques for elemental measurements using cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) combined with a compact microwave plasma source as an atomic absorption cell. The research work marries the high sensitivity of CRDS with a low-power microwave plasma source to develop a new instrument that yields high sensitivity and capability for elemental measurements. CRDS can provide orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity over conventional absorption techniques. Additional benefit is gained from a compact microwave plasma source that possesses the advantages of low power and low-plasma gas flow rate, which are of benefit for atomic absorption measurements. A laboratory CRDS system consisting of a tunable dye laser is used in this work for developing a scientific base and demonstrating the feasibility of the technique. A laboratory-designed and -built sampling system for solution sample introduction is used for testing. The ring-down signals are monitored using a photomultiplier tube and recorded using a digital oscilloscope interfaced to a computer. Lead is chosen as a typical element for the system optimization and characterization. The effects of baseline noise from the plasma source are reported. A detection limit of 0.8 ppb (10(-)(10)) is obtained with such a device.

  5. Flow prediction over a transport multi-element high-lift system and comparison with flight measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijgen, P. M. H. W.; Hardin, J. D.; Yip, L. P.

    1992-01-01

    Accurate prediction of surface-pressure distributions, merging boundary-layers, and separated-flow regions over multi-element high-lift airfoils is required to design advanced high-lift systems for efficient subsonic transport aircraft. The availability of detailed measurements of pressure distributions and both averaged and time-dependent boundary-layer flow parameters at flight Reynolds numbers is critical to evaluate computational methods and to model the turbulence structure for closure of the flow equations. Several detailed wind-tunnel measurements at subscale Reynolds numbers were conducted to obtain detailed flow information including the Reynolds-stress component. As part of a subsonic-transport high-lift research program, flight experiments are conducted using the NASA-Langley B737-100 research aircraft to obtain detailed flow characteristics for support of computational and wind-tunnel efforts. Planned flight measurements include pressure distributions at several spanwise locations, boundary-layer transition and separation locations, surface skin friction, as well as boundary-layer profiles and Reynolds stresses in adverse pressure-gradient flow.

  6. Time-resolved measurements of aerosol elemental concentrations in indoor working environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žitnik, M.; Kastelic, A.; Rupnik, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Vaupetič, P.; Bučar, K.; Novak, S.; Samardžija, Z.; Matsuyama, S.; Catella, G.; Ishii, K.

    2010-12-01

    We have measured the elemental concentrations in aerosols with a 2-h time resolution in two different types of working environment: a chemistry laboratory dealing with the processing of advanced nanoparticulate materials and a medium-sized machine workshop. Non-stop 10-day and 12-day samplings were performed at each location in order to determine the concentration trends during the non-working/working and weekday/weekend periods. Supplementary measurements of PM10 aerosols with a 2-day sample collection time were performed with a standard Gent PM10 sampler to compare the elemental concentrations with the time-averaged concentrations detected by the 2D step-sampler. The concentrations were determined a posteriori by analyzing the x-ray spectra of aerosol samples emitted after 3-MeV proton bombardment. The PM10 samples collected in the chemistry laboratory were additionally inspected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to determine the chemical compositions of the individual particles. In the workshop, a total PM10 mass sampling was performed simultaneously with a minute resolution to compare the signal with typical outdoor PM10 concentration levels. A factor analysis of the time-resolved dataset points to six and eight factors in the chemistry laboratory and the machine workshop, respectively. These factors describe most of the data variance, and their composition in terms of different elements can be related to specific indoor activities and conditions. We were able to demonstrate that the elemental concentration sampling with hourly resolution is an excellent tool for studying the indoor air pollution. While sampling the total PM10 mass concentration with a minute resolution may lack the potential to identify the emission sources in a "noisy" environment, the time averaging on a day time scale is too coarse to cope with the working dynamics, even if elemental sensitivity is an option.

  7. DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTAL COMPOSITIONS FROM MASS PEAK PROFILES OF THE MOLECULAR ION (M) AND THE M + 1 AND M + 2 IONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relative abundances of M + 1 and M + 2 ions help to identify the elemental composition of the molecular ion (M). But scan speed, snesitiity, and resolution limitations of mass spectrometers have impeded determination of these abundances. Mass peak profiling from selected ion ...

  8. Retrieval of water vapor profiles from microwave radiometric measurements near 90 and 183 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Chang, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    Upwelling radiometric measurements at 90 GHz and three side bands near 183 GHz are used to retrieve water vapor profiles over the ocean surface. An algorithm incorporating a new technique of handling moderate cloud cover is illustrated for the profiling of both relative humidity and water vapor burden. It is shown that the retrieved relative humidity profiles reflect gross features of the corresponding profiles recorded by the radiosondes. However, the retrieval generally cannot produce fine details of the observed profiles at altitudes where a rapid change in relative humidity occurs. For this reason, comparison of retrieved and observed values at a given altitude often yields an appreciable rms error. Profiling of water vapor burden, a parameter equivalent to total integrated water vapor above a certain altitude, results in much better agreement, as expected. The rms error obtained from the results of the retrieval at the surface is comparable to that derived from the combination of measurements at 18 GHz and 21 GHz channels of the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite.

  9. Radial density profile measurement by using the multichannel microwave interferometer in GAMMA 10

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Shima, Y.; Negishi, S.; Miyata, Y.; Mizuguchi, M.; Imai, N.; Yoneda, Y.; Hojo, H.; Itakura, A.; Imai, T.

    2008-10-15

    Plasma density radial profile measurements are an important study for fusion plasma researches. We reconstructed a multichannel microwave interferometer for radial plasma electron density and density fluctuation measurements with both changing the transmission horn position and using the Teflon lens by only using this system in a single plasma shot. By using this system, we can successfully measure the radial density and density fluctuation spectra in a single plasma shot.

  10. Development of ultrasonic pulse-train Doppler method for velocity profile and flowrate measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Sanehiro; Furuichi, Noriyuki; Shimada, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    We present a novel technique for measuring the velocity profile and flowrate in a pipe. This method, named the ultrasonic pulse-train Doppler method (UPTD), has the advantages of expanding the velocity range and setting the smaller measurement volume with low calculation and instrument costs in comparison with the conventional ultrasonic pulse Doppler method. The conventional method has limited measurement of the velocity range due to the Nyquist sampling theorem. In addition, previous reports indicate that a smaller measurement volume increases the accuracy of the measurement. In consideration of the application of the conventional method to actual flow fields, such as industrial facilities and power plants, the issues of velocity range and measurement volume are important. The UPTD algorithm, which exploits two pulses of ultrasound with a short interval and envelope detection, is proposed. Velocity profiles calculated by this algorithm were examined through simulations and excellent agreement was found in all cases. The influence of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the algorithm was also estimated. The result indicates that UPTD can measure velocity profiles with high accuracy, even under a small SNR. Experimental measurements were conducted and the results were evaluated at the national standard calibration facility of water flowrate in Japan. Every detected signal forms a set of two pulses and the enveloped line can be observed clearly. The results show that UPTD can measure the velocity profiles over the pipe diameter, even if the velocities exceed the measurable velocity range. The measured flowrates were under 0.6% and the standard deviations for all flowrate conditions were within  ±0.38%, which is the uncertainty of the flowrate measurement estimated in the previous report. In conclusion, UPTD provides superior accuracy and expansion of the velocity range.

  11. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of mega amp spherical tokamak using a ball pen probe

    SciTech Connect

    Walkden, N. R.; Adamek, J.; Komm, M.; Allan, S.; Elmore, S.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J.; Kirk, A.; Dudson, B. D.

    2015-02-15

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature, and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak. The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential, the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile, an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ∼1 kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the E{sub R} measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estimate toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities from E × B motion. This paper further demonstrates the ability of the ball pen probe to make valuable and important measurements in the boundary plasma of a tokamak.

  12. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of mega amp spherical tokamak using a ball pen probe.

    PubMed

    Walkden, N R; Adamek, J; Allan, S; Dudson, B D; Elmore, S; Fishpool, G; Harrison, J; Kirk, A; Komm, M

    2015-02-01

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature, and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak. The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential, the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile, an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ∼1 kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the ER measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estimate toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities from E × B motion. This paper further demonstrates the ability of the ball pen probe to make valuable and important measurements in the boundary plasma of a tokamak.

  13. Drift reduction in a scanning electrostatic force microscope for surface profile measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhigang; Ito, So; Goto, Shigeaki; Hosobuchi, Keiichiro; Shimizu, Yuki; Gao, Wei

    2014-09-01

    The influence of drifts on the measurement results of an electrostatic force microscope (EFM) based on a dual-height method for surface profile measurement is analyzed. Two types of drifts and their influence on the EFM measurement are discussed by computer simulation. It is figured out that the mechanical drift has a larger impact compared to the resonance frequency drift for the specific EFM with the conventional round-trip scan mode. It is also verified that the profile reconstruction algorithm of the dual-height method for separating the electric property distribution and the surface profile of the surface has an effect of magnifying the drift error in the result of surface profile measurement, which is a much more significant measurement of uncertainty sources for the developed EFM compared with an ordinary scanning probe microscope (SPM). A new vertical reciprocating scan (VRS) mode is then employed to reduce the influences of the drifts. The feasibility of the VRS mode is demonstrated by computer simulation and measurement experiments with a diffraction grating.

  14. Measurement of the temperature profile of an exothermic autocatalytic reaction front.

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Rakotomalala, N; Talon, L; Salin, D

    2009-11-01

    Autocatalytic reactions may propagate as solitary waves, namely, at a constant front velocity and with a stationary concentration profile, resulting from a balance between molecular diffusion and chemical reaction. When the reaction is exothermic, a thermal wave is linked to the chemical front. As the thermal diffusivity is nearly two orders of magnitude larger than the molecular one, the temperature profile spreads over length scales (mm) two orders of magnitude larger than the concentration one. Using an infrared camera, we measure the temperature profiles for a chlorite-tetrathionate autocatalytic reaction. The profiles are compared quantitatively to lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) numerical simulations. Our analysis also accounts for the lack of observation of the thermal wave for the iodate arsenous acid reaction.

  15. Beam Profile Measurement in MTA Beam Line for High Pressure RF Cavity Beam Test

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, M.R.; Bross, A.; Chung, M.; Greer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Kobilarcik, T.; Koizumi, G.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Schwartz, T.; /Fermilab /IIT, Chicago /PDT, Torino

    2012-05-15

    Recent High Pressure RF (HPRF) cavity experiment at MuCool Test Area (MTA) has used 400 MeV Linac proton beam to study the beam loading effect. When the energetic proton beam passes through the cavity, it ionizes the inside gas and produces the electrons. These electrons consume RF power inside the cavity. Number of electrons produced per cm inside the cavity (at 950 psi Hydrogen gas) per incident proton is {approx} 1200. The measurement of beam position and profile are necessary. MTA is flammable gas (Hydrogen) hazard zone so we have developed a passive beam diagnostic instrument using Chromox-6 scintillation screen and CCD camera. This paper presents quantitative information about beam position and beam profile. Neutral density filter was used to avoid saturation of CCD camera. Image data is filtered and fitted with Gaussian function to compute the beam size. The beam profile obtained from scintillation screen shall be compared with multi-wire beam profile.

  16. An interpretation of the Voyager measurement of Jovian electron density profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, S. K.; Donahue, T. M.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Electron-density profiles measured for the daytime and nighttime Jovian ionosphere by the Voyager 1 radio-science experiment are analyzed. It is found that the measured profiles can be reproduced by using a model appropriate for an exospheric temperature of 1300 K with temperature varying above the homopause and with an eddy diffusion coefficient of 100,000 to 300,000 sq cm/s at the homopause. An overall rate constant of 4.3 x 10 to the -16th cu cm/s is estimated for the reaction H(+) + H2 (v-prime at least 4) yields H2(+) + H.

  17. Water content and water profiles in skin measured by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucassen, Gerald W.; Caspers, Peter J.; Puppels, Gerwin J.

    2000-11-01

    We present non-invasive measurements of water content in stratum corneum (SC) by FTIR spectroscopy and water content profiles across the epidermis by Raman microspectroscopy. We apply band fitting to the FTIR spectra to assess changes in SC water content following hydration. While the penetration depth of ATR-FTIR is only a few micrometers, the confocal Raman microspectrometer enables successive collection of Raman spectra at a range of depths below skin surface, with an axial resolution of ca. 5micrometers . Depth resolved water concentration measurements of the epidermis obtained by Raman spectroscopy show clear changes in the water concentration profile as a result of hydration.

  18. Simultaneous Measurements of Water Vapor Profiles From Airborne MIR and LASE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Racette, P.; Triesky, M. E.; Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Chang, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    A NASA ER-2 aircraft flight with both Millimeter-wave Imaging radiometer (MIR) and lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) was made over ocean areas in the eastern United States on September 25, 1995. The water vapor profiles derived from both instruments under both clear and cloudy conditions are compared in this paper. It is shown that good agreement is found between the MIR-derived and the LASE-measured water vapor profiles over the areas of clear-sky condition. In the cloudy areas, the MIR-retrieved values at the altitudes of the cloud layers and below are generally higher than those measured by the LASE.

  19. Development of surface profile measurement method for ellipsoidal x-ray mirrors using phase retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitou, Takahiro; Takei, Yoshinori; Mimura, Hidekazu

    2012-09-01

    An ellipsoidal mirror is a promising type of X-ray mirror, because it can focus X-rays to nanometer size with a very large aperture and no chromatic aberration. However, ideal ellipsoidal mirrors have not yet been realized by any manufacturing method. This is partly because there is no evaluation method for its surface figure profile. In this paper, we propose and develop a method for measuring surface figure profile of ellipsoidal mirrors using phase retrieval. An optical design for soft X-ray focusing, the employed phase retrieval method and an experimental optical system specialized for wavefront measurement using a He-Ne laser are reported.

  20. Measurement of dynamic gas disengagement profile by using an analog output level gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkilineni, S.; Koelle, M.; Xu, H.

    The dynamic gas disengagement profile was measured in a 0.14 m diameter and 3.66 m high plexiglas column by using an analog output gauge, which was connected to a data acquisition system. This analog output gauge is a high accuracy continuous measurement level gauge. It is made up of a wave guide, a float, a motion or stress sensing device and a probe housing. The fluid level at any gas velocity is obtained by using the data acquisition system. The dynamic gas disengagement profile produced one slope in the bubble flow and two slopes in the churn turbulent flow representing unimodal and bimodal distributions of bubbles.