Science.gov

Sample records for elements alpha hib

  1. Hib Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children’s Immunization Project, St. Paul, Minnesota Cerebrospinal fluid culture positive for Haemophilus influenzae , type b (Gram stain) ... b. Cellulitis of the arm proven by blood culture www.vaccineinformation.org/photos/hib_aap002.jpg Copyright ...

  2. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Haemophilus influenzae , including Hib, disease causes different symptoms depending on ...

  3. Protect Your Child against Hib Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood, bone, and joint infections. People Spread Hib Bacteria to Others People spread Hib bacteria by coughing or sneezing while in close contact with others, who then breathe in the bacteria. Even people who are not sick can have ...

  4. Facts about Hib Disease. ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    The fact sheet provides basic information about Hib Disease in young children, which may involve a bacterial meningitis causing mental retardation, hearing loss, partial blindness, speech disorders, partial paralysis, behavioral problems, or seizures. Stressed is prevention of Hib Disease through immunization. The question and answer format…

  5. Hibbing Community College's Community Computer Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    This paper reports on the development of the Community Computer Center (CCC) at Hibbing Community College (HCC) in Minnesota. HCC is located in the largest U.S. iron mining area in the United States. Closures of steel-producing plants are affecting the Hibbing area. Outmigration, particularly of younger workers and their families, has been…

  6. Hib Disease (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to more serious problems like blood infections or meningitis. Hib disease usually isn't a big worry ... body the infection is. Here are some examples: Meningitis. Someone with meningitis may have a headache and ...

  7. Hib Vaccines: Past, Present, and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Adi Essam; Almehdar, Hussein A.; Redwan, Elrashdy M.

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) causes many severe diseases, including epiglottitis, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. In developed countries, the annual incidence of meningitis caused by bacteria is approximately 5–10 cases per population of 100,000. The Hib conjugate vaccine is considered protective and safe. Adjuvants, molecules that can enhance and/or regulate the fundamental immunogenicity of an antigen, comprise a wide range of diverse compounds. While earlier developments of adjuvants created effective products, there is still a need to create new generations, rationally designed based on recent discoveries in immunology, mainly in innate immunity. Many factors may play a role in the immunogenicity of Hib conjugate vaccines, such as the polysaccharides and proteins carrier used in vaccine construction, as well as the method of conjugation. A Hib conjugate vaccine has been constructed via chemical synthesis of a Hib saccharide antigen. Two models of carbohydrate-protein conjugate have been established, the single ended model (terminal amination-single method) and cross-linked lattice matrix (dual amination method). Increased knowledge in the fields of immunology, molecular biology, glycobiology, glycoimmunology, and the biology of infectious microorganisms has led to a dramatic increase in vaccine efficacy. PMID:26904695

  8. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Compartir On this Page Diagnosis Treatment Complications Diagnosis Haemophilus influenzae , including Hib, disease is usually diagnosed with one ...

  9. The murine alpha B-crystallin/small heat shock protein enhancer: identification of alpha BE-1, alpha BE-2, alpha BE-3, and MRF control elements.

    PubMed

    Gopal-Srivastava, R; Piatigorsky, J

    1993-11-01

    The murine alpha B-crystallin gene (a member of the small heat shock protein family) is expressed constitutively at high levels in the lens and at lower levels in many other tissues, including skeletal muscle. We have previously used the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter fused to the human growth hormone gene to identify an alpha B-crystallin enhancer at positions -427 to -259 that has high activity in muscle and low activity in lens cell lines. In the study reported here, we performed DNase I footprinting, transfection, mutagenesis, and electrophoretic mobility shift experiments using the murine C2C12 muscle and alpha TN4-1 lens cell lines and the rabbit N/N1003A lens cell line to identify sequences responsible for activity of this enhancer. Enhancer activity in both the muscle and lens cells was dependent on novel elements called alpha BE-1 (-407 to -397), alpha BE-2 (-360 to -327), and alpha BE-3 (-317 to -306). These elements were also weakly occupied by nuclear proteins in L929 cells, which appear to express the alpha B-crystallin gene at a very low level (detectable only by the polymerase chain reaction). A fourth element containing a consensus muscle regulatory factor-binding site called MRF (-300 to -288) was occupied and used only by the C2C12 muscle cells. Cotransfection in NIH 3T3 cells and antibody-gel shift experiments using C2C12 nuclear extracts indicated that MyoD, myogen, or a similar member of this family can activate the alpha B-crystallin enhancer by interaction with the MRF site. Taken together, we conclude that the alpha BE-1, alpha BE-2, and alpha BE-3 elements are shared by both lens and muscle cells, but the MRF element is used only in muscle cells, providing the first example of a muscle-specific control element in a crystallin gene.

  10. Sandia Higher Order Elements (SHOE) v 0.5 alpha

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-24

    SHOE is research code for characterizing and visualizing higher-order finite elements; it contains a framework for defining classes of interpolation techniques and element shapes; methods for interpolating triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral, and hexahedral cells using Lagrange and Legendre polynomial bases of arbitrary order; methods to decompose each element into domains of constant gradient flow (using a polynomial solver to identify critical points); and an isocontouring technique that uses this decomposition to guarantee topological correctness. Please note that this is an alpha release of research software and that some time has passed since it was actively developed; build- and run-time issues likely exist.

  11. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... more than one disease.Children over 5 years old and adults usually do not need Hib vaccine. But it may be recommended for older children or adults with asplenia or sickle cell ... for people 5 to 18 years old with HIV. Ask your doctor for details.Your ...

  12. Alpha3, a transposable element that promotes host sexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Barsoum, Emad; Martinez, Paula; Aström, Stefan U

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models predict that selfish DNA elements require host sex to persist in a population. Therefore, a transposon that induces sex would strongly favor its own spread. We demonstrate that a protein homologous to transposases, called alpha3, was essential for mating type switch in Kluyveromyces lactis. Mutational analysis showed that amino acids conserved among transposases were essential for its function. During switching, sequences in the 5' and 3' flanking regions of the alpha3 gene were joined, forming a DNA circle, showing that alpha3 mobilized from the genome. The sequences encompassing the alpha3 gene circle junctions in the mating type alpha (MATalpha) locus were essential for switching from MATalpha to MATa, suggesting that alpha3 mobilization was a coupled event. Switching also required a DNA-binding protein, Mating type switch 1 (Mts1), whose binding sites in MATalpha were important. Expression of Mts1 was repressed in MATa/MATalpha diploids and by nutrients, limiting switching to haploids in low-nutrient conditions. A hairpin-capped DNA double-strand break (DSB) was observed in the MATa locus in mre11 mutant strains, indicating that mating type switch was induced by MAT-specific DSBs. This study provides empirical evidence for selfish DNA promoting host sexual reproduction by mediating mating type switch.

  13. Alpha Virginis: line-profile variations and orbital elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, David; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Olguín, Enrique; Ilyin, Ilya; Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Lara, Bruno; Moreno, Edmundo

    2016-05-01

    Context. Alpha Virginis (Spica) is a B-type binary system whose proximity and brightness allow detailed investigations of the internal structure and evolution of stars undergoing time-variable tidal interactions. Previous studies have led to the conclusion that the internal structure of Spica's primary star may be more centrally condensed than predicted by theoretical models of single stars, raising the possibility that the interactions could lead to effects that are currently neglected in structure and evolution calculations. The key parameters in confirming this result are the values of the orbital eccentricity e, the apsidal period U, and the primary star's radius, R1. Aims: The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact that Spica's line profile variability has on the derivation of its orbital elements and to explore the use of the variability for constraining R1. Methods: We use high signal-to-noise and high spectral resolution observations obtained in 2000, 2008, and 2013 to derive the orbital elements from fits to the radial velocity curves. We produce synthetic line profiles using an ab initio tidal interaction model. Results: The general variations in the line profiles can be understood in terms of the tidal flows, whose large-scale structure is relatively fixed in the rotating binary system reference frame. Fits to the radial velocity curves yield e = 0.108 ± 0.014. However, the analogous RV curves from theoretical line profiles indicate that the distortion in the lines causes the fitted value of e to depend on the argument of periastron; i.e., on the epoch of observation. As a result, the actual value of e may be as high as 0.125. We find that U = 117.9 ± 1.8, which is in agreement with previous determinations. Using the value R1 = 6.8 R⊙ derived by Palate et al. (2013) the value of the observational internal structure constant k2,obs is consistent with theory. We confirm the presence of variability in the line profiles of the secondary star. RV

  14. The Distribution of Alpha Elements in Andromeda Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Luis C.; Geha, Marla C.; Tollerud, Erik J.

    2014-07-01

    We present alpha to iron abundance ratios for 226 individual red giant branch stars in nine dwarf galaxies of the Andromeda (M31) satellite system. The abundances are measured from the combined signal of Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti lines in Keck/DEIMOS medium-resolution spectra. This constitutes the first large sample of alpha abundance ratios measured in the M31 satellite system. The dwarf galaxies in our sample exhibit a variety of alpha abundance ratios, with the average values in each galaxy ranging from approximately solar ([α/Fe] ~ + 0.0) to alpha-enhanced ([α/Fe] ~ + 0.5). These variations do not show a correlation with internal kinematics, environment, or stellar density. We confirm radial gradients in the iron abundance of two galaxies out of the five with sufficient data (NGC 185 and And II). There is only tentative evidence for an alpha abundance radial gradient in NGC 185. We homogeneously compare our results to the Milky Way classical dwarf spheroidals, finding evidence for wider variation in average alpha abundance. In the absence of chemical abundances for the M31 stellar halo, we compare to the Milky Way stellar halo. A stellar halo comprised of disrupted M31 satellites is too metal-rich and inconsistent with the Milky Way halo alpha abundance distribution even if considering only satellites with predominantly old stellar populations. The M31 satellite population provides a second system in which to study chemical abundances of dwarf galaxies and reveals a wider variety of abundance patterns than the Milky Way.

  15. The distribution of alpha elements in Andromeda dwarf galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Luis C.; Geha, Marla C.; Tollerud, Erik J.

    2014-07-20

    We present alpha to iron abundance ratios for 226 individual red giant branch stars in nine dwarf galaxies of the Andromeda (M31) satellite system. The abundances are measured from the combined signal of Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti lines in Keck/DEIMOS medium-resolution spectra. This constitutes the first large sample of alpha abundance ratios measured in the M31 satellite system. The dwarf galaxies in our sample exhibit a variety of alpha abundance ratios, with the average values in each galaxy ranging from approximately solar ([α/Fe] ∼ + 0.0) to alpha-enhanced ([α/Fe] ∼ + 0.5). These variations do not show a correlation with internal kinematics, environment, or stellar density. We confirm radial gradients in the iron abundance of two galaxies out of the five with sufficient data (NGC 185 and And II). There is only tentative evidence for an alpha abundance radial gradient in NGC 185. We homogeneously compare our results to the Milky Way classical dwarf spheroidals, finding evidence for wider variation in average alpha abundance. In the absence of chemical abundances for the M31 stellar halo, we compare to the Milky Way stellar halo. A stellar halo comprised of disrupted M31 satellites is too metal-rich and inconsistent with the Milky Way halo alpha abundance distribution even if considering only satellites with predominantly old stellar populations. The M31 satellite population provides a second system in which to study chemical abundances of dwarf galaxies and reveals a wider variety of abundance patterns than the Milky Way.

  16. New and effective multi-element alpha-hematite systems for reduction of trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Ghorpade, Praveen A; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Won-Ho; Park, Joo-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The reactivity of different alpha-hematite (alpha-Fe203) systems for dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the presence of Fe(II) and CaO was investigated. Initially different experiments were conducted to investigate the reactivity of pure and doped alpha-Fe203. It was found that the presence of elements such as Si, Cu, and Mn in alpha-Fe203 had a significant effect on TCE reduction potential of alpha-Fe203; however, the reduction potential was less than that of alpha-Fe203 (Bayferrox- 110 M, used in a previous study). Further studies were carried out and alpha-Fe203 was synthesized in a manner similar to that of Bayferrox-110 M. This synthetic alpha-Fe203 showed improved reactivity and was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics when used in TCE reduction experiments. The preliminary end products analysis showed that TCE degradation was probably via beta-elimination pathway. Detailed investigations ofa-Fe203 systems were carried out using X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry. The results demonstrated that the TCE reduction capacity of alpha-Fe203 was strongly dependent on the other elements present in iron powder used to synthesize alpha-Fe203. It was suspected that these multi-elements in alpha-Fe203 helped to improve its conduction property. Current findings suggest that alpha-Fe203 not in the pure but combined with other elements could be thought as a potential system for TCE reduction.

  17. Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) vaccine - what you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... entirety from the CDC Hib (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... CDC review information for Hib (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b) VIS: Page last reviewed: April 2, 2015 Page ...

  18. Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hib Vaccine ( Haemophilus Influenzae Type b) What You Need to Know Many Vaccine Information ... vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease is a serious disease caused by ...

  19. Heavy element abundances in Ap stars from ultraviolet data. I - The bright reference stars Alpha Lyrae and Alpha Canis Majoris A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boiarchuk, A. A.; Snow, T. P., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Curve-of-growth analysis is used to derive chemical abundances in Alpha Lyr and Alpha CMa, based on ultraviolet spectra obtained with Copernicus. This analysis is part of a program to study the abundances of the heavy elements mercury and platinum and the short-lived element technetium in the atmospheres of Ap and Am stars. Ultraviolet Fe II lines are used to establish the curves of growth for Alpha Lyr and Alpha CMa A; abundances of a variety of elements, along with upper limits on Hg, Pt, and Tc, are derived. In cases where previous studies based on visual spectra have included elements in common with the present analysis, the agreement is good within the known uncertainties. One new element, cadmium, is observed for these two stars. The upper limits on Pt and Hg, as well as Tc, show that these elements are probably not enhanced in Alpha CMa A by more than about one order of magnitude.

  20. Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (Hib): Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... should be revaccinated regardless of their previous Hib vaccination history. Note: People older than age 59 months with immu- noglobulin or complement component deficiency and chemotherapy are not addressed ... who begin their vaccination series in infancy need three to four doses, ...

  1. Finite element prediction of contact pressures in cam-type femoroacetabular impingement with varied alpha angles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Wanchun; Thoreson, Andrew R; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zhu, Weihong; Dou, Pengcheng

    2017-02-01

    Three dimensional finite element models of cam-type FAI with alpha angles of 60°, 70°, 80°, and 90° were created to investigate the cartilage contact mechanics in daily activities. Intra-articular cartilage contact pressures during routine daily activities were assessed and cross-compared with a normal control hip. Alpha angles and hip range of motion were found to have a combined influence on the cartilage contact mechanics in hips with cam-type FAI, thereby resulting in abnormally high pressures and driving the cartilage damage. In particular, alpha angles of 80° or greater contribute to substantial pressure increase under certain types of daily activities.

  2. Application of alpha spectrometry to the discovery of new elements by heavy-ion-beam bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1983-05-01

    Starting with polonium in 1898, ..cap alpha..-spectrometry has played a decisive role in the discovery of new, heavy elements. For even-even nuclei, ..cap alpha..-spectra have proved simple to interpret and exhibit systematic trends that allow extrapolation to unknown isotopes. The early discovery of the natural ..cap alpha..-decay series led to the very powerful method of genetically linking the decay of new elements to the well-established ..cap alpha..-emission of daughter and granddaughter nuclei. This technique has been used for all recent discoveries of new elements including Z = 109. Up to mendelevium (Z = 101), thin samples suitable for ..cap alpha..-spectrometry were prepared by chemical methods. With the advent of heavy-ion accelerators new sample preparation methods emerged. These were based on the large momentum transfer associated with heavy-ion reactions, which produced energetic target recoils that, when ejected from the target, could be thermalized in He gas. Subsequent electrical deposition or a He-jet technique yielded samples that were not only thin enough for ..cap alpha..-spectroscopy, but also for ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-recoil experiments. Many variations of these methods have been developed and are discussed. For the synthesis of element 106 an aerosol-based recoil transport technique was devised. In the most recent experiments, ..cap alpha..-spectrometry has been coupled with the magnetic analysis of the recoils. The time from production to analysis of an isotope has thereby been reduced to 10/sup -6/ s; while it was 10/sup -1/ to 10/sup 0/ s for He-jets and 10/sup 1/ to 10/sup 3/ s for rapid chemical separations. Experiments are now in progress to synthesize super heavy elements (SHE) and to analyze them with these latest techniques. Again, ..cap alpha..-spectrometry will play a major role since the expected signature for the decay of a SHE is a sequence of ..cap alpha..-decays followed by spontaneous fission.

  3. A T-cell specific transcriptional enhancer element 3 prime of C sub. alpha. in the human T-cell receptor. alpha. locus

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Icheng; Yang, Lihsuan; Morle, G.; Leiden, J.M. )

    1989-09-01

    A transcriptional enhancer element has been identified 4.5 kilobases 3{prime} of C{sub {alpha}} (constant region {alpha} chain) in the human T-cell receptor (TCR) {alpha}-chain locus. This enhancer is active on both a TCR V{sub {alpha}} (variable region {alpha} chain) promoter and the minimal simian virus 40 promoter in TCR {alpha}/{beta} Jurkat and EL4 cells but is inactive on a V{sub {alpha}} promoter TCR {gamma}/{delta} PEER and Molt-13 cells, clone 13 B cells, and HeLa fibroblasts. The enhancer has been localized to a 116-base-pair BstXI/Dra I restriction enzyme fragment, which lacks immunoglobulin octamer and {kappa}B enhancer motifs but does contain a consensus cAMP-response element (CRE). DNase I footprint analyses demonstrated that the minimal enhancer contains two binding sites for Jurkat nuclear proteins. One of these sites corresponds to the CRE, while the other does not correspond to a known transcriptional enhancer motif. These data support a model in which TCR {alpha} gene transcription is regulated by a unique set of cis-acting sequences and trans-acting factors, which are differentially active in cells of the TCR {alpha}/{beta} lineage. In addition, the TCR {alpha} enhancer may play a role in activating oncogene expression in T-lymphoblastoid tumors that have previously been shown to display chromosomal translocations into the human TCR {alpha} locus.

  4. Spotlight on DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib Vaccine (Infanrix hexa).

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Sohita

    2010-10-01

    Infanrix hexa, administered intramuscularly, is a diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B (HBV), inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, indicated for primary and booster vaccination of infants. Infanrix hexa should be administered as a two- or three-dose primary vaccination course in infants aged < or =6 months, followed by booster vaccination between 11 and 18 months of age, with an interval of at least 6 months between the last dose of primary vaccination and the booster dose. This spotlight reviews the immunogenicity and protective effectiveness, as well as the reactogenicity and safety of Infanrix hexa. Infanrix hexa as primary and booster vaccination was safe and highly immunogenic for all its component toxoids/antigens in infants aged <2 years, regardless of vaccination schedules. Its immunogenicity and safety profiles were generally similar to those of currently available vaccines, the diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis-based pentavalent vaccines plus monovalent HBV or Hib vaccines. In large clinical studies, Infanrix hexa elicited a strong immune response against vaccine toxoids/antigens, as indicated by high seroprotection/seropositivity/vaccine response rates and geometric mean titers. Moreover, antibodies against vaccine toxoids/antigens persisted for up to a mean of approximately 6 years after booster vaccination, and the vaccine induced long-term immune memory against hepatitis B surface antigen and Hib antigen. A strong immune response against Infanrix hexa toxoids/antigens after primary vaccination was also induced in infants who had received a dose of HBV vaccine at birth and in pre-term infants, although the response in the latter group was somewhat lower than that in full-term infants. In addition, when coadministered with other childhood vaccines, the immunogenicity of Infanrix hexa or that of the concomitantly administered vaccine was generally not altered. Hexavalent vaccines

  5. Suppression and modulation of cellular and humoral immune responses to Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) conjugate vaccine in hib-diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis combination vaccines: a study in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Fatme; Newman, Gareth; Burns, Samantha; Corbel, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    We assessed a rat model to evaluate the immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines and the effect on Hib immunogenicity of combining 2 Hib vaccines (Hib-tetanus toxoid [TT]-A and Hib-TT-B) with diphtheria-TT-acellular pertussis (DTaP)(3) or DTaP(5)/inactivated poliovirus (IPV) vaccines. Rats were immunized subcutaneously with Hib alone or with Hib and DTaP-based vaccines; anti-Hib capsular polysaccharide IgG, poly-ribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP), IgG subclass, and cellular immune responses were evaluated. Results showed a significant reduction in the antibody response to PRP when Hib-TT-A was administered in combination with DTaP(3) and showed changes in the anti-PRP IgG subclass distribution between the separate and combination groups. However, combining Hib-TT-B with DTaP(5)/IPV did not reduce the anti-PRP antibody response. These results suggest that the model can predict the effect of combined administration of Hib and DTaP vaccines on Hib immunogenicity and would be suitable for preclinical studies of mechanisms of interference in Hib/DTaP vaccines.

  6. Identification of sequence elements that confer cell-type-specific control of MF alpha 1 expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Inokuchi, K; Nakayama, A; Hishinuma, F

    1987-01-01

    The MF alpha 1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a major structural gene for mating pheromone alpha factor, is an alpha-specific gene whose expression is regulated by the mating-type locus. To study the role of sequences upstream of MF alpha 1 in its expression and regulation, we generated two sets of promoter deletions: upstream deletions and internal deletions. By analyzing these deletions, we have identified a TATA box and two closely related, tandemly arranged upstream activation sites as necessary elements for MF alpha 1 expression. Two upstream activation sites were located ca. 300 and 250 base pairs upstream of the MF alpha 1 transcription start points, which were also determined in this study. Each site contained a homologous 22-base-pair sequence, and both sites were required for maximum transcription level. The distance between the upstream activation sites and the transcription start points could be altered without causing loss of transcription efficiency, and the sites were active in either orientation with respect to the coding region. These elements conferred cell type-specific expression on a heterologous promoter. Analysis with host mating-type locus mutants indicates that these sequences are the sites through which the MAT alpha 1 product exerts its action to activate the MF alpha 1 gene. Homologous sequences with these elements were found in other alpha-specific genes, MF alpha 2 and STE3, and may mediate activation of this set of genes by MAT alpha 1. Images PMID:2959859

  7. The {alpha}-induced thick-target {gamma}-ray yield from light elements

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, R.K. |

    1994-10-01

    The {alpha}-induced thick-target {gamma}-ray yield from light elements has been measured in the energy range 5.6 MeV {le} E{sub {alpha}} {le} 10 MeV. The {gamma}-ray yield for > 2.1 MeV from thick targets of beryllium, boron nitride, sodium fluoride, magnesium, aluminum and silicon were measured using the {alpha}-particle beam from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories 88 in. cyclotron. The elemental yields from this experiment were used to construct the {alpha}-induced direct production {gamma}-ray spectrum from materials in the SNO detector, a large volume ultra-low background neutrino detector located in the Creighton mine near Sudbury, Canada. This background source was an order of magnitude lower than predicted by previous calculations. These measurements are in good agreement with theoretical calculations of this spectrum based on a statistical nuclear model of the reaction, with the gross high energy spectrum structure being reproduced to within a factor of two. Detailed comparison of experimental and theoretical excitation population distribution of several residual nuclei indicate the same level of agreement within experimental uncertainties.

  8. DNA elements regulating alpha1-tubulin gene induction during regeneration of eukaryotic flagella.

    PubMed

    Periz, G; Keller, L R

    1997-07-01

    Eukaryotic flagella are complex organelles composed of more than 200 polypeptides. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms governing synthesis of the flagellar protein subunits and their assembly into this complex organelle. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the premier experimental model system for studying such cellular processes. When acid shocked, C. reinhardtii excises its flagella, rapidly and coordinately activates transcription of a set of flagellar genes, and ultimately regenerates a new flagellar pair. To define functionally the regulatory sequences that govern induction of the set of genes after acid shock, we analyzed the alpha1-tubulin gene promoter. To simplify transcriptional analysis in vivo, we inserted the selectable marker gene ARG7 on the same plasmid with a tagged alpha1-tubulin gene and stably introduced it into C. reinhardtii cells. By deletion of various sequences, two promoter regions (-176 to -122 and -85 to -16) were identified as important for induction of the tagged alpha1-tubulin gene. Deleting the region between -176 and -122 from the transcription start site resulted in an induction level which was only 45 to 70% of that of the resident gene. Deleting the region upstream of -56 resulted in a complete loss of inducibility without affecting basal expression. The alpha1-tubulin promoter region from -85 to -16 conferred partial acid shock inducibility to an arylsulfatase (ARS) reporter gene. These results show that induction of the alpha1-tubulin gene after acid shock is a complex response that requires diverse sequence elements.

  9. MULTI-ELEMENT ABUNDANCE MEASUREMENTS FROM MEDIUM-RESOLUTION SPECTRA. IV. ALPHA ELEMENT DISTRIBUTIONS IN MILKY WAY SATELLITE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.; Smith, Graeme H.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Sohn, Sangmo Tony

    2011-02-01

    We derive the star formation histories of eight dwarf spheroidal (dSph) Milky Way satellite galaxies from their alpha element abundance patterns. Nearly 3000 stars from our previously published catalog comprise our data set. The average [{alpha}/Fe] ratios for all dSphs follow roughly the same path with increasing [Fe/H]. We do not observe the predicted knees in the [{alpha}/Fe] versus [Fe/H] diagram, corresponding to the metallicity at which Type Ia supernovae begin to explode. Instead, we find that Type Ia supernova ejecta contribute to the abundances of all but the most metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -2.5) stars. We have also developed a chemical evolution model that tracks the star formation rate, Types II and Ia supernova explosions, and supernova feedback. Without metal enhancement in the supernova blowout, massive amounts of gas loss define the history of all dSphs except Fornax, the most luminous in our sample. All six of the best-fit model parameters correlate with dSph luminosity but not with velocity dispersion, half-light radius, or Galactocentric distance.

  10. Individual Alpha Elements, C, N, and Ba in Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthey, Guy; Tang, Baitian; Serven, Jedidiah

    2014-03-01

    Spectral data on early-type galaxies are analyzed for chemical abundance with an emphasis on obtaining detailed abundances for the elements O and Si in addition to C, N, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, and Ba. The abundance trends with velocity dispersion fit preconceptions based upon previous Mg conclusions, namely, that larger galaxies have a higher alpha element to iron peak ratio indicative of a higher ratio of Type II to Type Ia supernova products. The heaviest alpha elements, Ca and Ti, do not participate in this trend, although this fact does not necessarily alter the basic picture given the uncertainties in nucleosynthetic yields. Elements that likely have significant contributions from intermediate-mass stars, namely, C, N, and Ba, also gain ground relative to Fe in massive galaxies at a modest level, with the Ba conclusion uncertain from our data alone. After the velocity dispersion trend is subtracted, [M/H], [N/Fe], [Na/Fe], [Mg/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] probably have cosmic scatter, and no quantity can be shown to not have cosmic scatter.

  11. Tracing the evolution of the Galactic bulge with chemodynamical modelling of alpha-elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friaça, A. C. S.; Barbuy, B.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Galactic bulge abundances can be best understood as indicators of bulge formation and nucleosynthesis processes by comparing them with chemo-dynamical evolution models. Aims: The aim of this work is to study the abundances of alpha-elements in the Galactic bulge, including a revision of the oxygen abundance in a sample of 56 bulge red giants. Methods: Literature abundances for O, Mg, Si, Ca and Ti in Galactic bulge stars are compared with chemical evolution models. For oxygen in particular, we reanalysed high-resolution spectra obtained using FLAMES+UVES on the Very Large Telescope, now taking each star's carbon abundances, derived from CI and C2 lines, into account simultaneously. Results: We present a chemical evolution model of alpha-element enrichment in a massive spheroid that represents a typical classical bulge evolution. The code includes multi-zone chemical evolution coupled with hydrodynamics of the gas. Comparisons between the model predictions and the abundance data suggest a typical bulge formation timescale of 1-2 Gyr. The main constraint on the bulge evolution is provided by the O data from analyses that have taken the C abundance and dissociative equilibrium into account. Mg, Si, Ca and Ti trends are well reproduced, whereas the level of overabundance critically depends on the adopted nucleosynthesis prescriptions. Observations collected both at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programmes 71.B-0617A, 73.B0074A, and GTO 71.B-0196)

  12. The skeletal muscle alpha-actin gene of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and its association with piscine specific SINE elements.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Karsi, A; Dunham, R A; Liu, Z

    2000-07-11

    The alpha-actin gene of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was cloned and sequenced. The gene has a similar organization and exhibited a high level of sequence similarity to those from other vertebrate animals. The upstream region of the alpha-actin gene included a TATA box, a CAAT box, three E-boxes, and a CArG box. Nested deletion segments containing these transcriptional motifs were fused to the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT). Transfection of the clones into C2C12 cells indicated that all these motifs are required for transcriptional activities. The channel catfish alpha-actin gene is associated with two distinct short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs). The first SINE element showed high levels of sequence similarity to the zebrafish Mermaid element, while the second SINE element is not similar to the Mermaid element except for an 8bp sequence CCCCGTGC suggesting their evolutionary linkage. However, the second SINE element appeared to co-exist with the Mermaid element in most cases and therefore was designated as the Merman element. Approximately 9000 copies and 1200 copies of the Mermaid and Merman elements exist per haploid channel catfish genome, respectively. BLAST searches indicated that both the Mermaid and the Merman elements were frequently associated with gene sequences, mostly those of aquatic animals, suggesting their evolutionary origin in association with aquatic organisms and their function in shaping the evolution of genomes in aquatic animals.

  13. DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine (Infanrix hexa™): a guide to its use in infants.

    PubMed

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A; Dhillon, Sohita

    2012-10-01

    Infanrix hexa™, a diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, is indicated for primary and booster vaccination of infants. Available clinical data from more than a decade of experience with the vaccine indicate that primary and booster vaccination with Infanrix hexa™ is a safe and useful option for providing protection against the common childhood diseases of diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, hepatitis B, and disease caused by Hib.

  14. Impact of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine introduction in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    von Gottberg, A.; de Gouveia, L.; Madhi, S. A.; du Plessis, M.; Quan, V.; Soma, K.; Huebner, R.; Flannery, B.; Schuchat, A.; Klugman, Kp

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in reported invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in South Africa within the first five years of introduction of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in the routine child immunization schedule. METHODS: We used national laboratory-based surveillance data to identify cases of invasive H. influenzae disease between July 1999 and June 2004, and submitted isolates for serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. FINDINGS: The absolute number of Hib cases (reported to the national surveillance system) among children below one year of age decreased by 65%, from 55 cases in 1999-2000 to 19 cases in 2003-04. Enhanced surveillance initiated in 2003, identified human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection and incomplete vaccination as contributing factors for Hib transmission. The total number of laboratory-confirmed cases of H. influenzae remained unchanged because non-type b disease was being increasingly reported to the surveillance system concomitant with system enhancements. Children with non-typable disease were more likely to be HIV-positive (32 of 34, 94%) than children with Hib disease (10 of 14, 71%), P = 0.051. Recent Hib isolates were more likely to be multidrug resistant (2% in 1999-2000 versus 19% in 2003-04, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Data from a newly established national laboratory-based surveillance system showed a decrease in Hib disease burden among South African children following conjugate vaccine introduction and identified cases of non-typable disease associated with HIV infection. PMID:17128361

  15. Primary and booster vaccination in Latin American children with a DTPw-HBV/Hib combination: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis (DTPw)-based combination vaccines are an attractive option to rapidly achieve high coverage and protection against other important pathogens, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib). To ensure adequate antigen supply, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals has introduced a new DTPw antigen source and developed a new DTPw-HBV/Hib combination vaccine containing a reduced amount of Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). This study was undertaken to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of this new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine with a licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine (Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib). Methods This was a randomized, partially-blind, multicenter study in three countries in Latin America (Argentina, Chile and Nicaragua). Healthy children received either the new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine (1 of 3 lots; n = 439; double-blind) or Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib (n = 146; single-blind) co-administered with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) at 2, 4 and 6 months, with a booster dose at 18-24 months. Results One month after the end of the 3-dose primary vaccination course, the new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine was non-inferior to Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib in terms of seroprotection/vaccine response rates for all component antigens; ≥97.3% and ≥93.9% of subjects in the two groups, respectively, had seroprotective levels of antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B and Hib and a vaccine response to the pertussis component. Persistence of antibodies against all vaccine antigens was comparable between groups, with marked increases in all antibody concentrations after booster administration in both groups. Both vaccines were generally well-tolerated as primary and booster doses. Conclusions Results confirm the suitability of this new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine comprising antigens from a new source and a reduced PRP content for inclusion into routine childhood vaccination programs. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT

  16. Pattern of functional antibody activity against Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) in infants immunized with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis/Hib Brazilian combination vaccine.

    PubMed

    Matos, D C S; Silva, A M V; Neves, P C C; Martins, R M; Homma, A; Marcovistz, R

    2009-12-01

    We evaluated the functional activity of Haemophilus influenzae B (Hib) antibodies elicited in a group of infants immunized with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine combined with an Hib vaccine produced totally in Brazil after technological transfer of Hib vaccine production from Glaxo SmithKline, Belgium. Blood samples from immunized infants (N = 985) were collected for the determination of Hib antibodies. Total Ig and IgM and IgG subclasses of antibodies against polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) were analyzed by ELISA. Almost all vaccinees (97.56%, 961/985) developed a strong anti-PRP IgG antibody response (>or=1.0 microg/mL), while an anti-PRP IgM response was observed in 64.24% (634/985) of them (>or=0.15 microg/mL). Only 18.88% (186/985) of the infants in the group with high PRP antibody IgG concentrations (>or=1.0 microg/mL) developed a high IgM antibody response. Anti-PRP IgG antibody levels were significantly higher than anti-PRP IgM. These results demonstrate the predominance of IgG antibodies over IgM antibodies in response to PRP, with a ratio of 17:1. IgG antibodies were predominantly of the IgG1 subclass. An increase in IgG avidity was also observed during the course of immunization.

  17. Conservation of position and sequence of a novel, widely expressed gene containing the major human {alpha}-globin regulatory element

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, P.; Vickers, M.A.; Picketts, D.J.; Higgs, D.R.

    1995-10-10

    We have determined the cDNA and genomic structure of a gene (-14 gene) that lies adjacent to the human {alpha}-globin cluster. Although it is expressed in a wide range of cell lines and tissues, a previously described erythroid-specific regulatory element that controls expression of the {alpha}-globin genes lies within intron 5 of this gene. Analysis of the -14 gene promoter shows that it is GC rich and associated with a constitutively expressed DNase 1 hypersensitive site; unlike the {alpha}-globin promoter, it does not contain a TATA or CCAAT box. These and other differences in promoter structure may explain why the erythroid regulatory element interacts specifically with the {alpha}-globin promoters and not the -14 gene promoter, which lies between the {alpha} promoters and their regulatory element. Interspecies comparisons demonstrate that the sequence and location of the -14 gene adjacent to the a cluster have been maintained since the bird/mammal divergence, 270 million years ago. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Lessons learned during the development and transfer of technology related to a new Hib conjugate vaccine to emerging vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, A; Boog, C; Jadhav, S; Kreeftenberg, H

    2014-07-16

    The incidence of Haemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib) disease in developed countries has decreased since the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccines in their National Immunization Programs (NIP). In countries where Hib vaccination is not applied routinely, due to limited availability and high cost of the vaccines, invasive Hib disease is still a cause of mortality. Through the development of a production process for a Hib conjugate vaccine and related quality control tests and the transfer of this technology to emerging vaccine manufacturers in developing countries, a substantial contribution was made to the availability and affordability of Hib conjugate vaccines in these countries. Technology transfer is considered to be one of the fastest ways to get access to the technology needed for the production of vaccines. The first Hib conjugate vaccine based on the transferred technology was licensed in 2007, since then more Hib vaccines based on this technology were licensed. This paper describes the successful development and transfer of Hib conjugate vaccine technology to vaccine manufacturers in India, China and Indonesia. By describing the lessons learned in this process, it is hoped that other technology transfer projects can benefit from the knowledge and experience gained.

  19. The Immunogenicity and Safety of a Combined DTaP-IPV//Hib Vaccine Compared with Individual DTaP-IPV and Hib (PRP~T) Vaccines: a Randomized Clinical Trial in South Korean Infants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recommended infant vaccination in Korea includes DTaP-IPV and Hib vaccines administered as separate injections. In this randomized, open, controlled study we assessed the non-inferiority of immunogenicity of DTaP-IPV//Hib pentavalent combination vaccine (Pentaxim™) compared with licensed DTaP-IPV and Hib (PRP~T) vaccines. We enrolled 418 healthy Korean infants to receive either separate DTaP-IPV and Hib vaccines (n = 206) or the pentavalent DTaP-IPV//Hib (n = 208) vaccine at 2, 4, 6 months of age. Antibodies to all components were measured before the first vaccination and one month after the third, and safety was assessed after each vaccination including recording of reactions by parents. We confirmed the non-inferiority of DTaP-IPV//Hib compared with DTaP-IPV and Hib vaccines; 100% of both groups achieved seroprotection against D, T, IPV and PRP~T, and 97.5%–99.0% demonstrated seroresponses to pertussis antigens. Antibody levels were similar in both groups, except for those to the Hib component, PRP~T. In separate and combined groups geometric mean concentrations of anti-PRP~T antibodies were 23.9 and 11.0 µg/mL, respectively, but 98.3% and 97.4% had titers ≥ 1 µg/mL, indicative of long-term protection. All vaccines were well tolerated, with no vaccine-related serious adverse event. Both groups had similar safety profiles, but the combined vaccine group had fewer injection site reactions. The immunological non-inferiority and similar safety profile of DTaP-IPV//Hib vaccine to separate DTaP-IPV and Hib vaccines, with the advantage of fewer injections and injection site reactions, supports the licensure and incorporation of DTaP-IPV//Hib into the Korean national vaccination schedule (Clinical trial registry, NCT01214889). PMID:27510380

  20. K{alpha} satellite transitions in elements with 12{<=}Z{<=}30 produced by electron incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Limandri, Silvina P.; Carreras, Alejo C.; Trincavelli, Jorge C.; Bonetto, Rita D.

    2010-09-15

    The emission of x-ray satellite lines in the K{alpha} region of Mg, Si, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zn induced by electron incidence was studied by means of wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. The satellite lines studied were K{alpha}{sup '}, K{alpha}{sub 3}, K{alpha}{sub 4}, K{alpha}{sub 5}, K{alpha}{sub 6}, and two transitions denoted here as K{alpha}{sub 22} and K{alpha}{sub 12}. Energy shifts with respect to the main K{alpha}{sub 1} diagram line and transition probabilities relative to the whole K{alpha} group were determined for a number of lines through a careful spectral processing. The dependence of these parameters, as well as of the K{beta}:K{alpha} intensity ratio, on the atomic number was compared with previous experimental and theoretical determinations when available. A discussion about the different mechanisms responsible for vacancy creation involved in the production of double-ionization satellites was performed in the light of the results obtained. Finally, the behavior of the satellite intensities as a function of the incidence energy was discussed for silicon.

  1. Differential use of the regulatory elements of the alpha B-crystallin enhancer in cultured murine lung (MLg), lens (alpha TN4-1) and muscle (C2C12) cells.

    PubMed

    Haynes, J I; Gopal-Srivastava, R; Frederikse, P H; Piatigorsky, J

    1995-04-03

    The mouse alpha B-crystallin-encoding gene (alpha B-cry) is highly expressed in the lens and expressed to lesser extents in other tissues. Here, we investigated alpha B-cry expression in mouse-lung-derived MLg cells. Two sizes of MLg alpha B-cry transcripts comigrated with alpha B-cry transcripts contained in total and poly(A)+RNA from mouse lung, with preference for the larger species in the MLg cells. Expression of both alpha B-cry promoter/cat reporter gene constructs and alpha B-cry enhancer (nt -427/-259)/herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase promoter (ptk)/human growth hormone reporter gene (hGH) constructs was studied in transfected MLg cells and the results compared with those obtained from alpha TN4-1 lens and C2C12 muscle cells. The alpha B-cry enhancer increased activity of the endogenous and tk promoters approx. 2-fold in the MLg cells, in contrast to its 3-7-fold effect in alpha TN4-1 cells and 17-20-fold effect in C2C12 myotubes. Site-specific mutagenesis of the previously identified enhancer control elements, alpha B-E-1 (nt -407 to -397), alpha BE-2 (-360 to -327) and MRF (-300 to -288), decreased enhancer strength in transfected MLg cells. DNase I footprinting showed that MLg nuclear proteins occupy only alpha BE-1 and alpha BE-2. Previous data have shown that lens cells use alpha BE-1, alpha BE-2 and alpha BE-3, while muscle cells use, in addition, the muscle regulatory factor-binding site (MRF). Thus, the present experiments correlate tissue-specific enhancer strength and the number of control elements utilized.

  2. Unstable amplification of two extrachromosomal elements in alpha-difluoromethylornithine-resistant Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, S; Beverley, S M; Wagner, W; Ullman, B

    1992-01-01

    We describe the first example of unstable gene amplification consisting of linear extrachromosomal DNAs in drug-resistant eukaryotic cells. alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO)-resistant Leishmania donovani with an amplified ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) gene copy number contained two new extrachromosomal DNAs, both present in 10 to 20 copies. One of these was a 140-kb linear DNA (ODC140-L) on which all of the amplified copies of the odc gene were located. The second was a 70-kb circular DNA (ODC70-C) containing an inverted repeat but lacking the odc gene. Both ODC140-L and ODC70-C were derived from a preexisting wild-type chromosome, probably by a conservative amplification mechanism. Both elements were unstable in the absence of DFMO, and their disappearance coincided with a decrease in ODC activity and an increase in DFMO growth sensitivity. These results suggest the possibility that ODC70-C may play a role in DFMO resistance. These data expand the diversity of known amplification mechanisms in eukaryotes to include the simultaneous unstable amplification of both linear and circular DNAs. Further characterization of these molecules will provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying gene amplification, including the ability of linear amplified DNAs to acquire telomeres and the determinants of chromosomal stability. Images PMID:1448081

  3. Transgenic analysis of the thyroid-responsive elements in the alpha-cardiac myosin heavy chain gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, A; Gulick, J; Neumann, J; Knotts, S; Robbins, J

    1993-02-25

    The role of two putative, cis-acting thyroid hormone-responsive elements, TRE1 and TRE2, located at -129 to -149 and -102 to -120, respectively, on the murine alpha-myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene, has been investigated in transgenic mice. These motifs are present in a 4.5-kilobase fragment lying upstream of the transcriptional start site of the mouse alpha-MHC gene: this fragment directs appropriate expression of a reporter gene in transgenic mice (Subramaniam, A., Jones, W. K., Gulick, J., Wert, S., Neumann, J., and Robbins, J. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 24613-24620). Here, we independently mutate the TRE1 and TRE2 elements by base substitution. The mice were analyzed for transgene expression in different muscle and non-muscle tissues including the atria and ventricles. Normal levels of transgene expression were observed in euthyroid mice carrying a mutation in TRE1. In contrast to these results, mice in which TRE2 was mutated showed reduced levels of CAT activity in both the atria and ventricles, suggesting a previously undefined role for this element in the constitutive up-regulation of the alpha-MHC gene. In hypothyroid mice carrying either of these mutations, the complete cessation of ventricular expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase transcripts that takes place in the alpha-5.5 (wild type) animals did not occur.

  4. Catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury over the modified catalyst Mn/alpha-Al2O3 at lower temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Yan, Naiqiang; Qu, Zan; Qiao, Shaohua; Yang, Shijian; Guo, Yongfu; Liu, Ping; Jia, Jinping

    2010-01-01

    In order to facilitate the removal of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) from coal-fired flue gas, catalytic oxidation of Hg(0) with manganese oxides supported on inert alumina (alpha-Al2O3) was investigated at lower temperatures (373-473 K). To improve the catalytic activity and the sulfur-tolerance of the catalysts at lower temperatures, several metal elements were employed as dopants to modify the catalyst of Mn/alpha-Al2O3. The best performance among the tested elements was achieved with molybdenum (Mo) as the dopant in the catalysts. It can work even better than the noble metal catalyst Pd/alpha-Al2O3. Additionally, the Mo doped catalyst displayed excellent sulfur-tolerance performance at lower temperatures, and the catalytic oxidation efficiency for Mo(0.03)-Mn/alpha-Al2O3 was over 95% in the presence of 500 ppm SO2 versus only about 48% for the unmodified catalyst. The apparent catalytic reaction rate constant increased by approximately 5.5 times at 423 K. In addition, the possible mechanisms involved in Hg(0) oxidation and the reaction with the Mo modified catalyst have been discussed.

  5. Identification of a novel cyclosporin-sensitive element in the human tumor necrosis factor alpha gene promoter

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a cytokine with pleiotropic biological effects, is produced by a variety of cell types in response to induction by diverse stimuli. In this paper, TNF-alpha mRNA is shown to be highly induced in a murine T cell clone by stimulation with T cell receptor (TCR) ligands or by calcium ionophores alone. Induction is rapid, does not require de novo protein synthesis, and is completely blocked by the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA). We have identified a human TNF-alpha promoter element, kappa 3, which plays a key role in the calcium-mediated inducibility and CsA sensitivity of the gene. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, an oligonucleotide containing kappa 3 forms two DNA protein complexes with proteins that are present in extracts from unstimulated T cells. These complexes appear in nuclear extracts only after T cell stimulation. Induction of the inducible nuclear complexes is rapid, independent of protein synthesis, and blocked by CsA, and thus, exactly parallels the induction of TNF-alpha mRNA by TCR ligands or by calcium ionophore. Our studies indicate that the kappa 3 binding factor resembles the preexisting component of nuclear factor of activated T cells. Thus, the TNF-alpha gene is an immediate early gene in activated T cells and provides a new model system in which to study CsA-sensitive gene induction in activated T cells. PMID:8376940

  6. Impact of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination program on HIB meningitis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranzi, Sybelle de Souza Castro; de Moraes, Suzana Alves; de Freitas, Isabel Cristina Martins

    2007-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB) in Brazil on the morbidity, mortality, and case fatality of HIB meningitis, using the Ministry of Health database and population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE). Impact was evaluated through a time series analysis (1983-2002), using regression forecasting (RF) by dividing the time series into two periods: (a) historical (1983-1998) and (b) validation (1999-2002). Impact of the vaccination was positive, although more significant for incidence and mortality than for case fatality rates.

  7. Introduction of Hib vaccine into national immunization programmes: a descriptive analysis of global trends.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Isabelle A; Zuber, Patrick L F; Dumolard, Laure; Walker, Damian G; Watt, James

    2007-10-10

    Despite the demonstration of effectiveness and public health impact of Hib conjugate vaccines, the majority of infants from poorest countries do not yet have access to this safe and effective preventive intervention. This paper provides a descriptive analysis of the main characteristics of countries that have included Hib vaccine in their national immunization programmes before 2006. It highlights the importance of regularly analyzing the process of decision-making involved in implementation of public health interventions, in order to learn from cumulative experience and expedite the introduction of future interventions.

  8. Changing epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae in Ontario, Canada: evidence for herd effects and strain replacement due to Hib vaccination.

    PubMed

    Adam, H J; Richardson, S E; Jamieson, F B; Rawte, P; Low, D E; Fisman, D N

    2010-05-28

    The epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae infections was evaluated in Ontario between 1989 and 2007 to assess the impact of the introduction of the conjugate H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) vaccine in the early 1990 s on Hib and non-Hib serotypes in both vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts as well as the possibility of "strain replacement" with non-vaccine H. influenzae strains. Data were collected by the provincial Public Health Laboratories-Toronto, Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, which performed almost all serotyping on invasive (blood, CSF, other sterile sites) H. influenzae strains isolated in the province during the study period. Temporal trends for Hib, other typeable strains, and non-typeable H. influenzae were evaluated by Poisson regression, controlling for the specimen submissions. Prior to infant Hib vaccination, the most commonly observed serotype was serotype b (64.9%). Subsequently, 70.3%, 13.6%, and 9.4% of isolates were non-typeable, serotype f, and serotype b, respectively. Infant Hib vaccination resulted in a decrease in Hib incidence in all age groups (pooled IRR 0.432) and marked increases of non-typeable and serotype f H. influenzae in children aged <5 years (IRR 2.4 and 3.0, respectively). Vaccination against Hib has altered the epidemiology of invasive H. influenzae infections in Ontario. Prevention of invasive Hib disease was observed in both vaccinated and unvaccinated age groups. Invasive H. influenzae infection now commonly presents as sepsis due to non-typeable H. influenzae in older individuals. However, strain replacement of Hib with serotype f and non-typeable strains in children under 5 years was documented.

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of fully liquid DTaP₅-IPV-Hib pediatric combination vaccine (Pediacel®) compared to DTaP₃-HBV-IPV/Hib (Infanrix® Hexa) when coadministered with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) as a booster at 11-18 months of age: a phase III, modified double-blind, randomized, controlled, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Berner, Reinhard; Boisnard, Florence; Thomas, Stéphane; Mwawasi, Grace; Reynolds, Donna

    2012-07-27

    This study compared the safety and immunogenicity of DTaP₅-IPV-Hib vaccine (followed by monovalent hepatitis B vaccine [HBV]) and DTaP₃-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccines, both coadministered with PCV7, as a fourth-dose booster in toddlers 11-18 months who had a hexavalent vaccine primary series. The fever rate within 4 days of DTaP₅-IPV-Hib was noninferior to DTaP₃-HBV-IPV/Hib. DTaP₅-IPV-Hib induced a marked immune response and had a similar safety and immunogenicity profile compared with DTaP₃-HBV-IPV/Hib. Fully liquid DTaP₅-IPV-Hib can be used as a booster after a hexavalent vaccine primary series; where required, a fourth dose of monovalent HBV can be administered after DTaP₅-IPV-Hib (NCT ID: NCT00355654).

  10. The safety profile of Haemophilus influenzae type b–Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY)

    PubMed Central

    Rinderknecht, Stephen; Bryant, Kristina; Nolan, Terry; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Doniz, Carlos Aranza; Weber, Miguel Angel Rodriguez; Cohen, Christopher; Aris, Emmanuel; Mesaros, Narcisa; Miller, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    The safety profile of HibMenCY was compared with licensed Hib conjugate vaccines in a pooled analysis that included more than 8,500 subjects who were administered a four-dose series of HibMenCY or commercially available Hib vaccines at 2, 4, 6 and 12–15 mo of age in two primary vaccination and two fourth dose phase 3 studies. In all studies, HibMenCY or Hib vaccine was co-administered with age-appropriate, routinely recommended vaccines. In one primary and one fourth dose study (n = 4180), local and general symptoms were solicited using diary cards for 4 d after each dose. Serious adverse events (SAEs) and the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) indicating new onset of chronic disease (NOCD), rash, and conditions prompting Emergency Room (ER) visits were reported from dose 1 until 6 mo after dose 4. The incidences of solicited local and general symptoms were similar following HibMenCY and commercially available Hib vaccines. For some solicited symptoms (pain at the injection site and irritability), rates were lower in the HibMenCY group compared with the Hib control group (p value < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the incidences of SAEs, NOCDs, rash, or AEs leading to ER visits, with the exceptions of anemia and viral gastroenteritis, which occurred significantly less frequently in those receiving HibMenCY than those receiving commercially available Hib vaccines. In this pooled safety analysis, the safety profile of HibMenCY was similar to the safety profile of licensed monovalent Hib vaccines, despite the addition of meningococcal antigens.   These studies are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00345579 (primary vaccination study), NCT00345683 (fourth dose vaccination study) and NCT00289783 (primary and fourth dose vaccination studies) PMID:22327493

  11. Development of an alpha scattering instrument for heavy element detection in surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkevich, A. L.; Economou, T.; Blume, E.; Anderson, W.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of a portable instrument for detecting and measuring the amounts of lead in painted surfaces are discussed. The instrument is based on the ones used with the alpha scattering experiment on the Surveyor lunar missions. The principles underlying the instrument are described. It is stated that the performance tests of the instrument were satisfactory.

  12. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALPHA ELEMENTS IN ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Luis C.; Geha, Marla; Kirby, Evan N.; Simon, Joshua D.

    2013-04-20

    The Milky Way ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies contain some of the oldest, most metal-poor stars in the universe. We present [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and mean [{alpha}/Fe] abundance ratios for 61 individual red giant branch stars across eight UFDs. This is the largest sample of alpha abundances published to date in galaxies with absolute magnitudes M{sub V} > -8, including the first measurements for Segue 1, Canes Venatici II, Ursa Major I, and Leo T. Abundances were determined via medium-resolution Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy and spectral synthesis. The sample spans the metallicity range -3.4 <[Fe/H] < -1.1. With the possible exception of Segue 1 and Ursa Major II, the individual UFDs show on average lower [{alpha}/Fe] at higher metallicities, consistent with enrichment from Type Ia supernovae. Thus, even the faintest galaxies have undergone at least a limited level of chemical self-enrichment. Together with recent photometric studies, this suggests that star formation in the UFDs was not a single burst, but instead lasted at least as much as the minimum time delay of the onset of Type Ia supernovae ({approx}100 Myr) and less than {approx}2 Gyr. We further show that the combined population of UFDs has an [{alpha}/Fe] abundance pattern that is inconsistent with a flat, Galactic halo-like alpha abundance trend, and is also qualitatively different from that of the more luminous CVn I dSph, which does show a hint of a plateau at very low [Fe/H].

  13. Immune interaction between components of acellular pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus (DTaP) vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) conjugate vaccine in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Fatme; Dickinson, Robert; Douglas-Bardsley, Alexandra; Xing, Dorothy K L; Sesardic, Dorothea; Corbel, Michael J

    2006-04-24

    We have previously shown that, consistent with clinical trial results, the immune response to a Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) conjugate vaccine in a rat model was compromised and modulated when given combined with a DTaP3 vaccine, as compared to both vaccines given separately. The present study extended our investigation to evaluate the immunogenicity of all DTaP3 components in combined versus separate administration of Hib with DTaP3 and investigated immune interactions between Hib and individual components of DTaP3. Rats were immunised with Hib and DTaP3 or with Hib and individual DTaP3 components. Cellular and humoral immune responses to Hib and DTaP3 components were evaluated. Our results indicate that the immunogenicity of DTaP3 components was similar or greater in combined versus separate administration of Hib and DTaP3. Moreover, combined administration of Hib and TT reduced immunogenicity of both Hib and TT. Hib immunogenicity was also significantly reduced when given combined with FHA and following adsorption to Al(OH)3.

  14. Enhancer and promoter elements directing activation and glucocorticoid repression of the. cap alpha. /sub 1/-fetoprotein gene in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Guertin, M.; La Rue, H.; Bernier, D.; Wrange, O.; Chevrette, M.; Gingras, M.C.; Belanger, L.

    1988-04-01

    Mutations were introduced in 7 kilobases of 5'-flanking rat ..cap alpha../sub 1/-fetoprotein (AFP) genomic DNA, linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. AFP promoter activity and its repression by a glucocorticoid hormone were assessed by stable and transient expression assays. Stable transfection assays were more sensitive and accurate than transient expression assays in a Morris 7777 rat hepatoma recipient (Hepa7.6), selected for its strong AFP repression by dexamethasone. The segment of DNA encompassing a hepatocyte-constitutive chromatin DNase I-hypersensitive site at -3.7 kilobases and a liver developmental stage-specific site at -2.5 kilobases contains interacting enhancer elements sufficient for high AFP promoter activity in Hepa7.6 or HepG2 cells. Deletions and point mutations define an upstream promoter domain of AFP gene activation, operating with at least three distinct promoter-activating elements, PEI at -65 base pairs, PEII at -120 base pairs, and DE at -160 base pairs. PEI and PEII share homologies with albumin promoter sequences, PEII is a near-consensus nuclear factor I recognition sequence, and DE overlaps a glucocorticoid receptor recognition sequence. An element conferring glucocorticoid repression of AFP gene activity is located in the upstream AFP promoter domain. Receptor-binding assays indicate that this element is the glucocorticoid receptor recognition sequence which overlaps with promoter-activating element DE.

  15. Immunological persistence in 5 y olds previously vaccinated with hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib at 3, 5, and 11 months of age.

    PubMed

    Silfverdal, Sven A; Assudani, Deepak; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Van Der Meeren, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-poliomyelitis/Haemophilus influenza vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib: Infanrix™ hexa, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) is used for primary vaccination of infants in a range of schedules world-wide. Antibody persistence after 4 DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib doses in the first 2 y of life has been documented, but long-term persistence data following the 3, 5, 11-12 months (3-5-11) infant vaccination schedule, employed for example in Nordic countries, are limited. We assessed antibody persistence in 57 5-year-old children who had received either DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib or DTPa-IPV/Hib (Infanrix™-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) in the 3-5-11 schedule. Among DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib recipients, 7/12 retained seroprotective antibody concentrations for diphtheria, 10/12 for tetanus, 5/12 for hepatitis and 10/12 for Hib. Detectable antibodies were observed for 0/12 children for pertussis toxin (PT), 12/12 for filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) and 8/12 for pertactin (PRN). Among DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients, 28/45 retained seroprotective anti-diphtheria concentrations, 34/44 for tetanus and 40/45 for Hib. Detectable antibodies were observed for 9/45 children for PT, 41/45 for FHA and 34/45 for PRN. Antibody persistence in DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and DTPa-IPV/Hib-vaccinees appeared similar in 5 y olds to that previously observed in children of a similar age who had received 4 prior doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (or DTPa-IPV/Hib). As in subjects primed with 4 prior doses, we observed that antibodies markedly declined by 5 y of age, calling for the administration of a pre-school booster dose in order to ensure continued protection against pertussis.

  16. The Distribution of Alpha Elements in Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Luis C.; Geha, Marla; Kirby, Evan N.; Simon, Joshua D.

    2013-04-01

    The Milky Way ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies contain some of the oldest, most metal-poor stars in the universe. We present [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and mean [α/Fe] abundance ratios for 61 individual red giant branch stars across eight UFDs. This is the largest sample of alpha abundances published to date in galaxies with absolute magnitudes MV > -8, including the first measurements for Segue 1, Canes Venatici II, Ursa Major I, and Leo T. Abundances were determined via medium-resolution Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy and spectral synthesis. The sample spans the metallicity range -3.4 <[Fe/H] < -1.1. With the possible exception of Segue 1 and Ursa Major II, the individual UFDs show on average lower [α/Fe] at higher metallicities, consistent with enrichment from Type Ia supernovae. Thus, even the faintest galaxies have undergone at least a limited level of chemical self-enrichment. Together with recent photometric studies, this suggests that star formation in the UFDs was not a single burst, but instead lasted at least as much as the minimum time delay of the onset of Type Ia supernovae (~100 Myr) and less than ~2 Gyr. We further show that the combined population of UFDs has an [α/Fe] abundance pattern that is inconsistent with a flat, Galactic halo-like alpha abundance trend, and is also qualitatively different from that of the more luminous CVn I dSph, which does show a hint of a plateau at very low [Fe/H].

  17. Meningococcal groups C and Y and haemophilus B tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT; MenHibrix(®)): a review.

    PubMed

    Perry, Caroline M

    2013-05-01

    The meningococcal groups C and Y and Haemophilus b (Hib) tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT) contains Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C and Y capsular polysaccharide antigens, and Hib capsular polysaccharide [polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP)]. The HibMenCY-TT vaccine is available in the USA for use as active immunization to prevent invasive disease caused by N. meningitidis serogroups C (MenC) and Y (MenY), and Hib in children 6 weeks-18 months of age. HibMenCY-TT is the first meningococcal vaccine available for use in the USA that can be administered to infants as young as 6 weeks of age. In a randomized, controlled, phase III clinical trial, the HibMenCY-TT vaccine, administered to infants at 2, 4, 6 and 12-15 months of age, was immunogenic against MenC and MenY, and met the prespecified criteria for immunogenicity. Anti-PRP antibodies, which have been shown to correlate with protection against Hib invasive disease, were also induced in the infants who received the HibMenCY-TT vaccine, with induced levels of this antibody noninferior to those occurring in the control group of infants who received a Hib tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months and a single dose of Hib conjugated to N. meningitidis outer membrane protein at 12-15 months. In several randomized, controlled clinical trials, HibMenCY-TT was coadministered with vaccines that are routinely administered to infants and toddlers in the USA. These vaccines included: diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed, hepatitis B (recombinant) and inactivated poliovirus vaccine combined; 7-valent Streptococcus pneumoniae polysaccharide conjugate vaccine; measles, mumps and rubella vaccine; and varicella vaccine. Coadministration of these vaccines did not interfere with the immunogenicity of the HibMenCY-TT vaccine. Similarly, immune responses to the coadministered vaccines were not affected by the HibMenCY-TT vaccine. The tolerability profile of the Hib

  18. Identification of negative-acting and protein-binding elements in the mouse alpha A-crystallin -1556/-1165 region.

    PubMed

    Sax, C M; Cvekl, A; Kantorow, M; Sommer, B; Chepelinsky, A B; Piatigorsky, J

    1994-07-08

    The mouse alpha A-crystallin-encoding gene (alpha A-cry) is expressed in a highly lens-preferred manner. To date, it has been shown that this lens-preferred expression is controlled by four proximal positive-acting transcriptional regulatory elements: DE1 (-111/-97), alpha A-CRYBP1 (-66/-57), PE1/TATA (-35/-19) and PE2 (+24/+43). The present study extends our knowledge of mouse alpha A-cry transcriptional regulatory elements to the far upstream region of that gene by demonstrating that the -1556 to -1165 region contains negative-acting sequence elements which function in transfected lens cells derived from mouse, rabbit and chicken. This is the first negative-acting regulatory region identified in mouse alpha A-cry. The -1556 to -1165 region contains sequences similar to repressor/silencer elements identified in other genes, including those highly expressed in the lens, such as the delta 1-crystallin (delta 1-cry) and vimentin (vim) genes. The -1480 to -1401 region specifically interacts with nuclear proteins isolated from the alpha TN4-1 mouse lens cell line. Contained within this protein-binding region and positioned at -1453 to -1444 is a sequence (RS1) similar to the chicken delta 1-cry intron 3 repressor, and which competes for the formation of -1480 to -1401 DNA-protein complexes. Our findings suggest that lens nuclear proteins bind to the mouse alpha A-cry RS1 region. We demonstrate that the chicken delta 1-cry intron repressor binds similar nuclear proteins in chicken embryonic lens cells and mouse alpha TN4-1 lens cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Transcriptional regulation by activation and repression elements located at the 5'-noncoding region of the human alpha9 nicotinic receptor subunit gene.

    PubMed

    Valor, Luis M; Castillo, Mar; Ortiz, José A; Criado, Manuel

    2003-09-26

    The alpha9 subunit is a component of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene superfamily that is expressed in very restricted locations. The promoter of the human gene has been analyzed in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y, where alpha9 subunit expression was detected, and in C2C12 cells that do not express alpha9. A proximal promoter region (from -322 to +113) showed maximal transcriptional activity in SH-SY5Y cells, whereas its activity in C1C12 cells was much lower. Two elements unusually located at the 5'-noncoding region exhibited opposite roles. A negative element located between +15 and +48 appears to be cell-specific because it was effective in C2C12 but not in SH-SY5Y cells, where it was counterbalanced by the presence of the promoter region 5' to the initiation site. An activating element located between +66 and +79 and formed by two adjacent Sox boxes increased the activity of the alpha9 promoter about 4-fold and was even able to activate other promoters. This element interacts with Sox proteins, probably through a cooperative mechanism in which the two Sox boxes are necessary. We propose that the Sox complex provides an initial scaffold that facilitates the recruiting of the transcriptional machinery responsible for alpha9 subunit expression.

  20. THE DETAILED CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF M31 STAR CLUSTERS. I. Fe, ALPHA AND LIGHT ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Cohen, Judith G.

    2014-12-20

    We present ages, [Fe/H] and abundances of the α elements Ca I, Si I, Ti I, Ti II, and light elements Mg I, Na I, and Al I for 31 globular clusters (GCs) in M31, which were obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio >60 echelle spectra of their integrated light (IL). All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution IL abundance analysis of GCs. This sample provides a never before seen picture of the chemical history of M31. The GCs are dispersed throughout the inner and outer halo, from 2.5 kpc < R {sub M31} < 117 kpc. We find a range of [Fe/H] within 20 kpc of the center of M31, and a constant [Fe/H] ∼ – 1.6 for the outer halo clusters. We find evidence for at least one massive GC in M31 with an age between 1 and 5 Gyr. The α-element ratios are generally similar to the Milky Way GC and field star ratios. We also find chemical evidence for a late-time accretion origin for at least one cluster, which has a different abundance pattern than other clusters at similar metallicity. We find evidence for star-to-star abundance variations in Mg, Na, and Al in the GCs in our sample, and find correlations of Ca, Mg, Na, and possibly Al abundance ratios with cluster luminosity and velocity dispersion, which can potentially be used to constrain GC self-enrichment scenarios. Data presented here were obtained with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck I telescope.

  1. The Detailed Chemical Properties of M31 Star Clusters. I. Fe, Alpha and Light Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Cohen, Judith G.

    2014-12-01

    We present ages, [Fe/H] and abundances of the α elements Ca I, Si I, Ti I, Ti II, and light elements Mg I, Na I, and Al I for 31 globular clusters (GCs) in M31, which were obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio >60 echelle spectra of their integrated light (IL). All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution IL abundance analysis of GCs. This sample provides a never before seen picture of the chemical history of M31. The GCs are dispersed throughout the inner and outer halo, from 2.5 kpc < R M31 < 117 kpc. We find a range of [Fe/H] within 20 kpc of the center of M31, and a constant [Fe/H] ~ - 1.6 for the outer halo clusters. We find evidence for at least one massive GC in M31 with an age between 1 and 5 Gyr. The α-element ratios are generally similar to the Milky Way GC and field star ratios. We also find chemical evidence for a late-time accretion origin for at least one cluster, which has a different abundance pattern than other clusters at similar metallicity. We find evidence for star-to-star abundance variations in Mg, Na, and Al in the GCs in our sample, and find correlations of Ca, Mg, Na, and possibly Al abundance ratios with cluster luminosity and velocity dispersion, which can potentially be used to constrain GC self-enrichment scenarios. Data presented here were obtained with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck I telescope. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  2. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis toxoids combined with inactivated polio vaccine, when administered concomitantly with or as a diluent for a Hib conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Knutsson, N; Trollfors, B; Taranger, J; Bergfors, E; Sundh, V; Lagergård, T; Ostergaard, E; Cicirello, H; Käyhty, H

    2001-08-14

    In an open trial, 400 infants were randomized to vaccination with a combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio vaccine (DTaP-IPV) either mixed with a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) tetanus toxoid conjugate immediately before injection (DTaP-IPV/Hib (mix)) or given concurrently with the Hib conjugate at separate injection sites (DTaP-IPV+Hib (sep)). The pertussis component consisted of pertussis toxoid alone. The vaccines were given intramuscularly at 3, 5 and 12 months of age. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. Local reactions were evaluated from diary cards completed by the parents. Infants who received DTaP-IPV/Hib (mix) experienced fewer local reactions. Sera were obtained 28-45 days after the second and third vaccinations. Total Hib capsular antibodies were similar in the two groups after the second injection but lower in the group receiving DTaP-IPV/Hib (mix) than in the group receiving DTaP-IPV+Hib (sep) after the third injection (geometric mean 6.1 vs 10.4 microg/ml). Mixing of the vaccines also led to somewhat lower diphtheria toxin antibodies (5.9 vs. 7.7 IU/ml after the third injection) while tetanus antibodies were higher (3.9 vs. 2.5 IU/ml after the third injection). Antibodies against pertussis toxin and the three polio virus types were similar in the two groups. The moderate impairment of the Hib antibody response caused by mixing of the Hib conjugate with aluminium adsorbed DTaP may be due to physicochemical interference but is probably of little clinical importance because of the ability of the Hib conjugates to induce an immunologic memory.

  3. Light, alpha, and Fe-peak element abundances in the galactic bulge

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Kunder, Andrea; Koch, Andreas E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: akunder@aip.de

    2014-10-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu for a sample of 156 red giant branch stars in two Galactic bulge fields centered near (l, b) = (+5.25,–3.02) and (0,–12). The (+5.25,–3.02) field also includes observations of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553. The results are based on high-resolution (R ∼ 20,000), high signal-to-noise ration (S/N ≳ 70) FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectra obtained through the European Southern Observatory archive. However, we only selected a subset of the original observations that included spectra with both high S/N and that did not show strong TiO absorption bands. This work extends previous analyses of this data set beyond Fe and the α-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti. While we find reasonable agreement with past work, the data presented here indicate that the bulge may exhibit a different chemical composition than the local thick disk, especially at [Fe/H] ≳ –0.5. In particular, the bulge [α/Fe] ratios may remain enhanced to a slightly higher [Fe/H] than the thick disk, and the Fe-peak elements Co, Ni, and Cu appear enhanced compared to the disk. There is also some evidence that the [Na/Fe] (but not [Al/Fe]) trends between the bulge and local disk may be different at low and high metallicity. We also find that the velocity dispersion decreases as a function of increasing [Fe/H] for both fields, and do not detect any significant cold, high-velocity populations. A comparison with chemical enrichment models indicates that a significant fraction of hypernovae may be required to explain the bulge abundance trends, and that initial mass functions that are steep, top-heavy (and do not include strong outflow), or truncated to avoid including contributions from stars >40 M {sub ☉} are ruled out, in particular because of disagreement with the Fe-peak abundance data. For most elements, the NGC 6553 stars exhibit abundance trends nearly identical to comparable metallicity bulge field

  4. Light, Alpha, and Fe-peak Element Abundances in the Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Kunder, Andrea; Koch, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu for a sample of 156 red giant branch stars in two Galactic bulge fields centered near (l, b) = (+5.25,-3.02) and (0,-12). The (+5.25,-3.02) field also includes observations of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553. The results are based on high-resolution (R ~ 20,000), high signal-to-noise ration (S/N >~ 70) FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectra obtained through the European Southern Observatory archive. However, we only selected a subset of the original observations that included spectra with both high S/N and that did not show strong TiO absorption bands. This work extends previous analyses of this data set beyond Fe and the α-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti. While we find reasonable agreement with past work, the data presented here indicate that the bulge may exhibit a different chemical composition than the local thick disk, especially at [Fe/H] >~ -0.5. In particular, the bulge [α/Fe] ratios may remain enhanced to a slightly higher [Fe/H] than the thick disk, and the Fe-peak elements Co, Ni, and Cu appear enhanced compared to the disk. There is also some evidence that the [Na/Fe] (but not [Al/Fe]) trends between the bulge and local disk may be different at low and high metallicity. We also find that the velocity dispersion decreases as a function of increasing [Fe/H] for both fields, and do not detect any significant cold, high-velocity populations. A comparison with chemical enrichment models indicates that a significant fraction of hypernovae may be required to explain the bulge abundance trends, and that initial mass functions that are steep, top-heavy (and do not include strong outflow), or truncated to avoid including contributions from stars >40 M ⊙ are ruled out, in particular because of disagreement with the Fe-peak abundance data. For most elements, the NGC 6553 stars exhibit abundance trends nearly identical to comparable metallicity bulge field stars. However, the

  5. Microglial production of TNF-alpha is a key element of sustained fear memory.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiqian; Fukushima, Hotaka; Ono, Chiaki; Sakai, Mai; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshie; Gunawansa, Nicole; Takahashi, Yuta; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Kida, Satoshi; Tomita, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine productions in the brain are altered in a process of fear memory formation, indicating a possibility that altered microglial function may contribute to fear memory formation. We aimed to investigate whether and how microglial function contributes to fear memory formation. Expression levels of M1- and M2-type microglial marker molecules in microglia isolated from each conditioned mice group were assessed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but not of other proinflammatory cytokines produced by M1-type microglia, increased in microglia from mice representing retention of fear memory, and returned to basal levels in microglia from mice representing extinction of fear memory. Administration of inhibitors of TNF-α production facilitated extinction of fear memory. On the other hand, expression levels of M2-type microglia-specific cell adhesion molecules, CD206 and CD209, were decreased in microglia from mice representing retention of fear memory, and returned to basal levels in microglia from mice representing extinction of fear memory. Our findings indicate that microglial TNF-α is a key element of sustained fear memory and suggest that TNF-α inhibitors can be candidate molecules for mitigating posttraumatic reactions caused by persistent fear memory.

  6. Cyclic AMP regulation of the human glycoprotein hormone. cap alpha. -subunit gene is mediated by an 18-base-pair element

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, B.J.; Bokar, J.A.; Virgin, J.B.; Vallen, E.A.; Milsted, A.; Nilson, J.H.

    1987-04-01

    cAMP regulates transcription of the gene encoding the ..cap alpha..-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the choriocarcinoma cells (BeWo). To define the sequences required for regulation by cAMP, the authors inserted fragments from the 5' flanking region of the ..cap alpha..-subunit gene into a test vector containing the simian virus 40 early promoter (devoid of its enhancer) linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. Results from transient expression assays in BeWo cells indicated that a 1500-base-pair (bp) fragment conferred cAMP responsiveness on the CAT gene regardless of position or orientation of the insert relative to the viral promoter. A subfragment extending from position -169 to position -100 had the same effect on cAMP-induced expression. Furthermore, the entire stimulatory effect could be achieved with an 18-bp synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide corresponding to a direct repeat between position -146 and -111. In the absence of cAMP, the ..cap alpha..-subunit 5' flanking sequence also enhanced transcription from the simian virus 40 early promoter. They localized this enhancer activity to the same -169/-100 fragment containing the cAMP response element. The 18-bp element alone, however, had no effect on basal expression. Thus, this short DNA sequence serves as a cAMP response element and also functions independently of other promoter-regulatory elements located in the 5' flanking sequence of the ..cap alpha..-subunit gene.

  7. Estradiol reduces nonclassical transcription at cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response elements in glioma cells expressing estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Mhyre, Andrew J; Shapiro, Robert A; Dorsa, Daniel M

    2006-04-01

    Estradiol can protect the brain from a variety of insults by activating membrane-initiated signaling pathways, and thereby modulate gene expression and lead to functional changes in neurons. These direct neuronal effects of the hormone have been well documented; however, it is less understood what effects estradiol may have on nonneuronal cells of the central nervous system. There is evidence that estradiol levels can induce the release of glial-derived growth factors and other cytokines, suggesting that estradiol may both directly and indirectly protect neurons. To determine whether 17beta-estradiol (E2) can activate rapid signaling and modulate nonclassical transcription in astrocytes, we stably transfected the C6 rat glioblastoma cell line with human estrogen receptor (ER) alpha (C6ERalpha) or rat ERbeta (C6ERbeta). Introduction of a cAMP response element-luciferase reporter gene into C6, C6ERalpha, and C6ERbeta cells leads to the observation that E2 treatment reduced isoproterenol-stimulated luciferase activity by 35% in C6ERalpha but had no effect on reporter gene expression in C6ERbeta or untransfected C6 cells. A similar effect was seen with a membrane-impermeable estrogen (E2-BSA), suggesting the modulation of nonclassical transcription by estradiol treatment is mediated by the activation of a membrane-initiated signaling pathway. Furthermore, pretreatment with wortmannin (phosphatidylinsositol 3-kinase) or U73122 (phospholipase C) attenuated the E2-induced reduction in nonclassical transcription. We conclude that E2 treatment reduces cAMP response element-mediated transcription in glioma cells expressing ERalpha and that this reduction is dependent on the activation of membrane-initiated signaling. These findings suggest a novel model of estrogen rapid signaling in astrocytes that leads to modulation of nonclassical transcription.

  8. The activity of interleukin-4 receptor alpha-chain promoter is regulated by a GT box element.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Beatriz; Martín-Saavedra, Francisco M; Jerez, María J; Ballester, Sara

    2006-04-01

    Interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) is the cell surface complex through which interleukin-4 (IL-4) signals exert its critical biological effects. The alpha-chain of IL-4R is responsible for the high affinity binding of IL-4. In this report, is characterized, the 5' untranslated flanking region of murine IL-4Ralpha gene in the Th2 clone D10.G4.1. We have analyzed a DNA fragment spanning from -995 to +84 relative to the transcription start point. Mutagenesis analysis shows that, neither the previously described Stat6 (-395) nor the NFAT (-266) and NFkappaB (+25) sequences localized here, are involved in the IL-4Ralpha promoter activity. Reporter assays demonstrate that maximum transcriptional activity is achieved by the -89 to +84 sequence and this activity is independent of a TATA-like box located at -25. We have identified a GT box located at -45 as the critical element for the IL-4Ralpha promoter activity. Experiments in SL2 cells, which lack endogenous Sp proteins, show that IL-4Ralpha minimal promoter is transactivated by proteins of Sp family.

  9. Negative regulatory elements upstream of a novel exon of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 2 subunit gene.

    PubMed Central

    Bessis, A; Savatier, N; Devillers-Thiéry, A; Bejanin, S; Changeux, J P

    1993-01-01

    The expression of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 2 subunit gene is highly restricted to the Spiriform lateralis nucleus of the Chick diencephalon. As a first step toward understanding the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation, we have investigated the structural and regulatory properties of the 5' sequence of this gene. A strategy based on the ligation of an oligonucleotide to the first strand of the cDNA (SLIC) followed by PCR amplification was used. A new exon was found approximately 3kb upstream from the first coding exon, and multiple transcription start sites of the gene were mapped. Analysis of the flanking region shows many consensus sequences for the binding of nuclear proteins, suggesting that the 1 kb flanking region contains at least a portion of the promoter of the gene. We have analysed the negative regulatory elements present within this region and found that a silencer region located between nucleotide -144 and +76 is active in fibroblasts as well as in neurons. This silencer is composed of six tandem repeat Oct-like motifs (CCCCATGCAAT), but does not bind any member of the Oct family. Moreover these motifs were found to act as a silencer only when they were tandemly repeated. When two, four or five motifs were deleted, the silencer activity of the motifs unexpectedly became an enhancer activity in all cells we have tested. Images PMID:8502560

  10. Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB)-conjugate immunization before bone marrow harvest in autologous bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Molrine, D C; Guinan, E C; Antin, J H; Wheeler, C; Parsons, S K; Weinstein, H J; McGarigle, C; Blanding, P; Phillips, N R; Ciamarra, A; George, S; Ambrosino, D M

    1996-06-01

    Immune reconstitution following autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) is characterized by defects in B cell and T cell function and loss of specific antibody. In the late post-transplant period, patients are at risk for infections with polysaccharide encapsulated organisms and respond poorly to polysaccharide vaccines. We examined whether immunizing ABMT patients before bone marrow (BM) harvest enhanced the early recovery of specific antibody. Twelve patients were immunized before BM harvest with Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB)-conjugate, tetanus toxoid and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines. Forty-one comparable ABMT patients not immunized prior to BM harvest were also studied. Following ABMT, both groups of patients were immunized with HIB-conjugate and tetanus toxoid vaccines at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months and with pneumococcal vaccine at 12 and 24 months. Patients immunized before BM harvest had higher HIB antibody concentrations during the first 2 years post-transplant, the differences reaching significance at 3 months (P = 0.0001) and following the 24-month dose (P = 0.048). Tetanus toxoid antibody concentrations were also significantly higher at 3 months (P = 0.001) and 6 months (P = 0.032) in patients immunized before BM harvest. There were no differences in pneumococcal antibody concentrations between the two groups. Immunization of patients before bone marrow harvest resulted in higher anti-HIB antibody concentrations following ABMT and may be an effective strategy to prevent infectious complications.

  11. Estrogen-mediated regulation of Igf1 transcription and uterine growth involves direct binding of estrogen receptor alpha to estrogen-responsive elements.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Sylvia C; Li, Yin; Li, Leping; Korach, Kenneth S

    2010-01-22

    Estrogen enables uterine proliferation, which depends on synthesis of the IGF1 growth factor. This proliferation and IGF1 synthesis requires the estrogen receptor (ER), which binds directly to target DNA sequences (estrogen-responsive elements or EREs), or interacts with other transcription factors, such as AP1, to impact transcription. We observe neither uterine growth nor an increase in Igf1 transcript in a mouse with a DNA-binding mutated ER alpha (KIKO), indicating that both Igf1 regulation and uterine proliferation require the DNA binding function of the ER. We identified several potential EREs in the Igf1 gene, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed ER alpha binding to these EREs in wild type but not KIKO chromatin. STAT5 is also reported to regulate Igf1; uterine Stat5a transcript is increased by estradiol (E(2)), but not in KIKO or alpha ERKO uteri, indicating ER alpha- and ERE-dependent regulation. ER alpha binds to a potential Stat5a ERE. We hypothesize that E(2) increases Stat5a transcript through ERE binding; that ER alpha, either alone or together with STAT5, then acts to increase Igf1 transcription; and that the resulting lack of IGF1 impairs KIKO uterine growth. Treatment with exogenous IGF1, alone or in combination with E(2), induces proliferation in wild type but not KIKO uteri, indicating that IGF1 replacement does not rescue the KIKO proliferative response. Together, these observations suggest in contrast to previous in vitro studies of IGF-1 regulation involving AP1 motifs that direct ER alpha-DNA interaction is required to increase Igf1 transcription. Additionally, full ER alpha function is needed to mediate other cellular signals of the growth factor for uterine growth.

  12. T cell receptor gene usage in the response to lambda repressor cI protein. An apparent bias in the usage of a V alpha gene element

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The T cell response to the lambda repressor cI protein is directed to the same region of the protein (residues 12-26) in both BALB/c and A/J mice. A panel of T cell hybridomas specific for P12-26 in the context of either I-Ek or I-Ad have been isolated To further understand the molecular interaction between the TCR and the Ia-P12-26 complex, the primary structures of the TCR of five T cell hybridomas have been determined. Southern and Northern analyses indicate that two members of the V alpha 3 gene family are used by 13 out of 14 I-Ek-restricted T cells. Four different V beta genes are used by these T cell hybridomas, while the majority (8 out of 13) express V beta 1 in combination with the J beta 2.1 element. No clear correlation can be seen in this system between gene usage and MHC restriction. In addition, the fine specificity of I-Ek-restricted T cells to a single amino acid substitution [Phe22/His22]P12-26 is not attributed to the usage of particular V alpha and V beta elements. The V alpha 3 family gene is also used by a few I-Ad-restricted T cells. Interestingly, these I-Ad T cells share a reactivity pattern more similar to that of I-Ek- restricted T cells than other I-Ad-restricted T cells. The nonrandom selection V alpha 3 is also demonstrated by the fact that V alpha 3 is used by P12-26-specific, but not by cytochrome c- or staphylococcal nucleus-specific, I-Ek-restricted T cells. This suggests that although antigen specificity may not be accounted for by either chain of the TCR, the members of V alpha 3 genes may be selected by the antigen (P12- 26). PMID:2971753

  13. THE LATTICE PARAMETERS AND SOLUBILITY LIMITS OF ALPHA IRON AS AFFECTED BY SOME BINARY TRANSITION-ELEMENT ADDITIONS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The lattice parameters of alpha iron with binary additions of all the transition metals, except technetium, have been accurately determined on solid...samples. No direct correlation with solute size is observed, but an effect of electron configuration is noted. The solubility limits of alpha iron with

  14. Transcriptional regulation of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene: activation dependent on a cyclic AMP-responsive element (DE1/CRE) and a Pax-6-binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Cvekl, A; Kashanchi, F; Sax, C M; Brady, J N; Piatigorsky, J

    1995-01-01

    Two cis-acting promoter elements (-108 to -100 and -49 to -33) of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene, which is highly expressed in the ocular lens, were studied. Here we show that DE1 (-108 to -100; 5'TGACGGTG3'), which resembles the consensus cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive element sequence (CRE; 5'TGACGT[A/C][A/G]3'), behaves like a functional CRE site. Transfection experiments and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) using site-specific mutations correlated a loss of function with deviations from the CRE consensus sequence. Results of EMSAs in the presence of antisera against CREB, delta CREB, and CREM were consistent with the binding of CREB-like proteins to the DE1 sequence. Stimulation of alpha A-crystallin promoter activity via 8-bromo-cAMP, forskolin, or human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax1 in transfections and reduction of activity of this site in cell-free transcription tests by competition with the somatostatin CRE supported the idea that DE1 is a functional CRE. Finally, Pax-6, a member of the paired-box family of transcription factors, activated the mouse alpha A-crystallin promoter in cotransfected COP-8 fibroblasts and bound to the -59 to -29 promoter sequence in EMSAs. These data provide evidence for a synergistic role of Pax-6 and CREB-like proteins for high expression of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene in the lens. PMID:7823934

  15. Identification of TIAR as a protein binding to the translational regulatory AU-rich element of tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA.

    PubMed

    Gueydan, C; Droogmans, L; Chalon, P; Huez, G; Caput, D; Kruys, V

    1999-01-22

    In monocyte/macrophages, the translation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA is tightly regulated. In unstimulated cells, translation of TNF-alpha mRNA is blocked. Upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharides, this repression is overcome, and the mRNA becomes efficiently translated. The key element in this regulation is the AU-rich element (ARE). We have previously reported the binding of two cytosolic protein complexes to the TNF-alpha mRNA ARE. One of these complexes (complex 1) forms with extracts of both unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and requires a large fragment of the ARE containing clustered AUUUA pentamers. The other complex (complex 2) is only detected after cell activation, binds to a minimal UUAUUUAUU nonamer, and is composed of a 55-kDa protein. Here, we report the identification of the RNA-binding protein TIAR as a protein involved in complex 1. The RNA sequence bound by TIAR and the cytoplasmic localization of this protein in macrophages argue for an involvement of TIAR in TNF mRNA posttranscriptional regulation.

  16. DNA sequence analysis of a mouse pro alpha 1 (I) procollagen gene: evidence for a mouse B1 element within the gene.

    PubMed Central

    Monson, J M; Friedman, J; McCarthy, B J

    1982-01-01

    In a 3.8-kilobase mouse DNA sequence encoding amino acid sequences for the pro alpha 1(I) chain of type I procollagen, 14 coding sequences were identified which specify a sequence 95% homologous to amino acid residues 568 to 963 of the bovine alpha 1(I) chain. All of these coding sequences were flanked by appropriate splice junctions following the GT/AG rule. These observations suggest, but do not prove, that this pro alpha 1(I) gene is transcriptionally active. Of the 14 coding sequences, 7 were 54 base pairs in length, whereas the remainder were higher multiples of 54 base pairs. Nonrandom utilization of codons pertained throughout all of the coding sequences showing a preference (56%) for U in the wobble position. Two of the intervening sequences encoded imperfect vestiges of coding sequences which exhibited a codon preference different from that of the pro alpha 1(I) gene proper and were not flanked by splice junctions. One intervening sequence encoded a member of the mouse B1 family of middle repetitive sequences. It was flanked by 8-base-pair direct repeats and had a truncated A-rich region, suggesting that it may be a mobile element. Within this element were sequences which could function as a RNA polymerase III split promoter. Images PMID:6298597

  17. Elemental Analysis of the Surface of Comet 67p/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer APXS on the Rosetta Lander Philae: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingelhoefer, G.; Schmanke, D.; Girones-Lopez, J.; Brueckner, J.; d'Uston, C.; Economou, T.; Gellert, R.; Markovski, C.

    2014-12-01

    After a 10 years cruise the Rosetta probe has reached its final target, the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The main objectives of the mission are to gain more knowledge of the composition, the origin and formation of comets and the solar system. After extensive remote exploration of the comet the lander Philae will be separated to land on the comet surface, starting immediately examining its landing site with its scientific payload. Part of this payload is the APXS (Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer). It will measure in situ the chemical composition of the comet's surface and it's changes during the journey of the comet towards the sun. APXS is a combination of two spectrometers in one single instrument. It will irradiate the comet surface using Curium 244 sources, which are emitting alpha-particle and X-rays. In the alpha-mode the instrument uses alpha backscattering spectroscopy to detect lower Z elements like C, N and O and groups of elements with higher Z. In the X-ray mode alpha particle / X-ray induced X-ray spectroscopy (XRF) will allow the detection of most of the higher Z elements from Na up to Ni and above. Both modes will be always run in parallel allowing to determine lower and higher Z elements simultaneously. For 3 years the solar powered Rosetta probe had to pass a hibernation phase because of a long passage far away to the sun. After wakeup in January 2014 an extensive test phase of all instruments and subsystems has been performed, including the APXS. After landing on the comet an intense initial measurement phase of all instruments is planned, the First Science Sequence (FSS). It will be followed by a long term science phase (LTS). As long as possible APXS and the other instruments will continue to measure and monitor the changes and increasing activity of the comet during its journey towards the inner region of the solar system.The project is funded by the German Space Agency DLR under contracts 50 QP 0404 and 50 QP 0902. References: G

  18. Atom-at-a-time radiochemical separations of the heaviest elements: Lawrencium chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.; Henderson, R.A.; Gregorich, K.E.; Bennett, D.A.; Chasteler, R.M.; Gannett, C.M.; Hall, H.L.; Lee, D.M.; Nurmia, M.J.; Silva, R.J.

    1987-04-01

    The isotope /sup 260/Lr produced in reactions of /sup 18/O with /sup 249/Bk was used to perform chemical experiments on lawrencium to learn more about its chemical properties. These experiments involved extractions with thenoyl trifluoroacetate (TTA), ammonium alpha-hydroxyisobutyrate (HIB) elution from a cation exchange resin column, and reverse-phase chromatography using hydrogen di(2-ethylhexyl)orthophosphoric acid (HDEHP) to investigate the chemical properties of Lr. The results from the HIB elutions also give information about the ionic radius of Lr(III) which was found to elute very close to Er. An attempt to reduce Lr(III) was also made.

  19. Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements of gastrointestinal type associated with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level: an unusual case and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Mariana; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Marques, Rita Canas; Félix, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the case of a 19-year-old woman with a poorly differentiated ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and an elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level. The patient presented with diffuse abdominal pain and bloating. Physical examination, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right ovarian tumor that was histopathologically diagnosed as a poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements. Her alpha-fetoprotein serum level was undetectable after tumor resection. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that account for 0.5% of all ovarian neoplasms. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors tend to be unilateral and occur in women under 30 years of age. Although they are the most common virilizing tumor of the ovary, about 60% are endocrine-inactive tumors. Elevated serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein are rarely associated with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, with only approximately 30 such cases previously reported in the literature. The differential diagnosis should include common alpha-fetoprotein-producing ovarian entities such as germ cell tumors, as well as other non-germ cell tumors that have been rarely reported to produce this tumor marker. PMID:25926909

  20. Fully liquid DTaP-IPV-Hib pediatric combination vaccine (Pediacel): a review of 18 years of clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Donna L; Vidor, Emmanuel

    2014-08-01

    Safe and effective combination pediatric vaccines are necessary to simplify complex immunization schedules and to improve coverage and protection for children worldwide. We provide an overview of the 18 years of clinical and worldwide experience with DTaP-IPV-Hib (Pediacel(®)), a unique fully liquid pentavalent vaccine (diphtheria [D], tetanus [T], acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus [IPV], Haemophilus influenzae type b [Hib]). Pediacel has demonstrated good and lasting immunogenicity in many populations, with differing primary series and booster schedules, and with a variety of coadministered vaccines. The acellular pertussis antigens have proven efficacy and real-world effectiveness. Clinical and post-marketing studies confirm the safety of Pediacel. Pediacel can be used for primary series and toddler booster doses, as well as in mixed pediatric vaccine schedules.

  1. In Vitro Selection of Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Elements against S. aureus Alpha Toxin and Sensitive Detection in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ka L.; Battistella, Luisa; Salva, Alysia D.; Williams, Ryan M.; Sooter, Letha J.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha toxin is one of the major virulence factors secreted by Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium that is responsible for a wide variety of infections in both community and hospital settings. Due to the prevalence of S. aureus related infections and the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, rapid and accurate diagnosis of S. aureus infections is crucial in benefiting patient health outcomes. In this study, a rigorous Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) variant previously developed by our laboratory was utilized to select a single-stranded DNA molecular recognition element (MRE) targeting alpha toxin with high affinity and specificity. At the end of the 12-round selection, the selected MRE had an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 93.7 ± 7.0 nM. Additionally, a modified sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed by using the selected ssDNA MRE as the toxin-capturing element and a sensitive detection of 200 nM alpha toxin in undiluted human serum samples was achieved. PMID:25633102

  2. Immunogenicity and safety of 3-dose primary vaccination with combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib in Indian infants

    PubMed Central

    Lalwani, Sanjay K.; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Mahantashetti, Niranjana S.; Malshe, Nandini; Agarkhedkar, Shalaka; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Mehta, Shailesh; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multivalent combination vaccines have reduced the number of injections and therefore improved vaccine acceptance, timeliness of administration and global coverage. The hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus/Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib; Infanrix hexa™) vaccine, administered according to various schedules, is widely used for the primary vaccination of infants worldwide. In the current publication, we are presenting the immunogenicity and safety of 3 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine when administered to Indian infants. 224 healthy infants (mean age 6.8 weeks) were vaccinated at 6–10–14 weeks (W) of age (n = 112) or 2–4–6 months (M) of age (n = 112). One month after the third vaccine dose, the seroprotection/seropositivity status against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, hepatitis B and Hib antigens ranged from 98.6% to 100% in both groups. The vaccine response rate to the pertussis antigens ranged from 97% to 100%. Pain (6–10–14W group: 25.2%; 2–4–6M group: 13.4%) and fever (15.3% and; 15.2%, respectively) were the most frequently reported solicited local and general symptoms. Unsolicited adverse events were reported for 35.7% (6–10–14W group) and 22.3% (2–4–6M group) of subjects. No vaccine related serious adverse events were reported. In conclusion, the hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine was immunogenic and well tolerated, irrespective of the dosing schedule. PMID:27629913

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of 3-dose primary vaccination with combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib in Indian infants.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, Sanjay K; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Mahantashetti, Niranjana S; Malshe, Nandini; Agarkhedkar, Shalaka; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Mehta, Shailesh; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2017-01-02

    Multivalent combination vaccines have reduced the number of injections and therefore improved vaccine acceptance, timeliness of administration and global coverage. The hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus/Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib; Infanrix hexa™) vaccine, administered according to various schedules, is widely used for the primary vaccination of infants worldwide. In the current publication, we are presenting the immunogenicity and safety of 3 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine when administered to Indian infants. 224 healthy infants (mean age 6.8 weeks) were vaccinated at 6-10-14 weeks (W) of age (n = 112) or 2-4-6 months (M) of age (n = 112). One month after the third vaccine dose, the seroprotection/seropositivity status against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, hepatitis B and Hib antigens ranged from 98.6% to 100% in both groups. The vaccine response rate to the pertussis antigens ranged from 97% to 100%. Pain (6-10-14W group: 25.2%; 2-4-6M group: 13.4%) and fever (15.3% and; 15.2%, respectively) were the most frequently reported solicited local and general symptoms. Unsolicited adverse events were reported for 35.7% (6-10-14W group) and 22.3% (2-4-6M group) of subjects. No vaccine related serious adverse events were reported. In conclusion, the hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine was immunogenic and well tolerated, irrespective of the dosing schedule.

  4. DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib Vaccine (Infanrix hexa): A Review of its Use as Primary and Booster Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Sohita

    2010-05-28

    Infanrix hexa, administered intramuscularly, is a diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B (HBV), inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, indicated for primary and booster vaccination of infants. Infanrix hexa should be administered as a two- or three-dose primary vaccination course in infants aged Hib vaccines. In large clinical studies, Infanrix hexa elicited a strong immune response against vaccine toxoids/antigens, as indicated by high seroprotection/seropositivity/vaccine response rates and geometric mean titres. Moreover, antibodies against vaccine toxoids/antigens persisted for up to a mean of approximately 6 years after booster vaccination, and the vaccine induced long-term immune memory against hepatitis B surface antigen and Hib antigen. A strong immune response against Infanrix hexa toxoids/antigens after primary vaccination was also induced in infants who had received a dose of HBV vaccine at birth and in pre-term infants, although the response in the latter group was somewhat lower than that in full-term infants. In addition, when coadministered with other childhood vaccines, the immunogenicity of Infanrix hexa or that of the concomitantly administered vaccine was generally not altered. Hexavalent vaccines

  5. Expression of the human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) gene under control of the 5'-regulatory sequence of the goat alpha-S1-casein gene with and without a MAR element in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Burkov, I A; Serova, I A; Battulin, N R; Smirnov, A V; Babkin, I V; Andreeva, L E; Dvoryanchikov, G A; Serov, O L

    2013-10-01

    Expression of the human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) gene under the control of the 5'-regulatory sequence of the goat alpha-S1-casein gene with and without a matrix attachment region (MAR) element from the Drosophila histone 1 gene was studied in four and eight transgenic mouse lines, respectively. Of the four transgenic lines carrying the transgene without MAR, three had correct tissues-specific expression of the hGM-CSF gene in the mammary gland only and no signs of cell mosaicism. The concentration of hGM-CSF in the milk of transgenic females varied from 1.9 to 14 μg/ml. One line presented hGM-CSF in the blood serum, indicating ectopic expression. The values of secretion of hGM-CSF in milk of 6 transgenic lines carrying the transgene with MAR varied from 0.05 to 0.7 μg/ml, and two of these did not express hGM-CSF. Three of the four examined animals from lines of this group showed ectopic expression of the hGM-CSF gene, as determined by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence analyses, as well as the presence of hGM-CSF in the blood serum. Mosaic expression of the hGM-CSF gene in mammary epithelial cells was specific to all examined transgenic mice carrying the transgene with MAR but was never observed in the transgenic mice without MAR. The mosaic expression was not dependent on transgene copy number. Thus, the expected "protective or enhancer effect" from the MAR element on the hGM-CSF gene expression was not observed.

  6. Randomized, controlled, multicenter study of the immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid combination diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP5), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine compared with a DTaP3-IPV/Hib vaccine administered at 3, 5, and 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, Timo; Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Boisnard, Florence; Thomas, Stéphane; Mwawasi, Grace; Reynolds, Donna

    2013-10-01

    This study compared the levels of immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP(5)), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib) and DTaP(3)-IPV/Hib vaccines for study participants 3, 5, and 12 months of age. Post-dose 3 noninferiority criteria comparing DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib to DTaP(3)-IPV/Hib using rates of seroprotection were demonstrated against diphtheria, tetanus, and polio types 1 to 3, but not for polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). While PRP did not meet noninferiority criteria, the seroprotection rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC) were high, indicating a clinically robust immune response. GMCs or titers for other antigens (including pertussis) and the safety profiles were generally similar between groups. Fully liquid DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib can be administered using the 3-, 5-, and 12-month vaccination schedule. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00287092.).

  7. Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Study of the Immunogenicity and Safety of a Fully Liquid Combination Diphtheria–Tetanus Toxoid–Five-Component Acellular Pertussis (DTaP5), Inactivated Poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccine Compared with a DTaP3-IPV/Hib Vaccine Administered at 3, 5, and 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Boisnard, Florence; Thomas, Stéphane; Mwawasi, Grace; Reynolds, Donna

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the levels of immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria–tetanus toxoid–five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP5), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTaP5-IPV-Hib) and DTaP3-IPV/Hib vaccines for study participants 3, 5, and 12 months of age. Post-dose 3 noninferiority criteria comparing DTaP5-IPV-Hib to DTaP3-IPV/Hib using rates of seroprotection were demonstrated against diphtheria, tetanus, and polio types 1 to 3, but not for polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). While PRP did not meet noninferiority criteria, the seroprotection rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC) were high, indicating a clinically robust immune response. GMCs or titers for other antigens (including pertussis) and the safety profiles were generally similar between groups. Fully liquid DTaP5-IPV-Hib can be administered using the 3-, 5-, and 12-month vaccination schedule. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00287092.) PMID:23966556

  8. Induction of the Ly-6A/E gene by interferon alpha/beta and gamma requires a DNA element to which a tyrosine-phosphorylated 91-kDa protein binds.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, K D; Shuai, K; Lindwall, G; Maher, S E; Darnell, J E; Bothwell, A L

    1993-01-01

    The murine Ly-6A/E gene is transcriptionally induced in cells exposed to interferon alpha/beta or gamma (IFN-alpha/beta or IFN-gamma). Analysis of the 5' flanking sequence using reporter plasmids that contain upstream elements of the Ly-6E gene has previously identified an approximately 850-base-pair IFN-responsive region that lacked an IFN-alpha-stimulated response element (ISRE), the element present and required for an IFN-alpha response of a number of genes. Analysis by deletion and stable transfection of the IFN-responsive region of the Ly-6E promoter has defined an 80-base-pair region containing an IFN-gamma activation site (GAS) but no ISRE that allows IFN-gamma and IFN-alpha inducibility of the Ly-6E gene. As tested by specific antiserum, a 91-kDa protein known to be activated in IFN-alpha- or IFN-gamma-treated cells binds to the GAS element from the Ly-6E promoter. The 91-kDa protein exists as an inactive cytoplasmic precursor and depends on tyrosine phosphorylation for its activation. Thus the same 91-kDa protein appears to act in the signal transduction pathways of both types of IFN for the Ly-6-A/E gene. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7688129

  9. Production of inflammatory cytokines in response to diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT), haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and 7-valent pneumococcal (PCV7) vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwagi, Yasuyo; Miyata, Akiko; Kumagai, Takuji; Maehara, Kouji; Suzuki, Eitarou; Nagai, Takao; Ozaki, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Okada, Kenji; Kawashima, Hisashi; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and 7-valent pneumococcal (PCV7) vaccines both became recommended in Japan in 2010. In this study, cytokine production was investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cultures stimulated with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with acellular pertussis vaccine (DPT), Hib, and PCV7 separately or concurrent different combinations, all as final off-the-shelf vaccines without the individual vaccine components as controls. Higher IL-1β levels were produced when cultures were stimulated with PCV than with DPT or Hib, and the concurrent stimulation including PCV7 enhanced the production of IL-1β. Although Hib induced higher levels of IL-6, no significant difference was observed in IL-6 production with the concurrent stimulation. The concurrent stimulation with Hib/PCV7 and DPT/Hib/PCV7 produced higher levels of TNF-α and human G-CSF. Cytokine profiles were examined in serum samples obtained from 61 vaccine recipients with febrile reactions and 18 recipients without febrile illness within 24 h of vaccination. No significant difference was observed in cytokine levels of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ, MIP-1, TNF-α, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in sera between the two groups. However, significantly higher levels of human G-CSF were observed in recipients with febrile illness than in those without febrile reactions. Further investigations of the significance of elevated serum G-CSF levels are required in vaccine recipients with febrile illness. PMID:24589970

  10. Refinement of the Compton-Rayleigh scatter ratio method for use on the Mars Science Laboratory alpha particle X-ray spectrometer: II - Extraction of invisible element content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrett, Glynis M.; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; King, Penelope L.; Nield, Emily; O'Meara, Joanne M.; Pradler, Irina

    2016-02-01

    The intensity ratio C/R between Compton and Rayleigh scatter peaks of the exciting Pu L X-rays in the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) is strongly affected by the presence of very light elements such as oxygen which cannot be detected directly by the APXS. C/R values are determined along with element concentrations by fitting APXS spectra of geochemical reference materials (GRMs) with the GUAPX code. A quantity K is defined as the ratio between the C/R value determined by Monte Carlo simulation based on the measured element concentrations and the fitted C/R value from the spectrum. To ensure optimally accurate K values, the choice of appropriate GRMs is explored in detail, with attention paid to Rb and Sr, whose characteristic Kα X-ray peaks overlap the Pu Lα scatter peaks. The resulting relationship between the ratio K and the overall oxygen fraction is linear. This provides a calibration from which the concentration of additional light invisible constituents (ALICs) such as water may be estimated in unknown rock and conglomerate samples. Several GRMs are used as 'unknowns' in order to evaluate the accuracy of ALIC concentrations derived in this manner.

  11. DTPw-HB and Hib primary and booster vaccination: combined versus separate administration to Latin American children.

    PubMed

    Santos, José Ignacio; Martin, Amando; De Leon, Tirza; Rivera, Luis; Gaitán, Maria Elisa García; Del Rio, Carlos; Oselka, Gabriel; Cervantes, Yolanda; Rubio, Pilar; Clemens, Sue Ann Costa; de Mendonça, João Silva

    2002-03-15

    This multicentre study was designed to establish the reactogenicity and immunogenicity profiles of primary and booster vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis whole-cell-hepatitis B/Haemophilus influenzae type-b (DTPw-HB/Hib) administered as either a syringe mix or as separate injections in 400 Latin American children. Both vaccine regimens were equally well tolerated and elicited post-primary excellent seropositivity rates at or close to 100% for all five component antigens. With regard to HB, 100% of subjects in the combined vaccination group, and 98.8% subjects in the separate injection vaccination group reached seroprotective antibody concentrations (>or=10 mIU/ml) 1 month after the primary vaccination course. Equally high anti-PRP antibody concentrations were reached 1 month after vaccination, with 100% of seroprotected subjects in the combined vaccination group (antibody concentrations >or=0.15 microg/ml), against 99.4% in the separate injection vaccination group. Seroprotective anti-HBs and anti-PRP antibody concentration levels persisted approximately 1 year after the primary vaccination course, just prior to booster vaccination. Finally, a significant increase of all antibody concentrations could be observed after the booster vaccination, since all but one subject in the separate injection vaccination group had protective levels of anti-HBs and anti-PRP antibodies 1 month after the booster dose. These results suggest that the combination of DTPw-HB and Hib vaccines provides an effective means for increasing vaccine coverage in childhood vaccination programmes.

  12. Delayed secondary glucocorticoid response elements. Unusual nucleotide motifs specify glucocorticoid receptor binding to transcribed regions of alpha 2u-globulin DNA.

    PubMed

    Chan, G C; Hess, P; Meenakshi, T; Carlstedt-Duke, J; Gustafsson, J A; Payvar, F

    1991-11-25

    Glucocorticoids stimulate the transcription of rat alpha 2u-globulin (RUG) genes. Because this induction occurs after a time lag of several hours and is blocked by inhibitors of protein synthesis, it exemplifies a delayed secondary response to steroid hormones. In this report, we show that a region of RUG-transcribed DNA (approximately +1800 to +2174) contains multiple footprint sites for glucocorticoid receptor that are, apparently, organized into at least three independent binding clusters. The DNA sequences bound by the receptor and the location of binding sites were determined. A family of sequences related to half-sites of the consensus primary glucocorticoid response element (GRE) is discernible at each cluster of sites. Compared to the consensus GRE, which contains two pseudo-palindromic hexanucleotides arranged in a tail-to-tail fashion and separated by three bases, the arrangements of hexanucleotides within this segment of RUG DNA are unusual and heterogeneous. Methylation interference of a binding cluster containing three receptor footprints demonstrates that certain guanines of the GRE-like hexanucleotides are essential for efficient receptor binding. A synthetic 29-base pair (bp) RUG element, containing one receptor footprint from this cluster, selectively binds the receptor. Within this 29-bp element, six nucleotides separate two directly repeated copies of GRE-like hexanucleotides. RUG DNA fragments containing all or part of the three binding clusters, including the 29-bp element, confer a delayed secondary hormone responsiveness upon a linked heterologous promoter and reporter gene in stably transfected cell lines. We speculate that the unusual DNA sequence motifs of the receptor-binding sites are crucial for the generation of certain delayed secondary responses.

  13. Evidence for multiple promoters of the human IL-5 receptor alpha subunit gene: a novel 6-base pair element determines cell-specific promoter function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Kuvelkar, R; Cheewatrakoolpong, B; Williams, S; Egan, R W; Billah, M M

    1997-12-01

    In addition to a previously characterized promoter (P1), we now show the existence of a second promoter for the human IL-5Ralpha gene. Initially, a genomic region (P2) 5' upstream of human IL-5Ralpha exon 2 was cloned by an inverted PCR. The transcriptional start site was then mapped to a deoxycytidine (C) residue within P2 by analyzing cellular mRNA with both the 5' rapid amplification of cDNA end-PCR and S1 nuclease protection assays. Transfection of eosinophilic HL-60 cells with reporter gene constructs in which either P1 or P2 was linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene resulted in CAT expression; little or no CAT expression occurred in other myeloid and nonmyeloid cell lines. Deletion studies showed that a 66-bp region, ranging from -31 to +35, was sufficient to promote CAT expression in eosinophilic HL-60 cells. Analysis of linker-scanning mutants identified a novel 6-bp element (5' CTAATT 3') spanning -19 to -14 that was essential for P2 promoter activity. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, a P2 region from -31 to +1 containing the unique 6-bp element, when used as a probe, formed a complex with a protein(s) that was found only in the eosinophilic cell line. This binding activity was lost upon replacement of the 6-bp element with a 6-bp linker, suggesting that this element likely serves as the binding site for an eosinophilic HL-60 cell-specific transcription factor(s). Together, these data suggest an important role for P2 promoter in the regulation of eosinophil-specific expression of the human IL-5 receptor alpha gene.

  14. Competition between alpha-decay and spontaneous fission at isotopes of superheavy elements Rf, Db, and Sg

    SciTech Connect

    Anghel, Claudia Ioana; Silisteanu, Andrei Octavian

    2015-12-07

    The most important decay modes for heavy and superheavy nuclei are their α-decay and spontaneous fission. This work investigates the evolution and the competition of these decay modes in long isotopic sequences. The partial half-lives are given by minimal sets of parameters extracted from the fit of experimental data and theoretical results. A summary of the experimental and calculated α-decay and spontaneous fission half-lives of the isotopes of elements Rf, Db, and Sg is presented. Some half-life extrapolations for nuclides not yet known are also obtained.

  15. Primary structure determination of five sialylated oligosaccharides derived from bronchial mucus glycoproteins of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. The occurrence of the NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta(1----4)[Fuc alpha(1----3)] GlcNAc beta(1----.) structural element revealed by 500-MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lamblin, G; Boersma, A; Klein, A; Roussel, P; van Halbeek, H; Vliegenthart, J F

    1984-07-25

    The structure of sialylated carbohydrate units of bronchial mucins obtained from cystic fibrosis patients was investigated by 500-MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with sugar analysis. After subjecting the mucins to alkaline borohydride degradation, sialylated oligosaccharide-alditols were isolated by anion-exchange chromatography and fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography. Five compounds could be obtained in a rather pure state; their structures were established as the following: A-1, NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta(1----4) [Fuc alpha(1----3)]GlcNAc beta(1----3)Gal-NAc-ol; A-2, NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta(1----4)GlcNAc beta(1----6)-[GlcNAc beta (1----3)]GalNAc-o1; A-3, NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta-(1----4)[Fuc alpha(1----3)]GlcNAc beta(1----3)Gal beta(1----3) GalNAc-o1; A-4, NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta(1----4)[Fuc alpha(1----3)]Glc-NAc NAc beta(1----6)[GlcNAc beta(1----3)]GalNAc-o1; A-6,NeuAc alpha-(2----3) Gal beta(1----4)[Fuc alpha(1----3)]GlcNAc beta(1----6)[Gal beta-(1----4) GlcNAc beta(1----3)]GalNAc-o1. The simultaneous presence of sialic acid in alpha(2----3)-linkage to Gal and fucose in alpha(1----3)-linkage to GlcNAc of the same N-acetyllactosamine unit could be adequately proved by high resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy. This sequence constitutes a novel structural element for mucins.

  16. Childhood very severe pneumonia and meningitis-related hospitalization and death in Yemen, before and after introduction of H. influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine.

    PubMed

    Banajeh, S M; Ashoor, O; Al-Magramy, A S

    2014-07-08

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine was included in the Yemen immunization programme in 2005. This study compared the rates of very severe pneumonia and all-cause meningitis hospitalization and death, before and after introduction of conjugate Hib vaccine, and reports the results of the 2010 bacterial meningitis surveillance. A retrospective analysis was made of data collected for 2000-2010 for all children aged 2-60 months in the main children's hospital in Sana'a. Compared with the pre-Hib vaccination period, the post-Hib period showed significant and impressive reductions in the rates of hospitalization and death for all-cause meningitis. However, hospitalization and death for very severe pneumonia improved only modestly, and there was evidence of a decreasing but non-significant trend indicting that very severe pneumonia was a non-specific endpoint with multi-etiologies (both viral and bacterial). Very severe pneumonia remains the leading cause of severe morbidity and death for young children, particularly those aged < 12 months.

  17. Immunogenicity and safety of 3-dose primary vaccination with combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine in Canadian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, David W; Ferguson, Murdo; Predy, Gerald; Dawar, Meena; Assudani, Deepak; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Han, Htay-Htay

    2015-04-15

    This study compared immune responses of healthy Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) components of a DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine, 1 month after completing dosing at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. Of 112 infants enrolled in each group, 94 Aboriginal and 107 non-Aboriginal infants qualified for the immunogenicity analysis. Anti-PRP concentrations exceeded the protective minimum (≥0.15 μg/ml) in ≥97% of infants in both groups but geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were higher in Aboriginal infants (6.12 μg/ml versus 3.51 μg/ml). All subjects were seroprotected (anti-HBs ≥10 mIU/mL) against HBV, with groups having similar GMCs (1797.9 versus 1544.4 mIU/mL, Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal, respectively). No safety concerns were identified. We conclude that 3-dose primary vaccination with DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine elicited immune responses to Hib and HBV components that were at least as high in Aboriginal as in non-Aboriginal Canadian infants. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00753649.

  18. Regulation of steroid 5-{alpha} reductase type 2 (Srd5a2) by sterol regulatory element binding proteins and statin

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Young-Kyo; Zhu, Bing; Jeon, Tae-Il; Osborne, Timothy F.

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we show that sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) regulate expression of Srd5a2, an enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible conversion of testosterone to dihydroxytestosterone in the male reproductive tract and is highly expressed in androgen-sensitive tissues such as the prostate and skin. We show that Srd5a2 is induced in livers and prostate from mice fed a chow diet supplemented with lovastatin plus ezitimibe (L/E), which increases the activity of nuclear SREBP-2. The three fold increase in Srd5a2 mRNA mediated by L/E treatment was accompanied by the induction of SREBP-2 binding to the Srd5a2 promoter detected by a ChIP-chip assay in liver. We identified a SREBP-2 responsive region within the first 300 upstream bases of the mouse Srd5a2 promoter by co-transfection assays which contain a site that bound SREBP-2 in vitro by an EMSA. Srd5a2 protein was also induced in cells over-expressing SREBP-2 in culture. The induction of Srd5a2 through SREBP-2 provides a mechanistic explanation for why even though statin therapy is effective in reducing cholesterol levels in treating hypercholesterolemia it does not compromise androgen production in clinical studies.

  19. The GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS). II. Metallicity distributions and alpha element abundances at fixed Galactic latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, O. A.; Zoccali, M.; Vasquez, S.; Hill, V.; Rejkuba, M.; Valenti, E.; Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Renzini, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Minniti, D.; Brown, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Aims: We investigate metallicity and α-element abundance gradients along a Galactic longitude strip, at latitude b ~ -4°, with the aim of providing observational constraints for the structure and origin of the Milky Way bulge. Methods: High-resolution (R ~ 22 500) spectra for 400 K giants, in four fields within -4.8° ≲ b ≲ -3.4° and -10° ≲ l ≲ +10°, were obtained within the GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS) project. To this sample we added another ~400 stars in Baade's Window at (l,b) = (1°,-4°), observed with the identical instrumental configuration: FLAMES GIRAFFE in Medusa mode with HR13 setup. All target stars lie within the red clump of the bulge colour-magnitude diagram, thus minimising contamination from the disc or halo stars. The spectroscopic stellar surface parameters were derived with an automatic method based on the GALA code, while the [Ca/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] abundances as a function of [Fe/H] were derived through a comparison with the synthetic spectra using MOOG. We constructed the metallicity distributions for the entire sample, and for each field individually, in order to investigate the presence of gradients or field-to-field variations in the shape of the distributions. Results: The metallicity distributions in the five fields are consistent with being drawn from a single parent population, indicating the absence of a gradient along the major axis of the Galactic bar. The global metallicity distribution is nicely fitted by two Gaussians. The metal-poor component is rather broad, with a mean at ⟨ [Fe/H] ⟩ = -0.31 dex and σ = 0.31 dex. The metal-rich component is narrower, with mean ⟨ [Fe/H] ⟩ = + 0.26 and σ = 0.2 dex. The [Mg/Fe] ratio follows a tight trend with [Fe/H], with enhancement with respect to solar in the metal-poor regime similar to the value observed for giant stars in the local thick disc. [Ca/Fe] abundances follow a similar trend, but with a considerably larger scatter than [Mg/Fe]. A decrease in [Mg/Fe] is

  20. High pneumonia lifetime-ever incidence in Beijing children compared with locations in other countries, and implications for national PCV and Hib vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Fang; Sun, Yuexia; Sundell, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the proportion of Beijing children who have ever had pneumonia (%Pneumonia) to those in other locations, and to estimate by how much national vaccine coverage with Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) and Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib) could reduce Beijing %Pneumonia. Methods %Pneumonia was obtained for each age group from 1 to 8 years inclusive from 5,876 responses to a cross-sectional questionnaire. Literature searches were conducted for world-wide reports of %Pneumonia. Previous vaccine trials conducted worldwide were used to estimate the pneumococcal (S. pneumoniae) and Hib (H. influenzae) burdens and %Pneumonia as well as the potential for PCV and Hib vaccines to reduce Beijing children’s %Pneumonia. Findings The majority of pneumonia cases occurred by the age of three. The cumulative %Pneumonia for 3–8 year-old Beijing children, 26.9%, was only slightly higher than the 25.4% for the discrete 3 year-old age group, similar to trends for Tianjin (China) and Texas (USA). Beijing’s %Pneumonia is disproportionally high relative to its Gross National Income (GNI) per capita, and markedly higher than %Pneumonia in the US and other high GNI per capita countries. Chinese diagnostic guidelines recommend chest X-ray confirmation while most other countries discourage it in favor of clinical diagnosis. Literature review shows that chest X-ray confirmation returns far fewer pneumonia diagnoses than clinical diagnosis. Accordingly, Beijing’s %Pneumonia is likely higher than indicated by raw numbers. Vaccine trials suggest that national PCV and Hib vaccination could reduce Beijing’s %Pneumonia from 26.9% to 19.7% and 24.9% respectively. Conclusion National PCV and Hib vaccination programs would substantially reduce Beijing children’s pneumonia incidence. PMID:28166256

  1. Safety, immunogenicity and persistence of immune response to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, poliovirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) administered in Chinese infants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanping; Li, Rong Cheng; Ye, Qiang; Li, Changgui; Liu, You Ping; Ma, Xiao; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Xiaoling; Assudani, Deepak; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We conducted 3 phase III, randomized, open-label, clinical trials assessing the safety, reactogenicity (all studies), immunogenicity (Primary vaccination study) and persistence of immune responses (Booster study) to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) in Chinese infants and toddlers. In the Pilot study (NCT00964028), 50 infants (randomized 1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2–3–4 (Group A) or 3–4–5 months of age (Group B). In the Primary study (NCT01086423), 984 healthy infants (randomized 1:1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2–3–4 (Group A) or 3–4–5 (Group B) months of age, or concomitant DTPa/Hib and poliomyelitis (IPV) vaccination at 2–3–4 months of age (Control group); 825 infants received a booster dose of DTPa/Hib and IPV at 18–24 months of age (Booster study; NCT01449812). In the Pilot study, unsolicited symptoms were more frequent in Group A (16 versus 1 infant; mostly upper respiratory tract infection and pyrexia); this observation was attributed to an epidemic outbreak of viral infections. Non-inferiority of 3-dose primary vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib over separately administered DTPa/Hib and IPV was demonstrated for Group A (primary objective). Similar antibody concentrations were observed in all groups, except for anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate and anti-poliovirus types 1–3 which were higher in DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients. Protective antibody levels against all vaccine antigens remained high until booster vaccination. Three-dose vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib had a clinically acceptable safety profile. PMID:27768515

  2. Safety, immunogenicity and persistence of immune response to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, poliovirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) administered in Chinese infants.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanping; Li, Rong Cheng; Ye, Qiang; Li, Changgui; Liu, You Ping; Ma, Xiao; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Xiaoling; Assudani, Deepak; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2017-03-04

    We conducted 3 phase III, randomized, open-label, clinical trials assessing the safety, reactogenicity (all studies), immunogenicity (Primary vaccination study) and persistence of immune responses (Booster study) to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) in Chinese infants and toddlers. In the Pilot study (NCT00964028), 50 infants (randomized 1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2-3-4 (Group A) or 3-4-5 months of age (Group B). In the Primary study (NCT01086423), 984 healthy infants (randomized 1:1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2-3-4 (Group A) or 3-4-5 (Group B) months of age, or concomitant DTPa/Hib and poliomyelitis (IPV) vaccination at 2-3-4 months of age (Control group); 825 infants received a booster dose of DTPa/Hib and IPV at 18-24 months of age (Booster study; NCT01449812). In the Pilot study, unsolicited symptoms were more frequent in Group A (16 versus 1 infant; mostly upper respiratory tract infection and pyrexia); this observation was attributed to an epidemic outbreak of viral infections. Non-inferiority of 3-dose primary vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib over separately administered DTPa/Hib and IPV was demonstrated for Group A (primary objective). Similar antibody concentrations were observed in all groups, except for anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate and anti-poliovirus types 1-3 which were higher in DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients. Protective antibody levels against all vaccine antigens remained high until booster vaccination. Three-dose vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib had a clinically acceptable safety profile.

  3. A randomized, dose-ranging assessment of the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Hemophilus influenzae type b (DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib) vaccine vs. co-administration of DTPw-HBV/Hib and IPV vaccines in 12 to 24 months old Filipino toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Quiambao, Beatriz; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Kolhe, Devayani; Gatchalian, Salvacion

    2012-01-01

    As progress toward global poliovirus eradication continues, more and more countries are moving away from use of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) to inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV) in national vaccination schedules. Reduction of antigen dose in IPV could increase manufacturing capacity and facilitate the change from OPV to IPV. Combination vaccines reduce the number of injections required to complete vaccination, thus playing an important role in maintaining high vaccine coverage with good public acceptability. Three formulations of a combined, candidate hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Hemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) differing only in IPV antigen content (full-dose, half-dose and one-third dose as compared with available stand-alone IPV vaccines), were evaluated when administered to healthy toddlers. Controls received separately administered licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib and IPV vaccines. Immunogenicity was assessed before and one month after vaccination. Safety and reactogenicity data were assessed for 30 d after vaccination. A total of 312 Filipino children were vaccinated in their second year of life. Each DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib formulation was non-inferior to control in terms of pre-defined criteria for IPV immunogenicity. Post-vaccination GMTs against each poliovirus type were increased between 4.2- and 37.9-fold over pre-vaccination titers. Non-inferiority to other vaccine antigens was also demonstrated. The safety profile of the 3 DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib formulations resembled licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib Kft and IPV in terms of the frequency and intensity of adverse reactions after vaccination. Further investigation of DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib containing reduced quantity of IPV antigen for primary vaccination in infants is warranted.   This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT number: NCT01106092 PMID:22330958

  4. A randomized, dose-ranging assessment of the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Hemophilus influenzae type b (DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib) vaccine vs. co-administration of DTPw-HBV/Hib and IPV vaccines in 12 to 24 months old Filipino toddlers.

    PubMed

    Quiambao, Beatriz; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Kolhe, Devayani; Gatchalian, Salvacion

    2012-03-01

    As progress toward global poliovirus eradication continues, more and more countries are moving away from use of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) to inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV) in national vaccination schedules. Reduction of antigen dose in IPV could increase manufacturing capacity and facilitate the change from OPV to IPV. Combination vaccines reduce the number of injections required to complete vaccination, thus playing an important role in maintaining high vaccine coverage with good public acceptability. Three formulations of a combined, candidate hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Hemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) differing only in IPV antigen content (full-dose, half-dose and one-third dose as compared with available stand-alone IPV vaccines), were evaluated when administered to healthy toddlers. Controls received separately administered licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib and IPV vaccines. Immunogenicity was assessed before and one month after vaccination. Safety and reactogenicity data were assessed for 30 d after vaccination. A total of 312 Filipino children were vaccinated in their second year of life. Each DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib formulation was non-inferior to control in terms of pre-defined criteria for IPV immunogenicity. Post-vaccination GMTs against each poliovirus type were increased between 4.2- and 37.9-fold over pre-vaccination titers. Non-inferiority to other vaccine antigens was also demonstrated. The safety profile of the 3 DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib formulations resembled licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib Kft and IPV in terms of the frequency and intensity of adverse reactions after vaccination. Further investigation of DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib containing reduced quantity of IPV antigen for primary vaccination in infants is warranted. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT number: NCT01106092.

  5. In silico selection of an aptamer to estrogen receptor alpha using computational docking employing estrogen response elements as aptamer-alike molecules

    PubMed Central

    Ahirwar, Rajesh; Nahar, Smita; Aggarwal, Shikha; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Maiti, Souvik; Nahar, Pradip

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers, the chemical-antibody substitute to conventional antibodies, are primarily discovered through SELEX technology involving multi-round selections and enrichment. Circumventing conventional methodology, here we report an in silico selection of aptamers to estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) using RNA analogs of human estrogen response elements (EREs). The inverted repeat nature of ERE and the ability to form stable hairpins were used as criteria to obtain aptamer-alike sequences. Near-native RNA analogs of selected single stranded EREs were modelled and their likelihood to emerge as ERα aptamer was examined using AutoDock Vina, HADDOCK and PatchDock docking. These in silico predictions were validated by measuring the thermodynamic parameters of ERα -RNA interactions using isothermal titration calorimetry. Based on the in silico and in vitro results, we selected a candidate RNA (ERaptR4; 5′-GGGGUCAAGGUGACCCC-3′) having a binding constant (Ka) of 1.02 ± 0.1 × 108 M−1 as an ERα-aptamer. Target-specificity of the selected ERaptR4 aptamer was confirmed through cytochemistry and solid-phase immunoassays. Furthermore, stability analyses identified ERaptR4 resistant to serum and RNase A degradation in presence of ERα. Taken together, an efficient ERα-RNA aptamer is identified using a non-SELEX procedure of aptamer selection. The high-affinity and specificity can be utilized in detection of ERα in breast cancer and related diseases. PMID:26899418

  6. Role of cAMP-response element-binding protein phosphorylation in hepatic apoptosis under protein kinase C alpha suppression during sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ya-Ching; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Jao, Hsiao-Ching; Hsu, Hseng-Kuang; Huang, Li-Ju; Hsu, Chin

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that a decrease in protein kinase C (PKC) alpha levels contributes to hepatic failure and/or apoptosis during sepsis, and suppression of PKCalpha plays a critical role in triggering caspase-dependent apoptosis, which can modulate expression of Bcl-xL. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains uncertain. In the present study, we examined whether a decrease in the nuclear PKCalpha levels causes hepatic apoptosis via modulation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) or nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB), the crucial factors regulating the expression of prosurvival Bcl-xL. For polymicrobial sepsis induction, a cecal ligation and puncture model was used; at 9 or 18 h after CLP, experiments were terminated, referring as early or late sepsis, respectively. Additionally, PKCalpha was suppressed by stable transfection of antisense PKCalpha plasmid into a Clone-9 rat hepatic epithelial cell. The results showed that the nuclear PKCalpha was significantly decreased in the liver during sepsis, which was accompanied by decreases in phospho-CREB content, DNA-binding activity of CREB, and Bcl-xL expression. Likewise, the binding activity of NFkappaB increased significantly, which was associated with a decrease in cytosolic inhibitory-kappaBalpha content. The in vitro suppression of PKCalpha also resulted in decreases in the phospho-CREB content and DNA-binding activity, which were accompanied by down-regulation of Bcl-xL and apoptosis, but no significant alteration in NFkappaB-binding activity. The in vivo and in vitro results suggest that the suppression of PKCalpha results in a decreased CREB phosphorylation and subsequent down-regulation of Bcl-xL, which may contribute to the hepatic apoptosis during sepsis.

  7. The Ages, Metallicities, and Alpha Element Enhancements of Globular Clusters in the Elliptical NGC 5128: A Homogeneous Spectroscopic Study with Gemini/Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Kristin A.; Harris, William E.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Gómez, Matías; Harris, Gretchen L. H.; Geisler, Doug

    2010-01-01

    We present new integrated light spectroscopy of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 5128, a nearby giant elliptical galaxy less than 4 Mpc away, in order to measure radial velocities and derive ages, metallicities, and alpha-element abundance ratios. Using the Gemini South 8 meter telescope with the instrument Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph, we obtained spectroscopy in the range of ~3400-5700 Å for 72 GCs with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 30 Å-1 and we have also discovered 35 new GCs within NGC 5128 from our radial velocity measurements. We measured and compared the Lick indices from Hδ A through Fe5406 with the single stellar population models of Thomas et al. in order to derive age, metallicity, and [α/Fe] values. We also measure Lick indices for 41 Milky Way GCs from Puzia et al. and Schiavon et al. with the same methodology for direct comparison. Our results show that 68% of the NGC 5128 GCs have old ages (>8 Gyr), 14% have intermediate ages (5-8 Gyr), and 18% have young ages (<5 Gyr). However, when we look at the metallicity of the GCs as a function of age, we find 92% of metal-poor GCs and 56% of metal-rich GCs in NGC 5128 have ages >8 Gyr, indicating that the majority of both metallicity subpopulations of GCs formed earlier, with a significant population of young and metal-rich GCs forming later. Our metallicity distribution function generated directly from spectroscopic Lick indices is clearly bimodal, as is the color distribution of the same set of GCs. Thus, the metallicity bimodality is real and not an artifact of the color to metallicity conversion. However, the metallicity distribution function obtained from comparison with the single stellar population models is consistent with a unimodal, bimodal, or multimodal shape. The [α/Fe] values are supersolar with a mean value of 0.14 ± 0.04, indicating a fast formation timescale. However, the GCs in NGC 5128 are not as [α/Fe] enhanced as the Milky Way GCs also examined in this study. Our measured

  8. Temporal expression of the human alcohol dehydrogenase gene family during liver development correlates with differential promoter activation by hepatocyte nuclear factor 1, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, liver activator protein, and D-element-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    van Ooij, C; Snyder, R C; Paeper, B W; Duester, G

    1992-01-01

    The human class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family consists of ADH1, ADH2, and ADH3, which are sequentially activated in early fetal, late fetal, and postnatal liver, respectively. Analysis of ADH promoters revealed differential activation by several factors previously shown to control liver transcription. In cotransfection assays, the ADH1 promoter, but not the ADH2 or ADH3 promoter, was shown to respond to hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF-1), which has previously been shown to regulate transcription in early liver development. The ADH2 promoter, but not the ADH1 or ADH3 promoter, was shown to respond to CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP alpha), a transcription factor particularly active during late fetal liver and early postnatal liver development. The ADH1, ADH2, and ADH3 promoters all responded to the liver transcription factors liver activator protein (LAP) and D-element-binding protein (DBP), which are most active in postnatal liver. For all three promoters, the activation by LAP or DBP was higher than that seen by HNF-1 or C/EBP alpha, and a significant synergism between C/EBP alpha and LAP was noticed for the ADH2 and ADH3 promoters when both factors were simultaneously cotransfected. A hierarchy of ADH promoter responsiveness to C/EBP alpha and LAP homo- and heterodimers is suggested. In all three ADH genes, LAP bound to the same four sites previously reported for C/EBP alpha (i.e., -160, -120, -40, and -20 bp), but DBP bound strongly only to the site located at -40 bp relative to the transcriptional start. Mutational analysis of ADH2 indicated that the -40 bp element accounts for most of the promoter regulation by the bZIP factors analyzed. These studies suggest that HNF-1 and C/EBP alpha help establish ADH gene family transcription in fetal liver and that LAP and DBP help maintain high-level ADH gene family transcription in postnatal liver. Images PMID:1620113

  9. Substrate evokes translocation of both domains in the mitochondrial processing peptidase alpha-subunit during which the C-terminus acts as a stabilizing element.

    PubMed

    Janata, Jirí; Holá, Klára; Kubala, Martin; Gakh, Oleksandr; Parkhomenko, Natalya; Matusková, Anna; Kutejová, Eva; Amler, Evzen

    2004-03-26

    All three tryptophan residues in alpha-subunit of mitochondrial processing peptidase (MPP) were subsequently substituted. While substitutions of Trp223 led to misfolded non-functional protein, mutations of Trp147 and/or Trp481 did not affect the enzyme processing activity. Thus, fluorescence properties of the mutants with fewer tryptophans were used for observation of both alpha-MPP domain translocation and visualization of conformational changes in the interdomain linker evoked by substrate. We found that in the presence of substrate the C-terminal penultimate Trp481 was approaching Trp223, which is localized at the border of N-terminal domain and interdomain linker. Also, excision of the alpha-MPP C-terminal 30 amino acid residues (DeltaC30) led to a complete loss of protein function. Even shorter deletions of the alpha-MPP C-terminus destabilized the protein slightly (DeltaC2) or dramatically (DeltaC17). It suggests that the extreme C-terminus of alpha-MPP provides mechanical support to the C-terminal domain during its extensive conformational change accompanying the substrate recognition process.

  10. Functional interaction of hepatic nuclear factor-4 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha in CYP7A1 regulation is inhibited by a key lipogenic activator, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c.

    PubMed

    Ponugoti, Bhaskar; Fang, Sungsoon; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2007-11-01

    Insulin inhibits transcription of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), a key gene in bile acid synthesis, and the hepatic nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) site in the promoter was identified as a negative insulin response sequence. Using a fasting/feeding protocol in mice and insulin treatment in HepG2 cells, we explored the inhibition mechanisms. Expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), an insulin-induced lipogenic factor, inversely correlated with Cyp7a1 expression in mouse liver. Interaction of HNF-4 with its coactivator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha), was observed in livers of fasted mice and was reduced after feeding. Conversely, HNF-4 interaction with SREBP-1c was increased after feeding. In vitro studies suggested that SREBP-1c competed with PGC-1alpha for direct interaction with the AF2 domain of HNF-4. Reporter assays showed that SREBP-1c, but not of a SREBP-1c mutant lacking the HNF-4 interacting domain, inhibited HNF-4/PGC-1alpha transactivation of Cyp7a1. SREBP-1c also inhibited PGC-1alpha-coactivation of estrogen receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, pregnane X receptor, and farnesoid X receptor, implying inhibition of HNF-4 by SREBP-1c could extend to other nuclear receptors. In chromatin immunoprecipitation studies, HNF-4 binding to the promoter was not altered, but PGC-1alpha was dissociated, SREBP-1c and histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2) were recruited, and acetylation of histone H3 was decreased upon feeding. Adenovirus-mediated expression of a SREBP-1c dominant-negative mutant, which blocks the interaction of SREBP-1c and HNF-4, partially but significantly reversed the inhibition of Cyp7a1 after feeding. Our data show that SREBP-1c functions as a non-DNA-binding inhibitor and mediates, in part, suppression of Cyp7a1 by blocking functional interaction of HNF-4 and PGC-1alpha. This mechanism may be relevant to known repression of many other HNF-4 target genes upon

  11. A Phase II, Randomized Study on an Investigational DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC Conjugate Vaccine Administered to Infants in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Abraham; Forgor, Abudulai Adams; Chandramohan, Daniel; Reed, Zarifah; Binka, Fred; Bevilacqua, Cornelia; Boutriau, Dominique; Greenwood, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Background Combining meningococcal vaccination with routine immunization in infancy may reduce the burden of meningococcal meningitis, especially in the meningitis belt of Africa. We have evaluated the immunogenicity, persistence of immune response, immune memory and safety of an investigational DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC conjugate vaccine given to infants in Northern Ghana. Methods and Findings In this phase II, double blind, randomized, controlled study, 280 infants were primed with DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC or DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. At 12 months of age, children in each group received a challenge dose of serogroup A+C polysaccharides. Antibody responses were assessed pre, and one month-post dose 3 of the priming schedule and pre and 1 month after administration of the challenge dose. One month post-dose 3, 87.8% and 88.2% of subjects in the study group had bactericidal meningococcal serogroup A (SBA-MenA) and meningococcal serogroup C (SBA-MenC) antibody titres ≥1∶8 respectively. Seroprotection/seropositivity rates to the 5 antigens administered in the routine EPI schedule were non-inferior in children in the study group compared to those in the control group. The percentages of subjects in the study group with persisting SBA-MenA titres ≥ 1∶8 or SBA-MenC titres ≥1∶8 at the age of 12 months prior to challenge were significantly higher than in control group (47.7% vs 25.7% and 56.4% vs 5.1% respectively). The administration of 10 μg of serogroup A polysaccharide increased the SBA-MenA GMT by 14.0-fold in the DTPW-HBV/HibMenAC-group compared to a 3.8 fold increase in the control-group. Corresponding fold-increases in SBA-MenC titres following challenge with 10 μg of group C polysaccharide were 18.8 and 1.9 respectively. Reactogenicity following primary vaccination or the administration of the challenge dose was similar in both groups, except for swelling (Grade 3) after primary vaccination which was more frequent in children in the

  12. Safety and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IPV/Hib) vaccine in healthy Vietnamese toddlers: An open-label, phase III study

    PubMed Central

    Anh, Dang Duc; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Karkada, Naveen; Assudani, Deepak; Yu, Ta-Wen; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-01-01

    abstract The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children <2 years of age (mean age: 15.8 months). During the 4-day follow-up period, pain (31.7%) and redness (27.3%) were the most frequent solicited local symptoms. Pain (2%) was also the most frequent grade 3 local symptom. One subject reported 2 serious adverse events that were not causally related to the study vaccine. DTPa-IPV/Hib conjugate vaccine was well tolerated as a booster dose in healthy Vietnamese children aged <2 years. PMID:26337197

  13. Safety and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IPV/Hib) vaccine in healthy Vietnamese toddlers: An open-label, phase III study.

    PubMed

    Anh, Dang Duc; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Karkada, Naveen; Assudani, Deepak; Yu, Ta-Wen; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-03-03

    The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children <2 years of age (mean age: 15.8 months). During the 4-day follow-up period, pain (31.7%) and redness (27.3%) were the most frequent solicited local symptoms. Pain (2%) was also the most frequent grade 3 local symptom. One subject reported 2 serious adverse events that were not causally related to the study vaccine. DTPa-IPV/Hib conjugate vaccine was well tolerated as a booster dose in healthy Vietnamese children aged <2 years.

  14. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  15. A phase III single arm, multicenter, open-label study to assess the immunogenicity and tolerability of a pentavalent DTwP–HepB–Hib vaccine in indian infants

    PubMed Central

    Eregowda, Adarsh; Lalwani, Sanjay; Chatterjee, Sukanta; Vakil, Hoshang; Ahmed, Khaleel; Costantini, Marco; Lattanzi, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Compliance with recommended vaccinations for Indian infants is facilitated by using combination vaccines to minimize the number of required injections. The ready-to-use, preservative free, fully-liquid combination DTwP–HepB–Hib vaccine, Quinvaxem®, offers convenience of administering five important vaccine antigens to infants in a single injection. This phase III, single-arm, multicenter study was designed to assess immunogenicity and safety of three doses of Quinvaxem® to Indian infants administered at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Blood samples were taken prior to the first dose and at one month post last vaccination. Infants were observed clinically for any reaction approximately 30 min following each vaccination, and parents completed subject diaries for solicited local, systemic and any adverse events (AEs) following over a 5 d period. DTwP–HepB–Hib vaccine elicited strong immune responses that exceeded seroprotection/seroconversion thresholds against all vaccine antigens. At one month after third vaccination, percentages of infants achieving predefined protective antibody levels were 99% diphtheria; 100% tetanus; 98% Hepatitis B; 100% Hib short-term (≥ 0.15 µg/mL); 95% Hib long-term (≥ 1.0 µg/mL) protection; and relevant immune response was 99% for pertussis. The vaccine was well tolerated, with no vaccine-related serious AEs. Only one case of high fever (≥ 40°C) was reported. The most frequently reported reactions were mild to moderate tenderness and erythema. Frequencies of all AEs declined with subsequent vaccinations. This study demonstrated that this convenient, fully-liquid DTwP–HepB–Hib vaccine is highly immunogenic and has a acceptable safety profile for use in Indian infants. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01470287. Clinical Trials Registry of India Number: CTRI/2011/11/002118 PMID:23783081

  16. Alpha Blockers

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions such as high blood pressure and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Find out more about this class of medication. ... these conditions: High blood pressure Enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia) Though alpha blockers are commonly used to treat ...

  17. Alpha fetoprotein

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alpha fetoprotein - series References Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, et al. Prenatal diagnosis and fetal therapy. In: Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, et al, eds. Williams Obstetrics . 23rd ed. ...

  18. Alpha Thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... an apparently normal individual has a child with hemoglobin H disease or alpha thalassemia minor. It can ... gene on one chromosome 25% 25% 25% 25% hemoglobin H disease there is a 25% chance with ...

  19. Human Infant Memory B Cell and CD4+ T Cell Responses to HibMenCY-TT Glyco-Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Fuery, Angela; Richmond, Peter C.; Currie, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Carrier-specific T cell and polysaccharide-specific B cell memory responses are not well characterised in infants following glyco-conjugate vaccination. We aimed to determine if the number of Meningococcal (Men) C- and Y- specific memory B cells and; number and quality of Tetanus Toxoid (TT) carrier-specific memory CD4+ T cells are associated with polysaccharide-specific IgG post HibMenCY-TT vaccination. Healthy infants received HibMenCY-TT vaccine at 2, 4 and 6 months with a booster at 12 months. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and polysaccharide-specific memory B cells enumerated using ELISpot. TT-specific memory CD4+ T cells were detected and phenotyped based on CD154 expression and intracellular TNF-α, IL-2 and IFN-γ expression following stimulation. Functional polysaccharide-specific IgG titres were measured using the serum bactericidal activity (SBA) assay. Polysaccharide-specific Men C- but not Men Y- specific memory B cell frequencies pre-boost (12 months) were significantly associated with post-boost (13 months) SBA titres. Regression analysis showed no association between memory B cell frequencies post-priming (at 6 or 7 months) and SBA at 12 months or 13 months. TT-specific CD4+ T cells were detected at frequencies between 0.001 and 0.112 as a percentage of CD3+ T cells, but their numbers were not associated with SBA titres. There were significant negative associations between SBA titres at M13 and cytokine expression at M7 and M12. Conclusion: Induction of persistent polysaccharide-specific memory B cells prior to boosting is an important determinant of secondary IgG responses in infants. However, polysaccharide-specific functional IgG responses appear to be independent of the number and quality of circulating carrier-specific CD4+ T cells after priming. PMID:26191794

  20. Immunogenicity and safety of four different doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b-tetanus toxoid conjugated vaccine, combined with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP-Hib), in Indonesian infants.

    PubMed

    Punjabi, Narain H; Richie, Emily L; Simanjuntak, Cyrus H; Harjanto, Sri Juliani; Wangsasaputra, Ferry; Arjoso, Sumarjati; Rofiq, Ainur; Prijanto, Mulyati; Julitasari; Yela, Ursula; Herzog, Christian; Cryz, Stanley J

    2006-03-10

    Widespread use of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugated vaccine in industrialized countries has resulted in a dramatic decline in the incidence of invasive Hib diseases, but the vaccine's cost has prevented its inclusion in basic immunization programs in developing countries. To overcome this problem, combination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine or reduction in the dose of Hib vaccine has been proposed. To evaluate the immunogenicity and adverse reactions from lower doses of Hib-polyribosylphosphate (PRP) conjugated with tetanus toxoid (PRP-T), a double-blind study was conducted in Jakarta, Indonesia, and its suburbs. A total of 1048 infants 6 weeks to 6 months of age received three doses of DTP vaccine combined with the usual 10 microg dose or with a reduced dose of 5, 2.5 or 1.25 microg of PRP-T at two-monthly intervals. Antibodies were measured prior to the first dose and 4-6 weeks following the third dose. Adverse reactions were similar among all four groups. The only significant difference was a higher rate of irritability (p<0.02) and of temperature elevation >38 degrees C (p<0.009) after doses 1 and 2 in the lowest dose group (1.25 microg PRP-T) compared to the other groups. All participants tested had a 4-fold increase in antibodies against all DTP antigens. In addition, after a fourth booster dose of Hib, 99.6% of infants produced >or=0.15 microg/ml of antibody to Hib-PRP, and 96.4% showed levels >or=1.0 microg/ml after primary immunization, level that correlate with short- and long-term immunity, respectively. Antibody titers to the PRP antigen showed no significant differences among dosage groups with the exception of the 5.0 microg group, which had a significantly higher GMC than the 1.25 microg group (p<0.012). This study demonstrates that primary vaccination with half, one-fourth, or one-eighth of the usual dose of PRP-T, combined with DTP vaccine, produces protective immune responses, and has side effects that are comparable

  1. An Intronic cis-Regulatory Element Is Crucial for the Alpha Tubulin Pl-Tuba1a Gene Activation in the Ciliary Band and Animal Pole Neurogenic Domains during Sea Urchin Development

    PubMed Central

    Cuttitta, Angela; Gianguzza, Fabrizio; Ragusa, Maria Antonietta

    2017-01-01

    In sea urchin development, structures derived from neurogenic territory control the swimming and feeding responses of the pluteus as well as the process of metamorphosis. We have previously isolated an alpha tubulin family member of Paracentrotus lividus (Pl-Tuba1a, formerly known as Pl-Talpha2) that is specifically expressed in the ciliary band and animal pole neurogenic domains of the sea urchin embryo. In order to identify cis-regulatory elements controlling its spatio-temporal expression, we conducted gene transfer experiments, transgene deletions and site specific mutagenesis. Thus, a genomic region of about 2.6 Kb of Pl-Tuba1a, containing four Interspecifically Conserved Regions (ICRs), was identified as responsible for proper gene expression. An enhancer role was ascribed to ICR1 and ICR2, while ICR3 exerted a pivotal role in basal expression, restricting Tuba1a expression to the proper territories of the embryo. Additionally, the mutation of the forkhead box consensus sequence binding site in ICR3 prevented Pl-Tuba1a expression. PMID:28141828

  2. Persistence of antibodies in 4-8 year old Austrian children after vaccination with hexavalent DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib and MMR vaccines.

    PubMed

    Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Fischmeister, Gustav; Grac, Ana; Rendi-Wagner, Pamela; Kundi, Michael; Mohsenzadeh-Rabbani, Afsaneh; Moritz, Katharina; Fenninger, Beate; Jarisch, Reinhart; Jasinska, Joanna; Holzmann, Heidemarie; Wiedermann, Ursula; Kollaritsch, Herwig

    2011-07-18

    To determine the proficiency of the Austrian childhood vaccination schedule to induce long lasting seroprotection against vaccine preventable diseases a seroepidemiological study in 348 children between four and eight years of age was conducted. Antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and rubella antigens were assessed in children, who had been vaccinated with hexavalent DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccines at three, four, five months and in the second year of life and/or MMR vaccines in the second year of life at least once, but mostly twice. High seroprotection rates (SPRs) were detected for tetanus (96%) and measles (90%). SPRs regarding diphtheria and mumps were 81% and 72%, respectively. Rubella-SPRs were 68% in females and 58% in males. Hepatitis B-antibody levels ≥10 mIU/mL were present in 52%; antibodies against pertussis were detected in 27% of the children. SPRs for measles and rubella depended on the interval since last vaccination; mumps-antibodies were significantly lower after one MMR-vaccination only. Antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis depended on the interval since last vaccination while HBs-antibodies did not. The low levels of antibodies 1-7 years after vaccination against pertussis, rubella and mumps after only one vaccination should be considered when recommending new vaccination schedules.

  3. DTaP-IPV-Hep B-Hib vaccine (Hexaxim®) : a review of its use in primary and booster vaccination.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Paul L

    2013-02-01

    Hexaxim(®) (DTaP-IPV-Hep B-Hib) is a new, thiomersal-free, fully liquid, hexavalent combination pediatric vaccine containing diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, recombinant hepatitis B virus surface antigen produced in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, and Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosylribitol phosphate) conjugated to tetanus toxoid. It is currently registered in markets outside of the EU for primary vaccination of infants from 6 weeks of age and for booster vaccination up to 24 months of age. In randomized controlled trials, primary vaccination of infants with Hexaxim(®) using various immunization schedules was highly immunogenic for all vaccine component antigens regardless of the administration schedule, producing high levels of seroprotection or seroconversion for each antigen. Hexaxim(®) was as immunogenic as the comparator DTwP- or DTaP-based vaccines in these studies. The serological responses were generally sustained at high levels over a follow-up of ≈1 year, and booster vaccination at 15-18 months further enhanced the immune response. Hexaxim(®) was less reactogenic than a DTwP-based combination vaccine, and displayed a tolerability profile similar to those of the comparator DTaP-based combination vaccines. Thus, Hexaxim(®) provides effective seroprotection or seroconversion against six major childhood diseases simultaneously, both as primary and booster vaccination, and offers the benefits and convenience of a fully liquid, ready-to-use vaccine.

  4. Partnership of PGC-1alpha and HNF4alpha in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rhee, James; Ge, Hongfei; Yang, Wenli; Fan, Melina; Handschin, Christoph; Cooper, Marcus; Lin, Jiandie; Li, Cai; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2006-05-26

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a transcriptional coactivator involved in several aspects of energy metabolism. It is induced or activated under different stimuli in a highly tissue-specific manner and subsequently partners with certain transcription factors in those tissues to execute various biological programs. In the fasted liver, PGC-1alpha is induced and interacts with hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha) and other transcription factors to activate gluconeogenesis and increase hepatic glucose output. Given the broad spectrum of liver genes responsive to HNF4alpha, we sought to determine those that were specifically targeted by the combination of PGC-1alpha and HNF4alpha. Coexpression of these two molecules in murine stem cells reveals a high induction of mRNA for apolipoproteins A-IV and C-II. Forced expression of PGC-1alpha in mouse and human hepatoma cells increases the mRNA of a subset of apolipoproteins implicated in very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride metabolism, including apolipoproteins A-IV, C-II, and C-III. Coactivation of the apoC-III/A-IV promoter region by PGC-1alpha occurs through a highly conserved HNF4alpha response element, the loss of which completely abolishes activation by PGC-1alpha and HNF4alpha. Adenoviral infusion of PGC-1alpha into live mice increases hepatic expression of apolipoproteins A-IV, C-II, and C-III and increases serum and very low density lipoprotein triglyceride levels. Conversely, knock down of PGC-1alpha in vivo causes a decrease in both apolipoprotein expression and serum triglyceride levels. These data point to a crucial role for the PGC-1alpha/HNF4alpha partnership in hepatic lipoprotein metabolism.

  5. A circularly permuted alpha-amylase-type alpha/beta-barrel structure in glucan-synthesizing glucosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, E A; Jespersen, H M; Svensson, B

    1996-01-15

    A motif of amino acid residues, located at the active site and specific beta-strands in alpha-amylases, is recognized in alpha-1,3- and alpha-1,6-glucan-synthesizing glucosyltransferases, leading to the conclusion that these enzymes contain an alpha/beta-barrel closely related to the (beta/alpha)8-fold of the alpha-amylase superfamily. The secondary structure elements of the transferase barrel, however, are circularly permuted to start with an alpha-helix equivalent to helix 3 in the alpha-amylases. Thus, the transferase counterpart of the long third beta-->alpha connection--constituting a domain in the alpha-amylases--is divided to precede and succeed the barrel. This architectural arrangement may be coupled to sucrose scission and glucosyl transfer. The involvement in the mechanism in glucosyltransferases of active site residues recurring in amylolytic enzymes is discussed.

  6. A Rainbow of Martian Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph or spectrum taken by the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the variety of elements present in the soil at the rover's landing site. In agreement with past missions to Mars, iron and silicon make up the majority of the martian soil. Sulfur and chlorine were also observed as expected. Trace elements detected for the first time include zinc and nickel. These latter observations demonstrate the power of the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to pick up the signatures of elements too faint to be seen before. The alpha particle X-ray spectrometer uses alpha particles and X-rays to measure the presence and abundance of all major rock-forming elements except hydrogen.

  7. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  8. Nondeletional alpha-thalassemia: first description of alpha Hph alpha and alpha Nco alpha mutations in a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Ayala, S; Colomer, D; Aymerich, M; Pujades, A; Vives-Corrons, J L

    1996-07-01

    Several different deletions underlie the molecular basis of alpha-thalassemia. The most common alpha-thalassemia determinant in Spain is the rightward deletion (-alpha 3.7). To our knowledge, however, no cases of alpha-thalassemia due to nondeletional mutations have so far been described in this particular Mediterranean area. Here, we report the existence of nondeletional forms of alpha-thalassemia in ten Spanish families. The alpha 2-globin gene was characterized in ten unrelated patients and their relatives only when the presence of deletional alpha-thalassemia was ruled out. The alpha 2-globin gene analysis was performed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction enzyme analysis or by allelespecific priming. This allowed the identification of a 5-base pair (bp) deletion at the donor site of IVS I (alpha Hph alpha) in 9 cases and the alpha 2 initiation codon mutation (alpha Nco alpha) in one case. Although these alpha 2-globin gene mutations are found in other mediterranean areas, our results demonstrate their presence in the Spanish population and suggest that the alpha Hph alpha/alpha alpha genotype is probably the most common nondeletional form of alpha-thalassemia in Spain.

  9. STIS Spectroscopy of the Lyman-Alpha Forest Toward 3C 273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Williger, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    We present results on the low-redshift Lyman-alpha forest as based on high-resolution (7 km/s) STIS spectra of 3C 273. A total of 121 intergalactic Lyman-alpha-absorbing systems were detected, of which 60 are above the 3.5sigma completeness limit, logNu(sub HI) approximately equals 12.3. The median line-width parameter, b = 27 km/s, is similar to that seen at high redshift. However the distribution of HI column densities has a steeper slope, beta = 2.02+/-0.21, than is seen at high redshift. Overall, the observed Nu(sub HI)-b distribution is consistent with that derived from a ACDM hydrodynamic simulation. We have used NED to compile a list of 300 galaxies (91 from SDSS, 98 from APM) within 1 Mpc of the line of sight to 3C 273 and are working to find line-of-sight velocity correlations between the galaxies and detected Lyman-alpha absorbers.

  10. Discovery of element 112

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, S.

    1996-12-31

    The new elements 110, 111, and 112 were synthesized and unambiguously identified in experiments at SHIP. Due to strong shell effects the dominant decay mode is not fission, but emission of alpha particles. Theoretical investigations predict that maximum shell effects should exist in nuclei near proton number 114 and neutron number 184. Measurements give hope that isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical Superheavy Elements could be produced by fusion reactions using {sup 118}Pb as target. systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that transfer of nucleons is the important process to initiate the fusion.

  11. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    PubMed

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-03

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  12. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles (4He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei—nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons—is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the ‘adiabatic projection method’ to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  13. alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    alpha - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( alpha - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 84 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Ass

  14. Alpha Hydroxy Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cosmetics Home Cosmetics Products & Ingredients Ingredients Alpha Hydroxy Acids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... for Industry: Labeling for Cosmetics Containing Alpha Hydroxy Acids The following information is intended to answer questions ...

  15. Lasting immune memory against hepatitis B in 12–13-year-old adolescents previously vaccinated with 4 doses of hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Behre, Ulrich; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Crasta, Priya; Hanssens, Linda; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Vaccinating infants against hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most effective way of preventing the disease. However, since HBV exposure can increase during adolescence, it is essential that antibody persistence is maintained. We evaluated the antibody persistence and immune memory against hepatitis B, in 12-13 y olds who had received complete primary + booster vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus/Haemophilus influenza type b (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) vaccine in infancy. Methods: Open phase-IV study conducted at 12 centers in Germany [NCT02052661]. Adolescents aged 12-13 y, vaccinated with 4 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (Infanrix hexa™, GSK Vaccines) in infancy, received a single challenge dose of monovalent pediatric hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix™-B Kinder; GSK Vaccines). Blood samples were taken before and 1-month post-challenge to measure anti-hepatitis B (anti-HBs) antibodies using a chemiluminescence immunoassay (seroprotection cut-off: ≥10 mIU/ml). Post-challenge adverse events (AEs) were monitored. Results: 300 subjects were vaccinated; of 293 subjects in the ATP immunogenicity cohort, 60.5% had pre-challenge anti-HBs antibodies ≥10 mIU/ml, which rose to 97.6% post-challenge (≥100 mIU/ml in 94.1%). An anamnestic response was seen in 96.5% subjects. A 150-fold increase in antibody geometric mean concentrations was observed (22.4 to 3502.6 mIU/ml). Pain (44%) and fatigue (24.3%) were the most frequent solicited local and general AEs, respectively; 14.7% subjects reported unsolicited symptoms during the 31-day post-vaccination period. Two vaccine-unrelated serious AEs occurred. Conclusion: Vaccination with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib in infancy induces sustained seroprotection and immune memory against HBV, as shown by the strong anamnestic response to the hepatitis B vaccine challenge in 12-13 year-old adolescents. PMID:27653771

  16. The Alpha Centauri System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderblom, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Alpha Centauri star system, which is the closest star system to the sun. Discusses the difficulties associated with measurements involving Alpha Centauri, along with some of the recent advances in stellar seismology. Raises questions about the possibilities of planets around Alpha Centauri. (TW)

  17. TFTR alpha extraction and measurement: Development and testing of advanced alpha detectors: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wehring, B.W.

    1988-02-15

    Advanced alpha-particle detectors made of heavy elements were investigated as alternatives to silicon surface-barrier detectors for the ''foil-neutralization technique'' of alpha-particle diagnostics in fusion reactors with high neutron backgrounds. From an extensive literature review, it was decided that HgI/sub 2/ would make a more suitable detector for alpha-particle diagnostics than other heavy element detectors such as CdTe. Thus, HgI/sub 2/ detectors were designed and fabricated. Experimental tests were performed to determine detector characteristics and detector responses to alpha particles. Radiation noise measurements were also performed using the North Carolina State University PULSTAR nuclear reactor for both the HgI/sub 2/ detectors and commercial Si(Au) surface barrier detectors. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Immune memory to hepatitis B persists in children aged 7-8 years, who were vaccinated in infancy with 4 doses of hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (Infanrix™ hexa) vaccine.

    PubMed

    Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Bleckmann, Gerhard; Crasta, Priya D

    2014-01-01

    Protection against hepatitis B disease relies on either protective serum antibodies or on the ability of the immune system to mount an anamnestic response when confronted with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). This open multicenter study (EUDRACT: 2010-022538-10) measured antibodies to HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs) in 7-8-year-old children who had received 4 doses of hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-HBV-inactivated poliovirus-Hemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib: Infanrix™ hexa; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) in the first 2 years of life through routine vaccine services in Germany. The ability of these children to mount an anamnestic response to a challenge dose of monovalent HBV vaccine (Engerix™ B Kinder; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) was also assessed. Before the challenge dose, 78.5% of children had anti-HBs levels ≥6.2 mIU/mL (seropositive) and 72.2% had anti-HBs levels ≥10 mIU/mL (seroprotected). Post-challenge, 98.9% had anti-HBs levels ≥10 mIU/mL and 95.8% had anti-HBs ≥100 mIU/mL. An anamnestic response to the challenge was observed in 96.6% of all subjects. The challenge dose was well tolerated, with a reactogenicity and safety profile consistent with published data. DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib induces long-lasting immune memory to HBV that appears very similar to that induced by monovalent HBV vaccines. Protection against hepatitis B may be conferred through immune memory in subjects who responded to primary vaccination, even when they subsequently lose detectable levels of circulating anti-HBs antibodies.

  19. Alpha self-irradiation effects in ternary oxides of actinides elements: The zircon-like phases Am IIIVO 4 and AIINp IV(VO 4) 2 ( A=Sr, Pb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goubard, F.; Griesmar, P.; Tabuteau, A.

    2005-06-01

    We report the experimental studies of irradiation damage from alpha decay in neptunium and americium vanadates versus cumulative dose. The isotopes used were the transuranium α-emitter 237Np and the α,γ-emitter 241Am. Neptunium and americium vanadates self-irradiation was studied by X-ray diffraction method (XRD). The comparison of the powder diffraction patterns reveal that the irradiation has no apparent effect on the neptunium phases while the americium vanadate swells and becomes metamict as a function of cumulative dose.

  20. Elemental abundance analyses with the EBASIM spectrograph of the 2.1-m CASLEO Observatory Telescope. I. The late B and early A stars vec xi Octantis, alpha Sextantis, and 68 Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintado, O. I.; Adelman, S. J.

    2003-08-01

    We used data from the EBASIM spectrograph of the 2.1-m CASLEO telescope to study three rather sharp-lined late B to early A stars xi Oct (B6 IV), alpha Sex (B9.5 III), and 68 Tau (A2 IV). These measurements are compared with those from the Anglo-Austrialian Telescope for the first star and to those from the coudé spectrograph of the 1.22-m telescope of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) for the other two stars. The equivalent width scales of the EBASIM and the DAO data are similar. Thus for the latter two stars the DAO data is also used in the analyses. Both xi Oct and alpha Sex generally have abundances close to those of the Sun in the range of values found for other normal stars with similar effective temperatures. The abundance pattern for 68 Tau is that of a metallic-lined star as is well known. Tables 5 to 7 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/406/987

  1. Proceedings of transuranium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The identification of the first synthetic elements was established by chemical evidence. Conclusive proof of the synthesis of the first artificial element, technetium, was published in 1937 by Perrier and Segre. An essential aspect of their achievement was the prediction of the chemical properties of element 43, which had been missing from the periodic table and which was expected to have properties similar to those of manganese and rhenium. The discovery of other artificial elements, astatine and francium, was facilitated in 1939-1940 by the prediction of their chemical properties. A little more than 50 years ago, in the spring of 1940, Edwin McMillan and Philip Abelson synthesized element 93, neptunium, and confirmed its uniqueness by chemical means. On August 30, 1940, Glenn Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, and the late Joseph Kennedy began their neutron irradiations of uranium nitrate hexahydrate. A few months later they synthesized element 94, later named plutonium, by observing the alpha particles emitted from uranium oxide targets that had been bombarded with deuterons. Shortly thereafter they proved that is was the second transuranium element by establishing its unique oxidation-reduction behavior. The symposium honored the scientists and engineers whose vision and dedication led to the discovery of the transuranium elements and to the understanding of the influence of 5f electrons on their electronic structure and bonding. This volume represents a record of papers presented at the symposium.

  2. Interpreting EEG alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Bazanova, O M; Vernon, D

    2014-07-01

    Exploring EEG alpha oscillations has generated considerable interest, in particular with regards to the role they play in cognitive, psychomotor, psycho-emotional and physiological aspects of human life. However, there is no clearly agreed upon definition of what constitutes 'alpha activity' or which of the many indices should be used to characterize it. To address these issues this review attempts to delineate EEG alpha-activity, its physical, molecular and morphological nature, and examine the following indices: (1) the individual alpha peak frequency; (2) activation magnitude, as measured by alpha amplitude suppression across the individual alpha bandwidth in response to eyes opening, and (3) alpha "auto-rhythmicity" indices: which include intra-spindle amplitude variability, spindle length and steepness. Throughout, the article offers a number of suggestions regarding the mechanism(s) of alpha activity related to inter and intra-individual variability. In addition, it provides some insights into the various psychophysiological indices of alpha activity and highlights their role in optimal functioning and behavior.

  3. Immunogenicity of one, two or three doses of a meningococcal C conjugate vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid, given as a three-dose primary vaccination course in UK infants at 2, 3 and 4 months of age with acellular pertussis-containing DTP/Hib vaccine.

    PubMed

    Southern, J; Crowley-Luke, A; Borrow, R; Andrews, N; Miller, E

    2006-01-12

    Reduction of the number of injections necessary to confer protection in the infant schedule would reduce discomfort, improve cost-effectiveness and create space for the addition of new vaccinations in the future. This study assessed the immunogenicity of one, two or three doses of meningococcal C conjugate vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MCC-TT) [Neis-VacC] given concomitantly with a combined diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis/Haemophilus influenzae type b -TT conjugate (DTaP-Hib-TT) [Infanrix-Hib] vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months of age. A total of 106 healthy UK infants were enrolled and randomised into two groups, one in which blood was taken after the first and third dose and the other after the second and third dose. The meningococcal serogroup C serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) geometric mean titre (GMT) rose significantly from post-first dose (491, 95% CI 275, 877) to post-second dose (1052, 95% CI 774, 1433) (p=0.03), with no significant change after the third dose (1024, 95% CI 768, 1366). An SBA titre of >or=8 was achieved by 92% after the first dose and 100% after the second and third doses. The Hib IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC) rose significantly after each dose: post-first (0.14 microg/ml 95% CI 0.10, 0.18), post-second (0.54 microg/ml, 95% CI 0.33, 0.90), post-third (2.04 microg/ml, 95% CI 1.52, 2.74). The Hib GMC after the third dose was higher than reported previously when this DTaP/Hib was given either on its own or concomitantly with a MCC-CRM conjugate vaccine according to the UK 2, 3 and 4 month schedule. This suggests some enhancement of the response to a Hib-TT vaccine by concomitant administration of MCC-TT. These results suggest that a reduced number of doses of MCC-TT would be adequate in infancy if given concomitantly with an acellular pertussis-containing vaccine.

  4. The alpha glycerophosphate cycle in Drosophila melanogaster V. molecular analysis of alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and alpha glycerophosphate oxidase mutants.

    PubMed

    Carmon, Amber; Chien, Jeff; Sullivan, David; MacIntyre, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Two enzymes, alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH-1) in the cytoplasm and alpha glycerophosphate oxidase (GPO-1) in the mitochondrion cooperate in Drosophila flight muscles to generate the ATP needed for muscle contraction. Null mutants for either enzyme cannot fly. Here, we characterize 15 ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-induced mutants in GPDH-1 at the molecular level and assess their effects on structural and evolutionarily conserved domains of this enzyme. In addition, we molecularly characterize 3 EMS-induced GPO-1 mutants and excisions of a P element insertion in the GPO-1 gene. The latter represent the best candidate for null or amorphic mutants in this gene.

  5. ALPHA CONTAMINATION MONITORING

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This project was conducted to determine the alpha hazard existing in the vicinity of the missile launch pad following the destruction of a missile ...were used for plutonium particle collection. Because all warhead-carrying missiles were properly launched after Project 2.3 was approved, no alpha contamination data was obtained.

  6. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  7. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  8. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, Richard D.; MacArthur, Duncan W.

    1996-01-01

    An electrostatic detector for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure.

  9. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, R.D.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-08-27

    An electrostatic detector is disclosed for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure. 6 figs.

  10. Alpha-particle diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {alpha}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {alpha}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {alpha}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {alpha}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Reexamination of the {alpha}-{alpha}''fishbone'' potential

    SciTech Connect

    Day, J. P.; McEwen, J. E.; Elhanafy, M.; Smith, E.; Woodhouse, R.; Papp, Z.

    2011-09-15

    The fishbone potential of composite particles simulates the Pauli effect by nonlocal terms. We determine the {alpha}-{alpha} fishbone potential by simultaneously fitting to two-{alpha} resonance energies, experimental phase shifts, and three-{alpha} binding energies. We found that, essentially, a simple Gaussian can provide a good description of two-{alpha} and three-{alpha} experimental data without invoking three-body potentials.

  12. The alpha channeling effect

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-10

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  13. An alpha particle instrument with alpha, proton, and X-ray modes for planetary chemical analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Economou, T. E.; Turkevich, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of alpha particles with matter is employed in a compact instrument that could provide rather complete in-situ chemical analyses of surfaces and thin atmospheres of extraterrestrial bodies. The instrument is a miniaturized and improved version of the Surveyor lunar instrument. The backscattering of alpha particles and (alpha, p) reactions provide analytical data on the light elements (carbon-iron). An X-ray mode that detects the photons produced by the alpha sources provides sensitivity and resolution for the chemical elements heavier than about silicon. The X-rays are detected by semiconductor detectors having a resolution between 150 and 250 eV at 5.9 keV. Such an instrument can identify and determine with good accuracy 99 percent of the atoms (except hydrogen) in rocks. For many trace elements, the detecting sensitivity is a few ppm. Auxiliary sources could be used to enhance the sensitivities for elements of special interest. The instrument could probably withstand the acceleration involved in semi-hard landings.

  14. Alpha One Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    Languages French (Francais) German (Deutsch) Italian (Italiano) Spanish (Español) Portuguese (Portugues) Swedish (Svenska) Donate One Time Monthly Keep In Touch | About Us | Contact Us | What is the Alpha-1 ...

  15. Coaching the alpha male.

    PubMed

    Ludeman, Kate; Erlandson, Eddie

    2004-05-01

    Highly intelligent, confident, and successful, alpha males represent about 70% of all senior executives. Natural leaders, they willingly take on levels of responsibility most rational people would find overwhelming. But many of their quintessential strengths can also make alphas difficult to work with. Their self-confidence can appear domineering. Their high expectations can make them excessively critical. Their unemotional style can keep them from inspiring their teams. That's why alphas need coaching to broaden their interpersonal tool kits while preserving their strengths. Drawing from their experience coaching more than 1,000 senior executives, the authors outline an approach tailored specifically for the alpha. Coaches get the alpha's attention by inundating him with data from 360-degree feedback presented in ways he will find compelling--both hard-boiled metrics and vivid verbatim comments from colleagues about his strengths and weaknesses. A 360-degree assessment is a wake-up call for most alphas, providing undeniable proof that their behavior doesn't work nearly as well as they think it does. That paves the way for a genuine commitment to change. In order to change, the alpha must venture into unfamiliar--and often uncomfortable--psychological territory. He must admit vulnerability, accept accountability not just for his own work for others', connect with his underlying emotions, learn to motivate through a balance of criticism and validation, and become aware of unproductive behavior patterns. The goal of executive coaching is not simply to treat the alpha as an individual problem but to improve the entire team dynamic. Initial success creates an incentive to persevere, and the virtuous cycle reverberates throughout the entire organization.

  16. alpha2-Adrenoreceptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mayer, P; Imbert, T

    2001-06-01

    A review of the literature relating to the therapeutic potential of alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists published between 1990 and 2000 is presented. Although extensively studied since the early 1970s in a wide spectrum of therapeutic applications, the distinction of alpha2-adrenoceptor subtypes and some emerging evidence concerning new applications in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, obesity and schizophrenia, have refreshed an interest in this class of agents.

  17. Alpha Particle Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Ray, K.

    2009-05-13

    The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

  18. Summary of alpha-neutron sources in GADRAS.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean James; Thoreson, Gregory G.; Harding, Lee T.

    2012-05-01

    A common source of neutrons for calibration and testing is alpha-neutron material, named for the alpha-neutron nuclear reaction that occurs within. This material contains a long-lived alpha-emitter and a lighter target element. When the alpha particle from the emitter is absorbed by the target, neutrons and gamma rays are released. Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) includes built-in alpha-neutron source definitions for AcC, AmB, AmBe, AmF, AmLi, CmC, and PuC. In addition, GADRAS users may create their own alpha-neutron sources by placing valid alpha-emitters and target elements in materials within their one-dimensional models (1DModel). GADRAS has the ability to use pre-built alpha-neutron sources for plotting or as trace-sources in 1D models. In addition, if any material (existing or user-defined) specified in a 1D model contains both an alpha emitter in conjunction with a target nuclide, or there is an interface between such materials, then the appropriate neutron-emission rate from the alpha-neutron reaction will be computed. The gamma-emissions from these sources are also computed, but are limited to a subset of nine target nuclides. If a user has experimental data to contribute to the alpha-neutron gamma emission database, it may be added directly or submitted to the GADRAS developers for inclusion. The gadras.exe.config file will be replaced when GADRAS updates are installed, so sending the information to the GADRAS developers is the preferred method for updating the database. This is also preferable because it enables other users to benefit from your efforts.

  19. Elemental ZOO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helser, Terry L.

    2003-04-01

    This puzzle uses the symbols of 39 elements to spell the names of 25 animals found in zoos. Underlined spaces and the names of the elements serve as clues. To solve the puzzle, students must find the symbols that correspond to the elemental names and rearrange them into the animals' names.

  20. Alpha irradiation modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Keeton, S C; Mount, M E

    1999-03-26

    With the end of the Cold War and the associated limitations imposed on the nuclear weapons stockpile by strategic arms treaties, much has changed in the stockpile stewardship program. Weapons that were originally designed for stockpile lives on the order of 15 to 20 years are now being evaluated for much longer periods: in some cases as much as 60 years. As such, issues that were once considered to be of no consequence are being reexamined. Among these is the extent of the radiation dose received by secondary organics over time that results from the intrinsic alpha source of the weapon components. This report describes the results of work performed to estimate the alpha radiation deposition in the organic components of an LLNL system at specific points in its stockpile life. Included are discussions of the development of the intrinsic time- and energy-dependent alpha source term per unit mass, estimation of the effective source and absorber material thicknesses, development of a simplified model for the total intrinsic alpha source term and energy deposition in the absorber, and the alpha radiation deposition in the organic components of a selected LLNL weapon.

  1. Estrogen Receptor Alpha G525L Knock-In-Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Padilla-Banks E, Clark G, Newbold RR. Assessing estrogenic activity of phytochemicals using transcriptional activation and immature mouse...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0347 TITLE: Estrogen Receptor Alpha G525L...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Estrogen Receptor Alpha G525L Knock-In Mice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0347 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  2. Differential regulation of constitutive androstane receptor expression by hepatocyte nuclear factor4alpha isoforms.

    PubMed

    Pascussi, Jean Marc; Robert, Agnes; Moreau, Amelie; Ramos, Jeanne; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Navarro, Francis; Blanc, Pierre; Assenat, Eric; Maurel, Patrick; Vilarem, Marie Jose

    2007-05-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) controls the metabolism and elimination of endogenous and exogenous toxic compounds by up-regulating a battery of genes. In this work, we analyzed the expression of human CAR (hCAR) in normal liver during development and in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and investigated the effect of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha isoforms (HNF4alpha1 and HNF4alpha7) on the hCAR gene promoter. By performing functional analysis of hCAR 5'-deletions including mutants, chromatin immunoprecipitation in human hepatocytes, electromobility shift and cotransfection assays, we identified a functional and species-conserved HNF4alpha response element (DR1: ccAGGCCTtTGCCCTga) at nucleotide -144. Both HNF4alpha isoforms bind to this element with similar affinity. However, HNF4alpha1 strongly enhanced hCAR promoter activity whereas HNF4alpha7 was a poor activator and acted as a repressor of HNF4alpha1-mediated transactivation of the hCAR promoter. PGC1alpha stimulated both HNF4alpha1-mediated and HNF4alpha7-mediated hCAR transactivation to the same extent, whereas SRC1 exhibited a marked specificity for HNF4alpha1. Transduction of human hepatocytes by HNF4alpha7-expressing lentivirus confirmed this finding. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between CAR and HNF4alpha1 mRNA levels in human liver samples during development, and an inverse correlation between CAR and HNF4alpha7 mRNA levels in HCC. These observations suggest that HNF4alpha1 positively regulates hCAR expression in normal developing and adult livers, whereas HNF4alpha7 represses hCAR gene expression in HCC.

  3. ALPHA MIS: Reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lovin, J.K.; Haese, R.L.; Heatherly, R.D.; Hughes, S.E.; Ishee, J.S.; Pratt, S.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1992-02-01

    ALPHA is a powerful and versatile management information system (MIS) initiated and sponsored and by the Finance and Business Management Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who maintain and develop it in concert with the Business Systems Division for its Information Center. A general-purpose MIS, ALPHA allows users to access System 1022 and System 1032 databases to obtain and manage information. From a personal computer or a data terminal, Energy Systems employees can use ALPHA to control their own report reprocessing. Using four general commands (Database, Select, Sort, and Report) they can (1) choose a mainframe database, (2) define subsets within it, (3) sequentially order a subset by one or more variables, and (4) generate a report with their own or a canned format.

  4. The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

    1973-01-01

    Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

  5. New elements produced at GSI

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, Sigurd

    1998-12-21

    In two series of experiments at SHIP, six new elements (Z=107-112) were synthesized via fusion reactions using lead or bismuth targets and 1n-deexcitation channels. The isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of {alpha}-{alpha} correlations. Not fission, but alpha decay is the dominant decay mode. Cross-sections decrease by two orders of magnitude from bohrium (Z=107) to element 112, for which a cross-section of 1 pb was measured. Based on our results, it is likely that the production of isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical SuperHeavy Elements (SHE) could be achieved by fusion reactions using {sup 208}Pb targets. Systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that the transfer of nucleons is an important process for the initiation of fusion. The data allow for the fixing of a narrow energy window for the production of SHE using 1n-emission channels. The likelihood of broadening the energy window by investigation of radiative capture reactions, use of neutron deficient projectile isotopes and use of actinide targets is discussed.

  6. Alpha particle losses from Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor deuterium-tritium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, D.S.; Zweben, S.J.; Batha, S.

    1996-01-01

    Because alpha particle losses can have a significant influence on tokamak reactor viability, the loss of deuterium-tritium alpha particles from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been measured under a wide range of conditions. In TFTR, first orbit loss and stochastic toroidal field ripple diffusion are always present. Other losses can arise due to magnetohydrodynamic instabilities or due to waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. No alpha particle losses have yet been seen due to collective instabilities driven by alphas. Ion Bernstein waves can drive large losses of fast ions from TFTR, and details of those losses support one element of the alpha energy channeling scenario.

  7. From Alpha to Omega

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czaja, Paul Clement

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha point of the authors' life as a Montessori educator began in 1959, when he was a graduate student studying philosophy at Fordham University in the Bronx, New York. While studying the works of the great American philosopher William James, the author came across the writings of Maria Montessori and immediately became captivated by her…

  8. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  9. Radial-velocity variations in Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco, and Alpha Her

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.A.; Patten, B.M.; Goldberg, L. Computer Sciences Corp., Seabrook, MD Iowa State Univ., Ames )

    1989-12-01

    Radial-velocity observations of Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco A, and Alpha Her A are used to study radial-velocity periodicities in M supergiants. The data refer to several metallic lines in the H-alpha region and to H-alpha itself. It is shown that Alpha Ori and Alpha Sco A have cycle lengths of about 1 yr and semiamplitudes of 2 km/s. It is suggested that many semiregular red supergiant varibles such as Alpha Ori may be heading toward chaos. All three stars show short-term stochastic flucutations with an amplitude of 1-2 km/s. It is found that the long-term variability of H-alpha velocities may be a consequence of intermittent failed ejections. 58 refs.

  10. Chemical characterization of element 112.

    PubMed

    Eichler, R; Aksenov, N V; Belozerov, A V; Bozhikov, G A; Chepigin, V I; Dmitriev, S N; Dressler, R; Gäggeler, H W; Gorshkov, V A; Haenssler, F; Itkis, M G; Laube, A; Lebedev, V Ya; Malyshev, O N; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Petrushkin, O V; Piguet, D; Rasmussen, P; Shishkin, S V; Shutov, A V; Svirikhin, A I; Tereshatov, E E; Vostokin, G K; Wegrzecki, M; Yeremin, A V

    2007-05-03

    The heaviest elements to have been chemically characterized are seaborgium (element 106), bohrium (element 107) and hassium (element 108). All three behave according to their respective positions in groups 6, 7 and 8 of the periodic table, which arranges elements according to their outermost electrons and hence their chemical properties. However, the chemical characterization results are not trivial: relativistic effects on the electronic structure of the heaviest elements can strongly influence chemical properties. The next heavy element targeted for chemical characterization is element 112; its closed-shell electronic structure with a filled outer s orbital suggests that it may be particularly susceptible to strong deviations from the chemical property trends expected within group 12. Indeed, first experiments concluded that element 112 does not behave like its lighter homologue mercury. However, the production and identification methods used cast doubt on the validity of this result. Here we report a more reliable chemical characterization of element 112, involving the production of two atoms of (283)112 through the alpha decay of the short-lived (287)114 (which itself forms in the nuclear fusion reaction of 48Ca with 242Pu) and the adsorption of the two atoms on a gold surface. By directly comparing the adsorption characteristics of (283)112 to that of mercury and the noble gas radon, we find that element 112 is very volatile and, unlike radon, reveals a metallic interaction with the gold surface. These adsorption characteristics establish element 112 as a typical element of group 12, and its successful production unambiguously establishes the approach to the island of stability of superheavy elements through 48Ca-induced nuclear fusion reactions with actinides.

  11. Elemental health

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.

    1997-01-01

    Trace elements used in nutritional supplements and vitamins are discussed in the article. Relevant studies are briefly cited regarding the health effects of selenium, chromium, germanium, silicon, zinc, magnesium, silver, manganese, ruthenium, lithium, and vanadium. The toxicity and food sources are listed for some of the elements. A brief summary is also provided of the nutritional supplements market.

  12. Light elements depletion in stellar environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Blagus, S.; Bogovac, M.; Carlin, N.; Cherubini, S.; Crucillá, V.; Milin, M.; De Moura, M. M.; Gameiro Munhoz, M.; Gimenez del Santo, M.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Liguori Neto, R.; Miljanić, D.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Sergi, M. L.; Soić, N.; Souza, F. A.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Szanto, E.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.; Typel, S.

    Big efforts have been devoted in the last years to the study of light elements abundances. Definitively their importance is strongly related to cosmology as well as to stellar structure and evolution. In fact hints on the primordial nucleosynthesis can be achieved from Li, Be and B primordial abundances. Moreover these studies can be a precious tool for testing and understanding the inner stellar structure, especially for what regards the mixing processes in stellar envelopes \\citep{boesgard04}. In this framework the different nuclear processes which produce or destroy Li, Be and B must be studied in details and an accurate knowledge of the involved nuclear cross sections is necessary. In particular we will focus our attention on one of the main destruction channels for these elements in stellar environments, the (p,alpha ) reactions. In particular this work will review the last results achieved by the Trojan Horse Method (THM) for the 6Li(p,alpha )3He, 6Li(d,alpha )4He, 7Li(p,alpha )4He, 10B(p,alpha )7Be, 9Be(p,alpha )6Li and 11B(p,alpha )8Be.

  13. Summary of Alpha Particle Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.

    1998-08-19

    This paper summarizes the talks on alpha particle transport which were presented at the 5th International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Committee Meeting on "Alpha Particles in Fusion Research" held at the Joint European Torus, England in September 1997.

  14. HB Hillingdon [alpha46(CE4)Phe-->Val (alpha1 Or alpha2)]: a new alpha chain hemoglobin variant.

    PubMed

    Babb, Anna; Solaiman, Susannah; Green, Brian N; Mantio, Debbie; Patel, Ketan

    2009-01-01

    Routine antenatal hemoglobinopathy screening detected a new alpha chain variant that eluted with Hb A(2) on cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in a lady of Sri Lankan origin who had normal hematological indices. The mutation was identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) as alpha46(CE4)Phe-->Val, inferring that the variant was due to a single base change at codon 46 (TTC>GTC) of the alpha1- or alpha2-globin genes.

  15. Simultaneous quantification of GABAergic 3alpha,5alpha/3alpha,5beta neuroactive steroids in human and rat serum.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Patrizia; O'Buckley, Todd K; Alward, Sarah E; Marx, Christine E; Shampine, Lawrence J; Girdler, Susan S; Morrow, A Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced derivatives of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone enhance GABAergic neurotransmission and produce inhibitory neurobehavioral and anti-inflammatory effects. Despite substantial information on the progesterone derivative (3alpha,5alpha)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP, allopregnanolone), the physiological significance of the other endogenous GABAergic neuroactive steroids has remained elusive. Here, we describe the validation of a method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to simultaneously identify serum levels of the eight 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced derivatives of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone. The method shows specificity, sensitivity and enhanced throughput compared to other methods already available for neuroactive steroid quantification. Administration of pregnenolone to rats and progesterone to women produced selective effects on the 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced neuroactive steroids, indicating differential regulation of their biosynthetic pathways. Pregnenolone administration increased serum levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP (+1488%, p<0.001), (3alpha,5alpha)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THDOC, +205%, p<0.01), (3alpha,5alpha)-3-hydroxyandrostan-17-one (3alpha,5alpha-A, +216%, p<0.001), (3alpha,5alpha,17beta)-androstane-3,17-diol (3alpha,5alpha-A-diol, +190%, p<0.01). (3alpha,5beta)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5beta-THP) and (3alpha,5beta)-3-hydroxyandrostan-17-one (3alpha,5beta-A) were not altered, while (3alpha,5beta)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5beta-THDOC) and (3alpha,5beta,17beta)-androstane-3,17-diol (3alpha,5beta-A-diol) were increased from undetectable levels to 271+/-100 and 2.4+/-0.9 pg+/-SEM, respectively (5/8 rats). Progesterone administration increased serum levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP (+1806%, p<0.0001), 3alpha,5beta-THP (+575%, p<0.001), 3alpha,5alpha

  16. The ALPHA Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viertel, G. M.; Capell, M.

    1998-12-01

    The ALPHA Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) will be the first large magnetic spectrometer in space. It is scheduled to be installed on the future International Space Station ALPHA (ISSA) in the year 2002 to perform measurements of the charged particle composition to answer fundamental questions in particle physics and astrophysics. Before installation on ISSA, AMS will fly on the shuttle DISCOVERY for a period of 10 days starting in May 1998. This will enable AMS to perform a test of the apparatus and first measurements. The AMS detector has five major components: A permanent NdFeB magnet, six planes of Silicon double-sided microstrip detectors, a plastic scintillator time of flight hodoscope, a plastic scintillator anticoincidence counter and an Aerogel Cherenkov threshold counter. In addition, there are electronics, support infrastructure and interfaces.

  17. Elemental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini; Saat, Rohaida Mohd.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a learning module integrating three disciplines--physics, chemistry, and biology--and based on four elements: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and silicon. Includes atomic model and silicon-based life activities. (YDS)

  18. Superheavy Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of creating elements with an atomic number of around 114. Describes the underlying physics responsible for the limited extent of the periodic table and enumerates problems that must be overcome in creating a superheavy nucleus. (GS)

  19. Element 117

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-09-30

    An international team of scientists from Russia and the United States, including two Department of Energy national laboratories and two universities, has discovered the newest superheavy element, element 117. The team included scientists from the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia), the Research Institute for Advanced Reactors (Dimitrovgrad), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Vanderbilt University, and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

  20. Element 117

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-08

    An international team of scientists from Russia and the United States, including two Department of Energy national laboratories and two universities, has discovered the newest superheavy element, element 117. The team included scientists from the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia), the Research Institute for Advanced Reactors (Dimitrovgrad), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Vanderbilt University, and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

  1. The primary transcription unit of the human alpha 2 globin gene defined by quantitative RT/PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Owczarek, C M; Enriquez-Harris, P; Proudfoot, N J

    1992-01-01

    We have set up an experimental system to map the primary transcription unit of the human alpha 2 globin gene. The duplicated human alpha globin genes (alpha 2-alpha 1) were linked to the alpha globin locus Positive Regulatory Element (PRE) and stably transfected into murine erythroleukaemia cells. We then developed a quantitative reverse transcriptase, polymerase chain reaction assay to map alpha 2 primary transcripts using primer pairs derived from different parts of the alpha 2 globin gene and its 3' flanking region. This approach has revealed the presence of steady state nuclear RNA past the poly(A) site of the alpha 2 globin gene at approximately 40% of the level of unspliced intron transcript. Furthermore, these 3' flanking transcripts diminish 500 bp into the 3' flanking region, identifying this part of the alpha 2 globin gene as the principal region of termination of transcription. Images PMID:1371868

  2. IGFBP-3, hypoxia and TNF-{alpha} inhibit adiponectin transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Zappala, Giovanna; Rechler, Matthew M.

    2009-05-15

    The thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone, an agonist ligand for the nuclear receptor PPAR-{gamma}, improves insulin sensitivity in part by stimulating transcription of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin. It activates PPAR-{gamma}-RXR-{alpha} heterodimers bound to PPAR-{gamma} response elements in the adiponectin promoter. Rosiglitazone-stimulated adiponectin protein synthesis in 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes has been shown to be inhibited by IGFBP-3, which can be induced by hypoxia and the proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-{alpha}, two inhibitors of adiponectin transcription. The present study demonstrates that IGFBP-3, the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride, and TNF-{alpha} inhibit rosiglitazone-induced adiponectin transcription in mouse embryo fibroblasts that stably express PPAR-{gamma}2. Native IGFBP-3 can bind RXR-{alpha} and inhibited rosiglitazone stimulated promoter activity, whereas an IGFBP-3 mutant that does not bind RXR-{alpha} did not. These results suggest that IGFBP-3 may mediate the inhibition of adiponectin transcription by hypoxia and TNF-{alpha}, and that IGFBP-3 binding to RXR-{alpha} may be required for the observed inhibition.

  3. Contemporary Issues in Ultra-Low Alpha Particle Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael

    Single-Event Upsets (SEU) in CMOS devices are caused by the passage of ionizing radiation either from terrestrial neutrons or from the natural alpha particle radiation within the materials surrounding the transistors. Interactions of the neutrons with the silicon cause spallation reactions which emit energetic highly ionizing elements. Alpha particles, on the other hand, can upset the devices through direct ionization rather than through a nuclear reaction as in the case of the neutrons. In order to minimize the alpha-particle component of SEU, the radiation from the materials within a distance 100 μm of the transistors, currently needs to have an alpha particle emissivity of less than 2 alpha particles per khr per square centimeter. Many alpha particle detectors have background levels that are larger than this, which can make these measurements inaccurate and time consuming. This talk will discuss what is involved in making alpha particle emissivity measurements of materials used in the semiconductor industry using an ultra-low background commercially-available ionization detector. Detector calibration and efficiency, radon adsorption on the samples, and the effect of surface charge on electrically insulating samples will be discussed.

  4. Direct high-resolution alpha spectrometry from nuclear fuel particles in an outdoor air sample.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, R; Siiskonen, T

    2008-01-01

    The potential use of direct high-resolution alpha spectrometry to identify the presence of transactinium elements in air samples is illustrated in the case when alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides are incorporated in nuclear fuel particles. Alpha particle energy spectra are generated through Monte Carlo simulations assuming a nuclide composition similar to RBMK (Chernobyl) nuclear fuel. The major alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides, in terms of activity, are 242Cm, 239Pu and 240Pu. The characteristics of the alpha peaks are determined by fuel particle properties as well as the type of the air filter. It is shown that direct alpha spectrometry can be readily applied to membrane filter samples containing nuclear fuel particles when rapid nuclide identification is of relevance. However, the development of a novel spectrum analysis code is a prerequisite for unfolding complex alpha spectra.

  5. Fruit flies with additional expression of the elongation factor EF-1 alpha live longer.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, J C; Walldorf, U; Hug, P; Gehring, W J

    1989-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the decrease in protein synthesis that accompanies aging is preceded by a decrease in elongation factor EF-1 alpha protein and mRNA. Here we show that Drosophila transformed with a P-element vector containing an EF-1 alpha gene under control of hsp70 regulatory sequences have a longer life-span than control flies. Images PMID:2508089

  6. DNA Repair, Redox Regulation and Modulation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Mediated Transcription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis-Ducey, Carol Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Interaction of estrogen receptor [alpha] (ER[alpha]) with 17[beta]-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) facilitates binding of the receptor to estrogen response elements (EREs) in target genes, which in turn leads to recruitment of coregulatory proteins. To better understand how estrogen-responsive genes are regulated, our laboratory identified a number of…

  7. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  8. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  9. Mercury, elemental

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mercury , elemental ; CASRN 7439 - 97 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  10. Element Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Describes a research assignment for 8th grade students on the elements of the periodic table. Students use web-based resources and a chemistry handbook to gather information, construct concept maps, and present the findings to the full class using the mode of their choice: a humorous story, a slideshow or gameboard, a brochure, a song, or skit.…

  11. Binding of tissue-specific forms of alpha A-CRYBP1 to their regulatory sequence in the mouse alpha A-crystallin-encoding gene: double-label immunoblotting of UV-crosslinked complexes.

    PubMed

    Kantorow, M; Becker, K; Sax, C M; Ozato, K; Piatigorsky, J

    1993-09-15

    The alpha A-CRYBP1 regulatory sequence (alpha A-CRYBP1RS), at nucleotides -66 to -57 of the mouse alpha A-crystallin-encoding gene (alpha A-CRY) promoter, is an important control element involved in the regulation of mouse alpha A-CRY expression. The gene encoding a protein (alpha A-CRYBP1) that specifically binds to the alpha A-CRYBP1RS sequence has been cloned from a cultured mouse lens cell line. In the present study, we have used an antibody (specific to the alpha A-CRYBP1 protein and made against a synthetic peptide) to directly identify UV-crosslinked protein-DNA complexes via a double-label immunoblotting technique. Multiple alpha A-CRYB1 antigenically related proteins interacted with alpha A-CRYBP1RS in nuclear extracts from both a cloned mouse lens cell line (alpha TN4-1) that expresses alpha A-CRY and a mouse fibroblast line (L929) that does not express the gene. Two sizes (50 kDa and 90 kDa) of proteins reacting with the alpha A-CRYBP1-specific Ab were detected in both cell lines and, in addition, a > 200-kDa protein reacting with the Ab was unique to the fibroblast line. Thus, alpha A-CRYBP1 antigenically related proteins interact with alpha A-CRYBP1RS regardless of alpha A-CRY expression. Moreover, differential processing of the alpha A-CRYBP1 protein and/or alternative splicing of the alpha A-CRY transcript may affect expression of alpha A-CRY.

  12. Are alpha-gliadins glycosylated?

    PubMed

    Turner, J B; Garner, G V; Gordon, D B; Brookes, S J; Smith, C A

    2002-02-01

    Alpha-gliadins isolated by carboxymethylcellulose chromatography contain noncovalently bound glucose probably due to contaminating proteoglycans and to material shed from the column. Traces of carbohydrate remain strongly bound to alpha-gliadins even after harsh denaturation, but our results indicate alpha-gliadins are not glycoproteins. Suggestions that gliadins are glycoproteins are probably due to contamination with this glucose and the presence of these proteoglycans.

  13. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

    1993-02-02

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  14. Modeling Solar Lyman Alpha Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.; Donnelly, R. F.; London, J.

    1990-01-01

    Solar Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including daily values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman alpha, and that the total irradiance corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman alpha.

  15. Alpha self-irradiation effects in ternary oxides of actinides elements: The zircon-like phases Am{sup III}VO{sub 4} and A{sup II}Np{sup IV}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} (A=Sr, Pb)

    SciTech Connect

    Goubard, F. . E-mail: fabrice.goubard@chim.u-cergy.fr; Griesmar, P.; Tabuteau, A.

    2005-06-15

    We report the experimental studies of irradiation damage from alpha decay in neptunium and americium vanadates versus cumulative dose. The isotopes used were the transuranium {alpha}-emitter {sup 237}Np and the {alpha},{gamma}-emitter {sup 241}Am. Neptunium and americium vanadates self-irradiation was studied by X-ray diffraction method (XRD). The comparison of the powder diffraction patterns reveal that the irradiation has no apparent effect on the neptunium phases while the americium vanadate swells and becomes metamict as a function of cumulative dose.

  16. Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority's Reading Improvement Program for Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marable, June Morehead

    This document discusses the founding and establishment of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority's reading experience pilot project. The efforts of this project were aligned with those of Right to Read and Reading Is Fundamental (RIF). Because of the response from parents and children, plans are being made to increase present operations within the next…

  17. Molecular characterization of alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J K; Pearson, W R; Lynch, K R

    1991-02-01

    Three 'alpha 1-adrenoceptors' and three 'alpha 2-adrenoceptors' have now been cloned. How closely do these receptors match the native receptors that have been identified pharmacologically? What are the properties of these receptors, and how do they relate to other members of the cationic amine receptor family? Kevin Lynch and his colleagues discuss these questions in this review.

  18. Hib Disease (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sore throat, drooling, and serious breathing trouble. Cellulitis . Someone with this skin infection may have skin ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cellulitis Immunizations Meningitis Pneumonia Why Should I Care About ...

  19. Alpha Solarco`s Photovoltaic Concentrator Development program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.; Bailor, B.; Carroll, D.

    1995-10-01

    This report details the work done under Sandia`s Photovoltaic Concentrator Development contract, funded jointly by Alpha Solarco and the US Department of Energy. It discusses improvements made to the cell assembly and module design of Alpha Solarco`s point-focus, high-concentration photovoltaic module. The goals of this effort were to increase the module efficiency, reduce the manufacturing cost of the cell assembly, and increase product reliability. Redesign of the secondary optical element achieved a 4 percent increase in efficiency due to better cell fill factors and offtrack performance. New, lower cost materials were identified for the secondary optical element, the optical couple between the secondary optical element and the cell, and the cell assembly electrical insulator. Manufacturing process improvements and test equipment are also discussed.

  20. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-11-28

    A fuel element was developed for a gas cooled nuclear reactor. The element is constructed in the form of a compacted fuel slug including carbides of fissionable material in some cases with a breeder material carbide and a moderator which slug is disposed in a canning jacket of relatively impermeable moderator material. Such canned fuel slugs are disposed in an elongated shell of moderator having greater gas permeability than the canning material wherefore application of reduced pressure to the space therebetween causes gas diffusing through the exterior shell to sweep fission products from the system. Integral fission product traps and/or exterior traps as well as a fission product monitoring system may be employed therewith. (AEC)

  1. Heavy-element nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G.J.

    1990-10-30

    New measurements and theoretical studies of nuclear properties, together with new astronomical data on the growth of heavy-element abundances during the early history of the Galaxy, now provide a clearer picture of where in nature the elements heavier than iron are produced by rapid (r-process) and show (s-process) neutron capture reactions. The nuclear data suggest that the r-process involves a high-neutron-density beta-flow equilibrium environment and that the s-process may have occurred at a temperature and neutron density consistent with a {sup 13}C({alpha},n){sup 16}0 neutron source. The astronomical data, when compared with simple galactic chemical evolution modes, suggests that the r-process is associated with type II supernovae and that the neutron source must be manufactured by the star. Low-mass type II supernovae are proposed as the most important contributors to the r-process. A {sup 13}C neutron source in intermediate-mass stars is proposed for the s-process. 64 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Microscopic cluster model of {alpha}+n, {alpha}+p, {alpha}+ {sup 3}He, and {alpha}+{alpha} elastic scattering from a realistic effective nuclear interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dohet-Eraly, J.; Baye, D.

    2011-07-15

    An effective nucleon-nucleon interaction adapted to cluster-model calculations of collisions is derived from the realistic Argonne potential AV18 with the unitary correlation operator method. The unitary correlation is determined from the {alpha}+{alpha} elastic phase shifts calculated in a cluster approach by the generator coordinate method coupled with the microscopic R-matrix method. With this interaction, the elastic phase shifts for the {alpha}+n, {alpha}+p, and {alpha}+{sup 3}He collisions are calculated within the same model. Without further adjustment, a good agreement with experimental data is obtained with a small model space.

  3. Alpha-particle microdosimetry.

    PubMed

    Chouin, Nicolas; Bardies, Manuel

    2011-07-01

    With the increasing availability of alpha emitters, targeted α-particle therapy has emerged as a solution of choice to treat haematological cancers and micrometastatic and minimal residual diseases. Alpha-particles are highly cytotoxic because of their high linear energy transfer (LET) and have a short range of a few cell diameters in tissue, assuring good treatment specificity. These radiologic features make conventional dosimetry less relevant for that context. Stochastic variations in the energy deposited in cell nuclei are important because of the microscopic target size, low number of α- particle traversals, and variation in LET along the α-particle track. Microdosimetry provides a conceptual framework that aims at a systematic analysis of the stochastic distribution of energy deposits in irradiated matter. The different quantities of microdosimetry and the different methods of microdosimetric calculations were described in the early eighties. Since then, numerous models have been published through the years and applied to analyse experimental data or to model realistic therapeutic situations. Major results have been an accurate description of the high toxicity of α-particles, and the description of the predominant effect of activity distribution at the cellular scale on toxicity or efficacy of potential targeted α-particle therapies. This last factor represents a major limitation to the use of microdosimetry in vivo because determination of the source - target distribution is complicated. The future contributions of microdosimetry in targeted α-particle therapy research will certainly depend on the ability to develop high-resolution detectors and on the implementation of pharmaco-kinetic models at the tumour microenvironment scale.

  4. DFT CONFORMATIONAL STUDIES OF ALPHA-MALTOTRIOSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent DFT optimization studies on alpha-maltose improved our understanding of the preferred conformations of alpha-maltose and the present study extends these studies to alpha-maltotriose with three alpha-D-glucopyranose residues linked by two alpha-[1-4] bridges, denoted herein as DP-3's. Combina...

  5. Prothymosin alpha in human blood.

    PubMed Central

    Panneerselvam, C; Haritos, A A; Caldarella, J; Horecker, B L

    1987-01-01

    The major cross-reacting peptide in human plasma detected with a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for thymosin alpha 1 was identified as prothymosin alpha, based on its elution properties in gel-filtration chromatography and its amino acid composition after purification by HPLC. A small quantity (less than 10%) of the total cross-reacting material was recovered in fractions corresponding to lower molecular weight thymosin alpha 1-like peptides. The total quantity of cross-reacting material detected in human blood, expressed as thymosin alpha 1 equivalents, was 11-14 pmol/ml (approximately 90% was recovered in the leukocyte fraction, approximately 10% was in the plasma fraction, and 1-2% was in the erythrocyte fraction). The peptide present in leukocytes was also identified as prothymosin alpha. After correction for the 5-times lower molar reactivity of prothymosin alpha in the thymosin alpha 1 RIA employed in these experiments, we estimate that the content of prothymosin alpha in human blood is 55-70 pmol/ml (0.6-0.8 microgram/ml). The relatively small quantities recovered in the erythrocyte and plasma fractions may be attributed to contamination of the former by leukocytes or to leakage from leukocytes into the plasma. PMID:3474615

  6. EEG Alpha Power and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppelmayr, M.; Klimesch, W.; Stadler, W.; Pollhuber, D.; Heine, C.

    2002-01-01

    Tested whether alpha power in different sub-bands is selectively related to intelligence. For 74 Austrian subjects, the EEG was recorded during a resting session and 2 different intelligence tests were performed. Findings show a strong positive correlation between intelligence and alpha power. (SLD)

  7. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) and natural bismuth-212 ({sup 212}Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Superconducting calorimetric alpha particle sensors for nuclear nonproliferation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Horansky, Robert D.; Ullom, Joel N.; Beall, James A.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Dry, Donald E.; Hastings, Elizabeth P.; Lamont, Stephen P.; Rudy, Clifford R.; Rabin, Michael W.

    2008-09-22

    Identification of trace nuclear materials is usually accomplished by alpha spectrometry. Current detectors cannot distinguish critical elements and isotopes. We have developed a detector called a microcalorimeter, which achieves a resolution of 1.06 keV for 5.3 MeV alphas, the highest resolving power of any energy dispersive measurement. With this exquisite resolution, we can unambiguously identify the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio in Pu, a critical measurement for ascertaining the intended use of nuclear material. Furthermore, we have made a direct measurement of the {sup 209}Po ground state decay.

  9. Effects on the long term storage container by thermal cycling alpha plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Flamm, B.F.; Prenger, F.C.; Veirs, D.K.; Hill, D.D.; Isom, G.M.

    1998-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the validity of the steady state temperature limit of 100 C established by the DOE-STD-3013-96 for storing alpha plutonium metal. Studies with an alpha plutonium ingot combined with strain gauge measurements indicate that the stainless steel storage container, yields very little (0.005 in.) to the expanding plutonium metal as it undergoes alpha beta phase transformation at temperatures above 112 C. Another experiment using an alpha plutonium rod for point loading of the container wall showed no measured deformation of the container. The results of strain measurements for alpha beta and beta alpha transformations for twenty five thermal cycles are reported. Finite element modeling using the measured data predicts that the compressive yield strength is 3,500 psi versus the literature value of 13,000 psi.

  10. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Howard, R.C.; Bokros, J.C.

    1962-03-01

    A fueled matrlx eontnwinlng uncomblned carbon is deslgned for use in graphlte-moderated gas-cooled reactors designed for operatlon at temperatures (about 1500 deg F) at which conventional metallic cladding would ordlnarily undergo undesired carburization or physical degeneratlon. - The invention comprlses, broadly a fuel body containlng uncombined earbon, clad with a nickel alloy contalning over about 28 percent by' weight copper in the preferred embodlment. Thls element ls supporirted in the passageways in close tolerance with the walls of unclad graphite moderator materlal. (AEC)

  11. Prevalence of -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) alleles in sickle cell trait and beta-thalassemia patients in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nava, María Paulina; Ibarra, Bertha; Magaña, María Teresa; de la Luz Chávez, María; Perea, F Javier

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of alpha-globin gene mutations in three groups of Mexican unrelated individuals. The first two groups were normal and sickle cell trait individuals from the Costa Chica region, a place with a 12.8% frequency of HbS carriers, and the third group comprised of Mexican mestizo patients with beta-thalassemia. We searched for -alpha(3.7) and -alpha(4.2) alpha(+)-thalassemia deletion alleles, as well as the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication through long-gap PCR. The alleles -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) were found in the heterozygote state only; 19% of the normal subjects had the -alpha(3.7) allele, and 2% showed the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) allele. In individuals with the sickle cell trait, 17% had the -alpha(3.7) deletion, and the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication was observed in 3% of these individuals. We revealed that 16% of the subjects with beta-thalassemia showed the -alpha(3.7) deletion and 28% the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication. The -alpha(4.2) deletion was not detected in any individual. The frequency of the -alpha(3.7) allele was roughly the same in the three groups studied; this can be explained by the fact that the three groups have common genes from Africa and the Mediterranean, where a high prevalence of alpha(+)-thalassemia has been observed. To our knowledge, the frequency of alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication observed in the Mexican beta-thalassemia patients is the highest reported. As the -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) alleles are very common in our selected populations, we believe that there is a need to investigate systematically the alpha-globin gene mutations in all hemoglobinopathies in the Mexican population.

  12. Venus - Alpha Regio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The eastern edge of Alpha Regio is shown in this image centered at 30 degrees south latitude and 11.8 degrees east longitude (longitude on Venus is measured from 0 degrees to 360 degrees east). Seven circular, dome-like hills, averaging 25 kilometers (15 miles) in diameter with maximum heights of 750 meters (2,475 feet) dominate the scene. These features are interpreted as very thick lava flows that came from an opening on the relatively level ground, which allowed the lava to flow in an even pattern outward from the opening. The complex fractures on top of the domes suggest that if the domes were created by lava flows, a cooled outer layer formed and then further lava flowing in the interior stretched the surface. The domes may be similar to volcanic domes on Earth. Another interpretation is that the domes are the result of molten rock or magma in the interior that pushed the surface layer upward. The near-surface magma then withdrew to deeper levels, causing the collapse and fracturing of the dome surface. The bright margins possibly indicate the presence of rock debris on the slopes of the domes. Some of the fractures on the plains cut through the domes, while others appear to be covered by the domes. This indicates that active processes pre date and post date the dome-like hills. The prominent black area in the northeast corner of the image is a data gap. North is at the top of the image.

  13. Synthesis of a precursor for the preparation of 9 alpha,11 alpha-tritiated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.N.; Damodaran, K.M.

    1984-03-01

    Starting from 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, the synthesis of a strategic precursor, C-9 (11) unsaturated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide (9a), for the preparation of 9 alpha,11 alpha-tritiated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide has been achieved. The authors optimized the reaction conditions for catalytic reduction employing hydrogen and subsequent base hydrolysis followed by purification on Amberlite XAD-2 resin to obtain the saturated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide.

  14. Alpha-particle spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

    1972-01-01

    Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the alpha-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of alpha particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant alpha emission.

  15. Heavy Elements and Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Norris, Ryan P.

    2008-01-01

    We report on progress in the analysis of high-resolution near-IR spectra of alpha Orionis (M2 Iab) and other cool, luminous stars. Using synthetic spectrum techniques, we search for atomic absorption lines in the stellar spectra and evaluate the available line parameter data for use in our abundance analyses. Our study concentrates on the post iron-group elements copper through zirconium as a means of investigating the slow neutron-capture process of nucleosynthesis in massive stars and the mechanisms that transport recently processed material up into the photospheric region. We discuss problems with the atomic data and model atmospheres that need to be addressed before theoretically derived elemental abundances from pre-supernova nucleosynthesis calculations can be tested by comparison with abundances determined from observations of cool, massive stars.

  16. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is flying to the station on STS-134. The AMS experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... a blood disorder that reduces the production of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that ... alpha thalassemia , a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin prevents enough oxygen from reaching the body's tissues. ...

  18. Progesterone's 5 alpha-reduced metabolite, 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP, mediates lateral displacement of hamsters.

    PubMed

    Frye, Cheryl A; Rhodes, Madeline E

    2005-03-15

    5 alpha-Pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one (3 alpha,5 alpha-THP), progesterone (P4)'s 5 alpha-reduced, 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreduced product, facilitates lordosis of rodents in part via agonist-like actions at GABA(A)/benzodiazepine receptor complexes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Whether 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP influences another reproductively-relevant behavior, lateral displacement, of hamsters was investigated. Lateral displacement is the movement that female hamsters make with their perineum towards male-like tactile stimulation. This behavior facilitates, and is essential for, successful mating. Hamsters in behavioral estrus had greater lateral displacement responses when endogenous progestin levels were elevated compared to when progestin levels were lower. Administration of P4, a prohormone for 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP, dose-dependently (500 > 200 > 100, 50, or 0 microg) enhanced lateral displacement of ovariectomized hamsters that had been primed with SC estradiol benzoate (5 or 10 microg). Inhibiting P4's metabolism to 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP by co-administering finasteride, a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, or indomethacin, a 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase inhibitor, either systemically or to the VTA, significantly decreased lateral displacement and midbrain progestin levels of naturally receptive or hormone-primed hamsters compared to controls. These data suggest that lateral displacement is progestin-sensitive and requires the formation of 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP in the midbrain VTA.

  19. An Alpha-p-x Analytical Instrument for Lunar Resource Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Economou, T. E.; Turkevich, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    An instrument using alpha backscattering, alpha-proton nuclear reactions, and x-ray production by alpha particles and other auxiliary sources can be used on lunar landers to provide detailed analytical information concerning the lunar surface material. This information is important scientifically and can be the basis for utilizing efficiently lunar resources to build lunar colonies in the future. This alpha particle instrument uses radioactive isotopes, silicon detectors for the alpha and proton modes, and mercuric iodide detectors operating at room temperature for the x-ray mode. The alpha and proton modes of the instrument can provide an analysis for all elements (except hydrogen) present in amounts greater than about 1 percent by atom. These modes have excellent sensitivity and accuracy for the lighter elements, in particular, directly determining the amount of oxygen in the lunar soil. This is an element of paramount significance for the lunar resource mission. The x-ray mode makes possible a determination of Ti, Fe, and other important metals with even greater accuracy. In general, the x-ray mode provides increased sensitivity for heavier elements, in many cases achieving a sensitivity of several hundred ppm.

  20. Two types of TATA elements for the CYC1 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Li, W Z; Sherman, F

    1991-01-01

    Functional TATA elements in the 5' untranslated region of the CYC1 gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been defined by transcriptional analysis of site-directed mutations. Five sites previously suggested to contain functional TATA elements were altered individually and in all possible combinations. The results indicated that only two elements are required for transcription at the normal level and the normal start sites. The two functional TATA elements are located at sites -178 and -123, where the A of the ATG start codon is assigned nucleotide position +1. They direct initiation within windows encompassing -70 to -46 and -46 to -28, respectively. Only when both of the upstream TATA sites were rendered nonfunctional were the third and fourth downstream TATA-like sequences activated, as indicated by the presence of low levels of transcription starting at -28. The two upstream functional TATA elements differed in sequence. The sequence of the most 5' one at site 1, denoted beta-type, was ATATATATAT, whereas that of the second one at site 2, denoted alpha-type, was TATATAAAA. The following rearrangements of the beta-type and alpha-type elements at two sites (1 and 2) were examined: site1 beta-site2 alpha; site 1 alpha-site 2 beta; site1 alpha-site2 alpha; and site1 beta-site2 beta. When different types were at different sites (site1 beta-site2 alpha and site1 alpha-site2 beta), both were used equally. In contrast, when the same type was present at both sites (site1 alpha-site2 alpha and site1 beta-site2 beta), only the upstream element was used. We suggest that the two TATA elements are recognized by different factors of the transcription apparatus. Images PMID:1846668

  1. {alpha} particle preformation in heavy nuclei and penetration probability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H. F.; Royer, G.

    2008-05-15

    The {alpha} particle preformation in the even-even nuclei from {sup 108}Te to {sup 294}118 and the penetration probability have been studied. The isotopes from Pb to U have been firstly investigated since the experimental data allow us to extract the microscopic features for each element. The assault frequency has been estimated using classical methods and the penetration probability from tunneling through the Generalized Liquid Drop Model (GLDM) potential barrier. The preformation factor has been extracted from experimental {alpha} decay energies and half-lives. The shell closure effects play the key role in the {alpha} preformation. The more the nucleon number is close to the magic numbers, the more the formation of {alpha} cluster is difficult inside the mother nucleus. The penetration probabilities reflect that 126 is a neutron magic number. The penetration probability range is very large compared to that of the preformation factor. The penetration probability determines mainly the {alpha} decay half-life while the preformation factor allows us to obtain information on the nuclear structure. The study has been extended to the newly observed heaviest nuclei.

  2. Stratification of chromium abundance in CP-stars alpha2 Canum Venaticorum, epsilon Ursae Majoris, Sirius and VEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziznovsky, J.; Zverko, J.

    1995-01-01

    High S/N Reticon spectra of alpha2 CVn, epsilon UMa, Sirius and Vega are investigated to estimate the Cr-abundance and its possible depth distribution. While three of the stars show practically normal (homogeneous) distribution of the element, alpha2 CVn was found to be anomalous: the abundance of chromium decreases outwards of the atmosphere.

  3. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha regulates the expression of nucleotide excision repair proteins in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Hamid Reza; Mahfouf, Walid; Ali, Nsrein; Chemin, Cecile; Ged, Cecile; Kim, Arianna L; de Verneuil, Hubert; Taïeb, Alain; Bickers, David R; Mazurier, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of DNA repair enzymes is crucial for cancer prevention, initiation, and therapy. We have studied the effect of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the expression of the two nucleotide excision repair factors (XPC and XPD) in human keratinocytes. We show that hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is involved in the regulation of XPC and XPD. Early UVB-induced downregulation of HIF-1alpha increased XPC mRNA expression due to competition between HIF-1alpha and Sp1 for their overlapping binding sites. Late UVB-induced enhanced phosphorylation of HIF-1alpha protein upregulated XPC mRNA expression by direct binding to a separate hypoxia response element (HRE) in the XPC promoter region. HIF-1alpha also regulated XPD expression by binding to a region of seven overlapping HREs in its promoter. Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further revealed putative HREs in the genes encoding other DNA repair proteins (XPB, XPG, CSA and CSB), suggesting that HIF-1alpha is a key regulator of the DNA repair machinery. Analysis of the repair kinetics of 6-4 photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers also revealed that HIF-1alpha downregulation led to an increased rate of immediate removal of both photolesions but attenuated their late removal following UVB irradiation, indicating the functional effects of HIF-1alpha in the repair of UVB-induced DNA damage.

  4. Mechanism of alpha-tocopheryl-phosphate (alpha-TP) transport across the cell membrane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reported that alpha-TP is synthesized and hydrolyzed in animal cells and tissues; it modulates also several cell functions (FRBM 39:970, and UBMB Life, 57:23, 2005). While it is similar to alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T), alpha-TP appears to be more potent than alpha-T in inhibiting cell prolifer...

  5. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    SciTech Connect

    Bethke, Siegfried; Hoang, Andre H.; Kluth, Stefan; Schieck, Jochen; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS

    2011-10-01

    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  6. Immunodiagnosis of alpha chain disease.

    PubMed Central

    Doe, W F; Danon, F; Seligmann, M

    1979-01-01

    Since the early diagnosis of alpha chain disease (alphaCD)) is essential to successful treatment and to epidemiological studies, the available immunodiagnostic techniques were compared for their sensitivity, specificity and ease of performance on a panel of sixteen sera, comprising ten alphaCD sera and six control sera containing either IgA myeloma protein or high levels of polyclonal IgA. Immunoselection by immunoelectrophoresis into gel containing a specially developed anti-Fabalpha antiserum provided the most sensitive and specific detection system for alphaCD protein. The same technique using anti-light chain antiserum for immunoselection was also highly sensitive, but proved less specific, being prone to false positives with difficult IgA myeloma proteins. Somewhat less sensitive, but specific and simple to perform, was immunoelectrophoresis using an antiserum recognizing the conformational specificities of Fabalpha as well as those of the constant region of alpha chains. Immunoselection using the Ouchterlony or rocket techniques proved to be less sensitive and prone to false positives when some IgA myeloma sera were tested. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:113152

  7. Natively unfolded human prothymosin alpha adopts partially folded collapsed conformation at acidic pH.

    PubMed

    Uversky, V N; Gillespie, J R; Millett, I S; Khodyakova, A V; Vasiliev, A M; Chernovskaya, T V; Vasilenko, R N; Kozlovskaya, G D; Dolgikh, D A; Fink, A L; Doniach, S; Abramov, V M

    1999-11-09

    Prothymosin alpha has previously been shown to be unfolded at neutral pH, thus belonging to a growing family of "natively unfolded" proteins. The structural properties and conformational stability of recombinant human prothymosin alpha were characterized at neutral and acidic pH by gel filtration, SAXS, circular dichroism, ANS fluorescence, (1)H NMR, and resistance to urea-induced unfolding. Interestingly, prothymosin alpha underwent a cooperative transition from the unfolded state into a partially folded conformation on lowering the pH. This conformation of prothymosin alpha is a compact denatured state, with structural properties different from those of the molten globule. The formation of alpha-helical structure by the glutamic acid-rich elements of the protein accompanied by the partial hydrophobic collapse is expected at lower pH due to the neutralization of the negatively charged residues. It is possible that such conformational changes may be associated with the protein function.

  8. Evolutionary models and the p-mode oscillation spectrum of Alpha Centauri A and B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Peter; Cram, Lawrence; Demarque, Pierre; Guenther, D. B.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    1992-01-01

    Spectroscopically observed abundances of Furenlid and Meylan (1990) and Los Alamos Opacity Library opacities specifically constructed for this mixture are used to construct the most detailed models to date for Alpha Cen A and B. Models including the effects of the diffusion of helium in Alpha Cen A's interior were constructed. Although the effect of helium diffusion is small in Alpha Cen A, it is slightly larger than in the sun because of the larger mass and therefore shallower convection zone of Alpha Cen A. Keeping the heavy-element mixture unchanged but varying Z within the uncertainties yields limits to the helium abundance of Y = 0.295 and 0.305, respectively. The derived age of Alpha Cen is 4.6 +/-0.4 Gyr, very similar to the solar age of 4.5 Gyr.

  9. Bioisosteric phentolamine analogs as selective human alpha(2)- versus alpha(1)-adrenoceptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Bavadekar, Supriya A; Hong, Seoung-Soo; Lee, Sang-Ii; Miller, Duane D; Feller, Dennis R

    2008-08-20

    Phentolamine is known to act as a competitive, non-subtype-selective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist. In an attempt to improve alpha(2)- versus alpha(1)-adrenoceptor selectivity and alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtype-selectivity, two new chemical series of bioisosteric phentolamine analogs were prepared and evaluated. These compounds were evaluated for binding affinities on alpha(1)- (alpha(1A)-, alpha(1B)-, alpha(1D)-) and alpha(2)- (alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)-, alpha(2C)-) adrenoceptor subtypes that had been stably expressed in human embryonic kidney and Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, respectively. Methylation of the phenolic hydroxy group and replacement of the 4-methyl group of phentolamine with varying lipophilic substituents yielded bioisosteric analogs selective for the alpha(2)- versus alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. Within the alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, these analogs bound with higher affinity at the alpha(2A)- and alpha(2C)-subtypes as compared to the alpha(2B)-subtype. In particular, the t-butyl analog was found to be the most selective, its binding at the alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor (Ki=3.6 nM) being 37- to 173-fold higher than that at the alpha(1)-adrenoceptors, and around 2- and 19-fold higher than at the alpha(2A)- and alpha(2B)-adrenoceptors, respectively. Data from luciferase reporter gene assays confirmed the functional antagonist activities of selected compounds from the bioisosteric series on human alpha(1A)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors. Thus, the results with these bioisosteric analogs of phentolamine provide a lead to the rational design of potent and selective alpha(2)-adrenoceptor ligands that may be useful in improving the therapeutic profile of this drug class for human disorders.

  10. Twisted mass QCD for weak matrix elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, Carlos

    2006-12-01

    I report on the application of tmQCD techniques to the computation of hadronic matrix elements of four-fermion operators. Emphasis is put on the computation of BK in quenched QCD performed by the ALPHA Collaboration. The extension of tmQCD strategies to the study of neutral B- meson mixing is briefly discussed. Finally, some remarks are made concerning proposals to apply tmQCD to the computation of K → ππ amplitudes.

  11. Behavior of americium and berkelium ions in solutions under intense alpha radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A.A.; Frolova, L.M.; Vasil'ev, V.Ya.

    1987-09-01

    The information in the literature on the radiation-chemical behavior of americium and berkelium is devoted mainly to the reduction of americium(V) and (VI) upon the irradiation of solutions by alpha particles formed as a result of the decay of /sup 241,243/Am and to the reduction of berkelium(IV) upon the irradiation of solutions by beta particles emitted by the nuclide /sup 249/Bk. In the present work they studied the behavior of ions of the elements indicated in perchlorate and nitrate solutions under intense internal alpha radiation. Curium-244, which was introduced into the solution, served as the source of the alpha particles.

  12. NACA Physicist Studying Alpha Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    NACA Physicits studying Alpha Rays in a continuous cloud chamber. A cloud chamber is used by Lewis scientists to obtain information aimed at minimizing undesirable effects of radiation on nuclear-powered aircraft components. Here, alpha particles from a polonium source emit in a flower-like pattern at the cloud chamber's center. The particles are made visible by means of alcohol vapor diffusing from an area at room temperature to an area at minus -78 deg. Centigrade. Nuclear-powered aircraft were never developed and aircraft nuclear propulsion systems were canceled in the early 1960s.

  13. Bremsstrahlung in {alpha} Decay Reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Boie, H.; Scheit, H.; Jentschura, U. D.; Koeck, F.; Lauer, M.; Schwalm, D.; Milstein, A. I.; Terekhov, I. S.

    2007-07-13

    A high-statistics measurement of bremsstrahlung emitted in the {alpha} decay of {sup 210}Po has been performed, which allows us to follow the photon spectra up to energies of {approx}500 keV. The measured differential emission probability is in good agreement with our theoretical results obtained within the quasiclassical approximation as well as with the exact quantum mechanical calculation. It is shown that, due to the small effective electric dipole charge of the radiating system, a significant interference between the electric dipole and quadrupole contributions occurs, which is altering substantially the angular correlation between the {alpha} particle and the emitted photon.

  14. Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2014-07-16

    This Final Report for DE-FG02-06ER54851, Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines, was in fact submitted on April 9, 2010. Some confusion arose because it was submitted as an initial progress report on a related grant, Alpha Channeling in Open- System Magnetic Devices. The original text is reproduced below, except that the publication record is undated. Note that the articles published in 2009 and 2010 reflect work in fact done under DE-FG02-06ER54851.

  15. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  16. Thiazolidinediones inhibit REG I{alpha} gene transcription in gastrointestinal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Akiyo; Takahashi, Iwao; Takasawa, Shin; Nata, Koji; Noguchi, Naoya; Ikeda, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Shervani, Nausheen J.; Suzuki, Iwao; Uruno, Akira; Unno, Michiaki; Okamoto, Hiroshi Sugawara, Akira

    2009-02-13

    REG (Regenerating gene) I{alpha} protein functions as a growth factor for gastrointestinal cancer cells, and its mRNA expression is strongly associated with a poor prognosis in gastrointestinal cancer patients. We here demonstrated that PPAR{gamma}-agonist thiazolidinediones (TZDs) inhibited cell proliferation and REG I{alpha} protein/mRNA expression in gastrointestinal cancer cells. TZDs inhibited the REG I{alpha} gene promoter activity, via its cis-acting element which lacked PPAR response element and could not bind to PPAR{gamma}, in PPAR{gamma}-expressing gastrointestinal cancer cells. The inhibition was reversed by co-treatment with a specific PPAR{gamma}-antagonist GW9662. Although TZDs did not inhibit the REG I{alpha} gene promoter activity in PPAR{gamma}-non-expressing cells, PPAR{gamma} overexpression in the cells recovered their inhibitory effect. Taken together, TZDs inhibit REG I{alpha} gene transcription through a PPAR{gamma}-dependent pathway. The TZD-induced REG I{alpha} mRNA reduction was abolished by cycloheximide, indicating the necessity of novel protein(s) synthesis. TZDs may therefore be a candidate for novel anti-cancer drugs for patients with gastrointestinal cancer expressing both REG I{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}.

  17. Structural Basis of Natural Promoter Recognition by a Unique Nuclear Receptor, HNF4[alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Peng; Rha, Geun Bae; Melikishvili, Manana; Wu, Guangteng; Adkins, Brandon C.; Fried, Michael G.; Chi, Young-In

    2010-11-09

    HNF4{alpha} (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha}) plays an essential role in the development and function of vertebrate organs, including hepatocytes and pancreatic {beta}-cells by regulating expression of multiple genes involved in organ development, nutrient transport, and diverse metabolic pathways. As such, HNF4{alpha} is a culprit gene product for a monogenic and dominantly inherited form of diabetes, known as maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). As a unique member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, HNF4{alpha} recognizes target genes containing two hexanucleotide direct repeat DNA-response elements separated by one base pair (DR1) by exclusively forming a cooperative homodimer. We describe here the 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of human HNF4{alpha} DNA binding domain in complex with a high affinity promoter element of another MODY gene, HNF1{alpha}, which reveals the molecular basis of unique target gene selection/recognition, DNA binding cooperativity, and dysfunction caused by diabetes-causing mutations. The predicted effects of MODY mutations have been tested by a set of biochemical and functional studies, which show that, in contrast to other MODY gene products, the subtle disruption of HNF4{alpha} molecular function can cause significant effects in afflicted MODY patients.

  18. HNF1alpha is involved in tissue-specific regulation of CFTR gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Mouchel, Nathalie; Henstra, Sytse A; McCarthy, Victoria A; Williams, Sarah H; Phylactides, Marios; Harris, Ann

    2004-01-01

    The CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene shows a complex pattern of expression with tissue-specific and temporal regulation. However, the genetic elements and transcription factors that control CFTR expression are largely unidentified. The CFTR promoter does not confer tissue specificity on gene expression, suggesting that there are regulatory elements outside the upstream region. Analysis of potential regulatory elements defined as DNase 1-hypersensitive sites within introns of the gene revealed multiple predicted binding sites for the HNF1alpha (hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha) transcription factor. HNF1alpha, which is expressed in many of the same epithelial cell types as CFTR and shows similar differentiation-dependent changes in gene expression, bound to these sites in vitro. Overexpression of heterologous HNF1alpha augmented CFTR transcription in vivo. In contrast, antisense inhibition of HNF1 alpha transcription decreased the CFTR mRNA levels. Hnf1 alpha knockout mice showed lower levels of CFTR mRNA in their small intestine in comparison with wild-type mice. This is the first report of a transcription factor, which confers tissue specificity on the expression of this important disease-associated gene. PMID:14656222

  19. The alpha 4 integrin chain is a ligand for alpha 4 beta 7 and alpha 4 beta 1

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The heterodimeric alpha 4 integrins alpha 4 beta 7 lymphocyte Peyer's patch adhesion molecule ([LPAM]-1) and alpha 4 beta 1 (very late antigen-4) are cell surface adhesion molecules involved in lymphocyte trafficking and lymphocyte-cell and matrix interactions. Known cellular ligands include vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, which binds to alpha 4 beta 1 and alpha 4 beta 7, and the mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule (MAdCAM)-1, which binds to alpha 4 beta 7. Here we show that the alpha 4 chain of these integrins can itself serve as a ligand. The alpha 4 chain, immunoaffinity purified and immobilized on glass slides, binds thymocytes and T lymphocytes. Binding exhibits divalent cation requirements and temperature sensitivity which are characteristic of integrin-mediated interactions, and is specifically inhibited by anti-alpha 4 integrin antibodies, which exert their effect at the cell surface. Cells expressing exclusively alpha 4 beta 7 (TK-1) or alpha 4 beta 1 (L1-2) both bound avidly, whereas alpha 4-negative cells did not. A soluble 34-kD alpha 4 chain fragment retained binding activity, and it inhibited lymphocyte adhesion to alpha 4 ligands. It has been shown that alpha 4 integrin binding to fibronectin involves an leucine-aspartic acid-valine (LDV) motif in the HepII/IIICS region of fibronectin (CS-1 peptide), and homologous sequences are important in binding to VCAM-1 and MAdCAM-1. Three conserved LDV motifs occur in the extracellular sequence of alpha 4. A synthetic LDV-containing alpha 4- derived oligopeptide supports alpha 4-integrin-dependent lymphocyte adhesion and blocks binding to the 34-kD alpha 4 chain fragment. Our results suggest that alpha 4 beta 7 and alpha 4 beta 1 integrins may be able to bind to the alpha 4 subunit on adjacent cells, providing a novel mechanism for alpha 4 integrin-mediated and activation-regulated lymphocyte interactions during immune responses. PMID:7629498

  20. Sparse Coding for Alpha Matting.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jubin; Varnousfaderani, Ehsan Shahrian; Cholakkal, Hisham; Rajan, Deepu

    2016-07-01

    Existing color sampling-based alpha matting methods use the compositing equation to estimate alpha at a pixel from the pairs of foreground ( F ) and background ( B ) samples. The quality of the matte depends on the selected ( F,B ) pairs. In this paper, the matting problem is reinterpreted as a sparse coding of pixel features, wherein the sum of the codes gives the estimate of the alpha matte from a set of unpaired F and B samples. A non-parametric probabilistic segmentation provides a certainty measure on the pixel belonging to foreground or background, based on which a dictionary is formed for use in sparse coding. By removing the restriction to conform to ( F,B ) pairs, this method allows for better alpha estimation from multiple F and B samples. The same framework is extended to videos, where the requirement of temporal coherence is handled effectively. Here, the dictionary is formed by samples from multiple frames. A multi-frame graph model, as opposed to a single image as for image matting, is proposed that can be solved efficiently in closed form. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations on a benchmark dataset are provided to show that the proposed method outperforms the current stateoftheart in image and video matting.

  1. Sparse Coding for Alpha Matting.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jubin; Varnousfaderani, Ehsan; Cholakkal, Hisham; Rajan, Deepu

    2016-04-21

    Existing color sampling based alpha matting methods use the compositing equation to estimate alpha at a pixel from pairs of foreground (F) and background (B) samples. The quality of the matte depends on the selected (F,B) pairs. In this paper, the matting problem is reinterpreted as a sparse coding of pixel features, wherein the sum of the codes gives the estimate of the alpha matte from a set of unpaired F and B samples. A non-parametric probabilistic segmentation provides a certainty measure on the pixel belonging to foreground or background, based on which a dictionary is formed for use in sparse coding. By removing the restriction to conform to (F,B) pairs, this method allows for better alpha estimation from multiple F and B samples. The same framework is extended to videos, where the requirement of temporal coherence is handled effectively. Here, the dictionary is formed by samples from multiple frames. A multi-frame graph model, as opposed to a single image as for image matting, is proposed that can be solved efficiently in closed form. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations on a benchmark dataset are provided to show that the proposed method outperforms current state-of-the-art in image and video matting.

  2. Alcoholism, Alpha Production, and Biofeedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Frances W.; Holmes, David S.

    1976-01-01

    Electroencephalograms of 20 alcoholics and 20 nonalcoholics were obtained. Data indicated that alcoholics produced less alpha than nonalcoholics. In one training condition subjects were given accurate biofeedback, whereas in the other condition subjects were given random (noncontingent) feedback. Accurate biofeedback did not result in greater…

  3. Identification and characterization of an alternative promoter of the human PGC-1{alpha} gene

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshioka, Toyo; Inagaki, Kenjiro; Noguchi, Tetsuya; Sakai, Mashito; Ogawa, Wataru; Hosooka, Tetsuya; Iguchi, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Eijiro; Matsuki, Yasushi; Hiramatsu, Ryuji; Kasuga, Masato

    2009-04-17

    The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) controls mitochondrial biogenesis and energy homeostasis. Although physical exercise induces PGC-1{alpha} expression in muscle, the underlying mechanism of this effect has remained incompletely understood. We recently identified a novel muscle-enriched isoform of PGC-1{alpha} transcript (designated PGC-1{alpha}-b) that is derived from a previously unidentified first exon. We have now cloned and characterized the human PGC-1{alpha}-b promoter. The muscle-specific transcription factors MyoD and MRF4 transactivated this promoter through interaction with a proximal E-box motif. Furthermore, either forced expression of Ca{sup 2+}- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV), calcineurin A, or the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) kinase MKK6 or the intracellular accumulation of cAMP activated the PGC-1{alpha}-b promoter in cultured myoblasts through recruitment of cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) to a putative CRE located downstream of the E-box. Our results thus reveal a potential molecular basis for isoform-specific regulation of PGC-1{alpha} expression in contracting muscle.

  4. PPAR{alpha} is a key regulator of hepatic FGF21

    SciTech Connect

    Lundasen, Thomas; Hunt, Mary C.; Nilsson, Lisa-Mari; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Angelin, Bo; Alexson, Stefan E.H.; Rudling, Mats . E-mail: mats.rudling@cnt.ki.se

    2007-08-24

    The metabolic regulator fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has antidiabetic properties in animal models of diabetes and obesity. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we here show that the hepatic gene expression of FGF21 is regulated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}). Fasting or treatment of mice with the PPAR{alpha} agonist Wy-14,643 induced FGF21 mRNA by 10-fold and 8-fold, respectively. In contrast, FGF21 mRNA was low in PPAR{alpha} deficient mice, and fasting or treatment with Wy-14,643 did not induce FGF21. Obese ob/ob mice, known to have increased PPAR{alpha} levels, displayed 12-fold increased hepatic FGF21 mRNA levels. The potential importance of PPAR{alpha} for FGF21 expression also in human liver was shown by Wy-14,643 induction of FGF21 mRNA in human primary hepatocytes, and PPAR{alpha} response elements were identified in both the human and mouse FGF21 promoters. Further studies on the mechanisms of regulation of FGF21 by PPAR{alpha} in humans will be of great interest.

  5. Multimeric complexes of the PML-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion protein in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and interference with retinoid and peroxisome-proliferator signaling pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, J H; Mahfoudi, A; Rambaud, S; Lavau, C; Wahli, W; Dejean, A

    1995-01-01

    The t(15;17) chromosomal translocation, specific for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), fuses the PML gene to the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) gene, resulting in expression of a PML-RAR alpha hybrid protein. In this report, we analyzed the nature of PML-RAR alpha-containing complexes in nuclear protein extracts of t(15;17)-positive cells. We show that endogenous PML-RAR alpha can bind to DNA as a homodimer, in contrast to RAR alpha that requires the retinoid X receptor (RXR) dimerization partner. In addition, these cells contain oligomeric complexes of PML-RAR alpha and endogenous RXR. Treatment with retinoic acid results in a decrease of PML-RAR alpha protein levels and, as a consequence, of DNA binding by the different complexes. Using responsive elements from various hormone signaling pathways, we show that PML-RAR alpha homodimers have altered DNA-binding characteristics when compared to RAR alpha-RXR alpha heterodimers. In transfected Drosophila SL-3 cells that are devoid of endogenous retinoid receptors PML-RAR alpha inhibits transactivation by RAR alpha-RXR alpha heterodimers in a dominant fashion. In addition, we show that both normal retinoid receptors and the PML-RAR alpha hybrid bind and activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor responsive element from the Acyl-CoA oxidase gene, indicating that retinoids and peroxisome proliferator receptors may share common target genes. These properties of PML-RAR alpha may contribute to the transformed phenotype of APL cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7638205

  6. Hepatic effects of a methionine-choline-deficient diet in hepatocyte RXR{alpha}-null mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gyamfi, Maxwell Afari; Tanaka, Yuji; He Lin; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Wan, Y.-J.Y.

    2009-01-15

    Retinoid X receptor-{alpha} (RXR{alpha}) is an obligate partner for several nuclear hormone receptors that regulate important physiological processes in the liver. In this study the impact of hepatocyte RXR{alpha} deficiency on methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet-induced steatosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and hepatic transporters gene expression were examined. The mRNA of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-regulated genes, important for lipid synthesis, were not altered in wild type (WT) mice, but were increased 2.0- to 5.4-fold in hepatocyte RXR{alpha}-null (H-RXR{alpha}-null) mice fed a MCD diet for 14 days. Furthermore, hepatic mRNAs and proteins essential for fatty acid {beta}-oxidation were not altered in WT mice, but were decreased in the MCD diet-fed H-RXR{alpha}-null mice, resulting in increased hepatic free fatty acid levels. Cyp2e1 enzyme activity and lipid peroxide levels were induced only in MCD-fed WT mice. In contrast, hepatic mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory factors were increased only in H-RXR{alpha}-null mice fed the MCD diet. Hepatic uptake transporters Oatp1a1 and Oatp1b2 mRNA levels were decreased in WT mice fed the MCD diet, whereas the efflux transporter Mrp4 was increased. However, in the H-RXR{alpha}-null mice, the MCD diet only moderately decreased Oatp1a1 and induced both Oatp1a4 and Mrp4 gene expression. Whereas the MCD diet increased serum bile acid levels and alkaline phosphatase activity in both WT and H-RXR{alpha}-null mice, serum ALT levels were induced (2.9-fold) only in the H-RXR{alpha}-null mice. In conclusion, these data suggest a critical role for RXR{alpha} in hepatic fatty acid homeostasis and protection against MCD-induced hepatocyte injury.

  7. Functional redundancy of the DE-1 and alpha A-CRYBP1 regulatory sites of the mouse alpha A-crystallin promoter.

    PubMed

    Sax, C M; Ilagan, J G; Piatigorsky, J

    1993-06-11

    Previous studies have implicated the DE-1 (-111/-106) and alpha A-CRYBP1 (-66/-57) sites for activity of the mouse alpha A-crystallin promoter in transiently transfected lens cells. Here we have used the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene to test the functional importance of the putative DE-1 and alpha A-CRYBP1 regulatory elements by site-specific and deletion mutagenesis in stably transformed alpha TN4-1 lens cells and in transgenic mice. FVB/N and C57BL/6 x SJL F2 hybrid transgenic mice were assayed for CAT activity in the lens, heart, lung, kidney, spleen, liver, cerebrum, and muscle. F0, F1, and F2 mice from multiple lines carrying single mutations of the DE-1 or alpha A-CRYBP1 sites showed high levels of CAT activity in the lens, but not in any of the non-lens tissues. By contrast, despite activity of the wild-type promoter, none of the mutant promoter/CAT constructs were active in the transiently transfected and stably transformed lens cells. The mice carrying transgenes with either site-specific mutations in both the DE-1 and alpha A-CRYBP1 sites or a deletion of the entire DE-1 and part of the alpha A-CRYBP1 site (-60/+46) fused to the CAT gene did not exhibit CAT activity above background in any of the tissues examined, including the lens. Our results thus indicate that the DE-1 and alpha A-CRYBP1 sites are functionally redundant in transgenic mice. Moreover, the present data coupled with previous transfection and transgenic mouse experiments suggest that this functional redundancy is confined to lens expression within the mouse and is not evident in transiently transfected and stably transformed lens cells, making the cultured lens cells sensitive indicators of functional elements of crystallin genes.

  8. Coexistence of {alpha}+{alpha}+n+n and {alpha}+t+t cluster structures in {sup 10}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Itagaki, N.; Ito, M.; Milin, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.

    2008-06-15

    The coexistence of the {alpha}+{alpha}+n+n and {alpha}+t+t cluster structures in the excited states of {sup 10}Be has been discussed. In the previous analysis, all the low-lying states of {sup 10}Be were found to be well described by the motion of the two valence neutrons around two {alpha} clusters. However, the {alpha}+t+t cluster structure was found to coexist with the {alpha}+{alpha}+n+n structure around E{sub x}=15 MeV, close to the corresponding threshold. We have introduced a microscopic model to solve the coupling effect between these two configurations. The K=0 and K=1 states are generated from the {alpha}+t+t configurations due to the spin coupling of two triton clusters. The present case of {sup 10}Be is one of the few examples in which completely different configurations of triton-type ({alpha}+t+t three-center) and {alpha}-type ({alpha}+{alpha}+n+n two-center) clusters coexist in a single nucleus in the same energy region.

  9. A synopsis of collective alpha effects and implications for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmar, D.J.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following: Alpha Interaction with Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes; Alpha Interaction with Ballooning Modes; Alpha Interaction with Fishbone Oscillations; and Implications for ITER.

  10. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an inherited disease. "Inherited" means it's ... parents to children through genes. Children who have AAT deficiency inherit two faulty AAT genes, one from ...

  11. How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency has no cure, but its related lung ... pulmonary disease). If you have symptoms related to AAT deficiency, your doctor may recommend: Medicines called inhaled ...

  12. The ultraviolet spectra of Alpha Aquilae and Alpha Canis Minoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, D. C.; Bruzual A., G.; Kurucz, R. L.; Spinrad, H.

    1977-01-01

    Scans of Alpha Aql (A7 IV, V) and Alpha CMi (F5 IV-V) obtained with the Copernicus satellite spectrometer over the wavelength range from 2100 to 3200 A are presented along with a spectrum of the integrated solar disk over the same range procured during a calibrated rocket flight. About 1500 fairly strong absorption lines in the Alpha CMi spectrum between 2400 and 2961 A are identified by comparison with a solar atlas and by using a theoretical spectrum synthesized from a blanketed LTE model with an effective temperature of 6500 K and a surface gravity of 10,000 cm/sec per sec. The Mg II resonance doublet at 2795.528 and 2802.704 A is found to be present in all three stars together with a discontinuity at 2635 A due to Fe II, Fe I, Cr I, and Mn II. It is concluded that the Mg II resonance lines and the 2635-A continuum break would be the best spectral features for estimating the redshift of a galaxy observed at low resolution provided the redshift is not less than about 0.75.

  13. Recent Results on the CKM Angle Alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalyi, A.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2005-10-18

    The method to measure the CKM angle {alpha} and the modes sensitive to it are discussed. It is shown that the B {yields} {rho}{rho} decays provide the most stringent constraint on {alpha}, which is found to be {alpha} = 96{sup o} {+-} 10{sup o}(stat) {+-} 4{sup o}(syst){+-} 13{sup o}(penguin).

  14. Genetics Home Reference: alpha-mannosidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... infantile form Orphanet: Alpha-mannosidosis The MPS Society (UK): Guide to Alpha-Mannosidosis (PDF) Patient Support and ... Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) The MPS Society (UK) GeneReviews (1 link) Alpha-Mannosidosis ClinicalTrials.gov (1 ...

  15. Effectiveness of Alpha Biofeedback Therapy: Negative Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Charles G.; Herder, Joseph

    1980-01-01

    Assessed the utility of alpha biofeedback training in the treatment of patients (N=66). Biofeedback and placebo biofeedback groups were given alpha or mock-alpha training sessions. Improvement on 54 variables was compared to that of no-treatment controls. Only a chance number of significant changes appeared among the groups. (Author)

  16. Thionation of some alpha,beta-unsaturated steroidal ketones.

    PubMed

    Krstić, Natalija M; Bjelaković, Mira S; Dabović, Milan M; Pavlović, Vladimir D

    2010-05-12

    The reactions of selected alpha,beta-unsaturated steroidal ketones with Lawesson's reagent (LR) in CH(2)Cl(2) and toluene under the standard reaction conditions and with a combination of phosphorus pentasulfide with hexamethyldisiloxane (P(4)S(10)/HMDO) in 1,2-dichlorobenzene (ODCB) under microwave irradiation were investigated and for this purpose several cholestane, androstane and pregnane carbonyl derivatives were chosen. Depending on the reagent and the solvent, 19 new sulfur containing compounds, including dithiones 4c and 4d, alpha,beta-unsaturated 3-thiones 3a-e, dimer-sulfides 2a-e, 1,2,4-trithiolanes 5a-e and phosphonotrithioates 6b-e were synthesized. All newly prepared compounds were characterized by IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis.

  17. Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Anderson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Rolling element bearings are a precision, yet simple, machine element of great utility. A brief history of rolling element bearings is reviewed and the type of rolling element bearings, their geometry and kinematics, as well as the materials they are made from and the manufacturing processes they involve are described. Unloaded and unlubricated rolling element bearings, loaded but unlubricated rolling element bearings and loaded and lubricated rolling element bearings are considered. The recognition and understanding of elastohydrodynamic lubrication covered, represents one of the major development in rolling element bearings.

  18. Brassinolide activities of 2alpha,3alpha-diols versus 3alpha,4alpha-diols in the bean second internode bioassay: explanation by molecular modeling methods.

    PubMed

    Sísa, Miroslav; Vilaplana-Polo, Marc; Ballesteros, Carme Brosa; Kohout, Ladislav

    2007-10-01

    In general, the structural requirements postulated for a high brassinolide activity are: 2alpha,3alpha-diol, 6-ketone or better 7-oxalactone in B-ring, A/B trans fused ring junction, a cis C-22,C-23-diol preferentially with RR configurations, and a C-24 methyl or ethyl substituent [Takatsuto S, Yazawa N, Ikekawa N, Takematsu T, Takeuchi Y, Koguchi M. Structure-activity relationship of brassinosteroids. Phytochemistry 1983;22:2437-41; Thompson MJ, Meudt WJ, Mandava NB, Dutky SR, Lusby WR, Spaulding DW. Synthesis of brassinosteroids and relationship of structure to plant growth-promoting effects. Steroids 1982;39:89-105]. We found that the 3alpha,4alpha-diols 4, 6 and 8 are more active than the 2alpha,3alpha-diols 3, 5 and 7 [Sísa M, Budesínský M, Kohout L. Synthesis of 7a-homo and 7a,7b-dihomo-5alpha-cholestane analogues of brassinolide. Collect Czech Chem Commun 2003;68:2171-89]. This fact is in strong contrast with the structure requirements mentioned above. Our hypothesis suggests that the lower activity of 2alpha,3alpha-diols and/or the higher activity of 3alpha,4alpha-diols could be explained by twisting and distortion of the molecule due to the seven- or eight-membered B-ring and also by the position of a carbonyl group relative to the A-ring diol. 3D-SAR computer methodologies as alignments and overlaps of GRID maps and 3D-QSAR analysis GRID-GOLPE (CoMFA-like) were used as an effort to explain the higher bioactivity of 3alpha,4alpha-diols 4, 6 and 8 in comparison with the 2alpha,3alpha-diols 3, 5 and 7 of B-ring enlarged brassinosteroids.

  19. Voglibose: An Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Dabhi, Ajay S.; Bhatt, Nikita R.; Shah, Mohit J.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a morbid disease worldwide, with increasing incidence as time passes. It has macro-vascular and micro-vascular complications. The main cause of these complications is poorly controlled postprandial hyperglycaemia. Alpha glucosidase inhibitors, namely acarbose, voglibose and miglitol, are available for therapy. Voglibose is well tolerated and effective in comparable doses among these drugs. This article highlights the important features of voglibose. PMID:24551718

  20. Differentiation of the mRNA transcripts originating from the alpha 1- and alpha 2-globin loci in normals and alpha-thalassemics.

    PubMed

    Liebhaber, S A; Kan, Y W

    1981-08-01

    The alpha-globin polypeptide is encoded by two adjacent genes, alpha 1 and alpha 2. In the normal diploid state (alpha alpha/alpha alpha) all four alpha-globin genes are expressed. Loss or dysfunction of one or more of these genes leads to deficient alpha-globin production and results in alpha-thalassemia. We present a technique to differentially assess the steady-state levels of the alpha 1- and alpha-2-globin messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts and thus delineate the relative level of expression of the two alpha-globin loci in a variety of alpha-thalassemia states. Only alpha 1 mRNA was produced in the alpha-thalassemia-2 haplotype (-alpha) (one of the two alpha-globin genes deleted from chromosome 16). This confirms previous gene mapping data which demonstrate deletion of the alpha 2 gene. The triple alpha-globin gene haplotype (alpha alpha alpha) is the reciprocal of the alpha-thalassemia-2 haplotype and thus contains an extra alpha 2-globin gene. RNA from this haplotype contained a greater than normal level of alpha 2-relative to alpha 1-globin mRNA. This data implies that the extra alpha 2 gene in the triple alpha-globin haplotype is functional. We detected a relative instability of the alpha 2-globin mRNA encoding the alpha-globin structural mutant Constant Spring. This instability may contribute to the low level of expression of the alpha-Constant Spring protein. In a Chinese patient with nondeletion hemoglobin-H disease (- -/alpha alpha T) (both alpha-globin genes are present but not fully functional) a normal ratio was maintained between the levels of alpha 1- and alpha 2-globin mRNA, implying that mRNA production from both alpha-globin genes is suppressed in a balanced manner. These observations extended previous findings concerning the structural rearrangements in the deletion types of alpha-thalassemia and the pathophysiology of two nondeletion variants.

  1. Isolation, characterization and structure-elicitor activity relationships of hibernalin and its two oxidized forms from Phytophthora hibernalis Carne 1925.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Renato; Di Maro, Antimo; Cristinzio, Gennaro; De Martino, Antonio; Chambery, Angela; Daniele, Addolorata; Sannino, Filomena; Testa, Antonino; Parente, Augusto

    2008-01-01

    Three alpha-elicitins, named hibernalin1, hibernalin2 and hibernalin3 (hib1, hib2 and hib3, respectively), were isolated by reverse phase-low-pressure liquid chromatography from culture filtrates of Phytophthora hibernalis Carne 1925, the causal agent of citrus lemon brown rot. Hib1 proved to be identical to syringicin previously isolated from culture filtrates of Phytophthora syringae. Hib2 and hib3 shared the same primary structure with hib1, but contained, at position 50, Met sulphoxide or sulphone, respectively. By SDS-PAGE, the three proteins showed the same electrophoretic mobility, corresponding to about 10 kDa. Exact M(r) values were obtained by MALDI-TOF-MS (10,194.82 for hib1, 10,209.33 for hib2 and 10,223.80 for hib3), while by ESI-MS an M(r) value of 10,194.90 was found for hib1 and no results for hib2 and hib3. The hibernalin forms showed a high propensity to self-association, after exposure to acetonitrile. Hib1 showed to be active in both the hypersensitivity response and electrolytes leakage assays; the sample containing hib1 and hib2 was only weakly active in the first assay and inactive in the second assay, while the sample containing all three hibernalin forms proved to be inactive in both tests. It is proposed that the different activities of the three hibernalin samples could be very likely attributed to both Met50 oxidation and aggregation.

  2. Formation of varanic acid, 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha, 24-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid from 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid in Bombina orientalis.

    PubMed

    Une, M; Inoue, A; Hoshita, T

    1996-11-01

    Varanic acid (3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha, 24-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid; 24-OH-THCA) is almost the sole component of bile acids in the bile of Bombina orientalis. To examine in the mechanism of the formation of 24-OH-THCA, radiolabeled (25R)- and (25S)-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihdroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acids [(25R)- and (25S)-THCA] and (24E)-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihdroxy-5 beta-cholest-24-enoic acid (delta 24-THCA) were administered intraperitoneally to B. orientalis, gallbladder bile was collected after 24 h, and bile acids were subsequently extracted. Then the bile acids were analyzed by means of radio thin-layer chromatography and radio high-performance liquid chromatography after conversion to p-bromophenacyl ester derivatives. Although delta 24-THCA was not converted to 24-OH-THCA, (25R)-THCA and (25S)-THCA were transformed to (24R,25R)-24-OH-THCA and (24R,25S)-24-OH-THCA, respectively. These results strongly suggest that 24-OH-THCA was transformed via direct hydroxylation of the saturated side chain of THCA, not via hydration to an alpha, beta-unsaturated acid, delta 24-THCA, in B. orientalis.

  3. An Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer for Mars-96 and Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, R.; Wanke, H.; Economou, T.

    1996-09-01

    Mars Pathfinder and the Russian Mars-96 will carry an Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) for the determination of the chemical composition of Martian rocks and soil. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and many minor elements, including C,N and O, at levels above typically 1%. The method employed consist of bombarding a sample of 50 mm diameter with alpha particles from a radioactive source (50 mCi of Cm-244) and measuring: (i) backscattered alpha particles (alpha mode) (ii) protons from (a,p) reactions with some light elements (proton mode) (iii) characteristic X-rays emitted from the sample (X-ray mode). The APXS has a long standing space heritage, going back to Surveyor V,VI and VII (1967/68) and the Soviet Phobos (1988) missions. The present design is the result of an endeavour to reduce mass and power consumption to 600g/ 300mW. It consist of a sensor head containing the alpha sources, a telescope of a silicon detectors for the detection of the alpha particles and protons and a separate X-ray detector with its preamplifier, and an electronics box (80x70x60 mm) containing a microcontroller based multichannel spectrometer. The paper will describe the APXS flight hardware and present results obtained with the flight instrument that will show the instrument capabili- ties and the expected results to be obtained during surface operations on Mars.

  4. Alpha voltaic batteries and methods thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor); Wilt, David (Inventor); Scheiman, David (Inventor); Chubb, Donald (Inventor); Castro, Stephanie (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An alpha voltaic battery includes at least one layer of a semiconductor material comprising at least one p/n junction, at least one absorption and conversion layer on the at least one layer of semiconductor layer, and at least one alpha particle emitter. The absorption and conversion layer prevents at least a portion of alpha particles from the alpha particle emitter from damaging the p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material. The absorption and conversion layer also converts at least a portion of energy from the alpha particles into electron-hole pairs for collection by the one p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material.

  5. THE LYMAN ALPHA REFERENCE SAMPLE: EXTENDED LYMAN ALPHA HALOS PRODUCED AT LOW DUST CONTENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Matthew; Oestlin, Goeran; Duval, Florent; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Sandberg, Andreas; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne; Orlitova, Ivana; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Oti-Floranes, Hector; Adamo, Angela; Atek, Hakim; Cannon, John M.; Herenz, E. Christian; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter

    2013-03-10

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Ly{alpha}), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028 < z < 0.18 in continuum-subtracted Ly{alpha}, H{alpha}, and the far ultraviolet continuum. We show that Ly{alpha} is emitted on scales that systematically exceed those of the massive stellar population and recombination nebulae: as measured by the Petrosian 20% radius, R{sub P20}, Ly{alpha} radii are larger than those of H{alpha} by factors ranging from 1 to 3.6, with an average of 2.4. The average ratio of Ly{alpha}-to-FUV radii is 2.9. This suggests that much of the Ly{alpha} light is pushed to large radii by resonance scattering. Defining the Relative Petrosian Extension of Ly{alpha} compared to H{alpha}, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} = R {sup Ly{alpha}}{sub P20}/R {sup H{alpha}}{sub P20}, we find {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} to be uncorrelated with total Ly{alpha} luminosity. However, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} is strongly correlated with quantities that scale with dust content, in the sense that a low dust abundance is a necessary requirement (although not the only one) in order to spread Ly{alpha} photons throughout the interstellar medium and drive a large extended Ly{alpha} halo.

  6. Dietary alpha-tocopherol decreases alpha-tocotrienol but not gamma-tocotrienol concentration in rats.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Saiko; Tohyama, Tomoko; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki; Hamamura, Kimio; Abe, Kouichi; Yamashita, Kanae

    2003-02-01

    We previously showed that alpha- and gamma-tocotrienols accumulate in adipose tissue and skin but not in plasma or other tissues of rats fed a tocotrienol-rich fraction extracted from palm oil containing alpha-tocopherol and alpha- and gamma-tocotrienols. To clarify the nature of tocotrienol metabolism, we studied the distribution of alpha- or gamma-tocotrienol in rats fed alpha- or gamma-tocotrienol without alpha-tocopherol, and the effect of alpha-tocopherol on their distribution. Wistar rats (4-wk-old) were fed a diet with 50 mg alpha-tocotrienol/kg alone or with 50 mg alpha-tocopherol/kg in expt. 1, and a diet with 50 mg gamma-tocotrienol/kg alone or with 50 mg alpha-tocopherol/kg in expt. 2, for 8 wk. alpha-Tocotrienol was detected in various tissues and plasma of the rats fed alpha-tocotrienol alone, and the alpha-tocotrienol concentrations in those tissues and plasma decreased (P < 0.05) by the dietary alpha-tocopherol in the rats fed alpha-tocotrienol with alpha-tocopherol. However, gamma-tocotrienol preferentially accumulated in the adipose tissue and skin of the rats fed gamma-tocotrienol alone, and the dietary alpha-tocopherol failed either to decrease (P >/= 0.05) gamma-tocotrienol concentrations in the adipose tissue and skin or to increase (P >/= 0.05) in the urinary excretion of 2,7,8-trimethyl-2(2'-carboxymethyl)-6-hydroxycroman, a metabolite of gamma-tocotrienol, in the rats fed gamma-tocotrienol with alpha-tocopherol. These data suggest that alpha-tocopherol enhances the alpha-tocotrienol metabolism but not the gamma-tocotrienol metabolism in rats.

  7. Discrete Element Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  8. {sup 17}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 21}Ne and {sup 17}O({alpha},n){sup 20}Ne for the weak s process

    SciTech Connect

    Best, A.; Goerres, J.; Beard, M.; Couder, M.; Boer, R. de; Falahat, S.; Gueray, R. T.; Kontos, A.; Kratz, K.-L.; LeBlanc, P. J.; Li, Q.; O'Brien, S.; Oezkan, N.; Pignatari, M.; Sonnabend, K.; Talwar, R.; Tan, W.; Uberseder, E.; Wiescher, M.

    2012-11-20

    The ratio of the reaction rates of the competing channels {sup 17}O({alpha}{gamma}){sup 21}Ne and {sup 17}O({alpha},n){sup 20}Ne determines the efficiency of {sup 16}O as a neutron poison in the s process in low metallicity rotating stars. It has a large impact on the element production, either producing elements to the mass range of A=90 in case of a significant poisoning effect or extending the mass range up to the region of A=150 if the {gamma} channel is of negligible strength. We present an improved study of the reaction {sup 17}O({alpha},n){sup 20}Ne, including an independent measurement of the {sup 17}O({alpha},n{sub 1}){sup 20}Ne channel. A simultaneous R-Matrix fit to both the n{sub 0} and the n{sub 1} channels has been performed. New reaction rates, including recent data on the {sup 17}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 21}Ne reaction, have been calculated and used as input for stellar network calculations and their impact on the s process in rotating massive stars is discussed.

  9. Comparison of ({alpha},n) thick-target neutron yields and spectra from ORIGEN-S and SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.H.; Wilson, W.B.; Perry, R.T.

    1998-12-31

    Both ORIGEN-S and SOURCES generate thick-target neutron yields and energy spectra from ({alpha}, n) reactions in homogeneous material containing alpha-emitting and ({alpha},n) target elements by simulating reaction physics, using alpha-emission energy spectra, elemental stopping cross sections, ({alpha}, n) target elements by simulating reaction physics, using alpha-emission energy spectra, elemental stopping cross sections, ({alpha}, n) cross sections for target nuclei, and branching fractions to product-nuclide energy levels. This methodology results in accurate yield and spectra. ORIGEN-S has two options for calculating yields and spectra. The UO{sub 2} option (default) estimates yields and spectra assuming the input alpha emitters to be infinitely dilute in UO{sub 2}. The borosilicate-glass option estimates yields from the total input material composition and generates spectra purportedly representative of spectra generated by {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242}Cm, and {sup 244}Cm infinitely dilute in borosilicate glass, even if none of these four alpha emitters are present in the input material composition. Because yields from the borosilicate-glass option in ORIGEN-S are based on entire input material composition and are reasonably accurate, the same is often assumed to be true for spectra. The input/output functionality of the borosilicate-glass option, along with ambiguity in ORIGEN-S documentation, gives the incorrect impression that spectra representative of input compositions are generated. This impression is reinforced by wide usage of the SCALE code system and its ORIGEN-S module and their sponsorship by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  10. PPAR-alpha in cutaneous inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Schmuth, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha is a fatty acid activated transcription factors that belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. Primarily PPAR-alpha serves as a lipid sensor. While PPAR-alpha controls enzymes from the lipid and glucose metabolism in the liver, heart and muscles, PPAR-alpha is also involved in skin homeostasis. PPAR-alpha controls keratinocyte proliferation/differentiation, contributes to wound healing and regulates skin inflammation. PPAR-alpha activation exerts anti-inflammatory effects in various skin conditions such as irritant and allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and UV-induced erythema, rendering investigations into the functions of PPAR-alpha necessary to provide better understandings to treat many inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:21519405

  11. 8alpha-hydroxyflavinmononucleotide and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhilina, T A; Berezoyski, V M

    1977-01-01

    2', 3', 4'-Triacetyl-FMN has been transformed by selective radical bromination into 2', 3', 4'-triacetyl-8alpha-bromo-FMN, and the following hydrolysis of the latter has afforded 8alpha-hydroxy-FMN. The presence of the hydroxy group in the 8alpha position of 8alpha-hydroxy-FMN is confirmed by its acetylation into 2', 3'-diacetyl-8alpha-acetoxyriboflavin-4', 5'-cyclophosphate. The absorption spectra of the synthesized compounds have shown the reduction of the extinction ratios of the first and second absorption maxima in comparison with the extinction of the same maxima for 8alpha-hydroxyriboflavin. Unlike FMN, fluorescence quenching for 8alpha-hydroxy-FMN has been found.

  12. Physiologic and prognostic significance of "alpha coma".

    PubMed Central

    Iragui, V J; McCutchen, C B

    1983-01-01

    A patient with posthypoxic "alpha coma" is described whose EEGs were recorded before coma, within two hours following the onset of coma and after recovery. The differences observed between the alpha activity during coma and that seen before and after suggest that the alpha activity during coma and the physiologic alpha rhythm are different phenomena. This case, as well as others reported, also suggests that "alpha coma" resolving in the first 24 hours following hypoxia may have a better prognosis than "alpha coma" detected after the first day, and stresses the need for EEG monitoring begun in the immediate period following hypoxia in order to assess accurately the prognostic significance of this EEG pattern in the early stages of postanoxic encephalopathy. The aetiology of "alpha coma" also affects outcome. The survival rate appears higher in patients with respiratory arrest than in those with combined cardiopulmonary arrest. PMID:6886700

  13. The Mimetic Finite Element Method and the Virtual Element Method for elliptic problems with arbitrary regularity.

    SciTech Connect

    Manzini, Gianmarco

    2012-07-13

    We develop and analyze a new family of virtual element methods on unstructured polygonal meshes for the diffusion problem in primal form, that use arbitrarily regular discrete spaces V{sub h} {contained_in} C{sup {alpha}} {element_of} N. The degrees of freedom are (a) solution and derivative values of various degree at suitable nodes and (b) solution moments inside polygons. The convergence of the method is proven theoretically and an optimal error estimate is derived. The connection with the Mimetic Finite Difference method is also discussed. Numerical experiments confirm the convergence rate that is expected from the theory.

  14. alpha-Tocopheryl phosphate – an active lipid mediator?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol, alphaT) derivative, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), is detectable in small amounts in plasma, tissues, and cultured cells. Studies done in vitro and in vivo suggest that alphaT can become phosphorylated and alphaTP dephosphorylated, suggesting the existence of ...

  15. Organic Elemental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, T. S.; Wang, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a literature review on methods used to analyze organic elements. Topic areas include methods for: (1) analyzing carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen; (2) analyzing oxygen, sulfur, and halogens; (3) analyzing other elements; (4) simultaneously determining several elements; and (5) determing trace elements. (JN)

  16. Is Hb A2 elevated in adults with sickle-alpha-thalassemia (beta(S)/beta(S); -alpha/-alpha)?

    PubMed

    Ballas, S K; Gay, R N; Chehab, F F

    1997-09-01

    Thirteen patients with sickle cell anemia (SS) were found to have two alpha gene deletions with a presumptive genotype of beta(S)/beta(S); -alpha/-alpha. Hematological data showed that this group of patients had elevated Hb A2 level. In order to determine whether the elevation of Hb A2 is typical of SS with a two alpha gene deletion or is due to undiagnosed S-beta(O)-thalassemia with a two alpha gene deletion we looked for the presence or absence of beta(O)-thalassemia by molecular techniques. The latter included reverse dot-blot hybridization to rule out a beta-thalassemia mutation, digestion with CvnI endonuclease followed by Southern blotting and hybridization with a beta genomic probe, and, in selected patients, determination of the synthetic alpha/beta ratio. One of the 13 patients had S-beta(O)-thalassemia with a G-->A mutation at IVS-II-1 indicating that her genotype was beta(S)/beta(O) thalassemia; -alpha/-alpha. The remaining 12 patients were homozygous for the sickle gene, had relatively elevated Hb levels, increased Hb A2 values, and Hb F levels similar to those in patients with SS and four or three alpha genes. At the clinical level, the 12 patients with SS and a two alpha gene deletion had increased prevalence of avascular necrosis, retinopathy, and splenomegaly, but decreased prevalence of leg ulcers and cerebrovascular accidents. Together, the data indicate that SS with a two alpha gene deletion (beta(S)/beta(S); -alpha/-alpha) is a unique subset of patients with SS characterised by distinct hematological and clinical features.

  17. PKC{alpha} expression regulated by Elk-1 and MZF-1 in human HCC cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Y.-H.; Wu, T.-T.; Tsai, J.-H.; Huang, C.-Y.; Hsieh, Y.-S.; Liu, J.-Y. . E-mail: jyl@csmu.edu.tw

    2006-01-06

    Our previous study found that PKC{alpha} was highly expressed in the poor-differentiated human HCC cells and associated with cell migration and invasion. In this study, we further investigated the gene regulation of this enzyme. We showed that PKC{alpha} expression enhancement in the poor-differentiated human HCC cells was found neither by DNA amplification nor by increasing mRNA stability using differential PCR and mRNA decay assays. After screening seven transcription factors in the putative cis-acting regulatory elements of human PKC{alpha} promoters, only Elk-1 and MZF-1 antisense oligonucleotide showed a significant reduction in the PKC{alpha} mRNA level. They also reduced cell proliferation, cell migratory and invasive capabilities, and DNA binding activities in the PKC{alpha} promoter region. Over-expression assay confirmed that the PKC{alpha} expression may be modulated by these two factors at the transcriptional level. Therefore, these results may provide a novel mechanism for PKC{alpha} expression regulation in human HCC cells.

  18. {alpha}-Lipoic acid prevents lipotoxic cardiomyopathy in acyl CoA-synthase transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young; Naseem, R. Haris; Park, Byung-Hyun; Garry, Daniel J.; Richardson, James A.; Schaffer, Jean E.; Unger, Roger H. . E-mail: roger.unger@utsouthwestern.edu

    2006-05-26

    {alpha}-Lipoic acid ({alpha}-LA) mimics the hypothalamic actions of leptin on food intake, energy expenditure, and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). To determine if, like leptin, {alpha}-LA protects against cardiac lipotoxicity, {alpha}-LA was fed to transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of the acyl CoA synthase (ACS) gene. Untreated ACS-transgenic mice died prematurely with increased triacylglycerol content and dilated cardiomyopathy, impaired systolic function and myofiber disorganization, apoptosis, and interstitial fibrosis on microscopy. In {alpha}-LA-treated ACS-transgenic mice heart size, echocardiogram and TG content were normal. Plasma TG fell 50%, hepatic-activated phospho-AMPK rose 6-fold, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c declined 50%, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} cofactor-1{alpha} mRNA rose 4-fold. Since food restriction did not prevent lipotoxicity, we conclude that {alpha}-LA treatment, like hyperleptinemia, protects the heart of ACS-transgenic mice from lipotoxicity.

  19. Transcriptional regulation of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene: binding of USF to the -7/+5 region.

    PubMed

    Sax, C M; Cvekl, A; Piatigorsky, J

    1997-02-07

    Lens preferred-expression of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene (alpha A-cry) is regulated at the transcriptional level by multiple elements located in the 5' flanking region of the gene. Here we present the first analysis of the functional role of the mouse alpha A-cry +1 region and the protein(s) which bind to it. The -7/+5 region of this promoter exhibits sequence similarity with the consensus upstream stimulating factor (USF) transcription factor binding site. A wild type oligodeoxyribonucleotide (oligo) spanning the mouse alpha A-cry -15/+15 region specifically inhibited the activity of a mouse alpha A-cry promoter-cat gene fusion (p alpha A 111aCAT) in competitive co-transfection studies in the mouse alpha TN4-1 lens cell line, as did an oligo containing the adenovirus 2 major late promoter strong USF binding site. In contrast, an alpha A-cry oligo mutated (-3/+3) within the USF-like binding site did not inhibit p alpha A111aCAT activity. Western blot analysis indicated that alpha TN4-1 cells express USF1. Co-transfection of p alpha A111aCAT and a USF1 cDNA expression vector into alpha TN4-1 cells resulted in a repression of mouse alpha A-cry promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift analyses (EMSA) demonstrated that proteins in an alpha TN4-1 nuclear extract form a single major complex on synthetic oligos spanning the mouse alpha A-cry -15/+15 region. The formation of this complex was inhibited by the presence of unlabeled -15/+15 oligos or an anti-USF1 antibody. In addition, purified USF1 bound to this region, producing a complex similar in size to that observed with alpha TN4-1 nuclear extracts. Taken together, our findings show that USF can bind to the mouse alpha A-cry +1 site, and support the possibility that USF plays a role in promoter activity of this gene. Sequence similarities surrounding the +1 region of the alpha A-cry gene of the mouse, mole rat, hamster, and human, as well as the previously observed utilization of USF by different cry

  20. The mongoose acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit: analysis of glycosylation and alpha-bungarotoxin binding.

    PubMed

    Asher, O; Jensen, B S; Lupu-Meiri, M; Oron, Y; Fuchs, S

    1998-04-17

    The mongoose AChR alpha-subunit has been cloned and shown to be highly homologous to other AChR alpha-subunits, with only six differences in amino acid residues at positions that are conserved in animal species that bind alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX). Four of these six substitutions cluster in the ligand binding site, and one of them, Asn-187, forms a consensus N-glycosylation site. The mongoose glycosylated alpha-subunit has a higher apparent molecular mass than that of the rat glycosylated alpha-subunit, probably resulting from the additional glycosylation at Asn-187 of the mongoose subunit. The in vitro translated mongoose alpha-subunit, in a glycosylated or non-glycosylated form, does not bind alpha-BTX, indicating that lack of alpha-BTX binding can be achieved also in the absence of glycosylation.

  1. Alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists potentiate responses mediated by alpha 1-adrenoceptors in the cat nictitating membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Shepperson, N. B.

    1984-01-01

    Alpha 1 but not alpha 2-adrenoceptors mediate contractions of the cat nictitating membrane. The contractions of this tissue evoked by alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists, but not those evoked by angiotensin II, are potentiated by pre-dosing with alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists. This potentiation is reversed by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, WY 26392. Pressor responses evoked by alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists or angiotensin II were not affected by alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists. Contractions of the nictitating membrane evoked by noradrenaline were reduced by pretreatment with WY 26392. These results suggest that in some tissues the role of alpha 2-adrenoceptors may be to modulate responses to alpha 1-adrenoceptors, rather than to evoke a discrete response themselves. PMID:6148985

  2. Failure Analysis in Space: International Space Station (ISS) Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) Debris Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, V. S.; Wright, M. C.; McDanels, S. J.; Lubas, D.; Tucker, B.; Marciniak, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the debris analysis of the Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ), a mechanism that is designed to keep the solar arrays facing the sun. The goal of this was to identify the failure mechanism based on surface morphology and to determine the source of debris through elemental and particle analysis.

  3. Lymphatic transport of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol in rats.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, I; Imasato, Y; Sasaki, E; Sugano, M

    1996-01-01

    Lymphatic transport of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol was measured in thoracic duct-cannulated rats. Animals were administered 3 ml of a test emulsion containing 200 mg sodium taurocholate, 50 mg fatty acid free-albumin, 200 mg fat and 100 mg of a mixture of tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol (Exp. 1) or 10 mg of purified alpha-, gamma- or delta-tocotrienol or alpha-tocopherol (Exp. 2) through a gastric tube. Quantitative lymphatic recovery of oleic acid given as triolein was obtained in these experimental conditions. The 24-hours recovery of tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol were 10-20% of the administered dose in Exp. 1. The recovery of alpha-tocotrienol was about 2-times higher than that of alpha-tocopherol, while that of gamma- and delta-tocotrienols was intermediate between these two alpha-forms. In Exp. 2, where these compounds were administered individually, the 24 hours recovery ranged from 22 to 37% of the administered dose. Again, the recovery of alpha-tocotrienol was significantly higher than that of the other tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol, while that of gamma- and delta-tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol was comparable. Thus, the results show the preferential absorption of alpha-tocotrienol compared to gamma- and delta-tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol.

  4. Spread and exchange of bla NDM-1 in hospitalized neonates: role of mobilizable genetic elements.

    PubMed

    Datta, S; Mitra, S; Chattopadhyay, P; Som, T; Mukherjee, S; Basu, S

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the mobilizable elements associated with bla NDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from septicaemic neonates at a NICU in India, during December, 2008-2011. An attempt was also made to understand whether there was a pattern in the temporal acquisition of bla NDM-1 within the unit. Transferability of carbapenem resistance was tested by conjugation and transformation. Plasmid types and addiction systems were analysed. The genetic background of bla NDM-1 and association with class 1 integron were evaluated by PCR mapping. RFLP was carried out to discriminate plasmids of same incompatibility group. Transfer of carbapenem resistance was successful in 13/15 cases. bla NDM-1 was associated with different plasmid scaffolds (IncFII, IncL/M, IncN, IncR, IncHIB-M/FIB-M), IncF type being the prevalent one. Addiction systems ccdAB and hok/sok were associated with transferable plasmids. Genetic structures surrounding bla NDM-1 showed its association with at least a remnant of ISAba125 at its 5'-end. The spread of NDM-1 was not related to class 1 integron which possessed resistance determinants against trimethoprim (dfrA12, dfrA1, dfrA5), streptomycin (aadA2, aacA4), and rifampicin (arr-3). RFLP showed that three isolates possessed the same FII/FIIs plasmid; two of these three isolates were from a single neonate, implying interspecies transfer of bla NDM-1. The predominance of FII plasmids and ISAba125 along with bla NDM-1 was noted, but no specific pattern in the temporal acquisition of mobile genetic elements could be identified. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to inform the in-vivo interspecies plasmid transfer event of bla NDM-1 in a neonate.

  5. Differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas because of tumor-specific alphaB-crystallin gene (CRYAB) silencing

    PubMed Central

    Mineva, Ivelina; Gartner, Wolfgang; Hauser, Peter; Kainz, Alexander; Löffler, Michael; Wolf, Gerhard; Oberbauer, Rainer; Weissel, Michael; Wagner, Ludwig

    2005-01-01

    Expression of the small heat shock protein alphaB-crystallin in differentiated thyroid tumors has been described recently. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms that affect the expression of alphaB-crystallin in benign goiters (n = 7) and highly malignant anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATCs) (n = 3). AlphaB-crystallin expression was compared with that of Hsp27-1. Immunoblot and quantitative real-time (RT) polymerase chain reaction revealed marked downregulation of alphaB-crystallin in all the tested ATCs and the ATC-derived cell line C-643 . In contrast, considerable expression of Hsp27-1 in benign and malignant thyroid tissue was demonstrated. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed no relevant topological differences between benign and malignant thyrocytes in the cytoplasmic staining of both proteins. Consistent and marked downregulation of TFCP2L1 was identified as one of the main mechanisms contributing to CRYAB gene silencing in ATCs. In addition, CRYAB gene promoter methylation seems to occur in distinct ATCs. In silico analysis revealed that the differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 results from differences between the alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 promoter fragments (712 bp upstream from the transcriptional start site). Biological activity of the analyzed promoter element is confirmed by its heat shock inducibility. In conclusion, we demonstrate downregulation of alphaB-crystallin expression in highly dedifferentiated ATCs because of a tumor-specific transcription factor pattern. The differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 indicates functional differences between both proteins. PMID:16184762

  6. Differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas because of tumor-specific alphaB-crystallin gene (CRYAB) silencing.

    PubMed

    Mineva, Ivelina; Gartner, Wolfgang; Hauser, Peter; Kainz, Alexander; Löffler, Michael; Wolf, Gerhard; Oberbauer, Rainer; Weissel, Michael; Wagner, Ludwig

    2005-01-01

    Expression of the small heat shock protein alphaB-crystallin in differentiated thyroid tumors has been described recently. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms that affect the expression of alphaB-crystallin in benign goiters (n = 7) and highly malignant anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATCs) (n = 3). AlphaB-crystallin expression was compared with that of Hsp27-1. Immunoblot and quantitative real-time (RT) polymerase chain reaction revealed marked downregulation of alphaB-crystallin in all the tested ATCs and the ATC-derived cell line C-643 . In contrast, considerable expression of Hsp27-1 in benign and malignant thyroid tissue was demonstrated. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed no relevant topological differences between benign and malignant thyrocytes in the cytoplasmic staining of both proteins. Consistent and marked downregulation of TFCP2L1 was identified as one of the main mechanisms contributing to CRYAB gene silencing in ATCs. In addition, CRYAB gene promoter methylation seems to occur in distinct ATCs. In silico analysis revealed that the differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 results from differences between the alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 promoter fragments (712 bp upstream from the transcriptional start site). Biological activity of the analyzed promoter element is confirmed by its heat shock inducibility. In conclusion, we demonstrate downregulation of alphaB-crystallin expression in highly dedifferentiated ATCs because of a tumor-specific transcription factor pattern. The differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 indicates functional differences between both proteins.

  7. Targeted alpha therapy for cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Barry J.; Raja, Chand; Rizvi, Syed; Li, Yong; Tsui, Wendy; Zhang, David; Song, Emma; Qu, Chang Fa; Kearsley, John; Graham, Peter; Thompson, John

    2004-08-01

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT is tested by in vitro and in vivo studies in melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers, and by a phase 1 trial of intralesional TAT for melanoma. The alpha-emitting radioisotope used is Bi-213, which is eluted from the Ac-225 generator and chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody (mab) or protein (e.g. plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 PAI2) to form the alpha-conjugate (AC). Stable alpha-ACs have been produced which have been tested for specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro against melanoma (9.2.27 mab), leukaemia (WM60), colorectal (C30.6), breast (PAI2, herceptin), ovarian (PAI2, herceptin, C595), prostate (PAI2, J591) and pancreatic (PAI2, C595) cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 1-1.5 million human cancer cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. Tumour growth is compared for untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. The 213Bi-9.2.27 AC is injected into secondary skin melanomas in stage 4 patients in a dose escalation study to determine the effective tolerance dose, and to measure kinematics to obtain the equivalent dose to organs. In vitro studies show that TAT is one to two orders of magnitude more cytotoxic to targeted cells than non-specific ACs, specific beta emitting conjugates or free isotopes. In vivo local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress advanced sc melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of sc melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast and prostate cancer tumour growth. Intralesional doses up to 450 µCi in human

  8. Similarity and divergence between the RNA polymerase alpha subunits from hyperthermophilic Thermotoga maritima and mesophilic Escherichia coli bacteria.

    PubMed

    Braun, Frederique; Marhuenda, Fanny B; Morin, Amelie; Guevel, Laetitia; Fleury, Fabrice; Takahashi, Masayuki; Sakanyan, Vehary

    2006-10-01

    The alpha subunit (alphaTm) of Thermotoga maritima RNA polymerase has been characterized to investigate its role in transcriptional regulation in one of the few known anaerobic hyperthermophilic bacteria. The highly thermostable alphaTm shares 54% similarity with its Escherichia coli analogue (alphaEc). The T. maritima rpoA gene coding the alpha subunit does not complement the thermosensitive rpoA112 mutation of E. coli. However, alphaTm and alphaEc show similar folding patterns as determined by circular dichroism. Purified alphaTm binds to the T. maritima PargGo promoter region (probably to a UP-element) and Arg282 appears to be crucial for DNA binding. The thermostable protein is also able to interact with transcription regulatory proteins, like ArgR from T. neapolitana or CRP from E. coli. These data indicate that the RNA polymerase alpha subunit might play a crucial role in the modulation of gene expression in hyperthermophiles.

  9. Selective sorting of alpha-granule proteins.

    PubMed

    Italiano, J E; Battinelli, E M

    2009-07-01

    One of the main functions of blood platelets is to secrete a variety of substances that can modify a developing thrombus, regulate the growth of the vasculature, promote wound repair, and contribute to cell-adhesive events. A majority of this vast array of secreted proteins are stored in alpha-granules. Until recently, it was assumed that platelets contained one homogeneous population of alpha-granules that undergo complete de-granulation during platelet activation. This review focuses on the mechanisms of alpha-granule biogenesis and secretion, with a particular emphasis on recent findings that clearly demonstrate that platelets contain distinct subpopulations of alpha-granules that undergo differential release during activation. We consider the implications of this new paradigm of platelet secretion, discuss mechanisms of alpha-granule biogenesis, and review the molecular basis of transport and delivery of alpha-granules to assembling platelets.

  10. Alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy.

    PubMed

    Wewers, Mark D; Crystal, Ronald G

    2013-03-01

    The therapy of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an example of a medical triumph over a common hereditary disease. Based on the understanding of the pathogens of the disease as a deficiency in liver production of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) resulting from inherited genetic variation in both parental AAT genes, the knowledge that A1AT functions primarily to inhibit neutrophil elastase (NE), and the observation that NE instilled into the lung of experimental animals resulted in emphysema, the concept evolved that the pulmonary manifestations of the disease could be halted by intermittent intravenous infusions of AAT purified from pooled human plasma. Following preliminary clinical studies in the academic community, and then pharmaceutical company development of large scale purification of human AAT, the FDA approved the use of weekly AAT augmentation therapy for AATD following a clinical trial which demonstrated that weekly infusions would raise to normal plasma and lung epithelial fluid levels of AAT in AAT-deficient individuals. The therapy is now used worldwide to treat AATD, the only pulmonary genetic disease with effective therapy for all affected individuals.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and tumor necrosis factor-alpha attenuate Clara cell secretory protein promoter function.

    PubMed

    Harrod, Kevin S; Jaramillo, Richard J

    2002-02-01

    The Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP, also CC-10/uterglobin) is a 16-kD homodimeric protein abundantly expressed in the airways of mammals. Although the molecular function is unknown, gene-targeting studies indicate CCSP as a regulator of lung inflammation following acute respiratory infection or injury. CCSP is decreased in the lungs of mice following acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a.) infection. In the present study, the role of decreased promoter function in the regulation of CCSP by P.a. was assessed using an in vitro co-culture system and in vivo studies of transgenic mice. CCSP promoter activity in lung epithelial cells was markedly decreased by P.a. or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in a dose-dependent manner. Regulation of CCSP promoter function by either P.a. or TNF-alpha was localized to the proximal 166 bp flanking region of the CCSP promoter activity. Decreased regulation of the CCSP promoter by P.a. or TNF-alpha was specific to CCSP, as human surfactant protein D (SP-D) promoter activity was unaffected or increased by P.a. or TNF-alpha, respectively. A neutralizing antibody against human TNF-alpha was able to reverse both the TNF-alpha- mediated as well as P.a.-mediated decrease in CCSP promoter function in lung epithelial cells. TNF-alpha secretion by lung epithelial cells coincided with the decrease in CCSP promoter function following P.a. administration. Using a transgenic mouse model, P.a. administration to the lung markedly attenuated CCSP promoter-conferred gene expression in vivo. The attenuation of CCSP promoter activity in lung epithelial cells by P.a. involves, in part, autocrine/paracrine secretion of TNF-alpha, which in turn regulates CCSP transcription through cis-active elements in the proximal promoter region.

  12. Regulation of the human SLC25A20 expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in human hepatoblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, Keisuke; Takeuchi, Kentaro; Inada, Hirohiko; Yamasaki, Daisuke; Ishimoto, Kenji; Tanaka, Toshiya; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Doi, Takefumi

    2009-11-20

    Solute carrier family 25, member 20 (SLC25A20) is a key molecule that transfers acylcarnitine esters in exchange for free carnitine across the mitochondrial membrane in the mitochondrial {beta}-oxidation. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays an important role in the regulation of {beta}-oxidation. We previously established tetracycline-regulated human cell line that can be induced to express PPAR{alpha} and found that PPAR{alpha} induces the SLC25A20 expression. In this study, we analyzed the promoter region of the human slc25a20 gene and showed that PPAR{alpha} regulates the expression of human SLC25A20 via the peroxisome proliferator responsive element.

  13. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Gregory K.; Martz, Dowell E.

    1989-01-01

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinguishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts.

  14. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  15. Gene transfer mediated by alpha2-macroglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, H; Huse, K; Birkenmeier, G; Otto, A; Scholz, G H

    1996-01-01

    alpha2-Macroglobulin covalently linked to poly(L)-lysine can be used as a vehicle for receptor-mediated gene transfer. This modified alpha2-macroglobulin maintains its ability to bind to the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor, and was shown to introduce a luciferase reporter gene plasmid into HepG2 human hepatoma cells in vitro. The alpha2-macroglobulin receptor is a very large and multifunctional cell surface receptor, whose rapid and efficient internalization rate makes it attractive for gene therapy, e.g. for hepatic gene targeting via injection into the portal vein. PMID:8871570

  16. Prospects for alpha particle studies on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.

    1987-05-01

    TFTR is expected to produce approximately 5 MW of alpha heating during the D/T Q approx. = 1 phase of operation in 1990. At that point the collective confinement properties and the heating effects of alpha particles become accessible for study for the first time. This paper outlines the potential performance of TFTR with respect to alpha particle production, the diagnostics which will be available for alpha particle measurements, and the physics issues which can be studied both before and during D/T operation.

  17. The gastrointestinal absorption of the actinide elements.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D

    1991-03-01

    The greatest uncertainty in dose estimates for the ingestion of long-lived, alpha-emitting isotopes of the actinide elements is in the values used for their fractional absorption from the gastrointestinal tract (f1 values). Recent years have seen a large increase in the available data on actinide absorption. Human data are reviewed here, together with animal data, to illustrate the effect on absorption of chemical form, incorporation into food materials, fasting and other dietary factors, and age at ingestion. The f1 values recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, by an Expert Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency and by the National Radiological Protection Board are discussed.

  18. Trace Elements and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the effects of arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and cadmium on human health, indicates the sources of the elements in water, and considers the possibility of students in high schools analyzing water for trace amounts of the elements. (AL)

  19. Element-ary Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamp, Homer W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the historic development of the periodic table from the four-element theory to the Lavoisier's table. Presents a table listing the old and new names of chemicals and the Lavoisier's table of elements. Lists two references. (YP)

  20. EEG, alpha waves and coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascolani, Gianluca

    This thesis addresses some theoretical issues generated by the results of recent analysis of EEG time series proving the brain dynamics are driven by abrupt changes making them depart from the ordinary Poisson condition. These changes are renewal, unpredictable and non-ergodic. We refer to them as crucial events. How is it possible that this form of randomness be compatible with the generation of waves, for instance alpha waves, whose observation seems to suggest the opposite view the brain is characterized by surprisingly extended coherence? To shed light into this apparently irretrievable contradiction we propose a model based on a generalized form of Langevin equation under the influence of a periodic stimulus. We assume that there exist two different forms of time, a subjective form compatible with Poisson statistical physical and an objective form that is accessible to experimental observation. The transition from the former to the latter form is determined by the brain dynamics interpreted as emerging from the cooperative interaction among many units that, in the absence of cooperation would generate Poisson fluctuations. We call natural time the brain internal time and we make the assumption that in the natural time representation the time evolution of the EEG variable y(t) is determined by a Langevin equation perturbed by a periodic process that in this time representation is hardly distinguishable from an erratic process. We show that the representation of this random process in the experimental time scale is characterized by a surprisingly extended coherence. We show that this model generates a sequence of damped oscillations with a time behavior that is remarkably similar to that derived from the analysis of real EEG's. The main result of this research work is that the existence of crucial events is not incompatible with the alpha wave coherence. In addition to this important result, we find another result that may help our group, or any other research

  1. Quantum Criticality and the (alpha)/(delta) Puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G

    2008-10-06

    In an overview of the elemental actinides Np and Pu stand out because of their anomalously low melting temperatures and the variety of complex phase transitions that occur in these elements and their alloys as a result of relatively modest changes in temperature and pressure. In this paper we suggest a novel explanation based on an analogy between the evolution of the actinide ground state as a function of spin orbit coupling and the behavior of thin film superconductors in a magnetic field. The key point is that in 'bad metals' spin orbit interactions give rise to low energy monopole-like solitons with quantized spin currents, which play much the same role as Abrikosov vortices in thin film superconductors. In Np and {alpha}-Pu these solitons form an ordered solid, while in impurity stabilized {delta}-Pu they form a pair condensate. This provides a simple explanation for the heretofore unexplained phenomenology of {alpha}/{delta} transition. Near room temperature {delta}-Pu represents a novel form of condensed matter: a 'Planckian metal' analogous to the quark-gluon plasma.

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Beaver, R.J.; Leitten, C.F. Jr.

    1962-04-17

    A boron-10 containing reactor control element wherein the boron-10 is dispersed in a matrix material is describeri. The concentration of boron-10 in the matrix varies transversely across the element from a minimum at the surface to a maximum at the center of the element, prior to exposure to neutrons. (AEC)

  3. Organic Elemental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, T. S.; Gutterson, Milton

    1980-01-01

    Reviews general developments in computerization and data processing of organic elemental analyses; carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen analyzers; procedures for determining oxygen, sulfur, and halogens, as well as other nometallic elements and organometallics. Selected papers on trace analysis of nonmetals and determination of metallic elements are…

  4. Enzymatic synthesis of a selective inhibitor for alpha-glucosidases: alpha-acarviosinyl-(1-->9)-3-alpha-D-glucopyranosylpropen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Su; Lee, Myoung-Hee; Lee, Hee-Seob; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Young-Wan; Zhang, Ran; Withers, Stephen G; Kim, Kwan Soo; Lee, Sung-Joon; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2008-07-09

    Here, we describe the enzymatic synthesis of novel inhibitors using acarviosine-glucose as a donor and 3-alpha-D-glucopyranosylpropen (alphaGP) as an acceptor. Maltogenic amylase from Thermus sp. (ThMA) catalyzed the transglycosylation of the acarviosine moiety to alphaGP. The two major reaction products were isolated using chromatographies. Structural analyses revealed that acarviosine was transferred to either C-7 or C-9 of the alphaGP, which correspond to C-4 and C-6 of glucose. Both inhibited rat intestine alpha-glucosidase competitively but displayed a mixed-type inhibition mode against human pancreatic alpha-amylase. The alpha-acarviosinyl-(1-->7)-3-alpha-D-glucopyranosylpropen showed weaker inhibition potency than acarbose against both alpha-glycosidases. In contrast, the alpha-acarviosinyl-(1-->9)-3-alpha-D-glucopyranosylpropen exhibited a 3.0-fold improved inhibition potency against rat intestine alpha-glucosidase with 0.3-fold inhibition potency against human pancreatic alpha-amylase relative to acarbose. In conclusion, alpha-acarviosinyl-(1-->9)-3-alpha-D-glucopyranosylpropen is a novel alpha-glucosidase-selective inhibitor with 10-fold enhanced selectivity toward alpha-glucosidase over alpha-amylase relative to acarbose, and it could be applied as a potent hypoglycemic agent.

  5. The instrumental blank of the Mars Science Laboratory alpha particle X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. L.

    2012-10-01

    The alpha particle X-ray spectrometers on the Mars exploration rovers Spirit and Opportunity accomplished extensive elemental analysis of the Martian surface through a combination of XRF and PIXE. An advanced APXS is now part of the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover. APXS spectra contain contributions which enhance elemental peak areas but which do not arise from these elements within the sample under study, thereby introducing error into derived concentrations. A detailed examination of these effects in the MSL APXS enables us to test two schemes for making the necessary corrections.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  9. Resting-State Alpha in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alpha Associations with Thalamic Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, J. Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D.; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M.; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) alpha activity in children with ASD and examined associations between alpha activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha…

  10. Functional identification of the promoter for the gene encoding the alpha subunit of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, N J; Massé, T; Suzuki, T; Chen, J; Alam, D; Kelly, P T

    1995-01-01

    To examine the expression of the alpha subunit of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, various 5' flanking genomic sequences were inserted into a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter plasmid and CAT enzyme activities were analyzed in transfected NB2a neuroblastoma cells and mRNA transcription was analyzed by nuclease protection assays. A core promoter was identified which contained an essential TATA element located 162 nt 5' to the transcription start site. Sequences 3' to the transcription start site, as well as 5' to the TATA element, increased levels of CAT activity in transfected cells. The alpha-subunit gene promoter displayed higher CAT activities, relative to a simian virus 40 promoter, in transfected neuronal cell lines than in nonneuronal cell lines. Results also suggested that sequence surrounding the natural alpha-gene transcription initiation site may be important for targeting transcription initiation 162 nt downstream of its TATA element. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7878035

  11. Identifying the structural boundaries of independent folding domains in the alpha subunit of tryptophan synthase, a beta/alpha barrel protein.

    PubMed Central

    Zitzewitz, J. A.; Gualfetti, P. J.; Perkons, I. A.; Wasta, S. A.; Matthews, C. R.

    1999-01-01

    Two equilibrium intermediates have previously been observed in the urea denaturation of the alpha subunit of tryptophan synthase (alphaTS) from Escherichia coli, an eight-stranded beta/alpha barrel protein. In the current study, a series of amino-terminal fragments were characterized to probe the elementary folding units that may be in part responsible for this complex behavior. Stop-codon mutagenesis was used to produce eight fragments ranging in size from 105-214 residues and containing incremental elements of secondary structure. Equilibrium studies by circular dichroism indicate that all of these fragments are capable of adopting secondary structure. All except for the shortest fragment fold cooperatively. The addition of the fourth, sixth, and eighth beta-strands leads to distinct increases in structure, cooperativity, and/or stability, suggesting that folding involves the modular assembly of betaalphabeta supersecondary structural elements. One-dimensional NMR titrations at high concentrations of urea, probing the environment around His92, were also performed to test for the presence of residual structure in the fragments. All fragments that contained the first four betaalpha units of structure exhibited a cooperative unfolding transition at high concentrations of urea with significant but reduced stability relative to the full-length protein. These results suggest that the residual structure in alphaTS requires the participation of hydrophobic residues in multiple beta-strands that span the entire sequence. PMID:10386870

  12. Interaction of the noncovalent molecular adapter, beta-cyclodextrin, with the staphylococcal alpha-hemolysin pore.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, L Q; Bayley, H

    2000-01-01

    Cyclodextrins act as noncovalent molecular adapters when lodged in the lumen of the alpha-hemolysin (alphaHL) pore. The adapters act as binding sites for channel blockers, thereby offering a basis for the detection of a variety of organic molecules with alphaHL as a biosensor element. To further such studies, it is important to find conditions under which the dwell time of cyclodextrins in the lumen of the pore is extended. Here, we use single-channel recording to explore the pH- and voltage-dependence of the interaction of beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD) with alphaHL. betaCD can access its binding site only from the trans entrance of pores inserted from the cis side of a bilayer. Analysis of the binding kinetics shows that there is a single binding site for betaCD, with an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant that varies by >100-fold under the conditions explored. The dissociation rate constant for the neutral betaCD molecule varies with pH and voltage, a result that is incompatible with two states of the alphaHL pore, one of high and the other of low affinity. Rather, the data suggest that the actual equilibrium dissociation constant for the alphaHL. betaCD complex varies continuously with the transmembrane potential. PMID:11023901

  13. Snake acetylcholine receptor: cloning of the domain containing the four extracellular cysteines of the alpha subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, D; Barchan, D; Horowitz, M; Kochva, E; Fuchs, S

    1989-01-01

    The acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) at the neuromuscular junction of elapid snakes binds cholinergic ligands but unlike other muscle AcChoRs does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. Numerous studies indicate that the ligand-binding site of the AcChoR includes cysteine residues at positions 192 and 193 of the alpha subunit. We have previously shown that a synthetic dodecapeptide corresponding to residues 185-196 of the Torpedo AcChoR alpha subunit contains the essential elements of the ligand-binding site. In an attempt to elucidate the structural basis for the precise binding properties of snake AcChoR, we sequenced a portion of the snake AcChoR alpha subunit. First, a mouse AcChoR alpha-subunit cDNA probe was used to screen a size-selected snake (Natrix tessellata) genomic library. A genomic clone was isolated and was found to contain sequences homologous to the exon including the first two cysteines (Cys-128 and -142) of AcChoR alpha subunit. The domain of the alpha subunit from Natrix and cobra AcChoR (amino acid residues 119-222), which contains the four extracellular cysteines (128, 142, 192, and 193), was amplified by reverse transcription of mRNA and the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that the snake alpha subunit contains the two tandem cysteines at positions 192 and 193, resembling all other AcChoR alpha subunits. Sequence comparison revealed that the cloned region of the snake alpha subunit is highly homologous (75-80%) to other muscle AcChoRs and not to neuronal AcChoR, which also does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. In the presumed ligand-binding site, in the vicinity of Cys-192 and Cys-193, four major substitutions occur in the snake sequence--at positions 184 (Trp----Phe), 185 (Lys----Trp), 187 (Trp----Ser), and 194 (Pro----Leu). In addition, Asn-189 is a putative N-glycosylation site, present only in the snake. These changes, or part of them, may explain the lack of alpha-bungarotoxin-binding to snake Ac

  14. Snake acetylcholine receptor: cloning of the domain containing the four extracellular cysteines of the alpha subunit.

    PubMed

    Neumann, D; Barchan, D; Horowitz, M; Kochva, E; Fuchs, S

    1989-09-01

    The acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) at the neuromuscular junction of elapid snakes binds cholinergic ligands but unlike other muscle AcChoRs does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. Numerous studies indicate that the ligand-binding site of the AcChoR includes cysteine residues at positions 192 and 193 of the alpha subunit. We have previously shown that a synthetic dodecapeptide corresponding to residues 185-196 of the Torpedo AcChoR alpha subunit contains the essential elements of the ligand-binding site. In an attempt to elucidate the structural basis for the precise binding properties of snake AcChoR, we sequenced a portion of the snake AcChoR alpha subunit. First, a mouse AcChoR alpha-subunit cDNA probe was used to screen a size-selected snake (Natrix tessellata) genomic library. A genomic clone was isolated and was found to contain sequences homologous to the exon including the first two cysteines (Cys-128 and -142) of AcChoR alpha subunit. The domain of the alpha subunit from Natrix and cobra AcChoR (amino acid residues 119-222), which contains the four extracellular cysteines (128, 142, 192, and 193), was amplified by reverse transcription of mRNA and the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that the snake alpha subunit contains the two tandem cysteines at positions 192 and 193, resembling all other AcChoR alpha subunits. Sequence comparison revealed that the cloned region of the snake alpha subunit is highly homologous (75-80%) to other muscle AcChoRs and not to neuronal AcChoR, which also does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. In the presumed ligand-binding site, in the vicinity of Cys-192 and Cys-193, four major substitutions occur in the snake sequence--at positions 184 (Trp----Phe), 185 (Lys----Trp), 187 (Trp----Ser), and 194 (Pro----Leu). In addition, Asn-189 is a putative N-glycosylation site, present only in the snake. These changes, or part of them, may explain the lack of alpha-bungarotoxin-binding to snake AcChoR.

  15. Solution conformation of a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA that discriminates {alpha}3 vs. {alpha}6 nAChR subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Seung-Wook; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Olivera, Baldomero M.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Han, Kyou-Hoon . E-mail: khhan600@kribb.re.kr

    2006-06-23

    {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA from Conus omaria is the only {alpha}-conotoxin that shows a {approx}20-fold higher affinity to the {alpha}3{beta}2 over the {alpha}6{beta}2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. We have determined a three-dimensional structure of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA has an '{omega}-shaped' overall topology with His{sup 5}-Asn{sup 12} forming an {alpha}-helix. Structural features of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA responsible for its selectivity are suggested by comparing its surface characteristics with other functionally related {alpha}4/7 subfamily conotoxins. Reduced size of the hydrophilic area in {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA seems to be associated with the reduced affinity towards the {alpha}6{beta}2 nAChR subtype.

  16. Oxygen-dependent expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in renal medullary cells of rats.

    PubMed

    Zou, A P; Yang, Z Z; Li, P L; Cowley AW, J R

    2001-08-28

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is a transcription factor that regulates the oxygen-dependent expression of a number of genes. This transcription factor may contribute to the abundant expression of many genes in renal medullary cells that function normally under hypoxic conditions. The present study was designed to determine the characteristics of HIF-1alpha cDNA cloned from the rat kidney and the expression profile of HIF-1alpha in different kidney regions and to explore the mechanism activating or regulating HIF-1alpha expression in renal medullary cells. A 3,718-bp HIF-1alpha cDNA from the rat kidney was first cloned and sequenced using RT-PCR and TA cloning technique. It was found that 823 amino acids deduced from this renal HIF-1alpha cDNA had 99%, 96%, and 90% identity with rat, mouse, or human HIF-1alpha deposited in GenBank, respectively. The 3'-untranslated region of HIF-1alpha mRNA from the rat kidney contained seven AUUUA instability elements, five of which were found to be conserved among rat, mouse, and human HIF-1alpha. Northern blot analyses demonstrated a corticomedullary gradient of HIF-1alpha mRNA expression in the kidney, with the greatest abundance in the renal inner medulla. Western blot analyses also detected a higher HIF-1alpha protein level in the nuclear extracts from the renal medulla than the renal cortex. A classic loop diuretic, furosemide (10 mg/kg ip), markedly increased renal medullary Po(2) levels from 22.5 to 52.2 mmHg, which was accompanied by a significant reduction of HIF-1alpha transcripts in renal medullary tissue. In in vitro experiments, low Po(2), but not elevated osmolarity, was found to significantly increase HIF-1alpha mRNA in renal medullary interstitial cells and inner medullary collecting duct cells. These results indicate that HIF-1alpha is more abundantly expressed in the renal medulla compared with the renal cortex. Increased abundance of HIF-1alpha mRNA in the renal medulla may represent an adaptive

  17. Remote Associates Test and Alpha Brain Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haarmann, Henk J.; George, Timothy; Smaliy, Alexei; Dien, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies found that performance on the remote associates test (RAT) improves after a period of incubation and that increased alpha brain waves over the right posterior brain predict the emergence of RAT insight solutions. We report an experiment that tested whether increased alpha brain waves during incubation improve RAT performance.…

  18. Alpha particle spectrometry using superconducting microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horansky, Robert; Ullom, Joel; Beall, James; Hilton, Gene; Stiehl, Gregory; Irwin, Kent; Plionis, Alexander; Lamont, Stephen; Rudy, Clifford; Rabin, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Alpha spectrometry is the preferred technique for analyzing trace samples of radioactive material because the alpha particle flux can be significantly higher than the gamma-ray flux from nuclear materials of interest. Traditionally, alpha spectrometry is performed with Si detectors whose resolution is at best 8 keV FWHM. Here, we describe the design and operation of a microcalorimeter alpha detector with an energy resolution of 1.06 keV FWHM at 5 MeV. We demonstrate the ability of the microcalorimeter to clearly resolve the alpha particles from Pu-239 and Pu-240, whose ratio differentiates reactor-grade Pu from weapons-grade. We also show the first direct observation of the decay of Po-209 to the ground state of Pb-205 which has traditionally been obscured by a much stronger alpha line 2 keV away. Finally, the 1.06 keV resolution observed for alpha particles is far worse than the 0.12 keV resolution predicted from thermal fluctuations and measurement of gamma-rays. The cause of the resolution degradation may be ion damage in the tin. Hence, alpha particle microcalorimeters may provide a novel tool for studying ion damage and lattice displacement energies in bulk materials.

  19. Commentary on Coefficient Alpha: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2009-01-01

    The general use of coefficient alpha to assess reliability should be discouraged on a number of grounds. The assumptions underlying coefficient alpha are unlikely to hold in practice, and violation of these assumptions can result in nontrivial negative or positive bias. Structural equation modeling was discussed as an informative process both to…

  20. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An...

  1. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An...

  2. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An...

  3. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An...

  4. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An...

  5. The Diffusion of Antimony of Alpha Iron.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Diffusion coefficients of antimony in alpha iron were determined in the temperature range 700 to 900C using the residual activity method. Specimens...negligible effect on the diffusion of antomony in alpha iron . These results are discussed in relation to the phenomenon of temper brittleness in steels

  6. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  7. Monitoring pipes for residual alpha contamination

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.; Dockray, T.

    1996-09-01

    The sensitivity and application of traditional alpha monitors is limited by the short range of alpha particles in air and in solid materials. Detecting small amounts of alpha-emitting contamination inside pipes presents particular problems. The alpha particle cannot penetrate the walls of the pipe. Associated gamma-ray detection and active neutron interrogation is often used to detect large amounts of radioactive material in pipes, but these methods are of limited use for detecting small amounts of contamination. Insertion of a traditional alpha probes works well in large diameter straight pipes, but is increasingly difficult as the pipe network becomes smaller in diameter and more complex. Monitors based on long-range alpha detection (LRAD) detect ionization of the ambient air rather than the alpha particles themselves. A small fan draws the ions into an externally mounted ion detector. Thus, the air in the pipe serves as both the detector gas and the mechanism for transporting the alpha-induced ions to a detection grid outside the pipe. All of the ions created by all of the contamination in the pipe can be measured in a single detector. Since ambient air serves as the probe, crushed or twisted sections of pipe can be monitored almost as effectively as straight sections. The pipe monitoring system described in the paper was tested both at LANL and BNFL`s Sellafield reprocessing facility in the UK. In this paper, we report on the first field tests of the pipe monitoring system.

  8. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua

    2013-01-01

    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…

  9. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c)...

  10. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c)...

  11. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c)...

  12. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c)...

  13. Elementary Processes Underlying Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    NM.J. Fisch

    2012-06-15

    Alpha channeling in tokamaks is speculative, but also extraordinarily attractive. Waves that can accomplish this effect have been identified. Key aspects of the theory now enjoy experimental confirmation. This paper will review the elementary processes of wave-particle interactions in plasma that underlie the alpha channeling effect

  14. Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…

  15. Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Michael C.; Maeda, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    The meta-analysis of coefficient alpha across many studies is becoming more common in psychology by a methodology labeled reliability generalization. Existing reliability generalization studies have not used the sampling distribution of coefficient alpha for precision weighting and other common meta-analytic procedures. A framework is provided for…

  16. Optimization of alpha-acylaminoketone ecdysone agonists for control of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tice, Colin M; Hormann, Robert E; Thompson, Christine S; Friz, Jennifer L; Cavanaugh, Caitlin K; Saggers, Jessica A

    2003-06-02

    Fifteen new alpha-acylaminoketones were prepared by four different routes in an initial effort to optimize the potency of these compounds as ecdysone agonists. The compounds were assayed in mammalian cells expressing the ecdysone receptors from Bombyx mori (BmEcR) and Choristoneura fumiferana (CfEcR) for their ability to cause expression of a reporter gene downstream of an ecdysone response element. A new alpha-acylaminoketone was identified which had activity equal to that of the standard dibenzoylhydrazine ecdysone agonist GS()-E in the assay based on CfEcR.

  17. Local Structure and Vibrational Properties of alpha-Pu, alpha-U, and the alpha-U Charge Density Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E J; Allen, P G; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Booth, C H

    2004-08-10

    The local atomic environment and vibrational properties of atoms in monoclinic pure {alpha}-plutonium as well as orthorhombic pure {alpha}-uranium and its low-temperature charge-density-wave (CDW) modulation are examined by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Pu L{sub III}-edge and U L{sub III}-edge EXAFS data measured at low temperatures verify the crystal structures of {alpha}-U and {alpha}-Pu samples previously determined by x-ray diffraction and neutron scattering. Debye-Waller factors from temperature-dependent EXAFS measurements are fit with a correlated Debye model. The observed Pu-Pu bond correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-Pu) = 162 {+-} 5 K for the pure {alpha}-Pu phase agrees with our previous measurement of the correlated Debye temperature of the gallium-containing {alpha}'-Pu phase in a mixed phase 1.9 at% Ga-doped {alpha}'-Pu/{delta}-Pu alloy. The temperature dependence of the U-U nearest neighbor Debye-Waller factor exhibits a sharp discontinuity in slope near T{sub CDW} = 43 K, the transition temperature at which the charge-density wave (CDW) in {alpha}-U condenses from a soft phonon mode along the (100) direction. Our measurement of the CDW using EXAFS is the first observation of the structure of the CDW in polycrystalline {alpha}-U. The different temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor for T < T{sub CDW} can be modeled by the change in bond length distributions resulting from condensation of the charge density wave. For T > T{sub CDW}, the observed correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-U) = 199 {+-} 3 K is in good agreement with other measurements of the Debye temperature for polycrystalline {alpha}-U. CDW structural models fit to the {alpha}-U EXAFS data support a squared CDW at the lowest temperatures, with a displacement amplitude of {var_epsilon} = 0.05 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom}.

  18. Coactivator PGC-1{alpha} regulates the fasting inducible xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme CYP2A5 in mouse primary hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Arpiainen, Satu; Jaervenpaeae, Sanna-Mari; Manninen, Aki; Viitala, Pirkko; Lang, Matti A.; Pelkonen, Olavi; Hakkola, Jukka

    2008-10-01

    The nutritional state of organisms and energy balance related diseases such as diabetes regulate the metabolism of xenobiotics such as drugs, toxins and carcinogens. However, the mechanisms behind this regulation are mostly unknown. The xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A5 enzyme has been shown to be induced by fasting and by glucagon and cyclic AMP (cAMP), which mediate numerous fasting responses. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator (PGC)-1{alpha} triggers many of the important hepatic fasting effects in response to elevated cAMP levels. In the present study, we were able to show that cAMP causes a coordinated induction of PGC-1{alpha} and CYP2A5 mRNAs in murine primary hepatocytes. Furthermore, the elevation of the PGC-1{alpha} expression level by adenovirus mediated gene transfer increased CYP2A5 transcription. Co-transfection of Cyp2a5 5' promoter constructs with the PGC-1{alpha} expression vector demonstrated that PGC-1{alpha} is able to activate Cyp2a5 transcription through the hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4{alpha} response element in the proximal promoter of the Cyp2a5 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that PGC-1{alpha} binds, together with HNF-4{alpha}, to the same region at the Cyp2a5 proximal promoter. In conclusion, PGC-1{alpha} mediates the expression of CYP2A5 induced by cAMP in mouse hepatocytes through coactivation of transcription factor HNF-4{alpha}. This strongly suggests that PGC-1{alpha} is the major factor mediating the fasting response of CYP2A5.

  19. Retinoid X receptor alpha represses GATA-4-mediated transcription via a retinoid-dependent interaction with the cardiac-enriched repressor FOG-2.

    PubMed

    Clabby, Martha L; Robison, Trevor A; Quigley, Heather F; Wilson, David B; Kelly, Daniel P

    2003-02-21

    Dietary vitamin A and its derivatives, retinoids, regulate cardiac growth and development. To delineate mechanisms involved in retinoid-mediated control of cardiac gene expression, the regulatory effects of the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR alpha) on atrial naturietic factor (ANF) gene transcription was investigated. The transcriptional activity of an ANF promoter-reporter in rat neonatal ventricular myocytes was repressed by RXR alpha in the presence of 9-cis-RA and by the constitutively active mutant RXR alpha F318A indicating that liganded RXR confers the regulatory effect. The RXR alpha-mediated repression mapped to the proximal 147 bp of the rat ANF promoter, a region lacking a consensus retinoid response element but containing several known cardiogenic cis elements including a well characterized GATA response element. Glutathione S-transferase "pull-down" assays revealed that RXR alpha interacts directly with GATA-4, in a ligand-independent manner, via the DNA binding domain of RXR alpha and the second zinc finger of GATA-4. Liganded RXR alpha repressed the activity of a heterologous promoter-reporter construct containing GATA-response element recognition sites in cardiac myocytes but not in several other cell types, suggesting that additional cardiac-enriched factors participate in the repression complex. Co-transfection of liganded RXR alpha and the known cardiac-enriched GATA-4 repressor, FOG-2, resulted in additive repression of GATA-4 activity in ventricular myocytes. In addition, RXR alpha was found to bind FOG-2, in a 9-cis-RA-dependent manner. These data reveal a novel mechanism by which retinoids regulate cardiogenic gene expression through direct interaction with GATA-4 and its co-repressor, FOG-2.

  20. Coronae of Stars with Supersolar Elemental Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peretz, Uria; Behar, Ehud; Drake, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Coronal elemental abundances are known to deviate from the photospheric values of their parent star, with the degree of deviation depending on the first ionization potential (FIP). This study focuses on the coronal composition of stars with supersolar photospheric abundances. We present the coronal abundances of six such stars: 11 LMi, iota Hor, HR 7291, tau Boo, and alpha Cen A and B. These stars all have high-statistics X-ray spectra, three of which are presented for the first time. The abundances we measured were obtained using the line-resolved spectra of the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) in conjunction with the higher throughput EPIC-pn camera spectra onboard the XMM-Newton observatory. A collisionally ionized plasma model with two or three temperature components is found to represent the spectra well. All elements are found to be consistently depleted in the coronae compared to their respective photospheres. For 11 LMi and tau Boo no FIP effect is present, while iota Hor, HR 7291, and alpha Cen A and B show a clear FIP trend. These conclusions hold whether the comparison is made with solar abundances or the individual stellar abundances. Unlike the solar corona, where low-FIP elements are enriched, in these stars the FIP effect is consistently due to a depletion of high-FIP elements with respect to actual photospheric abundances. A comparison with solar (instead of stellar) abundances yields the same fractionation trend as on the Sun. In both cases, a similar FIP bias is inferred, but different fractionation mechanisms need to be invoked.

  1. Catalytic Mechanism of Human Alpha-galactosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Guce, A.; Clark, N; Salgado, E; Ivanen, D; Kulinskaya, A; Brumer, H; Garman, S

    2010-01-01

    The enzyme {alpha}-galactosidase ({alpha}-GAL, also known as {alpha}-GAL A; E.C. 3.2.1.22) is responsible for the breakdown of {alpha}-galactosides in the lysosome. Defects in human {alpha}-GAL lead to the development of Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the buildup of {alpha}-galactosylated substrates in the tissues. {alpha}-GAL is an active target of clinical research: there are currently two treatment options for Fabry disease, recombinant enzyme replacement therapy (approved in the United States in 2003) and pharmacological chaperone therapy (currently in clinical trials). Previously, we have reported the structure of human {alpha}-GAL, which revealed the overall structure of the enzyme and established the locations of hundreds of mutations that lead to the development of Fabry disease. Here, we describe the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme derived from x-ray crystal structures of each of the four stages of the double displacement reaction mechanism. Use of a difluoro-{alpha}-galactopyranoside allowed trapping of a covalent intermediate. The ensemble of structures reveals distortion of the ligand into a {sup 1}S{sub 3} skew (or twist) boat conformation in the middle of the reaction cycle. The high resolution structures of each step in the catalytic cycle will allow for improved drug design efforts on {alpha}-GAL and other glycoside hydrolase family 27 enzymes by developing ligands that specifically target different states of the catalytic cycle. Additionally, the structures revealed a second ligand-binding site suitable for targeting by novel pharmacological chaperones.

  2. Seeding induced by alpha-synuclein oligomers provides evidence for spreading of alpha-synuclein pathology.

    PubMed

    Danzer, Karin M; Krebs, Simon K; Wolff, Michael; Birk, Gerald; Hengerer, Bastian

    2009-10-01

    Lewy bodies, alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) immunopositive intracellular deposits, are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Interestingly, Lewybody-like structures have been identified in fetal tissue grafts about one decade after transplantation into the striatum of PD patients. One possible explanation for the accelerated deposition of alpha-syn in the graft is that the aggregation of alpha-syn from the host tissue to the graft is spread by a prion disease-like mechanism. We discuss here an in vitro model which might recapitulate some aspects of disease propagation in PD. We found here that in vitro-generated alpha-syn oligomers induce transmembrane seeding of alpha-syn aggregation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect was observed in primary neuronal cultures as well as in neuronal cell lines. The seeding oligomers were characterized by a distinctive lithium dodecyl sulfate-stable oligomer pattern and could be generated in a dynamic process out of pore-forming oligomers. We propose that alpha-syn oligomers form as a dynamic mixture of oligomer types with different properties and that alpha-syn oligomers can be converted into different types depending on the brain milieu conditions. Our data indicate that extracellular alpha-syn oligomers can induce intracellular alpha-syn aggregation, therefore we hypothesize that a similar mechanism might lead to alpha-syn pathology propagation.

  3. Folate receptor {alpha} regulates cell proliferation in mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Congjun; Evans, Chheng-Orn; Stevens, Victoria L.; Owens, Timothy R.; Oyesiku, Nelson M.

    2009-11-01

    We have previously found that the mRNA and protein levels of the folate receptor alpha (FR{alpha}) are uniquely over-expressed in clinically human nonfunctional (NF) pituitary adenomas, but the mechanistic role of FR{alpha} has not fully been determined. We investigated the effect of FR{alpha} over-expression in the mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cell line as a model for NF pituitary adenomas. We found that the expression and function of FR{alpha} were strongly up-regulated, by Western blotting and folic acid binding assay. Furthermore, we found a higher cell growth rate, an enhanced percentage of cells in S-phase by BrdU assay, and a higher PCNA staining. These observations indicate that over-expression of FR{alpha} promotes cell proliferation. These effects were abrogated in the same {alpha}T3-1 cells when transfected with a mutant FR{alpha} cDNA that confers a dominant-negative phenotype by inhibiting folic acid binding. Finally, by real-time quantitative PCR, we found that mRNA expression of NOTCH3 was up-regulated in FR{alpha} over-expressing cells. In summary, our data suggests that FR{alpha} regulates pituitary tumor cell proliferation and mechanistically may involve the NOTCH pathway. Potentially, this finding could be exploited to develop new, innovative molecular targeted treatment for human NF pituitary adenomas.

  4. Calcium: Alpha-Synuclein Interactions in Alpha-Synucleinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, Alexandre N.; Osborne, Samantha L.; Meedeniya, Adrian C. B.; Pountney, Dean L.

    2016-01-01

    Aggregation of the pre-synaptic protein, α-synuclein (α-syn), is the key etiological factor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and other alpha-synucleinopathies, such as multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Various triggers for pathological α-syn aggregation have been elucidated, including post-translational modifications, oxidative stress, and binding of metal ions, such as calcium. Raised neuronal calcium levels in PD may occur due to mitochondrial dysfunction and/or may relate to calcium channel dysregulation or the reduced expression of the neuronal calcium buffering protein, calbindin-D28k. Recent results on human tissue and a mouse oxidative stress model show that neuronal calbindin-D28k expression excludes α-syn inclusion bodies. Previously, cell culture model studies have shown that transient increases of intracellular free Ca(II), such as by opening of the voltage-gated plasma calcium channels, could induce cytoplasmic aggregates of α-syn. Raised intracellular free calcium and oxidative stress also act cooperatively to promote α-syn aggregation. The association between raised neuronal calcium, α-syn aggregation, oxidative stress, and neurotoxicity is reviewed in the context of neurodegenerative α-syn disease and potential mechanism-based therapies. PMID:28066161

  5. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-06-29

    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  6. G alpha 12 and G alpha 13 subunits define a fourth class of G protein alpha subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Strathmann, M P; Simon, M I

    1991-01-01

    Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) are central to the signaling processes of multicellular organisms. We have explored the diversity of the G protein subunits in mammals and found evidence for a large family of genes that encode the alpha subunits. Amino acid sequence comparisons show that the different alpha subunits fall into at least three classes. These classes have been conserved in animals separated by considerable evolutionary distances; they are present in mammals, Drosophila, and nematodes. We have now obtained cDNA clones encoding two murine alpha subunits, G alpha 12 and G alpha 13, that define a fourth class. The translation products are predicted to have molecular masses of 44 kDa and to be insensitive to ADP-ribosylation by pertussis toxin. They share 67% amino acid sequence identity with each other and less than 45% identity with other alpha subunits. Their transcripts can be detected in every tissue examined, although the relative levels of the G alpha 13 message appear somewhat variable. Images PMID:1905812

  7. Application of neural network method to detect type of uranium contamination by estimation of activity ratio in environmental alpha spectra.

    PubMed

    Einian, M R; Aghamiri, S M R; Ghaderi, R

    2016-01-01

    The discrimination of the composition of environmental and non-environmental materials by the estimation of the (234)U/(238)U activity ratio in alpha-particle spectrometry is important in many applications. If the interfering elements are not completely separated from the uranium, they can interfere with the determination of (234)U. Thickness as a result of the existence of iron in the source preparation phase and their alpha lines can broaden the alpha line of (234)U in alpha spectra. Therefore, the asymmetric broadening of the alpha line of (234)U and overlapping of peaks make the analysis of the alpha particle spectra and the interpretation of the results difficult. Applying Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to a spectrometry system is a good idea because it eliminates limitations of classical approaches by extracting the desired information from the input data. In this work, the average of a partial uranium raw spectrum, were considered. Each point that its slope was of the order of 0-1% per 10 channels, was used as input to the multi-layer feed forward error-back propagation network. The network was trained by an alpha spectrum library which has been developed in the present work. The training data in this study was actual spectral data with any reasonable thickness and interfering elements. According to the results, the method applied to estimate the activity ratio in this work, can examine the alpha spectrum for peaks which would not be expected for a source of given element and provide the clues about composition of uranium contamination in the environmental samples in a fast screening and classifying procedures.

  8. Hormonal induction and antihormonal inhibition of tracheary element differentiation in Zinnia cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, D. L.; Galston, A. W.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanically isolated mesophyll cells of Zinnia elegans L. cv Envy differentiate to tracheary elements when cultured in inductive medium containing sufficient auxin and cytokinin. Tracheary element differentiation was induced by the three auxins (alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and four cytokinins (6-benzyladenine, kinetin, 2-isopentenyladenine and zeatin) tested. Tracheary element formation is inhibited or delayed if the inductive medium is supplemented with an anticytokinin, antiauxin, or inhibitor of auxin transport.

  9. Mapping High-Velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha Emission from Supernova 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Fransson, Claes; Larsson, Josefin; Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Garnavich, Peter; Heng, Kevin; Lawrence, Stephen S.; Lundqvist, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Sonneborn, George

    2015-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope images of high-velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha emission in the outer debris of SN 1987A. The H-alpha images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the H-alpha imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock front, in the velocity intervals (-7,500 < V(sub obs) < -2,800 km/s) and (1,000 < V(sub obs) < 7,500 km/s), ?M(sub H) = 1.2 × 10(exp -3) M/ y. We also present the first Lyman-alpha imaging of the whole remnant and new Chandra X-ray observations. Comparing the spatial distribution of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission, we observe that the majority of the high-velocity Lyman-alpha emission originates interior to the equatorial ring. The observed Lyman-alpha/H-alpha photon ratio, R(L-alpha/H-alpha) approx. = 17, is significantly higher than the theoretically predicted ratio of approx. = 5 for neutral atoms crossing the reverse shock front. We attribute this excess to Lyman-alpha emission produced by X-ray heating of the outer debris. The spatial orientation of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission suggests that X-ray heating of the outer debris is the dominant Lyman-alpha production mechanism in SN 1987A at this phase in its evolution.

  10. Involvement of central alpha1-adrenoceptors on renal responses to central moxonidine and alpha-methylnoradrenaline.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Carina A F; de Andrade, Glaucia M F; De Paula, Patricia M; De Luca, Laurival A; Menani, José V

    2009-04-01

    Moxonidine (alpha2-adrenoceptor/imidazoline receptor agonist) injected into the lateral ventricle induces diuresis, natriuresis and renal vasodilation. Moxonidine-induced diuresis and natriuresis depend on central imidazoline receptors, while central alpha1-adrenoceptors are involved in renal vasodilation. However, the involvement of central alpha1-adrenoceptors on diuresis and natriuresis to central moxonidine was not investigated yet. In the present study, the effects of moxonidine, alpha-methylnoradrenaline (alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist) or phenylephrine (alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist) alone or combined with previous injections of prazosin (alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine or RX 821002 (alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists) intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) on urinary sodium, potassium and volume were investigated. Male Holtzman rats (n = 5-18/group) with stainless steel cannula implanted into the lateral ventricle and submitted to gastric water load (10% of body weight) were used. Injections of moxonidine (20 nmol) or alpha-methylnoradrenaline (80 nmol) i.c.v. induced natriuresis (196 +/- 25 and 171 +/- 30, respectively, vs. vehicle: 101 +/- 9 microEq/2 h) and diuresis (9.0 +/- 0.4 and 12.3 +/- 1.6, respectively, vs. vehicle: 5.2 +/- 0.5 ml/2 h). Pre-treatment with prazosin (320 nmol) i.c.v. abolished the natriuresis (23 +/- 4 and 76 +/- 11 microEq/2 h, respectively) and diuresis (5 +/- 1 and 7.6 +/- 0.8 ml/2 h, respectively) produced by i.c.v. moxonidine or alpha-methylnoradrenaline. RX 821002 (320 nmol) i.c.v. abolished the natriuretic effect of alpha-methylnoradrenaline, however, yohimbine (320 nmol) did not change renal responses to moxonidine. Phenylephrine (80 nmol) i.c.v. induced natriuresis and kaliuresis that were blocked by prazosin. Therefore, the present data suggest that moxonidine and alpha-methylnoradrenaline acting on central imidazoline receptors and alpha2-adrenoceptors, respectively, activate central alpha1-adrenergic mechanisms to

  11. [Contents and its change during storage of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in potatoes].

    PubMed

    Shindo, Tetsuya; Ushiyama, Hirofumi; Kan, Kimiko; Yasuda, Kazuo; Saito, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    Contents of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in native species of potato (May Queen, Danshaku and Waseshiro), and in species (Jagakids Red '90 (Red) and Jagakids Purple '90 (Purple)) on the market, and their change during storage at room temparature were investigated. alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine were extracted from potatoes with methanol, cleaned up by using a Sep-Pak Plus C18 cartridge, and then subjected to HPLC. The recoveries of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine from potatoes were both more than 96%, and the quantitation limits were both 2 microg/g. alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine were detected in periderm in all samples at the levels of 260-320 microg/g in May Queen,190-240 microg/g in Danshaku, 43-63 microg/g in Waseshiro, 140-200 microg/g in Red and 84-130 microg/g in Purple, respectively. alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine were detected in the cortex in all samples of May Queen and Danshaku at the levels of 2.7-12 microg/g and 5.8-31 microg/g, respectively. Contents of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in the cortex of May Queen and Danshaku were less than 10% of those in the periderm. When potatoes were stored for 90 days at room temparature in a dark place, no marked change in the contents of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine was observed in any of the potato samples.

  12. Superheavy Element Nuclear Chemistry at RIKEN

    SciTech Connect

    Haba, Hiromitsu; Kaji, Daiya; Kasamatsu, Yoshitaka; Kudou, Yuki; Morimoto, Kouji; Morita, Kosuke; Ozeki, Kazutaka; Yoneda, Akira; Kikunaga, Hidetoshi; Komori, Yukiko; Ooe, Kazuhiro; Shinohara, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Takashi; Sato, Nozomi; Toyoshima, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    2010-05-12

    A gas-jet transport system has been coupled to the RIKEN gas-filled recoil ion separator GARIS to startup superheavy element (SHE) chemistry at RIKEN. The performance of the system was appraised using an isotope of element 104, {sup 261}Rf, produced in the {sup 248}Cm({sup 18}O,5n){sup 261}Rf reaction. Alpha-particles of {sup 261}Rf separated with GARIS and extracted to a chemistry laboratory were successfully identified with a rotating wheel apparatus for alpha spectrometry. The setting parameters such as the magnetic field of the separator and the gas-jet conditions were optimized. The present results suggest that the GARIS/gas-jet system is a promising approach for exploring new frontiers in SHE chemistry: (i) the background radioactivities of unwanted reaction products are strongly suppressed, (ii) the intense beam is absent in the gas-jet chamber and hence high gas-jet efficiency is achieved, and (iii) the beam-free condition also allows for investigations of new chemical systems.

  13. Local structure and vibrational properties of alpha-Pu, alpha-Uand the alpha-U charge density wave

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.J.; Allen, P.G.; Blobaum, K.J.M.; Wall, W.A.; Booth, C.H.

    2004-08-10

    The local atomic environment and vibrational properties of atoms in monoclinic pure {alpha}-plutonium as well as orthorhombic pure a-uranium and its low-temperature charge-density-wave (CDW) modulation are examined by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Pu L{sub III}-edge and U L{sub III}-edge EXAFS data measured at low temperatures verify the crystal structures of {alpha}-U and {alpha}-Pu samples previously determined by x-ray diffraction and neutron scattering. Debye-Waller factors from temperature-dependent EXAFS measurements are fit with a correlated Debye model. The observed Pu-Pu bond correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-Pu) = 162 {+-} 5 K for the pure {alpha}-Pu phase agrees with our previous measurement of the correlated Debye temperature of the gallium-containing {alpha}{prime}-Pu phase in a mixed phase 1.9 at% Ga-doped {alpha}{prime}-Pu/{delta}-Pu alloy. The temperature dependence of the U-U nearest neighbor Debye-Waller factor exhibits a sharp discontinuity in slope near T{sub CDW} = 43 K, the transition temperature at which the charge-density wave (CDW) in {alpha}-U condenses from a soft phonon mode along the (100) direction. Our measurement of the CDW using EXAFS is the first observation of the structure of the CDW in polycrystalline {alpha}-U. The different temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor for T < T{sub CDW} can be modeled by the change in bond length distributions resulting from condensation of the charge density wave. For T > T{sub CDW}, the observed correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-U) = 199 {+-} 3 K is in good agreement with other measurements of the Debye temperature for polycrystalline {alpha}-U. CDW structural models fit to the {alpha}-U EXAFS data support a squared CDW at the lowest temperatures, with a displacement amplitude of {var_epsilon} = 0.05 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom}.

  14. A new alpha chain hemoglobin variant: Hb Al-Hammadi Riyadh [alpha75(EF4)Asp-->Val (alpha2)].

    PubMed

    Burnichon, Nelly; Lacan, Philippe; Becchi, Michel; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Aubry, Martine; Mowafy, Mohammed; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain

    2006-01-01

    A new hemoglobin (Hb) variant in the heterozygous state, Hb Al-Hammadi Riyadh [codon 75 (GAC-->GTC); alpha75(EF4)Asp-->Val (alpha2)] corresponding to an A-->T transversion on the second exon of the alpha2-globin gene, is described. The variant was characterized by DNA sequencing and mass spectrometry (MS). The variant was found during a routine Hb analysis for anemia in a 16-month-old boy who lived in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  15. Increased virulence and competitive advantage of a/alpha over a/a or alpha/alpha offspring conserves the mating system of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Wu, Wei; Radke, Joshua B; Zhao, Rui; Soll, David R

    2005-04-01

    The majority of Candida albicans strains in nature are a/alpha and must undergo homozygosis to a/a or alpha/alpha to mate. Here we have used a mouse model for systemic infection to test the hypothesis that a/alpha strains predominate in nature because they have a competitive advantage over a/a and alpha/alpha offspring in colonizing hosts. Single-strain injection experiments revealed that a/alpha strains were far more virulent than either their a/a or alpha/alpha offspring. When equal numbers of parent a/alpha and offspring a/a or alpha/alpha cells were co-injected, a/alpha always exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of extreme host morbidity or death. When equal numbers of an engineered a/a/alpha2 strain and its isogenic a/a parent strain were co-injected, the a/a/alpha2 strain exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of host morbidity or death, suggesting that the genotype of the mating-type (MTL) locus, not associated genes on chromosome 5, provides a competitive advantage. We therefore propose that heterozygosity at the MTL locus not only represses white-opaque switching and genes involved in the mating process, but also affects virulence, providing a competitive advantage to the a/alpha genotype that conserves the mating system of C. albicans in nature.

  16. Cloning and targeted mutations of G alpha 7 and G alpha 8, two developmentally regulated G protein alpha-subunit genes in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, L; Gaskins, C; Zhou, K; Firtel, R A; Devreotes, P N

    1994-01-01

    GTP-binding protein (G protein)-mediated signal transduction pathways play essential roles during the aggregation and differentiation process of Dictyostelium. In addition to the five known G protein alpha-subunit genes, we recently identified three novel alpha-subunit genes, G alpha 6, G alpha 7, and G alpha 8, using the polymerase chain reaction technique. We present here a more complete analysis of G alpha 7 and G alpha 8. The cDNAs of these two genes were cloned, and their complete nucleotide sequences were determined. Sequence analyses indicate that G alpha 8 possesses some unusual features. It lacks the "TCATDT" motif, a sequence of amino acids highly conserved among G alpha subunits, and has an additional 50 amino acids at its C-terminus consisting of long stretches of asparagine. Moreover, G alpha 8 is unusually resistant to protease digestion, which may indicate a slow GTP hydrolysis rate. The possible functions of these alpha-subunits were assessed by generating mutants lacking G alpha 7 or G alpha 8 by gene targeting through homologous recombination and by overexpressing G alpha 7 or G alpha 8 protein. Overexpression of G alpha 7 resulted in abnormal morphogenesis starting at the slug stage, whereas analysis of the other strains failed to reveal any obvious growth or developmental defects under either normal or stressful conditions. The implications of these results are discussed. Images PMID:7949425

  17. The synthetic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered.

  18. Chemistry of superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Matthias

    2006-01-09

    The number of chemical elements has increased considerably in the last few decades. Most excitingly, these heaviest, man-made elements at the far-end of the Periodic Table are located in the area of the long-awaited superheavy elements. While physical techniques currently play a leading role in these discoveries, the chemistry of superheavy elements is now beginning to be developed. Advanced and very sensitive techniques allow the chemical properties of these elusive elements to be probed. Often, less than ten short-lived atoms, chemically separated one-atom-at-a-time, provide crucial information on basic chemical properties. These results place the architecture of the far-end of the Periodic Table on the test bench and probe the increasingly strong relativistic effects that influence the chemical properties there. This review is focused mainly on the experimental work on superheavy element chemistry. It contains a short contribution on relativistic theory, and some important historical and nuclear aspects.

  19. Modulation of the hepatic alpha 1-adrenoceptor responsiveness by colchicine: dissociation of free cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent and independent responses.

    PubMed Central

    Butta, N.; Martin-Requero, A.; Urcelay, E.; Parrilla, R.; Ayuso, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    1. The cytoskeletal depolymerizing agent, colchicine, prevents the hepatic alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated stimulation of respiration, H+ and Ca2+ release to the effluent perfusate, intracellular alkalosis, and glycogenolysis. Unlike the other parameters, colchicine does not perturb the alpha 1-agonist-induced stimulation of gluconeogenesis or phosphorylase 'a' activation, and enhances the increase in portal pressure response. The lack of effect of colchicine on the hepatic alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated effects indicates that its actions are alpha 1-specific. 2. Colchicine enhances the acute alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and prevents the activation of protein kinase C. This differential effect on the two branches of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor signalling pathway is a distinctive feature of the colchicine action. 3. The lack of effect of colchicine in altering the alpha 1-adrenoceptor ligand binding affinity suggests that it might interact with some receptor-coupled regulatory element(s). 4. The acuteness of the colchicine effect and the ability of its isomer beta-lumicolchicine to prevent all the alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated responses but the increase in vascular resistance, indicate that its action cannot be merely ascribed to its effects in depolymerizing tubulin. 5. Colchicine perturbs the hepatic responses to vasoactive peptides. It enhances the vasopressin-induced rise of cytosolic free Ca2+ in isolated hepatocytes and prevents the sustained decrease of Ca2+ in the effluent perfusate. It also inhibits the stimulation of glycogenolysis, without altering the stimulation of gluconeogenesis. 6. It is concluded that there are at least two major alpha 1-adrenoceptor signalling pathways. One is colchicine-sensitive, independent of variations in free cytosolic Ca2+, and protein kinase C-dependent; the other one is colchicine-insensitive, dependent on variations in free cytosolic Ca2+, and protein kinase C-independent. PMID:8842446

  20. Lucid dreaming and alpha activity: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, R D; Hunt, H T; Tyson, P D; Lucescu, M L; Jeakins, D B

    1982-12-01

    10 good dream recallers spent 2 nights in the sleep lab during which they were awakened 4 times per night from REM sleep, twice during their highest alpha activity in REM, and twice during low REM alpha. 5 were given alpha feedback training prior to sleep onset. Arousals from high alpha REM sleep yielded significantly higher lucidity ratings. Alpha feedback had no effect upon lucidity or REM alpha levels. Similarities between lucid dreams and meditative phenomena are discussed.

  1. Lyman alpha emission in starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunth, Daniel

    1999-07-01

    We propose to perform a deep study of Ly-alpha emission and destruction in 3 star-forming galaxies. These objects have been already observed with the GHRS and exhibit a variety of situations, with Ly-alpha showing P Cyg profiles, secondary emissions or even a deep damped absorption line with no emission. They also span a range of intrinsic properties: IZW18 is a gas-rich, metal deficient dust free dwarf galaxy, Haro 2 has a simple morphology while IRAS 08339+6517 is a luminous IRAS starburst galaxy with more dust and complex Ly- alpha profile. The use of STIS will allow for the first time to study the geometrical/kinematical configuration of the ionized and neutral gas across the galaxies nuclear regions and pin point the effects of porosity and the kinematical structure of the ISM, that may play the key roles {in addition to dust} in the detectability of the line. This study will have important impact for cosmology since Ly-alpha emitters are nowaday found at high-re dshift. We strongly emphasize that since Ly-alpha is primarely a diagnostic of the ISM, a full understanding of how the ISM and Ly-alpha are related is a necessary step before we can hope to correlate Ly-alpha to the cosmic star-formation rate. Our results will be interpreted against the model of superbubble evolution developed with G. Tenorio Tagle.

  2. FUEL ELEMENT INTERLOCKING ARRANGEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Nicoll, D.

    1963-01-01

    This patent relates to a system for mutually interlocking a multiplicity of elongated, parallel, coextensive, upright reactor fuel elements so as to render a laterally selfsupporting bundle, while admitting of concurrent, selective, vertical withdrawal of a sizeable number of elements without any of the remaining elements toppling, Each element is provided with a generally rectangular end cap. When a rank of caps is aligned in square contact, each free edge centrally defines an outwardly profecting dovetail, and extremitally cooperates with its adjacent cap by defining a juxtaposed half of a dovetail- receptive mortise. Successive ranks are staggered to afford mating of their dovetails and mortises. (AEC)

  3. Mechanism of rifampicin and pregnane X receptor inhibition of human cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiangang; Chiang, John Y L

    2005-01-01

    Bile acids, steroids, and drugs activate steroid and xenobiotic receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR; NR1I2), which induces human cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4) in drug metabolism and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in bile acid synthesis in the liver. Rifampicin, a human PXR agonist, inhibits bile acid synthesis and has been used to treat cholestatic diseases. The objective of this study is to elucidate the mechanism by which PXR inhibits CYP7A1 gene transcription. The mRNA expression levels of CYP7A1 and several nuclear receptors known to regulate the CYP7A1 gene were assayed in human primary hepatocytes by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR). Rifampicin reduced CYP7A1 and small heterodimer partner (SHP; NR02B) mRNA expression suggesting that SHP was not involved in PXR inhibition of CYP7A1. Rifampicin inhibited CYP7A1 reporter activity and a PXR binding site was localized to the bile acid response element-I. Mammalian two-hybrid assays revealed that PXR interacted with hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4 alpha, NR2A1) and rifampicin was required. Coimmunoprecipitation assay confirmed PXR interaction with HNF4 alpha. PXR also interacted with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC-1 alpha), which interacted with HNF4 alpha and induced CYP7A1 gene transcription. Rifampicin enhanced PXR interaction with HNF4 alpha and reduced PGC-1 alpha interaction with HNF4 alpha. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that PXR, HNF4 alpha, and PGC-1 alpha bound to CYP7A1 chromatin, and rifampicin dissociated PGC-1 alpha from chromatin. These results suggest that activation of PXR by rifampicin promotes PXR interaction with HNF4 alpha and blocks PGC-1 alpha activation with HNF4 alpha and results in inhibition of CYP7A1 gene transcription. Rifampicin inhibition of bile acid synthesis may be a protective mechanism against drug and bile acid-induced cholestasis.

  4. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, P. C.; Allred, J. C.; Airapetian, V.; Gong, Q.; Mcintosh, S. W.; De Pontieu, B.; Fontenla, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe small-scale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events" (RBEs) [Rouppe van der Voort et al., 2009], the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem [De Pontieu et al., 2011]. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1" pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mÅ (33mÅ pixels) across a broad 20Å spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-α emission at 1216Å. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  5. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Allred, J.; Airapetian, V.; Gong, Q.; Fontenla, J.; McIntosh, S.; de Pontieu, B.

    2011-05-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe small-scale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events” (RBEs), the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1” pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mÅ (33mÅ pixels) across a broad 20Å spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-α emission at 1216Å. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  6. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2011-01-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe smallscale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events" (RBEs) [Rouppe van der Voort et al., 2009], the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem [De Pontieu et al., 2011]. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1" pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mAngstroms (33mAngstroms pixels) across a broad 20Angstrom spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-a emission at 1216Angstroms. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  7. Diabetes and Alpha Lipoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf-2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy. PMID:22125537

  8. Targeted alpha therapy: part I.

    PubMed

    Elgqvist, Jorgen

    2011-07-01

    The possibility of pinpointing biological targets, and thereby potentially targeting and eradicating small tumors or even single cancer cells, is a tantalizing concept that has been discussed since the magic-bullet concept was first presented by Paul Erlich in the beginning of the 20th century in connection with his work on tissue staining for histological examinations and the work by Kohler and Milstein on antibody production published in 1975. This concept now seems feasible through the use of highly specific targeting constructs, chemical labeling of radioactive substances to these targeting constructs that results in high specific activities, radioimmunocomplexes with good stability even after injection, and the use of radionuclides emitting alpha( α)-particles having exceedingly high ionizing density and, therefore, a high probability of killing cells along its track in tissue. The short range of the emitted α-particles makes them even more interesting by minimizing unwanted irradiation of normal tissue surrounding the targeted cancer cells of interest, assuming high specificity of the targeting construct and good stability of the chemical bonds between the targeting construct and the α-particle emitter. Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT), in which an α-particle emitting radionuclide is specifically directed to the biological target, is gaining more attention as new targets, targeting constructs, chemical labeling techniques, and α-particle emitters are, respectively, identified, constructed, developed, and made available. Results and improvements are now being published at an increasing rate and the number of conceivable applications is expanding, especially in the field of cancer treatment. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to provide an overview of the overall progress in the research field of TAT on a regular basis. However, problems such as limited or delayed diffusion of the α-radioimmunocomplex and inhomogeneous activity distributions in the

  9. Scalable encryption using alpha rooting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharton, Eric J.; Panetta, Karen A.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2008-04-01

    Full and partial encryption methods are important for subscription based content providers, such as internet and cable TV pay channels. Providers need to be able to protect their products while at the same time being able to provide demonstrations to attract new customers without giving away the full value of the content. If an algorithm were introduced which could provide any level of full or partial encryption in a fast and cost effective manner, the applications to real-time commercial implementation would be numerous. In this paper, we present a novel application of alpha rooting, using it to achieve fast and straightforward scalable encryption with a single algorithm. We further present use of the measure of enhancement, the Logarithmic AME, to select optimal parameters for the partial encryption. When parameters are selected using the measure, the output image achieves a balance between protecting the important data in the image while still containing a good overall representation of the image. We will show results for this encryption method on a number of images, using histograms to evaluate the effectiveness of the encryption.

  10. Diagnostics for PLX-alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner eXperiment PLX-alpha at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to establish the viability of creating a spherically imploding plasma liner for MIF and HED applications, using a spherical array of supersonic plasma jets launched by innovative contoured-gap coaxial plasma guns. PLX- α experiments will focus in particular on establishing the ram pressure and uniformity scalings of partial and fully spherical plasma liners. In order to characterize these parameters experimentally, a suite of diagnostics is planned, including multi-camera fast imaging, a 16-channel visible interferometer (upgraded from 8 channels) with reconfigurable, fiber-coupled front end, and visible and VUV high-resolution and survey spectroscopy. Tomographic reconstruction and data fusion techniques will be used in conjunction with interferometry, imaging, and synthetic diagnostics from modeling to characterize liner uniformity in 3D. Diagnostic and data analysis design, implementation, and status will be presented. Supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy - U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. SUMOylation of ROR{alpha} potentiates transcriptional activation function

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Eun Ju; Lee, Ji Min; Jeong, Jiyeong; Park, Joo Hyeon; Yang, Young; Lim, Jong-Seok; Kim, Jung Hwa; Baek, Sung Hee; Kim, Keun Il

    2009-01-16

    SUMOylation regulates a variety of cellular processes, including control of transcriptional activities of nuclear receptors. Here, we present SUMOylation of orphan nuclear receptor, ROR{alpha} by both SUMO-1 and SUMO-2. SUMOylation of ROR{alpha} occurred on the 240th lysine residue at the hinge region of human protein. PIAS family members, PIASx{alpha}, PIAS3, and PIASy, increased SUMOylation of ROR{alpha}, whereas SENP2 specifically removed SUMO from ROR{alpha}. SUMOylation-defective mutant form of ROR{alpha} exhibited decreased transcriptional activity on ROR{alpha}-responsive promoters indicating that SUMOylation may positively regulate transcriptional function of ROR{alpha}.

  12. Fibrinogen {alpha} genes: Conservation of bipartite transcripts and carboxy-terminal-extended {alpha} subunits in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Y.; Cao, Y.; Hertzberg, K.M.; Grieninger, G.

    1995-11-01

    All three well-studied subunits of the clotting protein fibrinogen ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}) share N-terminal structural homologies, but until recently only the {beta} and {gamma} chains were recognized as having similar globular C-termini. With the discovery of an extra exon in the human fibrinogen {alpha} gene (exon VI), a minor form of the {alpha} subunit ({alpha}{sub E}) with an extended {beta}- and {gamma}-like C-terminus has been identified. In the present study, the polymerase chain reaction has been used to identify sequences that encode counterparts to {alpha}{sub E} in chicken, rabbit, rat, and baboon. The basic six-exon structure of the fibrinogen {alpha} genes is shown to be conserved among mammals and birds, as are the intron positions. Bipartite transcripts - still bearing an intron prior to the last exon - are found among the products of the various vertebrate fibrinogen {alpha} genes. The last exon represents the largest conserved segment of the gene and, in each species examined, encodes exactly 236 amino acids. The C-termini of these {alpha}{sub E} chains align without a single gap and are between 76 and 99% identical. Since the exon VI-encoded domain of {alpha}{sub E} is as well conserved as the corresponding regions of the {beta} and {gamma} chains, it follows that it is equally important and that {alpha}{sub E}-fibrinogen plays a vital, if as-yet unrecognized physiological role. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Genetic variation of individual alpha frequency (IAF) and alpha power in a large adolescent twin sample.

    PubMed

    Smit, Christine M; Wright, Margaret J; Hansell, Narelle K; Geffen, Gina M; Martin, Nicholas G

    2006-08-01

    To further clarify the mode of genetic transmission on individual alpha frequency (IAF) and alpha power, the extent to which individual differences in these alpha indices are influenced by genetic factors were examined in a large sample of adolescent twins (237 MZ, 282 DZ pairs; aged 16). EEG was measured at rest (eyes closed) from the right occipital site, and a second EEG recording for 50 twin pairs obtained approximately 3 months after the initial collection, enabled an estimation of measurement error. Analyses confirmed a strong genetic influence on both IAF (h(2)=0.81) and alpha power (h(2)=0.82), and there was little support for non-additive genetic (dominance) variance. A small but significant negative correlation (-0.18) was found between IAF and alpha power, but genetic influences on IAF and alpha power were largely independent. All non-genetic variance was due to unreliability, with no significant variance attributed to unique environmental factors. Relationships between the alpha and IQ indices were also explored but were generally either non-significant or very low. The findings confirm the high heritability for both IAF and alpha power, they further suggest that the mode of genetic transmission is due to additive genetic factors, that genetic influences on the underlying neural mechanisms of alpha frequency and power are largely specific, and that individual differences in alpha activity are influenced little by developmental plasticity and individual experiences.

  14. Collagen alpha5 and alpha2(IV) chain coexpression: analysis of skin biopsies of Alport patients.

    PubMed

    Patey-Mariaud de Serre, N; Garfa, M; Bessiéres, B; Noël, L H; Knebelmann, B

    2007-08-01

    Alport syndrome is a collagen type IV disease caused by mutations in the COL4A5 gene with the X-linked form being most prevalent. The resultant alpha5(IV) collagen chain is a component of the glomerular and skin basement membranes (SBMs). Immunofluorescent determination of the alpha5(IV) chain in skin biopsies is the procedure of choice to identify patients. In 30% of patients, however, the mutant protein is still found in the SBM resulting in a normal staining pattern. In order to minimize or eliminate false results, we compared the distribution of the alpha2(IV) chain (another SBM component) and the alpha5(IV) chain by standard double label immunofluorescence (IF) and by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The study was performed on 55 skin biopsies of patients suspected of Alports and five normal control specimens. In normal skin, IF showed the classical linear pattern for both collagens along the basement membrane. Additionally, decreased alpha5(IV) was found in the bottom of the dermal papillary basement membrane. Confocal analysis confirmed the results and show alpha5(IV) focal interruptions. In suspected patients, both techniques showed the same rate of abnormal alpha5(IV) expression: segmental in women and absent in men. Our results show a physiological variation of alpha5(IV) location with focal interruptions and decreased expression in the bottom of the dermal basement membrane. Comparison of alpha5(IV) with alpha2(IV) expression is simple and eliminates technical artifacts.

  15. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.

  16. Synthesis of alpha-phosphorylated alpha,beta-unsaturated imines and their selective reduction to vinylogous and saturated alpha-aminophosphonates.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Francisco; Vicario, Javier; Maliszewska, Agnieszka; Aparicio, Domitila

    2007-03-30

    An efficient synthesis of alpha,beta-unsaturated imines derived from alpha-aminophosphonates is achieved through aza-Wittig reaction of P-trimethyl phosphazenes with beta,gamma-unsaturated alpha-ketophosphonates. Selective 1,2-reduction of such 1-azadienes affords beta,gamma-unsaturated alpha-aminophosphonates, phosphorylated analogs of vinylglycines, which are hydrogenated to yield saturated alpha-aminophosphonate derivatives.

  17. The Elements Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dkeidek, Iyad M.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an educational game designed for first- or second-year high school students who have already studied themes related to the periodic table elements, such as their symbols, electronic configurations, properties, and uses. The game is designed to help students learn the symbols of the elements and their properties or uses in a fun, engaging…

  18. Movies and Literary Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rodney D.

    Showing ten-minute movie clips can be an effective way to motivate students to read literature and to teach elements of fiction, namely plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. A clip from "And Then There Were None" may be used to teach various elements of plot, including conflict and the four types of conflict (man vs. man,…

  19. Elemental Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that…

  20. Experiments on synthesis of the heaviest elements at RIKEN

    SciTech Connect

    Morimoto, K.; Morita, K.; Kaji, D.; Yoneda, A.; Haba, H.; Katori, K.; Kikunaga, H.; Ohnishi, T.; Suda, T.; Yoshida, A.; Akiyama, T.; Sato, N.; Goto, S.; Kudo, H.; Ideguchi, E.; Koura, H.; Ozawa, A.; Sueki, K.; Tokanai, F.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2006-08-14

    In the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), using high intensity heavy ion beams from the RIKEN Linear Accelerator, productions and decays of isotopes of the heaviest elements have been investigated by using the gas-filled recoil separator, GARIS. The isotopes studied were 265Hs, 271Ds, 272Rg, 277112, and 278113, respectively. Based on the observed decay chains consisting of consecutive alpha decays connected to the previously known alpha decays or spontaneous fissions, assignments of the initially produced isotopes were done. Our data with the atomic number from 108 to 112, agree well with the data previously taken. The production cross section of the isotope 278113 of the 113th element have reached around 32 fb which shows the simple decrease of the cross section with the increase of the atomic number. The isotopes were produced, for the first time in the 1n evaporation channel from heavy-ion induced fusion reaction.

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, C.W.; Baumeister, E.B.

    1961-09-01

    A reactor fuel element utilizing fissionable fuel materials in plate form is described. This fuel element consists of bundles of fuel-bearing plates. The bundles are stacked inside of a tube which forms the shell of the fuel element. The plates each have longitudinal fins running parallel to the direction of coolant flow, and interspersed among and parallel to the fins are ribs which position the plates relative to each other and to the fuel element shell. The plate bundles are held together by thin bands or wires. The ex tended surface increases the heat transfer capabilities of a fuel element by a factor of 3 or more over those of a simple flat plate.

  2. Uncoupling protein-2 up-regulation and enhanced cyanide toxicity are mediated by PPAR{alpha} activation and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Li, L.; Prabhakaran, K.; Zhang, L.; Leavesley, H.B.; Borowitz, J.L.; Isom, G.E.

    2007-08-15

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) is an inner mitochondrial membrane proton carrier that modulates mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}) and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. We have shown that up-regulation of UCP-2 by Wy14,643, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) agonist, enhances cyanide cytotoxicity. The pathway by which Wy14,643 up-regulates UCP-2 was determined in a dopaminergic cell line (N27 cells). Since dopaminergic mesencephalic cells are a primary brain target of cyanide, the N27 immortalized mesencephalic cell was used in this study. Wy14,643 produced a concentration- and time-dependent up-regulation of UCP-2 that was linked to enhanced cyanide-induced cell death. MK886 (PPAR{alpha} antagonist) or PPAR{alpha} knock-down by RNA interference (RNAi) inhibited PPAR{alpha} activity as shown by the peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase reporter assay, but only partially decreased up-regulation of UCP-2. The role of oxidative stress as an alternative pathway to UCP-2 up-regulation was determined. Wy14,643 induced a rapid surge of ROS generation and loading cells with glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-EE) or pre-treatment with vitamin E attenuated up-regulation of UCP-2. On the other hand, RNAi knockdown of PPAR{alpha} did not alter ROS generation, suggesting a PPAR{alpha}-independent component to the response. Co-treatment with PPAR{alpha}-RNAi and GSH-EE blocked both the up-regulation of UCP-2 by Wy14,643 and the cyanide-induced cell death. It was concluded that a PPAR{alpha}-mediated pathway and an oxidative stress pathway independent of PPAR{alpha} mediate the up-regulation of UCP-2 and subsequent increased vulnerability to cyanide-induced cytotoxicity.

  3. Potential bile acid metabolites. 19. The epimeric 3 alpha,6,7 beta-trihydroxy- and 3 alpha,6,7 beta,12 alpha-tetrahydroxy-5 alpha-cholanoic acids.

    PubMed

    Iida, T; Nishida, S; Chang, F C; Niwa, T; Goto, J; Nambara, T

    1993-04-01

    Syntheses by a new procedure of the known 3 alpha,6 alpha,7 beta- and 3 alpha,6 beta,7 beta-trihydroxy-5 alpha-cholanoic acids, and of the once-reported analog 3 alpha,6 alpha,7 beta,12 alpha-, as well as the new 3 alpha,6 beta,7 beta,12 alpha-tetrahydroxy-5 alpha-cholanoic acids, are described. Key intermediates of the syntheses are the 6-oxo-7 beta-ols of the respective 5 alpha-cholanoic acids (and their methyl esters) prepared by allomerization at C-5 of appropriate 6-bromo-7-oxo derivatives of the corresponding 5 beta-acids. Successful reduction of the 6,7-ketols to the desired products depended on the proper choice of reagents, either Zn(BH4)2 or Li/NH3/MeOH.

  4. The binary weight distribution of the extended (2 sup m, 2 sup m-4) code of Reed-Solomon code over GF(2 sup m) with generator polynomial (x-alpha sup 2) (x-alpha sup 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu

    1987-01-01

    Consider an (n,k) linear code with symbols from GF(2 sup m). If each code symbol is represented by a binary m-tuple using a certain basis for GF(2 sup m), a binary (nm,km) linear code called a binary image of the original code is obtained. A lower bound is presented on the minimum weight enumerator for a binary image of the extended (2 sup m, 2 sup m -4) code of Reed-Solomon code over GF(2 sup m) with generator polynomical (x - alpha)(x- alpha squared)(x - alpha cubed) and its dual code, where alpha is a primitive element in GF(2 sup m).

  5. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Inherited Emphysema)

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung disease, • Physical exam, • Breathing tests and X-rays and • Oxygen levels. Two special blood tests determine the diagnosis of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency. The first test measures the ...

  6. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOEpatents

    Grisham, L.R.; Post, D.E. Jr.; Dawson, J.M.

    1983-11-23

    This invention relates generally to high energy confined plasmas and more particularly is directed to measuring the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a confined energetic plasma.

  7. Thorium isotopic analysis by alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gingell, T

    2001-01-01

    The technique of alpha spectrometry is used to detect alpha particles and to determine their energy. In this way the technique is able to provide simultaneously quantitative information (i.e. the activity) and qualitative information (the identity) on any radionuclide that emits an alpha particle. The longer-lived naturally occurring isotopes of thorium are all alpha emitters so the technique can be used to quantify them directly and this is extremely important if radiation doses due to intakes of these isotopes into the body are to be accurately assessed. The principle of the technique is discussed, its advantages and disadvantages, and the instrumentation that is commonly used today. The need for radiochemical separation is discussed and illustrated by reference to analysis procedures in current use for thorium isotopic analysis. Practical issues such as detection limits, quality control procedures. sample throughput and cost will be covered.

  8. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

    2004-12-01

    An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized.

  9. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-emitting nuclides.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, M R; Sgouros, G; Finn, R D; Humm, J L; Jurcic, J G; Larson, S M; Scheinberg, D A

    1998-09-01

    This review discusses the application of alpha particle-emitting radionuclides in targeted radioimmunotherapy. It will outline the production and chemistry of astatine-211, bismuth-212, lead-212, actinium-225, bismuth-213, fermium-255, radium-223 and terbium-149, which at present are the most promising alpha-emitting isotopes available for human clinical use. The selective cytotoxicity offered by alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconstructs is due to the high linear energy transfer and short particle path length of these radionuclides. Based upon the pharmacokinetics of alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconstructs, both stochastic and conventional dosimetric methodology is discussed, as is the preclinical and initial clinical use of these radionuclides conjugated to monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of human neoplasia.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: 5-alpha reductase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... About half of these individuals adopt a male gender role in adolescence or early adulthood. Related Information ... 1730-5. Citation on PubMed Cohen-Kettenis PT. Gender change in 46,XY persons with 5alpha-reductase- ...

  11. Alpha Coincidence Spectroscopy studied with GEANT4

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Tatishvili, Gocha; Warren, Glen A.

    2013-11-02

    Abstract The high-energy side of peaks in alpha spectra, e.g. 241Am, as measured with a silicon detector has structure caused mainly by alpha-conversion electron and to some extent alphagamma coincidences. We compare GEANT4 simulation results to 241Am alpha spectroscopy measurements with a passivated implanted planar silicon detector. A large discrepancy between the measurements and simulations suggest that the GEANT4 photon evaporation database for 237Np (daughter of 241Am decay) does not accurately describe the conversion electron spectrum and therefore was found to have large discrepancies with experimental measurements. We describe how to improve the agreement between GEANT4 and alpha spectroscopy for actinides of interest by including experimental measurements of conversion electron spectroscopy into the photon evaporation database.

  12. Frontal alpha asymmetry and sexually motivated states.

    PubMed

    Prause, Nicole; Staley, Cameron; Roberts, Verena

    2014-03-01

    Anterior alpha asymmetry of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals has been suggested to index state approach (or avoidance) motivation. This model has not yet been extended to high approach-motivation sexual stimuli, which may represent an important model of reward system function. Sixty-five participants viewed a neutral and a sexually motivating film while their EEG was recorded, and reported their sexual feelings after each film. Greater alpha power in the left hemisphere during sexually motivated states was evident. A positive relationship between self-reported mental sexual arousal and alpha asymmetry was identified, where coherence between these indicators was higher in women. Notably, coherence was stronger when mental versus physical sexual arousal was rated. Alpha asymmetry appears to offer a new method for further examining this novel coherence pattern across men and women.

  13. Nature of the pygmy dipole resonance in 140Ce studied in (alpha, alpha' gamma) experiments.

    PubMed

    Savran, D; Babilon, M; van den Berg, A M; Harakeh, M N; Hasper, J; Matic, A; Wörtche, H J; Zilges, A

    2006-10-27

    A concentration of electric-dipole excitations below the particle threshold, which is frequently denoted as the pygmy dipole resonance, has been studied in the semimagic nucleus 140Ce in (alpha, alpha' gamma) experiments at E alpha = 136 MeV. The technique of alpha-gamma coincidence experiments allows the separation of E1 excitations from states of other multipolarities in the same energy region and provides an excellent energy resolution to allow a detailed analysis for each state. The experimental results show that the PDR splits into two parts with different nuclear structure: one part which is excited in (alpha, alpha' gamma) as well as (gamma, gamma') experiments and one part which is excited only in (gamma, gamma').

  14. A Family Portrait of the Alpha Centauri System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    siderostats on the observing platform at the Paranal summit were used. These two small test telescopes were placed at distances of 16 and 66 metres, respectively (PR Photo 07c/03). They captured the light from the two stars and sent it on via a series of reflecting mirrors to the common focus in the commissioning instrument VINCI. Although they were obtained only a few days after the successful accomplishment of "First Fringes" with the VLTI (ESO PR 06/01), the 16-m measurements were found to be scientifically very useful and helped to improve the measurement of the angular diameter of Alpha Centauri A. The 66-m baseline measurements provided the most accurate values of "calibrated visibilities" (PR Photo 07d/03) - from these, the angular diameters were then derived. The VLTI measurements provided high-quality angular diameter values for both stars, 8.512 ± 0.022 milliarcsec and 6.002 ± 0.048 milliarcsec for A and B, respectively. With the distance measured earlier by the Hipparcos satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), 4.36 light-years or 41 million million km, the true radii were then found to be 854,000 km and 602,000 km, or 1.227 ± 0.005 and 0.865 ± 0.007 times the radius of the Sun, respectively. Stellar models ESO PR Photo 07e/03 ESO PR Photo 07e/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 478 pix - 288k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 956 pix - 992k] Caption: PR Photo 07e/03 shows the location of Alpha Centauri A and B, Proxima Centauri and the Sun in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram [4]. During the past years, a number of more distant binary stellar systems like Alpha Centauri A and B have been observed with different methods, including spectrophotometry (emission at different wavelengths) and astrometry (position in the sky; motions). When compared with theoretical models of the stars, such measurements determine the main stellar parameters, including the masses of each component, their ages, their luminosities, effective temperatures and content of various chemical elements. At

  15. Differential association of SMC1alpha and SMC3 proteins with meiotic chromosomes in wild-type and SPO11-deficient male mice.

    PubMed

    James, Rosalina D; Schmiesing, John A; Peters, Antoine H F M; Yokomori, Kyoko; Disteche, Christine M

    2002-01-01

    SMC proteins are components of cohesin complexes that function in chromosome cohesion. We determined that SMC1alpha and SMC3 localized to wild-type mouse meiotic chromosomes, but with distinct differences in their patterns. Anti-SMC3 coincided with axial elements of the synaptonemal complex, while SMC1alpha was observed mainly in regions where homologues were synapsed. This pattern was especially visible in pachytene sex vesicles where SMC1alpha localized only weakly to the asynapsed regions. At diplotene, SMC3, but not SMC1alpha, remained bound along axial elements of desynapsed chromosomes. SMC1alpha and SMC3 were also found to localize along meiotic chromosome cores of Spo11 null spermatocytes, in which double-strand break formation required for DNA recombination and homologous pairing were disrupted. In Spo11 -/- cells, SMC1alpha localization differed from SMC3 again, confirming that SMC1alpha is mainly associated with homologous or non-homologous synapsed regions, whereas SMC3 localized throughout the chromosomes. Our results suggest that the two cohesin proteins may not always be associated in a dimer and may function as separate complexes in mammalian meiosis, with SMC1alpha playing a more specific role in synapsis. In addition, our results indicate that cohesin cores can form independently of double-strand break formation and homologous pairing.

  16. Alpha-emitters for medical therapy workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Feinendegen, L.E.; McClure, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    A workshop on ``Alpha-Emitters for Medical Therapy`` was held May 30-31, 1996 in Denver Colorado to identify research goals and potential clinical needs for applying alpha-particle emitters and to provide DOE with sufficient information for future planning. The workshop was attended by 36 participants representing radiooncology, nuclear medicine, immunotherapy, radiobiology, molecular biology, biochemistry, radiopharmaceutical chemistry, dosimetry, and physics. This report provides a summary of the key points and recommendations arrived at during the conference.

  17. Measurement of the angle alpha at BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, A.; /Orsay, LAL

    2009-06-25

    The authors present recent measurements of the CKM angle {alpha} using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. They present constraints on {alpha} from B {yields} {pi}{pi}, B {yields} {rho}{rho} and B {yields} {rho}{pi} decays.

  18. [Studies on determination of alpha-amylase with p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltotetraoside].

    PubMed

    Kruse-Jarres, J D; Schott, F J; Klein, B; Rastetter, N; Wallenfels, K

    1982-11-01

    Nitrophenylmaltodextrins are alpha-amylase substrates which allow a continuous determination with a zero order kinetics over a period of at least 10 min, without deviations from linearity. Only one auxiliary enzyme is necessary. Practicability and clinical evidence of alpha-amylase determinations by means of p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltotetraoside are demonstrated. The interserial precision of 0.84% cannot conceal an only moderate correlation with previous methods. This fact, however, does not negate the advantages.

  19. Alpha-particles for targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Sgouros, George

    2008-09-01

    Alpha-particles are helium nuclei that deposit DNA damaging energy along their track that is 100 to 1000 times greater than that of conventionally used beta-particle emitting radionuclides for targeted therapy; the damage caused by alpha-particles is predominately double-stranded DNA breaks severe enough so as to be almost completely irreparable. This means that a small number of tracks through a cell nucleus can sterilize a cell and that, because the damage is largely irreparable, alpha-particle radiation is not susceptible to resistance as seen with external radiotherapy (e.g., in hypoxic tissue). The ability of a single track to influence biological outcome and the stochastic nature of alpha-particle decay require statistical or microdosimetric techniques to properly reflect likely biological outcome when the biologically relevant target is small or when a low number of radionuclide decays have occurred. In therapeutic implementations, microdosimetry is typically not required and the average absorbed dose over a target volume is typically calculated. Animal and cell culture studies have shown that, per unit absorbed dose, the acute biological effects of alpha-particles are 3 to 7 times greater than the damage caused by external beam or beta-particle radiation. Over the past ten to 15 years, alpha-particle emitting radionuclides have been investigated as a possible new class of radionuclides for targeted therapy. Results from the small number of clinical trials reported to date have shown efficacy without significant toxicity.

  20. Is ALPHA the Odometer of the Universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2007-10-01

    The answer seems to be affirmative. ALPHA may be an odometer with sixty decimal points, the last digit moving up one integer every Planck time, displaying the information of the age of the universe. We can only measure it to the ninth decimal point. ALPHA is greater than or equal to the reciprocal of the natural logarithm of the age of the universe in Planck times, sixty orders of magnitude. Eddington spent good portion of his life trying to come up with a value of ALPHA based on multiplicity. Gamow had the insight about the four nucleotides of genetic tape. His deeper 1967 insight was a link between ALPHA and cosmology. Evolution mandates variation of ALPHA. In terms of the entropy equation on Boltzmann's tomb, ALPHA seems to be the Maxwell's demon, decreasing the entropy of invisible compartments within which electromagnetic interactions take place. Nature potentially knows only the Planck units. I will discuss the implications for the second law of thermodynamics drafted in physics/0210040 v3.

  1. Neutron Diffraction Study On Gamma To Alpha Phase Transition In Ce0.9th0.1 Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Lashley, Jason C1; Heffner, Robert H; Llobet, A; Darling, T W; Jeong, I K

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive neutron diffraction measurements were performed to study the isostructural {gamma} {leftrightarrow} {alpha} phase transition in Ce{sub 0.9}Th{sub 0.1} alloy. Using Rietveld refinements, we obtained lattice and thermal parameters as a function of temperature. From the temperature slope of the thermal parameters, we determined Debye temperatures {Theta}{sup {gamma}}{sub D} = 133(1) K and {Theta}{sup {alpha}}{sub D} = 140(1) K for the {gamma} phase and the {alpha} phase, respectively. This result implies that the vibrational entropy change is not significant at the {gamma} {leftrightarrow} {alpha} transition, contrary to that from elemental Cerium [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 105702, 2004].

  2. Methods for the synthesis and polymerization of .alpha.,.alpha.'-dihalo-p-xylenes

    DOEpatents

    Ferraris, John P.; Neef, Charles J.

    2002-07-30

    The present invention describes an improved method for the polymerization of .alpha.,.alpha.-dihalo-p-xylene's such as the .alpha.,.alpha.'-dihalo-2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-xylene's. The procedure for synthesis is based on the specific order of addition of reagents and the use of an anionic initiator that allows control of the molecular weight of the polymer. The molecular weight control allows processability of the polymer which is important for its utility in applications including in light-emitting-diodes, field effect transistors and photovoltaic devices.

  3. Contribution from 3 alpha-Condensed States to the Triple-Alpha Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Kiyoshi; Kurokawa, Chie; Arai, Koji

    2010-06-01

    The alpha-condensed state in nuclear systems has been proposed by Tohsaki et al. and has given rise to interesting discussions. The Hoyle state of {sup 12}C has been studied as the most typical example of such an alpha-condensed state. A new resonant 0{sub 3}{sup +} state (E{sub r} = 1.66 MeV, GAMMA = 1.48 MeV) is predicted as an excited alpha-condensed state in addition to the second 0{sup +} state of the Hoyle state by calculations of the 3 alpha orthogonality condition model (3 alpha OCM) using the complex scaling method. Based on this result, the breakup strengths of the inversion reaction for sequential ({sup 8}Be+alpha->{sup 12}C+gamma) and direct (alpha+alpha+alpha->{sup 12}C+gamma) processes are calculated. It is discussed that a large reaction strength calculated recently by Ogata et al. in non-resonant energies is considered as a contribution from the excited 0{sub 3}{sup +} state.

  4. Complex rearrangements within the human J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus and aberrant recombination between J alpha segments.

    PubMed Central

    Baer, R; Boehm, T; Yssel, H; Spits, H; Rabbitts, T H

    1988-01-01

    We have examined DNA rearrangements within a 120 kb cloned region of the human T cell receptor J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus. Three types of pattern emerge from an analysis of T cell lines and clones. Firstly, cells with two rearrangements within J delta-C delta; secondly, cells with one rearrangement within J delta-C delta and one or more J alpha rearrangements, and finally, cells with rearrangements within J alpha and consequential deletion of the delta locus. Further analysis by cloning of rearrangements within the J alpha locus show that, in addition to V alpha-J alpha joins, J alpha-J alpha aberrant recombinations occur and rearrangement data indicate that such events are frequent. A model is presented to account for such recombinations. Images PMID:2971534

  5. Chicken alpha-globin switching depends on autonomous silencing of the embryonic pi globin gene by epigenetics mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Arano, Héctor; Guerrero, Georgina; Valdes-Quezada, Christian; Recillas-Targa, Félix

    2009-10-15

    Switching in hemoglobin gene expression is an informative paradigm for studying transcriptional regulation. Here we determined the patterns of chicken alpha-globin gene expression during development and erythroid differentiation. Previously published data suggested that the promoter regions of alpha-globin genes contain the complete information for proper developmental regulation. However, our data show a preferential trans-activation of the embryonic alpha-globin gene independent of the developmental or differentiation stage. We also found that DNA methylation and histone deacetylation play key roles in silencing the expression of the embryonic pi gene in definitive erythrocytes. However, drug-mediated reactivation of the embryonic gene during definitive erythropoiesis dramatically impaired the expression of the adult genes, suggesting gene competition or interference for enhancer elements. Our results also support a model in which the lack of open chromatin marks and localized recruitment of chicken MeCP2 contribute to autonomous gene silencing of the embryonic alpha-globin gene in a developmentally specific manner. We propose that epigenetic mechanisms are necessary for in vivo chicken alpha-globin gene switching through differential gene silencing of the embryonic alpha-globin gene in order to allow proper activation of adult alpha-globin genes.

  6. Molecular cloning and three-dimensional structure prediction of a novel alpha-tubulin in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Baleanu-Gogonea, Camelia; Siddiqui, S. S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on the isolation of a cDNA clone (tba-6) encoded by a novel alpha-tubulin gene in the nematode C. elegans. The tba-6 gene is located on chromosome I, that encode a protein of 460 amino acids, as well as the expression of the gene during the development. Here we discuss the structure of the coding region and the regulatory sequences in the promoter region. The comparison of the amino acid sequence of TBA6 with other alpha-tubulin isotypes of C. elegans, suggests that these proteins are highly conserved in most of the N-terminal and intermediate sequence, but they have highly divergent C-terminal sequences. TBA6 has also high homology with other alpha-tubulin families (e.g. human, mouse, Drosophila melangaster). The in situ experiment results suggest that the tba-6 alpha-tubulin gene is required during the entire embryonic development, therefore it is required during the early cell division stages. Further, we determined the 3D structure of C. elegans TBA6 alpha-tubulin by altering (computationally) the crystal structure of the alpha-tubulin (TBA_pig) from porcine alpha- beta tubulin dimer. We discuss structural conservation and changes in the pattern of interactions between secondary structure elements of TBA_pig and TBA6, respectively.

  7. Analysis of the human [alpha]-globin gene cluster in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, J.A.; Vyas, P.; Higgs, D.R.; Wood, W.G. ); Wells, D.J. ); Whitelaw, E. )

    1993-11-15

    A 350-bp segment of DNA associated with an erythroid-specific DNase I-hypersensitive site (HS -40), upstream of the [alpha]-globin gene cluster, has been identified as the major tissue-specific regulator of the [alpha]-globin genes. However, this element does not direct copy number-dependent or developmentally stable expression of the human genes in transgenic mice. To determine whether additional upstream hypersensitive sites could provide more complete regulation of [alpha] gene expression, the authors have studied 17 lines of transgenic mice bearing various DNA fragments containing HSs -33, -10, -8, and -4, in addition to HS -40. Position-independent, high-level expression of the human [zeta]- and [alpha]-globin genes was consistently observed in embryonic erythroid cells. However, the additional HSs did not confer copy-number dependence, alter the level of expression, or prevent the variable down-regulation of expression in adults. These results suggest that the region upstream of the human [alpha]-globin genes is not equivalent to that upstream of the [beta] locus and that although the two clusters are coordinately expressed, there may be differences in their regulation.

  8. AP-2{alpha} suppresses skeletal myoblast proliferation and represses fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promoter activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Darrion L.; DiMario, Joseph X.

    2010-01-15

    Skeletal muscle development is partly characterized by myoblast proliferation and subsequent differentiation into postmitotic muscle fibers. Developmental regulation of expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene is required for normal myoblast proliferation and muscle formation. As a result, FGFR1 promoter activity is controlled by multiple transcriptional regulatory proteins during both proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells. The transcription factor AP-2{alpha} is present in nuclei of skeletal muscle cells and suppresses myoblast proliferation in vitro. Since FGFR1 gene expression is tightly linked to myoblast proliferation versus differentiation, the FGFR1 promoter was examined for candidate AP-2{alpha} binding sites. Mutagenesis studies indicated that a candidate binding site located at - 1035 bp functioned as a repressor cis-regulatory element. Furthermore, mutation of this site alleviated AP-2{alpha}-mediated repression of FGFR1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AP-2{alpha} interacted with the FGFR1 promoter in both proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. In total, these results indicate that AP-2{alpha} is a transcriptional repressor of FGFR1 gene expression during skeletal myogenesis.

  9. Interferon-. alpha. selectively activates the. beta. isoform of protein kinase C through phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeffer, L.M.; Saltiel, A.R. ); Strulovici, B. )

    1990-09-01

    The early events that occur after interferon binds to discrete cell surface receptors remain largely unknown. Human leukocyte interferon (interferon-{alpha}) rapidly increases the binding of ({sup 3}H)phorbol dibutyrate to intact HeLa cells a measure of protein kinase C activation, and induces the selective translocation of the {beta} isoform of protein kinase C from the cytosol to the particulate fraction of HeLa cells. The subcellular distribution of the {alpha} and {epsilon} isoforms is unaffected by interferon-{alpha} treatment. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters mimics the inhibitory action of interferon-{alpha} on HeLa cell proliferation and down-regulation of protein kinase C blocks the induction of antiviral activity by interferon-{alpha} in HeLa cells. Increased phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and phosphorylcholine production is accompanied by diacylglycerol production in response to interferon. However, inositol phospholipid turnover and free intracellular calcium concentration are unaffected. These results suggest that the transient increase in diacylglycerol, resulting from phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis, may selectively activate the {beta} isoform of protein kinase C. Moreover, the activation of protein kinase C is a necessary element in interferon action on cells.

  10. The 5alpha-reductase in the central nervous system: expression and modes of control.

    PubMed

    Melcangi, R C; Poletti, A; Cavarretta, I; Celotti, F; Colciago, A; Magnaghi, V; Motta, M; Negri-Cesi, P; Martini, L

    1998-04-01

    The present paper will summarize two important aspects of the interactions between steroids and the brain, which have recently been studied in the authors' laboratory. In particular the paper will consider data on: (1) the significance of the two isoforms of the 5alpha-R during brain ontogenesis and development, and (2) the cross-talk between glial and neuronal elements, particularly in relation to the metabolism of sex hormones. (1) The data obtained have shown that the 5alpha-R type 1 enzyme is constitutively expressed in the rat CNS at all stages of brain development. Moreover, the expression of the 5alpha-R type 1 is similar in males and in females, and does not appear to be controlled by androgens. The gene expression of the 5alpha-R type 2 is totally different. This isoform appears to be expressed in the rat brain almost exclusively in the late fetal/early post-natal life and is controlled by testosterone. (2) The present data show that two cell lines derived respectively from a rat glioma (C6 cell line) and from a human astrocytoma (1321N1 cell line) are able to convert testosterone and progesterone into their corresponding 5alpha-reduced metabolites dihydrotestosterone and dihydroprogesterone. The possibility that secretory products of normal and tumoral brain cells might be able to influence steroid metabolism occurring in the two glial cell lines previously mentioned has been considered.

  11. The heaviest elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1994-05-02

    How long does an atom need to exist before it's possible to do any meaningful chemistry on it Is it possible to learn anything at all about the reactions of an element for which no more than a few dozen atoms have ever existed simultaneously These are some of the questions colleagues in a few laboratories worldwide attempt to answer as they investigate the chemistry of the heaviest elements--elements produced one atom at a time in accelerators by bombarding radioactive targets with high-intensity beams of heavy ions. All of these elements spontaneously decay; the most stable of them have half-lives of only a few minutes, some that are less stable exist for only milliseconds. So far, no chemical studies have been performed on elements whose longest lived isotopes last only milliseconds because the difficulties of doing chemistry on this time scale under highly radioactive conditions are enormous. Over the past 10 years, however, nuclear chemists have developed new techniques or adapted existing ones to begin to probe the chemical properties of those very heavy elements that have half-lives in the range of seconds to minutes. Although the classic experiments are now nearly 40 years old, they are worth describing, as they were the first of their kind and illustrate many of the techniques that are still used and essential in studying these very short-lived, radioactive elements.

  12. Inhomogeneous chemical evolution of r-process elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehmeyer, B.; Pignatari, M.; Thielemann, F.-K.

    2016-06-01

    We report the results of a galactic chemical evolution (GCE) study for r-process- and alpha elements. For this work, we used the inhomogeneous GCE model "ICE", which allows to keep track of the galactic abundances of elements produced by different astrophysical sites. The main input parameters for this study were: a) The Neutron Star Merger (NSM) coalescence time scale, the probability of NSMs, and for the sub-class of "magneto-rotationally driven Supernovae" ("Jet-SNe"), their occurence rate in comparison to "standard" Supernovae (SNe).

  13. Alpha-plutonium's Grüneisen parameter.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter, Hassel; Lawson, Andrew; Migliori, Albert

    2010-04-28

    Reported Grüneisen parameters γ of alpha-plutonium range from 3.0 to 9.6, which is remarkable because typical Grüneisen parameter uncertainty seldom exceeds ± 0.5. Our six new estimates obtained by different methods range from 3.2 to 9.6. The new estimates arise from Grüneisen's rule, from Einstein model and Debye model fits to low-temperature ΔV/V, from the bulk modulus temperature dependence, from the zero-point-energy contribution to the bulk modulus, and from another Grüneisen relationship whereby γ is estimated from only the bulk modulus and volume changes with temperature (or pressure). We disregard several high estimates because of the itinerant-localized 5f-electron changes during temperature changes and pressure changes. Considering all these estimates, for alpha-plutonium, we recommend γ = 3.7 ± 0.4, slightly high compared with values for all elemental metals.

  14. Neutronic fuel element fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Korton, George

    2004-02-24

    This disclosure describes a method for metallurgically bonding a complete leak-tight enclosure to a matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant channels. Coolant tubes containing solid filler pins are disposed in the coolant channels. A leak-tight metal enclosure is then formed about the entire assembly of fuel matrix, coolant tubes and pins. The completely enclosed and sealed assembly is exposed to a high temperature and pressure gas environment to effect a metallurgical bond between all contacting surfaces therein. The ends of the assembly are then machined away to expose the pin ends which are chemically leached from the coolant tubes to leave the coolant tubes with internal coolant passageways. The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. It relates generally to fuel elements for neutronic reactors and more particularly to a method for providing a leak-tight metal enclosure for a high-performance matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant tubes. The planned utilization of nuclear energy in high-performance, compact-propulsion and mobile power-generation systems has necessitated the development of fuel elements capable of operating at high power densities. High power densities in turn require fuel elements having high thermal conductivities and good fuel retention capabilities at high temperatures. A metal clad fuel element containing a ceramic phase of fuel intimately mixed with and bonded to a continuous refractory metal matrix has been found to satisfy the above requirements. Metal coolant tubes penetrate the matrix to afford internal cooling to the fuel element while providing positive fuel retention and containment of fission products generated within the fuel matrix. Metal header plates are bonded to the coolant tubes at each end of the fuel element and a metal cladding or can completes the fuel-matrix enclosure

  15. Meperidine, remifentanil and tramadol but not sufentanil interact with alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor knock out mice brain.

    PubMed

    Höcker, Jan; Weber, Bernd; Tonner, Peter H; Scholz, Jens; Brand, Philipp-Alexander; Ohnesorge, Henning; Bein, Berthold

    2008-03-17

    alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists like clonidine or dexmedetomidine increase the sedative and analgesic actions of opioids. Furthermore opioids like meperidine show potent anti-shivering effects like alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists. The underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects are still poorly defined. The authors therefore studied the ability of four different opioids (meperidine, remifentanil, sufentanil and tramadol) to interact with different alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes in mice lacking individual alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)- or alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors (alpha(2)-adrenoceptor knock out (alpha(2)-AR KO) mice)). The interaction of opioids with alpha(2)-adrenoceptors was investigated by quantitative receptor autoradiography in brain slices of alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)- or alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor deficient mice. Displacement of the radiolabelled alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist [(125)I]-paraiodoclonidine ([(125)I]-PIC) from alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in different brain regions by increasing opioid concentrations was measured, and binding affinity of the analysed opioids to alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes in different brain regions was quantified. Meperidine, remifentanil and tramadol but not sufentanil provoked dose dependent displacement of specifically bound [(125)I]-PIC from all alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes in cortex, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, thalamus, hippocampus and pons. Required concentrations of meperidine and remifentanil for [(125)I]-PIC displacement from alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors were lower than from alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors, indicating higher binding affinity for alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors. In contrast, [(125)I]-PIC displacement by tramadol indicated higher binding affinity to alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors than to alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors. Our results indicate that meperidine, remifentanil and tramadol interact with alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in mouse brain showing different affinity for alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C

  16. Catastrophic Failure Modes Assessment of the International Space Station Alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, B. E. P.; Goodwin, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes a series of analyses to quantify the hazardous effects of meteoroid/debris penetration of Space Station Alpha manned module protective structures. These analyses concentrate on determining (a) the critical crack length associated with six manned module pressure wall designs that, if exceeded, would lead to unstopped crack propagation and rupture of manned modules, and (b) the likelihood of crew or station loss following penetration of unsymmetrical di-methyl hydrazine tanks aboard the proposed Russian FGB ('Tug') propulsion module and critical elements aboard the control moment gyro module (SPP-1). Results from these quantified safety analyses are useful in improving specific design areas, thereby reducing the overall likelihood of crew or station loss following orbital debris penetration.

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, W.F.; Tellefson, D.R.; Shimazaki, T.T.

    1962-04-10

    A plate type fuel element which is particularly useful for organic cooled reactors is described. Generally, the fuel element comprises a plurality of fissionable fuel bearing plates held in spaced relationship by a frame in which the plates are slidably mounted in grooves. Clearance is provided in the grooves to allow the plates to expand laterally. The plates may be rigidly interconnected but are floatingly supported at their ends within the frame to allow for longi-tudinal expansion. Thus, this fuel element is able to withstand large temperature differentials without great structural stresses. (AEC)

  18. Injector element characterization methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Characterization of liquid rocket engine injector elements is an important part of the development process for rocket engine combustion devices. Modern nonintrusive instrumentation for flow velocity and spray droplet size measurement, and automated, computer-controlled test facilities allow rapid, low-cost evaluation of injector element performance and behavior. Application of these methods in rocket engine development, paralleling their use in gas turbine engine development, will reduce rocket engine development cost and risk. The Alternate Turbopump (ATP) Hot Gas Systems (HGS) preburner injector elements were characterized using such methods, and the methodology and some of the results obtained will be shown.

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Shackleford, M.H.

    1958-12-16

    A fuel element possessing good stability and heat conducting properties is described. The fuel element comprises an outer tube formed of material selected from the group consisting of stainhess steel, V, Ti. Mo. or Zr, a fuel tube concentrically fitting within the outer tube and containing an oxide of an isotope selected from the group consisting of U/sup 235/, U/sup 233/, and Pu/sup 239/, and a hollow, porous core concentrically fitting within the fuel tube and formed of an oxide of an element selected from the group consisting of Mg, Be, and Zr.

  20. Elements in biological AMS

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. {sup 14}C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth`s biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed.

  1. Elements of discovery.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2008-01-01

    I understand discovery as the essence of thinking man, or to paraphrase the notable French philosopher René Descartes, "I think, therefore I discover." In this study, I introduce discovery as the foundation of modern science. Discovery consists of six stages or elements, including: concept, belief, ability, support, proof, and protection. Each element is discussed within the context of the whole discovery enterprise. Fundamental tenets for understanding discovery are given throughout the paper, and a few examples illustrate the significance of some of the most important elements. I invite clinicians, researchers, and/or clinical researchers to integrate themselves into the active process of discovery. Remember--I think, therefore I discover.

  2. Light Element Production in Type Ib/c Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Ko

    2008-05-21

    Recent observations of halo stars indicate non-primordial {sup 6}Li and Be, which are produced through cosmic-ray interactions. Some energetic supernovae can accelerate particles to energies enough to interact with ambient material and produce light elements including {sup 6}Li and {sup 9}Be. We investigate interactions between Type Ib/c supernova ejecta and the circumstellar matter (CSM) as production sites for the light elements, particularly {sup 6}Li and {sup 9}Be in the early stages of the Galactic chemical evolution. Considered are energetic Type Ib/c supernova explosions of Wolf-Rayet type stars at low metallicities, embedded in the dense CSM. The energetic portion of the supernova ejecta can interact directly with the circumstellar material and induce light-element production via spallation and {alpha}-{alpha} fusion reactions. We find that accelerated particles lose their energy through Coulomb collisions with free electrons near the stellar surface where very dense CSM resides, so that most of light elements are produced at the near-surface region. This fact suggests that the amounts of produced light elements and their ratios strongly depend on the chemical compositions of the region. The resulting {sup 6}Li and {sup 9}Be abundances in the ejecta and the cicumstellar material out of which very metal-poor stars form may show scattering, though it has not yet been confirmed.

  3. Inhibition of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha by MK886.

    PubMed Central

    Kehrer, J P; Biswal, S S; La, E; Thuillier, P; Datta, K; Fischer, S M; Vanden Heuvel, J P

    2001-01-01

    Although MK886 was originally identified as an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), recent data demonstrate that this activity does not underlie its ability to induce apoptosis [Datta, Biswal and Kehrer (1999) Biochem. J. 340, 371--375]. Since FLAP is a fatty-acid binding protein, it is conceivable that MK886 may affect other such proteins. A family of nuclear receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their metabolites, the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), have been implicated in apoptosis and may represent a target for MK886. The ability of MK886 to inhibit PPAR-alpha, -beta and -gamma activity was assessed using reporter assay systems (peroxisome-proliferator response element--luciferase). Using a transient transfection system in monkey kidney fibroblast CV-1 cells, mouse keratinocyte 308 cells and human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, 10--20 microM MK886 inhibited Wy14,643 activation of PPAR alpha by approximately 80%. Similar inhibition of PPAR alpha by MK886 was observed with a stable transfection reporter system in CV-1 cells. Only minimal inhibitory effects were seen on PPAR beta and PPAR gamma. MK886 inhibited PPAR alpha by a non-competitive mechanism as shown by its effects on the binding of arachidonic acid to PPAR alpha protein, and a dose-response study using a transient transfection reporter assay in COS-1 cells. An assay assessing PPAR ligand-receptor interactions showed that MK886 prevents the conformational change necessary for active-complex formation. The expression of keratin-1, a protein encoded by a PPAR alpha-responsive gene, was reduced by MK886 in a culture of mouse primary keratinocytes, suggesting that PPAR inhibition has functional consequences in normal cells. Although Jurkat cells express all PPAR isoforms, various PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma agonists were unable to prevent MK886-induced apoptosis. This is consistent with MK886 functioning as a non-competitive inhibitor of PPAR alpha, but may

  4. Development of Flight Slit-Jaw Optics for Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubo, Masahito; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Hara, Hirohisa; Narukage, Noriyuki; Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Kobiki, Toshihiko; Tsuneta, Saku; Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy; Takeyama, Norihide; Kanai, Yoshikazu; Sakakibara, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    In sounding rocket experiment CLASP, I have placed a slit a mirror-finished around the focal point of the telescope. The light reflected by the mirror surface surrounding the slit is then imaged in Slit-jaw optical system, to obtain the alpha-ray Lyman secondary image. This image, not only to use the real-time image in rocket flight rocket oriented direction selection, and also used as a scientific data showing the spatial structure of the Lyman alpha emission line intensity distribution and solar chromosphere around the observation area of the polarimetric spectroscope. Slit-jaw optical system is a two off-axis mirror unit part including a parabolic mirror and folding mirror, Lyman alpha transmission filter, the optical system magnification 1x consisting camera. The camera is supplied from the United States, and the other was carried out fabrication and testing in all the Japanese side. Slit-jaw optical system, it is difficult to access the structure, it is necessary to install the low place clearance. Therefore, influence the optical performance, the fine adjustment is necessary optical elements are collectively in the form of the mirror unit. On the other hand, due to the alignment of the solar sensor in the US launch site, must be removed once the Lyman alpha transmission filter holder including a filter has a different part from the mirror unit. In order to make the structure simple, stray light measures Aru to concentrate around Lyman alpha transmission filter. To overcome the difficulties of performing optical alignment in Lyman alpha wavelength absorbed by the atmosphere, it was planned following four steps in order to reduce standing time alignment me. 1: is measured in advance refractive index at Lyman alpha wavelength of Lyman alpha transmission filter (121.567nm), to prepare a visible light Firuwo having the same optical path length in the visible light (630nm). 2: The mirror structure CLASP before mounting unit standing, dummy slit and camera standing

  5. Strong return of the December alpha-Bootids (IAU#497, DAB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.

    2016-06-01

    The CAMS network detected a stronger than usual return of bright meteors from the compact December alpha-Bootids meteor shower in 2015. The observed activity was spread over three nights. The shower is detected at a weaker level in other years by CAMS and by the SonotaCo network. Orbital elements show a gradual increase in longitude of perihelion with solar longitude from Pi = 12 deg to 25 deg. This behavior is currently not understood.

  6. Contribution of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) Collagen IV to the Mechanical Properties of the Glomerular Basement Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyoneva, Lazarina

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a vital part of the blood-urine filtration barrier in the kidneys. In healthy GBMs, the main tension-resisting component is alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) type IV collagen, but in some diseases it is replaced by other collagen IV isoforms. As a result, the GBM becomes leaky and disorganized, ultimately resulting in kidney failure. Our goal is to understanding the biomechanical aspects of the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains and how their absence could be responsible for (1) the initial injury to the GBM and (2) progression to kidney failure. A combination of experiments and computational models were designed for that purpose. A model basement membrane was used to compare experimentally the distensibility of tissues with the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains present and missing. The experiments showed basement membranes containing alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains were less distensible. It has been postulated that the higher level of lateral cross-linking (supercoiling) in the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks contributes additional strength/stability to basement membranes. In a computational model of supercoiled networks, we found that supercoiling greatly increased the stiffness of collagen IV networks but only minimally decreased the permeability, which is well suited for the needs of the GBM. It is also known that the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks are more protected from enzymatic degradation, and we explored their significance in GBM remodeling. Our simulations showed that the more protected network was needed to prevent the system from entering a dangerous feedback cycle due to autoregulation mechanisms in the kidneys. Overall, the work adds to the evidence of biomechanical differences between the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks and other collagen IV networks, points to supercoiling as the main source of biomechanical differences, discusses the suitability of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha

  7. Multi-Element Airfoil System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); McKenney, Martin J. (Inventor); Atherley, Raymond D. (Inventor); Kidd, Reggie T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A multi-element airfoil system includes an airfoil element having a leading edge region and a skin element coupled to the airfoil element. A slat deployment system is coupled to the slat and the skin element, and is capable of deploying and retracting the slat and the skin element. The skin element substantially fills the lateral gap formed between the slat and the airfoil element when the slat is deployed. The system further includes an uncoupling device and a sensor to remove the skin element from the gap based on a critical angle-of-attack of the airfoil element. The system can alternatively comprise a trailing edge flap, where a skin element substantially fills the lateral gap between the flap and the trailing edge region of the airfoil element. In each case, the skin element fills a gap between the airfoil element and the deployed flap or slat to reduce airframe noise.

  8. G alpha 16, a G protein alpha subunit specifically expressed in hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Amatruda, T T; Steele, D A; Slepak, V Z; Simon, M I

    1991-01-01

    Signal-transduction pathways mediated by guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) determine many of the responses of hematopoietic cells. A recently identified gene encoding a G protein alpha subunit, G alpha 16, is specifically expressed in human cells of the hematopoietic lineage. The G alpha 16 cDNA encodes a protein with predicted Mr of 43,500, which resembles the G q class of alpha subunits and does not include a pertussis toxin ADP-ribosylation site. In comparison with other G protein alpha subunits, the G alpha 16 predicted protein has distinctive amino acid sequences in the amino terminus, the region A guanine nucleotide-binding domain, and in the carboxyl-terminal third of the protein. Cell lines of myelomonocytic and T-cell phenotype express the G alpha 16 gene, but no expression is detectable in two B-cell lines or in nonhematopoietic cell lines. G alpha 16 gene expression is down-regulated in HL-60 cells induced to differentiate to neutrophils with dimethyl sulfoxide. Antisera generated from synthetic peptides that correspond to two regions of G alpha 16 specifically react with a protein of 42- to 43-kDa in bacterial strains that overexpress G alpha 16 and in HL-60 membranes. This protein is decreased in membranes from dimethyl sulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 cells and is not detectable in COS cell membranes. The restricted expression of this gene suggests that G alpha 16 regulates cell-type-specific signal-transduction pathways, which are not inhibited by pertussis toxin. Images PMID:1905813

  9. Overview Of Suborbital Human Transportation Concept Alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adirim, H.; Pilz, N.; Marini, M.; Hendrick, P.; Schmid, M.; Behr, R.; Barth, T.; Tarfeld, F.; Wiegand, A.; Charbonnier, D.; Haya Ramos, R.; Steeland, J.; Mack, A.

    2011-05-01

    Within the EC co-funded project FAST20XX (Future high-Altitude high-Speed Transport 20XX), the European suborbital passenger transportation system concept ALPHA (Airplane Launched PHoenix Aircraft), which shall be based to a maximum extent on existing technologies and capabilities, is currently being investigated as collaborative project by a European consortium under coordination of ESA. The ALPHA concept incorporates an air-launch from a carrier aircraft, which shall be used as first stage. The ALPHA vehicle shall be capable of transporting up to four passengers plus one pilot to an altitude of at least 100 km. The ALPHA vehicle is a down-scaled version of the suborbital space transportation concept Hopper, which was already deeply investigated within the European FESTIP System Study and the German ASTRA program including the successfully flown experimental landing demonstrator Phoenix. This approach has allowed the use of existing aerodynamic vehicle data and has led to the adaptation of the external Hopper/Phoenix configuration for ALPHA. In FESTIP and ASTRA, the Hopper configuration showed sufficient stability margins. Due to the geometric similarity of the ALPHA and Hopper vehicles, a trimable and flyable configuration could be derived by means of ALPHA flight trajectory calculations. In its current configuration, the ALPHA vehicle has a length of ca. 9 m and a gross take-off mass of ca. 3.5 Mg. The launch, staging and separation of ALPHA shall be performed either as internal air-launch from the cargo bay of the carrier aircraft, as under-wing air-launch or as towed air-launch. After separation from the carrier aircraft, the ALPHA vehicle ignites its onboard rocket propulsion system. Since conventional liquid and solid propulsion did not seem suitable for ALPHA due to Their high cost, limited safety and toxicity, a low-cost, “green” and non-hazardous hybrid propulsion system based on liquid nitrous oxide in combination with a solid polymer fuel was

  10. Rock in Its Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCluskey, Thomas

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the following musical elements of rock: rhythm, melody, harmony, and form. A impromptu analysis made at a session of the Youth Music Symposium, July 25, 1969. Remarks transcribed from tape. (Author/AP)

  11. Space Radiation Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenek, Sam

    2008-01-01

    This poster presentation shows the various elements of the Space Radiation Program. It reviews the program requirements: develop and validate standards, quantify space radiation human health risks, mitigate risks through countermeasures and technologies, and treat and monitor unmitigated risks.

  12. Effect of different atmospheres on the microstructure of Super Alpha-2 titanium aluminide foils

    SciTech Connect

    Blank-Bewersdorff, M.; Peters, J.A. )

    1994-10-01

    The influence of alloying elements on the oxidation behavior of titanium aluminides has been studied in numerous investigations. However, the influence of special atmospheres, like hydrogen or inert gases on the properties of the Super Alpha-2 alloy is still unclear. The aim of this work, therefore, was to study the effect of different atmospheres on the microstructure and the corrosion behavior of Ti-14Al-20Nb-3V-2Mo (wt%) foils in order to contribute to a data base for the design of structural elements.

  13. H-alpha wide- and narrow-band photometry of R Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edalati, M. T.; Khalesse, B.; Riazi, N.

    1989-01-01

    H-alpha wide- and narrow-band photoelectric observations of the eclipsing binary R CMa were made at the Biruni Observatory between February 18 and March 2, 1983. The light curves obtained from the observations are analyzed according to Kopal's method for the orbital elements by using frequency-domain techniques. It appears likely that an exchange has taken place on the angle of the first contact and is probably continuing at the present time. New geometric and photometric elements are derived, and a new value for the angle of the first contact is also given.

  14. Chemistry of rocks and soils at Meridiani Planum from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Rieder, R; Gellert, R; Anderson, R C; Brückner, J; Clark, B C; Dreibus, G; Economou, T; Klingelhöfer, G; Lugmair, G W; Ming, D W; Squyres, S W; d'Uston, C; Wänke, H; Yen, A; Zipfel, J

    2004-12-03

    The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer on the Opportunity rover determined major and minor elements of soils and rocks in Meridiani Planum. Chemical compositions differentiate between basaltic rocks, evaporite-rich rocks, basaltic soils, and hematite-rich soils. Although soils are compositionally similar to those at previous landing sites, differences in iron and some minor element concentrations signify the addition of local components. Rocky outcrops are rich in sulfur and variably enriched in bromine relative to chlorine. The interaction with water in the past is indicated by the chemical features in rocks and soils at this site.

  15. New functionalities in abundant element oxides: ubiquitous element strategy.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Hideo; Hayashi, Katsuro; Kamiya, Toshio; Atou, Toshiyuki; Susaki, Tomofumi

    2011-06-01

    While most ceramics are composed of ubiquitous elements (the ten most abundant elements within the Earth's crust), many advanced materials are based on rare elements. A 'rare-element crisis' is approaching owing to the imbalance between the limited supply of rare elements and the increasing demand. Therefore, we propose a 'ubiquitous element strategy' for materials research, which aims to apply abundant elements in a variety of innovative applications. Creation of innovative oxide materials and devices based on conventional ceramics is one specific challenge. This review describes the concept of ubiquitous element strategy and gives some highlights of our recent research on the synthesis of electronic, thermionic and structural materials using ubiquitous elements.

  16. COMPOSITE FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Hurford, W.J.; Gordon, R.B.; Johnson, W.A.

    1962-12-25

    A sandwich-type fuel element for a reactor is described. This fuel element has the shape of an elongated flat plate and includes a filler plate having a plurality of compartments therein in which the fuel material is located. The filler plate is clad on both sides with a thin cladding material which is secured to the filler plate only to completely enclose the fuel material in each compartment. (AEC)

  17. DIME Elements of Jihad

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-22

    human rights , democratization, minorities, feminism , and jihadist ideologies from Western academia.33 According to Brigitte Gabriel, some of our...unconstitutional, segregated schools no longer exist, women and other minorities vote, and the right to privacy is now part of the Constitution.122 The Quran...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DIME Elements of Jihad 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S

  18. JACKETED FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Creutz, E.C.

    1959-02-01

    These fuel elements are comprised of a homogeneous metallic uranium body completely enclosed and sealed in an aluminum cover. The uranium body and aluminum cover are bonded together by a layer of zinc located between them. The bonding layer serves to improve transfer of heat, provides an additional protection against corrosion of the uranium by the coolant, and also localizes any possible corrosion by preventing travel of corrosive material along the surface of the fuel element.

  19. Pharmacologic specificity of alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Petrash, A.; Bylund, D.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have defined alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes in human and rat tissues using prazosin as a subtype selective drug. Prazosin has a lower affinity (250 nM) at alpha-2A receptor and a higher affinity (5 nM) at alpha-2B receptors. In order to determine if other adrenergic drugs are selective for one or the other subtypes, the authors performed (/sup 3/H)yohimbine inhibition experiments with various adrenergic drugs in tissues containing alpha-2A, alpha-2B or both subtypes. Oxymetazoline, WB4101 and yohimbine were found to be 80-, 20- and 10-fold more potent at alpha-2A receptors than at alpha-2B receptors. Phentolamine, adazoxan, (+)- and (-)-mianserin, clonidine, (+)-butaclamol, (-)- and (+)-norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and thioridazine were found to have equal affinities for the two subtypes. These results further validate the subdivision of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors into alpha-2A and alpha-2B subtypes.

  20. Targeted alpha-therapy: past, present, future?

    PubMed

    Brechbiel, Martin W

    2007-11-21

    Monoclonal antibodies have become a viable strategy for the delivery of therapeutic, particle emitting radionuclides specifically to tumor cells to either augment anti-tumor action of the native antibodies or to solely take advantage of their action as targeting vectors. Proper and rational selection of radionuclide and antibody combinations is critical to making radioimmunotherapy (RIT) a standard therapeutic modality due to the fundamental and significant differences in the emission of either alpha- and beta-particles. The alpha-particle has a short path length (50-80 microm) that is characterized by high linear energy transfer (100 keV microm(-1)). Actively targeted alpha-therapy potentially offers a more specific tumor cell killing action with less collateral damage to the surrounding normal tissues than beta-emitters. These properties make targeted alpha-therapy an appropriate therapy to eliminate minimal residual or micrometastatic disease. RIT using alpha-emitters such as (213)Bi, (211)At, (225)Ac, and others has demonstrated significant activity in both in vitro and in vivo model systems. Limited numbers of clinical trials have progressed to demonstrate safety, feasibility, and therapeutic activity of targeted alpha-therapy, despite having to traverse complex obstacles. Further advances may require more potent isotopes, additional sources and more efficient means of isotope production. Refinements in chelation and/or radiolabeling chemistry combined with rational improvements of isotope delivery, targeting vectors, molecular targets, and identification of appropriate clinical applications remain as active areas of research. Ultimately, randomized trials comparing targeted alpha-therapy combined with integration into existing standards of care treatment regimens will determine the clinical utility of this modality.

  1. Alpha-particle fluence in radiobiological experiments.

    PubMed

    Nikezic, Dragoslav; Yu, Kwan Ngok

    2016-11-03

    Two methods were proposed for determining alpha-particle fluence for radiobiological experiments. The first involved calculating the probabilities of hitting the target for alpha particles emitted from a source through Monte Carlo simulations, which when multiplied by the activity of the source gave the fluence at the target. The second relied on the number of chemically etched alpha-particle tracks developed on a solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) that was irradiated by an alpha-particle source. The etching efficiencies (defined as percentages of latent tracks created by alpha particles from the source that could develop to become visible tracks upon chemical etching) were computed through Monte Carlo simulations, which when multiplied by the experimentally counted number of visible tracks would also give the fluence at the target. We studied alpha particles with an energy of 5.486 MeV emitted from an (241)Am source, and considered the alpha-particle tracks developed on polyallyldiglycol carbonate film, which is a common SSNTD. Our results showed that the etching efficiencies were equal to one for source-film distances of from 0.6 to 3.5 cm for a circular film of radius of 1 cm, and for source-film distances of from 1 to 3 cm for circular film of radius of 2 cm. For circular film with a radius of 3 cm, the etching efficiencies never reached 1. On the other hand, the hit probability decreased monotonically with increase in the source-target distance, and fell to zero when the source-target distance was larger than the particle range in air.

  2. Trace elements in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Filler, Guido; Felder, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    In end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), pediatric nephrologists must consider the homeostasis of the multiple water-soluble ions that are influenced by renal replacement therapy (RRT). While certain ions such as potassium and calcium are closely monitored, little is known about the handling of trace elements in pediatric dialysis. RRT may lead to accumulation of toxic trace elements, either due to insufficient elimination or due to contamination, or to excessive removal of essential trace elements. However, trace elements are not routinely monitored in dialysis patients and no mechanism for these deficits or toxicities has been established. This review summarizes the handling of trace elements, with particular attention to pediatric data. The best data describe lead and indicate that there is a higher prevalence of elevated lead (Pb, atomic number 82) levels in children on RRT when compared to adults. Lead is particularly toxic in neurodevelopment and lead levels should therefore be monitored. Monitoring of zinc (Zn, atomic number 30) and selenium (Se, atomic number 34) may be indicated in the monitoring of all pediatric dialysis patients to reduce morbidity from deficiency. Prospective studies evaluating the impact of abnormal trace elements and the possible therapeutic value of intervention are required.

  3. Regulation of constitutive androstane receptor and its target genes by fasting, cAMP, hepatocyte nuclear factor alpha, and the coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xunshan; Lichti, Kristin; Kim, Insook; Gonzalez, Frank J; Staudinger, Jeff L

    2006-09-08

    Animal studies reveal that fasting and caloric restriction produce increased activity of specific metabolic pathways involved in resistance to weight loss in liver. Evidence suggests that this phenomenon may in part occur through the action of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3). Currently, the precise molecular mechanisms that activate CAR during fasting are unknown. We show that fasting coordinately induces expression of genes encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha), CAR, cytochrome P-450 2b10 (Cyp2b10), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1a1 (Ugt1a1), sulfotransferase 2a1 (Sult2a1), and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 2 (Oatp2) in liver in mice. Treatments that elevate intracellular cAMP levels also produce increased expression of these genes in cultured hepatocytes. Our data show that PGC-1alpha interaction with hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha, NR2A1) directly regulates CAR gene expression through a novel and evolutionarily conserved HNF4-response element (HNF4-RE) located in its proximal promoter. Expression of PGC-1alpha in cells increases CAR expression and ligand-independent CAR activity. Genetic studies reveal that hepatic expression of HNF4alpha is required to produce fasting-inducible CAR expression and activity. Taken together, our data show that fasting produces increased expression of genes encoding key metabolic enzymes and an uptake transporter protein through a network of interactions involving cAMP, PGC-1alpha, HNF4alpha, CAR, and CAR target genes in liver. Given the recent finding that mice lacking CAR exhibit a profound decrease in resistance to weight loss during extended periods of caloric restriction, our findings have important implications in the development of drugs for the treatment of obesity and related diseases.

  4. A chimera-like alpha-amylase inhibitor suggesting the evolution of Phaseolus vulgaris alpha-amylase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wato, S; Kamei, K; Arakawa, T; Philo, J S; Wen, J; Hara, S; Yamaguchi, H

    2000-07-01

    White kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) contains two kinds of alpha-amylase inhibitors, one heat-stable (alpha AI-s) and one heat-labile (alpha AI-u). alpha AI-s has recently been revealed to be a tetrameric complex, alpha(2)beta(2), with two active sites [Kasahara et al. (1996) J. Biochem. 120, 177-183]. The present study was undertaken to reveal the molecular features of alpha AI-u, which is composed of three kinds of subunits, alpha, beta, and gamma. The gamma-subunit, in contrast to the alpha- and beta-subunits that are indistinguishable from the alpha- and beta-subunits of alpha AI-s, was found to correspond to a subunit of an alpha-amylase inhibitor-like protein, which has been identified as an inactive, evolutionary intermediate between arcelin and the alpha-amylase inhibitor in a P. vulgaris defense protein family. The polypeptide molecular weight of alpha AI-u determined by the light-scattering technique, together with the polypeptide molecular weights of the subunits, suggests that alpha AI-u is a trimeric complex, alpha beta gamma. The inhibition of alpha AI-u by increasing amounts of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA) indicates that an inactive 1:1 complex is formed between alpha AI-u and PPA. Molecular weight estimation of the complex by the light-scattering technique confirmed that it is a complex of alpha AI-u with one PPA molecule. Thus it seems probable that alpha AI-u is an evolutionary intermediate of the P. vulgaris alpha-amylase inhibitor.

  5. Some aspects of the mechanism of complexation of red kidney bean alpha-amylase inhibitor and alpha-amylase.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, E R; Whitaker, J R

    1984-04-10

    Bovine pancreatic alpha-amylase binds 1 mol of acarbose (a carbohydrate alpha-amylase inhibitor) per mol at the active site and also binds acarbose nonspecifically. The red kidney bean alpha-amylase inhibitor-bovine pancreatic alpha-amylase complex retained nonspecific binding for acarbose only. Binding of p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltoside to the final complex of red kidney bean alpha-amylase inhibitor and bovine pancreatic alpha-amylase has a beta Ks (Ks') value that is 3.4-fold greater than the Ks (16 mM) of alpha-amylase for p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltoside alone. The initial complex of alpha-amylase and inhibitor apparently hydrolyzes this substrate as rapidly as alpha-amylase alone. The complex retains affinity for substrates and competitive inhibitors, which, when present in high concentrations, cause dissociation of the complex. Maltose (0.5 M), a competitive inhibitor of alpha-amylase, caused dissociation of the red kidney bean alpha-amylase inhibitor--alpha-amylase complex. Interaction between red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitor and porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase proceeds through two steps. The first step has a Keq of 3.1 X 10(-5) M. The second step (unimolecular; first order) has a forward rate constant of 3.05 min-1 at pH 6.9 and 30 degrees C. alpha-Amylase inhibitor combines with alpha-amylase, in the presence of p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltoside, noncompetitively. On the basis of the data presented, it is likely that alpha-amylase is inactivated by the alpha-amylase inhibitor through a conformational change. A kinetic model, in the presence and absence of substrate, is described for noncompetitive, slow, tight-binding inhibitors that proceed through two steps.

  6. Endometrial receptivity: expression of alpha3beta1, alpha4beta1 and alphaVbeta1 endometrial integrins in women with impaired fertility.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak, J; Mikołajczyk, M; Szymanowski, K

    2001-11-01

    Advances in immunohistochemical methods with the specificity of poly- and monoclonal antibodies allow the description of the endometrial receptivity, which is characterized by the ability of secretion of phase specific proteins and glikoproteins by epithelial and stromal cells. We studied the differences in the expression of alpha3beta1, alpha4beta1 and alphaVbeta1 integrins in endometrium of women with recurrent miscarriages and women with unexplained infertility. The endometrial tissue was collected during hysteroscopy performed between 7th and 9th day after ovulation. The immunohistochemical evaluation of alpha3beta1, alpha4beta1 and alphaVbeta1 integrin expression was determined in all endometrial biopsies. Staining intensity of alpha3beta1 in glandular epithelium and endometrial stroma was similar in both groups. In women with recurrent miscarriages we noted a lower concentrations of the alpha4beta1 and alphaVbeta1 integrins during the midluteal phase than in women with unexplained infertility. Moreover, integrins alpha4beta1 and alphaVbeta1 were expressed more frequently in glandular epithelium and endometrial stroma of women with unexplained infertility than those of women with recurrent miscarriages. However, alphaV(2)1 staining in endometrial stroma was stronger than that of alpha4beta1. It can be concluded, that these integrins may play an important role in the implantation process.

  7. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on bovine in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Marques, A; Santos, P; Antunes, G; Chaveiro, A; Moreira da Silva, F

    2010-02-01

    The objectives of this work are to determine if exogenous supplementation with alpha-tocopherol increases the in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate of bovine oocytes and improves viability of selected spermatozoa after 'swim-up'. The percentage of fertilized oocytes was significantly but negatively correlated (r = -0.941, p < 0.01) with the concentration of alpha-tocopherol. The control resulted in 95% of fertilized oocytes, which decreased as follows: 25 microM alpha-tocopherol (alpha25) 86%, 50 microM alpha-tocopherol (alpha50) 74%, 100 microM alpha-tocopherol (alpha100) 66% and 200 microM alpha-tocopherol (alpha200) 56%. Relatively to sperm viability after 'swim-up' with alpha-tocopherol supplementation, this antioxidant proved to have a beneficial effect as its concentration increased up to alpha50, decreasing for the concentrations of alpha100 and alpha200. Control resulted in 83% of live cells and 16% of dead cells; alpha25 resulted in 88% of live cells and 12% of dead cells; alpha50 resulted in 91% of live cells and 9% of dead cells; alpha100 resulted in 67% of live cells and 33% of dead cells; and finally alpha200 resulted in 57% of live cells and 42% of dead cells. In summary, the present study allows to conclude that, in our conditions, supplementation with the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol in IVF of bovine oocytes has a detrimental effect on fertilization rates. Nevertheless, exogenous supplementation with alpha-tocopherol at a concentration of 50 mM in the sperm-TALP media during the 'swim-up' technique has a significant beneficial effect on the selected spermatozoa viability.

  8. The biological effects of five feline IFN-alpha subtypes.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Susan L; Powell, Tim D; Sellins, Karen S; Radecki, Steven V; Cohen, J John; Milhausen, Michael J

    2004-06-01

    IFN-alpha has been shown to induce both antiviral and antiproliferative activities in animals. This report describes the biological activity of five recently identified feline IFN-alpha subtypes expressed in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line (rfeIFN-alpha1[CHO], rfeIFN-alpha2[CHO], rfeIFN-alpha3[CHO], rfeIFN-alpha5[CHO] and rfeIFN-alpha6[CHO]) and the feIFN-alpha6 subtype expressed in and purified from Pichia pastoris (rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris]). The rfeIFN-alpha[CHO] subtypes were tested for antiviral activity against either Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) or feline calicivirus (FCV) infected feline embryonic fibroblast cell line (AH927) or Crandell feline kidney cell line (CRFK). Antiviral activity was induced against both VSV and FCV infected AH927 cells and VSV infected CRFK cells by all five of the rfeIFN-alpha[CHO] subtypes and rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris]. In addition, the IFN-alpha inducible Mx gene (associated with antiviral activity) was upregulated in vivo 24 h following treatment with rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris], compared to baseline levels seen prior to treatment. All of the rfeIFN-alpha[CHO] subtypes and rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris] exhibited antiproliferative activity in the FeT-J cell line (an IL-2 independent feline T-cell line). Both necrosis and apoptosis were observed in rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris]-treated FeT-J cells. The rfeIFN-alpha3[CHO] subtype consistently exhibited lower antiviral and antiproliferative activity compared to that observed with the other four rfeIFN-alpha[CHO] subtypes. In summary, this paper demonstrates that five previously described feIFN-alpha subtypes induce both antiviral and antiproliferative activities in vitro and are capable of upregulating the feMx gene in vivo.

  9. Infusions of 3alpha,5alpha-THP to the VTA enhance exploratory, anti-anxiety, social, and sexual behavior and increase levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP in midbrain, hippocampus, diencephalon, and cortex of female rats.

    PubMed

    Frye, Cheryl A; Rhodes, Madeline E

    2008-02-11

    17beta-Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) influence the onset and duration of sexual behavior and are also associated with changes in behaviors that may contribute to mating, such as exploration, anxiety, and social behaviors (socio-sexual behaviors). In the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA), the P4 metabolite, 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), modulates lordosis of E2-primed rodents; 3alpha,5alpha-THP can also influence anxiety and social behaviors. To examine if 3alpha,5alpha-THP in the VTA mediates socio-sexual behaviors, we infused 3alpha,5alpha-THP to the VTA of diestrous and proestrous rats. As expected, proestrous, compared to diestrous, rats showed more exploratory (open field), anxiolytic (elevated plus maze), pro-social (partner preference, social interaction), and sexual (paced mating) behavior and had increased E2, P4, dihydroprogesterone (DHP), and 3alpha,5alpha-THP in serum, midbrain, hippocampus, diencephalon, and cortex. Infusions of 3alpha,5alpha-THP to the VTA, but not control sites, such as the substantia nigra (SN) or central grey (CG), of diestrous rats produced behavioral and endocrine effects akin to that of proestrous rats and increased DHP and 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels in midbrain, hippocampus, and diencephalon. Levels of DHP and 3alpha,5alpha-THP, but neither E2 nor P4 concentrations, in midbrain, hippocampus, diencephalon, and/or cortex were positively correlated with socio-sexual behaviors. Thus, 3alpha,5alpha-THP infusions to the VTA, but not SN or CG, can enhance socio-sexual behaviors and increase levels in midbrain, hippocampus, and diencephalon.

  10. Alpha Channeling in Rotating Plasma with Stationary Waves

    SciTech Connect

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2010-02-15

    An extension of the alpha channeling effect to supersonically rotating mirrors shows that the rotation itself can be driven using alpha particle energy. Alpha channeling uses radiofrequency waves to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. We show that stationary magnetic fields with high nθ can be used for this purpose, and simulations show that a large fraction of the alpha energy can be converted to rotation energy.

  11. Experimental and Theoretical Electron Density Distribution of Alpha,Alpha-Trehalose Dihydrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha,alpha-rehalose is of interest because of its cryoprotective and antidessicant properties, and because it possesses various technical anomalies such as 13C NMR spectra that give misleading indications of intramolecular structural symmetry. It is a non-reducing disaccharide, with the glycosidic...

  12. Solution structure of alpha t alpha, a helical hairpin peptide of de novo design.

    PubMed Central

    Fezoui, Y.; Connolly, P. J.; Osterhout, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    alpha t alpha is a 38-residue peptide designed to adopt a helical hairpin conformation in solution (Fezoui Y, Weaver DL Osterhout JJ, 1995, Protein Sci 4:286-295). A previous study of the carboxylate form of alpha t alpha by CD and two-dimensional NMR indicated that the peptide was highly helical and that the helices associated in approximately the intended orientation (Fezoui Y, Weaver DL, Osterhout JJ, 1994, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:3675-3679). Here, the solution structure of alpha t alpha as determined by two-dimensional NMR is reported. A total of 266 experimentally derived distance restraints and 20 dihedral angle restraints derived from J-couplings were used. One-hundred initial structures were generated by distance geometry and refined by dynamical simulated annealing. Twenty-three of the lowest-energy structures consistent with the experimental restraints were analyzed. The results presented here show that alpha t alpha is comprised of two associating helices connected by a turn region. PMID:9300486

  13. Amyloid formation and disaggregation of {alpha}-synuclein and its tandem repeat ({alpha}-TR)

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Song Yi; Kim, Seulgi; Hwang, Heejin; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Yoon, Hyun C.; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, SangYoon; Kim, T. Doohun

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Formation of the {alpha}-synuclein amyloid fibrils by [BIMbF{sub 3}Im]. {yields} Disaggregation of amyloid fibrils by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and baicalein. {yields} Amyloid formation of {alpha}-synuclein tandem repeat ({alpha}-TR). -- Abstract: The aggregation of {alpha}-synuclein is clearly related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, detailed understanding of the mechanism of fibril formation is highly valuable for the development of clinical treatment and also of the diagnostic tools. Here, we have investigated the interaction of {alpha}-synuclein with ionic liquids by using several biochemical techniques including Thioflavin T assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our data shows a rapid formation of {alpha}-synuclein amyloid fibrils was stimulated by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [BIMbF{sub 3}Im], and these fibrils could be disaggregated by polyphenols such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and baicalein. Furthermore, the effect of [BIMbF{sub 3}Im] on the {alpha}-synuclein tandem repeat ({alpha}-TR) in the aggregation process was studied.

  14. Cortical Alpha Oscillations Predict Speech Intelligibility

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Smith, Michael L.; Kadis, Darren S.; Moore, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding speech in noise (SiN) is a complex task involving sensory encoding and cognitive resources including working memory and attention. Previous work has shown that brain oscillations, particularly alpha rhythms (8–12 Hz) play important roles in sensory processes involving working memory and attention. However, no previous study has examined brain oscillations during performance of a continuous speech perception test. The aim of this study was to measure cortical alpha during attentive listening in a commonly used SiN task (digits-in-noise, DiN) to better understand the neural processes associated with “top-down” cognitive processing in adverse listening environments. We recruited 14 normal hearing (NH) young adults. DiN speech reception threshold (SRT) was measured in an initial behavioral experiment. EEG activity was then collected: (i) while performing the DiN near SRT; and (ii) while attending to a silent, close-caption video during presentation of identical digit stimuli that the participant was instructed to ignore. Three main results were obtained: (1) during attentive (“active”) listening to the DiN, a number of distinct neural oscillations were observed (mainly alpha with some beta; 15–30 Hz). No oscillations were observed during attention to the video (“passive” listening); (2) overall, alpha event-related synchronization (ERS) of central/parietal sources were observed during active listening when data were grand averaged across all participants. In some participants, a smaller magnitude alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD), originating in temporal regions, was observed; and (3) when individual EEG trials were sorted according to correct and incorrect digit identification, the temporal alpha ERD was consistently greater on correctly identified trials. No such consistency was observed with the central/parietal alpha ERS. These data demonstrate that changes in alpha activity are specific to listening conditions. To our

  15. Cortical Alpha Oscillations Predict Speech Intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Smith, Michael L; Kadis, Darren S; Moore, David R

    2017-01-01

    Understanding speech in noise (SiN) is a complex task involving sensory encoding and cognitive resources including working memory and attention. Previous work has shown that brain oscillations, particularly alpha rhythms (8-12 Hz) play important roles in sensory processes involving working memory and attention. However, no previous study has examined brain oscillations during performance of a continuous speech perception test. The aim of this study was to measure cortical alpha during attentive listening in a commonly used SiN task (digits-in-noise, DiN) to better understand the neural processes associated with "top-down" cognitive processing in adverse listening environments. We recruited 14 normal hearing (NH) young adults. DiN speech reception threshold (SRT) was measured in an initial behavioral experiment. EEG activity was then collected: (i) while performing the DiN near SRT; and (ii) while attending to a silent, close-caption video during presentation of identical digit stimuli that the participant was instructed to ignore. Three main results were obtained: (1) during attentive ("active") listening to the DiN, a number of distinct neural oscillations were observed (mainly alpha with some beta; 15-30 Hz). No oscillations were observed during attention to the video ("passive" listening); (2) overall, alpha event-related synchronization (ERS) of central/parietal sources were observed during active listening when data were grand averaged across all participants. In some participants, a smaller magnitude alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD), originating in temporal regions, was observed; and (3) when individual EEG trials were sorted according to correct and incorrect digit identification, the temporal alpha ERD was consistently greater on correctly identified trials. No such consistency was observed with the central/parietal alpha ERS. These data demonstrate that changes in alpha activity are specific to listening conditions. To our knowledge, this is the

  16. Alpha-particle sensitive test SRAMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Blaes, B. R.

    1990-01-01

    A bench-level test is being developed to evaluate memory-cell upsets in a test SRAM designed with a cell offset voltage. This offset voltage controls the critical charge needed to upset the cell. The effect is demonstrated using a specially designed 2-micron n-well CMOS 4-kb test SRAM and a Po-208 5.1-MeV 0.61-LET alpha-particle source. This test SRAM has been made sensitive to alpha particles through the use of a cell offset voltage, and this has allowed a bench-level characterization in a laboratory setting. The experimental data are linked to a alpha-particle interaction physics and to SPICE circuit simulations through the alpha-particle collection depth. The collection depth is determined by two methods and found to be about 7 micron. In addition, alpha particles that struck outside the bloated drain were able to flip the SRAM cells. This lateral charge collection was observed to be more than 6 micron.

  17. Fate of Alpha Dynamos at Large Rm.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Alexandre; Alexakis, Alexandros

    2016-11-11

    At the heart of today's solar magnetic field evolution models lies the alpha dynamo description. In this work, we investigate the fate of alpha dynamos as the magnetic Reynolds number Rm is increased. Using Floquet theory, we are able to precisely quantify mean-field effects like the alpha and beta effect (i) by rigorously distinguishing dynamo modes that involve large-scale components from the ones that only involve small scales, and by (ii) providing a way to investigate arbitrary large-scale separations with minimal computational cost. We apply this framework to helical and nonhelical flows as well as to random flows with short correlation time. Our results determine that the alpha description is valid for Rm smaller than a critical value Rm_{c} at which small-scale dynamo instability starts. When Rm is above Rm_{c}, the dynamo ceases to follow the mean-field description and the growth rate of the large-scale modes becomes independent of the scale separation, while the energy in the large-scale modes is inversely proportional to the square of the scale separation. The results in this second regime do not depend on the presence of helicity. Thus, alpha-type modeling for solar and stellar models needs to be reevaluated and new directions for mean-field modeling are proposed.

  18. H-alpha Observations of MKW10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Harold; Coble, Kimberly A.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Durbala, Adriana; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team project looking at clusters and groups of galaxies to investigate the effects of environment on star formation, we analyzed H-alpha and R-band observations of the group MKW10 from the WIYN 0.9-m telescope with MOSAIC camera at Kitt Peak. We continuum-subtract the H-alpha images by scaling and subtracting the broadband R images. This process includes: determining the seeing of each image by calculating the FWHM values of several stars in the image; convolving all images to the worst seeing; stacking images for each filter; subtracting sky background; scaling the R image to H-alpha; and subtracting the scaled R from H-alpha. We then use the H-alpha-continuum-subtracted image to perform surface photometry of individual galaxies in MKW10. The data will be used to determine star formation rates and distributions of galaxies in this group environment and will be compared to results for galaxies in other UAT group and cluster environments. Analysis is ongoing.This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005 and the Illinois Space Grant Consortium.

  19. Benchmarking the External Surrogate Ratio Method using the (alpha,alpha' f) reaction at STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Lesher, S R; Bernstein, L A; Ai, H; Beausang, C W; Bleuel, D; Burke, J T; Clark, R M; Fallon, P; Gibelin, J; Lee, I Y; Lyles, B F; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Wiedeking, M

    2008-01-09

    We measured the ratio of the fission probabilities of {sup 234}U* relative to {sup 236}U* formed via an ({alpha},{alpha}{prime}) direct reactions using the STARS array at the 88-inch cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This ratio has a shape similar to the ratio of neutron capture probabilities from {sup 233}U(n; f) and {sup 235}U(n; f), indicating the alpha reactions likely formed a compound nucleus. This result indicates that the ratios of fission exit channel probabilities for two actinide nuclei populated via ({alpha}, {alpha}{prime}) can be used to determine an unknown fission cross section relative to a known one. The validity of the External Surrogate Ratio Method (ESRM) is tested and the results support the conclusions of Burke et al. [1].

  20. Results from the Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer: Detection of Radon-222 Over Craters Aristarchus and Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, S. L.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, D. J.; Moore, K. R.; Belian, R. D.; Maurice, S.; Binder, A. B.

    2001-11-01

    The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer (LP APS) searched for lunar surface gas release events and mapped their distribution by detecting alpha particles produced by the decay of gaseous radon-222 (5.5 MeV, 3.8 day half-life), solid polonium-218 (6.0 MeV, 3 minute half-life), and solid polonium-210 (5.3 MeV, 138 day half-life, but held up in production by the 21 year half-life of lead-210). These three nuclides are radioactive daughters from the decay of uranium-238. Radon reaches the lunar surface either at areas of high soil porosity or where fissures release the trapped gases in which radon is entrained. We have examined APS data within +/- 45 degrees of the equator acquired during periods of low interplanetary alpha particle flux. The spectra were summed over all LP mapping cycles when the instrument was turned on (approximately 229 days over 16 months). To yield lunar alpha particle maps, we summed over a 0.2 MeV energy range centered on each of the three alpha particle energies noted above. The LP APS found only a faint indication of alpha particles resulting from the decay of polonium-218 and only a marginal detection of alpha particles from polonium-210. However, our radon-222 alpha particle map indicates that radon gas is presently emanating from the vicinity of craters Aristarchus and Kepler. The LP gamma-ray spectrometer, which effectively has significantly higher spatial resolution than the APS, identified thorium enrichments at these two craters. Thorium and uranium are both incompatible elements whose lunar surface abundances are highly correlated; thus, it is likely that the radon-222 alpha particles measured using the LP APS originate from Kepler and Aristarchus. Our detection of radon over Aristarchus is consistent with the results of the Apollo 15 APS.

  1. Inhibition of alpha interferon but not gamma interferon signal transduction by phorbol esters is mediated by a tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Petricoin, E; David, M; Igarashi, K; Benjamin, C; Ling, L; Goelz, S; Finbloom, D S; Larner, A C

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the expression of viral oncoproteins, cell transformation, or phorbol ester treatment of cells can inhibit alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta)-induced gene expression. The mechanisms by which these promoters of cell growth exert their inhibitory effects vary, but in most instances they involve a disruption of the IFN-alpha/beta-induced transcription complex ISGF3 such that the DNA-binding component of this complex (the 48-kDa ISGF3gamma protein) does not bind to the interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE). In this report, we demonstrated that phorbol ester treatment of human peripheral blood monocytes dramatically inhibits activation of IFN-alpha/B-stimulated early response genes but by a mechanism which does not involve abrogation of the ISRE binding of ISGF3gamma. Phorbol ester treatment of monocytes inhibited IFN alpha-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the transcription factors Stat1alpha, Stat2, and Stat3 and of the tyrosine kinase Tyk2 but had no effect on IFN-gamma activation of Stat1alpha. IFNalpha-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1 and the alpha subunit of the IFN-alpha receptor were unaffected by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Moreover, PMA caused the dephosphorylation of Tyk2 but not of Jak1, which was activated by IFN. Pretreatment of cells with vanadate prevented the effects of PMA with regard to PMA-induced Tyk2 dephosphorylation. These observations suggest that PMA exerts its inhibitory effects by activation of a tyrosine phosphatase which selectively regulates Tyk2 but not Jak1 activity. PMID:8657115

  2. Structure of alpha-glycerophosphate Oxidase from Streptococcus sp.: a Template for the Mitochondrial alpha-glycerophosphate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    T Colussi; D Parsonage; W Boles; T Matsuoka; T Mallett; P Karplus; A Claiborne

    2011-12-31

    The FAD-dependent {alpha}-glycerophosphate oxidase (GlpO) from Enterococcus casseliflavus and Streptococcus sp. was originally studied as a soluble flavoprotein oxidase; surprisingly, the GlpO sequence is 30-43% identical to those of the {alpha}-glycerophosphate dehydrogenases (GlpDs) from mitochondrial and bacterial sources. The structure of a deletion mutant of Streptococcus sp. GlpO (GlpO{Delta}, lacking a 50-residue insert that includes a flexible surface region) has been determined using multiwavelength anomalous dispersion data and refined at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Using the GlpO{Delta} structure as a search model, we have also determined the intact GlpO structure, as refined at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution. The first two domains of the GlpO fold are most closely related to those of the flavoprotein glycine oxidase, where they function in FAD binding and substrate binding, respectively; the GlpO C-terminal domain consists of two helix bundles and is not closely related to any known structure. The flexible surface region in intact GlpO corresponds to a segment of missing electron density that links the substrate-binding domain to a {beta}{beta}{alpha} element of the FAD-binding domain. In accordance with earlier biochemical studies (stabilizations of the covalent FAD-N5-sulfite adduct and p-quinonoid form of 8-mercapto-FAD), Ile430-N, Thr431-N, and Thr431-OG are hydrogen bonded to FAD-O2{alpha} in GlpO{Delta}, stabilizing the negative charge in these two modified flavins and facilitating transfer of a hydride to FAD-N5 (from Glp) as well. Active-site overlays with the glycine oxidase-N-acetylglycine and d-amino acid oxidase-d-alanine complexes demonstrate that Arg346 of GlpO{Delta} is structurally equivalent to Arg302 and Arg285, respectively; in both cases, these residues interact directly with the amino acid substrate or inhibitor carboxylate. The structural and functional divergence between GlpO and the bacterial and mitochondrial GlpDs is also discussed.

  3. Levels of alpha-HCH, lindane, and enantiomeric ratios of alpha-HCH in marine mammals from the northern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Hummert, K; Vetter, W; Luckas, B

    1995-09-01

    The enantiomeric ratios of alpha-HCH were determined by chiral gas chromatography in blubber of marine mammals from regions of the northern hemisphere (North Sea, Baltic Sea, Arctic and Iceland). Cetaceans (harbour porpoises and white-beaked dolphins) showed a preferential accumulation of (+)-alpha-HCH. In blubber of harbour seals, grey seals and harp seals (+)-alpha-HCH was also more abundant than (-)-alpha-HCH. Hooded seals formed an exception with a (+/-) enantiomeric ratio of alpha-HCH < 1.

  4. A human-mouse chimera of the alpha3alpha4alpha5(IV) collagen protomer rescues the renal phenotype in Col4a3-/- Alport mice.

    PubMed

    Heidet, Laurence; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Jouin, Mélanie; Sich, Mireille; Mattei, Marie-Geneviève; Sado, Yoshikazu; Hudson, Billy G; Hastie, Nicholas; Antignac, Corinne; Gubler, Marie-Claire

    2003-10-01

    Collagen IV is a major structural component of basement membranes. In the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) of the kidney, the alpha3, alpha4, and alpha5(IV) collagen chains form a distinct network that is essential for the long-term stability of the glomerular filtration barrier, and is absent in most patients affected with Alport syndrome, a progressive inherited nephropathy associated with mutation in COL4A3, COL4A4, or COL4A5 genes. To investigate, in vivo, the regulation of the expression, assembly, and function of the alpha3alpha4alpha5(IV) protomer, we have generated a yeast artificial chromosome transgenic line of mice carrying the human COL4A3-COL4A4 locus. Transgenic mice expressed the human alpha3 and alpha4(IV) chains in a tissue-specific manner. In the kidney, when expressed onto a Col4a3(-/-) background, the human alpha3(IV) chain restored the expression of and co-assembled with the mouse alpha4 and alpha5(IV) chains specifically at sites where the human alpha3(IV) was expressed, demonstrating that the expression of all three chains is required for network assembly. The co-assembly of the human and mouse chains into a hybrid network in the GBM restores a functional GBM and rescues the Alport phenotype, providing further evidence that defective assembly of the alpha3-alpha4-alpha5(IV) protomer, caused by mutations in any of the three chains, is the pathogenic mechanism responsible for the disease. This line of mice, humanized for the alpha3(IV) collagen chain, will also provide a valuable model for studying the pathogenesis of Goodpasture syndrome, an autoimmune disease caused by antibodies against this chain.

  5. Efficient synthesis of 1-azadienes derived from alpha-aminoesters. Regioselective preparation of alpha-dehydroamino acids, vinylglycines, and alpha-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Francisco; Vicario, Javier; Aparicio, Domitila

    2006-09-29

    An efficient synthesis of 1-azadienes derived from alpha-aminoesters is achieved through an aza-Wittig reaction of phosphazenes with beta,gamma-unsaturated alpha-ketoesters. Regioselective 1,2-reduction of these functionalized 1-azadienes affords vinylglycine derivatives, while conjugative 1,4-reduction gives alpha-dehydroamino acid compounds. Reduction of both the carbon-carbon and the imine-carbon-nitrogen double bonds leads to the formation of alpha-amino acid derivatives.

  6. Order on Petition for Review -- Hibbing Taconite Company, Petitioner

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. Lyman-alpha imagery of Comet Kohoutek

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Opal, C. B.; Page, T. L.; Meier, R. R.; Prinz, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    Electrographic imagery of Comet Kohoutek in the 1100-1500 A wavelength range was obtained from a sounding rocket on Jan. 8, 1974, and from the Skylab space station on 13 occasions between Nov. 26, 1973 and Feb. 2, 1974. These images are predominantly due to Lyman-alpha (1216 A) emission from the hydrogen coma of the comet. The rocket pictures have been calibrated for absolute sensitivity and a hydrogen production rate has been determined. However, the Skylab camera suffered degradation of its sensitivity during the mission, and its absolute sensitivity for each observation can only be estimated by comparison of the comet images with those taken by the rocket camera, with imagery of the geocoronal Lyman-alpha glow, of the moon in reflected Lyman-alpha, and of ultraviolet-bright stars. The rocket and geocoronal comparisons are used to derive a preliminary, qualitative history of the development of the cometary hydrogen coma and the associated hydrogen production rate.

  8. Microdosimetry for targeted alpha therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Guatelli, Susanna; Oborn, Bradley M; Allen, Barry J

    2012-01-01

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) has the advantage of delivering therapeutic doses to individual cancer cells while reducing the dose to normal tissues. TAT applications relate to hematologic malignancies and now extend to solid tumors. Results from several clinical trials have shown efficacy with limited toxicity. However, the dosimetry for the labeled alpha particle is challenging because of the heterogeneous antigen expression among cancer cells and the nature of short-range, high-LET alpha radiation. This paper demonstrates that it is inappropriate to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of TAT by macrodosimetry. The objective of this work is to review the microdosimetry of TAT as a function of the cell geometry, source-target configuration, cell sensitivity, and biological factors. A detailed knowledge of each of these parameters is required for accurate microdosimetric calculations.

  9. The Story of Alpha - In Three Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautecoeur, Jean-Paul

    2001-09-01

    The article presents a retrospective history of the ALPHA series of publications. This action-research project (later called "cooperative research") on literacy and basic education is divided into three periods of seven years each. The first one, "Construction", involved assisting the nascent literacy movement in Québec and Canada by given it a theoretical, critical and ideological basis. In the second period, "Ruptures", the project distanced itself somewhat from the literacy movement, whose success, according to the author, was dubious. During the same period ALPHA systematised its critical function and internationalised its field of research. The third phase, "Wanderings", involved a different research paradigm, in which the project explored basic education at community level in connection with local development initiatives. This biographical/autobiographical account ends with the last publication ALPHA 2000, evincing an ecological vision for alternative education and sustainable communities, partly documented in the Arab countries.

  10. The status of alpha-particle diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.; Johnson, D.W.

    1992-08-01

    There is a flurry of activity to complete alpha-particle diagnostics so that they can undergo some experimental testing in DT plasmas on JET or TFTR prior to implementation on ITER. Successful measurements of escaping charged fusion products have been made in DD plasmas, and the {alpha}-particle source can be well characterized by neutron profile measurement. These methods can be extrapolated to DT plasmas. Measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles requires a new technique. Collective Thomson scattering, methods involving charge-exchange interactions and nuclear reactions with impurities will be discussed. Some assessment is given of the capabilities of these techniques, bearing in mind the potential for their use in the physics phase of the ITER program.

  11. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; McAtee, James L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, whcih is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  12. Microdosimetry for Targeted Alpha Therapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Guatelli, Susanna; Oborn, Bradley M.; Allen, Barry J.

    2012-01-01

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) has the advantage of delivering therapeutic doses to individual cancer cells while reducing the dose to normal tissues. TAT applications relate to hematologic malignancies and now extend to solid tumors. Results from several clinical trials have shown efficacy with limited toxicity. However, the dosimetry for the labeled alpha particle is challenging because of the heterogeneous antigen expression among cancer cells and the nature of short-range, high-LET alpha radiation. This paper demonstrates that it is inappropriate to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of TAT by macrodosimetry. The objective of this work is to review the microdosimetry of TAT as a function of the cell geometry, source-target configuration, cell sensitivity, and biological factors. A detailed knowledge of each of these parameters is required for accurate microdosimetric calculations. PMID:22988479

  13. Iron modulates the alpha chain of fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Jacobsen, Wayne K

    2016-04-01

    Iron-bound fibrinogen has been noted to accelerate plasmatic coagulation in patients with divergent conditions involving upregulation of heme oxygenase activity, including hemodialysis, Alzheimer's disease, sickle cell anemia, and chronic migraine. Our goal was to determine if a site of iron-fibrinogen interaction was on the alpha chain. Using thrombelastography, we compared the coagulation kinetic profiles of plasma exposed to 0-10 µM ferric chloride after activation of coagulation with thrombin generated by contact activation of plasma with the plastic sample cup or by exposure to 1 µg/ml of Calloselasma rhodostoma venom (rich in ancrod activity), which causes coagulation via polymerization of alpha chain monomers. Venom mediated coagulation always occurred before thrombin activated thrombus formation, and ferric chloride always diminished the time of onset of coagulation and increased the velocity of clot growth. Iron enhances plasmatic coagulation kinetics by modulating the alpha chain of fibrinogen.

  14. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOEpatents

    Grisham, Larry R.; Post Jr., Douglass E.; Dawson, John M.

    1986-06-03

    Measurement of the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a magnetically contained plasma is provided. The fusion plasma is seeded with energetic boron neutrals for producing, by means of the reaction .sup.10 B (.alpha.,n) .sup.13 N reaction, radioactive nitrogen nuclei which are then collected by a probe. The radioactivity of the probe is then measured by conventional techniques in determining the energy distribution of the alpha particles in the plasma. In a preferred embodiment, diborane gas (B.sub.2 H.sub.6) is the source of the boron neutrals to produce .sup.13 N which decays almost exclusively by positron emission with a convenient half-life of 10 minutes.

  15. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOEpatents

    Grisham, Larry R.; Post, Jr., Douglass E.; Dawson, John M.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a magnetically contained plasma is provided. The fusion plasma is seeded with energetic boron neutrals for producing, by means of the reaction .sup.10 B (.alpha.,n) .sup.13 N reaction, radioactive nitrogen nuclei which are then collected by a probe. The radioactivity of the probe is then measured by conventional techniques in determining the energy distribution of the alpha particles in the plasma. In a preferred embodiment, diborane gas (B.sub.2 H.sub.6) is the source of the boron neutrals to produce .sup.13 N which decays almost exclusively by positron emission with a convenient half-life of 10 minutes.

  16. Coefficient alpha and interculture test selection.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Steven; Kishi, Yasuhiro

    2014-04-01

    The internal consistency reliability of a measure can be a focal point in an evaluation of the potential adequacy of an instrument for adaptation to another cultural setting. Cronbach's alpha (α) coefficient is often used as the statistical index for such a determination. However, alpha presumes a tau-equivalent test and may constitute an inaccurate population estimate for multidimensional tests. These notions are expanded and examined with a Japanese version of a questionnaire on nursing attitudes toward suicidal patients, originally constructed in Sweden using the English language. The English measure was reported to have acceptable internal consistency (α) albeit the dimensionality of the questionnaire was not addressed. The Japanese scale was found to lack tau-equivalence. An alternative to alpha, "composite reliability," was computed and found to be below acceptable standards in magnitude and precision. Implications for research application of the Japanese instrument are discussed.

  17. Synthesis of peptide .alpha.-thioesters

    DOEpatents

    Camarero, Julio A.; Mitchell, Alexander R.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2008-08-19

    Disclosed herein is a new method for the solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of C-terminal peptide .alpha. thioesters using Fmoc/t-Bu chemistry. This method is based on the use of an aryl hydrazine linker, which is totally stable to conditions required for Fmoc-SPPS. When the peptide synthesis has been completed, activation of the linker is achieved by mild oxidation. The oxidation step converts the acyl-hydrazine group into a highly reactive acyl-diazene intermediate which reacts with an .alpha.-amino acid alkylthioester (H-AA-SR) to yield the corresponding peptide .alpha.-thioester in good yield. A variety of peptide thioesters, cyclic peptides and a fully functional Src homology 3 (SH3) protein domain have been successfully prepared.

  18. Alpha-decay of light protactinium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Faestermann, T.; Gillitzer, A.; Hartel, K.; Henning, W.; Kienle, P.

    1987-12-10

    Light protactinium isotopes have been produced with /sup 204/Pb (/sup 19/F,xn) reactions. ..cap alpha..-activities with E/sub ..cap alpha../ = 9.90(5) MeV, T/sub 1/2/ = 53(10) ns and E/sub ..cap alpha../ = 9.65(5) MeV, T/sub 1/2/ = 0.78(16) ..mu..s could be attributed to the previously unobserved nuclei /sup 219/Pa and /sup 220/Pa with the help of excitation functions. The peak cross sections for the 4n and 3n evaporation channels are on the order of 10 ..mu..b. The decay energies as well as the halflives fit well into the systematics of these nuclei close to the magic neutron number N = 126. /sup 219/Pa is the shortest lived nuclide known with directly measured halflife.

  19. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1993-02-16

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, which is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  20. [ALPHA-ACTININS AND SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS].

    PubMed

    Panyushev, N V; Tentler, D G

    2015-01-01

    Involvement of actin cytoskeleton proteins in signal transduction from cell surface to the nucleus, including regulation of transcription factors activity, has now been supported by a lot of experimental data. Here-with, cytoskeletal proteins may have different functions than ones they execute in the cytoplasm. Particularly, alpha-actinin 4 stabilizing actin microfilaments in the cytoplasm can translocate to the nucleus and change the activity of several transcription factors. Despite the lack of nuclear import signal and DNA binding domain, alpha-actinin 4 can bind to promoter sequences, and co-activate NF-κB-dependent transcription. Selective regulation of NF-κB gene targets may indicate involvement of alpha-actinin 4 in determining the specificity of cell response to NF-κB activation in cells of different types.

  1. Solution structure of {alpha}-conotoxin PIA, a novel antagonist of {alpha}6 subunit containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Seung-Wook; Lee, Si-Hyung; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Jae-Sung; Olivera, Baldomero M.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Han, Kyou-Hoon . E-mail: khhan600@kribb.re.kr

    2005-12-30

    {alpha}-Conotoxin PIA is a novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist isolated from Conus purpurascens that targets nAChR subtypes containing {alpha}6 and {alpha}3 subunits. {alpha}-conotoxin PIA displays 75-fold higher affinity for rat {alpha}6/{alpha}3{beta}2{beta}3 nAChRs than for rat {alpha}3{beta}2 nAChRs. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of {alpha}-conotoxin PIA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The {alpha}-conotoxin PIA has an '{omega}-shaped' overall topology as other {alpha}4/7 subfamily conotoxins. Yet, unlike other neuronally targeted {alpha}4/7-conotoxins, its N-terminal tail Arg{sup 1}-Asp{sup 2}-Pro{sup 3} protrudes out of its main molecular body because Asp{sup 2}-Pro{sup 3}-Cys{sup 4}-Cys{sup 5} forms a stable type I {beta}-turn. In addition, a kink introduced by Pro{sup 15} in the second loop of this toxin provides a distinct steric and electrostatic environment from those in {alpha}-conotoxins MII and GIC. By comparing the structure of {alpha}-conotoxin PIA with other functionally related {alpha}-conotoxins we suggest structural features in {alpha}-conotoxin PIA that may be associated with its unique receptor recognition profile.

  2. Human eosinophils can express the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, J J; Matossian, K; Resnick, M B; Beil, W J; Wong, D T; Gordon, J R; Dvorak, A M; Weller, P F; Galli, S J

    1993-01-01

    By in situ hybridization, 44-100% of the blood eosinophils from five patients with hypereosinophilia and four normal subjects exhibited intense hybridization signals for TNF-alpha mRNA. TNF-alpha protein was detectable by immunohistochemistry in blood eosinophils of hypereosinophilic subjects, and purified blood eosinophils from three atopic donors exhibited cycloheximide-inhibitable spontaneous release of TNF-alpha in vitro. Many blood eosinophils (39-91%) from hypereosinophilic donors exhibited intense labeling for macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) mRNA, whereas eosinophils of normal donors demonstrated only weak or undetectable hybridization signals for MIP-1 alpha mRNA. Most tissue eosinophils infiltrating nasal polyps were strongly positive for both TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha mRNA. By Northern blot analysis, highly enriched blood eosinophils from a patient with the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome exhibited differential expression of TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha mRNA. These findings indicate that human eosinophils represent a potential source of TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha, that levels of expression of mRNA for both cytokines are high in the blood eosinophils of hypereosinophilic donors and in eosinophils infiltrating nasal polyps, that the eosinophils of normal subjects express higher levels of TNF-alpha than MIP-1 alpha mRNA, and that eosinophils purified from the blood of atopic donors can release TNF-alpha in vitro. Images PMID:8514874

  3. Alpha-adaptin, a marker for endocytosis, is expressed in complex patterns during Drosophila development.

    PubMed Central

    Dornan, S; Jackson, A P; Gay, N J

    1997-01-01

    A Drosophila cDNA encoding a structural homologue of the mammalian coated vesicle component alpha-adaptin (AP2 adaptor complex) has been cloned and sequenced. The mammalian and invertebrate sequences are highly conserved, especially within the amino terminal region, a domain that mediates interactions with other components within the AP2 complex and with specific receptors tails. Mammalian alpha-adaptins are encoded by two genes; however, Drosophila alpha-adaptin has a single gene locus, within polytene bands 21C2-C3 on the left arm of the chromosome 2, closely adjacent to the paired homeobox gene aristaless. There seem to be at least two Drosophila alpha-adaptin transcripts expressed, plausibly by alternative splicing. One of the transcripts is more abundant during early embryogenesis and may be of maternal origin. We have studied the distribution of the alpha-adaptin protein throughout embryogenesis and at the neuromuscular junction of the third instar larva. During cellularization of the blastoderm embryo, the protein is seen between and ahead of the elongating nuclei, and then redistributes to the cell surface during gastrulation. These observations suggest a role for endocytosis in cellularization and are consistent with the finding that dynamin (the shibire gene product), another component of the endocytic mechanism, is required for cellularization. At later stages of embryogenesis, alpha-adaptin is expressed in complex and dynamic patterns. It is strongly induced in elements of the central and peripheral nervous system (e.g., in neuroblasts, the presumptive stomatogastric nervous system, and the lateral chordotonal sense organs), in the Garland cells, the adult midgut precursors, the antenno-maxillary complex, the endoderm, the fat bodies, and the visceral mesoderm. In the larva, alpha-adaptin is localized at the plasma membrane in the synaptic boutons of the neuromuscular junctions. The cells expressing high levels of alpha-adaptin are known or expected to

  4. Development of Flight Slit-Jaw Optics for Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubo, Masahito; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Hara, Hirohisa; Narukage, Noriyuki; Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Kobiki, Toshihiko; Tsuneta, Saku; Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy; Takeyama, Norihide; Kanai, Yoshikazu; Sakakibara, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    In sounding rocket experiment CLASP, I have placed a slit a mirror-finished around the focal point of the telescope. The light reflected by the mirror surface surrounding the slit is then imaged in Slit-jaw optical system, to obtain the a-ray Lyman secondary image. This image, not only to use the real-time image in rocket flight rocket oriented direction selection, and also used as a scientific data showing the spatial structure of the Lyman alpha emission line intensity distribution and solar chromosphere around the observation area of the polarimetric spectroscope. Slit-jaw optical system is a two off-axis mirror unit part including a parabolic mirror and folding mirror, Lyman alpha transmission filter, the optical system magnification 1x consisting camera. The camera is supplied from the United States, and the other was carried out fabrication and testing in all the Japanese side. Slit-jaw optical system, it is difficult to access the structure, it is necessary to install the low place clearance. Therefore, influence the optical performance, the fine adjustment is necessary optical elements are collectively in the form of the mirror unit. On the other hand, due to the alignment of the solar sensor in the US launch site, must be removed once the Lyman alpha transmission filter holder including a filter has a different part from the mirror unit. In order to make the structure simple, stray light measures Aru to concentrate around Lyman alpha transmission filter. To overcome the difficulties of performing optical alignment in Lyman alpha wavelength absorbed by the atmosphere, it was planned 'following four steps in order to reduce standing time alignment me. 1. is measured in advance refractive index at Lyman alpha wavelength of Lyman alpha transmission filter (121.567nm), to prepare a visible light Firuwo having the same optical path length in the visible light (630nm).2. The mirror structure CLASP before mounting unit standing, dummy slit and camera standing

  5. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Hu, Zhicheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

  6. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  7. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Zocher, Roy W.

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element and a method of manufacturing the element. The fuel element is comprised of a metal primary container and a fuel pellet which is located inside it and which is often fragmented. The primary container is subjected to elevated pressure and temperature to deform the container such that the container conforms to the fuel pellet, that is, such that the container is in substantial contact with the surface of the pellet. This conformance eliminates clearances which permit rubbing together of fuel pellet fragments and rubbing of fuel pellet fragments against the container, thus reducing the amount of dust inside the fuel container and the amount of dust which may escape in the event of container breach. Also, as a result of the inventive method, fuel pellet fragments tend to adhere to one another to form a coherent non-fragmented mass; this reduces the tendency of a fragment to pierce the container in the event of impact.

  8. X-rays from Alpha Centauri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, J.; Garmire, G.

    1978-01-01

    HEAO 1 observations of soft X-ray emission from a point source in the vicinity of Alpha Cen are reported. The source, designated H1437-61, is tentatively identified with Alpha Cen, and an X-ray luminosity comparable to that of the sun in an active state is estimated. A temperature of about 500,000 K and an emission integral of 5 x 10 to the 50th per cu cm are obtained. Coronal emission is suggested as the X-ray-producing mechanism.

  9. Lunar surface outgassing and alpha particle measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, S. L.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, David J. ,; Moore, K. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Belian, Richard D.; Binder, Alan B.

    2002-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer (LP APS) searched for lunar surface gas release events and mapped their distribution by detecting alpha particle?; produced by the decay of gaseous radon-222 (5.5 MeV, 3.8 day half-life), solid polonium-2 18 (6.0 MeV, 3 minute half-life), and solid polonium-210 (5.3 MeV, 138 day half-life, but held up in production by the 21 year half-life of lead-210). These three nuclides are radioactive daughters from the decay of uranium-238.

  10. Defined solid angle alpha counting at NPL.

    PubMed

    Arinc, Arzu; Parfitt, Michael J; Keightley, John D; Wilson, Alan

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the design of and first measurements with the new defined solid angle (DSA) alpha counter at the National Physical Laboratory, UK, with the aim of enabling high-precision radionuclide standardisations for alpha-emitting radionuclides and half-life measurements. The counter may be employed at three source-detector distances in order to monitor the measured activities with calculated geometrical efficiencies. Initial results are promising but further work is required to reduce the dominant uncertainty associated with the source activity distribution.

  11. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-05-10

    A fan-less long range alpha detector is disclosed which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces. 2 figures.

  12. Alpha particles in effective field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Caniu, C.

    2014-11-11

    Using an effective field theory for alpha (α) particles at non-relativistic energies, we calculate the strong scattering amplitude modified by Coulomb corrections for a system of two αs. For the strong interaction, we consider a momentum-dependent interaction which, in contrast to an energy dependent interaction alone [1], could be more useful in extending the theory to systems with more than two α particles. We will present preliminary results of our EFT calculations for systems with two alpha particles.

  13. Monitoring airborne alpha-emitter contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, P.L.; Koster, J.E.; Conaway, J.G.; Bounds, J.A.; Whitley, C.W.; Steadman, P.A.

    1998-02-01

    Facilities that may produce airborne alpha emitter contamination require a continuous air monitoring (CAM) system. However, these traditional CAMs have difficulty in environments with large quantities of non-radioactive particulates such as dust and salt. Los Alamos has developed an airborne plutonium sensor (APS) for the REBOUND experiment at the Nevada Test Site which detects alpha contamination directly in the air, and so is less vulnerable to the problems associated with counting activity on a filter. In addition, radon compensation is built into the detector by the use of two measurement chambers.

  14. HETDEX: Diffuse Lyman-Alpha Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, Sarah E.; Finkelstein, S.; Gebhardt, K.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The intermediate redshift universe probed by HETDEX, 1.8 < z < 3.0, holds a great deal of information about star formation and the evolution of galaxies. Although simulations reveal a regime active with gas accretion and feeding of galaxies via filaments, observational evidence for this accretion from the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) at any redshift has been very limited. Here we use data from VIRUS-P across several well-characterized fields to put limits on diffuse emission of Lyman-Alpha at the outskirts of galaxies. This work is done in preparation for a similar program with the full HETDEX sample of Lyman-Alpha Emitters (LAEs).

  15. Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Alpha Spectra Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Orellana, Carlos J.; Rubio-Montero, Pilar; González-Velasco, Horacio

    2005-01-01

    We present a performance study of alpha-particle spectra fitting using parallel Genetic Algorithm (GA). The method uses a two-step approach. In the first step we run parallel GA to find an initial solution for the second step, in which we use Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for a precise final fit. GA is a high resources-demanding method, so we use a Beowulf cluster for parallel simulation. The relationship between simulation time (and parallel efficiency) and processors number is studied using several alpha spectra, with the aim of obtaining a method to estimate the optimal processors number that must be used in a simulation.

  16. Opposite effects of the acute promyelocytic leukemia PML-retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) and PLZF-RAR alpha fusion proteins on retinoic acid signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Ruthardt, M; Testa, U; Nervi, C; Ferrucci, P F; Grignani, F; Puccetti, E; Grignani, F; Peschle, C; Pelicci, P G

    1997-01-01

    Fusion proteins involving the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) and the PML or PLZF nuclear protein are the genetic markers of acute promyelocytic leukemias (APLs). APLs with the PML-RAR alpha or the PLZF-RAR alpha fusion protein are phenotypically indistinguishable except that they differ in their sensitivity to retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation: PML-RAR alpha blasts are sensitive to RA and patients enter disease remission after RA treatment, while patients with PLZF-RAR alpha do not. We here report that (i) like PML-RAR alpha expression, PLZF-RAR alpha expression blocks terminal differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cell lines (U937 and HL-60) in response to different stimuli (vitamin D3, transforming growth factor beta1, and dimethyl sulfoxide); (ii) PML-RAR alpha, but not PLZF-RAR alpha, increases RA sensitivity of hematopoietic precursor cells and restores RA sensitivity of RA-resistant hematopoietic cells; (iii) PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha have similar RA binding affinities; and (iv) PML-RAR alpha enhances the RA response of RA target genes (those for RAR beta, RAR gamma, and transglutaminase type II [TGase]) in vivo, while PLZF-RAR alpha expression has either no effect (RAR beta) or an inhibitory activity (RAR gamma and type II TGase). These data demonstrate that PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha have similar (inhibitory) effects on RA-independent differentiation and opposite (stimulatory or inhibitory) effects on RA-dependent differentiation and that they behave in vivo as RA-dependent enhancers or inhibitors of RA-responsive genes, respectively. Their different activities on the RA signalling pathway might underlie the different responses of PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha APLs to RA treatment. The PLZF-RAR alpha fusion protein contains an approximately 120-amino-acid N-terminal motif (called the POZ domain), which is also found in a variety of zinc finger proteins and a group of poxvirus proteins and which mediates protein

  17. Intelligent Elements for ISHM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of architecture models for implementing Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) capabilities. For example, approaches based on the OSA-CBM and OSA-EAI models, or specific architectures developed in response to local needs. NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has developed one such version of an extensible architecture in support of rocket engine testing that integrates a palette of functions in order to achieve an ISHM capability. Among the functional capabilities that are supported by the framework are: prognostic models, anomaly detection, a data base of supporting health information, root cause analysis, intelligent elements, and integrated awareness. This paper focuses on the role that intelligent elements can play in ISHM architectures. We define an intelligent element as a smart element with sufficient computing capacity to support anomaly detection or other algorithms in support of ISHM functions. A smart element has the capabilities of supporting networked implementations of IEEE 1451.x smart sensor and actuator protocols. The ISHM group at SSC has been actively developing intelligent elements in conjunction with several partners at other Centers, universities, and companies as part of our ISHM approach for better supporting rocket engine testing. We have developed several implementations. Among the key features for these intelligent sensors is support for IEEE 1451.1 and incorporation of a suite of algorithms for determination of sensor health. Regardless of the potential advantages that can be achieved using intelligent sensors, existing large-scale systems are still based on conventional sensors and data acquisition systems. In order to bring the benefits of intelligent sensors to these environments, we have also developed virtual implementations of intelligent sensors.

  18. Technetium, the missing element.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, F A; Pauwels, E K

    1996-03-01

    The history of the discovery of technetium is reviewed within the framework of the discovery and production of artificial radioactivity in the twentieth century. Important elements of this history are the accidental production of this element in a cyclotron in Berkeley, California, USA, a machine devised by Ernest Orlando Lawrence, and its subsequent discovery in 1937 by Carlo Perrier and Emilio Segrè in scrap metal parts sent by Lawrence to Palermo, Italy by mail. A detailed account is given of the steps taken; the history of the later discovery of the technetium-99m isotope in 1938 is likewise examined. Sources of natural and artificial technetium are briefly discussed.

  19. FUEL ELEMENT CONSTRUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Simnad, M.T.

    1961-08-15

    A method of preventing diffusible and volatile fission products from diffusing through a fuel element container and contaminating reactor coolant is described. More specifically, relatively volatile and diffusible fission products either are adsorbed by or react with magnesium fluoride or difluoride to form stable, less volatile, less diffusible forms. The magnesium fluoride or difluoride is disposed anywhere inwardly from the outer surface of the fuel element container in order to be contacted by the fission products before they reach and contaminate the reactor coolant. (AEC)

  20. Experiments on Synthesis of the Heaviest Element at RIKEN

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, K.; Morimoto, K.; Kaji, D.; Haba, H.; Kanumgo, R.; Katori, K.; Kikunaga, H.; Ohnishi, T.; Suda, T.; Yoneda, A.; Yoshida, A.; Akiyama, T.; Goto, S.; Ideguchi, E.; Koura, H.; Kudo, H.; Ozawa, A.; Sueki, K.; Sato, N.; Tokanai, F.

    2007-02-26

    At the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) a series of experiments studying the productions and their decays of the heaviest elements have been performed by using a gas-filled recoil ion separator GARIS. Results on the isotope of the 112th element, 277112, and on that of the 113th element, 278113, are reviewed. Tow decay chains which are assigned to be ones originating from the isotope 277112 were observed in the 208Pb(70Zn, n) reaction. Both chains consisted of four consecutive alpha decays followed by a spontaneous fission. The results provide a confirmation of the production and decay of the isotope 277112 reported by a research group at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany, produced via the same reaction by using a velocity filter. Tow decay chains, both consisted of four consecutive alpha decays followed by a spontaneous fission, were observed also in the reaction 209Bi(70Zn, n). Those are assigned to be the convincing candidate events of the decays of the isotope of the 113th element, 278113, and its daughter nuclei, 274Rg, 270Mt, 266Bh, and 262Db.