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Sample records for eletronico para maxima

  1. MAXIMA: Observations of CMB anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabii, Bahman

    This document describes the Millimeter Anisotropy eXperiment IMaging Array (MAXIMA), a balloon-borne experiment measuring the temperature anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) on angular scales of 10 ' to 5°. MAXIMA data are used to discriminate between cosmological models and to determine cosmological parameters. MAXIMA maps the CMB using 16 bolometric detectors observing in spectral bands centered at 150 GHz, 230 GHz, and 410 GHz, with 10 ' resolution at all frequencies. The combined receiver sensitivity to CMB anisotropy is ˜40 μK sec , the best reported by any CMB experiment. Systematic errors are rejected by using four uncorrelated spatial modulations, multiple independent CMB observations, heavily baffled optics, and strong spectral discrimination. Observation patterns are well cross-linked and optimized for the extraction of cosmological information. Pointing is reconstructed to an accuracy of 1'. Absolute calibration uncertainty of 3 4% is the best achieved by any sub-orbital CMB experiment. Two MAXIMA flights were launched from the National Scientific Balloon Facility in Palestine Texas in 1998 and 1999. During a total of 8.5 hours of CMB observations, 300 deg2 of the sky were mapped, with ˜50 deg2 overlap between the two flights. The observed region was selected for low foreground emission and post-flight data analysis confirms that foreground contamination is negligible. Cosmological results are presented from the 1998 flight, MAXIMA-I , in which 122 deg2 of sky were mapped over 3 hours. A maximum likelihood map with 3' pixelization is obtained from the three most sensitive and best tested detectors. The angular power spectrum derived from this map shows a narrow peak near ℓ = 200, and is consistent with inflationary Big Bang models. Within these models, cosmological parameters are estimated, including total density Ωtot = 0.9+0.18-0.16 , baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.033 ± 0.013, and power spectrum normalization C

  2. Scaling exponents for ordered maxima

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Lemons, N. W.

    2015-12-22

    We study extreme value statistics of multiple sequences of random variables. For each sequence with N variables, independently drawn from the same distribution, the running maximum is defined as the largest variable to date. We compare the running maxima of m independent sequences and investigate the probability SN that the maxima are perfectly ordered, that is, the running maximum of the first sequence is always larger than that of the second sequence, which is always larger than the running maximum of the third sequence, and so on. The probability SN is universal: it does not depend on the distribution from which the random variables are drawn. For two sequences, SN~N–1/2, and in general, the decay is algebraic, SN~N–σm, for large N. We analytically obtain the exponent σ3≅1.302931 as root of a transcendental equation. Moreover, the exponents σm grow with m, and we show that σm~m for large m.

  3. Scaling exponents for ordered maxima

    DOE PAGES

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Lemons, N. W.

    2015-12-22

    We study extreme value statistics of multiple sequences of random variables. For each sequence with N variables, independently drawn from the same distribution, the running maximum is defined as the largest variable to date. We compare the running maxima of m independent sequences and investigate the probability SN that the maxima are perfectly ordered, that is, the running maximum of the first sequence is always larger than that of the second sequence, which is always larger than the running maximum of the third sequence, and so on. The probability SN is universal: it does not depend on the distribution frommore » which the random variables are drawn. For two sequences, SN~N–1/2, and in general, the decay is algebraic, SN~N–σm, for large N. We analytically obtain the exponent σ3≅1.302931 as root of a transcendental equation. Moreover, the exponents σm grow with m, and we show that σm~m for large m.« less

  4. Using Maxima in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedriani, Eugenio M.; Moyano, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Coming from the Macsyma system and adapted to the Common Lisp standard, Maxima can be regarded as a tool for a frequent use in the mathematics classroom. The main aim of this work is to show some possibilities of Maxima and its graphical interface through our experience as Mathematics teachers in Business degrees, although it can be easily spread…

  5. Multiple thermal maxima during the Holocene

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.

    1984-08-10

    The astronomical theory of climatic change provides an alternative to the traditional chronology for Holocene climatic change, which calls for one thermal maximum about 6000 years ago. The theory predicts a series of maxima during the Holocene, one for each season. Because the relation of the perihelion to the spring equinox changes with a 22,000-year period, late summer insolation would have been greatest 5000 years ago, whereas early summer insolation would have been greatest 13,000 years ago. Climatic reconstructions based on the response of ecosystems to late summer climate indicate a later Holocene thermal maximum than paleoclimatic data sensitive to early summer climate. In southern Idaho, three different vegetation types indicate thermal maxima at different times during the Holocene, depending on the climatic variable controlling each type. 28 references, 2 figures.

  6. Characterization of the Eimeria maxima sporozoite surface protein IMP1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to characterize Eimeria maxima immunoprotective protein IMP1 that is hypothesized to play a role in eliciting protective immunity against E. maxima infection in chickens. RT-PCR analysis of RNA from unsporulated and sporulating E. maxima oocysts revealed highest transc...

  7. Maxima and O-C Diagrams for 489 Mira Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, T.

    2013-11-01

    Maxima for 489 Mira stars have been compiled. They were computed with data from AAVSO, AFOEV, VSOLJ, and BAA-VSS and collected from published maxima. The result is presented in a mysql database and on web pages with O-C diagrams, periods and some statistical information for each star.

  8. Characterization of the Eimeria maxima sporozoite surface protein IMP1.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, M C; Fetterer, R; Miska, K; Tuo, W; Kwok, O; Dubey, J P

    2015-07-30

    The purpose of this study was to characterize Eimeria maxima immune-mapped protein 1 (IMP1) that is hypothesized to play a role in eliciting protective immunity against E. maxima infection in chickens. RT-PCR analysis of RNA from unsporulated and sporulating E. maxima oocysts revealed highest transcription levels at 6-12h of sporulation with a considerable downregulation thereafter. Alignment of IMP1 coding sequence from Houghton, Weybridge, and APU-1 strains of E. maxima revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms that in some instances led to amino acid changes in the encoded protein sequence. The E. maxima (APU-1) IMP1 cDNA sequence was cloned and expressed in 2 different polyHis Escherichia coli expression vectors. Regardless of expression vector, recombinant E. maxima IMP1 (rEmaxIMP1) was fairly unstable in non-denaturing buffer, which is consistent with stability analysis of the primary amino acid sequence. Antisera specific for rEmaxIMP1 identified a single 72 kDa protein or a 61 kDa protein by non-reducing or reducing SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting. Immunofluorescence staining with anti-rEmaxIMP1, revealed intense surface staining of E. maxima sporozoites, with negligible staining of merozoite stages. Immuno-histochemical staining of E. maxima-infected chicken intestinal tissue revealed staining of E. maxima developmental stages in the lamnia propia and crypts at both 24 and 48 h post-infection, and negligible staining thereafter. The expression of IMP1 during early stages of in vivo development and its location on the sporozoite surface may explain in part the immunoprotective effect of this protein against E. maxima infection.

  9. Subchronic toxicity study in mice fed Spirulina maxima.

    PubMed

    Salazar, M; Martínez, E; Madrigal, E; Ruiz, L E; Chamorro, G A

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Spirulina maxima, a blue-green alga used as food supplement and food coloring, after 13 weeks of treatment. Groups of ten mice of each sex were given S. maxima in the diet at concentrations of 0 (control), 10, 20 or 30% (w/w) for 13 weeks. The alga ingestion had no effect on behavior, food and water intake, growth or survival. Terminal values in hematology and clinical chemistry did not reveal differences between treated and control groups. However, male and female mice showed significant changes in serum cholesterol levels at 20 and 30% algal concentrations, but a toxic effect of S. maxima was excluded. Post-mortem examination revealed no differences in gross or microscopic findings. Our results show that S. maxima up to high feeding levels did not produce adverse effects in mice after subchronic treatment.

  10. Giant planet formation at the pressure maxima of protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilera, O. M.; Sándor, Zs.

    2017-07-01

    Context. In the classical core-accretion planet-formation scenario, rapid inward migration and accretion timescales of kilometer size planetesimals may not favor the formation of massive cores of giant planets before the dissipation of protoplanetary disks. On the other hand, the existence of pressure maxima in the disk could act as migration traps and locations for solid material accumulation, favoring the formation of massive cores. Aims: We aim to study the radial drift of pebbles and planetesimals and planet migration at pressure maxima in a protoplanetary disk and their implications for the formation of massive cores as triggering a gaseous runaway accretion phase. Methods: The time evolution of a viscosity driven accretion disk is solved numerically introducing a a dead zone as a low-viscosity region in the protoplanetary disk. A population of pebbles and planetesimals evolving by radial drift and accretion by the planets is also considered. Finally, the embryos embedded in the disk grow by the simultaneous accretion of pebbles, planetesimals, and the surrounding gas. Results: Our simulations show that the pressure maxima generated at the edges of the low-viscosity region of the disk act as planet migration traps, and that the pebble and planetesimal surface densities are significantly increased due to the radial drift towards pressure maxima locations. However, our simulations also show that migration-trap locations and solid-material-accumulation locations are not exactly at the same positions. Thus, a planet's semi-major axis oscillations around zero torque locations predicted by MHD and HD simulations are needed for the planet to accrete all the available material accumulated at the pressure maxima. Conclusions: Pressure maxima generated at the edges of a low-viscosity region of a protoplanetary disk seem to be preferential locations for the formation and trap of massive cores.

  11. The cosmic microwave background after MAXIMA and BOOMERANG

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Paul L.

    2000-12-01

    The first release of data from the MAXIMA and BOOMERANG experiments has introduced a new era of precision cosmology. The two data sets are essentially independent, consistent and complementary. In a joint effort by the two teams, the two data sets were combined and then used to test cosmological models and determine values of cosmological constants. These results are available because of the success of bolometric detection techniques. The experimental approach is described with references to the MAXIMA-1 experiment. Important new cosmological experiments at far infrared and millimeter wavelengths require major improvements in bolometric techniques. A new technology, the voltage-biased superconducting bolometer, promises to provide the required experimental power.

  12. Temperature maxima in stable two-dimensional shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kum, Oyeon; Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, C. G.

    1997-07-01

    We use molecular dynamics to study the structure of moderately strong shock waves in dense two-dimensional fluids, using Lucy's pair potential. The stationary profiles show relatively broad temperature maxima, for both the longitudinal and the average kinetic temperatures, just as does Mott-Smith's model for strong shock waves in dilute three-dimensional gases.

  13. Scilab and Maxima Environment: Towards Free Software in Numerical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Angel; Galan, Jose Luis; Aguilera, Gabriel; Fernandez, Alvaro; Merida, Enrique; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    In this work we will present the ScilabUMA environment we have developed as an alternative to Matlab. This environment connects Scilab (for numerical analysis) and Maxima (for symbolic computations). Furthermore, the developed interface is, in our opinion at least, as powerful as the interface of Matlab. (Contains 3 figures.)

  14. Scilab and Maxima Environment: Towards Free Software in Numerical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Angel; Galan, Jose Luis; Aguilera, Gabriel; Fernandez, Alvaro; Merida, Enrique; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    In this work we will present the ScilabUMA environment we have developed as an alternative to Matlab. This environment connects Scilab (for numerical analysis) and Maxima (for symbolic computations). Furthermore, the developed interface is, in our opinion at least, as powerful as the interface of Matlab. (Contains 3 figures.)

  15. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-09-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima.

  16. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima makes an ideal substrate for anaerobic digestion because it is easy to harvest, it can use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as its carbon source, and its fermentability is higher than that of other small algae. Digestion experiments demonstrated that S. maxima can serve as the sole nutrient for biogas production and that municipal sewage sludge, when adapted to this new substrate, is very stable. During semicontinuous daily-fed trials under non-optimal conditions at an 0.06 lb volatile solids (VS)/ft/sup 3/ (0.97 kg VS/m/sup 3/) loading rate, 33-day retention time, and 86/sup 0/F (30/sup 0/C) digestion temperature, the daily methane yield was 4.2 CF/lb (0.26 m/sup 3//kg) VS added, which represents 47% of the maximum theoretical yield. Studies on optimizing the process are underway.

  17. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2015-09-08

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima.

  18. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima. PMID:26346098

  19. Histopathology of oedema in pearl oysters Pinctada maxima.

    PubMed

    Jones, J B; Crockford, M; Creeper, J; Stephens, F

    2010-07-26

    In October 2006, severe mortalities (80 to 100%) were reported in pearl oyster Pinctada maxima production farms from Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia. Only P. maxima were affected; other bivalves including black pearl oysters P. margaratifera remained healthy. Initial investigations indicated that the mortality was due to an infectious process, although no disease agent has yet been identified. Gross appearance of affected oysters showed mild oedema, retraction of the mantle, weakness and death. Histology revealed no inflammatory response, but we did observe a subtle lesion involving tissue oedema and oedematous separation of epithelial tissues from underlying stroma. Oedema or a watery appearance is commonly reported in published descriptions of diseased molluscs, yet in many cases the terminology has been poorly characterised. The potential causes of oedema are reviewed; however, the question remains as to what might be the cause of oedema in molluscs that are normally iso-osmotic with seawater and have no power of anisosmotic extracellular osmotic regulation.

  20. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  1. Differences in fecundity of Eimeria maxima strains exhibiting different levels of pathogenicity in its avian host.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Mark C; Dubey, J P; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2017-03-15

    Eimeria maxima is one of the most pathogenic species of avian coccidia, yet it is unknown why different E. maxima strains differ in the pathogenic effects they cause in chickens. The purpose of this study was to determine if a more pathogenic E. maxima strain (APU1) was also more fecund than a less pathogenic E. maxima strain (APU2). At identical doses, E. maxima APU1 always produces greater intestinal lesions and lower weight gain compared to E. maxima APU2. Using a dose response study, median and mean intestinal lesion scores in E. maxima APU1-infected chickens were greater by a score of 1-1.5 compared to chickens infected with E. maxima APU2. Likewise, weight gain depression in E. maxima APU1-infected chickens was 20-25% greater (equivalent to 110-130g body weight) than in E. maxima APU2-infected chickens. In order to understand the underlying cause of these observed clinical effects, 120 broiler chicks (5 oocyst levels, 6 replicates/level) were inoculated with various doses of E. maxima APU1 or APU2 oocysts. The dynamics of oocyst shedding was investigated by collecting fecal material every 12h from 114 to 210h post-inoculation (p.i.) and every 24h thereafter from 210 to 306h, and then processed for measuring E. maxima oocyst output. Oocysts were first observed at 138h p.i., and time of peak oocyst production was nearly identical for both E. maxima APU1 and APU2 around 150-162h. Total oocyst production was 1.1-2.6 fold higher at all dose levels for E. maxima APU1 compared to E. maxima APU2, being significantly higher (P<0.05) at the log 1.5 dose level. Other groups of chickens were infected with higher doses of E. maxima APU1 or APU2 oocysts, and intestinal lesions were assessed by histology at 72, 96, 120, and 144h p.i. Although schizonts, gamonts, and oocysts were observed at expected time-points, no obvious differences were noted in lesions induced by the two E. maxima strains. This study showed that the greater fecundity of E. maxima APU1 compared to E

  2. Iron ions increase the thermostability of phycocyanin of Spirulina maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Hong; Tai, Zi-Hou; Tseng, Chao-Tsi

    1998-03-01

    A spectral method to investigate the effect of Fe3+, Fe2+ on the thermostability of phycocyanin (PC) of Spirulina maxima showed that iron ions provent decrease of visible light absorbance and fluorescence intensity of PC. Increase in denaturation temperature caused by Fe3+ was observed by the micro-differential scanning calorimetric method. All results showed iron ions maintain the aggregation stability of the PC. The absorption spectrum of phycocyanobilin (PCB, a prosthetic group of PC) with Fe3+ in chloroform was quite different from that of free PCB.

  3. Modeling weekly maxima PM10 concentration in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Husna; Mansor, Nadiah

    2014-09-01

    Weekly maxima of daily maximum PM10 concentration measures from the Air Pollutant Index (API) for thirteen monitoring stations in Malaysia are modeled using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. The L-moments method was used to estimate the parameter and the type of GEV distribution was determined from the 95% confidence intervals of shape parameter, ξ. The result from the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) show that Alor Setar and Kemaman were the best stations that converged to the distribution. The return levels of PM10 concentration that is expected to exceed the maximum once within a selected period are obtained for all stations.

  4. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Rejean Samson; Anh LeDuy

    1982-08-01

    Spirulina maxima algal biomass could be used as the sole nutrient for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion process. It is relatively simple to adapt the municipal sewage sludge to this new substrate. The adapted sludge is very stable. Under nonoptimal conditions, the methane yield and productivity obtained were 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day) and 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day), respectively, with the semicontinuous, daily fed, anaerobic digestion having loading rate of 0.97 kg VS/(m/sup 3/ day), retention time of 33 days and temperature of 30/sup 0/C.

  5. Two daily smoke maxima in eighteenth century London air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles

    Varied electrostatics experiments followed Benjamin Franklin's pioneering atmospheric investigations. In Knightsbridge, Central London, John Read (1726-1814) installed a sensing rod in the upper part of his house and, using a pith ball electrometer and Franklin chimes, monitored atmospheric electricity from 1789 to 1791. Atmospheric electricity is sensitive to weather and smoke pollution. In calm weather conditions, Read observed two daily electrification maxima in moderate weather, around 9 am and 7 pm. This is likely to represent a double diurnal cycle in urban smoke. Before the motor car and steam railways, one source of the double maximum smoke pattern was the daily routine of fire lighting for domestic heating.

  6. Short Exon Detection via Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Shen, Zhiwei; Zhang, Guishan; Shen, Yuanyu; Chen, Miaomiao; Zhao, Jiaxiang; Wu, Renhua

    2016-01-01

    The detection of short exons is a challenging open problem in the field of bioinformatics. Due to the fact that the weakness of existing model-independent methods lies in their inability to reliably detect small exons, a model-independent method based on the singularity detection with wavelet transform modulus maxima has been developed for detecting short coding sequences (exons) in eukaryotic DNA sequences. In the analysis of our method, the local maxima can capture and characterize singularities of short exons, which helps to yield significant patterns that are rarely observed with the traditional methods. In order to get some information about singularities on the differences between the exon signal and the background noise, the noise level is estimated by filtering the genomic sequence through a notch filter. Meanwhile, a fast method based on a piecewise cubic Hermite interpolating polynomial is applied to reconstruct the wavelet coefficients for improving the computational efficiency. In addition, the output measure of a paired-numerical representation calculated in both forward and reverse directions is used to incorporate a useful DNA structural property. The performances of our approach and other techniques are evaluated on two benchmark data sets. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms all assessed model-independent methods for detecting short exons in terms of evaluation metrics. PMID:27635656

  7. Insight into the Salivary Transcriptome and Proteome of Dipetalogaster maxima

    PubMed Central

    Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Charneau, Sébastien; Santiago, Paula B. M.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Meng, Zhaojing; Araújo, Carla N.; Pham, Van M.; Queiroz, Rayner M. L.; de Castro, Cleudson Nery; Ricart, Carlos André; Santana, Jaime M.; Ribeiro, José M. C.

    2011-01-01

    Dipetalogaster maximais a blood-sucking Hemiptera that inhabits sylvatic areas in Mexico. It usually takes its blood meal from lizards, but following human population growth, it invaded suburban areas, feeding also on humans and domestic animals. Hematophagous insect salivary glands produce potent pharmacologic compounds that counteract host hemostasis, including anticlotting, antiplatelet, and vasodilatory molecules. To obtain further insight into the salivary biochemical and pharmacologic complexity of this insect, a cDNA library from its salivary glands was randomly sequenced. Salivary proteins were also submitted to one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DE and 2DE) followed by mass spectrometry analysis. We present the analysis of a set of 2728 cDNA sequences, 1375 of which coded for proteins of a putative secretory nature. The saliva 2DE proteome displayed approximately 150 spots. The mass spectrometry analysis revealed mainly lipocalins, pallidipins, antigen 5-like proteins, and apyrases. The redundancy of sequence identification of saliva-secreted proteins suggests that proteins are present in multiple isoforms or derive from gene duplications. Supplemental files can be downloaded from http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_maxima/Dm-S1-web.xls and http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_maxima/Dm-S2-web.xls. PMID:21058630

  8. Can Spirulina maxima reduce the mutagenic potential of sibutramine?

    PubMed

    Araldi, R P; Santos, N P; Mendes, T B; Carvalho, L B; Ito, E T; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Souza, E B

    2015-12-28

    The worldwide obesity pandemic requires the use of anti-obesity drugs. Sibutramine is an anti-obesity drug that has been used worldwide but is indiscriminately consumed in Brazil. Several studies have demonstrated that sibutramine promotes weight loss and weight maintenance, but several side effects have been associated with its systematic consumption. For this reason, sibutramine was withdrawn from the European and American markets, but still remains legal for use in Brazil. Studies have shown that a 5-10% reduction in body weight results in outstanding health benefits for obese patients. However, in order to promote significant weight loss, it is necessary to use sibutramine for at least 2 years. This long-term exposure has carcinogenic potential, as sibutramine causes DNA damage. Thus, this study evaluated the in vivo mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone (5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg) and in association with Spirulina maxima (150 and 300 mg/kg), a cyanobacterium with antioxidant potential, using the polychromatic erythrocyte micronucleus test. Our results reinforced the mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone, which showed a time-dependent action. Combinatory treatments with S. maxima were not able to reduce the genotoxicity of sibutramine. These results were confirmed in vitro with the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus test. In conclusion, our data showed that new alternative anti-obesity treatments are needed since the consumption of sibutramine can increase the risk of cancer in overweight patients.

  9. Three new triterpene esters from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinsuke; Kanazawa, Jokaku; Naoe, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2014-04-16

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2), and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4). Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5-93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  10. A microstructural study of individual nacre tablet of Pinctada maxima.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Nan; Yan, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Rizhi; Yu, Da-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Xiang

    2013-09-01

    Nacre tablets from the shell of Pinctada maxima were studied with SEM, TEM and STEM. The systematic nanolath morphology on the (001) surface of nacre tablets was observed after acidic etching and mechanical polishing. The nanolaths were along the [100] crystallographic orientation of aragonite crystal. The (010) and (100) cross section surfaces of the nacre tablets showed nanolath and nanograin morphologies, respectively, which was consistent with [100] crystallographic orientation of nanolath on the (001) surface. Sheet-like defects with low mass density were observed on the (001) plane inside nacre tablets and were considered to be the cause of nanolath morphology revealed on the surfaces by acidic etching and mechanical polishing. On the other hand, large block [110] twins that divide the nacre tablets into two sectors were identified. The implication of these twins on the understanding to the crystallization mechanism of nacre tablets was discussed.

  11. Maxima of two random walks: Universal statistics of lead changes

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Randon-Furling, J.

    2016-04-18

    In this study, we investigate statistics of lead changes of the maxima of two discrete-time random walks in one dimension. We show that the average number of lead changes grows as ${\\pi }^{-1}\\mathrm{ln}t$ in the long-time limit. We present theoretical and numerical evidence that this asymptotic behavior is universal. Specifically, this behavior is independent of the jump distribution: the same asymptotic underlies standard Brownian motion and symmetric Lévy flights. We also show that the probability to have at most n lead changes behaves as ${t}^{-1/4}{(\\mathrm{ln}t)}^{n}$ for Brownian motion and as ${t}^{-\\beta (\\mu )}{(\\mathrm{ln}t)}^{n}$ for symmetric Lévy flights with index μ. The decay exponent $\\beta \\equiv \\beta (\\mu )$ varies continuously with the Lévy index when $0\\lt \\mu \\lt 2$, and remains constant $\\beta =1/4$ for $\\mu \\gt 2$.

  12. Specific lignin accumulation in granulated juice sacs of Citrus maxima.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Ling; Pan, Teng-Fei; Guo, Zhi-Xiong; Pan, Dong-Ming

    2014-12-17

    Juice sac granulation occurring in pummelo fruits [Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.] is an undesirable trait, and the underlying mechanism remains unresolved. Previous studies have shown that lignin metabolism is closely associated with the process of juice sac granulation. Here, a method suitable for lignin isolation from pummelo tissues is established. Acetylated lignins from different pummelo tissues and cultivars were analyzed by HSQC NMR. The results showed that lignins in granulated juice sacs were characterized by an extremely high abundance of guaiacyl units (91.13-96.82%), in contrast to lignins from other tissues, including leaves, stems, and segment membranes. The abnormally accumulated lignins in granulated juice sacs were specific and mainly polymerized from coniferyl alcohol. No significant difference was found in lignin types among various cultivars. These findings indicated that the mechanism of juice sac granulation might be similar among various cultivars, although very different degrees of juice sac granulation can be observed.

  13. Parameter Space of the Columbia River Estuarine Turbidity Maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, C. L.; Shcherbina, A.; Lopez, J.; Karna, T.; Baptista, A. M.; Crump, B. C.; Sanford, T. B.

    2016-12-01

    We present observations of estuarine turbidity maxima (ETM) in the North Channel of the Columbia River estuary (OR and WA, USA) covering different river discharge and flood tide conditions. Measurements were made using optical backscattering sensors on two REMUS-100 autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) during spring 2012, summer 2013, and fall 2012. Although significant short term variability in AUV measured optical backscatter was observed, some clustering of the data occurs around the estuarine regimes defined by a mixing parameter and a freshwater Froude number (Geyer & MacCready [2014]). Similar clustering is observed in long term time series of turbidity from the SATURN observatory. We will use available measurements and numerical model simulations of suspended sediment to further explore the variability of suspended sediment dynamics within a frame work of estuarine parameter space.

  14. Maxima of two random walks: Universal statistics of lead changes

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Randon-Furling, J.

    2016-04-18

    In this study, we investigate statistics of lead changes of the maxima of two discrete-time random walks in one dimension. We show that the average number of lead changes grows as ${\\pi }^{-1}\\mathrm{ln}t$ in the long-time limit. We present theoretical and numerical evidence that this asymptotic behavior is universal. Specifically, this behavior is independent of the jump distribution: the same asymptotic underlies standard Brownian motion and symmetric Lévy flights. We also show that the probability to have at most n lead changes behaves as ${t}^{-1/4}{(\\mathrm{ln}t)}^{n}$ for Brownian motion and as ${t}^{-\\beta (\\mu )}{(\\mathrm{ln}t)}^{n}$ for symmetric Lévy flights with index μ. The decay exponent $\\beta \\equiv \\beta (\\mu )$ varies continuously with the Lévy index when $0\\lt \\mu \\lt 2$, and remains constant $\\beta =1/4$ for $\\mu \\gt 2$.

  15. Acylated quercetagetin glycosides with antioxidant activity from Tagetes maxima.

    PubMed

    Parejo, Irene; Bastida, Jaume; Viladomat, Francesc; Codina, Carles

    2005-10-01

    The fractionation of a methanolic extract of Tagetes maxima guided for antioxidant activity resulted in the isolation of three acylated quercetagetin glycosides, quercetagetin-7-O-(6-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside), quercetagetin-7-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside) and quercetagetin-7-O-(6-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside), as well as four known flavonoid glycosides. The structural elucidation was accomplished by spectroscopic methods (ESI-MS/MS and NMR). The antioxidant activity of fractions and isolated compounds was determined by checking the scavenging activity against three different radicals: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH*), hydroxyl (*OH), and superoxide (O2*-). The three isolated compounds exhibited a high radical scavenging activity in comparison with reference compounds.

  16. Differences in fecundity of Eimeria maxima strains exhibiting different levels of pathogenicity in its avian host

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to determine the underlying cause of differences in pathogenicity of two Eimeria maxima strains (APU1 and APU2) observed during coccidiosis infection. At identical challenge doses, E. maxima APU1 always produces greater intestinal lesions and lower weight gain compared...

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Minima and maxima of 299 variables (Hubscher+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubscher, J.; Steinbach, H.-M.; Walter, F.

    2009-03-01

    In this 61th compilation of BAV results, photoelectric observations obtained in the year 2008 are presented on 299 variable stars giving 655 minima on eclipsing binaries and maxima on pulsating stars. All moments of minima and maxima are heliocentric. (3 data files).

  18. Critical thermal maxima of two geographic strains of channel and hybrid catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Critical thermal maxima have been used extensively to provide physiologically and ecologically valuable reference points that identify early signs of thermal stress. In catfish pond culture, daily temperature maxima up to 36'C and daily fluctuations of as much as 6'Care observed. These extreme condi...

  19. Cultivation of Spirulina maxima in medium supplemented with sugarcane vinasse.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of sugarcane vinasse as supplement in growth medium of Spirulina maxima was investigated. The cell was cultivated under autotrophic (no vinasse, 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), heterotrophic (no light, culture medium supplemented with vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v) and mixotrophic conditions (70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v). These preliminary results suggested a cyclic two-stage cultivation - CTSC, with autotrophic condition during light phase of the photoperiod (12 h, 70-200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and heterotrophic condition during dark phase (12h, 3.0% v/v vinasse). The adopted CTSC strategy consisted in three cycles with 75% withdrawal of suspension and reposition of medium containing 3.0% v/v vinasse, separated by autotrophic rest periods of few days between cycles. Results show an increase of biomass concentration between 0.495 g L(-1) and 0.609 g L(-1) at the 7th day of each cycle and high protein content (between 74.3% and 77.3% w/w).

  20. Extremal Regions Detection Guided by Maxima of Gradient Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Mehdi; Shanbehzadeh, Jamshid; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas Baltzer

    2015-12-01

    A problem of computer vision applications is to detect regions of interest under different imaging conditions. The state-of-the-art maximally stable extremal regions (MSERs) detects affine covariant regions by applying all possible thresholds on the input image, and through three main steps including: (1) making a component tree of extremal regions' evolution; (2) obtaining region stability criterion; and (3) cleaning up. The MSER performs very well, but, it does not consider any information about the boundaries of the regions, which are important for detecting repeatable extremal regions. We have shown in this paper that employing prior information about boundaries of regions results in a novel region detector algorithm that not only outperforms MSER, but avoids the MSER's rather complicated steps of enumeration and the cleaning up. To employ the information about the region boundaries, we introduce maxima of gradient magnitudes (MGMs) which are shown to be points that are mostly around the boundaries of the regions. Having found the MGMs, the method obtains a global criterion for each level of the input image which is used to find extremum levels (ELs). The found ELs are then used to detect extremal regions. The proposed algorithm which is called extremal regions of extremum levels (EREL) has been tested on the public benchmark data set of Mikolajczyk. The obtained experimental results show that the inclusion of region boundaries through MGMs, results in a detector that detects regions with high repeatability scores and is more robust against noise compared with MSER.

  1. Maxima of two random walks: Universal statistics of lead changes

    DOE PAGES

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Randon-Furling, J.

    2016-04-18

    In this study, we investigate statistics of lead changes of the maxima of two discrete-time random walks in one dimension. We show that the average number of lead changes grows asmore » $${\\pi }^{-1}\\mathrm{ln}t$$ in the long-time limit. We present theoretical and numerical evidence that this asymptotic behavior is universal. Specifically, this behavior is independent of the jump distribution: the same asymptotic underlies standard Brownian motion and symmetric Lévy flights. We also show that the probability to have at most n lead changes behaves as $${t}^{-1/4}{(\\mathrm{ln}t)}^{n}$$ for Brownian motion and as $${t}^{-\\beta (\\mu )}{(\\mathrm{ln}t)}^{n}$$ for symmetric Lévy flights with index μ. The decay exponent $$\\beta \\equiv \\beta (\\mu )$$ varies continuously with the Lévy index when $$0\\lt \\mu \\lt 2$$, and remains constant $$\\beta =1/4$$ for $$\\mu \\gt 2$$.« less

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Acanthastrea maxima (Cnidaria, Scleractinia, Lobophylliidae).

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, Roberto; Vacherie, Benoît; Benzoni, Francesca; Barbe, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the scleractinian coral Acanthastrea maxima has been obtained, representing the first sequenced mitogenome of a member of the Lobophylliidae. The mitochondrial genome is 18,278  bp in length, the longest sequence among the robust corals sequenced mitogenome to date. The overall GC composition (33.7%) and the gene arrangement are similar to those of the other scleractinian corals, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes (rnl and rns) and 2 tRNA genes (tRNA-Met and tRNA-Trp). All genes except tRNA-Trp, atp8, cox1, tRNA-Met and rnl are engulfed by a large group I intron in the nad5 gene. A second group I intron of 1077 bp in length is inserted in the cox1 gene and it encodes a putative homing endonuclease. There are four regions of gene overlaps totalling 22 bp and nine intergenic spacer regions for a total of 2220 bp, of which the cox3-cox2 region may correspond to the putative control region.

  3. Phenoloxidase activity of Helix aspersa maxima (garden snail, gastropod) hemocyanin.

    PubMed

    Raynova, Yuliana; Doumanova, Lyuba; Idakieva, Krassimira Nikolova

    2013-12-01

    The oxygen-transporting protein, hemocyanin (Hc), of the garden snail Helix aspersa maxima (HaH) was isolated and kinetically characterized. Kinetic parameters of the reaction of catalytic oxidation of catechol to quinone, catalyzed by native HaH were determined: the V max value amounted to 22 nmol min(-1) mg(-1), k cat to 1.1 min(-1). Data were compared to those reported for other molluscan Hcs and phenoloxidases (POs). The o-diphenoloxidase activity of the native HaH is about five times higher than the activity determined for the Hcs of the terrestrial snail Helix pomatia and of the marine snail Rapana thomasiana (k cat values of 0.22 and 0.25 min(-1), respectively). The K m values obtained for molluscan Hcs from different species are comparable to those for true POs, but the low catalytic efficiency of Hcs is probably related to inaccessibility of the active sites to potential substrates. Upon treatment of HaH with subtilisin DY, the enzyme activity against substrate catechol was considerably increased. The relatively high proteolytically induced o-diPO activity of HaH allowed using it for preparation of a biosensor for detection of catechol.

  4. Midlatitude land surface temperature impacts the timing and structure of glacial maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Elizabeth K.; Clemens, Steven C.; Sun, Youbin; Huang, Yongsong; Prell, Warren; Chen, Guangshan; Liu, Zhengyu; Loomis, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Orbitally modulated insolation is thought to be among the key mechanisms driving ice sheet change. Yet, late Pleistocene ice sheets attained maximum marginal extents prior to summer insolation minima, suggesting that additional mechanisms influenced ice growth and decay. Continuous orbital-scale terrestrial temperature records can help define the role that temperature near ice sheet margins plays on the timing and structure of glacial maxima. We hypothesize, based on a 360 kyr long air temperature record from the Chinese Loess Plateau and shorter records from North America and Europe, that midlatitude terrestrial temperature influenced the rate of ice sheet growth prior to and during glacial maxima; cold conditions prior to glacial maxima enhanced ice sheet growth, while warming during glacial maxima inhibited further growth, despite low summer insolation. Thus, the midlatitude surface energy budget may be an important component of understanding and modeling ice volume, particularly for intervals prior to and during glacial maxima, when ice sheet margins reached midlatitudes.

  5. Conservation of proteins involved in oocyst wall formation in Eimeria maxima, Eimeria tenella and Eimeria acervulina.

    PubMed

    Belli, Sabina I; Ferguson, David J P; Katrib, Marilyn; Slapetova, Iveta; Mai, Kelly; Slapeta, Jan; Flowers, Sarah A; Miska, Kate B; Tomley, Fiona M; Shirley, Martin W; Wallach, Michael G; Smith, Nicholas C

    2009-08-01

    Vaccination with proteins from gametocytes of Eimeria maxima protects chickens, via transfer of maternal antibodies, against infection with several species of Eimeria. Antibodies to E. maxima gametocyte proteins recognise proteins in the wall forming bodies of macrogametocytes and oocyst walls of E. maxima, Eimeria tenella and Eimeria acervulina. Homologous genes for two major gametocyte proteins - GAM56 and GAM82 - were found in E. maxima, E. tenella and E. acervulina. Alignment of the predicted protein sequences of these genes reveals that, as well as sharing regions of tyrosine richness, strong homology exists in their amino-terminal regions, where protective antibodies bind. This study confirms the conservation of the roles of GAM56 and GAM82 in oocyst wall formation and shows that antibodies to gametocyte antigens of E. maxima cross-react with homologous proteins in other species, helping to explain cross-species maternal immunity.

  6. Detailed study of anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algae biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1986-07-01

    Biomass of the blue-green alga Spirulina maxima was converted to methane using continuous stirred tank digesters with an energy conversion efficiency of 59%. Digesters were operated using once-a-day feeding with a retention time (theta) between 5 and 40 days, volatile solid concentrations (Sto) between 20 and 100 kg VS/cubic m, and temperatures between 15 and 52/sup 0/C. The results indicated a maximum methane yield of 0.35 cubic m (STP)/kg VS added at theta = 30 days and Sto = 20 kg VS/cubic m. Under such conditions, the energy conversion of the algal biomass to methane was 59%. The maximum methane production rate of 0.80 cubic m (STP)/cubic m day was obtained with theta = 20 days and Sto = 100 kg VS/cubic m. The mesophilic condition at 35/sup 0/C produced the maximum methane yield and production rate. The process was stable and characterized by a high production of volatile acids (up to 23,200 mg/l), alkalinity (up to 20,000 mg/l), and ammonia (up to 7000 mg/l), and the high protein content of the biomass produced a well-buffered environment which reduced inhibitory effects. At higher loading rates, the inhibition of methanogenic bacteria was observed, but there was no clear-cut evidence that such a phenomenon was due to nonionized volatile acids or gaseous ammonia. The kinetic analysis using the model proposed by Chen and Hashimoto indicated that the minimum retention time was seven days. The optimum retention time increased gradually from 11 to 16 days with an increase in the initial volatile solid concentration. The kinetic constant K decreased with the improvement in the digester performance and increased in parallel with the ammonia concentration in the culture media. 32 references.

  7. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima.

    PubMed

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Zacharia, J Anish; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n = 5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Significant (P<0.001) reductions in blood glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL, VLDL) and liver function markers (SGPT and SGOT) were recorded along with elevated level of HDL-C at the end of 30 days therapy of 5 or 10 per cent S. maxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms.

  8. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  9. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  10. Cloning and sequencing of the allophycocyanin genes from Spirulina maxima (Cyanophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Song; Hiroyuki, Kojima; Yoshikazu, Kawata; Shin-Ichi, Yano; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    The genes coding for the α-and β-subunit of allophycocyanin ( apcA and apcB) from the cyanophyte Spirulina maxima were cloned and sequenced. The results revealed 44.4% of nucleotide sequence similarity and 30.4% of similarity of deduced amino acid sequence between them. The amino acid sequence identities between S. maxima and S. platensis are 99.4% for α subunit and 100% for β subunit.

  11. Implementation of Spectral Maxima Sound Processing for Cochlear Implants by Using Bark Scale Frequency Band Partition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1 Implementation of Spectral Maxima Sound processing for cochlear implants by using Bark scale Frequency band partition Han xianhua1 Nie...new method on the basis of Bark scale frequency-band partition was presented to improve the recognition performance of cochlear implants . In the...nature of physics, it consists with human’s cochlea filter properties. Also the mechanism of a cochlear implant and its spectral maxima sound

  12. Protection against coccidiosis in outbred chickens elicited by gamma-irradiated Eimeria maxima.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, M C; Chute, M B; Danforth, H D

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop an attenuated coccidiosis vaccine against coccidiosis, we exposed Eimeria maxima oocysts to an optimum dose of gamma irradiation (17 kRad) that does not affect sporozoite invasion of the intestinal mucosa but does prevent asexual parasite development. Irradiated E. maxima oocysts were suspended in gelatin slabs and placed in battery cages for ingestion by 1-day-old chickens. Separate groups of chickens were given gelatin slabs containing nonirradiated E. maxima oocysts or were inoculated per os with either irradiated or nonirradiated E. maxima oocysts. Chickens infected with irradiated or nonirradiated oocysts by either oral inoculation or gel delivery showed a dose-dependent protection against weight loss associated with E. maxima challenge compared with unimmunized controls. In general, nonirradiated oocysts elicited protective immunity at lower immunization doses compared with irradiated oocysts. These experiments were extended to a floor pen study wherein 1-day-old male and female broiler chickens were given irradiated or nonirradiated E. maxima oocysts in gelatin slabs in hatching boxes and challenged at 4 wk of age. A significant reduction (P < 0.05) in lesion scores was observed for chickens immunized with either irradiated or nonirradiated oocysts compared with unimmunized controls. Although no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in weight gain between these groups, both male and female chickens inoculated with irradiated E. maxima oocysts showed about a 10% greater weight gain than unimmunized controls. For both male and female chickens, average weights at challenge were greater in groups that were immunized with 17-kRad-irradiated E. maxima oocysts compared with those animals immunized with nonirradiated oocysts.

  13. Differing susceptibilities of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts to desiccation.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; O'Brien, Celia; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2013-10-01

    Outbreaks of avian coccidiosis may occur when susceptible chickens are raised on litter containing viable Eimeria oocysts. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative sensitivities of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts to dessication. Sporulated E. acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella oocysts were incorporated into gelatin beads and incubated at 32 C for 0, 1, 2, or 3 days. In vitro oocyst excystation rates were measured for each combination of Eimeria species and incubation time. Day-old broiler chicks were allowed to ingest the oocysts-containing beads, and total oocyst production was measured from days 5-8 post-inoculation. Although no effect on excystation was observed, E. maxima oocysts displayed greater resistance to drying compared to E. acervulina and E. tenella oocysts. Eimeria acervulina oocyst production decreased 100-fold after 1-2 days incubation. Eimeria tenella oocysts were slightly more resistant to drying in that a 100-fold decrease in oocyst production was delayed until 2 days. For both E. acervulina and E. tenella , very few oocysts were observed after 3 days incubation. Eimeria maxima oocyst production remained high at all time points. Subsequent studies revealed E. maxima oocyst production was ablated only after 5 days incubation. These findings may explain in part the observed prevalence of E. maxima in litter from commercial poultry operations.

  14. [Incorporation of a spiruline (Spirulina maxima) in swine food].

    PubMed

    Fevrier, C; Seve, B

    1975-01-01

    Two experiments on early weaned piglets and one experiment on sows during the first two reproductive cycles were made to determine the nutritive value of Spirulina maxima algae in the pig, taken as a "nutritional model" for man. The algae were introduced into the diets of the piglets, between 12 and 42 days of age, in a proportion representing 12 p. 100 of the total proteins. This level corresponded to 12 p. 100 algae in the first age feed (up to 21 days) in replacement of skim milk, and 8 p. 100 of the second age feed in replacement of soyabean meal. For the overall experimental period, from 12 to 42 days, the apparent digestibilities of the diets, measured by the chronium oxide marking, decreased by 6.9 and 6.1 points, respectively, for energy and total crude proteins as compared to the control diet. Replacement of the same raw materials by a soluble fish protein concentrate only led to a reduction of 2.9 and 3.5 points for energy and proteins. However, during the first week following weaning, the fish concentrate and spirulina gave identical results which were lower than those of the control (fig. 1). In spite of this lowering in the apparent digestibility the growths of the piglets were satisfactory and equivalent for all groups. Thus, the mĕtabolic utilisation of the fraction of feed absorbed was better for the spirulina group than for the control group, notably during the period between 12 to 21 days, although the supply of lysine in the spirulina group was 12 p. 100 lower (tab. VII). Consequently, this partially compensates for the low apparent digestibility of the algae in the young animal. For the female, the spirulina algaes were continously administered in a proportion of 5 p. 100 of the diet from a live weight of 75 kg. This did not change either the age or the weight at onset of puberty (tab IX). During the first reproductive cycle, the net weight gain of the sows receiving spirulina was lower than that of the control sows, but the number of piglets

  15. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima

    PubMed Central

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Anish, Zacharia J.; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P.S.; Prasad, G.B.K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Methods: Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n=5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Results: Significant (P<0.001) reductions in blood glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL, VLDL) and liver function markers (SGPT and SGOT) were recorded along with elevated level of HDL-C at the end of 30 days therapy of 5 or 10 per cent S. maxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. Interpretation & Conclusions: The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms. PMID:22561632

  16. Accumulation of alkaline earth metals by the green macroalga Bryopsis maxima.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigekazu; Aizawa, Kyoko; Nakamura, Saki; Nakayama, Katsumi; Fujisaki, Shingo; Watanabe, Soichiro; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    Twenty-five days after the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011, we collected samples of the green macroalga Bryopsis maxima from the Pacific coast of Japan. Bryopsis maxima is a unicellular, multinuclear, siphonous green macroalga. Radiation analysis revealed that B. maxima emitted remarkably high gamma radiation of (131)I, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (140)Ba as fission products of (235)U. Interestingly, B. maxima contained naturally occurring radionuclides derived from (226)Ra and (228)Ra. Analysis of element content revealed that B. maxima accumulates many ocean elements, especially high quantities of the alkaline earth metals Sr (15.9 g per dry-kg) and Ba (3.79 g per dry-kg), whereas Ca content (12.5 g per dry-kg) was lower than that of Sr and only 61 % of the mean content of 70 Japanese seaweed species. Time-course analysis determined the rate of radioactive (85)Sr incorporation into thalli to be approximately 0.13 g Sr per dry-kg of thallus per day. Subcellular fractionation of B. maxima cells showed that most of the (85)Sr was localized in the soluble fraction, predominantly in the vacuole or cytosol. Given that (85)Sr radioactivity was permeable through a dialysis membrane, the (85)Sr was considered to be a form of inorganic ion and/or bound with a small molecule. Precipitation analysis with sodium sulfate showed that more than 70% of the Sr did not precipitate as SrSO4, indicating that a proportion of the Sr may bind with small molecules in B. maxima.

  17. A genetic linkage map for the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Eimeria maxima and comparison with Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Blake, Damer P; Oakes, Richard; Smith, Adrian L

    2011-02-01

    Eimeria maxima is one of the seven Eimeria spp. that infect the chicken and cause the disease coccidiosis. The well characterised immunogenicity and genetic diversity associated with E. maxima promote its use in genetics-led studies on avian coccidiosis. The development of a genetic map for E. maxima, presented here based upon 647 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers typed from 22 clonal hybrid lines and assembled into 13 major linkage groups, is a major new resource for work with this parasite. Comparison with genetic maps produced for other coccidial parasites indicates relatively high levels of genetic recombination. Conversion of ∼14% of the markers representing the major linkage groups to sequence characterised amplified region markers can provide a scaffold for the assembly of future genomic sequences as well as providing a foundation for more detailed genetic maps. Comparison with the Eimeria tenella genetic map produced 10years ago has revealed a less biased marker distribution, with no more than nine markers mapped within any unresolved heritable unit. Nonetheless, preliminary bioinformatic characterisation of the three largest publicly available genomic E. maxima sequences suggest that the feature-poor/feature-rich structure which has previously been found to define the first sequenced E. tenella chromosome also defines the E. maxima genome. The significance of such a segmented genome and the apparent potential for variation in genetic recombination will be relevant to haplotype stability and the longevity of future anticoccidial strategies based upon multiple loci targeted by novel chemotherapeutic drugs or recombinant subunit vaccines.

  18. Extreme value theory (EVT) application on estimating the distribution of maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadhani, F. A.; Nurrohmah, S.; Novita, M.

    2017-07-01

    Extreme Value Theory (EVT) has emerged as one of the most important statistical theories for the applied sciences. EVT provides a firm theoretical foundation for building a statistical model describing extreme events. The feature that distinguish extreme value analysis than other statistical analysis is the ability to quantify the behavior of unusually large values even when those values are scarce. One of the key results from EVT is the ability to estimate the distribution of maximum value, that usually called as maxima, using the asymptotic argument. In order to build such models, the Fisher-Tippett theorem which specifies the form of the limit distribution for transformed maxima will be greatly used. Furthermore, it can be shown that there are only three families of possible limit laws for distribution of maxima, which are the Gumbel, Frechet, and Weibull distributions. These three distributions can be expressed in a single distribution function called the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution.

  19. Use of extracts from oyster shell and soil for cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

    PubMed

    Jung, Joo-Young; Kim, Sunmin; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Kyochan; Kim, Woong; Park, Min S; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won

    2014-12-01

    Calcium ion and trace metals play important roles in various metabolisms of photosynthetic organisms. In this study, simple methods were developed to extract calcium ion and micronutrients from oyster shell and common soil, and the prepared extracts were tested as a replacement of the corresponding chemicals that are essential for growth of microalgae. The oyster shell and soil were treated with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide or with 10 % hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The potential application of these natural sources to cultivation was investigated with Spirulina maxima. When compared to standard Zarrouk medium, the Spirulina maxima cultivated in a modified Zarrouk media with elements from oyster shell and soil extract exhibited increases in biomass, chlorophyll, and phycocyanin by 17, 16, and 64 %, respectively. These results indicate that the extracts of oyster shell and soil provide sufficient amounts of calcium and trace metals for successful cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

  20. Time spans between price maxima and price minima in stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yongjie; Li, Honggang

    2014-02-01

    We empirically investigate the distribution of time spans between price maxima and price minima in international stock markets, where a time span is defined as the time interval between a local price minimum and a local price maximum, and local price extrema are identified by a method introduced by Preis and Stanley (Preis et al. (2011), Preis (2011), Preis and Stanley (2011, 2010), Preis (2010), Preis and Stanley (2010), Stanley et al. (2010), Preis and Stanley (2009)). The empirical results show that both the tail distributions of time spans from local price maxima to local price minima and the tail distributions of time spans from local price minima to local price maxima yield an exponential distribution. In addition, price rise/fall asymmetry is observed by comparing the values of the exponents of the distribution curves. These results are robust across eight representative stock markets.

  1. Evaluation of Antidepressant-like Effect of Citrus Maxima Leaves in Animal Models of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Potdar, Vikram H; Kibile, Swati J

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) This study planned to assess antidepressant like activity of aqueous extract from leaves of Citrus maxima Merr. (Rutaceae). Materials and Methods Boiling was used for aqueous extraction. Acute toxicity study was performed in mice. Antidepressant activity was studied using locomotor activity test, modified forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Three doses 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of aqueous extract of leaves were selected for testing. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as the standard drugs. Results Aqueous extract of Citrus maxima leaves significantly reduced immobility time in both TST and FST. In locomotor activity testing it showed psychostimulant effect. Extract increased the climbing behavior in FST, which is similar to effect observed with imipramine. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that antidepressant like effect of Citrus maxima seems to be mediated by an increase in norepinephrine level in synapses. PMID:23492865

  2. Maxima of |Ψ|2: a connection between quantum mechanics and Lewis structures.

    PubMed

    Lüchow, Arne

    2014-04-30

    The maxima of squared electronic wave functions |Ψ|2 are analyzed for a number of small molecules. They are in principle observables and show considerable chemical insight from first principles. The maxima contain substantial information about the relative electron positions in a molecule, such as the pairing of opposite spin electrons and the Pauli repulsion which are lost in the electron density. Single bond and double bond as well as polar bond pairs and lone pairs are obtained from the maximum analysis. In many cases, we find a correspondence to the electron arrangements in molecules as assumed by Lewis in 1916.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Minima and maxima of 389 variables (Hubscher+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubscher, J.; Walter, F.

    2008-11-01

    In this 57th compilation of BAV results, photoelectric observations obtained in the year 2006 are presented on 389 variable stars giving 611 minima on eclipsing binaries and maxima on pulsating stars. All moments of minima and maxima are heliocentric. The errors are tabulated in column '+/-'. The values in column 'O-C' are determined without incorporation of nonlinear terms. The references are given in the section 'Remarks'. All information about photometers and filters are specified in the column 'Rem'. The observations were made at private observatories. The photoelectric measurements and all the light-curves with evaluations can be obtained from the office of the BAV for inspection. (3 data files).

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Minima and maxima of 380 variables (Hubscher+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubscher, J.; Steinbach, H.-M.; Walter, F.

    2011-03-01

    In this 63rd compilation of BAV results, photoelectric observations obtained in the year 2008 are presented on 380 variable stars giving 591 minima on eclipsing binaries and maxima on pulsating stars. All moments of minima and maxima are heliocentric. The errors are tabulated in column '+/-'. The values in column 'O-C' are determined without incorporation of nonlinear terms. The references are given in the section 'Remarks'. All information about photometers and filters are specified in the column 'Rem'. The observations were made at private observatories. The photoelectric measurements and all the light curves with evaluations can be obtained from the office of the BAV for inspection. (3 data files).

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Minima and maxima of 436 variables (Huebscher+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebscher, J.; Monninger, G.

    2011-08-01

    In this 68th compilation of BAV results, photoelectric observations obtained in the year 2010 are presented on 436 variable stars giving 784 minima on eclipsing binaries and maxima on pulsating stars. All moments of minima and maxima are heliocentric. The errors are tabulated in column '+/-'. The values in column 'O-C' are determined without incorporation of nonlinear terms.The references are given in the section 'Remarks'. All information about photometers and filters are specified in the column 'Rem'. The observations were made at private observatories. The photoelectric measurements and all the lightcurves with evaluations can be obtained from the office of the BAV for inspection. (3 data files).

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Minima and maxima of 292 variables (Hubscher+, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubscher, J.; Steinbach, H.-M.; Walter, F.

    2008-11-01

    In this 60th compilation of BAV results, photoelectric observations obtained in the years 2007 are presented on 292 variable stars giving 399 minima on eclipsing binaries and maxima on pulsating stars. All moments of minima and maxima are heliocentric. The errors are tabulated in column '+/-'. The values in column 'O-C' are determined without incorporation of nonlinear terms. The references are given in the section 'Remarks'. All information about photometers and filters are specified in the column 'Rem'. The observations were made at private observatories. The photoelectric measurements and all the lightcurves with evaluations can be obtained from the office of the BAV for inspection. (3 data files).

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Minima and maxima of 452 variables (Hubscher+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubscher, J.; Lehmann, P. B.; Monninger, G.; Steinbach, H.-M.; Walter, F.

    2011-03-01

    In this 65th compilation of BAV results, photoelectric observations obtained in the year 2009 are presented on 521 variable stars giving 871 minima on eclipsing binaries and maxima on pulsating stars. All moments of minima and maxima are heliocentric. The errors are tabulated in column '+/-'. The values in column 'O-C' are determined without incorporation of nonlinear terms. The references are given in the section 'Remarks'. All information about photometers and filters are specified in the column 'Rem'. The observations were made at private observatories. The photoelectric measurements and all the light curves with evaluations can be obtained from the office of the BAV for inspection. (3 data files).

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Minima and maxima of 503 variables (Hubscher, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubscher, J.

    2011-09-01

    In this 69th compilation of BAV results, photoelectric observations obtained in the year 2010 and 2011 are presented on 503 variable stars giving 767 minima on eclipsing binaries and maxima on pulsating stars. All moments of minima and maxima are heliocentric. The errors are tabulated in column '+/-'. The values in column 'O-C' are determined without incorporation of nonlinear terms. The references are given in the section 'Remarks'. All information about photometers and filters are specified in the column 'Rem'. The observations were made at private observatories. The photoelectric measurements and all the light curves with evaluations can be obtained from the office of the BAV for inspection. (3 data files).

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Minima and maxima of 735 variables (Hubscher+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubscher, J.

    2008-11-01

    In this 58th compilation of BAV results, photoelectric observations obtained in the years 2006 and 2007 are presented on 473 variable stars giving 735 minima and maxima on eclipsing binaries and pulsating stars. All moments of minima and maxima are heliocentric. The errors are tabulated in column '+/-'. The values in column 'O-C' are determined without incorporation of nonlinear terms. The references are given in the section 'Remarks'. All information about photometers and filters are specified in the column 'Rem'. The observations were made at private observatories. The photoelectric measurements and all the light curves with evaluations can be obtained from the office of the BAV for inspection. (3 data files).

  10. Sub-daily precipitation disaggregation for a simulation of annual runoff maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorska, Anna; Seibert, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Measurement of precipitation has been often restricted to daily totals only. This applies especially to observations from the previous century which constitutes a valuable source of long-term precipitation records needed for statistical analysis such as for annual runoff maxima. In this respect, the knowledge about the exact temporal distribution of these precipitation totals at sub-daily time steps can play an important role on the magnitude of simulated runoff maxima using these data. But it is difficult to estimate the sub-daily temporal distribution of precipitation if it was not measured. Instead, the effect of the precipitation in the form of runoff measured at the catchment outlet, which is usually available at sub-daily time steps for longer periods, provides an alternative to evaluate the potential effect of the need to disaggregate precipitation data. In this study we assess how the choice of the temporal distribution of daily precipitation totals might affect the simulation of the catchment runoff annual maxima when using a hydrological model. To examine this issue, we tested six different settings of precipitation total distribution within the day. These are: 1) uniform distribution (daily totals uniquely divided over 24 hours); all daily totals fall within a respective time window, i.e., 2) one hour, 3) two successive hours, 4) three successive hours, 5) six successive hours, and 6) twelve successive hours, each time randomly selected for each observation day independently. To assess the effect on simulated runoff maxima, such generated hourly precipitation datasets were next used as input into a pre-calibrated HBV model. As a reference, we used model simulations with observed hourly precipitation data. This study was conducted using thirty years of precipitation and runoff observations in three Swiss catchments. Our results showed that the annual maxima were best simulated when distributing daily totals over twelve successive hours randomly selected

  11. Joint distributions of partial and global maxima of a Brownian bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bénichou, Olivier; Krapivsky, P. L.; Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos; Oshanin, Gleb

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the joint distributions and temporal correlations between the partial maximum m and the global maximum M achieved by a Brownian bridge on the subinterval [0,{t}1] and on the entire interval [0,t], respectively. We determine three probability distribution functions: the joint distribution P(m,M) of both maxima; the distribution P(m) of the partial maximum; and the distribution {{\\Pi }}(G) of the gap between the maxima, G=M-m. We present exact results for the moments of these distributions and quantify the temporal correlations between m and M by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient.

  12. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath

    2015-08-01

    One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity.

  13. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A.; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:25599112

  14. Removal of local and biased global maxima in intensity-based registration.

    PubMed

    Salvado, Olivier; Wilson, David L

    2007-04-01

    Intensity based registration (e.g., mutual information) suffers from a scalloping artifact giving rise to local maxima and sometimes a biased global maximum in a similarity objective function. Here, we demonstrate that scalloping is principally due to the noise reduction filtering that occurs when image samples are interpolated. Typically at a much smaller scale (100 times less in our test cases), there are also fluctuations in the similarity objective function due to interpolation of the signal and to sampling of a continuous, band-limited image signal. Focusing on the larger problem from noise, we show that this phenomenon can even bias global maxima, giving inaccurate registrations. This phenomenon is readily seen when one registers an image onto itself with different noise realizations but is absent when the same noise realization is present in both images. For linear interpolation, local maxima and global bias are removed if one filters the interpolated image using a new constant variance filter for linear interpolation (cv-lin filter), which equalizes the variance across the interpolated image. We use 2D synthetic and MR images and characterize the effect of cv-lin on similarity objective functions. With a reduction of local and biased maxima, image registration becomes more robust and accurate. An efficient implementation adds insignificant computation time per iteration, and because optimization proceeds more smoothly, sometimes fewer iterations are needed.

  15. Potential antiradical and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Ecklonia maxima (Osbeck) Papenfuss.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Aderogba, Mutalib A; Amoo, Stephen O; Stirk, Wendy A; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-11-15

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors play a potential role in the treatment of type 2 diabetes by delaying glucose absorption in the small intestine. Ecklonia maxima, a brown alga which grows abundantly on the west coast of South Africa, is used to produce alginate, animal feed, nutritional supplements and fertilizer. The crude aqueous methanol extract, four solvent fractions and three phlorotannins: 1,3,5-trihydroxybenezene (phloroglucinol) (1), dibenzo [1,4] dioxine-2,4,7,9-tetraol (2) and hexahydroxyphenoxydibenzo [1,4] dioxine (eckol) (3) isolated from E. maxima were evaluated for antiradical and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. All the phlorotannins tested had strong antioxidant activities on DPPH free radicals with EC50 values ranging from 0.008 to 0.128μM. Compounds 2 and 3 demonstrated stronger antioxidant activity and an alpha-glucosidase inhibitory property than positive controls. These results suggest that E. maxima could be a natural source of potent antioxidants and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. This study could facilitate effective utilization of E. maxima as an oral antidiabetic drug or functional food ingredient with a promising role in the formulation of medicines and nutrition supplements.

  16. Antioxidative activity of water soluble polysaccharide in pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne).

    PubMed

    Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Maeda, Naomi; Koga, Hidenori

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative activity of a water soluble polysaccharide fraction (WSP) from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne). In the WSP, DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase-like activity increased depending on the total sugar content. Furthermore, the WSP can serve as an inhibitor of ascorbic acid oxidation. The efficacy was also affected by the total sugar content.

  17. An Example of Competence-Based Learning: Use of Maxima in Linear Algebra for Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Ana; Garcia, Alfonsa; de la Villa, Agustin

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) in a model of learning based on competences. The proposal is an e-learning model Linear Algebra course for Engineering, which includes the use of a CAS (Maxima) and focuses on problem solving. A reference model has been taken from the Spanish Open University. The proper use of CAS is…

  18. An Example of Competence-Based Learning: Use of Maxima in Linear Algebra for Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Ana; Garcia, Alfonsa; de la Villa, Agustin

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) in a model of learning based on competences. The proposal is an e-learning model Linear Algebra course for Engineering, which includes the use of a CAS (Maxima) and focuses on problem solving. A reference model has been taken from the Spanish Open University. The proper use of CAS is…

  19. Characterization and localization of an Eimeria-specific protein in Eimeria maxima

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A recently completed analysis of Eimeria maxima transcriptome indentified a gene with homology to sequences expressed by E. tenella and E. acervulina but lacking homology with other organisms including other apicomplexans. This gene designated ESP codes for a protein with predicted molecular weight...

  20. Dietary Curcuma longa enhances resistance against Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections in chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of dietary supplementation with an organic extract of Curcuma longa on systemic and local immune responses to experimental Eimeria maxima and E. tenella infections were evaluated in commercial broiler chickens. Infected chickens given the C. longa-containing diet had increased body weig...

  1. Beyond Polymaxenolide: Cembrane-Africanane Terpenoids from the Hybrid Soft Coral Sinularia maxima x S. polydactyla

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of natural hybridization on secondary metabolite production and diversification have only recently been studied in plants and have essentially been overlooked in marine organisms. Chemical investigation of the hybrid soft coral Sinularia maxima × S. polydactyla resulted in the isolation ...

  2. Expression of nutrient transporters in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of Eimeria maxima- infected broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The intracellular parasite, Eimeria maxima, invades epithelial cells of the intestine causing malabsorption, diarrhea, and decreased feed conversion resulting in significant economic losses to poultry producers. The uptake of amino acids is mediated by active transporters located on the basal and br...

  3. Coccidian Merozoite Transcriptome Analysis From Eimeria Maxima In Comparison To Eimeria Tenella And Eimeria Acervulina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using the Eimeria spp. population that infect chickens as a model for coccidian biology, we aimed to survey the transcriptome of E. maxima and contrast it to the two other Eimeria spp. for which transcriptome data are available, E. tenella and E. acervulina. Examining specifically the asexual intra...

  4. Different susceptibilities of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts to dessication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Outbreaks of avian coccidiosis may occur when susceptible chickens are raised on litter containing high concentrations of viable Eimeria oocysts. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative sensitivities of E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella oocysts to dessication. Sporulated E. ac...

  5. Phloem-associated auxin response maxima determine radial positioning of lateral roots in maize

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Leentje; Roberts, Ianto; De Rycke, Riet; Beeckman, Tom

    2012-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, lateral-root-forming competence of pericycle cells is associated with their position at the xylem poles and depends on the establishment of protoxylem-localized auxin response maxima. In maize, our histological analyses revealed an interruption of the pericycle at the xylem poles, and confirmed the earlier reported proto-phloem-specific lateral root initiation. Phloem-pole pericycle cells were larger and had thinner cell walls compared with the other pericycle cells, highlighting the heterogeneous character of the maize root pericycle. A maize DR5::RFP marker line demonstrated the presence of auxin response maxima in differentiating xylem cells at the root tip and in cells surrounding the proto-phloem vessels. Chemical inhibition of auxin transport indicated that the establishment of the phloem-localized auxin response maxima is crucial for lateral root formation in maize, because in their absence, random divisions of pericycle and endodermis cells occurred, not resulting in organogenesis. These data hint at an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, in which the establishment of vascular auxin response maxima is required to trigger cells in the flanking outer tissue layer for lateral root initiation. It further indicates that lateral root initiation is not dependent on cellular specification or differentiation of the type of vascular tissue. PMID:22527395

  6. Phloem-associated auxin response maxima determine radial positioning of lateral roots in maize.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Leentje; Roberts, Ianto; De Rycke, Riet; Beeckman, Tom

    2012-06-05

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, lateral-root-forming competence of pericycle cells is associated with their position at the xylem poles and depends on the establishment of protoxylem-localized auxin response maxima. In maize, our histological analyses revealed an interruption of the pericycle at the xylem poles, and confirmed the earlier reported proto-phloem-specific lateral root initiation. Phloem-pole pericycle cells were larger and had thinner cell walls compared with the other pericycle cells, highlighting the heterogeneous character of the maize root pericycle. A maize DR5::RFP marker line demonstrated the presence of auxin response maxima in differentiating xylem cells at the root tip and in cells surrounding the proto-phloem vessels. Chemical inhibition of auxin transport indicated that the establishment of the phloem-localized auxin response maxima is crucial for lateral root formation in maize, because in their absence, random divisions of pericycle and endodermis cells occurred, not resulting in organogenesis. These data hint at an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, in which the establishment of vascular auxin response maxima is required to trigger cells in the flanking outer tissue layer for lateral root initiation. It further indicates that lateral root initiation is not dependent on cellular specification or differentiation of the type of vascular tissue.

  7. The role of wind in generating turbidity maxima in the Tay Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, D. J.; McManus, J.

    1987-11-01

    Variations of wind direction and strength in the Tay Estuary control wave generation and the resultant patterns of suspended sediment concentration in the waters over the extensive tidal flats. Bodies of water with high water concentration peaks advect to occupy sites at which turbidity maxima are normally present at low water. Other low water peaks are generated by ebb tidal current resuspension.

  8. Identification of common immunodominant antigens of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima by immunoproteomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianhua; Li, Wenyu; Ji, Yihong; Tian, Di; Tian, Lu; Yang, Xinchao; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Li, Xiangrui; Song, Xiaokai

    2017-01-01

    Clinical chicken coccidiosis is mostly caused by simultaneous infection of several Eimeria species, and host immunity against Eimeria is species-specific. It is urgent to identify common immunodominant antigen of Eimeria for developing multivalent anticoccidial vaccines. In this study, sporozoite proteins of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). Western bot analysis was performed on the yielded 2DE gel using antisera of E. tenella E. acervulina and E. maxima respectively. Next, the detected immunodominant spots were identified by comparing the data from MALDI-TOF-MS/MS with available databases. Finally, Eimeria common antigens were identified by comparing amino acid sequence between the three Eimeria species. The results showed that analysis by 2DE of sporozoite proteins detected 629, 626 and 632 protein spots from E. tenella, E. acervulina and E. maxima respectively. Western bot analysis revealed 50 (E. tenella), 64 (E. acervulina) and 57 (E. maxima) immunodominant spots from the sporozoite 2DE gels of the three Eimeria species. The immunodominant spots were identified as 33, 27 and 25 immunodominant antigens of E. tenella, E. acervulina and E. maxima respectively. Fifty-four immunodominant proteins were identified as 18 ortholog proteins among the three Eimeria species. Finally, 5 of the 18 ortholog proteins were identified as common immunodominant antigens including elongation factor 2 (EF-2), 14-3-3 protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme domain-containing protein (UCE) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). In conclusion, our results not only provide Eimeria sporozoite immunodominant antigen map and additional immunodominant antigens, but also common immunodominant antigens for developing multivalent anticoccidial vaccines. PMID:28432276

  9. ANTIBODIES TO EIMERIA MAXIMA GAMETOCYTE ANTIGENS CROSS-REACT WITH EIMERIA TENELLA AND E. ACERVULINA: IMPLICATIONS FOR VACCINE DEVELOPMENT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It has been shown previously that vaccination with gamete specific molecules in Eimeria maxima offers protection via transfer of maternal antibodies (anti-EmAPGA), not just against infection with E. maxima, but also against E. tenella and E. acervulina. Antibodies to the gamete proteins recognise t...

  10. Timing relationships among maxima of punch and die-wall stress and punch displacement during compaction of viscoelastic solids.

    PubMed

    Morehead, W T; Rippie, E G

    1990-11-01

    The times of occurrence of maxima in punch stress, die-wall stress, and punch displacement in instrumented rotary tablet machines are shown to be noncoincidental for compacts exhibiting viscoelastic behavior. Equations are presented which characterize materials behaving as Kelvin solids in either or both distortion and dilation. These equations explicitly relate the timing of stress maxima to punch strain and strain rate. Typical effects are illustrated by data obtained for Avicel PH 101, Klucel, and mannitol. Punch stress maxima are shown to significantly precede the time of maximum punch insertion into the die for viscoelastic materials compacted at rates typical of production. Die-wall stress maxima occur after punch stress maxima due to internal rate-limited processes.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Minima and maxima of 292 variables (Hubscher+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubscher, J.; Lehmann, P. B.; Monninger, G.; Steinbach, H.-M.; Walter, F.

    2011-03-01

    In this 66th compilation of BAV results, photoelectric observations obtained in the years 2009 and 2010 are presented on 452 variable stars giving 838 minima on eclipsing binaries and maxima on pulsating stars. All moments of minima and maxima are heliocentric. The errors are tabulated in column '+/-'. The values in column 'O-C' are determined without incorporation of nonlinear terms.The references are given in the section 'Remarks'. All information about photometers and filters are specified in the column `Rem'. The observations were made at private observatories. The photoelectric measurements and all the light curves with evaluations can be obtained from the office of the BAV for inspection. (3 data files).

  12. Comparative analysis of spatial organization of laccases from Cerrena maxima and Coriolus zonatus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukova, Yu. N.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Morgunova, E. Yu.; Zaitsev, V. N.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2007-09-15

    Laccase (oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) belongs to the multicopper oxidase family. The main function of this enzyme is to perform electron transfer from the oxidized substrate through the mononuclear copper-containing site T1 to the oxygen molecule bound to the site T3 in the trinuclear T2/T3 cluster. The structures of two new fungal laccases from C. maxima and C. zonatus were solved on the basis of synchrotron X-ray diffraction data. Both laccases show high structural homology with laccases from other sources. The role of the carbohydrate component of laccases in structure stabilization and formation of ordered protein crystals was demonstrated. In the structures of C. maxima and C. zonatus laccases, two water channels of functional importance were found and characterized. The structural results reported in the present study characterize one of the functional states of the enzyme fixed in the crystal structure.

  13. Iridium abundance maxima at the latest Ordovician mass extinction horizon, Yangtze Basin, China: Terrestrial or extraterrestrial

    SciTech Connect

    Kun Wang; Chatterton, B.D.E. ); Attrep, M. Jr; Orth, C.J. )

    1992-01-01

    Neutron activation analyses of the Chinese Ordovician/Silurian (O/S) boundary sections at two distant localities in the Yangtze Basin, spanning the horizon of a major latest Ordovician global extinction event, show the maxima of iridium abundances to be coincident with the extinction horizon at the base of the graptolite Glyptograptus persculputs zone. The 0.23 ppb Ir maximum in the Yichang type section is almost as large as the late Eocene impact Ir anomaly. However, the authors have observed that the Ir abundances in the Chinese sections are closely correlated with the sedimentation rates, and therefore have concluded that Ir maxima do not indicate a cataclysmic extraterrestrial impact at this extinction level.

  14. Precipitation areal-reduction factor estimation using an annual-maxima centered approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, W.H.; Famiglietti, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The adjustment of precipitation depth of a point storm to an effective (mean) depth over a watershed is important for characterizing rainfall-runoff relations and for cost-effective designs of hydraulic structures when design storms are considered. A design storm is the precipitation point depth having a specified duration and frequency (recurrence interval). Effective depths are often computed by multiplying point depths by areal-reduction factors (ARF). ARF range from 0 to 1, vary according to storm characteristics, such as recurrence interval; and are a function of watershed characteristics, such as watershed size, shape, and geographic location. This paper presents a new approach for estimating ARF and includes applications for the 1-day design storm in Austin, Dallas, and Houston, Texas. The approach, termed 'annual-maxima centered,' specifically considers the distribution of concurrent precipitation surrounding an annual-precipitation maxima, which is a feature not seen in other approaches. The approach does not require the prior spatial averaging of precipitation, explicit determination of spatial correlation coefficients, nor explicit definition of a representative area of a particular storm in the analysis. The annual-maxima centered approach was designed to exploit the wide availability of dense precipitation gauge data in many regions of the world. The approach produces ARF that decrease more rapidly than those from TP-29. Furthermore, the ARF from the approach decay rapidly with increasing recurrence interval of the annual-precipitation maxima. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.The adjustment of precipitation depth of a point storm to an effective (mean) depth over a watershed is important for characterizing rainfall-runoff relations and for cost-effective designs of hydraulic structures when design storms are considered. A design storm is the precipitation point depth having a specified duration and frequency (recurrence interval). Effective depths are

  15. Atlas of depth-duration frequency of precipitation annual maxima for Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety-six maps depicting the spatial variation of the depth-duration frequency of precipitation annual maxima for Texas are presented. The recurrence intervals represented are 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 years. The storm durations represented are 15 and 30 minutes; 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 hours; and 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days. The maps were derived using geographically referenced parameter maps of probability distributions used in previously published research by the U.S. Geological Survey to model the magnitude and frequency of precipitation annual maxima for Texas. The maps in this report apply that research and update depth-duration frequency of precipitation maps available in earlier studies done by the National Weather Service.

  16. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium.

    PubMed

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered.

  17. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium

    PubMed Central

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered. PMID:26691456

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of the fungal laccase from Cerrena maxima

    PubMed Central

    Lyashenko, Andrey V.; Zhukhlistova, Nadegda E.; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G.; Zhukova, Yuliya N.; Voelter, Wolfang; Zaitsev, Viatcheslav N.; Bento, Isabel; Stepanova, Elena V.; Kachalova, Galina S.; Koroleva, Ol’ga V.; Cherkashyn, Evgeniy A.; Tishkov, Vladimir I.; Lamzin, Victor S.; Schirwitz, Katja; Morgunova, Ekaterina Yu.; Betzel, Christian; Lindley, Peter F.; Mikhailov, Al’bert M.

    2006-01-01

    Laccases are members of the blue multi-copper oxidase family that oxidize substrate molecules by accepting electrons at a mononuclear copper centre and transferring them to a trinuclear centre. Dioxygen binds to the trinuclear centre and, following the transfer of four electrons, is reduced to two molecules of water. Crystals of the laccase from Cerrena maxima have been obtained and X-­ray data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. A preliminary analysis shows that the enzyme has the typical laccase structure and several carbohydrate sites have been identified. The carbohydrate chains appear to be involved in stabilization of the intermolecular contacts in the crystal structure, thus promoting the formation of well ordered crystals of the enzyme. Here, the results of an X-ray crystallographic study on the laccase from the fungus Cerrena maxima are reported. Crystals that diffract well to a resolution of at least 1.9 Å (R factor = 18.953%; R free = 23.835; r.m.s.d. bond lengths, 0.06 Å; r.m.s.d. bond angles, 1.07°) have been obtained despite the presence of glycan moieties. The overall spatial organization of C. maxima laccase and the structure of its copper-containing active centre have been determined by the molecular-replacement method using the laccase from Trametes versicolor (Piontek et al., 2002 ▶) as a structural template. In addition, four glycan-binding sites were identified and the 1.9 Å X-ray data were used to determine the previously unknown primary structure of this protein. The identity (calculated from sequence alignment) between the C. maxima laccase and the T. versicolor laccase is about 87%. Tyr196 and Tyr372 show significant extra density at the ortho positions and this has been interpreted in terms of NO2 substituents. PMID:17012782

  19. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus maxima peel extract and their catalytic/antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chun-Gang; Huo, Can; Gui, Bing; Cao, Wei-Ping

    2017-08-01

    The peel of Citrus maxima (C. maxima) is the primary byproducts during the process of fruit or juice in food industries, and it was always considered as biomass waste for further treatments. In this study, the authors reported a simple and eco-friendly method to synthesise gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using C. maxima peel extract as reducing and capping agents. The synthesised AuNPs were characterised by UV-visible spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV-visible spectrum of the AuNPs colloid showed a characteristic peak at 540 nm. The peaks of XRD analysis at (2θ) 38.30°, 44.28°, 64.62°, 77.57° and 81.75° were assigned to (111), (200), (220), (311) and (222) planes of the face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice of gold. The TEM images showed that AuNPs were nearly spherical in shape with the size of 8-25 nm. The FTIR spectrum revealed that some bioactive compounds capped the surface of synthesised AuNPs. The biosynthesised AuNPs performed strong catalytic activity in degradation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol and good antibacterial activity against both gram negative (Escherichia coli) and gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacterium. The synthesis procedure was proved simple, cost effective and environment friendly.

  20. [Preclinical studies of cucurbita maxima (pumpkin seeds) a traditional intestinal antiparasitic in rural urban areas].

    PubMed

    Díaz Obregón, Daysi; Lloja Lozano, Luis; Carbajal Zúñiga, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Experimental research was carried out at the Parasitology and Chemistry laboratories of the Jorge Basadre Grohmann National University, in Tacna. The process involved two phases: (1) determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cucurbita Maxima as an antiparasitic agent using canine tapeworms with an intestinal isolation of 5 to 6 hours, and (2) determination of the side-effects of Curbita Maxima on exposed albino rats. It was found that the MIC of 23 gr. of pumpkin seed in 100 ml. of distilled water can produce an antihelminthic effect. This concentration is equivalent to +/- 73 pumpkin seeds (x2 = 5.6, p<0.01). Macroscopically, alterations in helminthic motility are present at a dose of > 23 gr. There is a protheolithic effect with an average survival time of 38.4 minutes. Microscopically the mature proglottids present a destruction of the tegument involving the basal membrane. In the gravid proglottids there is egg destruction. These findings are accentuated when experimenting with Cucurbita Maxima in a concentration of 30 and 32 gr. Superficial non-erosive gastritis was found in weys rats after 4 hours of administering 9 gr/kg.

  1. Antitumor Activity of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. Leaves in Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma Cell-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    KunduSen, Sriparna; Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal K.; Haldar, Pallab K.; Saha, Prerona; Bala, Asis

    2011-01-01

    Context. The plant Citrus maxima Merr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as shaddock or pomelo is indigenous to tropical parts of Asia. The objective of present study is to evaluate the methanol extract of Citrus maxima leaves for its antitumor activity against Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma cell in Swiss albino mice. Experimental design. The antitumor activity of methanol extract of Citrus maxima leaves (MECM) was evaluated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cell line in Swiss albino mice. 2 × 106 cells were inoculated in different groups of animals. MECM (200 and 400 mg/kg BW i.p.) was administered for nine consecutive days. On day 10th half the animals of different groups were sacrificed for determination of tumor and haematological parameters and the rest half were kept with sufficient food and water ad libitum for determination of increase in life span. Result and Discussions. Oral administration of the extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly decreased tumor parameters such as tumor volume, viable tumor cell count and increased body weight, hematological parameters and life span in respect of the EAC control mice. Conclusion. Experimental design exhibits significant antitumor activity of the extract (MECM) in a dose dependant manner. PMID:22084708

  2. Antitumor Activity of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. Leaves in Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma Cell-Treated Mice.

    PubMed

    Kundusen, Sriparna; Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal K; Haldar, Pallab K; Saha, Prerona; Bala, Asis

    2011-01-01

    Context. The plant Citrus maxima Merr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as shaddock or pomelo is indigenous to tropical parts of Asia. The objective of present study is to evaluate the methanol extract of Citrus maxima leaves for its antitumor activity against Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma cell in Swiss albino mice. Experimental design. The antitumor activity of methanol extract of Citrus maxima leaves (MECM) was evaluated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cell line in Swiss albino mice. 2 × 10(6) cells were inoculated in different groups of animals. MECM (200 and 400 mg/kg BW i.p.) was administered for nine consecutive days. On day 10th half the animals of different groups were sacrificed for determination of tumor and haematological parameters and the rest half were kept with sufficient food and water ad libitum for determination of increase in life span. Result and Discussions. Oral administration of the extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly decreased tumor parameters such as tumor volume, viable tumor cell count and increased body weight, hematological parameters and life span in respect of the EAC control mice. Conclusion. Experimental design exhibits significant antitumor activity of the extract (MECM) in a dose dependant manner.

  3. An advective mechanism for deep chlorophyll maxima formation in southern Drake Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Zachary K.; Thompson, Andrew F.; Cassar, Nicolas; Sprintall, Janet; Mazloff, Matthew R.

    2016-10-01

    We observe surface and subsurface fluorescence-derived chlorophyll maxima in southern Drake Passage during austral summer. Backscatter measurements indicate that the deep chlorophyll maxima (DCMs) are also deep biomass maxima, and euphotic depth estimates show that they lie below the euphotic layer. Subsurface, offshore and near-surface, onshore features lie along the same isopycnal, suggesting advective generation of DCMs. Temperature measurements indicate a warming of surface waters throughout austral summer, capping the winter water (WW) layer and increasing off-shelf stratification in this isopycnal layer. The outcrop position of the WW isopycnal layer shifts onshore, into a surface phytoplankton bloom. A lateral potential vorticity (PV) gradient develops, such that a down-gradient PV flux is consistent with offshore, along-isopycnal tracer transport. Model results are consistent with this mechanism. Subduction of chlorophyll and biomass along isopycnals represents a biological term not observed by surface satellite measurements which may contribute significantly to the strength of the biological pump in this region.

  4. Experimental Infection with Sporulated Oocysts of Eimeria maxima (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in Broiler

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Luciana da S.; Pereira, Elder N.; da Silva, Augusta A.; Bentivóglio Costa Silva, Vinícius; Freitas, Fagner L. da C.

    2014-01-01

    Through this study we assessed the metabolic and pathological changes in broilers experimentally infected with oocysts of Eimeria maxima. To perform the experiment, we used 150 broiler strain cooB males, with ten days of age, were randomized according to weight and randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the control group was inoculated with 0.5 mL of distilled water; the infected group inoculated with 0.5 mL of solution containing 5 × 104 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. The live performance was evaluated on day 0 (day of inoculation), 5°, 10°, 15°, 25°, and 35° dpi, being slaughtered by cervical dislocation, fifteen birds/group. Although the sum in meat production was higher in the control group, the weight of the heart and gizzard of the experimental animals showed no significant difference, while the liver had difference on day 5°, 15°, and 35° dpi. The pathologic evaluation showed congested mucosa and presence of large amounts of mucus at 6 dpi. Therefore, it is concluded that the dose of 5 × 104 E. maxima inoculated in the experimental group was enough to cause harm to the animal organism. PMID:26464925

  5. Thermal shift in the exciton absorption maxima as a function of the chip package design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, D. B.; Lentine, Anthony L.; Novotny, Robert A.

    1996-03-01

    Multiple quantum well reflection modulators are used in photonic switching systems. A change in device temperature will vary the band gap of the modulator material and therefore the location of the exciton absorption maxima. At some change in temperature the shift in maxima location will be too great and the device will become inoperative. External temperature controls can hold a specific point on the chip to a fraction of a degree, however, spacial non-uniformities in heat transfer from the chip to the environment can result in a temperature variation across the chip. The design of the chip, the materials and methods used to attach the chip to a mount, and the design of the mount can all affect the spacial temperature variation. We have used finite element analysis (FEA) to analyze the affects many of these design factors have on the temperature variation across the chip. By careful package design, the calculated temperature spread across a chip can be significantly reduced. We have also used the temperature dependence of the exciton absorption maxima to map the temperature of an existing chip. The chip and mount were then modeled by FEA. The experimentally measured temperatures and those calculated by FEA were found to be in good agreement.

  6. Genetic structure of giant clam ( Tridacna maxima) populations from reefs in the Western Coral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzie, John A. H.; Williams, Suzanne T.

    1992-09-01

    Allozyme variation at six polymorphic loci was examined in 10 populations of Tridacna maxima from reefs in the Western Coral Sea, to test whether patterns of relatedness previously reported for foraminiferan populations reflected a fundamental structuring of the fauna in the region. Genetic distances (Nei's D) among populations of T. maxima ranged from 0 0.065 and increased with increasing geographical separation. No significant differences in gene frequencies were observed among populations within two groups of reefs identified by cluster analysis: the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and among the offshore reefs excluding Lihou and Osprey. Significant genetic differences among these groups and the outliers Lihou and Osprey were consistent with the greater geographical separation of populations between areas than within areas. There was no evidence of differentiation along a north-south axis as reported for the foraminiferan Marginopora vertebralis, nor did populations from offshore reefs on the Queensland Plateau form a well-defined group that was genetically distinct from the GBR. The patterns observed for M. vertebralis do not appear to reflect a fundamental structuring of biota in the region. The differences in the pattern of genetic variation for M. vertebralis as compared with those for T. maxima may be due to several differences in the biological characteristics of the two species. The time of breeding in particular may influence the extent to which the divergence of the East Australian Current restricts larval dispersal among reefs in the central Queensland Plateau.

  7. Systematic theoretical study of non-nuclear electron density maxima in some diatomic molecules.

    PubMed

    Terrabuio, Luiz A; Teodoro, Tiago Q; Rachid, Marina G; Haiduke, Roberto L A

    2013-10-10

    First, exploratory calculations were performed to investigate the presence of non-nuclear maxima (NNMs) in ground-state electron densities of homonuclear diatomic molecules from hydrogen up to calcium at their equilibrium geometries. In a second stage, only for the cases in which these features were previously detected, a rigorous analysis was carried out by several combinations of theoretical methods and basis sets in order to ensure that they are not only calculation artifacts. Our best results support that Li2, B2, C2, and P2 are molecules that possess true NNMs. A NNM was found in values obtained from the largest basis sets for Na2, but it disappeared at the experimental geometry because optimized bond lengths are significantly inaccurate for this case (deviations of 0.10 Å). Two of these maxima are also observed in Si2 with CCSD and large basis sets, but they are no longer detected as core-valence correlation or multiconfigurational wave functions are taken into account. Therefore, the NNMs in Si2 can be considered unphysical features due to an incomplete treatment of electron correlation. Finally, we show that a NNM is encountered in LiNa, representing the first discovery of such electron density maxima in a heteronuclear diatomic system at its equilibrium geometry, to our knowledge. Some results for LiNa, found in variations in internuclear distances, suggest that molecular electric moments, such as dipole and quadrupole, are sensitive to the presence of NNMs.

  8. Volatile compounds in cryptic species of the Aneura pinguis complex and Aneura maxima (Marchantiophyta, Metzgeriidae).

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Rafał; Wasiak, Wiesław; Bączkiewicz, Alina; Buczkowska, Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    Aneura pinguis is one of the liverwort species complexes that consist of several cryptic species. Ten samples collected from different regions in Poland are in the focus of our research. Eight of the A. pinguis complex belonging to four cryptic species (A, B, C, E) and two samples of closely related species Aneura maxima were tested for the composition of volatile compounds. The HS-SPME technique coupled to GC/FID and GC/MS analysis has been applied. The fiber coated with DVB/CAR/PDMS has been used. The results of the present study, revealed the qualitative and quantitative differences in the composition of the volatile compounds between the studied species. Mainly they are from the group of sesquiterpenoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The statistical methods (CA and PCA) showed that detected volatile compounds allow to distinguish cryptic species of A. pinguis. All examined cryptic species of the A. pinguis complex differ from A. maxima. Species A and E of A. pinguis, in CA and PCA, form separate clusters remote from two remaining cryptic species of A. pinguis (B and C) and A. maxima. Relationship between the cryptic species appeared from the chemical studies are in accordance with that revealed on the basis of DNA sequences.

  9. In vitro susceptibility of Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et. al. to Citrus maxima essential oil.

    PubMed

    Măruţescu, Luminiţa; Saviuc, Crina; Oprea, Eliza; Savu, Bogdan; Bucur, Marcela; Stanciu, Gheorghe; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Lazăr, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory constraints and environmental and human health concerns have promoted the search for alternative bio-control strategies of fire blight, a destructive disease of rosaceous plants which produces serious losses in apple and pear orchards all over the world. The aim of this study was to establish the antimicrobial activity of Citrus maxima essential oil against Erwinia amylovora. An agar diffusion method was used for the screening of the inhibitory effect of Citrus maxima essential oil on bacterial strains growth. The quantitative inhibitory effect of pomelo oil on in vitro biofilm development was established by a microtiter colorimetric assay. In order to investigate the ability of pomelo oil to interfere with bacterial adherence and subsequent biofilm development on leaves obtained from different pomaceous fruit trees species and cultivars: Pyrus (Napoca, Williams), Malus (Golden Delicious) and Cydonia (Aromate), leaves were immersed in pomelo oil for 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 minutes before exposing them to bacterial colonization. The architecture of bacterial biofilms developed on leaf surface was analyzed using Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CSLM). Our results showed that Citrus maxima essential oil inhibited the development of bacterial biofilms on leaves, pomelo oil being more active on Cydonia (Aromate) leaves when the leaves were treated for 5 minutes. The results obtained from this study may contribute to the development of new bio-control agents as alternative strategies to protect fruit trees from fire blight disease.

  10. MAXIMA-1: A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy on Angular Scales of 10' to 5 degrees

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Ade, P.; Balbi, A.; Bock, J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; de Bernardis, P.; Ferreira, P. G.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V. V.; Jaffe, A. H.; Lange, A. E.; Lee, A. T.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Netterfield, C. B.; Oh, S.; Pascale, E.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Stompor, R.; Winant,C. D.; Wu, J. H. P.

    2005-06-04

    We present a map and an angular power spectrum of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the first flight of MAXIMA. MAXIMA is a balloon-borne experiment with an array of 16 bolometric photometers operated at 100 mK. MAXIMA observed a 124 deg{sup 2} region of the sky with 10' resolution at frequencies of 150, 240 and 410 GHz. The data were calibrated using in-flight measurements of the CMB dipole anisotropy. A map of the CMB anisotropy was produced from three 150 and one 240 GHz photometer without need for foreground subtractions.

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of the fungal laccase from Cerrena maxima

    SciTech Connect

    Lyashenko, Andrey V.; Zhukhlistova, Nadegda E.; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G.; Zhukova, Yuliya N.; Voelter, Wolfang; Zaitsev, Viatcheslav N.; Bento, Isabel; Stepanova, Elena V.; Kachalova, Galina S.; Koroleva, Ol’ga V.; Cherkashyn, Evgeniy A.; Tishkov, Vladimir I.; Lamzin, Victor S.; Schirwitz, Katja; Betzel, Christian; Mikhailov, Al’bert M.

    2006-10-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure at 1.9 Å resolution of the fungal laccase from C. maxima are presented. Laccases are members of the blue multi-copper oxidase family that oxidize substrate molecules by accepting electrons at a mononuclear copper centre and transferring them to a trinuclear centre. Dioxygen binds to the trinuclear centre and, following the transfer of four electrons, is reduced to two molecules of water. Crystals of the laccase from Cerrena maxima have been obtained and X-ray data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. A preliminary analysis shows that the enzyme has the typical laccase structure and several carbohydrate sites have been identified. The carbohydrate chains appear to be involved in stabilization of the intermolecular contacts in the crystal structure, thus promoting the formation of well ordered crystals of the enzyme. Here, the results of an X-ray crystallographic study on the laccase from the fungus Cerrena maxima are reported. Crystals that diffract well to a resolution of at least 1.9 Å (R factor = 18.953%; R{sub free} = 23.835; r.m.s.d. bond lengths, 0.06 Å; r.m.s.d. bond angles, 1.07°) have been obtained despite the presence of glycan moieties. The overall spatial organization of C. maxima laccase and the structure of its copper-containing active centre have been determined by the molecular-replacement method using the laccase from Trametes versicolor (Piontek et al., 2002 ▶) as a structural template. In addition, four glycan-binding sites were identified and the 1.9 Å X-ray data were used to determine the previously unknown primary structure of this protein. The identity (calculated from sequence alignment) between the C. maxima laccase and the T. versicolor laccase is about 87%. Tyr196 and Tyr372 show significant extra density at the ortho positions and this has been interpreted in terms of NO{sub 2} substituents.

  12. Genome-wide association study and biological pathway analysis of the Eimeria maxima response in broilers.

    PubMed

    Hamzić, Edin; Buitenhuis, Bart; Hérault, Frédéric; Hawken, Rachel; Abrahamsen, Mitchel S; Servin, Bertrand; Elsen, Jean-Michel; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Bed'Hom, Bertrand

    2015-11-25

    Coccidiosis is the most common and costly disease in the poultry industry and is caused by protozoans of the Eimeria genus. The current control of coccidiosis, based on the use of anticoccidial drugs and vaccination, faces serious obstacles such as drug resistance and the high costs for the development of efficient vaccines, respectively. Therefore, the current control programs must be expanded with complementary approaches such as the use of genetics to improve the host response to Eimeria infections. Recently, we have performed a large-scale challenge study on Cobb500 broilers using E. maxima for which we investigated variability among animals in response to the challenge. As a follow-up to this challenge study, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genomic regions underlying variability of the measured traits in the response to Eimeria maxima in broilers. Furthermore, we conducted a post-GWAS functional analysis to increase our biological understanding of the underlying response to Eimeria maxima challenge. In total, we identified 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with q value <0.1 distributed across five chromosomes. The highly significant SNPs were associated with body weight gain (three SNPs on GGA5, one SNP on GGA1 and one SNP on GGA3), plasma coloration measured as optical density at wavelengths in the range 465-510 nm (10 SNPs and all on GGA10) and the percentage of β2-globulin in blood plasma (15 SNPs on GGA1 and one SNP on GGA2). Biological pathways related to metabolic processes, cell proliferation, and primary innate immune processes were among the most frequent significantly enriched biological pathways. Furthermore, the network-based analysis produced two networks of high confidence, with one centered on large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1) and 2 (LATS2) and the second involving the myosin heavy chain 6 (MYH6). We identified several strong candidate genes and genomic regions associated with traits measured in

  13. Calcium Montmorillonite-based dietary supplement attenuates Necrotic Enteritis induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We provide the first description of Dietary Supplement of sorbent minerals attenuates Necrotic Enteritis Induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in Broilers. Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a poultry disease caused by Clostridium perfringens and characterized by severe intestinal necrosis....

  14. Protective effects of Spirulina maxima on hyperlipidemia and oxidative-stress induced by lead acetate in the liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Canchihuamán, Johny C; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2010-03-31

    Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity, specially affecting the liver and kidney. Previous studies have shown the antioxidant effect of Spirulina maxima in several experimental models of oxidative stress. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Spirulina maxima against lead acetate-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative damage in the liver and kidney of male rats. Control animals were fed on a standard diet and did not receive lead acetate (Control group). Experimental animals were fed on a standard laboratory diet with or without Spirulina maxima 5% in the standard laboratory diet and treated with three doses of lead acetate (25 mg each/weekly, intraperitoneal injection) (lead acetate with Spirulina, and lead acetate without Spirulina groups). The results showed that Spirulina maxima prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and liver lipid levels and on the antioxidant status of the liver and kidney. On the other hand, Spirulina maxima succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of the liver and kidney towards the normal values of the Control group. It was concluded that Spirulina maxima has protective effects on lead acetate-induced damage, and that the effects are associated with the antioxidant effect of Spirulina.

  15. Protective effects of Spirulina maxima on hyperlipidemia and oxidative-stress induced by lead acetate in the liver and kidney

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity, specially affecting the liver and kidney. Previous studies have shown the antioxidant effect of Spirulina maxima in several experimental models of oxidative stress. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Spirulina maxima against lead acetate-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative damage in the liver and kidney of male rats. Control animals were fed on a standard diet and did not receive lead acetate (Control group). Experimental animals were fed on a standard laboratory diet with or without Spirulina maxima 5% in the standard laboratory diet and treated with three doses of lead acetate (25 mg each/weekly, intraperitoneal injection) (lead acetate with Spirulina, and lead acetate without Spirulina groups). Results The results showed that Spirulina maxima prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and liver lipid levels and on the antioxidant status of the liver and kidney. On the other hand, Spirulina maxima succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of the liver and kidney towards the normal values of the Control group. Conclusions It was concluded that Spirulina maxima has protective effects on lead acetate-induced damage, and that the effects are associated with the antioxidant effect of Spirulina. PMID:20353607

  16. Clathrin-Mediated Auxin Efflux and Maxima Regulate Hypocotyl Hook Formation and Light-Stimulated Hook Opening in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qinqin; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Juan; Yan, Xu; Wang, Chao; Xu, Jian; Pan, Jianwei

    2016-01-04

    The establishment of auxin maxima by PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3)- and AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (LAX) 3 (AUX1/LAX3)-mediated auxin transport is essential for hook formation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Until now, however, the underlying regulatory mechanism has remained poorly understood. Here, we show that loss of function of clathrin light chain CLC2 and CLC3 genes enhanced auxin maxima and thereby hook curvature, alleviated the inhibitory effect of auxin overproduction on auxin maxima and hook curvature, and delayed blue light-stimulated auxin maxima reduction and hook opening. Moreover, pharmacological experiments revealed that auxin maxima formation and hook curvature in clc2 clc3 were sensitive to auxin efflux inhibitors 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid but not to the auxin influx inhibitor 1-naphthoxyacetic acid. Live-cell imaging analysis further uncovered that loss of CLC2 and CLC3 function impaired PIN3 endocytosis and promoted its lateralization in the cortical cells but did not affect AUX1 localization. Taken together, these results suggest that clathrin regulates auxin maxima and thereby hook formation through modulating PIN3 localization and auxin efflux, providing a novel mechanism that integrates developmental signals and environmental cues to regulate plant skotomorphogenesis and photomorphogenesis.

  17. Influence of salinity, bottom topography, and tides on locations of estuarine turbidity maxima in northern San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, David H.

    2000-01-01

    Time series of salinity and suspended-solids concentration measured at four locations and vertical profiles of salinity and suspended-solids concentration measured during 48 water-quality cruises from January 1993 to September 1997 are analyzed to describe the influence of salinity, bottom topography, and tides on locations of estuarine turbidity maxima in northern San Francisco Bay, California. Estuarine turbidity maxima form when salinity is present but they are not associated with a singular salinity. Bottom topography enhances salinity stratification, gravitational circulation and estuarine turbidity maxima formation seaward of sills. The spring/neap tidal cycle affects locations of estuarine turbidity maxima. Salinity stratification in Carquinez Strait, which is seaward of a sill, is greatest during neap tides, which is the only time when tidally averaged suspended-solids concentration in Carquinez Strait was less than that observed landward at Mallard Island. Spring tides cause the greatest vertical mixing and suspended-solids concentration in Carquinez Strait. Therefore, surface estuarine turbidity maxima always were located in or near the Strait (seaward of Middle Ground) during spring tide cruises, regardless of salinity. During neap tides, surface estuarine turbidity maxima always were observed in the landward half of the study area (landward of Middle Ground) and between 0–2 practical salinity units.

  18. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Riaz Hasan; Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah; Hossain, Hemayet; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2015-01-01

    Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (-)-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA), nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP), and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level) and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats.

  19. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Riaz Hasan; Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (−)-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA), nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP), and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level) and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats. PMID:26106435

  20. Effect of Spirulina maxima on postprandial lipemia in young runners: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Torres-Durán, Patricia Victoria; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Trained people exhibit low plasma concentrations of triacylglcyerols in both fasting and postprandial states. Exercise practice is commonly believed to improve postprandial lipemia. In addition, elevated postprandial lipemia is an indicator of poor lipid clearance, and it has been associated with atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and obesity. Spirulina maxima is an edible microorganism with a high nutritional value. When it is consumed, beneficial properties to health have been demonstrated, such as hypolipemic and antihypertensive properties in human beings. This work evaluates the effects of orally administrated S. maxima on postprandial lipemia in a young Mexican sporting population after 15 days of consumption, as a possible alternative treatment to improve their lipid clearance. Forty-one runners (10-26 years old; 21 men and 20 women) volunteered to participate in the study. All of them were physically active for at least 1 year before the study and were not undergoing training during the study. The subjects consumed 5 g of Spirulina during 15 days. Before and after the treatment with Spirulina, they consumed (12 h fasting) a standardized meal with high fat content (53.2% total calories). Postprandial lipemia was measured at 1.5, 3, and 4.5 h after the fatty meal. Fasting plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were lower after Spirulina treatment than before treatment. In addition, the postprandial area under the curve of TAG concentrations was lower after the treatment with Spirulina. Sixty-two percent of the youngest runners (10-16 years) studied exhibited the best response to the treatment. Orally administered S. maxima decreased postprandial lipemia in sporting teenagers. The youngest people were the most responsive to the beneficial effects of Spirulina on postprandial lipemia.

  1. Effect of Spirulina maxima on Postprandial Lipemia in Young Runners: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Durán, Patricia Victoria; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Trained people exhibit low plasma concentrations of triacylglcyerols in both fasting and postprandial states. Exercise practice is commonly believed to improve postprandial lipemia. In addition, elevated postprandial lipemia is an indicator of poor lipid clearance, and it has been associated with atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and obesity. Spirulina maxima is an edible microorganism with a high nutritional value. When it is consumed, beneficial properties to health have been demonstrated, such as hypolipemic and antihypertensive properties in human beings. This work evaluates the effects of orally administrated S. maxima on postprandial lipemia in a young Mexican sporting population after 15 days of consumption, as a possible alternative treatment to improve their lipid clearance. Forty-one runners (10–26 years old; 21 men and 20 women) volunteered to participate in the study. All of them were physically active for at least 1 year before the study and were not undergoing training during the study. The subjects consumed 5 g of Spirulina during 15 days. Before and after the treatment with Spirulina, they consumed (12 h fasting) a standardized meal with high fat content (53.2% total calories). Postprandial lipemia was measured at 1.5, 3, and 4.5 h after the fatty meal. Fasting plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were lower after Spirulina treatment than before treatment. In addition, the postprandial area under the curve of TAG concentrations was lower after the treatment with Spirulina. Sixty-two percent of the youngest runners (10–16 years) studied exhibited the best response to the treatment. Orally administered S. maxima decreased postprandial lipemia in sporting teenagers. The youngest people were the most responsive to the beneficial effects of Spirulina on postprandial lipemia. PMID:22738038

  2. Immune protection of microneme 7 (EmMIC7) against Eimeria maxima challenge in chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Menghui; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the immune protective effects of recombinant microneme protein 7 of Eimeria maxima (rEmMIC7) and a DNA vaccine encoding this antigen (pVAX1-EmMIC7) on experimental challenge were evaluated. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. Experimental groups of chickens were immunized with 100 μg DNA vaccine pVAX1-MIC7 or 200 μg rEmMIC7, while control groups of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid or sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results showed that the anti-EmMIC7 antibody titres in chickens of both rEmMIC7 and pVAX1-MIC7 groups were significantly higher as compared to PBS and pVAX1 control (P < .05). The splenocytes from both vaccinated groups of chickens displayed significantly greater proliferation response compared with the controls (P < .05). Serum from chickens immunized with pVAX1-MIC7 and rEmMIC7 displayed significantly high levels of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, IL-10, IL-17, tumour growth factor-β and IL-4 (P < .05) compared to those of negative controls. The challenge experiment results showed that both the recombinant antigen and the DNA vaccine could obviously alleviate jejunum lesions, body weight loss and enhance oocyst decrease ratio. The anti-coccidial index (ACI) of the pVAX1-MIC7 group was 167.84, higher than that of the recombinant MIC7 protein group, 167.10. Our data suggested that immunization with EmMIC7 was effective in imparting partial protection against E. maxima challenge in chickens and it could be an effective antigen candidate for the development of new vaccines against E. maxima.

  3. Coccidian merozoite transcriptome analysis from Eimeria maxima in comparison to Eimeria tenella and Eimeria acervulina.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Ryan S; Fetterer, Raymond H; Rosenberg, George H; Miska, Katarzyna B

    2010-02-01

    With the Eimeria spp. populations that infect chickens used as a model for coccidian biology, we aimed to survey the transcriptome of Eimeria maxima and contrast it to the 2 other Eimeria spp. for which transcriptome data are available, i.e., Eimeria tenella and Eimeria acervulina . The asexual intracellular development stage, the merozoite, was specifically examined, and we used expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis to provide experimental evidence of transcription and a framework for understanding the merozoite stage of E. maxima . Of 2,680 individual ESTs obtained, 48.2% shared most significant (E < 10(-5)) homology to sequences from other apicomplexan species, primarily other Eimeria spp. and Toxoplasma gondii , and 47.5% were unique. Annotation of these ESTs enabled categorization to putative biological function and revealed an emphasis on translation, cytoskeleton, metabolism, signaling, transport, and protein folding, as well as the apicomplexan specific surface antigens and micronemes. Comparative analysis of abundantly expressed transcripts from merozoites of the 3 Eimeria spp. revealed a novel transcript common to all 3. Sharing no significant homology to any other sequence in public databases, this transcript was predicted to encode an Eimeria -specific protein (ESP) with 166-178 amino acids and 58.9-65.1% interspecific identity. A predicted signal peptide was identified, consistent with the assumption that ESP is a secreted protein. These annotated ESTs from E. maxima merozoites provide a resource for intra- and interspecific comparative analyses that will be useful in distinguishing the unique biology of coccidian parasites in relation to the diverse phylum of Apicomplexa.

  4. Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Takebayashi, Mika; Shinto, Mayumi; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2013-05-14

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes; 7a-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7-oxomultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (2), and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a,29-diol 3-p-hydroxybenzoate-29-benzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with three known compounds. Compound 3 and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a-29-diol 3-benzoate (5) exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, with low cytotoxicities, and 2 exhibited single-digit micromolar cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  5. Protection of Broiler Chicks Housed with Immunized Cohorts Against Infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Barfield, Ruth C; Jenkins, Mark C

    2015-03-01

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidiosis in broilers. Knowledge of the mechanisms employed when chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chicks not initially immunized may ingest oocysts by contact with litter containing oocysts shed by immunized cohorts. In Experiment 1, day-old broiler chicks were housed in pens containing clean litter. In Trial 1, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 2.5 X 10(3) Eimeria acervulina oocysts while in other pens only 75% of chicks were immunized and remaining cohorts within the pens were not immunized. Other pens contained chicks that served as nonimmunized nonchallenged controls or nonimmunized challenged controls (NIC). On day 21, birds were given a homologous challenge of 6 X 10(5) oocysts. A second identical trial was conducted, except birds were immunized with 500 Eimeria maxima oocysts and were challenged with 3 X 10(3) E. maxima oocysts. In Experiment 2, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 500 E. acervulina oocysts while in other pens either 75% or 50% of the birds were immunized. On day 14, birds were challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. Trial 2 was identical to Trial 1 except that birds were immunized with 100 E. maxima oocysts and challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. For all experiments weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), plasma carotenoids, and litter oocyst counts were measured. In Experiment 1, the level of protection in groups containing 25% nonimmunized cohorts, as measured by weight gain, carotenoid level, FCR, and oocyst litter counts, was identical to groups containing 100% immunized chicks. In Experiment 2, pens where 50% or 75% of birds were immunized with either E. maxima or E. acervulina were not well protected from decreases in weight gain and plasma carotenoids nor from increases in litter oocyst counts following a challenge

  6. Large-scale investigation of the parameters in response to Eimeria maxima challenge in broilers.

    PubMed

    Hamzic, E; Bed'Hom, B; Juin, H; Hawken, R; Abrahamsen, M S; Elsen, J M; Servin, B; Pinard-van der Laan, M H; Demeure, O

    2015-04-01

    Coccidiosis, a parasitic disease of the intestinal tract caused by members of the genera Eimeria and Isospora, is one of the most common and costly diseases in chicken. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of the challenge and level of variability of measured parameters in chickens during the challenge with Eimeria maxima. Furthermore, this study aimed to investigate which parameters are the most relevant indicators of the health status. Finally, the study also aimed to estimate accuracy of prediction for traits that cannot be measured on large scale (such as intestinal lesion score and fecal oocyst count) using parameters that can easily be measured on all animals. The study was performed in 2 parts: a pilot challenge on 240 animals followed by a large-scale challenge on 2,024 animals. In both experiments, animals were challenged with 50,000 Eimeria maxima oocysts at 16 d of age. In the pilot challenge, all animals were measured for BW gain, plasma coloration, hematocrit, and rectal temperature and, in addition, a subset of 48 animals was measured for oocyst count and the intestinal lesion score. All animals from the second challenge were measured for BW gain, plasma coloration, and hematocrit whereas a subset of 184 animals was measured for intestinal lesion score, fecal oocyst count, blood parameters, and plasma protein content and composition. Most of the parameters measured were significantly affected by the challenge. Lesion scores for duodenum and jejunum (P < 0.001), oocyst count (P < 0.05), plasma coloration for the optical density values between 450 and 490 nm (P < 0.001), albumin (P < 0.001), α1-globulin (P < 0.01), α2-globulin (P < 0.001), α3-globulin (P < 0.01), and β2-globulin (P < 0.001) were the most strongly affected parameters and expressed the greatest levels of variation. Plasma protein profiles proved to be a new, reliable parameter for measuring response to Eimeria maxima. Prediction of intestinal lesion score and fecal oocyst

  7. Changes in fatty acid composition in the giant clam Tridacna maxima in response to thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Dubousquet, Vaimiti; Gros, Emmanuelle; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Viguier, Bruno; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Bertrand, Cédric; Lecellier, Gaël J

    2016-10-15

    Temperature can modify membrane fluidity and thus affects cellular functions and physiological activities. This study examines lipid remodelling in the marine symbiotic organism, Tridacna maxima, during a time series of induced thermal stress, with an emphasis on the morphology of their symbiont Symbiodinium First, we show that the French Polynesian giant clams harbour an important proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA), which reflects their tropical location. Second, in contrast to most marine organisms, the total lipid content in giant clams remained constant under stress, though some changes in their composition were shown. Third, the stress-induced changes in fatty acid (FA) diversity were accompanied by an upregulation of genes involved in lipids and ROS pathways. Finally, our microscopic analysis revealed that for the giant clam's symbiont, Symbiodinium, thermal stress led to two sequential cell death processes. Our data suggests that the degradation of Symbiodinium cells could provide an additional source of energy to T maxima in response to heat stress. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK) cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL) when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL). Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth. PMID:23743830

  9. MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.T.; Balbi, A.; Borrill, J.; Jaffe, A.H.; Oh, S.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P.L.; Smoot, G.F.; Winant, C.D.; Lee, A.T.; Jaffe, A.H.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P.L.; Smoot, G.F.; Winant, C.D.; Ade, P.; Hristov, V.; Lange, A.E.; Pascale, E.; Balbi, A.; Borrill, J.; Bock, J.; Crill, B.P.; Smoot, G.F.; Bock, J.; Del Castillo, H.; Boscaleri, A.; De Bernardis, P.; Ferreira, P.; Ganga, K.; Hanany, S.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Ruhl, J.

    1999-05-01

    We describe the MAXIMA experiment, a balloon-borne measurement designed to map temperature anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from l=80 to l=800. The experiment consists of a 1.3 m diameter off-axis Gregorian telescope and a receiver with a 16 element array of bolometers cooled to 100 mK. The frequency bands are centered at 150, 240, and 410 GHz. The 10{sup {prime}} FWHM beam sizes are well matched to the scale of acoustic peaks expected in the angular power spectrum of the CMB. The first flight of the experiment in its full configuration was launched in August 1998. A 122 deg{sup 2} map of the sky was made near the Draco constellation during the 7 hour flight in a region of extremely low galactic dust contamination. This map covers 0.3{percent} of the sky and has 3200 independent beamsize pixels. We describe the MAXIMA instrument and its performance during the recent flight. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Scaling Laws and Frequency Decomposition from Wavelet Transform Maxima Lines and Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, M.; Widjajakusuma, J.; Bader, R.

    Wavelet techniques have now become well established for various applications. They are especially attractive for a reliable characterization of the scaling behaviour of functions and measures with non-oscillating singularities. Another important feature of wavelets is their ability to decompose vibrations into components according to their instantaneous frequencies. The essential information about scaling and instantaneous frequencies is contained in a small subset of the redundant continuous wavelet transform, namely in the maxima lines and ridges, which can be considered as a fingerprint of the signal. We show that even oscillating singularities can be easily characterized using complex progessive wavelets. We derive differential equations for two families of wavelets which allow a direct numerical integration of maxima lines and ridges. The applications presented range from fractal basin boundaries, oscillating singularities, system identification in engineering structures and design to a problem in musicology. Wavelets are used to characterize the timbre of instruments. The fine structure of transients allow an identification of instruments and instrument classes.

  11. Relationship between tropical heating and subtropical westerly maxima in the Southern Hemisphere during SOP-1, FGGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurrel, James W.; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1990-01-01

    FGGE Level III-b analyses, produced by the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA, are used to investigate the relationship between tropical heating and subtropical westerly maxima in the Southern Hemisphere during SOP-1 (January 5 - March 4, 1979). The mean state of two 15-day periods is examined, as well as day-to-day variations for the entire 59-day period. In Period 1 (January 6-20), the central South Pacific was extremely active convectively, while in Period 2 (February 3-17), convective activity over the western Indian Ocean was enhanced. Episodes of strong outflow in the tropics, as measured by the upper tropospheric velocity potential, were found to be well correlated with the strengthening and propagation of westerly wind maxima in the subtropics. The average location of the westerly maximum over the South Pacific and Indian oceans was about 16 deg latitudes south, and slightly east, of its corresponding heat source. For a cyclone case study which is presented, however, this distance was considerably less. The response time between the upper level tropical outflow and subtropical westerly enhancement appears to be less than 12 hours; however, an exact temporal scale was difficult to identify.

  12. STRUCTURE IN THE 3D GALAXY DISTRIBUTION. II. VOIDS AND WATERSHEDS OF LOCAL MAXIMA AND MINIMA

    SciTech Connect

    Way, M. J.; Gazis, P. R.; Scargle, Jeffrey D. E-mail: PGazis@sbcglobal.net

    2015-01-20

    The major uncertainties in studies of the multi-scale structure of the universe arise not from observational errors but from the variety of legitimate definitions and detection methods for individual structures. To facilitate the study of these methodological dependencies, we have carried out 12 different analyses defining structures in various ways. This has been done in a purely geometrical way by utilizing the HOP algorithm as a unique parameter-free method of assigning groups of galaxies to local density maxima or minima. From three density estimation techniques (smoothing kernels, Bayesian blocks, and self-organizing maps) applied to three data sets (the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, the Millennium simulation, and randomly distributed points) we tabulate information that can be used to construct catalogs of structures connected to local density maxima and minima. We also introduce a void finder that utilizes a method to assemble Delaunay tetrahedra into connected structures and characterizes regions empty of galaxies in the source catalog.

  13. Time variable eddy mixing in the global Sea Surface Salinity maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busecke, J. J. M.; Abernathey, R.; Gordon, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Lateral mixing by mesoscale eddies is widely recognized as a crucial mechanism for the global ocean circulation and the associated heat/salt/tracer transports. The Salinity in the Upper Ocean Processes Study (SPURS) confirmed the importance of eddy mixing for the surface salinity fields even in the center of the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic. We focus on the global salinity maxima due to their role as indicators for global changes in the hydrological cycle as well as providing the source water masses for the shallow overturning circulation. We introduce a novel approach to estimate the contribution of eddy mixing to the global sea surface salinity maxima. Using a global 2D tracer experiments in a 1/10 degree MITgcm setup driven by observed surface velocities, we analyze the effect of eddy mixing using a water mass framework, thus focussing on the diffusive flux across surface isohalines. This enables us to diagnose temporal variability on seasonal to inter annual time scales, revealing regional differences in the mechanism causing temporal variability.Sensitivity experiments with various salinity backgrounds reveal robust inter annual variability caused by changes in the surface velocity fields potentially forced by large scale climate.

  14. Characterization and bioactivity of phycocyanin isolated from Spirulina maxima grown under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Baky, Hanaa H; El-Baroty, Gamal S

    2012-04-01

    In this study, Spirulina maxima (SM) has been selected following preliminary investigations, for cultivation in either normal (0.02 M) or stress (0.1 M) NaCl medium (Zarrouk) under room conditions to evaluate the possibility of increasing the total phycobiliprotein content (TPC) and their chemical constituents: C-phycocyanin (C-PC), allophycocyanin (APC) and phycoerthrin (PE). TPC material was separated, purified and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis and IR spectra). The antioxidant activity against free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, superoxide (˙(-)O(2)), hydroxy (˙OH) and reducing power potential were determined. Results indicated a highly significant correlation between increased TPC content in SM cells and the increasing concentration of NaCl in medium, and its chemical constituents were significantly different (P > 0.05). TPC of SM (grown in stress NaCl) containing high amounts of C-PC groups, showed strong antioxidant activity compared with ascorbic acid (standard antioxidant). Although, it activity against different free radicals were found to be variable and dose-dependent. Moreover, the TPC showed lower antimicrobial activity (MIC values in the range of 250-300 μg mL(-1)) than that of chloramphinicol (30 μg mL(-1), reference antimicrobial). Therefore, Spirulina maxima could be cultivated in a salinated open pond, and considered as highly healthy foods and source of natural pigments.

  15. Changes in fatty acid composition in the giant clam Tridacna maxima in response to thermal stress

    PubMed Central

    Dubousquet, Vaimiti; Gros, Emmanuelle; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Viguier, Bruno; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Bertrand, Cédric; Lecellier, Gaël J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Temperature can modify membrane fluidity and thus affects cellular functions and physiological activities. This study examines lipid remodelling in the marine symbiotic organism, Tridacna maxima, during a time series of induced thermal stress, with an emphasis on the morphology of their symbiont Symbiodinium. First, we show that the French Polynesian giant clams harbour an important proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA), which reflects their tropical location. Second, in contrast to most marine organisms, the total lipid content in giant clams remained constant under stress, though some changes in their composition were shown. Third, the stress-induced changes in fatty acid (FA) diversity were accompanied by an upregulation of genes involved in lipids and ROS pathways. Finally, our microscopic analysis revealed that for the giant clam's symbiont, Symbiodinium, thermal stress led to two sequential cell death processes. Our data suggests that the degradation of Symbiodinium cells could provide an additional source of energy to T. maxima in response to heat stress. PMID:27543058

  16. Tree detection in urban regions from aerial imagery and DSM based on local maxima points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkmaz, Özgür; Yardımcı ćetin, Yasemin; Yilmaz, Erdal

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we propose an automatic approach for tree detection and classification in registered 3-band aerial images and associated digital surface models (DSM). The tree detection results can be used in 3D city modelling and urban planning. This problem is magnified when trees are in close proximity to each other or other objects such as rooftops in the scenes. This study presents a method for locating individual trees and estimation of crown size based on local maxima from DSM accompanied by color and texture information. For this purpose, segment level classifier trained for 10 classes and classification results are improved by analyzing the class probabilities of neighbour segments. Later, the tree classes under a certain height were eliminated using the Digital Terrain Model (DTM). For the tree classes, local maxima points are obtained and the tree radius estimate is made from the vertical and horizontal height profiles passing through these points. The final tree list containing the centers and radius of the trees is obtained by selecting from the list of tree candidates according to the overlapping and selection parameters. Although the limited number of train sets are used in this study, tree classification and localization results are competitive.

  17. F-actin distribution and function during sexual development in Eimeria maxima.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Sonja; Wallach, Michael

    2015-06-01

    To determine the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in macrogametocyte growth and oocyst wall formation, freshly purified macrogametocytes and oocysts were stained with Oregon Green 514 conjugated phalloidin to visualize F-actin microfilaments, while Evans blue staining was used to detect type 1 wall forming bodies (WFB1s) and the outer oocyst wall. The double-labelled parasites were then analysed at various stages of sexual development using three-dimensional confocal microscopy. The results showed F-actin filaments were distributed throughout the entire cytoplasm of mature Eimeria maxima macrogametocytes forming a web-like meshwork of actin filaments linking the type 1 WFBs together into structures resembling 'beads on a string'. At the early stages of oocyst wall formation, F-actin localization changed in alignment with the egg-shaped morphology of the forming oocysts with F-actin microfilaments making direct contact with the WFB1s. In tissue oocysts, the labelled actin cytoskeleton was situated underneath the forming outer layer of the oocyst wall. Treatment of macrogametocytes in vitro with the actin depolymerizing agents, Cytochalasin D and Latrunculin, led to a reduction in the numbers of mature WFB1s in the cytoplasm of the developing macrogametocytes, indicating that the actin plays an important role in WFB1 transport and oocyst wall formation in E. maxima.

  18. Characterization and localization of an Eimeria-specific protein in Eimeria maxima.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Schwarz, Ryan S; Miska, Katarzyna B; Jenkins, Mark C; Barfield, Ruth C; Murphy, Charles

    2013-10-01

    A recently completed analysis of Eimeria maxima transcriptome identified a gene with homology to sequences expressed by E. tenella and E. acervulina but lacking homology with other organisms including other apicomplexans. This gene, designated Eimeria-specific protein (ESP), codes for a protein with a predicted molecular weight of 19 kDa. The ESP gene was cloned and the recombinant protein expressed in bacteria and purified for preparation of specific antisera. Quantitative RT-PCR showed transcription of ESP was low in unsporulated oocysts and after 24 h of sporulation. However, transcription nearly doubled after 48 h of sporulation and reached its highest levels in sporozoites (SZ) and merozoites (MZ). The protein was detectable by Western blot in both sporulated oocysts and in SZ and MZ. Immuno-localization by light microscopy identified ESP in paired structures in the anterior of SZ and MZ. Immuno-localization by electron microscopy identified ESP in MZ rhoptries but no specific staining of any SZ structures was detected. In addition, localization studies on intestinal sections recovered from birds 120-h post-infection indicates that oocysts do not stain with anti-ESP but staining of microgametocytes and developing oocysts was observed. The results indicate that ESP is associated with the rhoptry of E. maxima and that the protein may have functions in other developmental stages.

  19. Wall scaling laws for turbulent BL before and after the Reynolds shear stress maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, Noor; Seena, Abu; Afzal, Bushra; Noor Afzal Collaboration; Abu Seena Team; Bushra Afzal Team

    2015-11-01

    The turbulent shear flow has a critical point due to maximas of Reynolds stress tensor has significant role. Three layers with length scales (inner ν /uτ , meso √{ νδ /uτ }, outer δ) have been analyzed. Below this crucial point the mesolayer inner limit matches with with outer limit of wall layer. Above this crucial point the outer limit of mesolayer matches with inner limit of outer layer. The log law velocity and Reynolds in two overlap regions, above and below the critical point, have been presented. The Reynolds shear stress maxima τmax /τw occurs at a point where ratio of mesolayer to outer lengths is of order Rτ-1 / 2 (= √{ ν / δuτ }), and at this point DNS and experimental data predict Um /Ue = 2 / 3 (where Um = mesolayer velocity and Ue = velocity at boundary edge). The turbulent burst time period also scale with mesolayer time. The shape factor in a TBL shows linear behavior with non-dimensional mesolayer length scale. In special case Um /Ue = 1 / 2 , is due to Izakson and Millikan. The above predictions are supported by experimental and DNS data.

  20. Comprehensive transcriptome profiling and functional analysis of the frog (Bombina maxima) immune system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Yan, Chao; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Yang; Wang, Guangyin; Lee, Wenhui; Xiang, Yang; Zhang, Yun

    2014-02-01

    Amphibians occupy a key phylogenetic position in vertebrates and evolution of the immune system. But, the resources of its transcriptome or genome are still little now. Bombina maxima possess strong ability to survival in very harsh environment with a more mature immune system. We obtained a comprehensive transcriptome by RNA-sequencing technology. 14.3% of transcripts were identified to be skin-specific genes, most of which were not isolated from skin secretion in previous works or novel non-coding RNAs. 27.9% of transcripts were mapped into 242 predicted KEGG pathways and 6.16% of transcripts related to human disease and cancer. Of 39 448 transcripts with the coding sequence, at least 1501 transcripts (570 genes) related to the immune system process. The molecules of immune signalling pathway were almost presented, several transcripts with high expression in skin and stomach. Experiments showed that lipopolysaccharide or bacteria challenge stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine production and activation of pro-inflammatory caspase-1. These frog's data can remarkably expand the existing genome or transcriptome resources of amphibians, especially immunity data. The entity of the data provides a valuable platform for further investigation on more detailed immune response in B. maxima and a comparative study with other amphibians.

  1. Comparison of substorms near two solar cycle maxima: (1999-2000 and 2012-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despirak, I.; Lubchich, A.; Kleimenova, N.

    2016-05-01

    We present the comparative analysis of the substorm behavior during two solar cycle maxima. The substorms, observed during the large solar cycle maximum (1999- 2000, with Wp> 100) and during the last maximum (2012-2013 with Wp~60), were studied. The considered substorms were divided into 3 types according to auroral oval dynamic. First type - substorms which are observed only at auroral latitudes ("usual" substorms); second type - substorms which propagate from auroral latitudes (<70?) to polar geomagnetic latitudes (>70°) ("expanded" substorms, according to expanded oval); third type - substorms which are observed only at latitudes above ~70° in the absence of simultaneous geomagnetic disturbances below 70° ("polar" substorms, according to contracted oval). Over 1700 substorm events have been analyzed. The following substorm characteristics have been studied: (i) the seasonal variations, (ii) the latitudinal range of the occurrence, (iii) solar wind and IMF parameters before substorm onset, (iiii) PC-index before substorm onset. Thus, the difference between two solar activity maxima could be seen in the difference of substorm behavior in these periods as well.

  2. In vivo localization of antibodies raised against Eimeria maxima wall forming bodies during sexual intracellular development.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Sonja; Shahparee, Annisha; Wasinger, Valerie C; Wallach, Michael

    2014-11-01

    SUMMARY Apicomplexan parasites cause devastating diseases in humans and livestock. Previously we demonstrated that antibodies targeting transmissible forms of the apicomplexan parasite, Eimeria, are effective at reducing parasite shedding thus preventing the transmission of the disease. However, the mechanisms responsible have not been fully defined. Moreover, there is no direct evidence that the parasite-specific IgG antibodies can reach the parasite developing in the enterocytes of the infected chicken host. This study summarizes our efforts using host immunity, parasite proteomics and 3D microscopy to provide a step forward in our understanding of how this immune response works. Eimeria maxima is an important pathogen of poultry and used as a surrogate for a number of human pathogens including Toxoplasma and Plasmodium. Our studies demonstrate that immunization with the purified wall forming bodies (WFBs) results in a production of parasite-specific IgG antibodies, which have the ability to reach in situ gametocytes in the intestinal lumen and permeate the enterocyte/parasite membranes in order to bind to the cytoplasmic Type 1 and Type 2 WFBs. This raises the intriguing possibility that via this process antibodies block the development of Eimeria maxima in vivo.

  3. Natural selection on thermal preference, critical thermal maxima and locomotor performance.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Anthony L; Miles, Donald B

    2017-08-16

    Climate change is resulting in a radical transformation of the thermal quality of habitats across the globe. Whereas species have altered their distributions to cope with changing environments, the evidence for adaptation in response to rising temperatures is limited. However, to determine the potential of adaptation in response to thermal variation, we need estimates of the magnitude and direction of natural selection on traits that are assumed to increase persistence in warmer environments. Most inferences regarding physiological adaptation are based on interspecific analyses, and those of selection on thermal traits are scarce. Here, we estimate natural selection on major thermal traits used to assess the vulnerability of ectothermic organisms to altered thermal niches. We detected significant directional selection favouring lizards with higher thermal preferences and faster sprint performance at their optimal temperature. Our analyses also revealed correlational selection between thermal preference and critical thermal maxima, where individuals that preferred warmer body temperatures with cooler critical thermal maxima were favoured by selection. Recent published estimates of heritability for thermal traits suggest that, in concert with the strong selective pressures we demonstrate here, evolutionary adaptation may promote long-term persistence of ectotherms in altered thermal environments. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Computational prediction of absorbance maxima for a structurally diverse series of engineered green fluorescent protein chromophores.

    PubMed

    Timerghazin, Qadir K; Carlson, Haley J; Liang, Chen; Campbell, Robert E; Brown, Alex

    2008-02-28

    By virtue of its self-sufficiency to form a visible wavelength chromophore within the confines of its tertiary structure, the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) is single-handedly responsible for the ever-growing popularity of fluorescence imaging of recombinant fusion proteins in biological research. Engineered variants of GFP with altered excitation or emission wavelength maxima have helped to expand the range of applications of GFP. The engineering of the GFP variants is usually done empirically by genetic modifications of the chromophore structure and/or its environment in order to find variants with new photophysical properties. The process of identifying improved variants could be greatly facilitated if augmented or guided by computational studies of the chromophore ground and excited-state properties and dynamics. In pursuit of this goal, we now report a thorough investigation of computational methods for prediction of the absorbance maxima for an experimentally validated series of engineered GFP chromophore analogues. The experimental dataset is composed of absorption maxima for 10 chemically distinct GFP chromophore analogues, including a previously unreported Y66D variant, measured under identical denaturing conditions. For each chromophore analogue, excitation energies and oscillator strengths were calculated using configuration interaction with single excitations (CIS), CIS with perturbative correction for double substitutions [CIS(D)], and time-dependent density functional theory (TD DFT) using several density functionals with solvent effects included using a polarizable continuum model. Comparison of the experimental and computational results show generally poor quantitative agreement with all methods attempted. However, good linear correlations between the calculated and experimental excitation energies (R2>0.9) could be obtained. Oscillator strengths obtained with TD DFT using pure density functionals also correlate well with the

  5. MAXIMA-1: A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave BackgroundAnisotropy on angular scales of 10' to 5 degrees

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, P.; Balbi, A.; Bock, J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; deBernardis, P.; Ferreira, P.G.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V.V.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lange, A.E.; Lee, A.T.; Mauskopf, P.D.; Netterfield, C.B.; Oh, S.; Pascale, E.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P.L.; Smoot, G.F.; Stompor, R.; Winant,C.D.; Wu, J.H.P.

    2000-10-02

    We present a map and an angular power spectrum of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the first flight of MAXIMA. MAXIMA is a balloon-borne experiment with an array of 16 bolometric photometers operated at 100 mK. MAXIMA observed a 124 deg region of the sky with 10' resolution at frequencies of 150, 240 and 410 GHz. The data were calibrated using in-flight measurements of the CMB dipole anisotropy. A map of the CMB anisotropy was produced from three 150 and one 240 GHz photometer without need for foreground subtractions. Analysis of this CMB map yields a power spectrum for the CMB anisotropy over the range 36 {le} {ell} {le} 785. The spectrum shows a peak with an amplitude of 78 {+-} 6 {mu}K at {ell} {approx_equal} 220 and an amplitude varying between {approx} 40 {mu}K and {approx} 50 {mu}K for 400 {approx}< {ell} {approx}< 785.

  6. Long GRB with Additional High Energy Maxima after the End of the Low Energy T90 Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irene, Arkhangelskaja; Alexander, Zenin; Dmitry, Kirin; Elena, Voevodina

    2013-01-01

    Now GRB high energy γ-emission was observed mostly by detectors onboard Fermi and Agile satellites. During most part of GRB high energy γ-emission registered some later than low energy trigger and lasts several hundreds of seconds, but its maxima are within low energy t90 intervals both for short and long bursts. But GRB090323, GRB090328 and GRB090626 temporal profiles have additional maxima after low energy t90 intervals finished. These bursts temporal profile analysis have shown that faint peaks in low energy bands close to the ends of low energy t90 intervals preceded such maxima. Moreover, these events low energy spectral index β behavior differs from usual GRB one according to preliminary analysis. We suppose that these GRB could be separated as different GRB type. In presented article this new GRB type properties are discussed.

  7. Atlas of depth-duration frequency of precipitation annual maxima for Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) cooperatively funded project was to develop a simple-to-use atlas of precipitation depths in Texas for selected storm durations and frequencies on the basis of the research results and unpublished digital archives of Asquith (1998). The selected storm durations are 15 and 30 minutes; 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 hours; and 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days. The selected storm frequencies or annual recurrence intervals are 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 years. Depth-duration frequency (DDF) of annual precipitation maxima is important for cost-effective, riskmitigated hydrologic design. DDF values are in common and wide-spread use by public and private entities throughout Texas.

  8. Neoliberal austerity and corporate crime: the collapse of the Maxima supermarket in Riga, Latvia.

    PubMed

    Woolfson, Charles; Juska, Arunas

    2014-01-01

    The roof collapse of the Maxima supermarket in Riga, Latvia on November 21, 2013 left 54 dead. This analysis identifies the disaster as a "safety crime." Neoliberal deregulatory measures, intensified by the global economic and financial crisis and a programme of radical austerity, together with corporate and state disregard of public safety and well-being, combined to produce the disaster. The wider context and underlying causes of catastrophic safety failure exemplify the inherently contradictory character of the neoliberal "Baltic model" of austerity, recently much in vogue with international policymakers in both Europe and the United States. The authors conclude that the current renewed drive by the European Commission towards reducing regulation for business, especially in the aftermath of the crisis, further justifies longstanding anti-regulatory preferences of neoliberal domestic elites, with the result that the costs of disregard for public safety are externalized onto the general populace.

  9. Cosmology from MAXIMA-1, BOOMERANG, and COBE DMR cosmic microwave background observations.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, A H; Ade, P A; Balbi, A; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Boscaleri, A; Coble, K; Crill, B P; de Bernardis, P; Farese, P; Ferreira, P G; Ganga, K; Giacometti, M; Hanany, S; Hivon, E; Hristov, V V; Iacoangeli, A; Lange, A E; Lee, A T; Martinis, L; Masi, S; Mauskopf, P D; Melchiorri, A; Montroy, T; Netterfield, C B; Oh, S; Pascale, E; Piacentini, F; Pogosyan, D; Prunet, S; Rabii, B; Rao, S; Richards, P L; Romeo, G; Ruhl, J E; Scaramuzzi, F; Sforna, D; Smoot, G F; Stompor, R; Winant, C D; Wu, J H

    2001-04-16

    Recent results from BOOMERANG-98 and MAXIMA-1, taken together with COBE DMR, provide consistent and high signal-to-noise measurements of the cosmic microwave background power spectrum at spherical harmonic multipole bands over 2

  10. Cosmology from MAXIMA-1, BOOMERANG, and COBE DMR cosmic microwavebackground observations

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, A.H.; Ade, P.A.R.; Balbi, A.; Bock, J.J.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; Coble, K.; Crill, B.P.; de, Bernardis, P.; Farese, P.; Ferreira, P.G.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hanany, S.; Hivon,E.; Hristov, V.V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Lange, A.E.; Lee, A.T.; Martinis, L.; Masi, S.; Mauskopf, P.D.; Melchiorri, A.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield, C.B.; Oh, S.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Pogosyan, D.; Prunet, S.; Rabii, B.; Rao, S.; Richards, P.L.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, JE.; Scaramuzzi, F.; Sforna,D.; Smoot, G.F.; Stompor, R.; Winant, C.D.; Wu, J.H.P.

    2000-07-23

    Recent results from BOOMERANG-98 and MAXIMA-1, taken together with COBE DMR, provide consistent and high signal-to-noise measurements of the cosmic microwave background power spectrum at spherical harmonic multipole bands over 2 < l < less than or similar to > 800. Analysis of the combined data yields 68 percent (95 percent) confidence limits on the total density, Omega (tot) similar or equal to 1.11 +/- 0.07 ((+0.13)(-0.12)), the baryon density, Omega(b)h(2) similar or equal to 0.032(-0.004+)(0.005) ((+0.009)(-0.008)), and the scalar spectral tilt, n(s) similar or equal to 1.01(-0.07)(+0.09)((+0.17)(-0.14)). These data are consistent with inflationary initial conditions for structure formation. Taken together with other cosmological observations, they imply the existence of both nonbaryonic dark matter and dark energy in the Universe.

  11. Consequences of nonequilibrium resource availability across multiple time scales: the transient maxima hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Seastedt, T R; Knapp, A K

    1993-04-01

    Nonequilibrium biotic responses to changes in resource limitation dominate the behavior of tallgrass prairie ecosystems. Rates of leaf photosynthesis on a time scale of minutes, amounts of annual plant productivity, patterns in the productivity of certain consumer groups, and amounts of soil organic matter accumulation over millennia all reflect biotic responses to frequent and recurring shifts in limiting resources. Productivity is higher during a transition period when the relative importance of an essential resource is changing than during an equilibrium interval generated by single resource limitation. These "transient maxima" are both characteristic and easily measurable in the tallgrass prairie because of the unpredictable climate and ecological constraints such as grazing and recurrent fires that modify water, nitrogen, and light availability. Such diverse phenomena as overcompensation for herbivory, the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, maximum levels of productivity observed in successional ecosystems, and widespread nitrogen limitation in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems can be explained by biotic response to shifts in limiting resources.

  12. Ozone Transport Aloft Drives Surface Ozone Maxima Across the Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanCuren, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    A persistent layer of polluted air in the lower free troposphere over the Mojave Desert (California and Nevada) drives spring and summer surface ozone maxima as deep afternoon mixing delivers ozone and ozone precursors to surface measurement sites 200 km or more downwind of the mountains that separate the deserts from the heavily populated coastal areas of California. Pollutants in this elevated layer derive from California source regions (the Los Angeles megacity region and the intensive agricultural region of the San Joaquin Valley), and from long-range transport from Asia. Recognition of this poorly studied persistent layer explains and expands the significance of previously published reports of ozone and other pollutants observed in and over the Mojave Desert, resolves an apparent paradox in the timing of ozone peaks due to transport from the upwind basins, and provides a new perspective on the long-range downwind impacts of megacity pollution plumes.

  13. Vertical transition energies vs. absorption maxima: illustration with the UV absorption spectrum of ethylene.

    PubMed

    Lasorne, Benjamin; Jornet-Somoza, Joaquim; Meyer, Hans-Dieter; Lauvergnat, David; Robb, Michael A; Gatti, Fabien

    2014-02-05

    We revisit the validity of making a direct comparison between measured absorption maxima and computed vertical transition energies within 0.1 eV to calibrate an excited-state level of theory. This is illustrated on the UV absorption spectrum of ethylene for which the usual experimental values of 7.66 eV (V←N) and 7.11 eV (R(3s)←N) cannot be compared directly to the results of electronic structure calculations for two very different reasons. After validation of our level of theory against experimental data, a new experimental reference of 7.28 eV is suggested for benchmarking the Rydberg state, and the often-cited average transition energy (7.80 eV) is confirmed as a safer estimate for the valence state.

  14. Global pulses of organic carbon burial in deep-sea sediments during glacial maxima

    PubMed Central

    Cartapanis, Olivier; Bianchi, Daniele; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2016-01-01

    The burial of organic carbon in marine sediments removes carbon dioxide from the ocean–atmosphere pool, provides energy to the deep biosphere, and on geological timescales drives the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Here we quantify natural variations in the burial of organic carbon in deep-sea sediments over the last glacial cycle. Using a new data compilation of hundreds of sediment cores, we show that the accumulation rate of organic carbon in the deep sea was consistently higher (50%) during glacial maxima than during interglacials. The spatial pattern and temporal progression of the changes suggest that enhanced nutrient supply to parts of the surface ocean contributed to the glacial burial pulses, with likely additional contributions from more efficient transfer of organic matter to the deep sea and better preservation of organic matter due to reduced oxygen exposure. These results demonstrate a pronounced climate sensitivity for this global carbon cycle sink. PMID:26923945

  15. Antimicrobial peptides from skin secretions of Chinese red belly toad Bombina maxima.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ren; Zheng, Yong Tang; Shen, Ji Hong; Liu, Guan Jie; Liu, Hen; Lee, Wen Hui; Tang, Shao Zhong; Zhang, Yun

    2002-03-01

    Two groups of antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from skin secretions of Bombina maxima. Peptides in the first group, named maximins 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, are structurally related to bombinin-like peptides (BLPs). Unlike BLPs, sequence variations in maximins occurred all through the molecules. In addition to the potent antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity against tumor cells and spermicidal action of maximins, maximin 3 possessed a significant anti-HIV activity. Maximins 1 and 3 were toxic to mice with LD(50) values of 8.2 and 4.3 mg/kg, respectively. Peptides in the second group, termed maximins H1, H2, H3 and H4, are homologous with bombinin H peptides. cDNA sequences revealed that one maximin peptide plus one maximin H peptide derived from a common larger protein.

  16. Microbial community structure elucidates performance of Glyceria maxima plant microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Timmers, Ruud A; Rothballer, Michael; Strik, David P B T B; Engel, Marion; Schulz, Stephan; Schloter, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Hamelers, Bert; Buisman, Cees

    2012-04-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology in which living plant roots provide electron donor, via rhizodeposition, to a mixed microbial community to generate electricity in a microbial fuel cell. Analysis and localisation of the microbial community is necessary for gaining insight into the competition for electron donor in a PMFC. This paper characterises the anode-rhizosphere bacterial community of a Glyceria maxima (reed mannagrass) PMFC. Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) were located on the root surfaces, but they were more abundant colonising the graphite granular electrode. Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria dominated the area where most of the EAB were found, indicating that the current was probably generated via the hydrolysis of cellulose. Due to the presence of oxygen and nitrate, short-chain fatty acid-utilising denitrifiers were the major competitors for the electron donor. Acetate-utilising methanogens played a minor role in the competition for electron donor, probably due to the availability of graphite granules as electron acceptors.

  17. Losses of GPS phase lock and pseudo range during the 2002 solar maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasyukevich, Yury; Maxikov, Alexey; Demyanov, Vladislav

    Overall using the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) allows us to measure radio navigation parameters all over the world. The strongest solar maxima during GNSS era was in 2002. Based on worldwide GNSS network data we evaluated probability of loss of GPS phase lock and pseudo range. Mean density of GPS phase lock losses is 0.02% at L1 frequency and 0.5% at L2 frequency; same for pseudo range is 0.3% and 0.7%. We compare indexes of the propagation medium state and probability of pseudo range and phase lock loss. Total loss of lock density correlate well with geomagnetic storm and strong solar flares. The work is partly supported by the Russian Federation President Grant МК-3771.2013.5.

  18. Lethal thermal maxima for age-0 pallid and shovelnose sturgeon: Implications for shallow water habitat restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deslauriers, David; Heironimus, Laura B.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated temperature tolerance in age-0 pallid and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus and Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), two species that occur sympatrically in the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. Fish (0.04–18 g) were acclimated to water temperatures of 13, 18 or 24 °C to quantify temperatures associated with lethal thermal maxima (LTM). The results show that no difference in thermal tolerance existed between the two sturgeon species, but that LTM was significantly related to body mass and acclimation temperature. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate LTM, and outputs from the model were compared with water temperatures measured in the shallow water habitat (SWH) of the Missouri River. Observed SWH temperatures were not found to yield LTM conditions. The model developed here is to serve as a general guideline in the development of future SWH.

  19. Sensitive and specific identification by polymerase chain reaction of Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima, important protozoan pathogens in laboratory avian facilities

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-A; Hong, Sunhwa; Chung, Yungho

    2011-01-01

    Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima are important pathogens causing intracellular protozoa infections in laboratory avian animals and are known to affect experimental results obtained from contaminated animals. This study aimed to find a fast, sensitive, and efficient protocol for the molecular identification of E. tenella and E. maxima in experimental samples using chickens as laboratory avian animals. DNA was extracted from fecal samples collected from chickens and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was employed to detect E. tenella and E. maxima from the extracted DNA. The target nucleic acid fragments were specifically amplified by PCR. Feces secreting E. tenella and E. maxima were detected by a positive PCR reaction. In this study, we were able to successfully detect E. tenella and E. maxima using the molecular diagnostic method of PCR. As such, we recommended PCR for monitoring E. tenella and E. maxima in laboratory avian facilities. PMID:21998616

  20. Predicting the solubility of drugs in solvent mixtures: multiple solubility maxima and the chameleonic effect.

    PubMed

    Escalera, J B; Bustamante, P; Martin, A

    1994-03-01

    An approach to reproduce the solubility profile of a drug in several solvent mixtures showing two solubility maxima is proposed in this work. The solubility of sulphamethoxypyridazine was determined at 25 degrees C in several mixtures of varying polarity (hexane:ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate:ethanol and ethanol:water). Sulphamethoxypyridazine was chosen as a model drug because of its proton-donor and proton-acceptor properties. A plot of the mole fraction of the drug vs the solubility parameter of the solvent mixtures shows two solubility peaks. The two peaks found for sulphamethoxypyridazine demonstrate the chameleonic effect as described by Hoy and suggest that the solute-solvent interaction does not vary uniformly from one mixture to another. The different behaviour of the drug in mixtures of two proton-donor and proton-acceptor solvents (alcohol and water), and in mixtures of one proton acceptor (ethyl acetate) and one proton donor-proton acceptor (ethanol) is rationalized in terms of differences in the proton donor-acceptor ability of the solvent mixtures. An approach based on the acidic and basic partial solubility parameters together with the Hildebrand solubility parameter of the solvent mixtures is developed to reproduce the experimental results quantitatively. The equation predicts the two solubility maxima as found experimentally, and the calculated values closely correspond to the experimental values through the range composition of the solvent mixtures. These results show that the chameleonic effect can be described in a quantitative way in terms of Lewis acid-base interactions; this approach can assist the product formulator to choose the proper solvent mixture for a new drug.

  1. Relationship Between Intraseasonal Oscillation and Subtropical Wind Maxima Over the South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Dayton G.; Hurrell, James W.; Speth, P.; Sperling, T.; Funk, A.; Zube, S.

    1991-01-01

    The significance of tropical heat sources on higher latitude jet streams has been examined by numerous investigators. Hurrell and Vincent (1990) provide a summary of many of these investigations in their observational case study of the relationship between tropical heating and subtropical wind maxima in the Southern Hemisphere during SOP-1, FGGE. They showed that the divergent outflow from tropical heating associated with the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), acted on by the coriolis force, was an important factor in maintaining the subtropical jet on the poleward side of the SPCZ during the period, 6-20 January 1979. They found a similar, but weaker relationship, over the southern Indian Ocean from 3-17 February 1979, a period when the SPCZ heating was greatly reduced and the jet was essentially non-existent. Since their findings were based on a case study and involved the use of the highly-specialized FGGE data set, the natural questions which arose were: (1) Is this relationship a regular feature of the circulation over the South Pacific? and, (2) If so, can it be detected with a routine data set? Another question posed by Hurrell and Vincent in their papers was:(3) How important was the intraseasonal oscillation in causing the enhanced heating and divergent outflow in the Pacific Ocean in January and southern Indian Ocean in February? The purpose of the present paper is to address the answer to these three questions. To accomplish this, some circulation features for an entire warm season in the Southern Hemisphere were examined. The year selected was 1984-85, and the warm season consisted of the 6-month period, 1 November 1984 - 30 April 1985. This period was chosen because there were numerous cases of the westerly wind maxima over the South Pacific and the intraseasonal oscillation was well documented.

  2. Statistique de maxima et modeles graphiques multi-echelles: Application a la turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Jean, Philippe

    2003-06-01

    This thesis presents numerical and statistical methods devoted to signal analysis, with specific interest in the field of fully developed turbulence. The first chapter presents a method of signal analysis based on exceedence statistics of continuous stochastic fields using expected value of the number of local maxima of the field over a finite region. This method was introduced mostly by Robert Adler, and later developed by Keith Worlsey. We introduce a generalization of Siegmund and Worlsey's work on exceedence statistics of multi-scale fields that allows to apply the method to signal detection in arbitrarily correlated noise. We also propose a numerical optimization allowing a significant reduction of computing time of the numerical implementation. The second chapter covers a relatively recent problem regarding fully developed turbulence (i.e. at large values of the Reynolds number), namely the intermittency phenomenon. We focus on the multi-fractal approach and on the related cascade models. We bring up a difficulty regarding cascade models, namely the impossibility to generate models that respect translational invariance (stationarity). We develop a new stationary cascade model which respects self-similarity properties of the original models, while adding the stationarity property. The third chapter contains the most important result of the thesis while joining elements developed in the first two chapters. We present a statistical interpretation of the phenomenological model originally proposed by She and Leveque and the universal scaling law presented therein. This scaling law is found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data; however it had to be postulated in the original work of She et Leveque. Our interpretation is based on maxima statistics and allows to infer rather than postulate this law. It also allows to predict other admissible solutions.

  3. Highly restricted gene flow and deep evolutionary lineages in the giant clam Tridacna maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuryanto, A.; Kochzius, M.

    2009-09-01

    The tropical Indo-West Pacific is the biogeographic region with the highest diversity of marine shallow water species, with its centre in the Indo-Malay Archipelago. However, due to its high endemism, the Red Sea is also considered as an important centre of evolution. Currently, not much is known about exchange among the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and West Pacific, as well as connectivity within the Indo-Malay Archipelago, even though such information is important to illuminate ecological and evolutionary processes that shape marine biodiversity in these regions. In addition, the inference of connectivity among populations is important for conservation. This study aims to test the hypothesis that the Indo-Malay Archipelago and the Red Sea are important centres of evolution by studying the genetic population structure of the giant clam Tridacna maxima. This study is based on a 484-bp fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene from 211 individuals collected at 14 localities in the Indo-West Pacific to infer lineage diversification and gene flow as a measure for connectivity. The analysis showed a significant genetic differentiation among sample sites in the Indo-West Pacific (Φst = 0.74, P < 0.001) and across the Indo-Malay Archipelago (Φst = 0.72, P < 0.001), indicating restricted gene flow. Hierarchical AMOVA revealed the highest fixation index (Φct = 0.8, P < 0.001) when sample sites were assigned to the following regions: (1) Red Sea, (2) Indian Ocean and Java Sea, (3) Indonesian throughflow and seas in the East of Sulawesi, and (4) Western Pacific. Geological history as well as oceanography are important factors that shape the genetic structure of T. maxima in the Indo-Malay Archipelago and Red Sea. The observed deep evolutionary lineages might include cryptic species and this result supports the notion that the Indo-Malay Archipelago and the Red Sea are important centres of evolution.

  4. Kinetic and thermodynamic investigation on ascorbate oxidase activity and stability of a Cucurbita maxima extract.

    PubMed

    Porto, Tatiana S; Porto, Camila S; Cavalcanti, Maria T H; Filho, José L Lima; Perego, Patrizia; Porto, Ana L F; Converti, Attilio; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2006-01-01

    The kinetic and thermodynamic properties of ascorbate oxidase (AO) activity and stability of a Cucurbita maxima extract were investigated. Activity tests performed at 25 degrees C using initial ascorbic acid concentration in the range 50-750 M allowed estimating the Michaelis constant for this substrate (Km = 126 microM) and the maximum initial rate of ascorbic acid oxidation (A0,max = 1.57 mM min-1). The main thermodynamic parameters of the enzyme reaction (DeltaH* = 10.3 kJ mol-1; DeltaG* = 87.2 kJ mol-1; DeltaS* = -258 J mol-1 K-1) were estimated through activity tests performed at 25-48 C. Within such a temperature range, no decrease in the initial reaction rate was detected. The long-term thermostability of the raw extract was then investigated by means of residual activity tests carried out at 10-70 degrees C, which allowed estimating the thermodynamic parameters of the irreversible enzyme inactivation as well (DeltaH*D = 51.7 kJ mol-1; DeltaG*D = 103 kJ mol-1; S*D = -160 J mol-1 K-1). Taking into account the specific rate of AO inactivation determined at different temperatures, we also estimated the enzyme half-life (1047 min at 10 degrees C and 21.2 min at 70 degrees C) and predicted the integral activity of a continuous system using this enzyme preparation. This work should be considered as a preliminary attempt to characterize the AO activity of a C. maxima extract before its concentration by liquid-liquid extraction techniques.

  5. Optimization of Growth Conditions for Purification and Production of L-Asparaginase by Spirulina maxima.

    PubMed

    Abd El Baky, Hanaa H; El Baroty, Gamal S

    2016-01-01

    L-asparaginase (L-AsnA) is widely distributed among microorganisms and has important applications in medicine and in food technology sectors. Therefore, the ability of the production, purification, and characterization of AsnA from Spirulina maxima (SM) were tested. SM cultures grown in Zarrouk medium containing different N2 (in NaNO3 form) concentrations (1.25, 2.50, and 5.0 g/L) for 18 days contained a significant various quantity of dry biomass yields and AsnA enzyme levels. MS L-AsnA activity was found to be directly proportional to the N2 concentration. The cultures of SM at large scales (300 L medium, 5 g/L N2) showed a high AsnA enzyme activity (898 IU), total protein (405 mg/g), specific enzyme activity (2.21 IU/mg protein), and enzyme yield (51.28 IU/L) compared with those in low N2 cultures. The partial purification of crude MS AsnA enzyme achieved by 80% ammonium sulfate AS precipitated and CM-Sephadex C-200 gel filtration led to increases in the purification of enzyme with 5.28 and 10.91 times as great as that in SM crude enzymes. Optimum pH and temperature of purified AsnA for the hydrolyzate were 8.5 and 37 ± 0.2°C, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on L-asparaginase production in S. maxima.

  6. Efficacy of a DNA Vaccine Carrying Eimeria maxima Gam56 Antigen Gene against Coccidiosis in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinjun; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    To control coccidiosis without using prophylactic medications, a DNA vaccine targeting the gametophyte antigen Gam56 from Eimeria maxima in chickens was constructed, and the immunogenicity and protective effects were evaluated. The ORF of Gam56 gene was cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(zeo)+. Expression of Gam56 protein in COS-7 cells transfected with recombinant plasmid pcDNA-Gam56 was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The DNA vaccine was injected intramuscularly to yellow feathered broilers of 1-week old at 3 dosages (25, 50, and 100 µg/chick). Injection was repeated once 1 week later. One week after the second injection, birds were challenged orally with 5×104 sporulated oocysts of E. maxima, then weighed and killed at day 8 post challenge. Blood samples were collected and examined for specific peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation activity and serum antibody levels. Compared with control groups, the administration of pcDNA-Gam56 vaccine markedly increased the lymphocyte proliferation activity (P<0.05) at day 7 and 14 after the first immunization. The level of lymphocyte proliferation started to decrease on day 21 after the first immunization. A similar trend was seen in specific antibody levels. Among the 3 pcDNA-Gam56 immunized groups, the median dosage group displayed the highest lymphocyte proliferation and antibody levels (P<0.05). The median dosage group had the greatest relative body weight gain (89.7%), and the greatest oocyst shedding reduction (53.7%). These results indicate that median dosage of DNA vaccine had good immunogenicity and immune protection effects, and may be used in field applications for coccidiosis control. PMID:23710081

  7. Optimization of Growth Conditions for Purification and Production of L-Asparaginase by Spirulina maxima

    PubMed Central

    El Baroty, Gamal S.

    2016-01-01

    L-asparaginase (L-AsnA) is widely distributed among microorganisms and has important applications in medicine and in food technology sectors. Therefore, the ability of the production, purification, and characterization of AsnA from Spirulina maxima (SM) were tested. SM cultures grown in Zarrouk medium containing different N2 (in NaNO3 form) concentrations (1.25, 2.50, and 5.0 g/L) for 18 days contained a significant various quantity of dry biomass yields and AsnA enzyme levels. MS L-AsnA activity was found to be directly proportional to the N2 concentration. The cultures of SM at large scales (300 L medium, 5 g/L N2) showed a high AsnA enzyme activity (898 IU), total protein (405 mg/g), specific enzyme activity (2.21 IU/mg protein), and enzyme yield (51.28 IU/L) compared with those in low N2 cultures. The partial purification of crude MS AsnA enzyme achieved by 80% ammonium sulfate AS precipitated and CM-Sephadex C-200 gel filtration led to increases in the purification of enzyme with 5.28 and 10.91 times as great as that in SM crude enzymes. Optimum pH and temperature of purified AsnA for the hydrolyzate were 8.5 and 37 ± 0.2°C, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on L-asparaginase production in S. maxima. PMID:27525017

  8. Diurnal double maxima patterns in the F region ionosphere: Substorm-related aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Pi, X.; Mendillo, M.; Fox, M.W.; Anderson, D.N.

    1993-08-01

    Daytime double maxima (twin peaks or bite-outs) in the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) at middle and lower latitudes are found to be related to substorm signatures shown in both auroral electrojet and ring current variations. Case studies reveal that during substorm onset and recovery phases, the penetration of magnetospheric convection electric fields and their subsequent {open_quotes}overshielding{close_quotes} effects may be the major dynamical sources of these events. A theoretical low-latitude ionospheric model is used to simulate the dynamical effects of electric field disturbances on F region electron density and TEC. It is demonstrated that the diurnal double maxima in TEC can be created by a combined effect of E x B drift and altitude-dependent F region chemical loss. The required zonal electric fields are found to have greater penetration efficiency in the early evening sector and their latitudinal requirements appear to change with local time. The time scales for the modeled penetration and overshielding effects are 2-3 hours. Modeling results also show that considerable structuring in the local time variation of the ionospheric {open_quotes}equatorial anomaly{close_quotes} can occur due to the interplay of convection electric field penetration and overshielding effects. The possible cause of the midday bite-out ionospheric disturbances by the meridional winds associated with traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs) is also addressed in modeling studies, but the specialized nature of the required TADs makes this a less well understood substorm-related mechanism. 64 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Pulsatile and nonpulsatile extracorporeal circulation using Capiox E terumo oxygenator: a comparison study with Ultrox and Maxima membrane oxygenators.

    PubMed

    Minami, K; Bairaktaris, A; Murray, E; Weitkemper, H; Dramburg, W; Körfer, R

    1997-06-01

    An open randomised, prospective study was undertaken on 90 patients who underwent routine myocardial revascularization. The aim of the study was to demonstrate that the Capiox E polypropylene fiber membrane oxygenator with a conventional single pulsatile/nonpulsatile blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was comparable in performance to that of the Maxima and the Ultrox membrane oxygenators using a double pump system. The patients were divided into six groups according to perfusion mode and oxygenator type. Laboratory parameters, fluid balance and oxygenation was examined at set times before during and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Net fluid input was lower in the Capiox E groups regardless of perfusion mode: 2932 +/- 562 ml (Capiox E), compared to 3646 +/- 531 ml (Ultrox) and 3593 +/- 582 ml (Maxima). Net fluid balance 1288 +/- 534 ml was lowest in the Capiox/NP group, compared to 1604 +/- 460 ml (Ultrox/NP) and 1881 +/- 594 ml (Maxima/NP), (p < 0.05). The higher net fluid balance in the Capiox E/PP group 1649 +/- 580 ml compared to 1592 +/- 583 ml (Ultrox E/PP) and 1494 +/- 542 ml (Maxima/PP) was attributed to a technicality whereby the recommended priming volume of the Capiox E oxygenator was exceeded for safety reasons. The values of plasma free Hb were slightly higher in the PP than NP groups: Maxima/PP 80 mg/dl, /NP 50 mg/dl; Ultrox/PP 62 mg/dl, /NP 48 mg/dl; Capiox E/PP 55 mg/dl, /NP 48 mg/dl. The FiO2 was higher in the Capiox E groups 0.77 (PP) and 0.88 (NP) compared to Maxima/PP (0.66), /NP (0.65) and Ultrox/PP (0.64), /NP (0.63). Reciprocally, the venous saturation was higher in the Ultrox and Maxima groups compared to Capiox E at end of CPB. The study demonstrated that the CapioxE oxygenator with a single blood pump system can compare to the Maxima and Ultrox oxygenators with a double blood pump for CPB with regard to blood handling, oxygenation and fluid balance in routine cardiac surgery.

  10. Mycoextraction by Clitocybe maxima combined with metal immobilization by biochar and activated carbon in an aged soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Cheng, Guanglei; Jiao, Kai; Shi, Wenjin; Wang, Can; Xu, Heng

    2016-08-15

    To develop an eco-friendly and efficient route to remediate soil highly polluted with heavy metals, the idea of mycoextraction combined with metal immobilization by carbonaceous sorbents (biochar and activated carbon) was investigated in this study. Results showed that the application of carbonaceous amendments decreased acid soluble Cd and Cu by 5.13-14.06% and 26.86-49.58%, respectively, whereas the reducible and oxidizable fractions increased significantly as the amount of carbonaceous amendments added increased. The biological activities (microbial biomass, soil enzyme activities) for treatments with carbonaceous sorbents were higher than those of samples without carbonaceous amendments. Clitocybe maxima (C. maxima) simultaneously increased soil enzyme activities and the total number of microbes. Biochar and activated carbon both showed a positive effect on C. maxima growth and metal accumulation. The mycoextraction efficiency of Cd and Cu in treatments with carbonaceous amendments enhanced by 25.64-153.85% and 15.18-107.22%, respectively, in response to that in non-treated soil, which showed positive correlation to the augment of biochar and activated carbon in soil. Therefore, this work suggested the effectiveness of mycoextraction by C. maxima combined the application of biochar and activated carbon in immobilising heavy metal in contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Primary Production and Photophysiology of Phytoplankton Forming Subsurface Chlorophyll Maxima in a UK Summer Stratified Coastal Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, M.; Kemp, A. E. S.; Hickman, A. E.; Purdie, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    In seasonally stratified temperate coastal and shelf seas, a subsurface chlorophyll maximum is often detectable with associated increased abundances of phytoplankton cells. These subsurface peaks in chlorophyll are generally closely associated with the seasonal thermocline, commonly occurring within or just below this density interface. UK coast and shelf sea research has often featured study of chlorophyll maxima present in summer months, yet the relative importance of primary production in these chlorophyll layers has rarely been investigated. Phytoplankton production rates and size-fractionated photophysiological measurements (>50 µm, >20 <50 µm, >10 <20 µm, >5 <10 µm, <5 µm) were made on water samples collected from subsurface chlorophyll maxima in stratified waters of the western English Channel during the summer of 2015. Carbon fixation rates were measured using 13C-bicarbonate incubations, and a Fluorescence Induction and Relaxation (FIRe) instrument was used to determine photophysiological characteristics of the various phytoplankton size fractions in vivo. Sampled chlorophyll maxima ranged between 2.4 - 19.0 µg L-1, varied in thickness from less than 1 m to approximately 9 m, and phytoplankton biomass was consistently dominated by cells larger than 50 µm, e.g. Ceratium fusus. Rates of water column primary production in the western English Channel will be presented, and the significant contribution by the subsurface chlorophyll maximum will be highlighted. The photophysiological characteristics of the phytoplankton population that formed the sampled chlorophyll maxima will also be reported.

  12. Evaluation of ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima isolated from the Algerian Jijel province poultry farms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study represents the first description of ionophore resistance in Eimeria recovered from commercial Algerian (Jijel-Algeria) broiler farms. Microscopy and ITS1 PCR revealed only 2 Eimeria species present in litter from these farms- namely E. acervulina and E. maxima. A pool of these is...

  13. Hepatoprotective effects of Spirulina maxima in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases range from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The "two hits" hypothesis is widely accepted for its pathogenesis: the first hit is an increased fat flux to the liver, which predisposes our patient to a second hit where increasing free fatty acid oxidation into the mitochondria leads to oxidative stress, lipoperoxidation and a chain reaction with increased ROS. Clinical indications include abdominal cramps, meteorism and fatigue. Most patients, however, are asymptomatic, and diagnosis is based on aminotransferase elevation and ultrasonography (or "brilliant liver"). Spirulina maxima has been experimentally proven to possess in vivo and in vitro hepatoprotective properties by maintaining the liver lipid profile. This case report evaluates the hepatoprotective effects of orally supplied Spirulina maxima. Case presentation Three Hispanic Mexican patients (a 43-year-old man, a 77-year-old man and a 44-year-old woman) underwent ultrasonography and were treated with 4.5 g/day of Spirulina maxima for three months. Their blood samples before and after the treatment determined triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The results were assessed using ultrasound. Conclusion Treatment had therapeutic effects as evidenced by ultrasonography and the aminotransferase data. Hypolipidemic effects were also shown. We conclude that Spirulina maxima may be considered an alternative treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases and dyslipidemic disorder. PMID:20370930

  14. Some new retarded nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm type integral inequalities with maxima in two variables and their applications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Run; Ma, Xiangting

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we establish some new retarded nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm type integral inequalities with maxima in two independent variables, and we present the applications to research the boundedness of solutions to retarded nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm type integral equations.

  15. Speech Recognition with the Advanced Combination Encoder and Transient Emphasis Spectral Maxima Strategies in Nucleus 24 Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Laura K.; Vandali, Andrew E.; Skinner, Margaret W.; Fourakis, Marios S.; Holden, Timothy A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the difficulties faced by cochlear implant (CI) recipients is perception of low-intensity speech cues. A. E. Vandali (2001) has developed the transient emphasis spectral maxima (TESM) strategy to amplify short-duration, low-level sounds. The aim of the present study was to determine whether speech scores would be significantly higher with…

  16. Comparative microarray analysis of intestinal lymphocytes following Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella infection in the chicken

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Relative expression levels of immune- and non-immune-related mRNAs in chicken intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella were measured using a 10K cDNA microarray. Based on a cutoff of > 2.0-fold differential expression compared ...

  17. Speech Recognition with the Advanced Combination Encoder and Transient Emphasis Spectral Maxima Strategies in Nucleus 24 Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Laura K.; Vandali, Andrew E.; Skinner, Margaret W.; Fourakis, Marios S.; Holden, Timothy A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the difficulties faced by cochlear implant (CI) recipients is perception of low-intensity speech cues. A. E. Vandali (2001) has developed the transient emphasis spectral maxima (TESM) strategy to amplify short-duration, low-level sounds. The aim of the present study was to determine whether speech scores would be significantly higher with…

  18. First characterisation of flavonoid- and diarylheptanoid-type antioxidant phenolics in Corylus maxima by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Riethmüller, Eszter; Tóth, Gergő; Alberti, Ágnes; Végh, Krisztina; Burlini, Ilaria; Könczöl, Árpád; Balogh, György Tibor; Kéry, Ágnes

    2015-03-25

    Corylus maxima Mill. (Betulaceae) leaves have been used in traditional medicine both internally and externally, nevertheless phytochemical exploration of the plant remains incomplete. In this study, the in vitro antioxidant activity and polyphenolic composition of the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of C. maxima leaves and bark are reported for the first time. The radical scavenging activities of the extracts were investigated by the ABTS and DPPH assays. All the extracts of C. maxima possessed notable antioxidant activity. By mean of a HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF and a HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method, altogether twenty-two phenolics were tentatively characterised: one flavan derivative (1), seven flavonol derivatives (4, 6, 12, 13, 16, 20 and 21) and fourteen diarylheptanoids (2, 3, 5, 7-11, 14, 15, 17-19 and 22). The amount of the two main flavonoids - myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (6) and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (13) - and two diarylheptanoids - oregonin (3) and hirsutenone (15) - in the extracts were determined by a validated HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Our results showed that C. maxima could be considered as a valuable source of pharmacologically important natural products that might contribute to the revaluation of the phytotherapeutical potential of the plant.

  19. Identification of structural breaks in hydrological maxima time series in Paraguay River, Pantanal Region, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Marcus; Lima, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological time series of the Paraguay River located in the Pantanal region of Brazil exhibits a complex and interesting behavior, which includes long memory characteristics, monotonic trends, multiple breaks and strong seasonality. Particularly, several abrupt changes from low to high flows and vice versa have been observed on annual maxima time series and have been responsible for the major flood damages in the region, even more significant than the largest floods that occurred in the period post 1974. The year of 1974 is historically known as the year of the most significant flood impact in region, especially on agriculture and cattle. Therefore, the identification and attribution of such step changes in the series is of particular interest to improve the flood management systems across the region. Here we apply the cumulative sum (CUSUM) procedure to identify the timing of the abrupt changes. Preliminary results for the Ladario streamflow gauge reveal multiple structural changes in 1936 (high flows to low flows), 1961 (high/low), 1974 (low/high) and 1999 (high/low). Rainfall records were also analyzed and the results obtained suggest that the Paraguay River basin in its upper reach, monitored by Caceres gauging station (32,400 km²) and Cuiabá river basin (23,500 km²) are the factors that most contribute to low frequencies oscillations in the Ladario maxima time series (253,000 km²). These sub-basins are both located in the northern part of the catchment along with the boundary of the Amazon River basin, where the average rainfall is more expressive. In both basins the rainfall records show a structural break in 1973. Simple linear regression using rainfall and flow records in those sub-basins show that the rainfall data accounts for around 70% of the flow variance, indicating that the internal dynamics of the catchment plays a minor role on the streamflow variability. Low frequency variability is also observed in both rainfall series and may be the

  20. Comparative impacts of iron oxide nanoparticles and ferric ions on the growth of Citrus maxima.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Li, Junli; Gan, Qiuliang; Wang, Yunqiang; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-02-01

    The impacts of iron oxide nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3 NPs) and ferric ions (Fe(3+)) on plant growth and molecular responses associated with the transformation and transport of Fe(2+) were poorly understood. This study comprehensively compared and evaluated the physiological and molecular changes of Citrus maxima plants as affected by different levels of γ-Fe2O3 NPs and Fe(3+). We found that γ-Fe2O3 NPs could enter plant roots but no translocation from roots to shoots was observed. 20 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs had no impact on plant growth. 50 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs significantly enhanced chlorophyll content by 23.2% and root activity by 23.8% as compared with control. However, 100 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs notably increased MDA formation, decreased chlorophyll content and root activity. Although Fe(3+) ions could be used by plants and promoted the synthesis of chlorophyll, they appeared to be more toxic than γ-Fe2O3 NPs, especially for 100 mg/L Fe(3+). The impacts caused by γ-Fe2O3 NPs and Fe(3+) were concentration-dependent. Physiological results showed that γ-Fe2O3 NPs at proper concentrations had the potential to be an effective iron nanofertilizer for plant growth. RT-PCR analysis showed that γ-Fe2O3 NPs had no impact on AHA gene expression. 50 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs and Fe(3+) significantly increased expression levels of FRO2 gene and correspondingly had a higher ferric reductase activity compared to both control and Fe(II)-EDTA exposure, thus promoting the iron transformation and enhancing the tolerance of plants to iron deficiency. Relative levels of Nramp3 gene expression exposed to γ-Fe2O3 NPs and Fe(3+) were significantly lower than control, indicating that all γ-Fe2O3 NPs and Fe(3+) treatments could supply iron to C. maxima seedlings. Overall, plants can modify the speciation and transport of γ-Fe2O3 NPs or Fe(3+) for self-protection and development by activating many physiological and molecular processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Solar activity during the Holocene: the Hallstatt cycle and its consequence for grand minima and maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Gallet, Y.; Lopes, F.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Hulot, G.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: Cosmogenic isotopes provide the only quantitative proxy for analyzing the long-term solar variability over a centennial timescale. While essential progress has been achieved in both measurements and modeling of the cosmogenic proxy, uncertainties still remain in the determination of the geomagnetic dipole moment evolution. Here we aim at improving the reconstruction of solar activity over the past nine millennia using a multi-proxy approach. Methods: We used records of the 14C and 10Be cosmogenic isotopes, current numerical models of the isotope production and transport in Earth's atmosphere, and available geomagnetic field reconstructions, including a new reconstruction relying on an updated archeo- and paleointensity database. The obtained series were analyzed using the singular spectrum analysis (SSA) method to study the millennial-scale trends. Results: A new reconstruction of the geomagnetic dipole field moment, referred to as GMAG.9k, is built for the last nine millennia. New reconstructions of solar activity covering the last nine millennia, quantified in terms of sunspot numbers, are presented and analyzed. A conservative list of grand minima and maxima is also provided. Conclusions: The primary components of the reconstructed solar activity, as determined using the SSA method, are different for the series that are based on 14C and 10Be. This shows that these primary components can only be ascribed to long-term changes in the terrestrial system and not to the Sun. These components have therefore been removed from the reconstructed series. In contrast, the secondary SSA components of the reconstructed solar activity are found to be dominated by a common ≈2400-year quasi-periodicity, the so-called Hallstatt cycle, in both the 14C and 10Be based series. This Hallstatt cycle thus appears to be related to solar activity. Finally, we show that the grand minima and maxima occurred intermittently over the studied period, with clustering near lows and highs

  2. Promotive effect of se on the growth and antioxidation of a blue-green alga Spirulina maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi-Gang, Zhou; Zhi-Li, Liu

    1998-12-01

    Cultures of a blue-green alga Spirulina maxima (Setch. et Gard.) Geitler with various concentrations of Se in Zarrouk's medium showed that not higher than 40 mg/L Se could promote its growth. The present experiments showed that S. maxima grown under normal conditions, has an oxidant stress defence system for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) removal, which is the Halliwell-Asada pathway. When 4 to 20 mg/L Se was added to the algal medium, this pathway was replaced by a so-called Sestressed pathway containing GSH peroxidase (GSH-POD). As a result of the occurrence of both higher activity of GSH-POD and lower levels of hydroxyl radical (OH·), the Se-stressed pathway scavenged H2O2 so effectively that the growth of S. maxima was promoted by 4 to 20 mg/L Se. While GSH-POD activity of the alga disappeared at 40 mg/L Se, the recovery of ascorbate peroxidase was observed. The lower levels of ascorbic acid and GSH made the Halliwell-Asada pathway for scavenging H2O2 less effective, while the highest activity of catalase might be responsible in part for the H2O2 removal, causing the level of OH· in S. maxima grown at 40 mg/L Se to be much higher than the OH· level in this alga grown at 4 to 20 mg/L Se, but lower than that in the control. The OH· level changes caused the growth of S. maxima cultured at 40 mg/L Se to increase slightly to close to that of the control.

  3. Antioxidant effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima in a neurotoxic model caused by 6-OHDA in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Tobón-Velasco, J C; Palafox-Sánchez, Victoria; Mendieta, Liliana; García, E; Santamaría, A; Chamorro-Cevallos, G; Limón, I Daniel

    2013-08-01

    There is evidence to support that an impaired energy metabolism and the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to brain injury in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas diets enriched in foods with an antioxidant action may modulate its progression. Several studies have proved that the antioxidant components produced by Spirulina, a microscopic blue-green alga, might prevent cell death by decreasing free radicals, inhibiting lipoperoxidation and upregulating the antioxidant enzyme systems. In our study, we investigated the protective effect of the Spirulina maxima (S. maxima) against the 6-OHDA-caused toxicity in the rat striatum. The S. maxima (700 mg/kg/day, vo) was administered for 40 days before and 20 days after a single injection of 6-OHDA (16 μg/2 μL) into the dorsal striatum. At 20-day postsurgery, the brain was removed and the striatum was obtained to evaluate the indicators of toxicity, such as nitric oxide levels, ROS formation, lipoperoxidation, and mitochondrial activity. These variables were found significantly stimulated in 6-OHDA-treated rats and were accompanied by declines in dopamine levels and motor activity. In contrast, the animals that received the chronic treatment with S. maxima had a restored locomotor activity, which is associated with the decreased levels of nitric oxide, ROS, and lipoperoxidation in the striatum, although mitochondrial functions and dopamine levels remained preserved. These findings suggest that supplementation with antioxidant phytochemicals (such as contained in S. maxima) represents an effective neuroprotective strategy against 6-OHDA-caused neurotoxicity vía free radical production to preserve striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo.

  4. Eimeria maxima microneme protein 2 delivered as DNA vaccine and recombinant protein induces immunity against experimental homogenous challenge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Menghui; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-10-01

    E. maxima is one of the seven species of Eimeria that infects chicken. Until now, only a few antigenic genes of E. maxima have been reported. In the present study, the immune protective effects against E. maxima challenge of recombinant protein and DNA vaccine encoding EmMIC2 were evaluated. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. The experimental group of chickens was immunized with 100 μg DNA vaccine pVAX1-MIC2 or 200 μg rEmMIC2 protein while the control group of chickens was injected with pVAX1 plasmid or sterile PBS. The results showed that the anti-EmMIC2 antibody titers of both rEmMIC2 protein and pVAX1-MIC2 groups were significantly higher as compared to PBS and pVAX1 control (P<0.05). The splenocytes from both vaccinated groups of chickens displayed significantly greater proliferation compared with the controls (P<0.05). Serum from chickens immunized with pVAX1-MIC2 and rEmMIC2 protein displayed significantly high levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β and IL-4 (P<0.05) compared to those of negative controls. The challenge experiment results showed that both the recombinant protein and the DNA vaccine could obviously alleviate jejunum lesions, body weight loss, increase oocyst, decrease ratio and provide ACIs of more than 165. All the above results suggested that immunization with EmMIC2 was effective in imparting partial protection against E. maxima challenge and it could be an effective antigen candidate for the development of new vaccines against E. maxima.

  5. Induction of protective immunity against Eimeria tenella, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina infections using multivalent epitope DNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaokai; Ren, Zhe; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-06-04

    Avian coccidiosis is mostly caused by mixed infection of several Eimeria species under natural conditions and immunity to avian coccidiosis is largely dependent on T-cell immune response. In this study, 14 T-cell epitope fragments from eight antigens of Eimeria tenella (E. tenella), Eimeria necatrix (E. necatrix), Eimeria maxima (E. maxima) and Eimeria acervulina (E. acervulina) were ligated with pVAX1 producing 14 monovalent DNA vaccines, respectively. Protective immunity of the monovalent DNA vaccines was assessed by in vivo challenge experiments and then four most protective fragments of each species were chosen to construct multivalent epitope DNA vaccines with or without chicken IL-2 as genetic adjuvant. Protective efficacies of the epitope DNA vaccines on chickens against E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. maxima and E. acervulina were evaluated. The results showed that the constructed multivalent epitope DNA vaccines significantly increased body weight gain, alleviated enteric lesions and reduced oocyst output of the infected birds. Especially, the multivalent epitope DNA vaccines of pVAX1-NA4-1-TA4-1-LDH-2-EMCDPK-1 and pVAX1-NA4-1-TA4-1-LDH-2-EMCDPK-1-IL-2 not only significantly increased body weight gain, alleviated enteric lesions and reduced oocyst output of the infected birds, but also resulted in anti-coccidial index (ACI) more than 170 against E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. maxima and E. acervulina, which indicated they could induce protective immunity against E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. maxima and E. acervulina. Our findings suggest the constructed multivalent epitope DNA vaccines are the potential candidate multivalent vaccines against mixed infection of Eimeria.

  6. Tropospheric ozone maxima observed over the Arabian Sea during the pre-monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jia; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Hou, Xuewei; Rozanov, Alexei; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    An enhancement of the tropospheric ozone column (TOC) over Arabian Sea (AS) during the pre-monsoon season is reported in this study. The potential sources of the AS spring ozone pool are investigated by use of multiple data sets (e.g., SCIAMACHY Limb-Nadir-Matching TOC, OMI/MLS TOC, TES TOC, MACC reanalysis data, MOZART-4 model and HYSPLIT model). Three-quarters of the enhanced ozone concentrations are attributed to the 0-8 km height range. The main source of the ozone enhancement is considered to be caused by long-range transport of ozone pollutants from India (˜ 50 % contributions to the lowest 4 km, ˜ 20 % contributions to the 4-8 km height range), the Middle East, Africa and Europe (˜ 30 % in total). In addition, the vertical pollution accumulation in the lower troposphere, especially at 4-8 km, was found to be important for the AS spring ozone pool formation. Local photochemistry, on the other hand, plays a negligible role in producing ozone at the 4-8 km height range. In the 0-4 km height range, ozone is quickly removed by wet deposition. The AS spring TOC maxima are influenced by the dynamical variations caused by the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly during the El Niño period in 2005 and 2010 with a ˜ 5 DU decrease.

  7. Remote-controlled stop of phloem mass flow by biphasic occlusion in Cucurbita maxima

    PubMed Central

    Furch, Alexandra C. U.; Zimmermann, Matthias R.; Will, Torsten; Hafke, Jens B.; van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between damage-induced electropotential waves (EPWs), sieve tube occlusion, and stop of mass flow were investigated in intact Cucurbita maxima plants. After burning leaf tips, EPWs propagating along the phloem of the main vein were recorded by extra- and intracellular microelectrodes. The respective EPW profiles (a steep hyperpolarization/depolarization peak followed by a prolonged hyperpolarization/depolarization) probably reflect merged action and variation potentials. A few minutes after passage of the first EPW peak, sieve tubes gradually became occluded by callose, with maximum synthesis occurring ∼10 min after burning. Early stop of mass flow, well before completion of callose deposition, pointed to an occlusion mechanism preceding callose deposition. This obstruction of mass flow was inferred from the halt of carboxyfluorescein movement in sieve tubes and intensified secretion of aqueous saliva by feeding aphids. The early occlusion is probably due to proteins, as indicated by a dramatic drop in soluble sieve element proteins and a simultaneous coagulation of sieve element proteins shortly after the burning stimulus. Mass flow resumed 30–40 min after burning, as demonstrated by carboxyfluorescein movement and aphid activities. Stop of mass flow by Ca2+-dependent occlusion mechanisms is attributed to Ca2+ influx during EPW passage; the reversibility of the occlusion is explained by removal of Ca2+ ions. PMID:20584788

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the clam Tridacna maxima from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.D.; Bagg, J.; Bycroft, B.M.

    1984-05-01

    The concentrations of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), anthracene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(ghi)perylene, fluoranthene, and perylene, were measured in clams, Tridacna maxima, collected from sites on the Great Barrier Reef ranging in latitude from 14/sup 0/31'S to 23/sup 0/33' S. At most locations the concentrations of PAH were not significantly above the limit of detection, e.g., pyrene < 0.07 ..mu..g/kg wet weight, benzo(a)pyrene < 0.01 ..mu..g/kg, and chrysene < 0.07 ..mu..g/kg. These levels of PAH appear to be the lowest reported for clams anywhere in the world, indicating the pristine nature of the Great Barrier Reef at the present time. Concentrations significantly above detection levels were found at only two sites, Lizard Island First Beach (anthracene, 3.2 ..mu..g/kg; pyrene, 1.4 ..mu..g/kg) and Heron Island Harbour (pyrene, 1.2 ..mu..g/kg; benzo(a)pyrene, 0.02 ..mu..g/kg). Both sites are frequently visited by power boats which are the most likely source of hydrocarbon contamination. These low levels of contamination would not have been demonstrated by the measurement of only the most commonly studied PAH, benzo(a)pyrene. Simultaneous determination of several PAH was necessary to show clearly that some localized pollution had occurred.

  9. Incorporation of Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina maxima biomass in pasta products. Part 1: Preparation and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fradique, Mónica; Batista, Ana Paula; Nunes, M Cristiana; Gouveia, Luísa; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Raymundo, Anabela

    2010-08-15

    Microalgae are able to enhance the nutritional content of conventional foods and hence to positively affect human health, due to their original chemical composition. The aim of the present study was to prepare fresh spaghetti enriched with different amounts of microalgae biomass (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina maxima) and to compare the quality parameters (optimal cooking time, cooking losses, swelling index and water absorption), chemical composition, instrumental texture and colour of the raw and cooked pasta enriched with microalgae biomass with standard semolina spaghetti. The incorporation of microalgae results in an increase of quality parameters when compared to the control sample. The colour of microalgae pastas remained relatively stable after cooking. The addition of microalgae resulted in an increase in the raw pasta firmness when compared to the control sample. Of all the microalgae studied, an increase in the biomass concentration (0.5-2.0%) resulted in a general tendency of an increase in the pasta firmness. Sensory analysis revealed that microalgae pastas had higher acceptance scores by the panellists than the control pasta. Microalgae pastas presented very appellative colours, such as orange and green, similar to pastas produced with vegetables, with nutritional advantages, showing energetic values similar to commercial pastas. The use of microalgae biomass can enhance the nutritional and sensorial quality of pasta, without affecting its cooking and textural properties. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Rapid affinity-purification and physicochemical characterization of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin.

    PubMed

    Narahari, Akkaladevi; Swamy, Musti J

    2010-04-21

    The chito-oligosaccharide-specific lectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on chitin. After SDS/PAGE in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, the pumpkin phloem lectin yielded a single band corresponding to a molecular mass of 23.7 kDa, whereas ESI-MS (electrospray ionization MS) gave the molecular masses of the subunit as 24645 Da. Analysis of the CD spectrum of the protein indicated that the secondary structure of the lectin consists of 9.7% alpha-helix, 35.8% beta-sheet, 22.5% beta-turn and 32.3% unordered structure. Saccharide binding did not significantly affect the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein. The haemagglutinating activity of pumpkin phloem lectin was mostly unaffected in the temperature range 4-70 degrees C, but a sharp decrease was seen between 75 and 85 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetric and CD spectroscopic studies suggest that the lectin undergoes a co-operative thermal unfolding process centred at approx. 81.5 degrees C, indicating that it is a relatively stable protein.

  11. Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.

    PubMed

    Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

    2013-08-14

    Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients.

  12. Historical distribution of Sundaland’s Dipterocarp rainforests at Quaternary glacial maxima

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Charles H.; Hijmans, Robert J.; Piessens, Thomas; Saw, Leng Guan; van Welzen, Peter C.; Slik, J. W. Ferry

    2014-01-01

    The extent of Dipterocarp rainforests on the emergent Sundaland landmass in Southeast Asia during Quaternary glaciations remains a key question. A better understanding of the biogeographic history of Sundaland could help explain current patterns of biodiversity and support the development of effective forest conservation strategies. Dipterocarpaceae trees dominate the rainforests of Sundaland, and their distributions serve as a proxy for rainforest extent. We used species distribution models (SDMs) of 317 Dipterocarp species to estimate the geographic extent of appropriate climatic conditions for rainforest on Sundaland at the last glacial maximum (LGM). The SDMs suggest that the climate of central Sundaland at the LGM was suitable to sustain Dipterocarp rainforest, and that the presence of a previously suggested transequatorial savannah corridor at that time is unlikely. Our findings are supported by palynologic evidence, dynamic vegetation models, extant mammal and termite communities, vascular plant fatty acid stable isotopic compositions, and stable carbon isotopic compositions of cave guano profiles. Although Dipterocarp species richness was generally lower at the LGM, areas of high species richness were mostly found off the current islands and on the emergent Sunda Shelf, indicating substantial species migration and mixing during the transitions between the Quaternary glacial maxima and warm periods such as the present. PMID:25385612

  13. Characterization and Pathogenicity of Alternaria burnsii from Seeds of Cucurbita maxima (Cucurbitaceae) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung-Hun

    2015-12-01

    In the course of survey of endophytic fungi from Bangladesh pumpkin seeds in 2011~2012, two strains (CNU111042 and CNU111043) with similar colony characteristics were isolated and characterized by their morphology and by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and Alternaria allergen a1 (Alt a1) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of all three sequences and their combined dataset revealed that the fungus formed a subclade within the A. alternata clade, matching A. burnsi and showing differences with its other closely related Alternaria species, such as A. longipes, A. tomato, and A. tomaticola. Long ellipsoid, obclavate or ovoid beakless conidia, shorter and thinner conidial size (16~60 [90] × 6.5~14 [~16] µm) distinguish this fungus from other related species. These isolates showed more transverse septation (2~11) and less longitudinal septation (0~3) than did other related species. Moreover, the isolate did not produce any diffusible pigment on media. Therefore, our results reveal that the newly recorded fungus from a new host, Cucurbita maxima, is Alternaria burnsii Uppal, Patel & Kamat.

  14. [The fatty acid composition of large pumpkin seed oil (Curucbitae maxima Dich) cultivated in Georgia].

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to identify qualitatively and quantitatively fatty acid composition of large pumpkin seed oil cultivated in Georgia (Cucurbitae maxima Duch) and evaluate its biological activities. Evaluation was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography method. Fatty acids ranging from C12:0 to C22:0 were identified in the probe. The oil contained 0,2В±0,01mg% lauric, 0,3В±0,01 mg% miristic, 9,0В±0,7mg% palmitic, 5,5В±0,4 mg% stearic, 28,1В±1,0 mg% oleic, 40,2В±1,9 mg% linolic, 12,1В±1,0 mg% linolenic, 2,0В±0,2mg% arachinic and 1,2В±0,1 mg% begenic acids. The investigation showed that large pumpkin seed oil contains a range of biologically significant fatty acids, unique proportion of which attaches great value to the vegetative material.

  15. Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in the bread fortified with pomelo (Citrus maxima) fruit segments.

    PubMed

    Reshmi, S K; Sudha, M L; Shashirekha, M N

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in breads incorporated with pomelo fruit (Citrus maxima) segments. Volume of the white and brown breads supplemented with pomelo fresh segments increased, while the crumb firmness decreased. Bread with 20% fresh and 5% dry pomelo segments were sensorily acceptable. Bioactive components such as phenolics, flavonoids, naringin and carotenoids were retained to a greater extent in bread containing dry pomelo segments. The pomelo incorporated bread had higher levels of resistant starch fractions (3.87-10.96%) with low predicted glycemic index (62.97-53.13%), despite their higher total starch (69.87-75.47%) content compared to control bread. Thus pomelo segments in the product formulations lowered the glycemic index probably by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activity which could be attributed to naringin. Hence fortified bread prepared from pomelo fruit segment is recommended to gain nutritional value and to decrease the risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characterization of the skin of turbot (Psetta maxima L.).

    PubMed

    Faílde, L D; Bermúdez, R; Vigliano, F; Coscelli, G A; Quiroga, M I

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the normal morphologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of skin of the turbot (Psetta maxima L.). In the turbot skin, three morphologically distinct layers were identified: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The epidermis was non-keratinizing, stratified squamous epithelium that varies in thickness from 5 to 14 cells and 60 to 100μm in size. Goblet cells were seen randomly distributed between malpighian cells in the epidermal layer. These mucous cells were mainly located in the upper third of the epidermis and displayed a spherical to elongated morphology. Dermis was divided in two well-differentiated layers, the superficial stratum laxum and the deeper stratum compactum. Hypodermis was a loose layer mainly composed by adipocytes but we could observe variable amounts of fibroblast, collagen and blood vessels. In turbot two pigmentary layers could be identified: the pigmentary layer of dermis was located between basement membrane and dermis and the pigmentary layer of hypodermis immediately above the muscular layer. Three different types of chromatophores were present: melanophores, iridophores and xanthophores. The main differences observed between groups of fish with different colouration were in the amount of melanophores and xanthophores. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of normal cutaneous biology prior to consideration of specific cutaneous alterations and diseases in turbot.

  17. Glacier maxima in Baffin Bay during the Medieval Warm Period coeval with Norse settlement

    PubMed Central

    Young, Nicolás E.; Schweinsberg, Avriel D.; Briner, Jason P.; Schaefer, Joerg M.

    2015-01-01

    The climatic mechanisms driving the shift from the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) to the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the North Atlantic region are debated. We use cosmogenic beryllium-10 dating to develop a moraine chronology with century-scale resolution over the last millennium and show that alpine glaciers in Baffin Island and western Greenland were at or near their maximum LIA configurations during the proposed general timing of the MWP. Complimentary paleoclimate proxy data suggest that the western North Atlantic region remained cool, whereas the eastern North Atlantic region was comparatively warmer during the MWP—a dipole pattern compatible with a persistent positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. These results demonstrate that over the last millennium, glaciers approached their eventual LIA maxima before what is considered the classic LIA in the Northern Hemisphere. Furthermore, a relatively cool western North Atlantic region during the MWP has implications for understanding Norse migration patterns during the MWP. Our results, paired with other regional climate records, point to nonclimatic factors as contributing to the Norse exodus from the western North Atlantic region. PMID:26665173

  18. Equation of state for water and its line of density maxima down to -120 MPa.

    PubMed

    Pallares, Gaël; Gonzalez, Miguel A; Abascal, Jose Luis F; Valeriani, Chantal; Caupin, Frédéric

    2016-02-17

    As water is involved in countless natural and industrial processes, its thermodynamic properties have been measured in a wide temperature and pressure range. Data on supercooled water are also available down to -73 °C and up to 400 MPa. In contrast, data at negative pressures are extremely scarce. Here we provide an experimental equation of state for water down to -120 MPa. In particular, we obtain the line of density maxima (LDM) of water down to a pressure six times more negative than previously available. As temperature increases from 4 up to 18 °C, the pressure PLDM(T) along the LDM decreases monotonically from 0 down to -120 MPa, while the slope dPLDM/dT becomes more negative. The experimental results are compared with molecular dynamic simulations of TIP4P/2005 water and a two-state model. We also discuss the possibility to observe extrema in compressibility and heat capacity at negative pressures, features that have remained elusive at positive pressures.

  19. Collapse of the California Current during glacial maxima linked to climate change on land.

    PubMed

    Herbert, T D; Schuffert, J D; Andreasen, D; Heusser, L; Lyle, M; Mix, A; Ravelo, A C; Stott, L D; Herguera, J C

    2001-07-06

    Time series of alkenone unsaturation indices gathered along the California margin reveal large (4 degrees to 8 degrees C) glacial-interglacial changes in sea surface temperature (SST) over the past 550,000 years. Interglacial times with SSTs equal to or exceeding that of the Holocene contain peak abundances in the pollen of redwood, the distinctive component of the temperate rainforest of the northwest coast of California. In the region now dominated by the California Current, SSTs warmed 10,000 to 15,000 years in advance of deglaciation at each of the past five glacial maxima. SSTs did not rise in advance of deglaciation south of the modern California Current front. Glacial warming along the California margin therefore is a regional signal of the weakening of the California Current during times when large ice sheets reorganized wind systems over the North Pacific. Both the timing and magnitude of the SST estimates suggest that the Devils Hole (Nevada) calcite record represents regional but not global paleotemperatures, and hence does not pose a fundamental challenge to the orbital ("Milankovitch") theory of the Ice Ages.

  20. Nitrocellulose immunoblotting for identification and molecular gene cloning of Eimeria maxima antigens that stimulate lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Bumstead, J M; Dunn, P P; Tomley, F M

    1995-01-01

    An immunoblotting technique was used to identify lymphostimulatory antigens within sized polypeptide fractions of Eimeria maxima sporozoites. Six fractions contained polypeptides that specifically stimulated the proliferation of immune lymphocytes in an in vitro assay, and polyclonal antisera were made in rabbits against these fractions. cDNA clones, isolated with antisera against a lymphostimulatory fraction of around 70 kDa, were found to encode four different antigens including a classical hsp70, a molecule homologous to an endoplasmic reticulum chaperonin (BiP/GRP), and a calcium-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase that appears homologous to a recently described molecule from Plasmodium falciparum. The protein kinase cDNA clone was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant antigen was found to induce both antibody and lymphoproliferative responses in chickens when administered subcutaneously. Thus, immunoblotting, in combination with in vitro lymphoproliferation assays, can be used as an initial screen for the identification of lymphostimulatory antigens from a complex pool of polypeptides, and a combination of cDNA cloning, expression, and immunization allows assessment of the lymphostimulatory activity of individual polypeptides. These studies should facilitate further evaluation of antigens that are potential candidates for inclusion in a recombinant vaccine against poultry coccidiosis. PMID:8548529

  1. Critical heat flux maxima resulting from the controlled morphology of nanoporous hydrophilic surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetreault-Friend, Melanie; Azizian, Reza; Bucci, Matteo; McKrell, Thomas; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Rubner, Michael; Cohen, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Porous hydrophilic surfaces have been shown to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF) in boiling heat transfer. In this work, the separate effects of pore size and porous layer thickness on the CHF of saturated water at atmospheric pressure were experimentally investigated using carefully engineered surfaces. It was shown that, for a fixed pore diameter (˜20 nm), there is an optimum layer thickness (˜2 μm), for which the CHF value is maximum, corresponding to ˜115% enhancement over the value for uncoated surfaces. Similarly, a maximum CHF value (˜100% above the uncoated surface CHF) was observed while changing the pore size at a constant layer thickness (˜1 μm). To explain these CHF maxima, we propose a mechanistic model that can capture the effect of pore size and pore thickness on CHF. The good agreement found between the model and experimental data supports the hypothesis that CHF is governed by the competition between capillary wicking, viscous pressure drop and evaporation, as well as conduction heat transfer within the porous layer. The model can be used to guide the development of engineered surfaces with superior boiling performance.

  2. An empirical law for wavelet maxima interpretation of potential fields: Application to the Uinta Mountains range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalier, Paul; Baghai-Wadji, Alireza; Poprawski, Yohann; Inggs, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Wavelet methods have been used in potential fields study to estimate source properties such as depth or structural index, through the analysis of Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima Lines (WTMML) intersections and slopes at high scales. Little has been done on the study of maximum points of the wavelet diagram, that we call here Maximum Wavelet Coefficient Scales (MWCS). Previous works have shown interesting correlations between MWCS and source depths, depending on the wavelet used in regards to the source nature and the data derivative order. In this paper, we introduce an empirical law involving spectral parameters that have not been studied so far, which allows analytical calculation of the MWCS, knowing the source characteristics and using certain wavelets. In return, the study of MWCS allows recovering source characteristics from the use of a single wavelet, without prior knowledge on the source. We demonstrate through synthetic models that the new capability of predicting the source type and depth according to the wavelet coefficient behaviour allows new ways of potential fields' sources characterization and identification. We show an application of the formula on a real case example in the Uinta Mountains (Utah, USA).

  3. Glacier maxima in Baffin Bay during the Medieval Warm Period coeval with Norse settlement.

    PubMed

    Young, Nicolás E; Schweinsberg, Avriel D; Briner, Jason P; Schaefer, Joerg M

    2015-12-01

    The climatic mechanisms driving the shift from the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) to the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the North Atlantic region are debated. We use cosmogenic beryllium-10 dating to develop a moraine chronology with century-scale resolution over the last millennium and show that alpine glaciers in Baffin Island and western Greenland were at or near their maximum LIA configurations during the proposed general timing of the MWP. Complimentary paleoclimate proxy data suggest that the western North Atlantic region remained cool, whereas the eastern North Atlantic region was comparatively warmer during the MWP-a dipole pattern compatible with a persistent positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. These results demonstrate that over the last millennium, glaciers approached their eventual LIA maxima before what is considered the classic LIA in the Northern Hemisphere. Furthermore, a relatively cool western North Atlantic region during the MWP has implications for understanding Norse migration patterns during the MWP. Our results, paired with other regional climate records, point to nonclimatic factors as contributing to the Norse exodus from the western North Atlantic region.

  4. Dietary Curcuma longa enhances resistance against Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections in chickens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Sung Hyen; Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Erik P; Bravo, David

    2013-10-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with an organic extract of Curcuma longa on systemic and local immune responses to experimental Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections were evaluated in commercial broiler chickens. Dietary supplementation with C. longa enhanced coccidiosis resistance as demonstrated by increased BW gains, reduced fecal oocyst shedding, and decreased gut lesions compared with infected birds fed a nonsupplemented control diet. The chickens fed C. longa-supplemented diet showed enhanced systemic humoral immunity, as assessed by greater levels of serum antibodies to an Eimeria microneme protein, MIC2, and enhanced cellular immunity, as measured by concanavalin A-induced spleen cell proliferation, compared with controls. At the intestinal level, genome-wide gene expression profiling by microarray hybridization identified 601 differentially expressed transcripts (287 upregulated, 314 downregulated) in gut lymphocytes of C. longa-fed chickens compared with nonsupplemented controls. Based on the known functions of the corresponding mammalian genes, the C. longa-induced intestinal transcriptome was mostly associated with genes mediating anti-inflammatory effects. Taken together, these results suggest that dietary C. longa could be used to attenuate Eimeria-induced, inflammation-mediated gut damage in commercial poultry production.

  5. Use of fluorescent nanoparticles to investigate nutrient acquisition by developing Eimeria maxima macrogametocytes

    PubMed Central

    Frölich, Sonja; Wallach, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The enteric disease coccidiosis, caused by the unicellular parasite Eimeria, is a major and reoccurring problem for the poultry industry. While the molecular machinery driving host cell invasion and oocyst wall formation has been well documented in Eimeria, relatively little is known about the host cell modifications which lead to acquisition of nutrients and parasite growth. In order to understand the mechanism(s) by which nutrients are acquired by developing intracellular gametocytes and oocysts, we have performed uptake experiments using polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs) of 40 nm and 100 nm in size, as model NPs typical of organic macromolecules. Cytochalasin D and nocodazole were used to inhibit, respectively, the polymerization of the actin and microtubules. The results indicated that NPs entered the parasite at all stages of macrogametocyte development and early oocyst maturation via an active energy dependent process. Interestingly, the smaller NPs were found throughout the parasite cytoplasm, while the larger NPs were mainly localised to the lumen of large type 1 wall forming body organelles. NP uptake was reduced after microfilament disruption and treatment with nocodazole. These observations suggest that E. maxima parasites utilize at least 2 or more uptake pathways to internalize exogenous material during the sexual stages of development. PMID:27352801

  6. Spirulina maxima prevents fatty liver formation in CD-1 male and female mice with experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hernández, A; Blé-Castillo, J L; Juárez-Oropeza, M A; Díaz-Zagoya, J C

    2001-07-20

    The dietary administration of 5% Spirulina maxima (SM) during four weeks to diabetic mice, starting one week after a single dose of alloxan, 250 mg/Kg body weight, prevented fatty liver production in male and female animals. The main action of SM was on triacylglycerol levels in serum and liver. There was also a moderate hypoglycemia in male mice. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances also decreased in serum and liver after SM administration. There was also a decrease in the percentage of HDL in diabetic mice that was reverted by the SM administration. The sum of LDL + VLDL percentages was also partially normalized in diabetic animals by the SM administration. An additional observation was the lower incidence of adherences between the liver and the intestine loops in the diabetic mice treated with SM compared with diabetic mice without SM. Male and female mice showed differences to diabetes susceptibility and response to SM, the female being more resistant to diabetes induction by alloxan and more responsive to the beneficial effects of SM. It is worth future work of SM on humans looking for better quality of life and longer survival of diabetic patients.

  7. [From the Cloaca Maxima to current sewage treatment works--historical aspects of waste disposal].

    PubMed

    Schadewaldt, H

    1983-09-01

    According to calculations made by the well-known hygienist Max Rubner in 1890, the annual quantity of waste made up of excreta, urine, kitchen refuse, ashes and water for general use than ran to 7,300 kgs. Thus it appears quite obvious that as early as in the ancient high cultures special waste disposal plants existed. In the Old Testament cesspools were in use, in Ancient Egypt sliding boxes served the same purpose, the Cretan palace of Knossos was provided with a really sophisticated water closet system and there is evidence that a similar facility existed in Mesopotamia. The Roman Cloaca maxima which functioned as a sanitary system for the entire capital, has never ceased to impress. With the advent of the so-called "miasma theory", public health legislations also started to take care of waste disposal, and as a result, various lavatories, slaughter-house and waste water facilities were created. When bacteriology began to establish itself, close attention was devoted to the ground water and the rivers. The "squatting closet" in Roman countries contrasted with the flush closet in England. For waste disposal, the so-called "Heidelberg barrel system" or the "Kiel exchange bucket system" were introduced. Of more recent date are the digestion chambers, the flow settling tanks and the "trickling or oxydation system" on the sprinkling fields.

  8. Amelioration of Cadmium-Produced Teratogenicity and Genotoxicity in Mice Given Arthrospira maxima (Spirulina) Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Argüelles-Velázquez, Nancy; Alvarez-González, Isela; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of the effects of Arthrospira maxima (AM) was made, otherwise known as Spirulina, on the teratogenicity, genotoxicity, and DNA oxidation processes induced by cadmium (Cd). Pregnant ICR mice were divided into groups and administered water, Cd only, AM only, or AM plus Cd. AM was administered orally at doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg from gestational day 0 (GD0) to GD17, and at GD7 there was an intraperitoneal challenge of Cd (1.5 mg/kg). Cd only caused fetal malformations, including exencephaly, micrognathia, ablephary, microphthalmia, and clubfoot, as well as a significant increase in the quantity of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE) and of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes (MNNE) in blood cells of both the mothers and their fetuses. An increased level of oxidation was also found, measured by a rise in the levels of the adduct 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine. In a dose-dependent manner, AM significantly reduced the number of external, visceral, and skeletal malformations, the quantity of MNPE and MNNE, and the level of DNA oxidation. The results suggest that AM may reduce the genotoxic effects and rates of congenital malformations caused by exposure to Cd in utero and that the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium could be responsible, at least in part, for producing this effect. PMID:24369479

  9. Interaction of xylem and phloem during exudation and wound occlusion in Cucurbita maxima.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Matthias R; Hafke, Jens B; van Bel, Aart J E; Furch, Alexandra C U

    2013-01-01

    Collection of cucurbit exudates from cut petioles has been a powerful tool for gaining knowledge on phloem sap composition without full notion of the complex exudation mechanism. Only few publications explicitly mentioned that exudates were collected from the basal side of the cut, which exudes more copiously than the apical side. This is surprising since only exudation from the apical side is supposedly driven by phloem pressure gradients. Composition of carbohydrates and pH values at both wounding sides are equal, whereas protein concentration is higher at the basal side. Apparently, exudation is far more complex than just the delivery of phloem sap. Xylem involvement is indicated by lower protein concentrations after elimination of root pressure. Moreover, dye was sucked into xylem vessels owing to relaxation of negative pressure after cutting. The lateral water efflux from the vessels increases turgor of surrounding cells including sieve elements. Simultaneously, detached parietal proteins (PP1/PP2) induce occlusion of sieve plates and cover wound surface. If root pressure is strong enough, pure xylem sap can be collected after removal of the occlusion plug at the wound surface. The present findings provide a mechanism of sap exudation in Cucurbita maxima, in which the contribution of xylem water is integrated. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Characterization and Pathogenicity of Alternaria burnsii from Seeds of Cucurbita maxima (Cucurbitaceae) in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin

    2015-01-01

    In the course of survey of endophytic fungi from Bangladesh pumpkin seeds in 2011~2012, two strains (CNU111042 and CNU111043) with similar colony characteristics were isolated and characterized by their morphology and by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and Alternaria allergen a1 (Alt a1) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of all three sequences and their combined dataset revealed that the fungus formed a subclade within the A. alternata clade, matching A. burnsi and showing differences with its other closely related Alternaria species, such as A. longipes, A. tomato, and A. tomaticola. Long ellipsoid, obclavate or ovoid beakless conidia, shorter and thinner conidial size (16~60 [90] × 6.5~14 [~16] µm) distinguish this fungus from other related species. These isolates showed more transverse septation (2~11) and less longitudinal septation (0~3) than did other related species. Moreover, the isolate did not produce any diffusible pigment on media. Therefore, our results reveal that the newly recorded fungus from a new host, Cucurbita maxima, is Alternaria burnsii Uppal, Patel & Kamat. PMID:26839497

  11. Structural and Physicochemical Characterization of Spirulina (Arthrospira maxima) Nanoparticles by High-Resolution Electron Microscopic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Neri-Torres, Elier Ekberg; Chanona-Pérez, Jorge J; Calderón, Hector A; Torres-Figueredo, Neil; Chamorro-Cevallos, German; Calderón-Domínguez, Georgina; Velasco-Bedrán, Hugo

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain Spirulina (Arthrospira maxima) nanoparticles (SNPs) by using high-impact mechanical milling and to characterize them by electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. The milling products were analyzed after various processing times (1-4 h), and particle size distribution and number mean size (NMS) were determined by analysis of high-resolution scanning electron microscopic images. The smallest particles are synthesized after 3 h of milling, had an NMS of 55.6±3.6 nm, with 95% of the particles being smaller than 100 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed lattice spacing of ~0.27±0.015 nm for SNPs. The corresponding chemical composition was obtained by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and showed the presence of Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, and Zn. The powder flow properties showed that the powder density was higher when the average nanoparticle size is smaller. They showed free flowability and an increase in their specific surface area (6.89±0.23 m2/g) up to 12-14 times larger than the original material (0.45±0.02 m2/g). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that chemical damage related to the milling is not significant.

  12. Stamen-derived bioactive gibberellin is essential for male flower development of Cucurbita maxima L.

    PubMed

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Knop, Nicole; Lange, Theo

    2012-04-01

    Gibberellin (GA) signalling during pumpkin male flower development is highly regulated, including biosynthetic, perception, and transduction pathways. GA 20-oxidases, 3-oxidases, and 2-oxidases catalyse the final part of GA synthesis. Additionally, 7-oxidase initiates this part of the pathway in some cucurbits including Cucurbita maxima L. (pumpkin). Expression patterns for these GA-oxidase-encoding genes were examined by competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and endogenous GA levels were determined during pumpkin male flower development. In young flowers, GA20ox3 transcript levels are high in stamens, followed by high levels of the GA precursor GA(9). Later, just before flower opening, transcript levels for GA3ox3 and GA3ox4 increase in the hypanthium and stamens, respectively. In the stamen, following GA3ox4 expression, bioactive GA(4) levels rise dramatically. Accordingly, catabolic GA2ox2 and GA2ox3 transcript levels are low in developing flowers, and increase in mature flowers. Putative GA receptor GID1b and DELLA repressor GAIPb transcript levels do not change in developing flowers, but increase sharply in mature flowers. Emasculation arrests floral development completely and leads to abscission of premature flowers. Application of GA(4) (but not of its precursors GA(12)-aldehyde or GA(9)) restores normal growth of emasculated flowers. These results indicate that de novo GA(4) synthesis in the stamen is under control of GA20ox3 and GA3ox4 genes just before the rapid flower growth phase. Stamen-derived bioactive GA is essential and sufficient for male flower development, including the petal and the pedicel growth.

  13. Stamen-derived bioactive gibberellin is essential for male flower development of Cucurbita maxima L.

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Knop, Nicole; Lange, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) signalling during pumpkin male flower development is highly regulated, including biosynthetic, perception, and transduction pathways. GA 20-oxidases, 3-oxidases, and 2-oxidases catalyse the final part of GA synthesis. Additionally, 7-oxidase initiates this part of the pathway in some cucurbits including Cucurbita maxima L. (pumpkin). Expression patterns for these GA-oxidase-encoding genes were examined by competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and endogenous GA levels were determined during pumpkin male flower development. In young flowers, GA20ox3 transcript levels are high in stamens, followed by high levels of the GA precursor GA9. Later, just before flower opening, transcript levels for GA3ox3 and GA3ox4 increase in the hypanthium and stamens, respectively. In the stamen, following GA3ox4 expression, bioactive GA4 levels rise dramatically. Accordingly, catabolic GA2ox2 and GA2ox3 transcript levels are low in developing flowers, and increase in mature flowers. Putative GA receptor GID1b and DELLA repressor GAIPb transcript levels do not change in developing flowers, but increase sharply in mature flowers. Emasculation arrests floral development completely and leads to abscission of premature flowers. Application of GA4 (but not of its precursors GA12-aldehyde or GA9) restores normal growth of emasculated flowers. These results indicate that de novo GA4 synthesis in the stamen is under control of GA20ox3 and GA3ox4 genes just before the rapid flower growth phase. Stamen-derived bioactive GA is essential and sufficient for male flower development, including the petal and the pedicel growth. PMID:22268154

  14. Culturable Rhodobacter and Shewanella species are abundant in estuarine turbidity maxima of the Columbia River.

    PubMed

    Bräuer, S L; Adams, C; Kranzler, K; Murphy, D; Xu, M; Zuber, P; Simon, H M; Baptista, A M; Tebo, B M

    2011-03-01

    Measurements of dissolved, ascorbate-reducible and total Mn by ICP-OES revealed significantly higher concentrations during estuarine turbidity maxima (ETM) events, compared with non-events in the Columbia River. Most probable number (MPN) counts of Mn-oxidizing or Mn-reducing heterotrophs were not statistically different from that of other heterotrophs (10³ -10⁴ cells ml⁻¹) when grown in defined media, but counts of Mn oxidizers were significantly lower in nutrient-rich medium (13 cells ml⁻¹). MPN counts of Mn oxidizers were also significantly lower on Mn(III)-pyrophosphate and glycerol (21 cells ml⁻¹). Large numbers of Rhodobacter spp. were cultured from dilutions of 10⁻² to 10⁻⁵, and many of these were capable of Mn(III) oxidation. Up to c. 30% of the colonies tested LBB positive, and all 77 of the successfully sequenced LBB positive colonies (of varying morphology) yielded sequences related to Rhodobacter spp. qPCR indicated that a cluster of Rhodobacter isolates and closely related strains (95-99% identity) represented approximately 1-3% of the total Bacteria, consistent with clone library results. Copy numbers of SSU rRNA genes for either Rhodobacter spp. or Bacteria were four to eightfold greater during ETM events compared with non-events. Strains of a Shewanella sp. were retrieved from the highest dilutions (10⁻⁵) of Mn reducers, and were also capable of Mn oxidation. The SSU rRNA gene sequences from these strains shared a high identity score (98%) with sequences obtained in clone libraries. Our results support previous findings that ETMs are zones with high microbial activity. Results indicated that Shewanella and Rhodobacter species were present in environmentally relevant concentrations, and further demonstrated that a large proportion of culturable bacteria, including Shewanella and Rhodobacter spp., were capable of Mn cycling in vitro.

  15. Anticlastogenic effect of Spirulina maxima extract on the micronuclei induced by maleic hydrazide in Tradescantia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Flores, L Elvia; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Salazar, María; Chamorro, Germán

    2003-02-07

    The aim of this investigation was to determine if extracts of Spirulina maxima reduce the genotoxic damage induced by maleic hydrazide (MH) using the Tradescantia biosssay. Two types of extracts from the alga were prepared: an aqueous extract with two different concentrations, 100 and 500 mg/ml, and a second one, the extract of a 1% solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) which corresponded to 100 mg/ml of the alga. The capacity of MH to induce micronuclei (MN) was initially established by administering 0.005, 0.01, and 0.015 mg/ml of the chemical to the Tradescantia inflorescences, and observing its effect after 24 h.The results of this experiment showed a significant MN increase with the two high concentrations tested, although no dose-response effect was observed. For the anticlastogenic assay, the extracts of Spirulina were applied to the inflorescences alone or immediately before the application of MH (0.01 mg/ml) and the induced MN were observed 24 h later. We found that none of the extracts increased the MN level with respect to the untreated plants; also, that MH more or less doubled the basal micronuclei frequency, and finally, that all tested extracts reduced the genotoxic damage caused by MH. The inhibitory indices obtained for the aqueous extracts (100 and 500 mg/ml) and for the DMSO extract were respectively 59, 85, and 56.3%. These data indicate that Spirulina is an anticlastogenic agent and suggest that it is advisable to extend studies on this matter using other biological models.

  16. Using interval maxima regression (IMR) to determine environmental optima controlling Microcystis spp. growth in Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Peng, Qiang; Xiao, Man

    2016-01-01

    Fortnightly investigations at 12 sampling sites in Meiliang Bay and Gonghu Bay of Lake Taihu (China) were carried out from June to early November 2010. The relationship between abiotic factors and cell density of different Microcystis species was analyzed using the interval maxima regression (IMR) to determine the optimum temperature and nutrient concentrations for growth of different Microcystis species. Our results showed that cell density of all the Microcystis species increased along with the increase of water temperature, but Microcystis aeruginosa adapted to a wide range of temperatures. The optimum total dissolved nitrogen concentrations for M. aeruginosa, Microcystis wesenbergii, Microcystis ichthyoblabe, and unidentified Microcystis were 3.7, 2.0, 2.4, and 1.9 mg L(-1), respectively. The optimum total dissolved phosphorus concentrations for different species were M. wesenbergii (0.27 mg L(-1)) > M. aeruginosa (0.1 mg L(-1)) > M. ichthyoblabe (0.06 mg L(-1)) ≈ unidentified Microcystis, and the iron (Fe(3+)) concentrations were M. wesenbergii (0.73 mg L(-1)) > M. aeruginosa (0.42 mg L(-1)) > M. ichthyoblabe (0.35 mg L(-1)) > unidentified Microcystis (0.09 mg L(-1)). The above results suggest that if phosphorus concentration was reduced to 0.06 mg L(-1) or/and iron concentration was reduced to 0.35 mg L(-1) in Lake Taihu, the large colonial M. wesenbergii and M. aeruginosa would be replaced by small colonial M. ichthyoblabe and unidentified Microcystis. Thereafter, the intensity and frequency of the occurrence of Microcystis blooms would be reduced by changing Microcystis species composition.

  17. Embryo vaccination of chickens using a novel adjuvant formulation stimulates protective immunity against Eimeria maxima infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Hong, Yeong-Ho; Min, Wongi; Lillehoj, Erik P; Yancey, Robert J; Dominowski, Paul

    2010-11-16

    Our previous study demonstrated that chickens immunized subcutaneously with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein vaccine emulsified in a Quil A/cholesterol/DDA/Carbopol (QCDC) adjuvant developed partial protection against experimental avian coccidiosis compared with animals immunized with profilin alone. Because in ovo vaccination is presently used in commercial applications worldwide throughout the poultry industry, the current study was undertaken to investigate chicken embryo vaccination with profilin plus QCDC adjuvant. Eighteen day-old embryos were immunized with isotonic saline (control), profilin alone, QCDC alone, or profilin plus QCDC, and orally challenged with live Eimeria maxima at 7 days post-hatch. Body weight gain, fecal oocyst output, and intestinal cytokine transcript levels were assessed as measures of protective immunity. While immunization with profilin alone or QCDC alone did not alter body weight gain of infected chickens compared with the saline control group, vaccination with profilin plus QCDC increased body weight gain such that it was equal to the uninfected controls. Immunization with profilin plus QCDC also reduced fecal oocyst shedding compared with unimmunized controls, although in this case QCDC failed to provide an adjuvant effect since no difference was observed between the profilin-only and profilin/QCDC groups. Finally, increased levels of transcripts encoding IL-1β, IL-15, and IFN-γ were seen in the intestinal tissues of animals given profilin plus QCDC compared with the profilin-only or QCDC-only groups. In summary, this study demonstrates an adjuvant effect of QCDC on body weight gain and intestinal cytokine responses following in ovo vaccination of chickens with an Eimeria profilin vaccine. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Regional frequency analysis of observed sub-daily rainfall maxima over eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hemin; Wang, Guojie; Li, Xiucang; Chen, Jing; Su, Buda; Jiang, Tong

    2017-02-01

    Based on hourly rainfall observational data from 442 stations during 1960-2014, a regional frequency analysis of the annual maxima (AM) sub-daily rainfall series (1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-h rainfall, using a moving window approach) for eastern China was conducted. Eastern China was divided into 13 homogeneous regions: Northeast (NE1, NE2), Central (C), Central North (CN1, CN2), Central East (CE1, CE2, CE3), Southeast (SE1, SE2, SE3, SE4), and Southwest (SW). The generalized extreme value performed best for the AM series in regions NE, C, CN2, CE1, CE2, SE2, and SW, and the generalized logistic distribution was appropriate in the other regions. Maximum return levels were in the SE4 region, with value ranges of 80-270 mm (1-h to 24-h rainfall) and 108-390 mm (1-h to 24-h rainfall) for 20- and 100 yr, respectively. Minimum return levels were in the CN1 and NE1 regions, with values of 37-104 mm and 53-140 mm for 20 and 100 yr, respectively. Comparing return levels using the optimal and commonly used Pearson-III distribution, the mean return-level differences in eastern China for 1-24-h rainfall varied from -3-4 mm to -23-11 mm (-10%-10%) for 20-yr events, reaching -6-26 mm (-10%-30%) and -10-133 mm (-10%-90%) for 100-yr events. In view of the large differences in estimated return levels, more attention should be given to frequency analysis of sub-daily rainfall over China, for improved water management and disaster reduction.

  19. Physiological role of phenolic biostimulants isolated from brown seaweed Ecklonia maxima on plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Aremu, Adeyemi O; Masondo, Nqobile A; Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Amoo, Stephen O; Gruz, Jiří; Bíba, Ondřej; Šubrtová, Michaela; Pěnčík, Aleš; Novák, Ondřej; Doležal, Karel; Van Staden, Johannes

    2015-06-01

    Eckol, a major phenolic compound isolated from brown seaweed significantly enhanced the bulb size and bioactive compounds in greenhouse-grown Eucomis autumnalis. We investigated the effect of eckol and phloroglucinol (PG) (phenolic compounds) isolated from the brown seaweed, Ecklonia maxima (Osbeck) Papenfuss on the growth, phytochemical and auxin content in Eucomis autumnalis (Mill.) Chitt. The model plant is a popular medicinal species with increasing conservation concern. Eckol and PG were tested at 10(-5), 10(-6) and 10(-7) M using soil drench applications. After 4 months, growth parameters, phytochemical and auxin content were recorded. When compared to the control, eckol (10(-6) M) significantly improved bulb size, fresh weight and root production while the application of PG (10(-6) M) significantly increased the bulb numbers. However, both compounds had no significant stimulatory effect on aerial organs. Bioactive phytochemicals such as p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic acids were significantly increased in eckol (10(-5) M) and PG (10(-6) M) treatments, compared to the control. Aerial (1,357 pmol/g DW) and underground (1,474 pmol/g DW) parts of eckol-treated (10(-5) M) plants yielded the highest concentration of indole-3-acetic acid. Overall, eckol and PG elicited a significant influence on the growth and physiological response in E. autumnalis. Considering the medicinal importance of E. autumnalis and the increasing strains on its wild populations, these compounds are potential tools to enhance their cultivation and growth.

  20. Effect of Spirulina maxima Supplementation on Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc Status in Obese Patients with Treated Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, J; Szulińska, M; Tinkov, A A; Bogdański, P

    2016-09-01

    The effects of Spirulina maxima supplementation on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc status were studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 50 obese subjects with treated hypertension, each randomized to receive 2 g of spirulina or a placebo daily for 3 months. At baseline and after treatment, the calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc concentration in plasma was assessed. It was found that 3 months of S. maxima supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in the iron level in the plasma of obese patients. In conclusion, this is the first clinical study on the influence of spirulina supplementation on mineral status in obese patients with hypertension. Spirulina supplementation affects the iron status of obese Caucasians with well-treated hypertension.

  1. Complex, non-monotonic dose-response curves with multiple maxima: Do we (ever) sample densely enough?

    PubMed Central

    Cvrčková, Fatima; Luštinec, Jiří; Žárský, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    We usually expect the dose-response curves of biological responses to quantifiable stimuli to be simple, either monotonic or exhibiting a single maximum or minimum. Deviations are often viewed as experimental noise. However, detailed measurements in plant primary tissue cultures (stem pith explants of kale and tobacco) exposed to varying doses of sucrose, cytokinins (BA or kinetin) or auxins (IAA or NAA) revealed that growth and several biochemical parameters exhibit multiple reproducible, statistically significant maxima over a wide range of exogenous substance concentrations. This results in complex, non-monotonic dose-response curves, reminiscent of previous reports of analogous observations in both metazoan and plant systems responding to diverse pharmacological treatments. These findings suggest the existence of a hitherto neglected class of biological phenomena resulting in dose-response curves exhibiting periodic patterns of maxima and minima, whose causes remain so far uncharacterized, partly due to insufficient sampling frequency used in many studies. PMID:26336980

  2. Energies of Maxima and Oscillator Strengths of CaO Elementary Transition Bands Over a Wide Energy Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, V. V.; Merzlyakov, D. A.; Sobolev, V. Val.

    2016-09-01

    Integral spectra of the imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity ɛ2(E) and characteristic volume (-Im ɛ-1) and surface [-Im (1 + ɛ)-1] energy losses of calcium oxide were deconvoluted into elementary components in the range 6-40 eV. The main component parameters including the energies of maxima and oscillator strengths were determined using an improved non-parametric method of united Argand diagrams and the method of the effective number of valence electrons participating in the transitions. A total of 41 components with oscillator strengths in the range 0.001-0.22 were identified instead of the 14 maxima and shoulders of the integral spectra. They were caused by transverse and longitudinal exciton and interband transitions.

  3. Photometric and fluorometric continuous kinetic assay of acid phosphatases with new substrates possessing longwave absorption and emission maxima.

    PubMed

    Koller, E; Wolfbeis, O S

    1984-11-15

    A direct and continuous kinetic method for the photometric and fluorometric determination of various acid phosphatases is described. It is based on new coumarin-derived phosphates, which after enzymatic hydrolysis undergo dissociation to form intensely colored and strongly fluorescent phenolate anions. The latter have absorption maxima ranging from 385 to 505 nm, and fluorescence maxima between 470 and 595 nm. The new substrates were compared with respect to their rate of enzymatic hydrolysis, optimum pH, and detection limits of acid phosphatase from potato and wheat germ. Detection limits of 0.001 unit/ml were found by photometry, and as low as 0.00006 unit/ml by fluorometry. The principal advantages of the new substrates over existing ones are longwave absorptions and emissions, large Stokes shifts, and the low pKa values of the corresponding phenols, thus allowing a direct and continuous assay of acid phosphatase even in weakly acidic solutions.

  4. Cross-section fluctuations in open microwave billiards and quantum graphs: The counting-of-maxima method revisited.

    PubMed

    Dietz, B; Richter, A; Samajdar, R

    2015-08-01

    The fluctuations exhibited by the cross sections generated in a compound-nucleus reaction or, more generally, in a quantum-chaotic scattering process, when varying the excitation energy or another external parameter, are characterized by the width Γcorr of the cross-section correlation function. Brink and Stephen [Phys. Lett. 5, 77 (1963)] proposed a method for its determination by simply counting the number of maxima featured by the cross sections as a function of the parameter under consideration. They stated that the product of the average number of maxima per unit energy range and Γcorr is constant in the Ercison region of strongly overlapping resonances. We use the analogy between the scattering formalism for compound-nucleus reactions and for microwave resonators to test this method experimentally with unprecedented accuracy using large data sets and propose an analytical description for the regions of isolated and overlapping resonances.

  5. Origin of two maxima in specific heat in enthalpy relaxation under thermal history composed of cooling, annealing, and heating.

    PubMed

    Sakatsuji, Waki; Konishi, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-12-01

    The origin of two maxima in specific heat observed at the higher and the lower temperatures in the glass-transition region in the heating process has been studied for polymethyl methacrylate and polyvinyl chloride using differential scanning calorimetry, and the calculation was done using the phenomenological model equation under a thermal history of the typical annealing experiment composed of cooling, annealing, and heating. The higher maximum is observed above the glass-transition temperature, and it remains almost unchanged independent of annealing time t_{a}, while the lower one is observed above an annealing temperature T_{a} and shifts toward the higher one, increasing its magnitude with t_{a}. The analysis by the phenomenological model equation proposed in order to interpret the memory effect in the glassy state clarifies that under a typical annealing history, two maxima in specific heat essentially appear. The shift of the lower maximum toward higher temperatures from above T_{a} is caused by an increase in the amount of relaxation during annealing with t_{a}. The annealing temperature and the amount of relaxation during annealing play a major role in the determination of the number of maxima in the specific heat.

  6. Origin of two maxima in specific heat in enthalpy relaxation under thermal history composed of cooling, annealing, and heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakatsuji, Waki; Konishi, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-12-01

    The origin of two maxima in specific heat observed at the higher and the lower temperatures in the glass-transition region in the heating process has been studied for polymethyl methacrylate and polyvinyl chloride using differential scanning calorimetry, and the calculation was done using the phenomenological model equation under a thermal history of the typical annealing experiment composed of cooling, annealing, and heating. The higher maximum is observed above the glass-transition temperature, and it remains almost unchanged independent of annealing time ta, while the lower one is observed above an annealing temperature Ta and shifts toward the higher one, increasing its magnitude with ta. The analysis by the phenomenological model equation proposed in order to interpret the memory effect in the glassy state clarifies that under a typical annealing history, two maxima in specific heat essentially appear. The shift of the lower maximum toward higher temperatures from above Ta is caused by an increase in the amount of relaxation during annealing with ta. The annealing temperature and the amount of relaxation during annealing play a major role in the determination of the number of maxima in the specific heat.

  7. Protective effect of hyperimmune egg yolk IgY antibodies against Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima infections.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Park, D W; Jang, S I; Morales, A; García, D; Lucio, E; Larios, R; Victoria, G; Marrufo, D; Lillehoj, Erik P

    2009-07-07

    Avian coccidiosis is caused by several distinct species of Eimeria protozoa and is the major parasitic disease of poultry of economic importance. As an alternative strategy to control avian coccidiosis without using prophylactic medications, we have investigated the efficacy of inducing passive immunity against coccidiosis by orally feeding hyperimmune IgY antibodies. In this study, a commercially available egg yolk powder, Supracox (SC), a purified IgY fraction of egg yolk prepared from hens hyperimmunized with three major species of Eimeria oocysts, were continuously fed to young chicks from hatch. Upon orally infecting these broiler chicks with Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima oocysts at 1 week of age, they showed significantly higher body weight gains (P<0.05) compared to the untreated controls. Furthermore, SC-fed chicks showed significantly less intestinal lesions and reduced fecal oocyst output compared to the untreated controls following oral infections with E. tenella and E. maxima. These results provide clear evidence that passive immunization of chicks with hyperimmune egg yolk IgY antibodies provide significant protection against E. tenella or E. maxima infections.

  8. Relationship Between Broiler Body Weights, Eimeria maxima Gross Lesion Scores, and Microscores in Three Anticoccidial Sensitivity Tests.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Miguel A; Da Costa, Manuel; Kimminau, Emily; Fuller, Lorraine; Clark, Steven; Pesti, Gene; Beckstead, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Anticoccidial sensitivity tests (ASTs) serve to determine the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs against Eimeria field isolates in a controlled laboratory setting. The most commonly measured parameters are body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gross intestinal lesion scores, and mortality. Due to the difficulty in reliably scoring gross lesion scores of Eimeria maxima , microscopic analysis of intestinal scrapings (microscores) can be used in the field to indicate the presence of this particular Eimeria. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between E. maxima microscores and broiler body weights and gross E. maxima lesion scores in three ASTs. Day-old broiler chicks were raised for 12 days on a standard corn-soy diet. On Day 12, chicks were placed in Petersime batteries and treatment diets were provided. There were six birds per pen, four pens per treatment, and 12 treatments, for a total of 288 chicks per AST. The treatments were as follows: 1) nonmedicated, noninfected; 2) nonmedicated, infected; 3) lasalocid, infected; 4) salinomycin, infected; 5) diclazuril, infected; 6) monensin, infected; 7) decoquinate, infected; 8) narasin + nicarbazin, infected; 9) narasin, infected; 10) nicarbazin, infected; 11) robenidine, infected; and 12) zoalene, infected. On Day 14, chicks were challenged with an Eimeria field isolate by oral gavage. On Day 20, broilers were weighed, and gross lesion scores and microscores were classified from 0 to 4 depending on the severity of the gross lesion scores and E. maxima microscores. Data from three trials using different field isolates were statistically analyzed using a logarithmic regression model. There was no relationship (P = 0.1224) between microscores and body weight gain. There was a positive relationship between microscores and gross lesion scores (P = 0.004). However, there was also an interaction between isolate and treatment (P < 0.0001). Lastly, the interaction between isolate and gross lesion scores (P

  9. Assessing the magnitude and significance of deep chlorophyll maxima of the coastal eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Christine E.; Pesant, Stéphane; Waite, Anya M.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.

    2007-04-01

    Deep chlorophyll maxima (DCM) have the capacity to fuel substantial fractions of total water column production. The ecological importance of a ubiquitous DCM layer ranging from 50 to 120 m deep within Leeuwin Current (LC) and offshore waters of Western Australia is addressed here using data from a regional oceanographic field study conducted during the austral summer of 2000. Phytoplankton communities from surface and DCM layers were compared by examining pigments (chlorophyll a), phytoplankton carbon, photosynthetic characteristics and productivity rates estimated using 14C-based photosynthesis versus irradiance relationships. In the DCM layer, both extracted pigments (up to 0.83 mg m -3) and phytoplankton carbon (6.4-54.4 mg C m -3) were maximal, and were on average 6 and 5 times larger than in the surface layer, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were performed on production estimates using regionally relevant ranges of light attenuation ( Kd=0.050-0.066 m -1) and photoinhibition ( β*=0.00-0.01 mg C (mg chl a) -1 h -1 [μmol m -2 s -1] -1). These analyses provide upper and lower limits on previously reported estimates of primary production for the region, and show that small differences in light attenuation and photoinhibition can significantly affect computations of primary production and cause a shift from surface-dominated to DCM-dominated production scenarios. The contribution of the DCM layer to total water-column production ranged from a maximum of 30-70% under the scenarios examined. A regional overview of nitrate and stratification conditions in relation to the depth of the phytoplankton biomass maximum indicated that the critical balance between light and nutrients was a key factor driving DCM structure. We show that changing oceanographic conditions in both the along-shore and cross-shore directions, which included latitudinal variation in the strength of the LC, are accompanied by changes in the depth (and in turn production) of the DCM. The

  10. New river flow maxima in Northern England, December 2015: Implications for flood hazard and risk assessment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, James

    2016-04-01

    December 2015 was recently confirmed as the UK's wettest month on record by the Met Office. The most extreme precipitation was associated with three extratropical storm systems, named Desmond, Eva and Frank by the pilot Met Éireann/Met Office "Name our storms" project. In response, river levels reached new maxima at many locations across Northern England. Property damage was widespread, with at least 16,000 homes in England flooded. As with recent predecessors, these events reinvigorated public debate about the extent to which natural weather variability, anthropogenic climate change, increased urbanisation and/or other changes in catchment and river management might be responsible for apparent increases in flood frequency and severity. Change detection and attribution science is required to inform the debate, but is complicated by the short (typically ~ 35 years) river flow records available. Running a large number of coupled climate and hydrological model simulations is a powerful way of addressing the 'attribution question' with respect to the hypothesised climate forcing, for example, albeit one that remains largely in the research domain at present. In the meantime, flood-frequency analysis of available records still forms the bedrock of practice in the water industry; the results are used routinely in the design of new defence structures and in the development of flood hazard maps, amongst other things. In such analyses, it is usual for the records to be assumed stationary. In this context, the specific aims of this research are twofold: • To investigate whether, under the assumption of stationarity, the outputs of standard flood-frequency modelling methods (both 'single-site' and 'spatially pooled' methods) differ significantly depending on whether the new peaks are included or excluded, and; • To assess the sustainability of previous conclusions regarding trends in English river flows by reapplying simple statistical tests, such as the Mann-Kendal test

  11. Factors affecting the bacterial community composition and heterotrophic production of Columbia River estuarine turbidity maxima.

    PubMed

    Herfort, Lydie; Crump, Byron C; Fortunato, Caroline S; McCue, Lee Ann; Campbell, Victoria; Simon, Holly M; Baptista, António M; Zuber, Peter

    2017-08-06

    Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETM) function as hotspots of microbial activity and diversity in estuaries, yet, little is known about the temporal and spatial variability in ETM bacterial community composition. To determine which environmental factors affect ETM bacterial populations in the Columbia River estuary, we analyzed ETM bacterial community composition (Sanger sequencing and amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene) and bulk heterotrophic production ((3) H-leucine incorporation rates). We collected water 20 times to cover five ETM events and obtained 42 samples characterized by different salinities, turbidities, seasons, coastal regimes (upwelling vs. downwelling), locations, and particle size. Spring and summer populations were distinct. All May samples had similar bacterial community composition despite having different salinities (1-24 PSU), but summer non-ETM bacteria separated into marine, freshwater, and brackish assemblages. Summer ETM bacterial communities varied depending on coastal upwelling or downwelling conditions and on the sampling site location with respect to tidal intrusion during the previous neap tide. In contrast to ETM, whole (>0.2 μm) and free-living (0.2-3 μm) assemblages of non-ETM waters were similar to each other, indicating that particle-attached (>3 μm) non-ETM bacteria do not develop a distinct community. Brackish water type (ETM or non-ETM) is thus a major factor affecting particle-attached bacterial communities. Heterotrophic production was higher in particle-attached than free-living fractions in all brackish waters collected throughout the water column during the rise to decline of turbidity through an ETM event (i.e., ETM-impacted waters). However, free-living communities showed higher productivity prior to or after an ETM event (i.e., non-ETM-impacted waters). This study has thus found that Columbia River ETM bacterial communities vary based on seasons, salinity, sampling location, and particle size, with the

  12. Three-dimensional semi-idealized model for estuarine turbidity maxima in tidally dominated estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohit; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Roos, Pieter C.

    2017-05-01

    We develop a three-dimensional idealized model that is specifically aimed at gaining insight in the physical mechanisms resulting in the formation of estuarine turbidity maxima in tidally dominated estuaries. First, the three-dimensional equations for water motion and suspended sediment concentration together with the so-called morphodynamic equilibrium condition, are scaled. Next, surface elevation, velocity and sediment concentration are expanded in a small parameter ɛ =AbarM2 / H , where AbarM2 is the mean amplitude of the M2 tide and H is the mean water depth at the seaward side. This results in a system of equations at each order in this small parameter. This ordering allows solving for the vertical structure of the velocity and suspended sediment concentration, independently of the horizontal dimension. After obtaining these vertical structures, the horizontal dependencies of the physical variables follow from solving a two-dimensional elliptic partial differential equation for the surface elevation. The availability of fine sediments in the estuary follows from a two-dimensional elliptic partial differential equation which results from requiring the system to be in morphodynamic equilibrium, and prescribing the total amount of easily erodible sediments available in the estuary. These elliptic equations for the surface elevation and sediment availability are solved numerically using the finite element method with cubic polynomials as basis functions. As a first application, the model is applied to the Ems estuary using a simplified geometry and bathymetric profiles characteristic for the years 1980 and 2005. The availability of fine sediments and location of maximum concentration are investigated for different lateral depth profiles. In the first experiment, a uniform lateral depth is considered. In this case, both the sediment availability and suspended sediment concentration are, as expected, uniform in the lateral direction. In 1980, the sediment is

  13. CO2 production rate maxima in the deeper unsaturated zone of a semi-arid floodplain at Rifle, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Kim, Y.; Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Conrad, M. E.; Bill, M.; Hobson, C.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    Fluxes of CO2 from soils are important to understand in order to predict subsurface feedbacks to the atmosphere and responses to climate change. Such fluxes are commonly monitored at the soil surface and generally assumed to largely originate within shallow depths. Relatively little is understood on the depth distribution of CO2 production below the rhizosphere. We monitored CO2 fluxes at the soil surface, and measured vertical profiles of vadose CO2 concentrations, matric potentials, and temperatures at the Rifle Site, a saline semi-arid floodplain along the Colorado River in order to determine the significance of deeper vadose zone respiration. Vadose zone CO2 profiles exhibit temperature-dependent seasonal variations, and are consistent with CO2 fluxes measured at the soil surface. The measured vadose zone CO2 concentration profiles combined with gas diffusion coefficients estimated from soil properties indicated that local maxima in rates of CO2 production persist in the deeper vadose zone, about 1 m below the rhizosphere, and above the water table (~3.5 m below the soil surface). We hypothesized that water and oxygen activities, nutrient levels, and temperatures remain favorable for microbial respiration throughout the year in the subrhizosphere, unlike overlying drier soils and the underlying poorly aerated aquifer. Using soils and sediments from the field site, the hypothesized existence of deeper subsurface maxima in CO2 production rate is currently being tested in the laboratory through sediment incubation experiments and in 2.0 m tall vadose zone columns. Initial results from the laboratory support the hypothesized persistence of a subrhizosphere "hot zone" for microbial respiration, partly sustained through seasonal pulses of dissolved and labile organic carbon originating from the rhizosphere. These findings suggest that similar sustained deeper local maxima in respiration rates may occur in many other regions where near-surface conditions are

  14. Comparative microarray analysis of intestinal lymphocytes following Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella infection in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun; Min, Wongi; Kim, Chul Hong; Park, Myeong Seon; Hong, Yeong Ho; Lillehoj, Erik P

    2011-01-01

    Relative expression levels of immune- and non-immune-related mRNAs in chicken intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella were measured using a 10K cDNA microarray. Based on a cutoff of >2.0-fold differential expression compared with uninfected controls, relatively equal numbers of transcripts were altered by the three Eimeria infections at 1, 2, and 3 days post-primary infection. By contrast, E. tenella elicited the greatest number of altered transcripts at 4, 5, and 6 days post-primary infection, and at all time points following secondary infection. When analyzed on the basis of up- or down-regulated transcript levels over the entire 6 day infection periods, approximately equal numbers of up-regulated transcripts were detected following E. tenella primary (1,469) and secondary (1,459) infections, with a greater number of down-regulated mRNAs following secondary (1,063) vs. primary (890) infection. On the contrary, relatively few mRNA were modulated following primary infection with E. acervulina (35 up, 160 down) or E. maxima (65 up, 148 down) compared with secondary infection (E. acervulina, 1,142 up, 1,289 down; E. maxima, 368 up, 1,349 down). With all three coccidia, biological pathway analysis identified the altered transcripts as belonging to the categories of "Disease and Disorder" and "Physiological System Development and Function". Sixteen intracellular signaling pathways were identified from the differentially expressed transcripts following Eimeria infection, with the greatest significance observed following E. acervulina infection. Taken together, this new information will expand our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in avian coccidiosis and contribute to the development of novel disease control strategies.

  15. Comparative Microarray Analysis of Intestinal Lymphocytes following Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella Infection in the Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun; Min, Wongi; Kim, Chul Hong; Park, Myeong Seon; Hong, Yeong Ho; Lillehoj, Erik P.

    2011-01-01

    Relative expression levels of immune- and non-immune-related mRNAs in chicken intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella were measured using a 10K cDNA microarray. Based on a cutoff of >2.0-fold differential expression compared with uninfected controls, relatively equal numbers of transcripts were altered by the three Eimeria infections at 1, 2, and 3 days post-primary infection. By contrast, E. tenella elicited the greatest number of altered transcripts at 4, 5, and 6 days post-primary infection, and at all time points following secondary infection. When analyzed on the basis of up- or down-regulated transcript levels over the entire 6 day infection periods, approximately equal numbers of up-regulated transcripts were detected following E. tenella primary (1,469) and secondary (1,459) infections, with a greater number of down-regulated mRNAs following secondary (1,063) vs. primary (890) infection. On the contrary, relatively few mRNA were modulated following primary infection with E. acervulina (35 up, 160 down) or E. maxima (65 up, 148 down) compared with secondary infection (E. acervulina, 1,142 up, 1,289 down; E. maxima, 368 up, 1,349 down). With all three coccidia, biological pathway analysis identified the altered transcripts as belonging to the categories of “Disease and Disorder” and “Physiological System Development and Function”. Sixteen intracellular signaling pathways were identified from the differentially expressed transcripts following Eimeria infection, with the greatest significance observed following E. acervulina infection. Taken together, this new information will expand our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in avian coccidiosis and contribute to the development of novel disease control strategies. PMID:22140460

  16. Comparison of PSF maxima and minima of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnam, Challa; Lakshmana Rao, Vadlamudi; Lachaa Goud, Sivagouni

    2006-10-01

    In the present paper, and a series of papers to follow, the Fourier analytical properties of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems are investigated. First, the transmission function for MACA and CMACA is derived using Fourier methods and, based on the Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction theory, the formulae for the point spread function are formulated. The PSF maxima and minima are calculated for both the MACA and CMACA systems. The dependence of these properties on the number of zones is studied and reported in this paper.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: TU UMa light curves and maxima, CL Aur minima (Liska+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liska, J.; Skarka, M.; Mikulasek, Z.; Zejda, M.; Chrastina, M.

    2016-02-01

    Differential photometry for RR Lyrae star TU UMa in the 1st and 2nd file. The measurements were obtained using 24-inch and 1-inch telescopes, respectively. The observations were performed at the Masaryk University Observatory in Brno (3 nights, 24-inch), and at the private observatory in Brno (16 nights, 1-inch) in the Czech Republic from December 2013 to June 2014. Observing equipments consisted of 24-inch Newtonian telescope (600/2780mm, diameter/focal length) and a Moravian Instruments CCD camera G2-4000 with Stromgren photometric filters vby, and of 1-inch refractor (a photographic lens Sonnar 4/135mm, lens focal ratio/focal length) and ATIK 16IC CCD camera with green photometric filter with similar throughput as the Johnson V filter. Exposures were v - 60s, b - 30s, y - 30s, green - 30s. For the small aperture telescope, five frames were combined to a single image to achieve a better signal-to-noise ratio. The time resolution of a such combined frame is about 170s. CCD images were calibrated in a standard way (dark frame and flat field corrections). The C-Munipack software (Motl 2009) was used for this processing as well as for differential photometry. The comparison star BD+30 2165 was the same for both instruments, but the control stars were BD+30 2164 (for the 24-inch telescope) and HD 99593 (for the 1-inch telescope). The 3rd file contains maxima timings of TU UMa adopted from the GEOS RR Lyr database, from the latest publications, together with maxima timings determined in our study. Times of maxima were calculated from our observations, sky-surveys data (Hipparcos, NSVS, Pi of the Sky, SuperWASP), photographic measurements (project DASCH), and from several published datasets, in which the maxima were omitted or badly determined - Boenigk (1958AcA.....8...13B), Liakos, Niarchos (2011IBVS.6099....1L, 2011IBVS.5990....1L), Liu, Janes (1989ApJS...69..593L), Preston et al. (1961ApJ...133..484P). The 4th file contains minima timings of eclipsing binary CL Aur

  18. The role of peptides derived from Spirulina maxima in downregulation of FcεRI-mediated allergic responses.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Park, Sun-Joo; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-11-01

    Spirulina has been found suitable for use as a bioactive additive. It is an excellent source of protein that can be hydrolyzed into bioactive peptides. Two peptides LDAVNR (P1) and MMLDF (P2) purified from enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina maxima have been reported to be effective against early atherosclerotic responses. In this study, the intracellular mechanism involved in the downregulation of these peptides on high-affinity IgE receptor-mediated allergic reaction was further investigated. RBL-2H3 mast cells were pretreated with P1 or P2 and sensitized with dinitrophenyl-specific IgE antibody before stimulation of antigen dinitrophenyl-BSA. It was revealed that P1 and P2 exhibited significant inhibition on mast-cell degranulation via decreasing histamine release and intracellular Ca(2+) elevation. The inhibitory activity of P1 was found due to blockade of calcium- and microtubule-dependent signaling pathways. Meanwhile, the inhibition of P2 was involved in suppression of phospholipase Cγ activation and reactive oxygen species production. Moreover, the suppressive effects of P1 and P2 on generation of IL-4 were evidenced via depression of nuclear factor-κB translocation. These findings indicate that peptides P1 and P2 from S. maxima may be promising candidates of antiallergic therapeutics, contributing to development of bioactive food ingredients for amelioration of allergic diseases. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. On the maintenance of short-term subtropical wind maxima in the Southern Hemisphere during SOP-1, FGGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurrell, James W.; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1991-01-01

    The extent to which divergent circulations, induced by tropical heating, help to maintain westerly maxima in the Southern Hemisphere subtropics during the SOP-1 of FGGE is explored using Level III-b analyses from the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres. The contribution of the divergent wind component to the total ageostrophic flow in the subtropics is examined, as are the roles of other forcing terms in the localized Eliassen-Palm (1961) flux zonal momentum equation. Throughout the summertime subtropics, it is generally found that the dominant term in the zonal momentum budget is the Coriolis force applied to the diabatically driven meridional circulation. The largest positive tendencies due to this term are found in the entrance regions of the subtropical westerly maxima, and divergent circulations account for nearly all of the total ageostrophic flow. In the SPCZ region, however, it is found that transient eddies play an important role by partially offsetting the strong Coriolis acceleration in the entrance region of the local jet, and they help accelerate the westerly flow in the exit region through both barotropic and baroclinic processes. Energetically, the dominant term in the rotational kinetic energy budget throughout the subtropical belt is the conversion of divergent to rotational kinetic energy. The evidence supports the view that tropical heating in transient events drives or enhances local meridional overturning in the atmosphere, which, in turn, strengthens the summer subtropical westerly jet stream.

  20. Atomic structure of unligated laccase from Cerrena maxima at 1.76 Å with molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukova, Yu. N.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gur'yanov, V. A.; Kobyl'Skaya, Yu. V.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    The three-dimensional structure of unligated laccase from Cerrena maxima was established by X-ray diffraction at 1.76-Å resolution; R work = 18.07%, R free = 21.71%, rmsd of bond lengths, bond angles, and chiral angles are 0.008 Å, 1.19°, and 0.077°, respectively. The coordinate error for the refined structure estimated from the Luzzati plot is 0.195 Å. The maximum average error in the atomic coordinates is 0.047 Å. A total of 99.4% of amino-acid residues of the polypeptide chain are in the most favorable, allowable, and accessible regions of the Ramachandran plot. The three-dimensional structures of the complexes of laccase from C. maxima with molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were determined by the molecular simulation. These data provide insight into the structural aspect of the mechanism of the enzymatic cycle. The structure factors and the refined atomic coordinates were deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB-ID code is 3DIV).

  1. Atomic structure of unligated laccase from Cerrena maxima at 1.76 A with molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukova, Yu. N. Lyashenko, A. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gur'yanov, V. A.; Kobyl'skaya, Yu. V.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2010-05-15

    The three-dimensional structure of unligated laccase from Cerrena maxima was established by X-ray diffraction at 1.76-A resolution; R{sub work} = 18.07%, R{sub free} = 21.71%, rmsd of bond lengths, bond angles, and chiral angles are 0.008 A, 1.19{sup o}, and 0.077{sup o}, respectively. The coordinate error for the refined structure estimated from the Luzzati plot is 0.195 A. The maximum average error in the atomic coordinates is 0.047 A. A total of 99.4% of amino-acid residues of the polypeptide chain are in the most favorable, allowable, and accessible regions of the Ramachandran plot. The three-dimensional structures of the complexes of laccase from C. maxima with molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were determined by the molecular simulation. These data provide insight into the structural aspect of the mechanism of the enzymatic cycle. The structure factors and the refined atomic coordinates were deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB-ID code is 3DIV).

  2. The secondary maxima in black hole X-ray nova light curves - Clues toward a complete picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wan; Livio, Mario; Gehrels, Neil

    1993-01-01

    We study the secondary maxima observed commonly in the X-ray/optical light curves of black hole X-ray novae and show that they can play an important role in our understanding of the X-ray nova phenomenon. We discuss the observational characteristics of the secondary maxima and possible mechanisms to produce them. We propose a complete scenario for black hole X-ray nova events. The main outburst is caused by a disk instability. The second maximum is caused by X-ray evaporation of the matter near the inner Lagrangian (L1) region when the disk becomes optically thin. The third maximum (or the final minioutburst) is due to a mass transfer instability caused by hard X-ray heating of the subphotospheric layers of the secondary during the outburst. We predict that the newly discovered X-ray nova GRO J0422 + 32 may develop a final minioutburst in early 1993 and that its binary orbital period is less than 7 hr.

  3. Wavelength shifts in fluorescence maxima of stressed and non-stressed Norway spruce needles over the growing season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banninger, Cliff; Chappelle, E.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory fluorescence measurements of first and third year metal stressed and non stressed Norway spruce needles collected in May, Jul. Sep. and Nov. display significant wavelength shifts in the intensity maxima in the blue, green, red, and near infrared spectral regions, with the largest shifts occurring in the blue spectral region for both first and third year needles from Nov. Smaller, but the otherwise significant shifts also take place in the blue spectral region for first year needles from Sep. in the red spectral region for third year neddles from May, Jul. and Sep. and in the near infrared spectral region for first and third year needles from Jul. and Sep. Wavelength shifts in needle fluorescence maxima over the growing season are greatest in the blue and to a lesser extent, greenspectral regions from Sep. to Nov. but are also significant in the red and near infrared spectral regions from Jul. to Sep. and Sep. to Nov., and in the near infrared spectral region also from May to Jul.

  4. One Possible Reason for Double-Peaked Maxima in Solar Cycles: Is a Second Maximum of Solar Cycle 24 Expected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilcik, A.; Ozguc, A.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate solar activity by focusing on double maxima in solar cycles and try to estimate the shape of the current solar cycle (Cycle 24) during its maximum. We analyzed data for Solar Cycle 24 by using Learmonth Solar Observatory sunspot-group data collected since 2008. All sunspot groups (SGs) recorded during this time interval were separated into two groups: The first group includes small SGs [A, B, C, and H classes according to the Zurich classification], the second group consists of large SGs [D, E, and F]. We then calculated how many small and large sunspot groups occurred, their sunspot numbers [SSN], and the Zurich numbers [ Rz] from their daily mean numbers as observed on the solar disk during a given month. We found that the temporal variations for these three different separations behave similarly. We also analyzed the general shape of solar cycles from Cycle 1 to 23 by using monthly International Sunspot Number [ISSN] data and found that the durations of maxima were about 2.9 years. Finally, we used the ascending time and SSN relationship and found that the maximum of Solar Cycle 24 is expected to occur later than 2011. Thus, we conclude that i) one possible reason for a double maximum in solar cycles is the different behavior of large and small sunspot groups, and ii) a double maximum is expected for Solar Cycle 24.

  5. The secondary maxima in black hole X-ray nova light curves - Clues toward a complete picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wan; Livio, Mario; Gehrels, Neil

    1993-01-01

    We study the secondary maxima observed commonly in the X-ray/optical light curves of black hole X-ray novae and show that they can play an important role in our understanding of the X-ray nova phenomenon. We discuss the observational characteristics of the secondary maxima and possible mechanisms to produce them. We propose a complete scenario for black hole X-ray nova events. The main outburst is caused by a disk instability. The second maximum is caused by X-ray evaporation of the matter near the inner Lagrangian (L1) region when the disk becomes optically thin. The third maximum (or the final minioutburst) is due to a mass transfer instability caused by hard X-ray heating of the subphotospheric layers of the secondary during the outburst. We predict that the newly discovered X-ray nova GRO J0422 + 32 may develop a final minioutburst in early 1993 and that its binary orbital period is less than 7 hr.

  6. Wavelength shifts in fluorescence maxima of stressed and non-stressed Norway spruce needles over the growing season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banninger, Cliff; Chappelle, E.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory fluorescence measurements of first and third year metal stressed and non stressed Norway spruce needles collected in May, Jul. Sep. and Nov. display significant wavelength shifts in the intensity maxima in the blue, green, red, and near infrared spectral regions, with the largest shifts occurring in the blue spectral region for both first and third year needles from Nov. Smaller, but the otherwise significant shifts also take place in the blue spectral region for first year needles from Sep. in the red spectral region for third year neddles from May, Jul. and Sep. and in the near infrared spectral region for first and third year needles from Jul. and Sep. Wavelength shifts in needle fluorescence maxima over the growing season are greatest in the blue and to a lesser extent, greenspectral regions from Sep. to Nov. but are also significant in the red and near infrared spectral regions from Jul. to Sep. and Sep. to Nov., and in the near infrared spectral region also from May to Jul.

  7. Evaluation of ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima isolated from the Algerian to Jijel province poultry farms.

    PubMed

    Djemai, Samir; Mekroud, Abdeslam; Jenkins, Mark C

    2016-07-15

    The present study represents the first description of ionophore resistance in recovered from commercial Algerian (Jijel-Algeria) broiler farms. Microscopy and intervening transcribed sequence 1 PCR (ITS1 PCR) revealed only 2 Eimeria species present in litter from these farms- namely Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima. A pool of these isolates were evaluated in broiler chickens (Cobb 500) for sensitivity to 5 anticoccidial compounds-diclazuril (1ppm), lasalocid (125ppm), monensin (125ppm), narasin (70ppm) and salinomycin (60ppm). As indicated by anticoccidial sensitivity profiles based on lesion scores and anticoccidial index (ACI), complete resistance to monensin and narasin, partial resistance to salinomycin and lasalocid, and complete sensitivity to diclazuril was observed. While lack of sensitivity to monensin is not surprising given its use for years as the sole anticoccidial compound, the resistance to monoether (narasin) and polyether (lasalocid) ionophores suggests that cross-resistance has developed in a segment of the Eimeria population. The fairly uniform Eimeria species composition among all poultry farms suggests that E. acervulina and E. maxima more rapidly develop resistance to ionophore drugs.

  8. Reynolds shear stress near its maxima, turbulent bursting process and associated velocity profle in a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, Noor

    2014-11-01

    The Reynolds shear stress around maxima, turbulent bursting process and associate velocity profile in ZGP turbulent boundary layer is considered in the intermediate layer/mesolayer proposed by Afzal (1982 Ing. Arch. 53, 355-277), in addition to inner and outer layers. The intermediate length scale δm = δRτ- 1 / 2 having velocity Um = mUe with 1 / 2 <= m <= 2 / 3 where Ue is velocity at boundary layer edge. Long & Chen (1981 JFM) intermediate layer/ mesolayer scale δm = δRτ- 1 / 2 with velocity Um the friction velocity uτ, is untenable assumption (Afzal 1984 AIAA J). For channel/pipe flow, Sreenivasan et al. (1981989, 1997, 2006a,b) proposed critical layer / mesolayer, cited/adopted work Long and Chen and McKeon, B.J. & Sharma, A. 2010 JFM 658, page 370 stated ``retaining the assumption that the critical layer occurs when U (y) = (2 / 3) UCL (i.e. that the critical layer scales with y+ ~Rτ+ 2 / 3),'' both untenable assumptions, but ignored citation of papers Afzal 1982 onwards on pipe flow. The present turbulent boundary layer work shows that Reynolds shear maxima, shape factor and turbulent bursting time scale with mesolayer variables and Taylor length/time scale. Residence, Embassy Hotel Rasal Gang Aligarh 202001 UP India.

  9. Development of microsatellite markers for Manilkara maxima T.D. Penn. (Sapotaceae) and their use in conservation genetics.

    PubMed

    Silva-Junior, José Audenor; de Souza França, Daniele; Moraes, Ramiris César Souza; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato

    2016-06-01

    Manilkara maxima is an endemic tree species of the Atlantic Forest in southern Bahia, Brazil. It is considered important for forest conservation due to its mutualistic interactions with endemic and endangered animals. Our aim was to develop microsatellite markers to estimate genetic diversity in order to provide information for effectiveness of future conservation programs. We used next generation sequencing technology to develop the first specific microsatellite markers for M. maxima. Seventeen new microsatellite loci were applied in 72 individuals sampled in three natural populations. On average, the number of alleles per loci was 8.8. The expected heterozygosity varied between 0.72 and 0.77, indicating that the developed set of molecular markers is useful for genetic diversity studies. Additionally, the estimated value for the combined probability of exclusion (Q) was greater than 0.999, which indicates the powerful of these molecular tools for paternity and kinship analysis. Our results demonstrate that the set of microsatellites developed in this work is a powerful tool for population genetics, molecular ecology and conservation biology purposes.

  10. The local maxima method for enhancement of time-frequency map and its application to local damage detection in rotating machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuchowski, Jakub; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Zimroz, Radosław

    2014-06-01

    In this paper a new method of fault detection in rotating machinery is presented. It is based on a vibration time series analysis in time-frequency domain. A raw vibration signal is decomposed via the short-time Fourier transform (STFT). The time-frequency map is considered as matrix (M×N) with N sub-signals with length M. Each sub-signal is considered as a time series and might be interpreted as energy variation for narrow frequency bins. Each sub-signal is processed using a novel approach called the local maxima method. Basically, we search for local maxima because they should appear in the signal if local damage in bearings or gearbox exists. Finally, information for all sub-signals is combined in order to validate impulsive behavior of energy. Due to random character of the obtained time series, each maximum occurrence has to be checked for its significance. If there are time points for which the average number of local maxima for all sub-signals is significantly higher than for the other time instances, then location of these maxima is “weighted” as more important (at this time instance local maxima create for a set of Δf a pattern on the time-frequency map). This information, called vector of weights, is used for enhancement of spectrogram. When vector of weights is applied for spectrogram, non-informative energy is suppressed while informative features on spectrogram are enhanced. If the distribution of local maxima on spectrogram creates a pattern of wide-band cyclic energy growth, the machine is suspected of being damaged. For healthy condition, the vector of the average number of maxima for each time point should not have outliers, aggregation of information from all sub-signals is rather random and does not create any pattern. The method is illustrated by analysis of very noisy both real and simulated signals.

  11. From the Macro to the Micro: Gel Mapping to Differentiate between Sporozoites of Two Immunologically Distinct Strains of Eimeria maxima (Strains M6 and Guelph)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongbin; Al Nasr, Ibrahim; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun; Barta, John

    2015-01-01

    Two immunologically distinct strains of E. maxima were examined in this study: the M6 strain and the Guelph strain. The differential expression between the sporozoites of the two strains of E. maxima was determined by image analysis of 100 μg of protein from each strain separated by standard one- and conventional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition to differences in both molecular weight and the electrophoretic mobility, differences in the intensity of polypeptide bands for example, GS 136.4 and M6 169 were explored. Pooled gels were prepared from each strain. A representative 2D-PAGE gel spanning a non-linear pH range of 3–10 of E. maxima strain M6 consisted of approximately 694 polypeptide spots with about 67 (9.6%) of the polypeptide spots being unique relative to the other strain. E. maxima strain GS had about 696 discernable polypeptide spots with 69 spots (9.9%) that differed from those of the M6 strain. In-depth characterization of the variable polypeptide spots; unique polypeptide spots (absence or presence) and shared polypeptide spots with modifications may lead to novel vaccine target in the form of multi-component, multi-stage, multi-immunovariant strains, multi-species subunit vaccine, and diagnostic probe for E. maxima. PMID:26641262

  12. From the Macro to the Micro: Gel Mapping to Differentiate between Sporozoites of Two Immunologically Distinct Strains of Eimeria maxima (Strains M6 and Guelph).

    PubMed

    El-Ashram, Saeed; Yin, Qing; Liu, Hongbin; Al Nasr, Ibrahim; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun; Barta, John

    2015-01-01

    Two immunologically distinct strains of E. maxima were examined in this study: the M6 strain and the Guelph strain. The differential expression between the sporozoites of the two strains of E. maxima was determined by image analysis of 100 μg of protein from each strain separated by standard one- and conventional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition to differences in both molecular weight and the electrophoretic mobility, differences in the intensity of polypeptide bands for example, GS 136.4 and M6 169 were explored. Pooled gels were prepared from each strain. A representative 2D-PAGE gel spanning a non-linear pH range of 3-10 of E. maxima strain M6 consisted of approximately 694 polypeptide spots with about 67 (9.6%) of the polypeptide spots being unique relative to the other strain. E. maxima strain GS had about 696 discernable polypeptide spots with 69 spots (9.9%) that differed from those of the M6 strain. In-depth characterization of the variable polypeptide spots; unique polypeptide spots (absence or presence) and shared polypeptide spots with modifications may lead to novel vaccine target in the form of multi-component, multi-stage, multi-immunovariant strains, multi-species subunit vaccine, and diagnostic probe for E. maxima.

  13. Antihyperlipemic and antihypertensive effects of Spirulina maxima in an open sample of mexican population: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Duran, Patricia V; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Juarez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2007-01-01

    Background Spirulina maxima is a filamentous cyanobacterium used as food supplement because of its high nutrient contents. It has been experimentally proven, in vivo and in vitro that posses several pharmacological properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Spirulina maxima orally supplied (4.5 g/day, for 6 weeks) to a sample of 36 subjects (16 men and 20 women, with ages between 18–65 years) on serum lipids, glucose, aminotransferases and on blood pressure. The volunteers did not modify their dietary habits or lifestyle during the whole experimental period. From each subject, a sample of blood was drawn in fasting state of 12 hours to determi the plasma concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), cholesterol associated to high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Anthropometric measurements including systolic (SYST-P) and diastolic (DIAST-P) blood pressure, height, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) were also recorded. Results Comparing initial and final data, the results showed that there were no significant changes in the values of glucose and AST, but significant differences in TAG, TC, and HDL-C, were observed: TAG 233.7 ± 177.8 vs. 167.7 ± 100.7 mg/dL (p < 0.001), TC 181.7 ± 37.5 vs. 163.5 ± 34.4 mg/dL (p < 0.001), C-HDL 43.5 ± 14.4 vs. 50 ± 18.8 mg/dL (p < 0.01). The univariated analysis showed that the changes in the HDL-C and TC concentrations were dependent on TAG concentration (p = 0.247 and p = 0.108, respectively); nevertheless the calculated values for cholesterol associated to low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) were significantly reduced by the Spirulina maxima treatment but independently of the TAG changes. In addition, significant differences were found comparing initial and final SYST-P and DIAST-P blood pressure in both male and female: SYST-P male 121 ± 9 vs. 111 ± 8 mm Hg (p < 0.01), DIAST-P male 85 ± 6.5 vs. 77 ± 9 mm Hg (p < 0.01); SYST-P female 120

  14. Evaluation of cyanobacteria: Spirulina maxima for growth, nutrient removal, and quality on waste-effluent media in batch cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Tadros, M.G.; Phillips, J. )

    1992-01-01

    Spirulina maxima, a semi-microscopic filamentous blue-green alga, was inoculated in synthetic and waste media of different sources. The alga was evaluated for growth yield, uptake of nutrients and chemical composition. The removal rate of N and P was rapid during the first week of growth. At the end of the second week, more than 90% of the total -P and -N was removed. The mass of alga was high. The quality of the alga obtained in different media did not show much variations, except when the medium was limited in nutrients. Results indicated that Spirulina may be integrated into the effluent treatment system. Recycling waste materials not only minimizes the problem of water pollution but also revitalizes the inherently rich nutrients of waste. The biomass obtained from cultivation of Spirulina in these wastewater media may be used as a pigment-protein supplement in animal feed and as raw material for certain chemicals.

  15. Tuning of color contrast signals to visual sensitivity maxima of tree shrews by three Bornean highland Nepenthes species

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Jonathan A.; Clarke, Charles; Greenwood, Melinda; Chin, Lijin

    2012-01-01

    Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants (Nepenthes rajah, Nepenthes lowii and Nepenthes macrophylla) specialize in harvesting nutrients from tree shrew excreta in their pitchers. In all three species, nectaries on the underside of the pitcher lid are the focus of the tree shrews' attention. Tree shrews are dichromats, with visual sensitivity in the blue and green wavebands. All three Nepenthes species were shown to produce visual signals, in which the underside of the pitcher lid (the area of highest nectar production) stood out in high contrast to the adjacent area on the pitcher (i.e., was brighter), in the blue and green wavebands visible to the tree shrews. N. rajah showed the tightest degree of “tuning,” notably in the green waveband. Conversely, pitchers of Nepenthes burbidgeae, a typical insectivorous species sympatric with N. rajah, did not produce a color pattern tuned to tree shrew sensitivity maxima. PMID:22902686

  16. Plant phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima: responses induced by enhanced ozone atmospheric levels and nitrogen enrichment.

    PubMed

    Sanz, J; Bermejo, V; Muntifering, R; González-Fernández, I; Gimeno, B S; Elvira, S; Alonso, R

    2011-02-01

    An assessment of the effects of tropospheric ozone (O(3)) levels and substrate nitrogen (N) supplementation, singly and in combination, on phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima was carried out. Two serial experiments were developed in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) using three O(3) and three N levels. Increased O(3) exposure did not affect the biomass-related parameters, but enhanced senescence, increased fiber foliar content (especially lignin concentration) and reduced plant life span; these effects were related to senescence acceleration induced by the pollutant. Added N increased plant biomass production and improved nutritive quality by decreasing foliar fiber concentration. Interestingly, the effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. N supplementation counteracted the O(3)-induced senescence but did not modify the effects on nutritive quality. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O(3) limits for the protection of herbaceous vegetation.

  17. Fouling characterization and control for harvesting microalgae Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima using a submerged, disc-type ultrafiltration membrane.

    PubMed

    Kanchanatip, Ekkachai; Su, Bo-Rung; Tulaphol, Sattrawut; Den, Walter; Grisdanurak, Nurak; Kuo, Chi-Chang

    2016-06-01

    This study characterized the fouling of a novel circular-disc ultrafiltration membrane in a submerged bioreactor system to harvest Arthrospira maxima cells. Flux-stepping study showed that the value of critical flux was below the smallest flux tested at 28.8lm(-2)h(-1), and that the membrane was to operate above the critical flux to sustain the necessary rate of cell concentration. The membrane with similar pore size but greater pore density experienced not only lesser degree of total resistance, but also possessed smaller fraction of irreversible resistance. Membrane fouling was mainly attributed to fragmented cells rather than to soluble or extracellular polymeric substances. Furthermore, flux recovery studies demonstrated that membrane relaxation and surface cleaning could partially recover fluxes for both low (6gl(-1)) and high (40gl(-1)) cell densities, whereas backwashing could fully recover fluxes. Calculation of energy consumption and cell harvesting productivity also favoured membrane filtration with backwashing.

  18. Tuning of color contrast signals to visual sensitivity maxima of tree shrews by three Bornean highland Nepenthes species.

    PubMed

    Moran, Jonathan A; Clarke, Charles; Greenwood, Melinda; Chin, Lijin

    2012-10-01

    Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants (Nepenthes rajah, Nepenthes lowii and Nepenthes macrophylla) specialize in harvesting nutrients from tree shrew excreta in their pitchers. In all three species, nectaries on the underside of the pitcher lid are the focus of the tree shrews' attention. Tree shrews are dichromats, with visual sensitivity in the blue and green wavebands. All three Nepenthes species were shown to produce visual signals, in which the underside of the pitcher lid (the area of highest nectar production) stood out in high contrast to the adjacent area on the pitcher (i.e., was brighter), in the blue and green wavebands visible to the tree shrews. N. rajah showed the tightest degree of "tuning," notably in the green waveband. Conversely, pitchers of Nepenthes burbidgeae, a typical insectivorous species sympatric with N. rajah, did not produce a color pattern tuned to tree shrew sensitivity maxima.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of Spirulina maxima on the Azoxymethane-induced Aberrant Colon Crypts and Oxidative Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-González, Isela; Islas-Islas, Víctor; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Barrios, Juan Pablo; Paniagua, Norma; Vásquez-Garzón, Verónica R.; Villa-Treviño, Saúl; Osiris-Madrigal-Santillán; Morales-González, José Antonio; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spirulina maxima (Sm) is a cyanobacterium well known because of its high nutritive value, as well as its anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-genotoxic activities. Objective: To determine the capacity of Sm to inhibit the induction of aberrant colon crypts (AC), as well as the level of lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidative damage in mice treated with azoxymethane (AOM). Materials and Methods: Sm (100, 400, and 800 mg/kg) was daily administered to animals by the oral route during 4 weeks, while AOM (10 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to mice twice in weeks 2 and 3 of the assay. We also included a control group of mice orally administered with distilled water along the assay, as well as other group orally administered with the high dose of Sm. Results: A significant decrease in the number of AC with the three tested doses of Sm, with a mean protection of 51.6% respect to the damage induced by AOM. Also, with the three doses of the alga, we found a reduction in the level of lipoperoxidation, as well as in regard to the percentage of the DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2’- deoxyguanosine. Conclusion: Sm possesses anti-precarcinogenic potential in vivo, as well as capacity to reduce the oxidative damage induced by AOM. SUMMARY Azoxymethane (AOM) induced a high number of colon aberrant crypts in mouse. It also increased the level of peroxidation and of DNA oxidation in the same organ.Spirulina maxima significantly reduced the number of AOM-induced colon aberrant crypts in mouse. It also reduced the AOM-induced lipid and DNA oxidation in mouse.The results suggest a chemopreventive potential for the tested algae. PMID:27013804

  20. An estimate of the stratospheric contribution to springtime tropospheric ozone maxima using TOPSE measurements and beryllium-7 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Dale J.; Dibb, Jack E.; Ridley, Brian; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Talbot, Robert W.

    2003-02-01

    Measurements of tropospheric ozone (O3) between 30°N and 70°N show springtime maxima at remote locations. The contribution of seasonal changes in stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) to these maxima was investigated using measurements from the Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox Experiment (TOPSE) campaign and the beryllium-7 (7Be) distribution from a calculation driven by fields from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). Comparison with TOPSE measurements revealed that upper tropospheric model-calculated 7Be mixing ratios were reasonable (a change from previous calculations) but that lower tropospheric mixing ratios were too low most likely due to an overestimation of scavenging. Temporal fluctuations were well captured although their amplitudes were often underestimated. Analysis of O3 measurements indicated that O3 mixing ratios increased by 5-10% month-1 for θ < 300 K (the underworld) and by 10-15% month-1 for θ > 300 K (the tropospheric middleworld). 7Be mixing ratios decreased with time for θ < 290 K and increased with time for θ > 300 K. Model-calculated middleworld increases of 7Be were a factor of 2 less than measured increases. 7Be with a stratospheric source (strat-7Be) increased by 4.6-8.8% month-1 along TOPSE flight paths within the tropospheric middleworld. Increases in strat-7Be were not seen along TOPSE flight paths in the underworld. Assuming changes in tropospheric O3 with a stratospheric source are the same as changes in strat-7Be and that 50% of O3 in the region of interest is produced in the stratosphere, changes in STE explain 20-60% of O3 increases in the tropospheric middleworld and less than 33% of O3 increases in the underworld.

  1. Nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of Cleome rutidosperma, Lagenaria siceraria, and Cucurbita maxima seeds from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojiako, O A; Igwe, C U

    2007-12-01

    Flours produced from the seeds of Cleome rutidosperma (DC), Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.), and Cucurbita maxima (Duch) were evaluated for proximate and elemental compositions. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also carried out on the seed flours, which revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, pentose, and reducing sugars in all the seed types. Tannins, flavonoids, and cardiac glycosides were also detected in only C. rutidosperma seed. The results also showed that the seeds of C. rutidosperma, L. siceraria, and C. maxima contained carbohydrates (74.43%, 45.93%, and 24.30%), fats (7.20%, 38.92%, and 51.49%), and proteins (11.73%, 8.93%, and 16.80%), respectively. The major mineral contents of the three defatted seed flours were found to include potassium (39.00 ppm, 19.50 ppm, and 39.00 ppm), sodium (23.00 ppm, 11.50 ppm, and 11.50 ppm), and calcium (18.00 ppm, 12.00 ppm, and 15.00 ppm), respectively. They were also found to contain zinc (0.013 ppm, 0.04 ppm, and 0.084 ppm) and iron (0.014 ppm, 0.028 ppm, and 0.032 ppm), respectively. The proximate and mineral compositions suggest that the seeds are potential sources of carbohydrate, fats, protein, and micro- and macrominerals and may find use as human food or for incorporation into livestock feed. However, the seeds were revealed to also contain slight traces of lead, although at such very low concentrations they may be artifacts. This calls for further research into possible lead toxicity after prolonged consumption of these seeds.

  2. Genetic diversity and population differentiation of small giant clam Tridacna maxima in Comoros islands assessed by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Mohamed, Nadjim; Yu, Qian; Chanfi, Mohamed Ibrahim; Li, Yangping; Wang, Shi; Huang, Xiaoting; Bao, Zhenmin

    2016-01-01

    Small giant clam, Tridacna maxima, widely distributed from French Polynesia to East Africa, has faced population declines due to over-exploitation. Comoros islands are an important biogeographic region due to potential richness of marine species, but no relevant information is available. In order to facilitate devising effective conservation management plan for T. maxima, nine microsatellite markers were used to survey genetic diversity and population differentiation of 72 specimens collected from three Comoros islands, Grande Comore, Moheli and Anjouan. A total of 51 alleles were detected ranged from 2 to 8 per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.260 to 0.790 and from 0.542 to 0.830, respectively. All populations have high genetic diversity, especially the population in Moheli, a protected area, has higher genetic diversity than the others. Significant heterozygote deficiencies were recorded, and null alleles were probably the main factor leading to these deficits. FST value indicated medium genetic differentiation among the populations. Although significant, AMOVA revealed 48.9 % of genetic variation within individuals and only a small variation of 8.9 % was found between populations. Gene flow was high (Nm = 12.40) between Grande Comore and Moheli, while lower (Nm = 1.80) between Grande Comore and Anjouan, explaining geographic barriers to genetic exchanges might exist in these two islands. Global gene flow analysis (Nm = 5.50) showed that larval dispersal is enough to move between the islands. The high genetic diversity and medium population differentiation revealed in the present study offer useful information on genetic conservation of small giant clams.

  3. Induction of Protective Immunity against Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria acervulina Infections Using Dendritic Cell-Derived Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Margarita; Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun Soon; Quilez, Joaquin; Lillehoj, Erik P.; Sánchez-Acedo, Caridad

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a novel immunization strategy against avian coccidiosis using exosomes derived from Eimeria parasite antigen (Ag)-loaded dendritic cells (DCs). Chicken intestinal DCs were isolated and pulsed in vitro with a mixture of sporozoite-extracted Ags from Eimeria tenella, E. maxima, and E. acervulina, and the cell-derived exosomes were isolated. Chickens were nonimmunized or immunized intramuscularly with exosomes and subsequently noninfected or coinfected with E. tenella, E. maxima, and E. acervulina oocysts. Immune parameters compared among the nonimmunized/noninfected, nonimmunized/infected, and immunized/infected groups were the numbers of cells secreting Th1 cytokines, Th2 cytokines, interleukin-16 (IL-16), and Ag-reactive antibodies in vitro and in vivo readouts of protective immunity against Eimeria infection. Cecal tonsils, Peyer's patches, and spleens of immunized and infected chickens had increased numbers of cells secreting the IL-16 and the Th1 cytokines IL-2 and gamma interferon, greater Ag-stimulated proliferative responses, and higher numbers of Ag-reactive IgG- and IgA-producing cells following in vitro stimulation with the sporozoite Ags compared with the nonimmunized/noninfected and nonimmunized/infected controls. In contrast, the numbers of cells secreting the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were diminished in immunized and infected chickens compared with the nonimmunized/noninfected and the nonimmunized/infected controls. Chickens immunized with Ag-loaded exosomes and infected in vivo with Eimeria oocysts had increased body weight gains, reduced feed conversion ratios, diminished fecal oocyst shedding, lessened intestinal lesion scores, and reduced mortality compared with the nonimmunized/infected controls. These results suggest that successful field vaccination against avian coccidiosis using exosomes derived from DCs incubated with Ags isolated from Eimeria species may be possible. PMID:22354026

  4. Induction of protective immunity against Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria acervulina infections using dendritic cell-derived exosomes.

    PubMed

    del Cacho, Emilio; Gallego, Margarita; Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun Soon; Quilez, Joaquin; Lillehoj, Erik P; Sánchez-Acedo, Caridad

    2012-05-01

    This study describes a novel immunization strategy against avian coccidiosis using exosomes derived from Eimeria parasite antigen (Ag)-loaded dendritic cells (DCs). Chicken intestinal DCs were isolated and pulsed in vitro with a mixture of sporozoite-extracted Ags from Eimeria tenella, E. maxima, and E. acervulina, and the cell-derived exosomes were isolated. Chickens were nonimmunized or immunized intramuscularly with exosomes and subsequently noninfected or coinfected with E. tenella, E. maxima, and E. acervulina oocysts. Immune parameters compared among the nonimmunized/noninfected, nonimmunized/infected, and immunized/infected groups were the numbers of cells secreting T(h)1 cytokines, T(h)2 cytokines, interleukin-16 (IL-16), and Ag-reactive antibodies in vitro and in vivo readouts of protective immunity against Eimeria infection. Cecal tonsils, Peyer's patches, and spleens of immunized and infected chickens had increased numbers of cells secreting the IL-16 and the T(h)1 cytokines IL-2 and gamma interferon, greater Ag-stimulated proliferative responses, and higher numbers of Ag-reactive IgG- and IgA-producing cells following in vitro stimulation with the sporozoite Ags compared with the nonimmunized/noninfected and nonimmunized/infected controls. In contrast, the numbers of cells secreting the T(h)2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were diminished in immunized and infected chickens compared with the nonimmunized/noninfected and the nonimmunized/infected controls. Chickens immunized with Ag-loaded exosomes and infected in vivo with Eimeria oocysts had increased body weight gains, reduced feed conversion ratios, diminished fecal oocyst shedding, lessened intestinal lesion scores, and reduced mortality compared with the nonimmunized/infected controls. These results suggest that successful field vaccination against avian coccidiosis using exosomes derived from DCs incubated with Ags isolated from Eimeria species may be possible.

  5. Effects of artemisinin in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella in battery trials.

    PubMed

    Pop, Loredana; Györke, Adriana; Tǎbǎran, Alexandru Flaviu; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Zagon, Diana; Balea, Anamaria; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-12-15

    Four experiments were conceived in order to test the efficacy of artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone derived from Artemisia annua, in single experimental infection of broiler chickens with Eimeria acervulina (1 × 10(5) oocysts), Eimeria maxima (5 × 10(4) oocysts) or Eimeria tenella (1 × 10(4) oocysts), and mixed infection with all 3 species (3.2 × 10(4) Eimeria spp. oocysts). For each experiment, three different dosages of artemisinin (5, 50 and 500 ppm) were compared with a negative control (uninfected, unmedicated), a positive control (infected, unmedicated) and a classical anticoccidial (monensin). The weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), oocysts shedded per gram of feces (OPG), lesion score, oocysts sporulation rates and mortality rate were recorded in all groups. The dosage of 5 ppm of artemisinin improved the WG and FCR for the chickens infected with E. acervulina. The OPG was significantly decreased in all the groups medicated with artemisinin and challenged with a mixed infection (p ≤ 0.01). The lesion score of the chickens challenged with Eimeria was reduced by different concentrations of artemisinin, depending on the species involved, but this compound did not have a positive effect on the lesions caused by E. acervulina. Histopathological analysis revealed superficial erosions of the intestinal mucosa, mixt. mononuclear and heterophilic inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria and intralesional presence of various developmental stages of parasite in groups infected with Eimeria spp.The sporulation rate of E. acervulina and E. maxima oocysts was significantly affected by 500 ppm of artemisinin, whilst the dosage of 5 ppm affected the sporulation of E. tenella oocysts. These data suggest that artemisinin is not effective against single eimerian infections but could be used as an alternative in mixed coccidiosis, especially if its effect on the oocysts sporulation would be fully investigated.

  6. Genotyping by sequencing reveals the interspecific C. maxima / C. reticulata admixture along the genomes of modern citrus varieties of mandarins, tangors, tangelos, orangelos and grapefruits.

    PubMed

    Oueslati, Amel; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Luro, François; Vignes, Hélène; Mournet, Pierre; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The mandarin horticultural group is an important component of world citrus production for the fresh fruit market. This group formerly classified as C. reticulata is highly polymorphic and recent molecular studies have suggested that numerous cultivated mandarins were introgressed by C. maxima (the pummelos). C. maxima and C. reticulata are also the ancestors of sweet and sour oranges, grapefruit, and therefore of all the "small citrus" modern varieties (mandarins, tangors, tangelos) derived from sexual hybridization between these horticultural groups. Recently, NGS technologies have greatly modified how plant evolution and genomic structure are analyzed, moving from phylogenetics to phylogenomics. The objective of this work was to develop a workflow for phylogenomic inference from Genotyping By Sequencing (GBS) data and to analyze the interspecific admixture along the nine citrus chromosomes for horticultural groups and recent varieties resulting from the combination of the C. reticulata and C. maxima gene pools. A GBS library was established from 55 citrus varieties, using the ApekI restriction enzyme and selective PCR to improve the read depth. Diagnostic polymorphisms (DPs) of C. reticulata/C. maxima differentiation were identified and used to decipher the phylogenomic structure of the 55 varieties. The GBS approach was powerful and revealed 30,289 SNPs and 8,794 Indels with 12.6% of missing data. 11,133 DPs were selected covering the nine chromosomes with a higher density in genic regions. GBS combined with the detection of DPs was powerful for deciphering the "phylogenomic karyotypes" of cultivars derived from admixture of the two ancestral species after a limited number of interspecific recombinations. All the mandarins, mandarin hybrids, tangelos and tangors analyzed displayed introgression of C. maxima in different parts of the genome. C. reticulata/C. maxima admixture should be a major component of the high phenotypic variability of this germplasm opening

  7. Bioremediation of soils co-contaminated with heavy metals and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol by fruiting body of Clitocybe maxima.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongying; Guo, Shanshan; Jiao, Kai; Hou, Junjun; Xie, Han; Xu, Heng

    2015-08-30

    Pot experiments were performed to investigate the single effect of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) or heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cu+Cd) and the combined effects of metals-TCP on the growth of Clitocybe maxima together with the accumulation of heavy metals as well as dissipation of TCP. Results showed a negative effect of contaminations on fruiting time and biomass of the mushroom. TCP decreased significantly in soils accounting for 70.66-96.24% of the initial extractable concentration in planted soil and 66.47-91.42% in unplanted soil, which showed that the dissipation of TCP was enhanced with mushroom planting. Higher biological activities (bacterial counts, soil respiration and laccase activity) were detected in planted soils relative to unplanted controls, and the enhanced dissipation of TCP in planted soils might be derived from the increased biological activities. The metals accumulation in mushroom increased with the augment of metal load, and the proportion of acetic acid (HOAc) extractable metal in soils with C. maxima was larger than that in unplanted soils, which may be an explanation of metal uptake by C. maxima. These results suggested that the presence of C. maxima was effective in promoting the bioremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals and TCP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth and lead accumulation by the grasses Vetiveria zizanioides and Thysanolaena maxima in lead-contaminated soil amended with pig manure and fertilizer: a glasshouse study.

    PubMed

    Rotkittikhun, P; Chaiyarat, R; Kruatrachue, M; Pokethitiyook, P; Baker, A J M

    2007-01-01

    Bo Ngam lead mine soils contain high concentrations of lead (up 1% total Pb) and low amounts of organic matter and major nutrients (N, P, K). A glasshouse study was conducted to compare growth performance, metal tolerance and metal uptake by two grasses, Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) O. Kuntze and four ecotypes of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, syn. Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty (three from Thailand: Surat Thani, Songkhla and Kamphaeng Phet, and one from Sri Lanka) and to study the effects of pig manure (20% and 40% w/w) and inorganic fertilizer (75 and 150 mg kg(-1)) amendments to this lead mine soil. The results showed that both T. maxima and V. zizanioides (Surat Thani and Songkhla) could tolerate high Pb concentrations in soil (10750 mg kg(-1)) and had very good growth performance. Application of pig manure increased electrical conductivity (EC) and reduced DTPA-extractable Pb concentration in the soils. Pig manure application improved the growth of vetiver, especially at 20%, application dosage. Vetiver had the highest biomass. T. maxima could not tolerate high EC values. The uptake by roots and transport of Pb to shoots of both species was reduced when soils were amended with pig manure. Application of inorganic fertilizer did not improve growth of vetiver but did improve that of T. maxima. Fertilizer application did not have any great influence on the Pb uptake in vetiver while T. maxima took up more Pb as a result of the fertilizer enhancing its biomass yield. Both species transported low Pb concentrations to shoots (8.3-179 mg kg(-1)) and accumulated higher concentrations in roots (107-911 mg kg(-1)). In summary, both species may be species well suited for phytostabilization in tropical lead mine areas.

  9. The Protective Effect of Dietary Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima Against Mutagenicity Induced by Benzo[alpha]pyrene in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath; Mojica-Villegas, Angélica; Pages, Nicole; Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[α]P) was used to test the possible antimutagenic effects of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima (SP) on male and female mice. SP was orally administered at 0, 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of body weight to animals of both sexes for 2 weeks before starting the B[α]P (intraperitoneal injection) at 125 mg/kg of body weight for 5 consecutive days. For the male dominant lethal test, each male was caged with two untreated females per week for 3 weeks. For the female dominant lethal test, each female was caged for 1 week with one untreated male. All the females were evaluated 13–15 days after mating for incidence of pregnancy, total corpora lutea, total implants and pre- and postimplant losses. SP protected from B[α]P-induced pre- and postimplant losses in the male dominant lethal test, and from B[α]P-induced postimplantation losses in treated females. Moreover, SP treatment significantly reduced the detrimental effect of B[α]P on the quality of mouse semen. Our results illustrate the protective effects of SP in relation to B[α]P-induced genetic damage to germ cells. We conclude that SP, owing mainly to the presence of phycocyanin, could be of potential clinical interest in cancer treatment or prevention of relapse. PMID:24787733

  10. Tryptophan exposure and accessibility in the chitooligosaccharide-specific phloem exudate lectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). A fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Narahari, Akkaladevi; Swamy, Musti J

    2009-10-06

    The exposure and accessibility of the tryptophan residues in the chitooligosaccharide-specific pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin (PPL) have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The emission lambda(max) of native PPL, seen at 338nm was red-shifted to 348nm upon denaturation by 6M Gdn.HCl in the presence of 10mM beta-mercaptoethanol, indicating near complete exposure of the tryptophan residues to the aqueous medium, whereas a blue-shift to 335nm was observed in the presence of saturating concentrations of chitotriose, suggesting that ligand binding leads to a decrease in the solvent exposure of the tryptophan residues. The extent of quenching was maximum with the neutral molecule, acrylamide whereas the ionic species, iodide and Cs(+) led to significantly lower quenching, which could be attributed to the presence of charged amino acid residues in close proximity to some of the tryptophan residues. The Stern-Volmer plot for acrylamide was linear for native PPL and upon ligand binding, but became upward curving upon denaturation, indicating that the quenching occurs via a combination of static and dynamic mechanisms. In time-resolved fluorescence experiments, the decay curves could be best fit to biexponential patterns, for native protein, in the presence of ligand and upon denaturation. In each case both lifetimes systematically decreased with increasing acrylamide concentrations, indicating that quenching occurs predominantly via a dynamic process.

  11. A composite study of the quasi-periodic subtropical wind maxima over the South Pacific during November 1984-April 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Ken-Chung; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1995-01-01

    A composite of 10 cases of zonal wind maxima at 200 hPa over the subtropical region stretching from Australia to the central Pacific is examined for the six-month period, November 1984-April 1985. This region is unique in that distinct westerly jets frequently form and propagate eastward at latitudes between 20 deg and 35 deg S in the summer season. Some statistical tests were applied and suggest that the flow patterns are quasi periodic, consisting of a tendency for new jet streaks to develop over the eastern Australian region approximately every one to two weeks. These jets then take about 10 days to propagate across the western Pacific before dissipating or, perhaps, moving toward higher latitudes. Their average propagation speed is approximately 4 m/s. An examination of the case-to-case variability of the jets provides additional evidence that they are significant features. A diagnosis of the trough/ridge systems at 200 and 850 hPa, together with calculations of the vertically integrated mean and shear kinetic energies suggests that baroclinic processes dominate in the entrance and center regions of the jet, whereas barotropic processes dominate in the exit and downstream regions.

  12. Thermodynamic properties of supercritical n-m Lennard-Jones fluids and isochoric and isobaric heat capacity maxima and minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mairhofer, Jonas; Sadus, Richard J.

    2013-10-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are reported for the thermodynamic properties of n-m Lennard-Jones fluids, where n = 10 and 12, and m = 5 and 6. Results are reported for the thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal and adiabatic compressibilities, isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficient, and speed of sound at supercritical conditions covering a wide range of fluid densities. The thermodynamic criteria for maxima/minima in the isochoric and isobaric heat capacities are identified and the simulation results are also compared with calculations from Lennard-Jones equations of state. The Johnson et al. [Mol. Phys. 78, 591 (1993)] equation of state can be used to reproduce all heat capacity phenomena reported [T. M. Yigzawe and R. J. Sadus, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 194502 (2013)] from molecular dynamics simulations for the 12-6 Lennard-Jones potential. Significantly, these calculations and molecular dynamics results for other n-m Lennard-Jones potentials support the existence of Cp minima at supercritical conditions. The values of n and m also have a significant influence on many other thermodynamic properties.

  13. Impact behaviour of freeze-dried and fresh pomelo (Citrus maxima) peel: influence of the hydration state.

    PubMed

    Thielen, Marc; Speck, Thomas; Seidel, Robin

    2015-06-01

    Pomelos (Citrus maxima) are known for their thick peel which-inter alia-serves as energy dissipator when fruits impact on the ground after being shed. It protects the fruit from splitting open and thus enables the contained seeds to stay germinable and to potentially be dispersed by animal vectors. The main part of the peel consists of a parenchymatous tissue that can be interpreted from a materials point of view as open pored foam whose struts are pressurized and filled with liquid. In order to investigate the influence of the water content on the energy dissipation capacity, drop weight tests were conducted with fresh and with freeze-dried peel samples. Based on the coefficient of restitution it was found that freeze-drying markedly reduces the relative energy dissipation capacity of the peel. Measuring the transmitted force during impact furthermore indicated a transition from a uniform collapse of the foam-like tissue to a progressive collapse due to water extraction. Representing the peel by a Maxwell model illustrates that freeze-drying not only drastically reduces the damping function of the dashpots but also stiffens the springs of the model.

  14. Impact behaviour of freeze-dried and fresh pomelo (Citrus maxima) peel: influence of the hydration state

    PubMed Central

    Thielen, Marc; Speck, Thomas; Seidel, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Pomelos (Citrus maxima) are known for their thick peel which—inter alia—serves as energy dissipator when fruits impact on the ground after being shed. It protects the fruit from splitting open and thus enables the contained seeds to stay germinable and to potentially be dispersed by animal vectors. The main part of the peel consists of a parenchymatous tissue that can be interpreted from a materials point of view as open pored foam whose struts are pressurized and filled with liquid. In order to investigate the influence of the water content on the energy dissipation capacity, drop weight tests were conducted with fresh and with freeze-dried peel samples. Based on the coefficient of restitution it was found that freeze-drying markedly reduces the relative energy dissipation capacity of the peel. Measuring the transmitted force during impact furthermore indicated a transition from a uniform collapse of the foam-like tissue to a progressive collapse due to water extraction. Representing the peel by a Maxwell model illustrates that freeze-drying not only drastically reduces the damping function of the dashpots but also stiffens the springs of the model. PMID:26543566

  15. Contribution of subsurface chlorophyll maxima to primary production in the coastal Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic): A model assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Johannie; Dumont, Dany; Tremblay, Jean-Éric

    2013-11-01

    Previous comprehensive investigations of the Canadian Arctic revealed that subsurface chlorophyll maxima (SCM) are widespread and long-lived structures that can contribute significantly to daily primary production in the water column. However, estimating the annual contribution of SCM to production with in situ or remote-sensing approaches is challenging in the high Arctic. For this reason and to estimate the impacts of fluctuating or changing environmental conditions on SCM, a numerical approach combining a turbulence model and an ecosystem model was implemented for the coastal Beaufort Sea. An ensemble analysis of simulations suggested that SCM contribute 65-90% of total annual primary production and that this proportion is weakly affected by ice regime, winter nitrogen (N) concentration, parameter values determining phytoplankton growth and decay or the physical forcing imposed, all varying within realistic values. Due to the persistent association between the SCM and the shallow nitracline, the pelagic ecosystem of the coastal Beaufort Sea is apparently characterized by a high ratio of new to total production, contrasting with the common assumption that oligotrophic systems are predominantly supported by recycled N and regenerated production. This study demonstrated that the use of a simple model in combination with in situ data leads to novel insights into biogeochemical processes that are otherwise very difficult to measure and track.

  16. Thermolimit respirometry: an objective assessment of critical thermal maxima in two sympatric desert harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex rugosus and P. californicus.

    PubMed

    Lighton, John R B; Turner, Robbin J

    2004-05-01

    The critical thermal maxima (CT(max)) of two sympatric, diurnal, thermophilic harvester ants from the Mojave Desert, USA (Pogonomyrmex rugosus and P. californicus) were measured by ramping their temperature upwards at a rate of 0.25 degrees C min(-1) during flow-through respirometry with optical activity detection. Rates of CO(2) emission ((CO(2))) increased exponentially to plateau values that were twice as high in P. californicus as P. rugosus on a mass-specific basis. (CO(2)) then fell sharply, during which gross motor activity (measured optically) and spiracular control (measured from (CO(2)) variation) abruptly ceased, yielding two independent measures of CT(max). As determined by loss of muscular coordination, the CT(max) of Pogonomyrmex rugosus was 51.57+/-0.38 degrees C (mean +/- S.D., while that of Pogonomyrmex californicus was 51.74+/-0.25 degrees C. As determined by loss of spiracular control, the CT(max) of Pogonomyrmex rugosus was 51.59+/-0.35 degrees C, while that of Pogonomyrmex californicus was 51.78+/-0.37 degrees C. In each species a pronounced post-mortal peak of (CO(2)) was observed. The major ecological and behavioral differences of the two species are not reflected in their CT(max) values, which do not differ significantly. 'Thermolimit respirometry' allows CT(max) to be estimated objectively with coefficients of variation (S.D./mean) <1%, lending confidence to comparisons between species or treatment groups.

  17. Hypocholesterolemic properties of grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima) juices and inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Bello, Fatai O; Ademosun, Ayokunle O

    2014-12-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima) juices are used in folk medicine for the management of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, but the mechanism of action by which they exert their therapeutic action is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of grapefruit and shaddock juices on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in vitro and the hypocholesterolemic properties of the juices in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Grapefruit juice had higher total phenol and flavonoid contents than shaddock juice, while both juices inhibited ACE activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, administration of the juices to rats fed a high-cholesterol diet caused a significant reduction in plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and an increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. The inhibition of ACE activity in vitro and in vivo hypocholesterolemic effect of the juices could explain the use of the juices in the management of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Hyperoxia Does Not Extend Critical Thermal Maxima (CTmax) in White- or Red-Blooded Antarctic Notothenioid Fishes.

    PubMed

    Devor, Devin P; Kuhn, Donald E; O'Brien, Kristin M; Crockett, Elizabeth L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding what limits the capacity of organisms to tolerate increasing temperatures is a critical objective in comparative biology. Using an experimental system of Antarctic notothenioid fishes, we sought to determine whether a mismatch between oxygen demand and oxygen supply was responsible for setting thermal tolerance limits. Previous studies have shown that Antarctic icefishes (family Channichthyidae), which lack hemoglobin, have lower critical thermal maxima (CTmax) than red-blooded notothenioids collected from the same region of the Antarctic (Western Antarctic Peninsula). In addition, within the notothenioid fishes there exists a positive correlation between CTmax and hematocrit. We tested the hypothesis that the lower CTmax of icefishes is associated with reduced oxygen supply. We employed an experimental heat ramp (4°C h(-1)) to determine CTmax under both normoxic and hyperoxic conditions and quantified correlates of oxygen limitation (lactate levels and expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α) in white-blooded Chaenocephalus aceratus and red-blooded Notothenia coriiceps. Hyperoxia, corresponding to a three- to fourfold increase in seawater Po2, did not extend CTmax in either species despite an overall mitigation in the rise of plasma and muscle lactate compared with the normoxic treatment. Our results also indicate that cardiac HIF-1α mRNA levels were insensitive to changes in both temperature and oxygen treatments. The absence of a change in CTmax with hyperoxia is likely to represent the contribution of factors beyond oxygen supply to physiological failure at elevated temperatures.

  19. Shell of snail Helix aspersa maxima (Helicidae) as a protection of bioaccumulation toxic sodium fluoride in soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Rać, Monika Ewa; Stachowska, Ewa; Machoy, Zygmunt

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the extent of bioaccumulation of sodium fluorides in tissues of snails under strictly controlled conditions, and also to determine resistance and tolerance to sodium fluoride load in these organisms. The study was performed on snails removed from aestivation. Quantitation of fluoride levels was done in soft tissues (foot, hepatopancreas) and shells of mature snails. Results show that long exposure to sodium fluoride pollution at a low level results in accumulation principally in the soft tissues of the snails. Because of the possibility of fluoride accumulation in the foot, the number of snails used for culinary purposes must be controlled, as it can potentially cause chronic toxemia caused by this trace element. Results also show that the shells of snails offer protection against the bioaccumulation of toxic fluoride in the soft tissue. The Helix aspersa maxima snail is characterised by high resistance and tolerance to fluoride load. Fluoride levels in soft tissues of the snail cannot serve as an indicator for biomonitoring purposes. In contrast, levels in the shell rose significantly with the concentration of fluoride and can be used in biomonitoring of sodium fluoride pollution.

  20. Spirulina maxima pretreatment partially protects against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, Germán; Pérez-Albiter, Mónica; Serrano-García, Norma; Mares-Sámano, José J; Rojas, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Spirulina is an alga that has a high nutritional value and some of its biological activities are attributed to the presence of antioxidants. Oxidative stress is involved in Parkinson's disease. This study aims at evaluating the neuroprotective role of Spirulina maxima (Sp.) against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity, used as a model of Parkinson's disease. Ninety-six male C-57 black mice were pretreated with Spirulina for 14 days (25, 50, 100, 150 or 200 mg/kg, oral), followed by three MPTP administrations (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, i.p.). Animals were given Sp. for 8 additional days. After the treatment, the striatal dopamine (DA) content was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography, and lipid peroxidation was studied as an index of oxidative stress. Sp. pretreatment at 150 mg/kg partially prevented (51%) the DA-depleting effect of MPTP and blocked oxidative stress. Spirulina partially prevents MPTP neurotoxicity and oxidative stress, suggesting it could be a possible alternative in experimental therapy.

  1. An efficient method for calculating maxima of symmetric homogeneous functions of orthogonal matrices: Applications to localized occupied orbitals

    SciTech Connect

    Subotnik, Joseph E.; Shao, Yihan; Liang, WanZhen; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2004-06-04

    The authors present here three new algorithms (one purely iterative and two DIIS-like) to compute maxima of symmetric homogeneous functions of orthogonal matrices. These algorithms revolve around the mathematical lemma that, given an invertible matrix A, the function f(U) = Tr(AU) has exactly one local (and global) maximum for U special orthogonal (i.e. UU{sup T} = 1 and det(U) = 1). This is proved in the appendix. One application of these algorithms is the computation of localized orbitals, including, for example, Boys and Edmiston-Reudenberg (ER) orbitals. The Boys orbitals are defined as the set of orthonormal orbitals which, for a given vector space of orbitals, maximize the sum of the distances between orbital centers. The ER orbitals maximize total self-interaction energy. The algorithm presented here computes Boys orbitals roughly as fast as the traditional method (Jacobi sweeps), while, for large systems, it finds ER orbitals potentially much more quickly than traditional Jacobi sweeps. In fact, the required time for convergence of the algorithm scales quadratically in the region of a few hundred basis functions (though cubicly asymptotically), while Jacobi sweeps for the ER orbitals traditionally scale as the number of occupied orbitals to the fifth power. As an example of the utility of the method, they provide the ER orbitals of nitrated and nitrosated benzene, and they discuss the chemical implications.

  2. Evidence for a Transient Association of New Proteins with the Spirulina maxima Phycobilisome in Relation to Light Intensity.

    PubMed Central

    Garnier, F.; Dubacq, J. P.; Thomas, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental parameters are known to affect phycobilisomes. Variations of their structure and relative composition in phycobiliproteins have been observed. We studied the effect of irradiance variations on the phycobilisome structure in the cyanobacterium Spirulina maxima and discovered the appearance of new polypeptides associated with the phycobilisomes under an increased light intensity. In high light, the six rods of phycocyanin associated with the central core of allophycocyanin contained only one to two phycocyanin hexamers instead of the two to three they contained in low light. The concomitant disappearance of a 33-kD linker polypeptide was observed. Moreover, in high light three polypeptides of 29, 30, and 47 kD, clearly unrelated to linkers, were found to be associated with the phycobilisome fraction: protein labeling showed that a specific association of these polypeptides was induced by high light. One polypeptide, at least, would play the role of a chaperone protein. Not only the synthesis of these proteins, which appeared slightly increased in high light, but also their association with phycobilisome structure are light intensity dependent. PMID:12232367

  3. Evaluation of the water and organic liquids extraction efficiency of Spirulina maxima dyes using thermostated micro thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Zarzycka, Magdalena B

    2008-01-01

    Thermostated micro thin-layer chromatography was applied for separation and quantification studies of Spirulina maxima dyes isolated from pharmaceutical formulation by a simple one-step liquid extraction. The isolation process was performed using a number of liquids, including water; 10 mM water solutions of native alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin and their hydroxypropyl derivatives; and a number of common organic liquids characterized by different polarity, namely, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, acetonitrile, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, dichloromethane, toluene, and n-hexane. Chromatographic studies were performed on RP18W plates working inside a small thermostated horizontal chamber allowing a development distance of 45 mm. Using a mobile phase consisting of acetone-n-hexane (30 + 70, v/v) and 40 degrees C separation temperature, plate peak capacity of at least 15 spots/lane and developing time <5 min were obtained. Validation data indicated that under such conditions, with an office scanner used for chromatogram digitalization, spot quantification could be accurately performed within an analyte mass range of 2 factors. The raw quantitative data obtained from microchromatograms acquired under visible light conditions were explored using cluster analysis and principal components analysis. Chemometric investigations revealed that the best extraction liquids for isolation of dye mixtures from Spirulina samples were methanol, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran, and dichloromethane. Moreover, it was found that the liquids' parachor values could be used for estimation of the dye extraction efficiency from complex samples.

  4. Selected activities of Citrus maxima Merr. fruits on human endothelial cells: enhancing cell migration and delaying cellular aging.

    PubMed

    Buachan, Paiwan; Chularojmontri, Linda; Wattanapitayakul, Suvara K

    2014-04-21

    Endothelial injury and damage as well as accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aging play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies show an association of high citrus fruit intake with a lower risk of CVD and stroke but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr. var. Tubtim Siam, CM) fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) migration and aging. The freeze-dried powder of fruit extract was characterized for antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay) and certain natural antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, gallic acid, hesperidin, and naringin (HPLC). Short-term (48 h) co-cultivation of HUVECs with CM enhanced cell migration as evaluated by a scratch wound assay and Boyden chamber assay. A long-term treatment with CM for 35 days significantly increased HUVEC proliferation capability as indicated by population doubling level (PDL). CM also delayed the onset of aging phenotype shown by senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining. Furthermore, CM was able to attenuate increased ROS levels in aged cells when determined by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCDHF) while eNOS mRNA expression was increased but the eNOS protein level was not changed. Thus, further in vivo and clinical studies are warranted to support the use of pummelo as a functional fruit for endothelial health and CVD risk reduction.

  5. Monitoring spatial maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogerson, Peter

    2005-05-01

    When assessing maps consisting of comparable regional values, it is of interest to know whether the peak, or maximum value, is higher than it would likely be by chance alone. Peaks on maps of crime or disease might be attributable to random fluctuation, or they might be due to an important deviation from the baseline process that produces the regional values. This paper addresses the situation where a series of such maps are observed over time, and it is of interest to detect statistically significant deviations between the observed and expected peaks as quickly as possible. The Gumbel distribution is used as a model for the statistical distribution of extreme values; this distribution does not require the underlying distributions of regional values to be either normal, known, or identical. Cumulative sum surveillance methods are used to monitor these Gumbel variates, and these methods are also extended for use when monitoring smoothed regional values (where the quantity monitored is a weighted sum of values in the immediate geographical neighborhood). The new methods are illustrated by using data on breast cancer mortality for the 217 counties of the northeastern United States, and prostate cancer mortality for the entire United States, during the period 1968-1998.

  6. Nonlinear change of on-axis pressure and intensity maxima positions and its relation with the linear focal shift effect.

    PubMed

    Makov, Yu N; Sánchez-Morcillo, V J; Camarena, F; Espinosa, V

    2008-12-01

    A comprehensive experimental, analytical and numerical study of the true focal region drift relative to the geometrical focus (focal shift effect) in acoustic focused beams and its nonlinear evolution is presented. For this aim, the concept of Fresnel number, proportional to the linear gain, is introduced as a convenient parameter for characterizing focused sources. It is shown that the magnitude of the shift is strongly dependent on the Fresnel number of the source, being larger for weakly focused systems where a large initial shift occurs. Analytical expressions for axial pressure distributions in linear regime are presented for the general case of truncated Gaussian beams. The main new contribution of this work is the examination of the connection between the linear and nonlinear stages of the focal shift effect, and its use for the estimation of the more complicated nonlinear stage. Experiments were carried out using a continuous-wave ultrasonic beam in water, radiated by a focused source with nominal frequency f=1 MHz, aperture radius a=1.5 cm and geometrical focal distance R=11.7 cm, corresponding to a Fresnel number N(F)=1.28. The maximum measured shifts for peak pressure and intensity were 4.4 and 1.1cm, respectively. The evolution of the different maxima with the source amplitude, and the disparity in their axial positions, is interpreted in terms of the dynamics of the nonlinear distortion process. Analytical results for the particular case of a sound beam with initial Gaussian distribution are also presented, demonstrating that the motion of peak pressure and peak intensity may occur in opposite directions.

  7. Optimization of metabolic capacity and flux through environmental cues to maximize hydrogen production by the cyanobacterium "Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima".

    PubMed

    Ananyev, Gennady; Carrieri, Damian; Dismukes, G Charles

    2008-10-01

    Environmental and nutritional conditions that optimize the yield of hydrogen (H(2)) from water using a two-step photosynthesis/fermentation (P/F) process are reported for the hypercarbonate-requiring cyanobacterium "Arthrospira maxima." Our observations lead to four main conclusions broadly applicable to fermentative H(2) production by bacteria: (i) anaerobic H(2) production in the dark from whole cells catalyzed by a bidirectional [NiFe] hydrogenase is demonstrated to occur in two temporal phases involving two distinct metabolic processes that are linked to prior light-dependent production of NADPH (photosynthetic) and dark/anaerobic production of NADH (fermentative), respectively; (ii) H(2) evolution from these reductants represents a major pathway for energy production (ATP) during fermentation by regenerating NAD(+) essential for glycolysis of glycogen and catabolism of other substrates; (iii) nitrate removal during fermentative H(2) evolution is shown to produce an immediate and large stimulation of H(2), as nitrate is a competing substrate for consumption of NAD(P)H, which is distinct from its slower effect of stimulating glycogen accumulation; (iv) environmental and nutritional conditions that increase anaerobic ATP production, prior glycogen accumulation (in the light), and the intracellular reduction potential (NADH/NAD(+) ratio) are shown to be the key variables for elevating H(2) evolution. Optimization of these conditions and culture age increases the H(2) yield from a single P/F cycle using concentrated cells to 36 ml of H(2)/g (dry weight) and a maximum 18% H(2) in the headspace. H(2) yield was found to be limited by the hydrogenase-mediated H(2) uptake reaction.

  8. Mutational analysis of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin, PP2 reveals Ser-104 is crucial for carbohydrate binding.

    PubMed

    Bobbili, Kishore Babu; Bandari, Shyam; Grobe, Kay; Swamy, Musti J

    2014-07-18

    The pumpkin phloem lectin (PP2) is an RNA-binding, defense-related, chitooligosaccharide-specific, homodimeric lectin of Mr 48 kDa expressed at high concentrations in the sieve elements and companion cells of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). In the present study, PP2 was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris with the Saccharomyces α-factor sequence to direct the recombinant protein into the secretory pathway as a prerequisite for unimpaired folding and posttranslational glycosylation of recombinant PP2. Previous computational modeling and ligand docking studies predicted a putative chitooligosaccharide-binding site on the PP2 surface, which was divided into three subsites, with two amino acid residues in each subsite identified as possible candidates for interaction with chitooligosaccharides (CHOs). In this work, mutational analysis and hemagglutination assays were employed to verify the role of the predicted residues in the carbohydrate binding activity of the protein. The results obtained revealed that mutation of Ser-104 to Ala (S104A) at subsite-2 resulted in about 90% loss of agglutination activity of the protein, indicating that Ser-104 is crucial for the binding of CHOs to PP2. Also, L100A (at subsite-1) and K200A (at subsite-3) independently decreased the lectin activity by about 40%, indicating that these two residues also contribute significantly to sugar binding by PP2. Together, these findings confirm that all the three subsites contribute to varying degrees toward PP2-carbohydrate interaction, and confirm the validity of the computational model, as proposed earlier. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Four-stranded coiled-coil elastic protein in the byssus of the giant clam, Tridacna maxima.

    PubMed

    Miserez, Ali; Li, Youli; Cagnon, Joel; Weaver, James C; Waite, J Herbert

    2012-02-13

    An elastic protein with a secondary structure distinct from all well-known load-bearing proteins is found in the byssus of the giant clam, Tridacna maxima . The byssus consists of a bundle of hundreds of individual threads, each measuring about about 100 μm in diameter, which exhibit a tendon-like mechanical response. The amino acid composition of Tridacna byssus, however, is unlike tendon collagen, lacking high glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline. Wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements suggest that the constituent nanofibrils of the byssal threads are distinct from known secondary structure motifs previously reported for elastic proteins including the collagen triple-helix, the β-sheet nanocrystalline domains of silks, or the double-stranded coiled-coil regions of intermediate filaments. Instead, X-ray diffraction data indicate a structural organization in which four coiled-coil α-helices form a stable rope-like structure, which then further pack in a pseudohexagonal lattice to form nanofibrils. Amino acid composition analysis shows unusually high concentrations of acidic as well as basic residues, suggesting that the four-helix structure is stabilized by strong ionic interactions between oppositely charged residues in neighboring strands. The composition also suggests additional stabilization by disulfide cross-linking. On a larger scale, scanning and conventional transmission electron microscope (STEM and TEM) observations indicate that the nanofibrils exhibit an alternating periodicity of about 500 nm along the axial direction. A molecular model that combines the mechanical properties with the structural characteristics of the Tridacna byssal threads is proposed.

  10. Relationship Between Fatigue Index and Number of Repetition Maxima with Sub-Maximal Loads in Biceps Curl

    PubMed Central

    Pekünlü, Ekim; Atalağ, Ozan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the number of repetition maxima to volitional failure (RM) at 60%, 75%, 90% of 1RM and fatigue index (FI), a determinant of the muscular endurance level. Thirty four resistance trained male participants attended two testing sessions. The first session was conducted to assess 1RM load and RM at 60%, 75% and 90% of 1RM in the supine biceps curl (SBC) exercise. In the second session, a FI test protocol consisting of five sets of SBC with 90 s rest between sets was performed to determine FI values. Each set was performed to volitional failure using a sub-maximal load in the range of 15-20RM. Hypothetical high FI and low FI groups (17 participants with the highest and lowest FI values, respectively) were formed for statistical analyses. ANOVA results revealed that RM at 60%, 75%, 90% of 1RM were not significantly different between FI groups when controlled for mean repetition tempo (p=0.11, p=0.38, p=0.13, respectively). Pearson’s correlation coefficients revealed that no significant relationship was present between FI values and RM at 60%, 75%, 90% of 1RM (p=0.40, p=0.46, p=0.14, respectively). In conclusion, the muscular endurance level of participants defined in terms of FI value was not an indicator of RM in SBC. Therefore, athletes with different muscular endurance levels can use similar percentages of 1RM in biceps curl exercise in their training programs when the aim is to elicit training adaptations related to specific RM zones. PMID:24235992

  11. A GCM case study on the maintenance of short-term subtropical wind maxima in the summer hemisphere during SOP-1, FGGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurrell, James W.; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1992-01-01

    In order to substantiate earlier findings of pronounced short-term deviations in Southern Hemisphere tropical convection during the first Special Observing Period (SOP-1) of FGGE, the hypothesis that the observed summertime subtropical wind maxima were strengthened by episodes of enhanced tropical divergence is numerically tested using a fourth-order GCM. FGGE observational data for January 6-20, 1979 suggested that strong convection over the South Pacific helped to maintain a nearby subtropical jet. The dominant term in the zonal momentum budget was the Coriolis force applied to the diabatically driven meridional circulation. The present GCM study simulates these processes to a reasonable degree of accuracy. Experimental reduction of the latent energy supplied to the GCM is used to substantiate that summertime subtropical westerly maxima are largely forced by divergent outflow from the tropics.

  12. The anticoccidial effects of amprolium, dinitolmide and monensin against Eimeria maxima, E, brunetti and E. acervulina with particular reference to oocyst sporulation.

    PubMed

    Joyner, L P; Norton, C C

    1977-10-01

    Chicks infected with the Weybridge strains of Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina were not protected by the normal levels of amprolium, but the sporulation of the oocysts was inhibited. With higher drug concentrations, fewer oocysts were produced. E brunetti was not so markedly affected, although oocyst sporulation was reduced by the higher dosage levels. The effects were not enhanced by the inclusion of ethopabate. With dinitolmide the phenomenon was not so marked, although oocysts of E. maxima and E. acervulina were reduced in numbers by the normal drug concentration and sporulation was reduced when this level was increased. Much higher drug levels were required to obtain these effects with E. brunetti. Monensin at 120 ppm affected neither oocyst numbers nor their sporulation in any of the species tested. The significance of the effects of anticoccidial drugs on gametogony and sporogony is discussed.

  13. Characterization of acylated flavonoid-O-glycosides and methoxylated flavonoids from Tagetes maxima by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Parejo, Irene; Jáuregui, Olga; Viladomat, Francesc; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles

    2004-01-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled to negative electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) employing a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was used in the structural determination of acylated flavonoid-O-glycosides and methoxylated flavonoids occurring in Tagetes maxima. The compounds were identified by experiments in full scan mode (MS), and tandem mass experiments (MS/MS) of precursor ion scan, product ion scan, and neutral loss scan modes. In order to characterize the aglycones of the flavonoid glycosides, in-source fragmentation of the deprotonated molecule [M-H]- followed by product ion scan of the resulting aglycone [A-H]- were performed. This combined approach allowed the identification of 51 phenolic compounds, including flavonoid-O-glycosides acylated with galloyl, protocatechuoyl, coumaroyl or caffeoyl groups, methoxylated flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamic acid and phenolic acid derivatives, none of them previously reported in Tagetes maxima.

  14. Calibration of seawater temperature and δ 18Oseawater signals in Tridacna maxima's δ 18Oshell record based on in situ data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duprey, N.; Lazareth, C. E.; Dupouy, C.; Butscher, J.; Farman, R.; Maes, C.; Cabioch, G.

    2015-06-01

    The giant clam Tridacna maxima presents a strong potential for paleoclimatic reconstructions but its use remains limited by the fact that the relationship between the shell stable oxygen isotopes ratio ( δ 18Oshell), the sea surface temperature (SST), and the stable oxygen isotopes ratio of seawater ( δ 18Osw) has not been calibrated yet. In this study, a T. maxima specimen was stained with calcein and grown in a tank for 1.5 yr. The tank seawater was monitored weekly for sea surface salinity, and the stable oxygen isotopes ratio of seawater ( δ 18Osw) and SST was recorded hourly. Microscopic observations of outer shell layer thin sections revealed micrometric, simple and complex, growth increments. The staining experiment demonstrated that these growth increments were deposited on a daily basis. The weekly δ 18Oshell record showed that the shell was precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with seawater and that 63 % of the ( δ 18Oshell - δ 18Osw) variations were explained by SST variations. A conventional linear function (1) linking T. maxima high-resolution δ 18Oshell record, in situ δ 18Osw, and SST data was calculated as: where SST is in degree Celsius and Δ δ 18O is the difference between the stable oxygen isotopes ratio of the shell and of the seawater ( δ 18Oshell - δ 18Osw), in ‰ VPDB. The root mean square error of the SST reconstructed by this equation is ±1.41 °C revealing the potential of T. maxima for paleoclimatic studies. An average SST = f( δ 18Oshell - δ 18Osw) equation for giant clam is proposed by compiling the equations from the present study and previous works This equation permits one to obtain SST records from isotopic values of giant clams species that have not been calibrated yet or from fossil giant species that do not have living modern conspecifics.

  15. Systematic investigation of the principal and first secondary maxima of ultrashort optical pulses focused by a high numerical aperture aplanatic lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindlein, Norbert; Loosen, Florian; Fries, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The electromagnetic field in the focus of an ideal aplanatic lens with high numerical aperture, which is illuminated by an ultrashort optical pulse and plane wave front, is simulated by taking the vectorial Debye integral and the coherent superposition of a frequency spectrum of monochromatic waves. The behavior of the principal maxima and the first secondary maxima as function of the numerical aperture (NA) and the pulse duration T is investigated systematically for light incident with linear polarization. First, one would not expect remarkable deviations from the stationary case. But also this simple system of an ideal aplanatic lens without any chromatic or monochromatic aberrations (of course only simple from the point of theory, but not at all from the point of practical realization) shows some remarkable results. If the NA (in vacuum) tends to the limiting case of 1.0 the maximum value of |E|2 increases faster than expected from the scalar theory (Airy disc) with a maximum deviation of about 13%. The second effect really comes from very short pulses, i.e. very small values T. Then, the value of |E|2 compared to the expected linear increase with 1/T decreases slightly (only less than 2%), but systematically for all NAs. Even more interesting is the dependence of the height of the first secondary maxima along the x-axis and y-axis on the NA and 1/T. It can be seen that along both axes the first secondary maxima nearly vanish for very short pulses, i.e. large values 1/T.

  16. Analysis of differentially expressed genes in two immunologically distinct strains of Eimeria maxima using suppression subtractive hybridization and dot-blot hybridization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well known that different Eimeria maxima strains exhibit significant antigenic variation. However, the genetic basis of these phenotypes remains unclear. Methods Total RNA and mRNA were isolated from unsporulated oocysts of E. maxima strains SH and NT, which were found to have significant differences in immunogenicity in our previous research. Two subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and specific genes were further analyzed by dot-blot hybridization and qRT-PCR analysis. Results A total of 561 clones were selected from both cDNA libraries and the length of the inserted fragments was 0.25–1.0 kb. Dot-blot hybridization revealed a total of 86 differentially expressed clones (63 from strain SH and 23 from strain NT). Nucleotide sequencing analysis of these clones revealed ten specific contigs (six from strain SH and four from strain NT). Further analysis found that six contigs from strain SH and three from strain NT shared significant identities with previously reported proteins, and one contig was presumed to be novel. The specific differentially expressed genes were finally verified by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses. Conclusions The data presented here suggest that specific genes identified between the two strains may be important molecules in the immunogenicity of E. maxima that may present potential new drug targets or vaccine candidates for coccidiosis. PMID:24894832

  17. Comparison of the bioaccumulation from seawater and depuration of heavy metals and radionuclides in the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthys) and the turbot Psetta maxima (Actinopterygii: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Jeffree, Ross A; Warnau, Michel; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Markich, Scott J

    2006-09-15

    The bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals and radionuclides ((241)Am, (109)Cd, (57)Co, (51)Cr, (134)Cs, (54)Mn and (65)Zn) from seawater was experimentally compared in the Chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula (spotted dogfish) and the Actinopterygian Teleost Psetta maxima (turbot), of comparable size, age and benthic feeding habits. The speciation of these elements in seawater (salinity 38 per thousand, pH 8.1, temperature 16.5 degrees C) was also calculated to determine their potential bioavailability. The uptake rates, measured over 14 days, varied greatly among isotopes and between species. Concentration factors (CFs) in P. maxima varied 5-fold between ca. 0.2 for (51)Cr and 2.5 for (65)Zn and (134)Cs, whereas in S. canicula they varied by a much greater factor of 350, with CFs for (51)Cr and (241)Am ranging from ca. 0.4 to 140, respectively. With the exception of (134)Cs, all radiotracers were accumulated at a faster rate in S. canicula than in P. maxima, particularly for (241)Am and (65)Zn where the CFs attained during the uptake phase were, two and one order of magnitude greater in S. canicula, respectively. In contrast, (134)Cs reached a CF of about 2.5 in P. maxima, which was 5-fold greater than in S. canicula. Patterns of loss from the experimental depuration phase over 29 days showed greater similarities between species, compared to the uptake phase that highlighted the greater differences between elements. The distributions of these seven radioisotopes among six body components indicated that between the two species the skin of the dogfish displayed a greater bioaccumulation potential, particularly for (241)Am, (57)Co and (65)Zn. However (65)Zn was also distinctive from (241)Am and (57)Co in its pattern of bioaccumulation in dogfish, with its other body components attaining concentrations of (65)Zn that were comparable to the levels found in its skin. The heightened uptake of (134)Cs in turbot was characterised by a more even percentage distribution

  18. Evaluation of Cucurbita maxima extract against scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats: implication of tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, Talha; Shakya, Ashok K; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Kamal, Mehnaz

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbita maxima (CM) seed oil is commonly used in Indian folk medicine to treat various ailments. We have investigated the effect of CM seed oil on memory impairment induced by scopolamine in rats. Male adult Wistar rats were administered scopolamine 1 mg/kg body weight, i.p. or 1.25 mg/kg body weight, s.c. to induce memory impairment. The nootropic agent piracetam 100 mg/kg body weight, i.p. and CM seed oil 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, p.o. were administered daily for five consecutive days. The memory function was evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM) test, the social recognition test (SRT), the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, and the pole climbing test (PCT). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress parameters were estimated in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of the brains after completion of the behavioural studies. The effects of scopolamine on the levels of the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) transcript were also investigated. Scopolamine caused memory impairment in all the behavioural paradigms along with a significant increase in the AChE activity and oxidative stress in the brain. Scopolamine also caused a significant increase in the expression of TNF-α in the hippocampus. CM seed oil exhibited antiamnesic activity as indicated by a significant reduction in the latency time in the MWM test and decreased social interaction during trial 2 in the SRT. Further, treatment with CM seed oil significantly decreased the AChE activity and malondialdehyde levels and increased the glutathione level in brain regions. CM seed oil also significantly decreased the expression of TNF-α in the hippocampus. The effect of CM seed oil on behavioural and biochemical parameters was comparable to that observed in rats treated with piracetam. These results indicate that CM seed oil may exert antiamnesic activity which may be attributed to the inhibition of AChE and inflammation as well as its antioxidant activity in the brain.

  19. Paradox of the peak-PCIM (Paleocene Carbon Isotope Maxima; ~57.8Ma) and Abrupt Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, D. T.; Hoenisch, B.; Zachos, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Paleocene Carbon Isotope Maxima (PCIM; ~57.8Ma) represents a major transition in global δ13C during the late Paleocene, when the long-term positive trend in δ13C reversed from positive to negative. The peak-PCIM (~57.7Ma) has been tightly resolved in new high-resolution, astronomically-tuned benthic isotope records from IODP Sites 1209 (Pacific) and 1262 (Atlantic), which show the final phase of δ13C enrichment as abrupt (~1‰ in <100kyrs) and coinciding with a 0.5‰ decline in benthic δ18O indicative of 2-3ºC of bottom water warming, effectively marking the onset of a gradual 8Myr long warming trend [Littler et al., EPSL 2014]. Typically, during the Paleogene on orbital time scales, warming is observed during intervals of δ13C depletion, consistent with release of isotopically light carbon to the atmosphere. This event, which has the appearance of a bifurcation in the long-term coupling of climate system and the carbon cycle, poses an interesting paradox as any rapid carbon release to the atmosphere should, in theory, create a negative excursion because all of the major carbon sources are isotopically light, whether volcanic outgassing, weathering/oxidation of organic carbon, or methane release [Dunkley-Jones et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2010]. If global, there are several testable mechanisms that may explain the shift including increase in burial flux of light carbon, a reduction in heavy carbon burial flux, or a large-scale circulation change perhaps associated with the transition of a major oceanic gateway. Using trace metal (B/Ca and Mg/Ca) and stable isotope (δ11B, δ18O, and δ13C) geochemistry, here we establish the nature of the peak-PCIM at sites from 3 different ocean basins (IODP Sites 690, 1209, and 1262) and begin to test several of the possible mechanisms for change. Mg/Ca in mixed-layer planktonic foraminifera show 2-3°C of sea surface warming coinciding with, and abrupt as, the benthic carbon isotope enrichment at all sites. Bottom

  20. Host and environmental risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium scophthalmi (Apicomplexa) infection in cultured turbot, Psetta maxima (L.) (Pisces, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar; Perez, Andrés; Quiroga, M Isabel; Redondo, M José; Vázquez, Sonia; Riaza, Ana; Palenzuela, Oswaldo; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Nieto, José M

    2009-11-12

    An epidemiological cohort study of Cryptosporidium scophthalmi in cultured turbot Psetta maxima L. of Northwestern Spain was conducted along a four-year period. Four different ongrowing cohorts were monitored monthly from introduction into the ongrowing tanks (10-50 g) until reaching market size (400-1400 g). The association of host and environmental factors with five categories of parasite abundance was assessed using a multivariable regression framework. Epidemiological factors assessed here were water temperature, weight, length, month of collection, season, age, origin, condition factor, water filtration, and status to the myxozoan Enteromyxum scophthalmi infection. E. scophthalmi was included into the analysis because it targets the same organ than C. scophthalmi and it was prevalent in the studied population. The multivariable analysis demonstrated the statistically significant association between several factors and parasite abundance. C. scophthalmi abundance was associated (P<0.05) with age, condition factor, season, and status to E. scophthalmi infection. Young animals, with poor condition factor, during spring or summer, and not infected with the myxozoan were most likely to be highly infected by C. scophthalmi. Inclusion of these four variables significantly (P<0.05) improved the model, compared to the model that did not include any of these epidemiological factors. Increasing levels of C. scophthalmi abundance were associated (P<0.01) with higher severity of C. scophthalmi-compatible lesions. The frequency of distribution of C. scophthalmi abundance was clearly right-skewed and fitted a negative binomial distribution, whereas the intensity of infection fitted a Poisson distribution. The quantification of the variance-to-mean ratio stratified by age demonstrated overdispersion for 8-16 months old fish, although this bivariate association is likely affected by several other factors, as suggested by the results of the multivariable analysis. The negative

  1. Ecological risk assessment of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in marine environment using Isochrysis galbana, Paracentrotus lividus, Siriella armata and Psetta maxima.

    PubMed

    Mhadhbi, Lazhar; Rial, Diego; Pérez, Sara; Beiras, Ricardo

    2012-05-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are anthropogenic substances classified as persistent bioaccumulative compounds and are found in various environmental compartments throughout the world, from industrialized regions to remote zones far from areas of production. In this study, we assessed the effects of PFOA and PFOS on early life stages of marine test species belonging to three different trophic levels: one microalga (Isochrysis galbana), a primary consumer (Paracentrotus lividus) and two secondary consumers (Siriella armata and Psetta maxima). Acute EC(50) values for PFOS were 0.11 mg L(-1) in P. maxima, 6.9 mg L(-1) in S. armata, 20 mg L(-1) in P. lividus and 37.5 mg L(-1) in I. galbana. In the case of PFOA, the toxicity was lower but the ranking was the same; 11.9 mg L(-1) in P. maxima, 15.5 mg L(-1) in S. armata, 110 mg L(-1) in P. lividus and 163.6 mg L(-1) in I. galbana. The Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for PFOS and PFOA in marine water derived from these acute toxicity values are 1.1 μg L(-1) for PFOS and 119 μg L(-1) for PFOA. This study established a baseline dataset of toxicity of PFOS and PFOA on saltwater organisms. The data obtained suggest that PFOA pose a minor risk to these organisms through direct exposure. In the perspective of risk assessment, early life stage (ELS) endpoints provide rapid, cost-effective and ecologically relevant information, and links should be sought between these short-term tests and effects of long-term exposures in more realistic scenarios.

  2. Drifting the radio flares maxima at orbital phase of X-ray and VHE Gamma-ray binary LSI+61(o) 303

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushkin, Sergei; Nizhelskij, Nikolaj

    During two observational sets in 2003 February-May and 2009 May -October we carried out monitoring of the famous X-ray and very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray binary, probably mi-croquasar, LSI+61o 303 (GT 0236+61) with the RATAN-600 radio telescope. Daily observations were made at four frequencies 2.1, 4.8, 7.7, and 11.2 GHz. Thus the multi-frequency light curves were measured during some (4 and 6) orbital periods (P1 = 26.5d). LSI+61o 303 is periodically flaring source from radio waves to VHE gamma-ray band. In both sets we detected radio flares with maximal flux 150-250 mJy, while between flares the brightness of the source fall down to 10-20 mJy. These measurements were made near the phases θ2 = 0.6 - 0.7 (2003) and θ2 = 0.0 (2009) of the super-orbital period P2 = 1667 days according to the ephemerids of Gregory (2002). In both sets maxima fluxes at 2.1 GHz were later than at the higher frequencies, that is a reason of the positive (Sν ∝ ν α ) spectral indices between 2 and 11 GHz in the beginning of a flare. We compared the mean orbital light curves with the GBI data, received in 90th for the same super-orbital phases. The flares in 2003 Feb-May and in 1994 Feb-June (GBI data) began at the same orbital phases (θ1 = 0.35), while the maxima of the flares were at orbital phases near 0.45 in 1994 and 0.55 in 2003. In 2009 the beginnings of the flares and maxima of the flares were drifted to the phases 0.6 and 0.7 respectively, meanwhile these phases were rather 0.5 and 0.6 in the GBI data of 1996. Thus we confirmed the drifts of the maxima in dependence on super-orbital period phase. We found that at least during last years the maximum flaring fluxes happened at 3 days later than being predicted by the ephemerids from Gregory (2002). That could be related with instability (or uncertainty) of the super-orbital 4.6-year period. We discuss the possible reasons of the modulation of the synchrotron radiation properties by the super-orbital 4.6-year period.

  3. Global maxima for the acousto-optic effect in SrB4O7 crystals.

    PubMed

    Oleh, Buryy; Nazariy, Andrushchak; Andriy, Ratych; Natalia, Demyanyshyn; Bohdan, Mytsyk; Anatoliy, Andrushchak

    2017-03-01

    For the first time, the global maxima of the acousto-optic interaction are theoretically determined for biaxial SrB4O7 crystals by the extreme surfaces method. As it is shown, the highest value of the acousto-optic figure-of-merit M2 is equal to 6.3×10-16  s3/kg and achieved in the case of the isotropic diffraction of the electromagnetic wave propagating in the [010] direction on the fast quasi-transversal acoustic wave.

  4. Analysis of contribution from various order diffraction maxima to complex magneto-optical Kerr effect from three-dimensional structures like magnetophotonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarev, Ivan S.; Zvezdin, Nikolay Yu.; Paporkov, Vladimir A.; Prokaznikov, Alexander V.

    2016-12-01

    In this work the superposition of effects with different diffraction origins and orders by formation of resulting magnetooptical response from the structures like magneto-photonic crystals in the regions far from plasmonic resonances were investigated for the first time. The contributions into magneto-optical response from diffraction and interferential phenomena in maxima of different orders in three-dimensional systems like magneto-photonic crystals were studied. It was demonstrated that the usage of integral response in order to analyze magneto-optical effects results in disappearance of interference phenomena. Diffraction maximum of the zero order reflects represent magnetic component of magnetooptical response. Numerical evaluations of observed effects were done.

  5. Antiferromagnetic exchange interaction in the two-iron-two-sulphur ferredoxin from the blue-green alga Spirulina maxima studied with a highly sensitive magnetic balance.

    PubMed

    Petersson, L; Cammack, R; Rao, K K

    1980-03-26

    1. A highly sensitive magnetic balance of the Faraday type is described. 2. The magnetic susceptibility of the oxidized and reduced forms of the two-iron-two-sulphur ferredoxin from the blue-green alga Spirulina maxima has been measured over a wide temperature range. 3. The results can be interpreted within a simple model involving antiferromagnetically coupled iron atoms at the active site. The coupling, expressed as --J, is estimated to be 182 +/- 20/cm and 98 +5/-10 /cm for the oxidized and reduced forms, respectively.

  6. Effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins and an organic mycotoxin adsorbent on immune cell dynamics in the jejunum of chickens infected with Eimeria maxima.

    PubMed

    Girgis, George N; Barta, John R; Girish, Channarayapatna K; Karrow, Niel A; Boermans, Herman J; Smith, Trevor K

    2010-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of Fusarium mycotoxins, common animal feed contaminants, on intestinal immune responses to coccidia (Eimeria) in chickens. Effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins and a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) on immune cell populations were studied in the jejunum of broiler breeder pullets using an Eimeria maxima infection model. Birds were fed a control diet, a diet naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, contaminated diet plus 0.2% GMA, or control diet plus 0.2% GMA. Contaminated diets contained up to 6.5μg/g deoxynivalenol (DON), 0.47μg/g 15-acetyl-DON and 0.73μg/g zearalenone. Birds received a primary oral inoculation (1000 oocysts/bird) with E. maxima USDA strain 68 at 2 weeks of age and a secondary oral inoculation (30,000 oocysts/bird) with the same strain at 4 weeks of age. Diet-related differences in CD4(+) cell, CD8(+) cell and macrophage recruitment pattern into the jejunum were observed following both the primary and secondary infections. It was concluded that feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins and GMA have the potential to modulate immune response to coccidial infections.

  7. Bifurcations of the Creation of Low-Temperature Maxima of the Tunneling Conductance of a "Dirty" N-I-N Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirpichenkov, V. Ya.; Kirpichenkova, N. V.; Lozin, O. I.; Pukhlova, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    The representation of the tunneling conductance G(T) of the "dirty" (with low concentrations of the same nonmagnetic impurities in the I layer) N-I-N junction (where N is a normal metal and I is an insulator) in the form of a sum of conductances of random quantum jumpers penetrating the disordered I layer is obtained in the low-temperature region. It is shown that the axis of the parameter δ = |ɛ0 - ɛF| giving the deviation of the energy of ɛ0 the quasi-local electron state on the impurity in the I layer from the Fermi energy of ɛF the dirty N-I-N junction contains a series of bifurcation points, at the transition through each of which (in the direction of the increase in δ) the number of maxima on the temperature dependence G(T) increases by unity; i.e., a new maximum is "born" on the curve G(T). Numerical estimates are given for the characteristic parameters of dirty N-I-N junctions indicating the possibility of the experimental observation of at least the first of these maxima.

  8. Antitumor and Immunomodulating Activities of Exopolysaccharide Produced by Big Cup Culinary- Medicinal Mushroom Clitocybe maxima (Higher Basidiomycetes) in Liquid Submerged Culture.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shu-Hui; Cheung, Peter Chi Keung; Hung, Raw-Pou; Chen, Yu-Kuei; Wang, Jinn-Chyi; Chang, Sue-Joan

    2015-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from mushrooms have been found to have some physiological effects. In this study, exopolysaccharides (EPSs) were extracted by alcohol precipitation from cultivated broth of the mushroom Clitocybe maxima. EPSs with molecular weights of 10(4) and 10(5) Da were obtained by ultrafiltration; they are referred to as EPA and EPB, respectively. The major components of these EPSs were glucose, galactose, mannose, rhamnose, and arabinose. ICR mice with artificially induced metastatic pulmonary tumors were fed a daily diet containing EPA or EPB at doses of 8, 20, or 50 mg/kg. Results showed that the proliferation of pulmonary sarcoma lesions was lower in the groups fed EPS. In addition, the numbers of total T cells, CD4+ cells, CD8+ cells, and macrophages significantly increased in EPS-fed mice compared with the negative control group. The antitumor and immunomodulating effects observed in the EPB-fed groups were higher than those of EPA-fed groups. These results demonstrate the ability of EPSs of C. maxima to inhibit tumor cells while enhancing immune response.

  9. Analysis of differentially expressed genes in the precocious line of Eimeria maxima and its parent strain using suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hui; Lin, Jiaojiao; Han, Hongyu; Jiang, Lianlian; Zhao, Qiping; Zhu, Shunhai; Huang, Bing

    2011-04-01

    The precocious line of Eimeria spp., obtained by repeated passages of oocysts initially collected from feces of previously infected chickens, has unique phenotypes and plays an important role in immunizing chickens against coccidiosis. However, the genetic basis of precocious phenotype in Eimeria is still poorly understood. To investigate gene expression changes in sporulated oocysts between the precocious line of E. maxima and its parent strain, subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). A total of 3,164 cDNA fragments were selected from the SSH cDNA libraries to fabricate cDNA microarrays and further identify the differentially expressed genes. The credibility of the microarray data was verified by real-time PCR. A total of 360 valid expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained, which represented 32 unique sequences. Twenty-one genes were validated as downregulated and 11 genes as upregulated in the precocious line. Homology searching of the public sequence database showed that six genes encoded proteins homologous with previously reported proteins, including rhomboid-like protein and transhydrogenase of E. tenella, serpin, and cation-transporting ATPase of E. acervulina, a heat-shock protein of E. maxima, and a conserved hypothetical protein of Toxoplasma gondii. Thus, the remaining 26 ESTs have not been previously reported. Further characterization of these differentially expressed genes will be useful in understanding the genetic basis for the precocious phenotype in Eimeria spp.

  10. Ultrastructural evaluation of the effects of diclazuril on the endogenous stages of Eimeria maxima and E. brunetti in experimentally inoculated chickens.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, A; Maes, L; Coussement, W; Vanparijs, O; Lauwers, F; Vlaminckx, E; Marsboom, R

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructural morphology of the different endogenous stages of Eimeria maxima and E. brunetti was evaluated after oral treatment of inoculated chickens with a single dose of 5 mg/kg diclazuril. The drug induced no ultrastructural change in the growth or differentiation of the various schizont stages of both Eimeria spp. In E. maxima, the micromorphological appearance of micro- and macrogamonts developing from the blast from to maturation also remained unaffected by drug treatment. However, in all fertilized macrogamonts the normal pattern of oocyst wall establishment was completely disturbed, resulting in the formation of an abnormally thickened, incomplete oocyst wall and the necrosis of the zygote. In E. brunetti, the growth and nuclear division during microgametogenesis were not affected but differentiation was clearly abnormal. In comparison with the controls, this abnormal differentiation was characterized by a less extensive enlargement of the parasite surface area, aberrant morphological configurations of condensed heterochromatin, intracytoplasmic flagella formation, and glycogen accumulation. Finally, the complete degeneration of all microgamonts ensued. The growth and differentiation leading to mature macrogamonts was not disturbed; however, subsequent oocyst wall formation was largely precluded and the macrogamonts proceeded to degenerate completely. We conclude that diclazuril treatment primarily affected particular stages in the sexual development of both Eimeria spp., resulting in the complete eradication of these coccidian species.

  11. Mesure des stades de developpement du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) par teledetection des maxima locaux sur images a tres haute resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Alain

    L'objectif principal de cette these est d'identifier les parametres cles pour lier le developpement morphologique de la cime du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) aux patrons de reflectance qu'elle genere sur une image aerienne a haute resolution. La quantite et la distribution spatiale des aiguilles dans le sapin dependent de la structure des branches. Un mecanisme de ramification particulier (la reiteration) ressort comme le parametre cle pour lier l'augmentation de la biomasse foliaire et la forme de la branche. Les reiterats forment des agglomerats de feuillage qui engendrent des inegalites dans les patrons de reflectance de la cime. La reflectance est plus elevee ou il y a une forte concentration de reiterats (maximum local). On demontre que le developpement du sapin baumier se mesure au moyen de l'analyse des maxima locaux de la cime sur une image. La biomasse de l'arbre se mesure par la teledetection et l'analyse des patrons de reflectance de la cime, c'est-a-dire la mesure du niveau de reiteration par le decompte des maxima locaux de la cime. Cette etude demontre qu'il est possible de proceder a l'inventaire du volume de bois d'un peuplement par la teledetection de l'architecture des arbres.

  12. Cross immunity of DNA vaccine pVAX1-cSZ2-IL-2 to Eimeria tenella, E. necatrix and E. maxima.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mohammed Ali A; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Song, Xiaokai; Li, Xiangrui

    2010-03-01

    The study describes cross protection experiments with chimeric DNA vaccine pVAX1-cSZ2-IL-2 to determine its efficacy against four important Eimeria species. Seven-day-old chickens were randomly divided into nine groups; group 1 negative control, groups 2, 3, 4, 5 positive controls; and groups 6, 7, 8 and 9 experimental groups. On days 7 and 14, groups 1-5 were injected with TE buffer, and groups 6-9 with the vaccine. At 21 days of age, all chickens were inoculated with 5 x 10(4) sporulated oocysts except for the negative control. Groups 2 and 6 were inoculated with Eimeria tenella, groups 3 and 7 with Eimerianecatrix, groups 4 and 8 with Eimeria acervulina and groups 5 and 9 with Eimeria maxima. Seven days later, all chickens were weighed and slaughtered to obtain intestinal samples. Efficacy of immunization was evaluated on the basis of oocyst decrease ratio, lesion score, body-weight gain and anti-coccidial index. The results indicated that the recombinant plasmid can induce host immune responses by alleviating intestinal lesions, body weight loss and oocyst ratio and imparting good protection against E. tenella and E.acervulina, medium protection against E. necatrix but little effect against E. maxima. It is concluded that the conserved antigen can provide cross protection and should be explored further.

  13. Chemical profile, antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity of Citrus maxima Burm. and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oils and their cyclic monoterpene, DL-limonene.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Shukla, Ravindra; Prakash, Bhanu; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Shubhra; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-06-01

    The study deals with antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity of Citrus maxima and Citrus sinensis essential oils (EOs) and their phytochemical composition. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical profile was determined through GC and GC-MS analysis. Both the EOs and their 1:1 combination showed broad fungitoxic spectrum against different food contaminating moulds. The EOs and their combination completely inhibited aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) production at 500 ppm, whereas, DL-limonene, the major component of EOs showed better antiaflatoxigenic efficacy even at 250 ppm. Both the oils exhibited antioxidant activity as DPPH free radical scavenger in dose dependent manner. The IC(50) for radical scavenging efficacy of C. maxima and C. sinensis oils were to be 8.84 and 9.45 microl ml(-1), respectively. The EOs were found non-mammalian toxic showing high LD(50) for mice (oral, acute). The oils may be recommended as safe plant based antimicrobials as well as antioxidants for enhancement of shelf life of food commodities by checking their fungal infestation, aflatoxin production as well as lipid peroxidation.

  14. ParaDIS_lib

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Richard D.

    2016-05-25

    The ParaDIS_lib software is a project that is funded by the DOE ASC Program. Its purpose is to provide visualization and analysis capabilities for the existing ParaDIS parallel dislocation dynamics simulation code.

  15. Differential spatial expression of A- and B-type CDKs, and distribution of auxins and cytokinins in the open transverse root apical meristem of Cucurbita maxima

    PubMed Central

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Bruno, Leonardo; Salimonti, Amelia; Muto, Antonella; Jones, Jessica; Rogers, Hilary J.; Francis, Dennis; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Aside from those on Arabidopsis, very few studies have focused on spatial expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in root apical meristems (RAMs), and, indeed, none has been undertaken for open meristems. The extent of interfacing between cell cycle genes and plant growth regulators is also an increasingly important issue in plant cell cycle studies. Here spatial expression/localization of an A-type and B-type CDK, auxin and cytokinins are reported in relation to the hitherto unexplored anatomy of RAMs of Cucurbita maxima. Methods Median longitudinal sections were cut from 1-cm-long primary root tips of C. maxima. Full-length A-type CDKs and a B-type CDK were cloned from C. maxima using degenerate primers, probes of which were localized on sections of RAMs using in situ hybridization. Isopentenyladenine (iPA), trans-zeatin (t-Z) and indole-3yl-acetic acid (IAA) were identified on sections by immunolocalization. Key Results The C. cucurbita RAM conformed to an open transverse (OT) meristem typified by an absence of a clear boundary between the eumeristem and root cap columella, but with a distinctive longitudinally thickened epidermis. Cucma;CDKA;1 expression was detected strongly in the longitudinally thickened epidermis, a tissue with mitotic competence that contributes cells radially to the root cap of OT meristems. Cucma;CDKB2 was expressed mainly in proliferative regions of the RAM and in lateral root primordia. iPA and t-Z were mainly distributed in differentiated cells whilst IAA was distributed more uniformly in all tissues of the RAM. Conclusions Cucma;CDKA;1 was expressed most strongly in cells that have proliferative competence whereas Cucma;CDKB2 was confined mainly to mitotic cells. iPA and t-Z marked differentiated cells in the RAM, consistent with the known effect of cytokinins in promoting differentiation in root systems. iPA/t-Z were distributed in a converse pattern to Cucma;CDKB2 expression whereas IAA was detected in

  16. Observational and modeling study of the maintenance of short-term subtropical wind maxima in the Southern Hemisphere during SOP-1, FGGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurrell, James W.; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1991-01-01

    The findings of the earlier observational work of Hurrel and Vincent (1990) are substantiated using a recent version of the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres fourth-order general circulation model. The observed heating and subtropical zonal flow structure over the South Pacific is reproduced by a control integration with full model physics, for the period of 6-20 January 1979. A subtropical westerly maximum observed over the central South Pacific is found to be highly correlated to enhancements of poleward-moving divergent outflow from tropical heat sources. The divergent meridional flow accounted for much of the total ageostrophic meridional wind in the Southern Hemisphere subtropics, and, consequently, resulted in strong Coriolis accelerations in the entrance regions westerly maxima.

  17. Differential responses in yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) and nightshade (Solanum retroflexum Dun.) to the application of three animal manures.

    PubMed

    Azeez, J O; Van Averbeke, W; Okorogbona, A O M

    2010-04-01

    Crop responses to different manures differs considerably, however, the factors responsible for it have not been conclusively elucidated. Consequently, this study examined the biomass response of Cucurbita maxima and Solanum retroflexum to application rates of chicken and kraal manures of cattle and goat, and soil factors related to salinity. The crops' biomass yield increased linearly with increase in application rates of kraal and chicken manures, but steeper in the latter. Results showed that significant decline in biomass yield in chicken manure at rates above 8.5 tons ha(-1) were not due to salinity. The crops' response to cattle and goat kraal manures was linear but polynomial (cubic) in layer chicken manure. It was concluded that the yield decline in chicken manure was due to other manure factors except salinity, probably toxicity effect of the manure fatty acids. Further research was however, recommended to elucidate this claim. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Protist 18S rRNA gene Sequence Analysis Reveals Multiple Sources of Organic Matter Contributing to Turbidity Maxima of the Columbia River Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; McCue, Lee Ann; Zuber, Peter A.

    2011-10-05

    The Columbia River estuary is traditionally considered a detritus-based ecosystem fueled in summer by organic matter (OM) from expired freshwater diatoms. Since Estuarine Turbidity Maxima (ETM) are sites of accumulation and transformation of this phytoplankton-derived OM, to further characterize the ETM protist assemblage, we collected in August 2007 bottom waters throughout an ETM event, as well as surface water during the peak of bottom turbidity, and performed biogeochemical, microscopic and molecular (18S rRNA gene clone libraries) analyses. These data confirmed that the majority of the particulate OM in ETMs is derived from chlorophyll a-poor particulate organic carbon tagged by DNA too damaged to be detected by molecular analysis.

  19. Eimeria tenella, E. acervulina and E. maxima: studies on the development of resistance to diclazuril and other anticoccidial drugs in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Chapman, H D

    1989-10-01

    Resistance to diclazuril was induced by 10 passages of the Houghton strains of Eimeria acervulina and E. tenella in chickens given progressively greater concentrations of the drug. This resistance was, however, not complete since the drug retained some efficacy against the drug-passaged lines. Attempts to passage the Houghton strain of E. maxima in birds medicated with concentrations of diclazuril greater than 0.016 parts per million (ppm) were unsuccessful and after 10 passages at this concentration resistance had not developed. Resistance to methyl benzoquate developed after 6 passages of E. tenella in medicated chickens but resistance to amprolium was only partial after 10 passages. The pathogenicity of diclazuril- and amprolium-resistant lines of E. tenella was lower than that of the parental line. Diclazuril was effective against lines of E. tenella resistant to amprolium, arprinocid, clopidol, dinitolmide, halofuginone, methyl benzoquate, monensin and robenidine.

  20. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of phosphate metabolites and intracellular pH in turbot Psetta maxima red blood cells using a novel flow method.

    PubMed

    Thebault, M T; Pichavant, K; Kervarec, N

    2009-08-01

    A method for oxygenating and mixing suspensions of turbot Psetta maxima red blood cells (RBC) was tested in (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In normoxia, the levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and nucleoside triphosphates (NTP) were stable up to 140 min and intracellular pH (pHi) was maintained and decreased oxygen partial pressure (P(O ( 2) )) from 30 to 15 and 600 Pa produced a significant fall in the intensity of NTP resonance, balanced by an increase in the Pi signal. Treatment of RBC with 0. 5 M isoproterenol during hypoxia exposure did not affect the pattern of changes in NTP or pHi induced by hypoxia and the effect was manifest only on Pi levels.

  1. Thermodynamic origin of the solubility profile of drugs showing one or two maxima against the polarity of aqueous and nonaqueous mixtures: niflumic acid and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Pilar; Navarro, J; Romero, S; Escalera, B

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the origin of the different solubility profiles of drugs against the polarity of solvent mixtures with a common cosolvent. Niflumic acid and caffeine where chosen as model drugs. The solubilities were measured at five or six temperatures in aqueous (ethanol-water) and nonaqueous (ethyl acetate-ethanol) mixtures. The enthalpies of solution were obtained at the harmonic mean of the experimental temperature. Solid phase changes were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry and thermomicroscopy. A single solubility maximum was obtained for niflumic acid against the solubility parameter of both mixtures that is not related to solid phase changes. In contrast, caffeine displays two maxima and anhydrous-hydrate transition occurs at the solubility peak in the amphiprotic mixture. The apparent enthalpies of solution of both drugs show endothermic maxima against solvent composition that are related to hydrophobic hydration. A general explanation for the cosolvent action in aqueous mixtures is proposed. The dominant mechanism shifts from entropy to enthalpy at a certain cosolvent ratio dependent on the hydrophobicity and the solubility parameter of the drug. Niflumic acid and caffeine show enthalpy-entropy compensation in ethanol-water, and this relationship is demonstrated for the first time in nonaqueous mixtures. The results support that enthalpy-entropy compensation is a general effect for the solubility of drugs in solvent mixtures. The shape of the solubility curves is correlated with the compensation plots. The solubility peaks separate different enthalpy-entropy relationships that also differentiate the solubility behavior of the hydrate and the anhydrous forms of caffeine. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Direct and individual analysis of stress-related phytohormone dispersion in the vascular system of Cucurbita maxima after flagellin 22 treatment.

    PubMed

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Zimmermann, Matthias R; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Reichelt, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel

    2014-03-01

    • The stress-related phytohormones, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and the three jasmonates, jasmonic acid (JA), cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), and (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), were investigated in phloem and xylem exudates of Cucurbita maxima. • Phloem and xylem exudates were separately collected and analysed via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. • We show direct evidence for all three jasmonates, ABA, and SA in both phloem and xylem exudates of C. maxima. JA and JA-Ile concentrations are higher in xylem (JA: c(xylem) ≈ 199.5 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 43.9 nM; JA-Ile: c(xylem) ≈ 7.9 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 1.6 nM), whereas ABA and SA concentrations are higher in phloem exudates (ABA: c(xylem) ≈ 37.1 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 142.6 nM; SA: c(xylem) ≈ 61.6 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 1319 nM). During bacteria-derived flagellin 22 (flg22)-triggered remote root-to-shoot signalling, phytohormone concentration changed rapidly both in phloem and xylem. • The unequal distribution of phytohormones suggests that phloem and xylem have distinct roles in defence responses. Our data shed light on systemic phytohormone signalling and help explain how plants cope with environmental challenges by lateral exchange between phloem and xylem. Our analysis is a starting point for further investigations of how phytohormones contribute to phloem- and xylem-based defence signalling. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Double-blind randomised controlled trial of the independent and synergistic effect of Spirulina maxima with exercise (ISESE) on general fitness, lipid profile and redox status in overweight and obese subjects: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Lepe, Marco Antonio; López-Díaz, José Alberto; de la Rosa, Laura Alejandra; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Juarez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In order to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors, a healthy diet must include dietary antioxidants from different sources (eg, Spirulina maxima) and regular practice of exercise should be promoted. There is some evidence from animal studies that S. maxima and exercise decrease cardiovascular disease risks factors. However, very few studies have proved the independent or synergistic effect of S. maxima plus exercise in humans. This study attempts to address the independent and synergistic effects in overweight and obese subjects participating in a systematic physical exercise programme at moderate intensity on general fitness, plasma lipid profile and antioxidant capacity. Methods and analysis Using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover study design, 80 healthy overweight and obese subjects will be evaluated during a 12-week isoenergetic diet accompanied by 4.5 g/day S. maxima intake and/or a physical systematic exercise programme at moderate intensity. Body composition, oxygen uptake, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols, total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, antioxidant status, lipid oxidation, protein carbonyls, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and paraoxonase will be assessed. Ethics and dissemination This study and all the procedures have been approved by the Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez Bioethics Committee. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02837666. PMID:28645949

  4. Purification and characterization of a galactan-reactive agglutinin from the clam Tridacna maxima (Röding) and a study of its combining site.

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, B A; Sawyer, W H; Stick, R V; Uhlenbruck, G

    1978-01-01

    1. A beta-galactosyl-binding lectin was purified from the haemolymph of the clam Tridacna maxima by affinity chromatography using polylecyl larch galactan, D-galactosamine coupled to epoxy-activated Sepharose or acid-treated Sepharose. Elution with N-acetyl-D-galactosamine or lactose displaced the bound lectin, which appeared homogeneous by sedimentation analysis. On immunoelectrophoresis at pH8.6 and against rabbit antisera to crude T. maxima haemolymph, the lectin gave one precipitin arc in the alpha-region. 2. On a alkaline polyacrylamide disc gels, one lightly stained band and a broad diffuse band were seen close to the cathode. Ioselectric focusing in solution revealed two peaks of pI4.05 and 4.25 and a shoulder, pI4.0, whereas at least three bands close together (pI3.9-4.3) were seen after electrofusing in gel. 3. The agglutinin is a glycoprotein with a mol.wt. of 470300 +/- 20000. Amino acid analysis revealed no methionine and a significant amount of half-cystine residues. 4. Tridacna lectin is a metalloprotein requiring Ca2+ for its haemagglutinating and precipitating activities. 5. In haemagglutination studies the agglutinin exhibited a broad pH optimum (4.8-10.6). 6. Polysaccharides and glycoproteins with terminal non-reducing beta-D-galactosyl residues reacted with the lectin to form precipitates both in gel and in solution. Inhibition experiments showed that N-acetyl-D-galactosamine was the best inhibitor of the agglutinin combining sites, followed by p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactoside, methyl beta-D-galactoside, D-galactosamine and 60O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-D-galactopyranose. On a molar basis, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine was 20-fold more active than D-galactose and nearly 10-fold more inhibitory than D-galactosamine. 7. Circular-dichroism studies showed that the lectin contains a relatively high proportion of beta-structure. 8. Mercaptoethanol treatment of the agglutinin followed by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis revealed

  5. A high-density genetic map for anchoring genome sequences and identifying QTLs associated with dwarf vine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoyu; Ren, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haiying; Jia, Zhangcai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong; Li, Haizhen

    2015-12-24

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) is an economically important crop belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family. However, very few genomic and genetic resources are available for this species. As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence the pumpkin genome, high-density genetic map is essential for anchoring and orienting the assembled scaffolds. In addition, a saturated genetic map can facilitate quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. A set of 186 F2 plants derived from the cross of pumpkin inbred lines Rimu and SQ026 were genotyped using the genotyping-by-sequencing approach. Using the SNPs we identified, a high-density genetic map containing 458 bin-markers was constructed, spanning a total genetic distance of 2,566.8 cM across the 20 linkage groups of C. maxima with a mean marker density of 5.60 cM. Using this map we were able to anchor 58 assembled scaffolds that covered about 194.5 Mb (71.7%) of the 271.4 Mb assembled pumpkin genome, of which 44 (183.0 Mb; 67.4%) were oriented. Furthermore, the high-density genetic map was used to identify genomic regions highly associated with an important agronomic trait, dwarf vine. Three QTLs on linkage groups (LGs) 1, 3 and 4, respectively, were recovered. One QTL, qCmB2, which was located in an interval of 0.42 Mb on LG 3, explained 21.4% phenotypic variations. Within qCmB2, one gene, Cma_004516, encoding the gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase in the GA biosynthesis pathway, had a 1249-bp deletion in its promoter in bush type lines, and its expression level was significantly increased during the vine growth and higher in vine type lines than bush type lines, supporting Cma_004516 as a possible candidate gene controlling vine growth in pumpkin. A high-density pumpkin genetic map was constructed, which was used to successfully anchor and orient the assembled genome scaffolds, and to identify QTLs highly associated with pumpkin vine length. The map provided a valuable resource for gene cloning and marker assisted breeding in pumpkin and

  6. Growth, Survival and Reproduction of the Giant Clam Tridacna maxima (Röding 1798, Bivalvia) in Two Contrasting Lagoons in French Polynesia

    PubMed Central

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Andréfouët, Serge; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Wabnitz, Colette C. C.; Menoud, Mathilde; Le Moullac, Gilles; Levy, Peva; Gilbert, Antoine; Remoissenet, Georges

    2017-01-01

    Shell growth, reproduction, and natural mortality of the giant clam Tridacna maxima were characterized over a two-year-period in the lagoon of the high island of Tubuai (Austral Archipelago) and in the semi-closed lagoon of Tatakoto (Tuamotu Archipelago) in French Polynesia. We also recorded temperature, water level, tidal slope, tidal range, and mean wave height in both lagoons. Lower lagoon aperture and exposure to oceanic swells at Tatakoto than at Tubuai was responsible for lower lagoon water renewal, as well as higher variability in temperature and water level at Tatakoto across the studied period. These different environmental conditions had an impact on giant clams. Firstly, spawning events in the lagoon of Tatakoto, detected by gonad maturity indices in June and July 2014, were timed with high oceanic water inflow and a decrease in lagoon water temperature. Secondly, temperature explained differences in shell growth rates between seasons and lagoons, generating different growth curves for the two sites. Thirdly, local mortality rates were also found to likely be related to water renewal patterns. In conclusion, our study suggests that reef aperture and lagoon water renewal rates play an integral role in giant clam life history, with significant differences in rates of shell growth, mortality and fertility found between open versus semi-closed atoll lagoons in coral reef ecosystems. PMID:28118406

  7. Overexpression of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) 16 kDa phloem protein CmPP16 increases tolerance to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Ortega, Francisco Arturo; Herrera-Pola, Paul Starsky; Toscano-Morales, Roberto; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The phloem plays an important role in the delivery of nutrients and signals between photosynthetic to heterotrophic tissues. Proteins and RNAs in the phloem translocation stream may have an important role in maintaining the integrity of the sieve tube system, as well as in long-distance signaling. CmPP16 is a pumpkin phloem protein, which has been shown to bind RNA in a non-sequence specific manner, and move it cell-to-cell and conceivably, long-distance. The protein and RNA are found in both companion cell (CC) and sieve elements (SE). However, a more precise function for this protein is not known. In this work we report the overexpression of CmPP16 fused to GFP via transformation of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cv. Big Max) plants in the cotyledonary stage by direct inoculation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Plants overexpressing CmPP16 did not show an obvious phenotype. However, these plants displayed higher photosynthetic capacity during drought than wild-type (WT) pumpkin or transformed with another construct. These results suggest that CmPP16 may be involved in the response to stress through long-distance signaling.

  8. Decomposition of complex fluorescence spectra containing components with close emission maxima positions and similar quantum yields. Application to fluorescence spectra of proteins.

    PubMed

    Savić, Aleksandar; Kardos, Roland; Nyitrai, Miklós; Radotić, Ksenija

    2013-05-01

    Despite of widely application of multivariate analysis in chemometrics, problem of resolving closely positioned components in the fluorescence spectra remained unsolved, thus limiting the usage of fluorescence spectroscopy in analytical purpose. In this paper we have described a novel procedure, adapted especially for the analysis of complex fluorescence spectra with multiple, closely positioned components' maxima. The method was first tested on the simulated spectra and then applied on the spectra of proteins whose fluorophores have similar properties of both the excitation and the emission spectra. In this paper, simple but efficient modification of the method was applied. Instead of analyzing full size emission matrix (12 spectra), 9 spectra wide windows were analyzed, and 4 factors (greatest possible number of factors with physical meaning both for actin and simulated spectra) were extracted in each pass. Obtained factor scores were grouped by using the K-means algorithm. Groups of factor scores obtained from K-means algorithm were passed through the one more factor analysis (FA) in order to find one factor that represents each group. Our approach provides resolution of extremely closed spectral components, which is a vital data for protein conformation analysis based on fluorescence spectroscopy.

  9. Structure-function relationship of the foam-like pomelo peel (Citrus maxima)-an inspiration for the development of biomimetic damping materials with high energy dissipation.

    PubMed

    Thielen, M; Schmitt, C N Z; Eckert, S; Speck, T; Seidel, R

    2013-06-01

    The mechanical properties of artificial foams are mainly determined by the choice of bulk materials and relative density. In natural foams, in contrast, variation to optimize properties is achieved by structural optimization rather than by conscious substitution of bulk materials. Pomelos (Citrus maxima) have a thick foam-like peel which is capable of dissipating considerable amounts of kinetic energy and thus this fruit represents an ideal role model for the development of biomimetic impact damping structures. This paper focuses on the analysis of the biomechanics of the pomelo peel and on its structure-function relationship. It deals with the determination of the onset strain of densification of this foam-like tissue and on how this property is influenced by the arrangement of vascular bundles. It was found here that the vascular bundles branch in a very regular manner-every 16.5% of the radial peel thickness-and that the surrounding peel tissue (pericarp) attains its exceptional thickness mainly by the expansion of existing interconnected cells causing an increasing volume of the intercellular space, rather than by cell division. These findings lead to the discussion of the pomelo peel as an inspiration for fibre-reinforced cast metallic foams with the capacity for excellent energy dissipation.

  10. Relative disease susceptibility and clostridial toxin antibody responses in three commercial broiler lines coinfected with Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria maxima using an experimental model of necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Lee, Kyung Woo; Lillehoj, Erik P; Hong, Yeong Ho; An, Dong-Jun; Jeoung, D Hye-Young; Chun, Ji-Eun

    2013-09-01

    Necrotic enteritis is an enteric disease of poultry resulting from infection by Clostridium perfringens with coinfection by Eimeria spp. constituting a major risk factor for disease pathogenesis. This study compared three commercial broiler chicken lines using an experimental model of necrotic enteritis. Day-old male Cobb, Ross, and Hubbard broilers were orally infected with viable C. perfringens and E. maxima and fed a high-protein diet to promote the development of experimental disease. Body weight loss, intestinal lesions, and serum antibody levels against alpha-toxin and necrotic enteritis B-like (NetB) toxin were measured as parameters of disease susceptibility and host immune response. Cobb chickens exhibited increased body weight loss compared with Ross and Hubbard breeds and greater gut lesion severity compared with Ross chickens. NetB antibody levels were greater in Cobb chickens compared with the Ross or Hubbard groups. These results suggest that Cobb chickens may be more susceptible to necrotic enteritis in the field compared with the Ross and Hubbard lines.

  11. Growth, Survival and Reproduction of the Giant Clam Tridacna maxima (Röding 1798, Bivalvia) in Two Contrasting Lagoons in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Andréfouët, Serge; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Wabnitz, Colette C C; Menoud, Mathilde; Le Moullac, Gilles; Levy, Peva; Gilbert, Antoine; Remoissenet, Georges

    2017-01-01

    Shell growth, reproduction, and natural mortality of the giant clam Tridacna maxima were characterized over a two-year-period in the lagoon of the high island of Tubuai (Austral Archipelago) and in the semi-closed lagoon of Tatakoto (Tuamotu Archipelago) in French Polynesia. We also recorded temperature, water level, tidal slope, tidal range, and mean wave height in both lagoons. Lower lagoon aperture and exposure to oceanic swells at Tatakoto than at Tubuai was responsible for lower lagoon water renewal, as well as higher variability in temperature and water level at Tatakoto across the studied period. These different environmental conditions had an impact on giant clams. Firstly, spawning events in the lagoon of Tatakoto, detected by gonad maturity indices in June and July 2014, were timed with high oceanic water inflow and a decrease in lagoon water temperature. Secondly, temperature explained differences in shell growth rates between seasons and lagoons, generating different growth curves for the two sites. Thirdly, local mortality rates were also found to likely be related to water renewal patterns. In conclusion, our study suggests that reef aperture and lagoon water renewal rates play an integral role in giant clam life history, with significant differences in rates of shell growth, mortality and fertility found between open versus semi-closed atoll lagoons in coral reef ecosystems.

  12. Natural abundance 15N NMR assignments delineate structural differences between intact and reactive-site hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Nemmers, S; Tobias, B

    1992-06-15

    15N NMR assignments were made to the backbone amide nitrogen atoms at natural isotopic abundance of intact and reactive-site (Arg5-Ile6) hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III (CMTI-III and CMTI-III*, respectively) by means of 2D proton-detected heteronuclear single bond chemical shift correlation (HSBC) spectroscopy, utilizing the previously made sequence-specific 1H NMR assignments (Krishnamoorthi et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 898-904). Comparison of the 15N chemical shifts of the two forms of the inhibitor molecule revealed significant changes not only for residues located near the reactive-site region, but also for those distantly located. Residues Cys3, Arg5, Leu7, Met8, Cys10, Cys16, Glu19, His25, Tyr27, Cys28 and Gly29 showed significant chemical shift changes ranging from 0.3 to 6.1 ppm, thus indicating structural perturbations that were transmitted throughout the molecule. These findings confirm the earlier conclusions based on 1H NMR investigations.

  13. A comparison of sporozoite transport after homologous and heterologous challenge in chickens immunized with the Guelph strain or the Florida strain of Eimeria maxima.

    PubMed

    Beattie, S E; Fernando, M A; Barta, J R

    2001-02-01

    The two strains of Eimeria maxima, Guelph and Florida, used in this study were previously shown to only partially cross-protect immunologically with respect to lesion scores, weight gains and feed conversions after heterologous challenge. In this paper, we provide evidence that this partial lack of cross-protection is manifested at the level of sporozoite transport. In birds immunized and challenged with the homologous strain, sporozoites accumulated in the lamina propria and were blocked from further movement into the crypts by 72 h post-challenge, unlike the situation observed in naive birds. Fewer than 5% of sporozoites were found in the crypts by 72 h post-challenge. In immunized birds challenged with the heterologous strain, fewer sporozoites reached the crypts than in naive birds but at least four times as many sporozoites successfully migrated to the crypts, when compared with birds challenged with the homologous strain. The degree of cross-protection afforded by the heterologous strain as measured by sporozoite transport success was not equally reciprocal.

  14. Phycobiliproteins or C-phycocyanin of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima protect against HgCl(2)-caused oxidative stress and renal damage.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, R; Ortiz-Butrón, R; Blas-Valdivia, V; Hernández-García, A; Cano-Europa, E

    2012-12-15

    Our objective was to determine if the phycobiliproteins of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima protect renal cells against mercury-caused oxidative stress and cellular damage in the kidney. We used 40 male mice that were assigned into eight groups: (1) a control group that received 100mM phosphate buffer (PB) ig and 0.9% saline ip, (2) PB+HgCl(2) (5mg/kg ip), (3) PB plus phycobiliproteins (100mg/kg ig), (4) PB plus C-phycocyanin (100mg/kg ig), and four groups receiving HgCl(2)+phycobiliproteins or C-phycocyanin (50, and 100mg/kg ig). The left kidneys were used to determine lipid peroxidation, quantification of reactive oxygen species, and reduced glutathione and oxidised content. The right kidneys were processed for histology. The HgCl(2) caused oxidative stress and cellular damage. All doses of phycobiliproteins or C-phycocyanin prevented enhancement of oxidative markers and they protected against HgCl(2)-caused cellular damage.

  15. Effects of cooking on the cell walls (dietary fiber) of 'Scarlet Warren' winter squash ( Cucurbita maxima ) studied by polysaccharide linkage analysis and solid-state (13)C NMR.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, R M Sunil; Sims, Ian M; Newman, Roger H; Melton, Laurence D

    2011-07-13

    Cell wall polysaccharides of 'Scarlet Warren' winter squash ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated before and after thermal processing. Linkage analysis of polysaccharides was done by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The linkage analysis showed the cell wall polysaccharide compositions of raw and cooked squash were similar. The total pectic polysaccharides (galacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan, arabinan, and arabinogalactan) contents of the cell walls of both raw and cooked squash were 39 mol %. The amounts of pectic polysaccharides and xyloglucan in the cell walls of squash showed little alteration on heating. The cellulose content of the raw and cooked cell walls was relatively high at 47 mol %, whereas the xyloglucan content was low at 4 mol %. Solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques were used to examine the molecular motion of the polysaccharides in the cell walls. The mobility of highly flexible galactan depends on the water content of the sample, but no difference was seen between raw and cooked samples. Likewise, the mobility of semimobile pectic polysaccharides was apparently unaltered by cooking. No change was detected in the rigid cellulose microfibrils on cooking.

  16. Carcass and meat quality of Thai native cattle fattened on Guinea grass (Panicum maxima) or Guinea grass-legume (Stylosanthes guianensis) pastures.

    PubMed

    Jaturasitha, S; Norkeaw, R; Vearasilp, T; Wicke, M; Kreuzer, M

    2009-01-01

    Carcass and meat quality of Thai native cattle, fattened for 2 years on Guinea grass (Panicum maxima) and Guinea grass-legume (Stylosanthes guianensis) pastures, were investigated in twelve 3-years old males. Groups had similar carcass quality except for kidney fat percentage (higher in cattle of the grass-legume group). This group also had a lighter meat (Longissimus dorsi, Infraspinatus) than the grass-only fed cattle. Shear force was generally at the borderline to tender meat, and was unaffected by treatment as were other texture-related properties except muscle fibre diameter. Meat of the grass-legume group was perceived less juicy (P<0.05) but more tender (P<0.1). The meat of the grass-legume-fed cattle also had more intramuscular fat (4.3% vs. 3.4%) and a slightly less favourable n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio (2.2 vs. 2.0). In conclusion, the mostly weak differences in carcass and meat quality did not clearly favour one of the grazing systems.

  17. Overexpression of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) 16 kDa phloem protein CmPP16 increases tolerance to water deficit

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Ortega, Francisco Arturo; Herrera-Pola, Paul Starsky; Toscano-Morales, Roberto; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The phloem plays an important role in the delivery of nutrients and signals between photosynthetic to heterotrophic tissues. Proteins and RNAs in the phloem translocation stream may have an important role in maintaining the integrity of the sieve tube system, as well as in long-distance signaling. CmPP16 is a pumpkin phloem protein, which has been shown to bind RNA in a non-sequence specific manner, and move it cell-to-cell and conceivably, long-distance. The protein and RNA are found in both companion cell (CC) and sieve elements (SE). However, a more precise function for this protein is not known. In this work we report the overexpression of CmPP16 fused to GFP via transformation of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cv. Big Max) plants in the cotyledonary stage by direct inoculation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Plants overexpressing CmPP16 did not show an obvious phenotype. However, these plants displayed higher photosynthetic capacity during drought than wild-type (WT) pumpkin or transformed with another construct. These results suggest that CmPP16 may be involved in the response to stress through long-distance signaling. PMID:25482781

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the gibberellin biosynthetic enzyme ent-kaurene synthase B from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, S; Saito, T; Abe, H; Yamane, H; Murofushi, N; Kamiya, Y

    1996-08-01

    The first committed step in the formation of diterpenoids leading to gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis is the conversion of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to ent-kaurene. ent-Kaurene synthase A (KSA) catalyzes the conversion of GGDP to copalyl diphosphate (CDP), which is subsequently converted to ent-kaurene by ent-kaurene synthase B (KSB). A full-length KSB cDNA was isolated from developing cotyledons in immature seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.). Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed from the amino acid sequences obtained from the purified protein to amplify a cDNA fragment, which was used for library screening. The isolated full-length cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, which demonstrated the KSB activity to cyclize [3H]CDP to [3H]ent-kaurene. The KSB transcript was most abundant in growing tissues, but was detected in every organ in pumpkin seedlings. The deduced amino acid sequence shares significant homology with other terpene cyclases, including the conserved DDXXD motif, a putative divalent metal ion-diphosphate complex binding site. A putative transit peptide sequence that may target the translated product into the plastids is present in the N-terminal region.

  19. Contribution of a Sodium Ion Gradient to Energy Conservation during Fermentation in the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima CS-328 ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Carrieri, Damian; Ananyev, Gennady; Lenz, Oliver; Bryant, Donald A.; Dismukes, G. Charles

    2011-01-01

    Sodium gradients in cyanobacteria play an important role in energy storage under photoautotrophic conditions but have not been well studied during autofermentative metabolism under the dark, anoxic conditions widely used to produce precursors to fuels. Here we demonstrate significant stress-induced acceleration of autofermentation of photosynthetically generated carbohydrates (glycogen and sugars) to form excreted organic acids, alcohols, and hydrogen gas by the halophilic, alkalophilic cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima CS-328. When suspended in potassium versus sodium phosphate buffers at the start of autofermentation to remove the sodium ion gradient, photoautotrophically grown cells catabolized more intracellular carbohydrates while producing 67% higher yields of hydrogen, acetate, and ethanol (and significant amounts of lactate) as fermentative products. A comparable acceleration of fermentative carbohydrate catabolism occurred upon dissipating the sodium gradient via addition of the sodium-channel blocker quinidine or the sodium-ionophore monensin but not upon dissipating the proton gradient with the proton-ionophore dinitrophenol (DNP). The data demonstrate that intracellular energy is stored via a sodium gradient during autofermentative metabolism and that, when this gradient is blocked, the blockage is compensated by increased energy conversion via carbohydrate catabolism. PMID:21890670

  20. Proton NMR studies of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitors: Evidence for pH-dependent conformational change and his25 - try27 interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthi, R.; Chanlan Sun Lin; Yuxi Gong ); VanderVelde, D. ); Hahn, K. )

    1992-01-28

    A pH-dependent His25-Tyr27 interaction was demonstrated in the case of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitors (CMTI-I and CMTI-III) by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. pH titration, line widths, peak shapes, deuterium exchange kinetics, and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) were employed to characterize a conformational change involving Tyr27, which was shown to be triggered by deprotonation of His25 around pH 6. A hydrogen bond is proposed to be formed between N{sub {epsilon}} of His25 and OH of Tyr27, as a distance between the atoms, His25 N{epsilon} and Tyr25 OH, of 3.02 {angstrom} is consistent with a model built with NOE-derived distance constraints. The presently characterized relative orientations of His25 and Tyr27 are of functional significance, as these residues make contact with the enzyme in the enzyme-inhibitor complex. Furthermore, trypsin assay and inhibitor-binding studies showed that conformations of trypsin and the squash inhibitor complex. Furthermore, trypsin assay and inhibitor-binding studies showed that conformations of trypsin and the squash inhibitor were functionally relevant only in the pH range 6-8. The pK{sub a} of His25 was determined and found to be influenced by Glu9/Lys substitution and by the hydrolysis of the reactive-site peptide bond between Arg5 and Ile6. As these sites are located far (>10 {angstrom}) from His25, the results point out conformational changes that are propagated to a distant site in the protein molecule.

  1. Grape harvest dates as indicator of spring-summer mean maxima temperature variations in the Minho region (NW of Portugal) since the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J.; Fatela, F.; Moreno, F.; Leorri, E.; Taborda, R.; Trigo, R.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports a climatic reconstruction approach for the Minho region (NW of Portugal) using grape harvest dates (GHD) as proxy of surface air temperature. This new GHD series was built based on the records from a set of local and regional newspapers (1854-1978) and the annuals of a Wine Producers Cooperative (1978-2010). The strong inverse correlation between Minho GHD and the mean maxima temperatures of the preceding March to August months (GSTmax), registered at the Braga weather station for the overlap period 1941-2009, allowed a reconstruction, with associated statistical uncertainties, of the regional GSTmax back to 1856. These were then used to characterize the main climatic episodes in the region during the last 154 years. The most noticeable feature that emerges from the comparison of the Minho GSTmax with the global annual average temperatures of Jones et al. (2013) is that these regional temperatures, in clear contrast with the global warming observed from around 1990 onwards, show no noteworthy increasing trend. The influence of climatic variability was examined also in terms of the relations between GSTmax (1950-2009) and the main meteorological teleconnection patterns affecting the North Atlantic European sector where the Minho region is included. Data support the hypothesis that persistent positive modes of spring-summer Scandinavian (SCA) and summer East Atlantic/Western Russia patterns triggered lower GSTmax, especially in the 60s-80s. The search for solar imprints in the Minho region climate identified the SCA mode as a promising connection between the two, since it is significantly inversely correlated with both, the TSI and the GSTmax. Like in other traditional European viticultural regions, the Minho GHD have shown to be a valuable tool for understanding the interactions between large-scale circulation modes and regional/local climatic conditions. Besides it will deliver a reliable assessment of climatic proxies from geological record

  2. Differentiation of farmed and wild turbot (Psetta maxima): proximate chemical composition, fatty acid profile, trace minerals and antimicrobial resistance of contaminant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Martínez, B; Miranda, J M; Nebot, C; Rodriguez, J L; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2010-10-01

    The proximate, cholesterol, fatty acid and trace mineral compositions in the flesh of farmed and wild turbot (Psetta maxima) were evaluated. Additionally, the potential influence of the use of antimicrobial agents in the bacteria carried by farmed turbot was investigated. For this purpose, a total of 144 Pseudomonas spp. and 127 Aeromonas spp. were isolated and tested for their susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials by a disk diffusion method. Farmed turbot contained higher fat, cholesterol and calories as well as lower moisture content than its wild counterpart. The fatty acid profile of farmed turbot included higher levels of myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitoleic, gadoleic, cetoleic, linoleic, linolenic, stearidonic, eicosadienoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, and lower levels of stearic, arachidonic, docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids than its wild counterpart. The proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-3/n-6 ratios were higher in wild turbot than in farmed turbot. With respect to trace minerals, no toxic levels were found, and higher amounts of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, as well as lower amounts of Cr, were found in farmed turbot relative to wild turbot. The antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas spp. and Aeromonas spp. were quite similar, with only the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance of Aeromonas spp. isolated from farmed turbot being higher than those isolated from wild turbot. In the case of ampicillin, Pseudomonas spp. isolated from wild turbot showed higher resistance levels than those of their counterparts isolated from farmed turbot. In conclusion, the nutritional parameters of wild turbot are more adequate with respect to nutritional recommendations, while no differences were observed in food safety derived from trace mineral concentrations or the antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from wild and farmed turbot.

  3. Acute toxicity of betagamma-CAT, a naturally existing non-lens betagamma-crystallin and trefoil factor complex from frog Bombina maxima skin secretions.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jin-Qiao; Liu, Shu-Bai; He, Ying-Ying; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2008-07-01

    In vertebrates, non-lens betagamma-crystallins are widely expressed in various tissues, but their functions are unknown. The molecular mechanisms of trefoil factors, initiators of mucosal healing and being greatly involved in tumorigenesis, have remained elusive. betagamma-CAT is the first example of a naturally existing multifunctional protein complex of a non-lens betagamma-crystallin and a trefoil factor from frog Bombina maxima skin secretions. Here we report the investigation of its in vivo toxic effects on mice and rabbits. The LD(50) values of betagamma-CAT on mice were determined to be 0.4 mg/kg and 20 microg/kg under intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intravenous (i.v.) injection, respectively. The mice subcutaneously injected with betagamma-CAT (6 microg/g body weight) showed strong hyperaemia of subcutaneous capillary vessel, but no hemorrhagic spots were observed. Intravenous injection of betagamma-CAT in rabbits (8-22 microg/kg body weight) caused a rapidly hypotensive effect and followed with cardiovascular collapse. Injection with betagamma-CAT (22 microg/kg, i.v.) significantly decreased hematocrit (P<0.05) and mean corpuscular volume (P<0.05) of the rabbits in 5 min. At the same time, the counts of platelets and white blood cells were significantly decreased (P<0.05), while the blood levels of glucose, lactate dehydrogenase and serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase were significantly increased (P<0.05). Furthermore, serials of tissues edema and damages were also observed. These results indicate that betagamma-CAT rapidly caused several in vivo toxic effects on mammals and its lethal toxic potency was mainly contributed by hypotension and cardiovascular collapse, providing new clues for the understanding of the patho-physiological roles of non-lens betagamma-crystallins and trefoil factors.

  4. Double-blind randomised controlled trial of the independent and synergistic effect of Spirulina maxima with exercise (ISESE) on general fitness, lipid profile and redox status in overweight and obese subjects: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Lepe, Marco Antonio; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Rosa, Laura Alejandra de la; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Juarez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo

    2017-06-23

    In order to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors, a healthy diet must include dietary antioxidants from different sources (eg, Spirulina maxima) and regular practice of exercise should be promoted. There is some evidence from animal studies that S. maxima and exercise decrease cardiovascular disease risks factors. However, very few studies have proved the independent or synergistic effect of S. maxima plus exercise in humans. This study attempts to address the independent and synergistic effects in overweight and obese subjects participating in a systematic physical exercise programme at moderate intensity on general fitness, plasma lipid profile and antioxidant capacity. Using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover study design, 80 healthy overweight and obese subjects will be evaluated during a 12-week isoenergetic diet accompanied by 4.5 g/day S. maxima intake and/or a physical systematic exercise programme at moderate intensity. Body composition, oxygen uptake, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols, total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, antioxidant status, lipid oxidation, protein carbonyls, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and paraoxonase will be assessed. This study and all the procedures have been approved by the Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez Bioethics Committee. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02837666. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Tiempo para un cambio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  6. Computational study of gas-phase molecular structure and substitution effects in para-substituted nickelabenzenes ( p-XC5H4)Ni(CO)2F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakimioun, Amir Hossein; Makkipour, Peymaneh; Ghiasi, Hossein; Pasdar, Hoda

    2015-09-01

    The structure and properties of nickelabenzene complex were examined by the Modified Perdew-Wang Exchange and Correlation method (mpw1pw91). The para-substitutions effect on the structure, frontier orbital energies, aromaticity and electronic spectra has been studied. Nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) values show that these species are aromatic. Time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) was used to calculate the energy, oscillator strength and absorption maxima wavelength (λmax) of various electronic transitions and their nature within molecules.

  7. Radial Velocities with PARAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Pathan, F. M.; Anandarao, B. G.

    2010-01-01

    The Physical Research Laboratory Advanced Radial-velocity All-sky Search (PARAS) is an efficient fiber-fed cross-dispersed high-resolution echelle spectrograph that will see first light in early 2010. This instrument is being built at the Physical Research laboratory (PRL) and will be attached to the 1.2m telescope at Gurushikhar Observatory at Mt. Abu, India. PARAS has a single-shot wavelength coverage of 370nm to 850nm at a spectral resolution of R 70000 and will be housed in a vacuum chamber (at 1x10-2 mbar pressure) in a highly temperature controlled environment. This renders the spectrograph extremely suitable for exoplanet searches with high velocity precision using the simultaneous Thorium-Argon wavelength calibration method. We are in the process of developing an automated data analysis pipeline for echelle data reduction and precise radial velocity extraction based on the REDUCE package of Piskunov & Valenti (2002), which is especially careful in dealing with CCD defects, extraneous noise, and cosmic ray spikes. Here we discuss the current status of the PARAS project and details and tests of the data analysis procedure, as well as results from ongoing PARAS commissioning activities.

  8. Long term statistics (1845-2014) of daily runoff maxima, monthly rainfall and runoff in the Adda basin (Italian Alps) under natural and anthropogenic changes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranzi, Roberto; Goatelli, Federica; Castioni, Camilla; Tomirotti, Massimo; Crespi, Alice; Mattea, Enrico; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    A new time series of daily runoff reconstructed at the inflow in the Como Lake in the Italian Alps is presented. The time series covers a 170 years time period and includes the two largest floods ever recorded for the region: the 1868 and 1987 ones. Statistics of annual maxima show a decrease which is not statistically significant and a decrease of annual runoff which is statistically significant, instead. To investigate the possible reasons of such changes monthly temperature and precipitation are analysed. Decrease of runoff peaks can be justified by the increase of reservoir storage volumes. Evapotranspiration indexes based on monthly temperature indicate an increase of evapotranspiration losses as a possible cause of runoff decrease. Secular precipitation series for the Adda basin are then computed by a methodology projecting observational data onto a high-resolution grid (30-arc-second, DEM GTOPO30). It is based on the assumption that the spatio-temporal behaviour of a meteorological variable over a given area can be described by superimposing two fields: the climatological normals over a reference period, i.e. the climatologies, and the departure from them, i.e. the anomalies. The two fields can be reconstructed independently and are based on different datasets. To compute the precipitation climatologies all the available stations within the Adda basin are considered while, for the anomalies, only the longest and the most homogeneous records are selected. To this aim, a great effort was made to extend these series to the past as much as possible, also by digitising the historical records available from the hardcopy archives. The climatological values at each DEM cell of the Adda basin are obtained by a local weighted linear regression of precipitation versus elevation (LWLR) taking into account the closest stations with similar geographical characteristics to those of the cell itself. The anomaly field is obtained by a weighted average of the anomalies of

  9. The effect of pomelo citrus (Citrus maxima var. Nambangan), vitamin C and lycopene towards the number reduction of mice (Mus musculus) apoptotic hepatocyte caused of ochratoxin A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badriyah, Hastuti, Utami Sri

    2017-06-01

    Foods can contaminated by some mycotoxin produced by molds. Ochratoxin A is a sort of mycotoxin that cause structural damage on hepatocytes. Pomelo citrus (Citrus maxima var. Nambangan) contain vitamin C and lycopene that have antioxidant character. This research is done to: 1)examine the effect of pomelo citrus juice, vitamin C, and lycopene treatment towards the number reduction of mice apoptotic hepatocytes caused by ochratoxin A exposure, 2)examine the effect of vitamin C mixed with lycopene treatment towards the number reduction of mice apoptotic hepatocytes caused by ochratoxin A exposure. The experimental group used male mice strain BALB-C in the age of three month and bodyweight 20-30 grams devided in 4 experiment group and control group. The experiment group I were administered pomelo citrus juice 0,5 ml/30 grams BW/day orally during 2 weeks and then administered with ochratoxin in the dose of 1 mg/kg BW during 1 week. The experiment group II were administered with vitamin C in the dose of 5,85 µg/30g BW with the same methods. The experiment group III were administered with lycopene in the dose of 0,1025 µg/30 g BW with the same methods. The experiment group IV were administered with vitamin C mixed with lycopene with the same methods. The control group were administered with ochratoxin A in the dose of 1 mg/kg BW per oral during 1 week. The apoptotic hepatocyte number were count by microscopic observation of hepatocyte slides from experiment group as well as control group with cytochemical staining. The research result shows that: 1) the pomelo citrus juice, vitamin C as well as lycopene administration could reduce the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by ochratoxin A exposure, compared with the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by ochratoxin A exposure only; 2) the vitamin C mixed with lycopene could reduce the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by ochratoxin A exposure compared with the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by

  10. Annual and spatial variation in the abundance length and condition of juvenile turbot ( Psetta maxima L.) on nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland: 2000-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Paula S.; Brophy, Deirdre; McGrath, David; O'Callaghan, Roisin; Comerford, Stephen; Casburn, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Turbot ( Psetta maxima Linnaeus) is a high value commercially exploited marine flatfish which occurs in European waters, from the Northeast Atlantic to the Arctic Circle, the Baltic and Mediterranean Sea. In Ireland, turbot are the most valuable commercial non-quota species. Very little is known about their population dynamics in the wild, in particular during the sandy beach nursery phase of the life history. In 2000, a survey was established to assess flatfish species on nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland. Eleven sandy beaches were assessed for 0+ turbot by beach seining, over an eight year period (2000-2007) during the months of August and September. The objective of the study was to estimate juvenile turbot abundance and size structure to determine if any spatial and annual trends existed. Large scale variability in the recruitment of fish to nursery grounds may be indicative of fluctuations in the adult stock. Turbot were found to recruit to five beaches consistently over the eight year period. Temporal and spatial variability in the relative abundance and length of turbot was discerned, with no apparent overall trend. However, certain nursery grounds were shown in most of the years examined to support higher abundances of turbot in comparison to other areas over the eight year period. Turbot abundances on nursery grounds were significantly correlated with mean spring sea temperatures during the pelagic stage. The condition of turbot did not significantly differ on an annual or spatial scale. Mean densities of 0+ turbot along the Irish coast were found to be similar and at times higher than other areas in Europe, ranging from 0.1 (± 0.3) individuals 1000 m - 2 to 18.5 (± 6.9) individuals 1000 m - 2 . Mean turbot total length on beaches ranged from 3.8 cm (± 0.6) to 6.6 cm (± 4.3). The observed spatial and temporal variability in abundance and length highlights the need for long-term studies when assessing juvenile flatfish populations. Results

  11. Planar Para Algebras, Reflection Positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Arthur; Liu, Zhengwei

    2017-05-01

    We define a planar para algebra, which arises naturally from combining planar algebras with the idea of ZN para symmetry in physics. A subfactor planar para algebra is a Hilbert space representation of planar tangles with parafermionic defects that are invariant under para isotopy. For each ZN, we construct a family of subfactor planar para algebras that play the role of Temperley-Lieb-Jones planar algebras. The first example in this family is the parafermion planar para algebra (PAPPA). Based on this example, we introduce parafermion Pauli matrices, quaternion relations, and braided relations for parafermion algebras, which one can use in the study of quantum information. An important ingredient in planar para algebra theory is the string Fourier transform (SFT), which we use on the matrix algebra generated by the Pauli matrices. Two different reflections play an important role in the theory of planar para algebras. One is the adjoint operator; the other is the modular conjugation in Tomita-Takesaki theory. We use the latter one to define the double algebra and to introduce reflection positivity. We give a new and geometric proof of reflection positivity by relating the two reflections through the string Fourier transform.

  12. Mensaje para alumnos y padres

    NASA Image and Video Library

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

  13. [The typological characteristics of higher nervous activity in dogs and the maxima of the cross-correlation function between the electrical activities of the frontal cortex and the brain limbic systems].

    PubMed

    Chilingarian, L I

    1999-01-01

    Electrical activity of the frontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus, basolateral amygdala and lateral hypothalamus was recorded in eight dogs with chronically implanted electrodes. Mean values of the maxima of crosscorrelation function (MCCF) between electrical potentials in the theta, alpha and beta-2 ranges were used as a basis for assessment of conditions for interaction between these structures. Typological features of the higher nervous activity were assessed by the animal performance under conditions of free choice of the reinforcement mode of a conditioned stimulus: either high probable but of low alimentary quality or with low probability but more valuable. The mean MCCF values in the theta range were higher than in the other ranges. The brain structure which had the high MCCF in the theta-range, at least, with two of the structures under study was considered as "dominant". It was shown that hippocampus was the dominant structure for melancholic dogs, the frontal cortex was in phlegmatics. The hypothalamus was shown to be the "dominant structure" in both sanguine and choleric animals, but, for the most part, its activity was correlated with different structures. Thus, conditions for interaction between the frontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus seem to be an important factor, which determines typological features of the higher nervous activity of dogs.

  14. Regular oscillatory behavior of aqueous solutions of CuII salts related to effects on equilibrium dynamics of ortho/para hydrogen spin isomers of water.

    PubMed

    Morré, D J; Orczyk, J; Hignite, H; Kim, C

    2008-02-01

    Cell surface and growth-related NADH oxidases with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity, ECTO-NOX, exhibit copper-dependent, clock-related, temperature-independent and entrainable patterns of regular oscillations in the rate of oxidation of NAD(P)H as do aqueous solutions of copper salts. Because of time scale similarities, a basis for the oscillatory patterns in nuclear spin orientations of the hydrogen atoms of the copper-associated water was sought. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements at 9302 eV on pure water were periodic with a ca. 3.5 min peak to peak separation. Decomposition fits revealed 5 unequally spaced maxima similar to those observed previously for Cu(II)Cl(2) to generate a period length of about 18 min. With D(2)O, the period length was proportionately increased by 30% to 24 min. The redox potential of water and of D(2)O also oscillated with 18 and 24 min period lengths, respectively. Measurements in the middle infrared spectral region above a water sample surface revealed apparent oscillations in the two alternative orientations of the nuclear spins (ortho and para) of the hydrogen atoms of the water or D(2)O with 5 unequally spaced maxima and respective period lengths of 18 and 24 min. Thus, the time keeping oscillations of ECTO-NOX proteins appear to reflect the equilibrium dynamics of ortho-para hydrogen atom spin ratios of water where the presence of metal cations such as Cu(II) in solution determine period length.

  15. Relative maxima of diameter and basal area

    Treesearch

    Thomas B. Lynch; Difei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    It has often been observed that maximum dbh growth occurs at an earlier age than maximum individual tree basal area growth. This can be deduced from the geometry of the tree stem, by observing that a dbh increment at a given radius will be associated with a larger basal area increment than an equal dbh increment occurring at a shorter radius from the stem center. Thus...

  16. The Role of DmCatD, a Cathepsin D-Like Peptidase, and Acid Phosphatase in the Process of Follicular Atresia in Dipetalogaster maxima (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a Vector of Chagas' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leyria, Jimena; Fruttero, Leonardo L.; Nazar, Magalí; Canavoso, Lilián E.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the involvement of DmCatD, a cathepsin D-like peptidase, and acid phosphatase in the process of follicular atresia of Dipetalogaster maxima, a hematophagous insect vector of Chagas’ disease. For the studies, fat bodies, ovaries and hemolymph were sampled from anautogenous females at representative days of the reproductive cycle: pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis as well as early and late atresia. Real time PCR (qPCR) and western blot assays showed that DmCatD was expressed in fat bodies and ovaries at all reproductive stages, being the expression of its active form significantly higher at the atretic stages. In hemolymph samples, only the immunoreactive band compatible with pro-DmCatD was observed by western blot. Acid phosphatase activity in ovarian tissues significantly increased during follicular atresia in comparison to pre-vitellogenesis and vitellogenesis. A further enzyme characterization with inhibitors showed that the high levels of acid phosphatase activity in atretic ovaries corresponded mainly to a tyrosine phosphatase. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase were associated with yolk bodies in vitellogenic follicles, while in atretic stages they displayed a different cellular distribution. DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase partially co-localized with vitellin. Moreover, their interaction was supported by FRET analysis. In vitro assays using homogenates of atretic ovaries as the enzyme source and enzyme inhibitors demonstrated that DmCatD, together with a tyrosine phosphatase, were necessary to promote the degradation of vitellin. Taken together, the results strongly suggested that both acid hydrolases play a central role in early vitellin proteolysis during the process of follicular atresia. PMID:26091289

  17. The Role of DmCatD, a Cathepsin D-Like Peptidase, and Acid Phosphatase in the Process of Follicular Atresia in Dipetalogaster maxima (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a Vector of Chagas' Disease.

    PubMed

    Leyria, Jimena; Fruttero, Leonardo L; Nazar, Magalí; Canavoso, Lilián E

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the involvement of DmCatD, a cathepsin D-like peptidase, and acid phosphatase in the process of follicular atresia of Dipetalogaster maxima, a hematophagous insect vector of Chagas' disease. For the studies, fat bodies, ovaries and hemolymph were sampled from anautogenous females at representative days of the reproductive cycle: pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis as well as early and late atresia. Real time PCR (qPCR) and western blot assays showed that DmCatD was expressed in fat bodies and ovaries at all reproductive stages, being the expression of its active form significantly higher at the atretic stages. In hemolymph samples, only the immunoreactive band compatible with pro-DmCatD was observed by western blot. Acid phosphatase activity in ovarian tissues significantly increased during follicular atresia in comparison to pre-vitellogenesis and vitellogenesis. A further enzyme characterization with inhibitors showed that the high levels of acid phosphatase activity in atretic ovaries corresponded mainly to a tyrosine phosphatase. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase were associated with yolk bodies in vitellogenic follicles, while in atretic stages they displayed a different cellular distribution. DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase partially co-localized with vitellin. Moreover, their interaction was supported by FRET analysis. In vitro assays using homogenates of atretic ovaries as the enzyme source and enzyme inhibitors demonstrated that DmCatD, together with a tyrosine phosphatase, were necessary to promote the degradation of vitellin. Taken together, the results strongly suggested that both acid hydrolases play a central role in early vitellin proteolysis during the process of follicular atresia.

  18. Assessment of probiotics supplementation via feed or water on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and microflora of chickens after experimental infection with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Giannenas, I; Tsalie, E; Triantafillou, E; Hessenberger, S; Teichmann, K; Mohnl, M; Tontis, D

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effect of probiotic supplementation via drinking water or feed on the performance of broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria acervulina (5 × 10(4)), Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella (2 × 10(4) each one) at 14 days of age was evaluated. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were separated into eight equal groups with three replicates. Two of the groups, one infected with mixed Eimeria oocysts and the other not, were given a basal diet and served as controls. The remaining groups were also challenged with mixed Eimeria species and received the basal diet and either water supplemented with probiotic (three groups) or probiotic via feed (two groups); the probiotic used consisted of Enterococcus faecium #589, Bifidobacterium animalis #503 and Lactobacillus salivarius #505 at a ratio of 6:3:1. Probiotic supplementation was applied either via drinking water in different inclusion rates (groups W1, W2 and W3) or via feed using uncoated (group FN) or coated strains (group FC). The last group was given the basal diet supplemented with the anticoccidial lasalocid at 75 mg/kg. Each experimental group was given the corresponding diet or drinking water from day 1 to day 42 of age. Throughout the experimental period of 42 days, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and feed conversion ratios were calculated. Seven days after infection, the infected control group presented the lowest weight gain values, while probiotics supplied via feed supported growth to a comparable level with that of the lasalocid group. Probiotic groups presented lesion score values and oocyst numbers that were lower than in control infected birds but higher than in the lasalocid group. In the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the highest villous height values were presented by probiotic groups. In conclusion, a mixture of probiotic substances gave considerable improvement in both growth performance and intestinal health in

  19. Programa de conservacion para aves migratorias neotropicales

    Treesearch

    Deborah Finch; Marcia Wilson; Roberto Roca

    1992-01-01

    Mas de 250 especies de aves terrestres migran a Norte America durante la epoca reproductiva para aprovechar los sistemas templados. No obstante, las aves migratorias neotropicales pasan la mayor parte de su ciclo de vida en los habitat tropicales y subtropicales de paises latinoamericanos y caribefios donde viven en una asociacion cercana con las aves residentes. Para...

  20. Hindcast and forecast of grand solar minina and maxima using a three-frequency dynamo model based on Jupiter-Saturn tidal frequencies modulating the 11-year sunspot cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The Schwabe frequency band of the Zurich sunspot record since 1749 is found to be made of three major cycles with periods of about 9.98, 10.9 and 11.86 years. The two side frequencies appear to be closely related to the spring tidal period of Jupiter and Saturn (range between 9.5 and 10.5 years, and median 9.93 years) and to the tidal sidereal period of Jupiter (about 11.86 years). The central cycle can be associated to a quasi-11-year sunspot solar dynamo cycle that appears to be approximately synchronized to the average of the two planetary frequencies. A simplified harmonic constituent model based on the above two planetary tidal frequencies and on the exact dates of Jupiter and Saturn planetary tidal phases, plus a theoretically deduced 10.87-year central cycle reveals complex quasi-periodic interference/beat patterns. The major beat periods occur at about 115, 61 and 130 years, plus a quasi-millennial large beat cycle around 983 years. These frequencies and other oscillations appear once the model is non-linearly processed. We show that equivalent synchronized cycles are found in cosmogenic records used to reconstruct solar activity and in proxy climate records throughout the Holocene (last 12,000 years) up to now. The quasi-secular beat oscillations hindcast reasonably well the known prolonged periods of low solar activity during the last millennium such as the Oort, Wolf, Sporer, Maunder and Dalton minima, as well as the 17 115-year long oscillations found in a detailed temperature reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere covering the last 2000 years. The millennial cycle hindcasts equivalent solar and climate cycles for 12,000 years. Finally, the harmonic model herein proposed reconstructs the prolonged solar minima that occurred during 1900- 1920 and 1960-1980 and the secular solar maxima around 1870-1890, 1940-1950 and 1995-2005 and a secular upward trending during the 20th century: this modulated trending agrees well with some solar proxy model, with

  1. Functional Expression of Drosophila para Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Warmke, Jeffrey W.; Reenan, Robert A.G.; Wang, Peiyi; Qian, Su; Arena, Joseph P.; Wang, Jixin; Wunderler, Denise; Liu, Ken; Kaczorowski, Gregory J.; Ploeg, Lex H.T. Van der; Ganetzky, Barry; Cohen, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    The Drosophila para sodium channel α subunit was expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and in combination with tipE, a putative Drosophila sodium channel accessory subunit. Coexpression of tipE with para results in elevated levels of sodium currents and accelerated current decay. Para/TipE sodium channels have biophysical and pharmacological properties similar to those of native channels. However, the pharmacology of these channels differs from that of vertebrate sodium channels: (a) toxin II from Anemonia sulcata, which slows inactivation, binds to Para and some mammalian sodium channels with similar affinity (Kd ≅ 10 nM), but this toxin causes a 100-fold greater decrease in the rate of inactivation of Para/TipE than of mammalian channels; (b) Para sodium channels are >10-fold more sensitive to block by tetrodotoxin; and (c) modification by the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin is >100-fold more potent for Para than for rat brain type IIA sodium channels. Our results suggest that the selective toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides is due at least in part to the greater affinity of pyrethroids for insect sodium channels than for mammalian sodium channels. PMID:9236205

  2. Using ParaPost Tenax fiberglass and ParaCore build-up material to restore severely damaged teeth.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Ricardo; Castellon, Paulino

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a technique using ParaPost Tenax Fiber White, ParaPost Cement, and ParaPost ParaCore build-up material to restore a tooth with a significant loss of tooth structure. After successful root canal therapy, the posts were bonded in the canals and the core was built using ParaPost ParaCore build-up material. At that point, the tooth was prepared to receive a conventional porcelain-fused-to-metal crown.

  3. Calcineurin hydrolysis of para-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate.

    PubMed

    Spannaus-Martin, Donna J; Martin, Bruce L

    2004-04-01

    para-Nitrophenyl phosphorothioate (pNPT) was hydrolyzed by calcineurin at initial rates slightly, but comparable to rates for para-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). Kinetic characterization yielded higher estimates for both Km and Vmax compared to pNPP. Metal ion activation of phosphorothioate hydrolysis was more promiscuous. Unlike the hydrolysis of with pNPP, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Ba2+ activated calcineurin as well as Mn2+.

  4. The para-HK/QK correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyckmanns, Malte; Vaughan, Owen

    2017-06-01

    We generalise the hyper-Kähler/quaternionic Kähler (HK/QK) correspondence to include para-geometries, and present a new concise proof that the target manifold of the HK/QK correspondence is quaternionic Kähler. As an application, we construct one-parameter deformations of the temporal and Euclidean supergravity c-map metrics and show that they are para-quaternionic Kähler.

  5. Process for para-ethyltoluene dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.C.

    1986-06-03

    A process is described of dehydrogenating para-ethyltoluene to selectively form para-methylstyrene comprising contacting to para-ethyltoluene under dehydrogenation reaction conditions with a catalyst composition comprising: (a) from about 30% to 60% by weight of iron oxide, calculated as ferric oxide; (b) from about 13% to 48% by weight of a potassium compound, calculated as potassium oxide; and (c) from about 0% to 5% by weight of a chromium compound, calculated as chromic oxide. The improvement is described comprising dehydrogenating the para-ethyltoluene with a catalyst composition comprising, in addition to the components (a), (b) and (c), a modifying component (d) capable of rendering the para-methylstyrene-containing dehydrogenation reaction effluent especially resistant to the subsequent formation of popcorn polymers when the dehydrogenation of para-ethyltoluene is conducted over the modified catalyst, the modifying component (d) being a bismuth compound present to the extent of from about 1% to 20% by weight of the catalyst composition, calculated as bismuth trioxide.

  6. A note on para-holomorphic Riemannian-Einstein manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, Cristian; Ionescu, Alexandru; Manea, Adelina

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this note is the study of Einstein condition for para-holomorphic Riemannian metrics in the para-complex geometry framework. First, we make some general considerations about para-complex Riemannian manifolds (not necessarily para-holomorphic). Next, using a one-to-one correspondence between para-holomorphic Riemannian metrics and para-Kähler-Norden metrics, we study the Einstein condition for a para-holomorphic Riemannian metric and the associated real para-Kähler-Norden metric on a para-complex manifold. Finally, it is shown that every semi-simple para-complex Lie group inherits a natural para-Kählerian-Norden Einstein metric.

  7. The ParaScope parallel programming environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Keith D.; Hall, Mary W.; Hood, Robert T.; Kennedy, Ken; Mckinley, Kathryn S.; Mellor-Crummey, John M.; Torczon, Linda; Warren, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    The ParaScope parallel programming environment, developed to support scientific programming of shared-memory multiprocessors, includes a collection of tools that use global program analysis to help users develop and debug parallel programs. This paper focuses on ParaScope's compilation system, its parallel program editor, and its parallel debugging system. The compilation system extends the traditional single-procedure compiler by providing a mechanism for managing the compilation of complete programs. Thus, ParaScope can support both traditional single-procedure optimization and optimization across procedure boundaries. The ParaScope editor brings both compiler analysis and user expertise to bear on program parallelization. It assists the knowledgeable user by displaying and managing analysis and by providing a variety of interactive program transformations that are effective in exposing parallelism. The debugging system detects and reports timing-dependent errors, called data races, in execution of parallel programs. The system combines static analysis, program instrumentation, and run-time reporting to provide a mechanical system for isolating errors in parallel program executions. Finally, we describe a new project to extend ParaScope to support programming in FORTRAN D, a machine-independent parallel programming language intended for use with both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel computers.

  8. Ortho-para-hydrogen equilibration on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.; Rossow, William B.

    1992-01-01

    Voyager IRIS observations reveal that the Jovian para-hydrogen fraction is not in thermodynamic equilibrium near the NH3 cloud top, implying that a vertical gradient exists between the high-temperature equilibrium value of 0.25 at depth and the cloud top values. The height-dependent para-hydrogen profile is obtained using an anisotropic multiple-scattering radiative transfer model. A vertical correlation is found to exist between the location of the para-hydrogen gradient and the NH3 cloud, strongly suggesting that paramagnetic conversion on NH3 cloud particle surfaces is the dominant equilibration mechanism. Below the NH3 cloud layer, the para fraction is constant with depth and equal to the high-temperature equilibrium value of 0.25. The degree of cloud-top equilibration appears to depend on the optical depth of the NH3 cloud layer. Belt-zone variations in the para-hydrogen profile seem to be due to differences in the strength of the vertical mixing.

  9. Para-methylstyrene from toluene and acetaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Innes, R.A.; Occelli, M.L.

    1984-08-01

    High yields of para-methylstyrene (PMS) were obtained in this study by coupling toluene and acetaldehyde then cracking the resultant 1,1-ditolylethane (DTE) to give equimolar amounts of PMS and toluene. In the first step, a total DTE and ''trimer'' yield of 98% on toluene and 93% on acetaldehyde was obtained using 98% sulfuric acid as catalyst at 5-10/sup 0/C. In the second step, a choline chloride-offretite cracked DTE with 84.0% conversion and 91% selectivity to PMS and toluene. Additional PMS can be obtained by cracking the by-product ''trimer'' formed by coupling DTE and toluene with acetaldehyde. Zeolite Rho was as active but yielded less PMS (86%) and produced more para-ethyltoluene (PET), an undesirable by-product.

  10. Para Bombay phenotype--a case report.

    PubMed

    Mathai, J; Sulochana, P V; Sathyabhama, S

    1997-10-01

    Bombay phenotype is peculiar in that red cells are not agglutinated by antisera A, B or H; while serum contains anti A, B and H. Existence of modifying genes at independent loci with variable expression of ABO genes is postulated. We report here a case of partial suppression where antigens could be detected by elution tests and unlike classical Bombay type, normal amount of appropriate blood group substances were present in saliva. This case of para Bombay phenotype was detected as a result of discrepancy in cell and serum group ng. This highlights the importance of both forward and reverse grouping in ABO testing.

  11. On q-DEFORMED Para Oscillators and PARA-q Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, M. Krishna; Shanta, P.; Chaturvedi, S.; Srinivasan, V.

    Three generalized commutation relations for a single mode of the harmonic oscillator which contains para-bose and q oscillator commutation relations are constructed. These are shown to be inequivalent. The coherent states of the annihilation operator for these three cases are also constructed.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high.

  13. Sensitization to para-tertiary-butylphenolformaldehyde resin.

    PubMed

    Massone, L; Anonide, A; Borghi, S; Usiglio, D

    1996-03-01

    Phenolformaldehyde resins, especially the para-tertiary-butylphenolformaldehyde resin (PTBP-FR), are widely used in industry and in numerous materials of everyday use, such as glues, adhesives, or inks. They can cause many occupational and nonoccupational cases of dermatitis. Forty-one patients with positive patch test results to PTBP-FR were selected for this study. They were patch-tested with a series of chemically related compounds and cross-reactions were noted. Phenolformaldehyde resin (PF-R) was frequently positive (65.8%), whereas other compounds gave a much smaller number of positive results. Cases of occupational exposure (24.4%), location of the dermatitis (hands were involved in 46.3% of cases), and possible sources of exposure (shoes were the responsible agent in 12.2% of cases) were evaluated. Phenolformaldehyde resins are an important cause of contact dermatitis and must be studied chemically and clinically to improve the prognosis of sensitized patients.

  14. [Laparoscopic treatment of para-esophageal hernias].

    PubMed

    Collet, D; Wagner, T; Sa Cunha, A; Rault, A; Masson, B

    2006-10-01

    This retrospective study aims at analyzing the functional results obtained in patients operated by laparoscopy for a para-esophageal hernia. From 1994 to 2004, 38 patients underwent a laparoscopic procedure for a symptomatic para-esophageal hiatal hernia of at least 3/4 of the proximal stomach: 27 females and 11 males, mean age 65 years (extreme: 22-84). There was no case on emergency, 4 patients had have at least one episode of intrathoracic volvulus. The operation consisted in gastric reduction into the abdominal cavity, excision of the sac, suture of the crura reinforced with a mesh in 6 patients and the construction of a gastric wrap. A postoperative barium swallow was performed on POD 3 in order to confirm the anatomical result. Mean operating time was 157 minutes (75-480), no case was converted into laparotomy. Four postoperative complications were observed (morbidity 10.8%): one gastric perforation diagnosed on POD 1, 2 severe dysphagias linked to the wrap, and one atelectasia. There was no death in this series. Functional results were evaluated by the mean of a questionnaire in 33 patients who had a follow up more than 6 months. Thirty-three questionnaires have been sent, 3 patients were lost and one was dead. Among the 29 patients analyzed, 14 were very satisfied, 11 were satisfied and 3 were deceived by the operation. Best results are obtained in patients with GERD, dysphagia or postprandial cardiothoracic symptoms. These results compared to the published data allow us to discuss about indications of surgery, the necessity to removal the hernia sac, and the advantages to reinforce the crura by the mean of a non absorbable mesh.

  15. Time domain para hydrogen induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Ratajczyk, Tomasz; Gutmann, Torsten; Dillenberger, Sonja; Abdulhussaein, Safaa; Frydel, Jaroslaw; Breitzke, Hergen; Bommerich, Ute; Trantzschel, Thomas; Bernarding, Johannes; Magusin, Pieter C M M; Buntkowsky, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Para hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) is a powerful hyperpolarization technique, which increases the NMR sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. However the hyperpolarized signal is created as an anti-phase signal, which necessitates high magnetic field homogeneity and spectral resolution in the conventional PHIP schemes. This hampers the application of PHIP enhancement in many fields, as for example in food science, materials science or MRI, where low B(0)-fields or low B(0)-homogeneity do decrease spectral resolution, leading to potential extinction if in-phase and anti-phase hyperpolarization signals cannot be resolved. Herein, we demonstrate that the echo sequence (45°-τ-180°-τ) enables the acquisition of low resolution PHIP enhanced liquid state NMR signals of phenylpropiolic acid derivatives and phenylacetylene at a low cost low-resolution 0.54 T spectrometer. As low field TD-spectrometers are commonly used in industry or biomedicine for the relaxometry of oil-water mixtures, food, nano-particles, or other systems, we compare two variants of para-hydrogen induced polarization with data-evaluation in the time domain (TD-PHIP). In both TD-ALTADENA and the TD-PASADENA strong spin echoes could be detected under conditions when usually no anti-phase signals can be measured due to the lack of resolution. The results suggest that the time-domain detection of PHIP-enhanced signals opens up new application areas for low-field PHIP-hyperpolarization, such as non-invasive compound detection or new contrast agents and biomarkers in low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Finally, solid-state NMR calculations are presented, which show that the solid echo (90y-τ-90x-τ) version of the TD-ALTADENA experiment is able to convert up to 10% of the PHIP signal into visible magnetization.

  16. [Nutritive value of the spirulina algae (Spirulina maxima)].

    PubMed

    Tejada de Hernández, I; Shimada, A S

    1978-06-01

    Nine experiments were conducted, five of them in vivo to determine the limiting amino acids and digestibility of spiruline algae for the rat, and four in vitro to determine the digestibility of the product in pepsin and ruminal liquid. None of the amino acids studied (lysine, methionine, histidine) added alone or in combination to 10% protein (either crude or true) diets provided exclusively by spiruline, seems to be limiting although the results could be masked by the low palatability and acceptability of the product by the rats. The apparent digestibility of the algae was 67.4%. For the in vitro tests, the algae were subjected to several physical or chemical treatments, and the digestibility of the resulting product determined by four different techniques. In no case did the tested treatments have any effect on its digestibility.

  17. Activities: Activities to Introduce Maxima-Minima Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleacher, David

    1991-01-01

    Presented are student activities that involve two standard problems from geometry and calculus--the volume of a box and the bank shot on a pool table. Problem solving is emphasized as a method of inquiry and application with descriptions of the results using graphical, numerical, and physical models. (JJK)

  18. Coercivity maxima at low temperatures. [of lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwerer, F. C.; Nagata, T.

    1974-01-01

    Recent measurements have shown that the magnetic coercive forces of some Apollo lunar samples show an unexpected decrease with decreasing temperature at cryogenic temperatures. This behavior can be explained quantitatively in terms of a model which considers additive contributions from a soft, reversible magnetic phase and from a harder, hysteretic magnetic phase.

  19. Could It Be Possible to Replace DERIVE with MAXIMA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Alfonsa; Garcia, Francisco; Rodriguez, Gerardo; de la Villa, Agustin

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a considerable number of teachers in Spain have been using DERIVE to teach math subjects in High Schools and Universities. This software has been used by the authors of this work as a support tool in Mathematics courses for Engineering. Since Texas Instruments does not support DERIVE, we were faced with finding an alternative…

  20. On the Local Maxima of a Constrained Quadratic Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhowmik, Jahar L.

    2006-01-01

    This note presents a brief and partial review of the work of Broom, Cannings and Vickers [1]. It also presents some simple examples of an extension of the their formalism to non-symmetric matrices. (Contains 1 figure.)

  1. Magnetic field maxima in the low latitude boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnerup, B.; Paschmann, G.; Phan, T.-D.; Luehr, H.

    1992-01-01

    The magnetic field often exhibits a maximum in the earth's low-latitude boundary layer. Examples of this behavior are shown using data from the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft, and it is argued that two fundamentally distinct causes exist for the excess field: (1) a depression, within the layer, of the population of medium-energy ions of magnetospheric origin and (2) field curvature effects associated with undulations of the magnetopause itself.

  2. Nonstationarity of daily rainfall annual maxima in Puglia (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, Vincenzo; Gioia, Andrea; Iacobellis, Vito

    2017-04-01

    Extreme flood events occurring in the last decades, due to climatic conditions in rapid evolution and/or changes in land cover, has lead the scientific community to develop and improve probabilistic techniques in order to take into account these effects, as also requested by the EU Floods Directive 2007/60. In the recent literature are becoming more popular studies that investigate the nonstationarity of the variables usually treated in hydrology through the analysis of their trend behavior. In this context it is also useful to assess the impact that the climate and /or land cover modifications have on the performances of the probabilistic stationary models used to predict hydrological variables such as rainfall and flood peaks. Among several proposed approaches, we use the redefined concept of return period and risk by considering the variability over time of the position parameter of the GEV distribution, with the subsequent discussion about the implications of analytical and technical characters. The analysis was carried out on the time series of annual maximum of daily precipitation available for a broad number of rainfall gauged stations in Puglia (Southern Italy). The investigation, conducted at the regional scale, leads to the identification of areas with different significativity of the statistical tests usually performed in order to assess nonstationarity. The evaluated change of return period leads to considerations useful to redesign methods for regional analysis of flood frequency.

  3. Electoral Outcomes and Social Log-Likelihood Maxima

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    the form mXf(x; e kSk=l f(x; 0k ) + f(y*; e k) g(ek) " "(1k) where (i) Il..",I os a partition of x (ii) ek E Ik , and (iii) m k To is the Lebesgue ...Footnotes 1/ By Corollary 5.9 in Bartle [1966] and the regularity conditions on the f(x" 0). 12/ By Corollary 5.9 in Bartle [1966] and the regularity...and H. Uzawa (eds.) [1950], Studies in Linear *and Nonlinear Programming, Stanford, California: Stanford Univer- sity Press. Bartle , R. [1966], The

  4. Derivative, Maxima and Minima in a Graphical Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Figueroa, Antonio; Ponce-Campuzano, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    A deeper learning of the properties and applications of the derivative for the study of functions may be achieved when teachers present lessons within a highly graphic context, linking the geometric illustrations to formal proofs. Each concept is better understood and more easily retained when it is presented and explained visually using graphs.…

  5. Iridium abundance maxima in the Upper Cenomanian extinction interval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, C. J.; Attrep, M., Jr.; Mao, X. Y.; Kauffman, E. G.; Diner, R.

    1988-01-01

    Two iridium abundance peaks, both 0.11 ppb (whole-rock basis) over a local background of 0.017 ppb, have been found in Middle Cretaceous marine rocks near Pueblo, Colorado. They occur just below the 92-million-year-old Cenomanian-Turonian (C-T) stage boundary. No other peaks were found in 45 meters of strata (about 2.5 million years of deposition) above and below the boundary interval. The broad lower peak straddles the first in a series of extinctions of benthic and nektonic macrobiota which comprise the C-T extinction event. The sharp upper peak occurs stratigraphically about 1.2 meters above the lower peak. The excess Ir might be from meteoroid impacts.

  6. Could It Be Possible to Replace DERIVE with MAXIMA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Alfonsa; Garcia, Francisco; Rodriguez, Gerardo; de la Villa, Agustin

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a considerable number of teachers in Spain have been using DERIVE to teach math subjects in High Schools and Universities. This software has been used by the authors of this work as a support tool in Mathematics courses for Engineering. Since Texas Instruments does not support DERIVE, we were faced with finding an alternative…

  7. An excursion approach to maxima of the Brownian bridge.

    PubMed

    Perman, Mihael; Wellner, Jon A

    2014-09-01

    Distributions of functionals of Brownian bridge arise as limiting distributions in non-parametric statistics. In this paper we will give a derivation of distributions of extrema of the Brownian bridge based on excursion theory for Brownian motion. The idea of rescaling and conditioning on the local time has been used widely in the literature. In this paper it is used to give a unified derivation of a number of known distributions, and a few new ones. Particular cases of calculations include the distribution of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic and the Kuiper statistic.

  8. An excursion approach to maxima of the Brownian bridge

    PubMed Central

    Perman, Mihael; Wellner, Jon A.

    2016-01-01

    Distributions of functionals of Brownian bridge arise as limiting distributions in non-parametric statistics. In this paper we will give a derivation of distributions of extrema of the Brownian bridge based on excursion theory for Brownian motion. The idea of rescaling and conditioning on the local time has been used widely in the literature. In this paper it is used to give a unified derivation of a number of known distributions, and a few new ones. Particular cases of calculations include the distribution of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic and the Kuiper statistic. PMID:27134338

  9. Width of the chaotic layer: maxima due to marginal resonances.

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, Ivan I

    2012-06-01

    Modern theoretical methods for estimating the width of the chaotic layer in the presence of prominent marginal resonances are considered in the perturbed pendulum model of nonlinear resonance. The fields of applicability of these methods are explicitly and precisely formulated. The comparative accuracy is investigated in massive and long-run numerical experiments. It is shown that the methods are naturally subdivided in classes applicable for adiabatic and nonadiabatic cases of perturbation. It is explicitly shown that the pendulum approximation of marginal resonance works well in the nonadiabatic case. In this case, the role of marginal resonances in determining the total layer width is demonstrated to diminish with increasing main parameter λ (equal to the ratio of the perturbation frequency to the frequency of small-amplitude phase oscillations on the resonance). Solely the "bending effect" is important in determining the total amplitude of the energy deviations of the near-separatrix motion at λ≳7. In the adiabatic case, it is demonstrated that the geometrical form of the separatrix cell can be described analytically quite easily by means of using a specific representation of the separatrix map. It is shown that the nonadiabatic (and, to some extent, intermediary) case is most actual, in comparison with the adiabatic one, for the physical or technical applications that concern the energy jumps in the near-separatrix chaotic motion.

  10. Iridium abundance maxima in the Upper Cenomanian extinction interval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, C. J.; Attrep, M., Jr.; Mao, X. Y.; Kauffman, E. G.; Diner, R.

    1988-01-01

    Two iridium abundance peaks, both 0.11 ppb (whole-rock basis) over a local background of 0.017 ppb, have been found in Middle Cretaceous marine rocks near Pueblo, Colorado. They occur just below the 92-million-year-old Cenomanian-Turonian (C-T) stage boundary. No other peaks were found in 45 meters of strata (about 2.5 million years of deposition) above and below the boundary interval. The broad lower peak straddles the first in a series of extinctions of benthic and nektonic macrobiota which comprise the C-T extinction event. The sharp upper peak occurs stratigraphically about 1.2 meters above the lower peak. The excess Ir might be from meteoroid impacts.

  11. The para-Bombay phenotype in Chinese persons.

    PubMed

    Lin-Chu, M; Broadberry, R E; Tsai, S J; Chiou, P W

    1987-01-01

    The para-Bombay phenotype occurs more frequently in Oriental than in white populations. This report describes the immunohematologic findings in 20 cases of the para-Bombay phenotype detected over a period of about 15 months in the Chinese population of Taiwan.

  12. Cooling by Para-to-Ortho-Hydrogen Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A.; Nast, T.

    1983-01-01

    Catalyst speeds conversion, increasing capacity of solid hydrogen cooling system. In radial-flow catalytic converter, para-hydrogen is converted to equilibrium mixture of para-hydrogen and ortho-hydrogen as it passes through porous cylinder of catalyst. Addition of catalyst increases capacity of hydrogen sublimation cooling systems for radiation detectors.

  13. Requisitos para utilizar el enlace | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  14. A nontraumatic para-aortic lymphocele complicating nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Hyson, E A; Belleza, N A; Lowman, R M

    1977-09-01

    Many cases of traumatic para-aortic lymphocele have been reported. Recently, a case of nontraumatic para-aortic lymphocele was investigated. The etiologic consideration for this lymphocele formation is either a localized inflammatory process, or fibrosis induced by prior passage of calculi.

  15. Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisman, Izu

    2013-12-01

    In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.

  16. Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Vaisman, Izu

    2013-12-15

    In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.

  17. a New Equation of State for Solid para-HYDROGEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lecheng; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    Solid para-H_2 is a popular accommodating host for impurity spectroscopy due to its unique softness and the spherical symmetry of para-H_2 in its J}=0 rotational level. To simulate the properties of impurity-doped solid para-H_2, a reliable model for the `soft' pure solid para-H_2 at different pressures is highly desirable. While a couple of experimental and theoretical studies aimed at elucidating the equation of state (EOS) of solid para-H_2 have been reported, the calculated EOS was shown to be heavily dependent on the potential energy surface (PES) between two para-H_2 that was used in the simulations. The current study also demonstrates that different choices of the parameters governing the Quantum Monte Carlo simulation could produce different EOS curves. To obtain a reliable model for pure solid para-H_2, we used a new 1-D para-H_2 PES reported by Faruk et al. that was obtained by averaging over Hinde's highly accurate 6-D H_2--H_2 PES. The EOS of pure solid para-H_2 was calculated using the PIMC algorithm with periodic boundary conditions (PBC). To precisely determine the equilibrium density of solid para-H_2, both the value of the PIMC time step (τ) and the number of particles in the PBC cell were extrapolated to convergence. The resulting EOS agreed well with experimental observations, and the hcp structured solid para-H_2 was found to be more stable than the fcc one at 4.2K, in agreement with experiment. The vibrational frequency shift of para-H_2 as a function of the density of the pure solid was also calculated, and the value of the shift at the equilibrium density is found to agree well with experiment. T. Momose, H. Honshina, M. Fushitani and H. Katsuki, Vib. Spectrosc. 34, 95(2004). M. E. Fajardo, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13504 (2013). I. F. Silvera, Rev. Mod. Phys. 52, 393(1980). F. Operetto and F. Pederiva, Phys. Rev. B 73, 184124(2006). T. Omiyinka and M. Boninsegni, Phys. Rev. B 88, 024112(2013). N. Faruk, M. Schmidt, H. Li, R. J. Le Roy, and P

  18. ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A

    2011-09-27

    The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

  19. Cooling by conversion of para to ortho-hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The cooling capacity of a solid hydrogen cooling system is significantly increased by exposing vapor created during evaporation of a solid hydrogen mass to a catalyst and thereby accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho transition of the vapor to equilibrium hydrogen. Catalyst such as nickel, copper, iron or metal hydride gels of films in a low pressure drop catalytic reactor are suitable for accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho conversion.

  20. Ortho- and para-hydrogen in neutron thermalization

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, L. L.; Brun, T. O.

    1998-01-01

    The large difference in neutron scattering cross-section at low neutron energies between ortho- and para-hydrogen was recognized early on. In view of this difference (more than an order of magnitude), one might legitimately ask whether the ortho/para ratio has a significant effect on the neutron thermalization properties of a cold hydrogen moderator. Several experiments performed in the 60`s and early 70`s with a variety of source and (liquid hydrogen) moderator configurations attempted to investigate this. The results tend to show that the ortho/para ratio does indeed have an effect on the energy spectrum of the neutron beam produced. Unfortunately, the results are not always consistent with each other and much unknown territory remains to be explored. The problem has been approached from a computational standpoint, but these isolated efforts are far from having examined the ortho/para-hydrogen problem in neutron moderation in all its complexity. Because of space limitations, the authors cannot cover, even briefly, all the aspects of the ortho/para question here. This paper will summarize experiments meant to investigate the effect of the ortho/para ratio on the neutron energy spectrum produced by liquid hydrogen moderators.

  1. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-06-01

    Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

  2. A Comparative Usage-Based Approach to the Reduction of the Spanish and Portuguese Preposition "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradoville, Michael Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the frequency effect of two-word collocations involving "para" "to," "for" (e.g. "fui para," "para que") on the reduction of "para" to "pa" (in Spanish) and "pra" (in Portuguese). Collocation frequency effects demonstrate that language speakers…

  3. A Comparative Usage-Based Approach to the Reduction of the Spanish and Portuguese Preposition "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradoville, Michael Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the frequency effect of two-word collocations involving "para" "to," "for" (e.g. "fui para," "para que") on the reduction of "para" to "pa" (in Spanish) and "pra" (in Portuguese). Collocation frequency effects demonstrate that language speakers…

  4. Hox and ParaHox genes: a review on molluscs.

    PubMed

    Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Canapa, Adriana; Forconi, Mariko; Barucca, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Hox and ParaHox genes are involved in patterning the anterior-posterior body axis in metazoans during embryo development. Body plan evolution and diversification are affected by variations in the number and sequence of Hox and ParaHox genes, as well as by their expression patterns. For this reason Hox and ParaHox gene investigation in the phylum Mollusca is of great interest, as this is one of the most important taxa of protostomes, characterized by a high morphological diversity. The comparison of the works reviewed here indicates that species of molluscs, belonging to different classes, share a similar composition of Hox and ParaHox genes. Therefore evidence suggests that the wide morphological diversity of this taxon could be ascribed to differences in Hox gene interactions and expressions and changes in the Hox downstream genes rather than to Hox cluster composition. Moreover the data available on Hox and ParaHox genes in molluscs compared with those of other Lophotrochozoa shed light on the complex and controversial evolutionary histories that these genes have undergone within protostomes.

  5. Detection of the MW Transition Between Ortho and Para States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, Hideto; Dehghani, Zeinab Tafti; Mizoguchi, Asao; Endo, Yasuki

    2017-06-01

    Thorough the detailed analysis of the hyperfine resolved rotational transitions, we have been pointed out that there exists not a little interaction between ortho and para states in the molecular Hamiltonian of S_2Cl_2. Using the ortho-para mixed molecular wavefunctions derived from the Hamiltonian, we calculated the transition moment and frequency of the ortho-para forbidden transitions in the cm- and mm-wave region, and picked up some promising candidate transitions for the spectroscopic detection. In the experiment, the S_2Cl_2 vapor with Ar buffer gas in a supersonic jet condition was used with FTMW spectrometer at National Chiao Tung University. As a result, seven hyperfine resolved rotational transitions in the cm-wave region were detected as the ortho-para transition at the predicted frequency within the experimental error range. The observed intensity was 10^{-3} smaller than that of an allowed transition, which is also consistent with the prediction. This is the first time the electric dipole transition between ortho and para states has been detected in a free isolated molecule. A. Mizoguchi, S. Ota, H. Kanamori, Y. Sumiyoshi, and Y. Endo, J. Mol. Spectrosc, 250, 86 (2008) Z. T. Dehghani, S. Ota, A. Mizoguchi and H. Kanamori, J. Phys. Chem. A, 117(39), 10041, (2013)

  6. Evolution of invertebrate deuterostomes and Hox/ParaHox genes.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Tetsuro

    2011-06-01

    Transcription factors encoded by Antennapedia-class homeobox genes play crucial roles in controlling development of animals, and are often found clustered in animal genomes. The Hox and ParaHox gene clusters have been regarded as evolutionary sisters and evolved from a putative common ancestral gene complex, the ProtoHox cluster, prior to the divergence of the Cnidaria and Bilateria (bilaterally symmetrical animals). The Deuterostomia is a monophyletic group of animals that belongs to the Bilateria, and a sister group to the Protostomia. The deuterostomes include the vertebrates (to which we belong), invertebrate chordates, hemichordates, echinoderms and possibly xenoturbellids, as well as acoelomorphs. The studies of Hox and ParaHox genes provide insights into the origin and subsequent evolution of the bilaterian animals. Recently, it becomes apparent that among the Hox and ParaHox genes, there are significant variations in organization on the chromosome, expression pattern, and function. In this review, focusing on invertebrate deuterostomes, I first summarize recent findings about Hox and ParaHox genes. Next, citing unsolved issues, I try to provide clues that might allow us to reconstruct the common ancestor of deuterostomes, as well as understand the roles of Hox and ParaHox genes in the development and evolution of deuterostomes.

  7. NMR studies of internal dynamics of serine proteinase protein inhibitors: Binding region mobilities of intact and reactive-site hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor (CMTI)-III of the squash family and comparison with those of counterparts of CMTI-V of the potato I family.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J.; Gong, Y.; Prakash, O.; Wen, L.; Lee, I.; Huang, J. K.; Krishnamoorthi, R.

    1998-01-01

    Serine proteinase protein inhibitors follow the standard mechanism of inhibition (Laskowski M Jr, Kato I, 1980, Annu Rev Biochem 49:593-626), whereby an enzyme-catalyzed equilibrium between intact (I) and reactive-site hydrolyzed inhibitor (I*) is reached. The hydrolysis constant, Khyd, is defined as [I*]/[I]. Here, we explore the role of internal dynamics in the resynthesis of the scissile bond by comparing the internal mobility data of intact and cleaved inhibitors belonging to two different families. The inhibitors studied are recombinant Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III (rCMTI-III; Mr 3 kDa) of the squash family and rCMTI-V (Mr approximately 7 kDa) of the potato I family. These two inhibitors have different binding loop-scaffold interactions and different Khyd values--2.4 (CMTI-III) and 9 (CMTI-V)--at 25 degrees C. The reactive-site peptide bond (P1-P1') is that between Arg5 and Ile6 in CMTI-III, and that between Lys44 and Asp45 in CMTI-V. The order parameters (S2) of backbone NHs of uniformly 15N-labeled rCMTI-III and rCMTI-III* were determined from measurements of 15N spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation rates, and [1H]-15N steady-state heteronuclear Overhauser effects, using the model-free formalism, and compared with the data reported previously for rCMTI-V and rCMTI-V*. The backbones of rCMTI-III [(S2) = 0.71] and rCMTI-III* [(S2) = 0.63] are more flexible than those of rCMTI-V [(S2) = 0.83] and rCMTI-V* [(S2) = 0.85]. The binding loop residues, P4-P1, in the two proteins show the following average order parameters: 0.57 (rCMTI-III) and 0.44 (rCMTI-III*); 0.70 (rCMTI-V) and 0.40 (rCMTI-V*). The P1'-P4' residues, on the other hand, are associated with (S2) values of 0.56 (rCMTI-III) and 0.47 (rCMTI-III*); and 0.73 (rCMTI-V) and 0.83 (rCMTI-V*). The newly formed C-terminal (Pn residues) gains a smaller magnitude of flexibility in rCMTI-III* due to the Cys3-Cys20 crosslink. In contrast, the newly formed N-terminal (Pn' residues) becomes more flexible

  8. β-Cyclodextrin- para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roik, N. V.; Belyakova, L. A.; Oranskaya, E. I.

    2010-11-01

    Complex formation of β-cyclodextrin with para-aminosalicylic acid in buffer solutions is studied by UV spectroscopy. It is found that the stoichiometric proportion of the components in the β-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is 1:1. The Ketelar equation is used to calculate the stability constants of the inclusion complexes at different temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters of the complex formation process (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) are calculated using the van't Hoff equation. The 1:1 β-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is prepared in solid form and its characteristics are determined by IR spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction techniques.

  9. Quantum simulation of driven para-Bose oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderete, C. Huerta; Rodríguez-Lara, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum mechanics allows paraparticles with mixed Bose-Fermi statistics that have not been experimentally confirmed. We propose a trapped-ion scheme whose effective dynamics are equivalent to a driven para-Bose oscillator of even order. Our mapping suggest highly entangled vibrational and internal ion states as the laboratory equivalent of quantum simulated parabosons. Furthermore, we show the generation and reconstruction of coherent oscillations and para-Bose analogs of Gilmore-Perelomov coherent states from population inversion measurements in the laboratory frame. Our proposal, apart from demonstrating an analog quantum simulator of para-Bose oscillators, provides a quantum state engineering tool that foreshadows the potential use of paraparticle dynamics in the design of quantum information systems.

  10. Una técnica para filtrar patrones de fringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Se presenta una nueva técnica para filtrar los patrones de fringing producidos en los CCDs tipo RCA. El método consiste en construir un mapa con los ángulos de inclinación de las franjas en cada punto de la imagen. Este mapa es ulteriormente utilizado para alinear con el patrón de interferencia una ventana estrecha, sobre la que se aplica un filtro de mediana. Este procedimiento permite eliminar la mayor parte del ruido del patrón de fringing sin destruirlo.

  11. Ortho and para-armalcolite samples in Apollo 17.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    1973-01-01

    Two paragenetically contrasting forms of armalcolite are present in basalts from the Apollo 17 Taurus-Littrow landing site. These armalcolites differ in optical properties, in crystal habit and in their distribution between coarse and fine grained rocks. It is proposed to call the two armalcolite forms ortho-armalcolite and para-armalcolite. Texural relationships and the evidence of experimental melting show that ortho-armalcolite is always the first crystalline phase to appear from unusually titanium rich magmas. The origin of para-armalcolite is not yet fully understood.

  12. On some examples of para-Hermite and para-Kähler Einstein spaces with Λ ≠ 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudecki, Adam

    2017-02-01

    Spaces equipped with two complementary (distinct) congruences of self-dual null strings and at least one congruence of anti-self-dual null strings are considered. It is shown that if such spaces are Einsteinian then the vacuum Einstein field equations can be reduced to a single nonlinear partial differential equation of the second order. Different forms of these equations are analyzed. Finally, several new explicit metrics of the para-Hermite and para-Kähler Einstein spaces with Λ ≠ 0 are presented. Some relation of that metrics to a modern approach to mechanical issues is discussed.

  13. Utilice en forma segura los productos con cebo para roedores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Si se usan de manera inadecuada, los productos con veneno para ratas y ratones podrían hacerle daño a usted, a sus hijos o a sus mascotas. Siempre que use pesticidas lea la etiqueta del producto y siga todas las indicaciones.

  14. Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, Jonathan; Heitmann, Katrin; Ahrens, James P; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The advent of large cosmological sky surveys - ushering in the era of precision cosmology - has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

  15. The total neutron cross section of liquid para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, M.; Rhodes, N.; Soper, A. K.; Zoppi, M.

    1999-12-01

    We have measured, using the pulsed neutron source ISIS, the total neutron cross section of liquid para-hydrogen in the vicinity of the triple point. The experimental results compare only qualitatively with the results of the Young and Koppel theory. However, a much better agreement is found once modifications are included in the model which effectively take into account the intermolecular interactions.

  16. "Espanol para ti": A Video Program That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Elena; Johnson, Holly

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of "Espanol para ti," a video program for teaching Spanish at the elementary school level. The program was designed for use in Clark County, Nevada elementary schools and is taught by a certified Spanish teacher via video twice a week, utilizing comprehensible input through visuals, games, and songs that are conducive to…

  17. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  18. Kit para aplicar la metodología de Lean en el gobierno

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Este Kit para comenzar a aplicar la metodología Lean (Gobierno optimizado) ofrece información para ayudar a las agencias de protección ambiental a planificar e implementar iniciativas Lean exitosas.

  19. Para-acetabular periarthritis calcarea: its radiographic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, A; Murayama, S; Ohuchida, T; Russell, W J

    1988-01-01

    On retrospective reviews of radiographs, periarthritis calcarea was distinguished from os acetabula by interval radiographic progression and regression. Among 59 men and 51 women, there were 137 instances of para-acetabular calcifications and ossifications, which were morphologically classified as 58 discrete, 58 amorphous, and 21 segmented types. Correlations with other radiographic abnormalities, symptoms, signs, and laboratory abnormalities were sought, but not established. Out of 93 serially imaged opacities, 90 changed, including 37 of the 40 instances (92.5%) of the discrete type and 53 instances (100%) of the amorphous and segmented types--due to periarthritis calcarea. At least 43 of 90 densities were newly developed. Mean age at first detection was 47.7 years. Three of the discrete densities were unchanged and represented os acetabula. Thus, recognition of para-acetabular periarthritis calcarea is not only of academic importance; it can facilitate proper treatment as well.

  20. Focal para-hisian atrial tachycardia with dual exits

    PubMed Central

    Lawrance Jesuraj, M.; Sharada, K.; Sridevi, C.; Narasimhan, C.

    2013-01-01

    Focal atrial tachycardias (AT) in the right atrium (RA) tend to cluster around the crista terminalis, coronary sinus (CS) region, tricuspid annulus, and para-hisian region. In most cases, the AT focus can be identified by careful activation mapping, and completely eliminated by radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation. However, RF ablation near the His bundle (HB) carries a risk of inadvertent damage to the atrioventricular (AV) conduction system. Here we describe a patient with an AT originating in the vicinity of the AV node, which was successfully ablated earlier from non-coronary aortic cusp (NCC), and recurred with an exit from para-hisian location. Respiratory excursions of the catheter were associated with migration to the area of HIs. This was successfully ablated during controlled apnoea, using 3D electroanatomic mapping. PMID:23993015

  1. Conversion of para and ortho hydrogen in the Jovian planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, S. T.; Hunten, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed which partially equilibrates the para and ortho rotational levels of molecular hydrogen in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Catalytic reactions between the free-radical surface sites of aerosol particles and hydrogen modecules yield significant equilibration near 1 bar pressure, if the efficiency of conversion per collision is between 10 to the -8th and 10 to the -10th and the effective eddy mixing coefficient is 10,000 sq cm/sec. At lower pressures the ortho-para ratio retains the value at the top of the cloud layer, except for a very small effect from conversion in the thermosphere. The influence of conversion on the specific heat and adiabatic lapse rate is also investigated. The effect is found to be generally small, though is can rise to 10% inside the aerosol layer.

  2. Production Ratio for Para- and Ortho-Ps in Photodetachment of Ps^-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Akinori

    2017-01-01

    Para- and ortho-Ps atoms are formed in the photodetachment of positronium negative ion. Since the lifetime against the pair annihilation is much shorter for para-Ps( ns) than for ortho-Ps( ns), the production ratio of para- and ortho-Ps atoms is important for the photodetachment experiments. We have derived the ratio explicitly.

  3. Synthesis of High Molecular Weight Para-Phenylene PBI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    give high molecular weight m-phenylene PBI (Reference 7). The polymer was completely soluble in methanesulfonic acid and 98% formic acid . Polymer with...mono- mer is a white crystalline solid which can be quantitatively hydrolized in an acid medium to give the free TAB. Stoichiometric quantities of IX...WEIGHT "PARA"-PHENYLENE PBI TECHNICAL REPORT AFML-TR-74-199 NOVEMBER 1974 Distribution limited to U.S.Government agencies only, test and evaluation

  4. Photodissociation dynamics of the ortho- and para-xylyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachner, Kai; Steglich, Mathias; Hemberger, Patrick; Fischer, Ingo

    2017-08-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of the C8H9 isomers ortho- and para-xylyl are investigated in a free jet. The xylyl radicals are generated by flash pyrolysis from 2-(2-methylphenyl)- and 2-(4-methylphenyl) ethyl nitrite and are excited into the D3 state. REMPI- spectra show vibronic structure and the origin of the transition is identified at 32 291 cm-1 for the para- and at 32 132 cm-1 for the ortho-isomer. Photofragment H-atom action spectra show bands at the same energy and thus confirm H-atom loss from xylyl radicals. To gain further insight into the photodissociation dynamics, velocity map images of the hydrogen atom photofragments are recorded. Their angular distribution is isotropic and the translational energy release is in agreement with a dissociation to products in their electronic ground state. Photodissociation of para-xylyl leads to the formation of para-xylylene (C8H8), while the data for ortho-xylyl agree much better with the isomer benzocyclobutene as the dominant molecular fragment rather than ortho-xylylene. In computations we identified a new pathway for the reaction ortho-xylyl → benzocyclobutene + H with a barrier of 3.39 eV (27 340 cm-1), which becomes accessible at the employed excitation energy. It proceeds via a combination of scissoring and rotational motion of the -CH2 and -CH3 groups. However, the observed rate constants measured by delaying the excitation and ionization laser with respect to each other are significantly faster than computed ones, indicating intrinsic non-RRKM behaviour. A comparably high value of around 30% of the excess energy is released as translation of the H-atom photofragment.

  5. Relative Contributions of Agricultural Drift, Para-Occupational ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: Increased pesticide concentrations in house dust in agricultural areas have been attributed to several exposure pathways, including agricultural drift, para-occupational, and residential use. Objective: To guide future exposure assessment efforts, we quantified relative contributions of these pathways using meta-regression models of published data on dust pesticide concentrations. Methods: From studies in North American agricultural areas published from 1995-2015, we abstracted dust pesticide concentrations reported as summary statistics (e.g., geometric means (GM)). We analyzed these data using mixed-effects meta-regression models that weighted each summary statistic by its inverse variance. Dependent variables were either the log-transformed GM (drift) or the log-transformed ratio of GMs from two groups (para-occupational, residential use). Results: For the drift pathway, predicted GMs decreased sharply and nonlinearly, with GMs 64% lower in homes 250 m versus 23 m from fields (inter-quartile range of published data) based on 52 statistics from 7 studies. For the para-occupational pathway, GMs were 2.3 times higher (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-3.3; 15 statistics, 5 studies) in homes of farmers who applied pesticides more versus less recently or frequently. For the residential use pathway, GMs were 1.3 (95%CI: 1.1-1.4) and 1.5 (95%CI: 1.2-1.9) times higher in treated versus untreated homes, when the probability that a pesticide was used for

  6. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos. Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  7. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA.

    PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos.Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems.

  8. Determination of the Ratio of Ortho Hydrogen and Para Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Ihas, G. G.; Sullivan, N. S.

    2003-03-01

    The two different quantum states of hydrogen, ortho-hydrogen and para-hydrogen, possess different properties. The accurate determination of the ortho/para ratio in gaseous, liquid and solid state is important both for research needs and for applications in cryogenic engineering, such as H2 production, transport and storage. NMR can determine the ratio1 accurately, but it is cumbersome and often not practical. Cryogenic applications need a simple and reliable method. We report on the development of a thermal conductivity gauge employing a pure metal thin film that serves as both heater and thermometer for the detection of ortho-para hydrogen ratios in the gaseous state. This ratio-meter has been tested and found to have a nearly pressure-independent voltage response over a broad pressure range with a constant current. The thermal conductivity of hydrogen and nitrogen was measured and found to agree quantitatively with published data. The new development will be presented. *Thanks to Larry Phelps, Bill Malphurs, Stephen Wood, David Hernandez. # Supported by NASA Contract NAG3-2750 Ref. 1. D. Zhou, C. M. Edwards, and N. S. Sullivan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1528 (1989)

  9. Surgical treatment of para-oesophageal hiatal hernia.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, M. L.; Duffy, J. P.; Beggs, F. D.; Salama, F. D.; Knowles, K. R.; Morgan, W. E.

    2001-01-01

    The development of laparoscopic antireflux surgery has stimulated interest in laparoscopic para-oesophageal hiatal hernia repair. This review of our practice over 10 years using a standard transthoracic technique was undertaken to establish the safety and effectiveness of the open technique to allow comparison. Sixty patients with para-oesophageal hiatal hernia were operated on between 1989 and 1999. There were 38 women and 22 men with a median age of 69.5 years. There were 47 elective and 13 emergency presentations. Operation consisted of a left thoracotomy, hernia reduction and crural repair. An antireflux procedure was added in selected patients. There were no deaths among the elective cases and one among the emergency cases. Median follow-up time was 19 months. There was one recurrence (1.5%). Seven patients (12%) required a single oesophagoscopy and dilatation up to 2 years postoperatively but have been asymptomatic since. Two patients (3%) developed symptomatic reflux which has been well controlled on proton-pump inhibitors. Transthoracic para-oesophageal hernia repair can be safely performed with minimal recurrence. PMID:11777134

  10. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.

  11. [Genetic analysis of an individual with para-Bombay phenotype].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-jin; Huang, Ying; Zhu, Sui-yong

    2013-04-01

    To study genetic characteristics of an individual with para-Bombay phenotype and her family members. ABO and H antigens were detected with routine serological techniques.The entire coding region of FUT1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products was purified with enzymes digestion and directly sequenced. The RBCs of the proband did not agglutinate with H antibody. The proband therefore has a para-Bombay phenotype (Bmh). Direct sequencing indicated the FUT1 sequence of the proband contained a homozygous 547-552 del AG and heterozygous 814A>G mutation, which gave rise to two haplotypes of 547-552delAG, 547-552delAG and 814A>G. The ABO blood type of the proband' s mother and sisters were all B.Sequencing of the FUT1 gene has found heterozygous 547-552 del AG, 814A>G mutations in the mother and elder sister, and heterozygous 547-552 del AG mutation in her younger sister. The FUT1 547-552 del AG and 814 A>G mutations of the proband were inherited from her mother. A complex mutation of the FUT1 gene consisting of 547-55 del AG and 814 A>G has been identified in an individual with para-Bombay phenotype.

  12. The Regulation of para-Nitrophenol Degradation in Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Luo, Xue; Zhang, Biying; Huang, Fei; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Shen, Wenjing; Wu, Jiale; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 can efficiently degrade para-nitrophenol and its intermediate metabolite hydroquinone. The regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation was studied, and PNP induced a global change in the transcriptome of P. putida DLL-E4. When grown on PNP, the wild-type strain exhibited significant downregulation of 2912 genes and upregulation of 845 genes, whereas 2927 genes were downregulated and 891 genes upregulated in a pnpR-deleted strain. Genes related to two non-coding RNAs (ins1 and ins2), para-nitrophenol metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the outer membrane porin OprB, glucose dehydrogenase Gcd, and carbon catabolite repression were significantly upregulated when cells were grown on para-nitrophenol plus glucose. pnpA, pnpR, pnpC1C2DECX1X2, and pnpR1 are key genes in para-nitrophenol degradation, whereas pnpAb and pnpC1bC2bDbEbCbX1bX2b have lost the ability to degrade para-nitrophenol. Multiple components including transcriptional regulators and other unknown factors regulate para-nitrophenol degradation, and the transcriptional regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation is complex. Glucose utilization was enhanced at early stages of para-nitrophenol supplementation. However, it was inhibited after the total consumption of para-nitrophenol. The addition of glucose led to a significant enhancement in para-nitrophenol degradation and up-regulation in the expression of genes involved in para-nitrophenol degradation and carbon catabolite repression (CCR). It seemed that para-nitrophenol degradation can be regulated by CCR, and relief of CCR might contribute to enhanced para-nitrophenol degradation. In brief, the regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation seems to be controlled by multiple factors and requires further study.

  13. The Regulation of para-Nitrophenol Degradation in Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Luo, Xue; Zhang, Biying; Huang, Fei; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Shen, Wenjing; Wu, Jiale; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 can efficiently degrade para-nitrophenol and its intermediate metabolite hydroquinone. The regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation was studied, and PNP induced a global change in the transcriptome of P. putida DLL-E4. When grown on PNP, the wild-type strain exhibited significant downregulation of 2912 genes and upregulation of 845 genes, whereas 2927 genes were downregulated and 891 genes upregulated in a pnpR-deleted strain. Genes related to two non-coding RNAs (ins1 and ins2), para-nitrophenol metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the outer membrane porin OprB, glucose dehydrogenase Gcd, and carbon catabolite repression were significantly upregulated when cells were grown on para-nitrophenol plus glucose. pnpA, pnpR, pnpC1C2DECX1X2, and pnpR1 are key genes in para-nitrophenol degradation, whereas pnpAb and pnpC1bC2bDbEbCbX1bX2b have lost the ability to degrade para-nitrophenol. Multiple components including transcriptional regulators and other unknown factors regulate para-nitrophenol degradation, and the transcriptional regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation is complex. Glucose utilization was enhanced at early stages of para-nitrophenol supplementation. However, it was inhibited after the total consumption of para-nitrophenol. The addition of glucose led to a significant enhancement in para-nitrophenol degradation and up-regulation in the expression of genes involved in para-nitrophenol degradation and carbon catabolite repression (CCR). It seemed that para-nitrophenol degradation can be regulated by CCR, and relief of CCR might contribute to enhanced para-nitrophenol degradation. In brief, the regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation seems to be controlled by multiple factors and requires further study. PMID:27191401

  14. Studies on barium bis-para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol tetra hydrate NLO single crystal by unidirectional growth method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthrakumar, R.; Vesta, C.; Jose, M.; Sugandhi, K.; Krishnan, S.; Jerome Das, S.

    2010-08-01

    The unidirectional crystal growth technique has been employed for the bulk growth of semi-organic nonlinear optical barium bis-para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol tetra hydrate single crystals along the (2 2 0) direction with almost high solute-crystal conversion efficiency. The grown crystal was subjected to single crystal and powder XRD analyses in order to confirm the crystal identity. Optical absorption studies reveal very high transmittance in the entire visible and near IR region. The presence of various functional groups is confirmed by FTIR analysis. Low dielectric loss at high frequency region is indicative of enhanced optical quality with lesser defects. Photoconductivity measurements carried out on the grown crystal reveal the negative photoconducting nature.

  15. ORTHO-PARA SELECTION RULES IN THE GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY OF INTERSTELLAR AMMONIA

    SciTech Connect

    Faure, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Le Gal, R.; Rist, C.

    2013-06-10

    The ortho-para chemistry of ammonia in the cold interstellar medium is investigated using a gas-phase chemical network. Branching ratios for the primary reaction chain involved in the formation and destruction of ortho- and para-NH{sub 3} were derived using angular momentum rules based on the conservation of the nuclear spin. We show that the 'anomalous' ortho-to-para ratio of ammonia ({approx}0.7) observed in various interstellar regions is in fact consistent with nuclear spin selection rules in a para-enriched H{sub 2} gas. This ratio is found to be independent of temperature in the range 5-30 K. We also predict an ortho-to-para ratio of {approx}2.3 for NH{sub 2}. We conclude that a low ortho-to-para ratio of H{sub 2} naturally drives the ortho-to-para ratios of nitrogen hydrides below the statistical values.

  16. Amazon Land Wars in the South of Para

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.

    2007-01-01

    The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.

  17. Amazon Land Wars in the South of Para

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.

    2007-01-01

    The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.

  18. INTERVENCIÓN EDUCATIVA EFECTIVA EN VIH PARA MUJERES

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Sarah; Poupin, Lauren; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN En Chile se estima que aproximadamente 38 mil personas viven con el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana [VIH]. En el año 2001, 1.092 mujeres chilenas vivían con VIH, actualmente se cree que hay más de 7.600 mujeres con el virus. Frente a estas cifras surge la necesidad de crear estrategias de prevención dirigidas a mujeres chilenas. Objetivo analizar los estudios ya realizados en la prevención de VIH para determinar qué aspectos se deben incluir en programas exitosos de prevención de VIH en mujeres. Diseño y Método se realizó una revisión de la literatura utilizando la base de datos Proquest, CINAHL, Pubmed y Scielo. Los límites comprendieron: textos completos, de los últimos 10 años, de acceso gratuito y escrito en español o inglés. Se seleccionaron 15 artículos para la revisión. Resultados todos los artículos comprenden la evaluación del efecto de una intervención sobre conocimiento y conductas relacionadas con VIH/SIDA. Catorce muestran resultados significativos en cambios positivos de conducta o conocimientos relacionados con la prevención de VIH. Conclusiones los programas de prevención de VIH en mujeres pueden ser efectivos para lograr cambios de conducta y de conocimiento. Las intervenciones exitosas son aquellas basadas en teorías o modelos de prevención y en cambios de conductas, todas adaptadas a la cultura de la población estudiada. PMID:27667897

  19. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-04

    RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize and enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results between

  20. Para-hydrogen narrow filament evaporation at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizarova, T. G.; Gogolin, A. A.; Montero, S.

    2012-11-01

    Undercooling of liquid para-hydrogen (pH2) below its freezing point at equilibrium (13.8 K) has been shown recently in flowing micro-filaments evaporating in low density background gas [M. Kühnel et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 245301 (2011)]. An hydrodynamical model accounting for this process is reported here. Analytical expressions for the local temperature T of a filament, averaged over its cross section, are obtained as a function of distance z to the nozzle. Comparison with the experiment is shown. It is shown also that the thermocapillary forces induce a parabolic profile of velocity across the jet.

  1. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-04

    RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize and enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results between

  2. Biodegradation of Para Amino Acetanilide by Halomonas sp. TBZ3

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Nader; Sefidi Heris, Youssof; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Vallipour, Javad; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Golabi, Sayyed Mahdi; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aromatic compounds are known as a group of highly persistent environmental pollutants. Halomonas sp. TBZ3 was isolated from the highly salty Urmia Lake of Iran. In this study, characterization of a new Halomonas isolate called Halomonas sp. TBZ3 and its employment for biodegradation of para-amino acetanilide (PAA), as an aromatic environmental pollutant, is described. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the TBZ3 isolate and to elucidate its ability as a biodegradative agent that decomposes PAA. Materials and Methods: Primarily, DNA-DNA hybridization between TBZ3, Halomonas denitrificans DSM18045T and Halomonas saccharevitans LMG 23976T was carried out. Para-amino acetanilide biodegradation was assessed using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Parameters effective on biodegradation of PAA were optimized by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Results: The DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between isolate TBZ3, H. denitrificans and H. saccharevitans revealed relatedness levels of 57% and 65%, respectively. According to GC-MS results, TBZ3 degrades PAA to benzene, hexyl butanoate, 3-methyl-1-heptanol and hexyl hexanoate. Temperature 32.92°C, pH 6.76, and salinity 14% are the optimum conditions for biodegradation with a confidence level of 95% (at level α = 0.05). Conclusions: According to our results, Halomonas sp. TBZ3 could be considered as a biological agent for bioremediation of PAA and possibly other similar aromatic compounds. PMID:26495103

  3. Use of the Maximum Likelihood Method in the Analysis of Chamber Air Dives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    de probabilidad maxima para evaluar ci niesgo de enfermedad por des- t,- 1.WalersbyP. doeo (EPD) onimrinsd aaacnaire electivas. Sc optmz los...parametros -Medic Rcsearc dedsmodelos matemnaticos para predecir la EPD, hasta que se alcanzo el mejor critenio tute, 198 (medido por la probabilidad maxima

  4. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Kilgore, Matthew B; Augustin, Megan M; May, Gregory D; Crow, John A; Kutchan, Toni M

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4'-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4'-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot.

  5. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Matthew B.; Augustin, Megan M.; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4′-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4′-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot. PMID:26941773

  6. Oropouche Virus. 3. Entomological Observations from Three Epidemics in Para, Brazil, 1975,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-06

    by block number) OROPOUCHE VIRUS, CULICOIDES PARAENSIS, EPIDEMICS, BRAZIL, PARA I&2 ABSThAC (Cantmus = revers e e* I nessamy and idewtty by block nmbe...8217)URBAN EPIDEMTCS OF OROPOUCHE ORO FEVER IN THREE MUNICIPALITIES IN PARA, BR.tZIL WERE SrUDIED IN 1975. CULICOIDES PARAENSIS GOELDI WERE COLLECTED...Medicine and Hygiene OROPOUCHE VIRUS III. ENTOMOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FROM THREE EPIDEMICS IN PARA, BRAZIL, 1975* DONALD R. ROBERTS, ALFRED L. HOCH

  7. Crystal growth and DFT insight on sodium para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol dihydrate single crystal for NLO applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, S.; Boobalan, Maria Susai; Anthuvan Babu, S.; Ramalingam, S.; Leo Rajesh, A.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of sodium para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol dihydrate (SPPD) were grown by slow evaporation technique and its structure has been studied by FT-IR, FT-Raman and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The optical and electrical properties were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, and dielectric studies respectively. SPPD was thermally stable up to 128 °C as determined by TG-DTA curves. Using the Kurtz-Perry powder method, the second-harmonic generation efficiency was found to be five times to that of KDP. Third-order nonlinear response was studied using Z-scan technique with a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) and NLO parameters such as intensity dependent refractive index, nonlinear absorption coefficient and third-order susceptibility were also estimated. The molecular geometry from X-ray experiment in the ground state has been compared using density functional theory (DFT) with appropriate basis set. The first-order hyperpolarizability also calculated using DFT approaches. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions leading to its nonlinear optical activity and charge delocalization were analyzed using natural bond orbital technique. HOMO-LUMO energy gap value suggests the possibility of charge transfer within the molecule. Based on optimized ground state geometries, Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was performed to study donor-acceptor interactions.

  8. Ortho- and para-hydrogen in dense clouds, protoplanets, and planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decampli, W. M.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Bodenheimer, P.; Black, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    If ortho- and para-hydrogen achieve a thermal ratio on dynamical time scales in a molecular hydrogen cloud, then the specific heat is high enough in the temperature range 35-70 K to possibly induce hydrodynamic collapse. The ortho-para ratio in many interstellar cloud fragments is expected to meet this condition. The same may have been true for the primitive solar nebula. Detailed hydrodynamic and hydrostatic calculations are presented that show the effects of the assumed ortho-para ratio on the evolution of Jupiter during its protoplanetary phase. Some possible consequences of a thermalized ortho-para ratio in the atmospheres of the giant planets are also discussed.

  9. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  10. Para-phenylenediamine allergy: current perspectives on diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Mukkanna, Krishna Sumanth; Stone, Natalie M; Ingram, John R

    2017-01-01

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the commonest and most well-known component of hair dyes. Oxidative hair dyes and dark henna temporary tattoos contain PPD. Individuals may be sensitized to PPD by temporary henna tattooing in addition to dyeing their hair. PPD allergy can cause severe reactions and may result in complications. In recent years, frequency of positive patch test reactions to PPD has been increasing. Cross-sensitization to other contact allergens may occur, in particular to other hair dye components. Hairdressers are at a high risk for PPD allergy and require counseling regarding techniques to minimize exposure and protective measures while handling hair dye. We focus this review on the current perspectives of diagnosis and management of PPD allergy. PMID:28176912

  11. Pneumatic protection applied to an airbag for para-gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raievski, V.; Valladas, G.

    1998-02-01

    We present a theory of pneumatic protection based on the laws of thermodynamics, elasticity and fluid mechanics. A general pneumatic protection system is made up of several communicating compartments, the differences in pressure of the compartments generating a transfer of mass and energy between them. The transfer offers interesting possibilities to improve the performance of the system. An example of this type of protection in aerial sport is the airbag for para-gliders, it is used in this paper to illustrate the theory. As the pressure in the airbag depends uniquely on its volume, the geometric model in the theory can be simplified. Experiments carried out with crash-test dummies equipped with sensors have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  12. Substrate mediated smooth growth of para-sexiphenyl on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelsema, Bene; Hlawacek, Gregor; Khokhar, Fawad S.; van Gastel, Raoul; Teichert, Christian

    2010-03-01

    We report on the layer-by-layer growthof lying para-sexiphenyl (6P) molecules on metal supported graphene flakes. The formation of multilayers has been monitored in situ by means of LEEM. μ-LEED has been used to reveal a bulk-like structure of the submonolayer, monolayer and multilayer regime. Graphene is a flexible, highly conductive and transparent electrode material, making it a promising technological substrate for organic semiconductors. 6P is a blue light emitting molecule with a high charge carrier mobility. The combination of an established deposition technique with the unique properties of organic semiconductors and graphene is an enabler for future flexible and cost efficient devices based on small conjugated molecules.

  13. Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Gas-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Louis-S.; Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar,M. Sabieh; Koptyug, Igor V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.; Pines, Alexander

    2007-02-23

    Herein, we demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inthe gas phase using para-hydrogen (p-H2)-induced polarization. A reactantmixture of H2 enriched in the paraspin state and propylene gas is flowedthrough a reactor cell containing a heterogenized catalyst, Wilkinson'scatalyst immobilized on modified silica gel. The hydrogenation product,propane gas, is transferred to the NMR magnet and is spin-polarized as aresult of the ALTADENA (adiabatic longitudinal transport and dissociationengenders net alignment) effect. A polarization enhancement factor of 300relative to thermally polarized gas was observed in 1D1H NMR spectra.Enhancement was also evident in the magnetic resonance images. This isthe first demonstration of imaging a hyperpolarized gaseous productformed in a hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by a supported catalyst.This result may lead to several important applications, includingflow-through porous materials, gas-phase reaction kinetics and adsorptionstudies, and MRI in low fields, all using catalyst-free polarizedfluids.

  14. Electron impact ionization dynamics of para-benzoquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. B.; Ali, E.; Ning, C. G.; Colgan, J.; Ingólfsson, O.; Madison, D. H.; Brunger, M. J.

    2016-10-01

    Triple differential cross sections (TDCSs) for the electron impact ionization of the unresolved combination of the 4 highest occupied molecular orbitals (4b3g, 5b2u, 1b1g, and 2b3u) of para-benzoquinone are reported. These were obtained in an asymmetric coplanar geometry with the scattered electron being observed at the angles -7.5°, -10.0°, -12.5° and -15.0°. The experimental cross sections are compared to theoretical calculations performed at the molecular 3-body distorted wave level, with a marginal level of agreement between them being found. The character of the ionized orbitals, through calculated momentum profiles, provides some qualitative interpretation for the measured angular distributions of the TDCS.

  15. ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-07-01

    Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

  16. Luttinger parameter of quasi-one-dimensional para -H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, G.; Gordillo, M. C.; Boronat, J.

    2017-02-01

    We have studied the ground-state properties of para-hydrogen in one dimension and in quasi-one-dimensional configurations using the path-integral ground-state Monte Carlo method. This method produces zero-temperature exact results for a given interaction and geometry. The quasi-one-dimensional setup has been implemented in two forms: the inner channel inside a carbon nanotube coated with H2 and a harmonic confinement of variable strength. Our main result is the dependence of the Luttinger parameter on the density within the stable regime. Going from one dimension to quasi-one dimension, keeping the linear density constant, produces a systematic increase of the Luttinger parameter. This increase is, however, not enough to reach the superfluid regime and the system always remain in the quasicrystal regime, according to Luttinger liquid theory.

  17. Sponges, Tubules and Modulated Phases of Para-Antinematic Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, J. B.; Galatola, P.

    1997-10-01

    We theoretically analyze the behavior of membranes presenting a nematic susceptibility, induced by the presence of anisotropic phospholipids having a quadrupolar nematic symmetry. This kind of anisotropic phospholipids is either naturally found in some biological membranes, or can be chemically tailored by linking pairs of single surfactants at the level of their polar heads, giving rise to so-called “gemini” surfactants. We predict that such membranes can acquire a non-zero paranematic order induced by the membrane curvature, which in turn produces curvature instabilities. We call the resulting paranematic order para-antinematic, since it is opposite on opposite sides of the membrane. We find phase transitions toward sponges (L3), tubules, or modulated “egg-carton” phases.

  18. Ortho-Para Mixing Hyperfine Interaction in the H2O+ Ion and Nuclear Spin Equilibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Oka, Takeshi

    2013-10-01

    The ortho to para conversion of water ion, H2O+, due to the interaction between the magnetic moments of the unpaired electron and protons has been theoretically studied to calculate the spontaneous emission lifetime between the ortho- and para-levels. The electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(Sa-Ib + Sb-Ia) mixes ortho (I = 1) and para (I = 0) levels to cause the -forbidden- ortho to para |-I| = 1 transition. The mixing term with Tab = 72.0 MHz is 4 orders of magnitude higher for H2O+ than for its neutral counterpart H2O where the magnetic field interacting with proton spins is by molecular rotation rather than the free electron. The resultant 108 increase of ortho to para conversion rate possibly makes the effect of conversion in H2O+ measurable in laboratories and possibly explains the anomalous ortho to para ratio recently reported by Herschel heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI) observation. Results of our calculations show that the ortho - para mixings involving near-degenerate ortho and para levels are high (-10-3), but they tend to occur at high energy levels, -300 K. Because of the rapid spontaneous emission, such high levels are not populated in diffuse clouds unless the radiative temperature of the environment is very high. The low-lying 101 (para) and 111 (ortho) levels of H2O+ are mixed by -10-4 making the spontaneous emission lifetime for the para 101 - ortho 000 transition 520 years and 5200 years depending on the F value of the hyperfine structure. Thus the ortho - para conversion due to the unpaired electron is not likely to seriously affect thermalization of interstellar H2O+ unless either the radiative temperature is very high or number density of the cloud is very low.

  19. The Ratio of Ortho- to Para-H2 in Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternberg, Amiel; Neufeld, David A.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 in photodissociation regions (PDRs). We draw attention to an apparent confusion in the literature between the ortho-to-para ratio of molecules in FUV-pumped vibrationally excited states and the total H2 ortho-to-para abundance ratio. These ratios are not the same because the process of FUV pumping of fluorescent H2 emission in PDRs occurs via optically thick absorption lines. Thus gas with an equilibrium ratio of ortho- to para-H2 equal to 3 will yield FUV-pumped vibrationally excited ortho-to-para ratios smaller than 3, because the ortho-H2 pumping rates are preferentially reduced by optical depth effects. Indeed, if the ortho and para pumping lines are on the "square root" part of the curve of growth, then the expected ratio of ortho and para vibrational line strengths is 3(sup 1/2) approximately 1.7, close to the typically observed value. Thus, contrary to what has sometimes been stated in the literature, most previous measurements of the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 in vibrationally excited states are entirely consistent with a total ortho-to-para ratio of 3, the equilibrium value for temperatures greater than 200 K. We present an analysis and several detailed models that illustrate the relationship between the total ratios of ortho- to para-H2 and the vibrationally excited ortho-to-para ratios in PDRs. Recent Infrared Space Observatory measurements of pure rotational and vibrational H2 emissions from the PDR in the star-forming region S140 provide strong observational support for our conclusions.

  20. The Ratio of Ortho- to Para-H2 in Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternberg, Amiel; Neufeld, David A.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 in photodissociation regions (PDRs). We draw attention to an apparent confusion in the literature between the ortho-to-para ratio of molecules in FUV-pumped vibrationally excited states and the total H2 ortho-to-para abundance ratio. These ratios are not the same because the process of FUV pumping of fluorescent H2 emission in PDRs occurs via optically thick absorption lines. Thus gas with an equilibrium ratio of ortho- to para-H2 equal to 3 will yield FUV-pumped vibrationally excited ortho-to-para ratios smaller than 3, because the ortho-H2 pumping rates are preferentially reduced by optical depth effects. Indeed, if the ortho and para pumping lines are on the "square root" part of the curve of growth, then the expected ratio of ortho and para vibrational line strengths is 3(sup 1/2) approximately 1.7, close to the typically observed value. Thus, contrary to what has sometimes been stated in the literature, most previous measurements of the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 in vibrationally excited states are entirely consistent with a total ortho-to-para ratio of 3, the equilibrium value for temperatures greater than 200 K. We present an analysis and several detailed models that illustrate the relationship between the total ratios of ortho- to para-H2 and the vibrationally excited ortho-to-para ratios in PDRs. Recent Infrared Space Observatory measurements of pure rotational and vibrational H2 emissions from the PDR in the star-forming region S140 provide strong observational support for our conclusions.

  1. Ortho-para mixing hyperfine interaction in the H2O+ ion and nuclear spin equilibration.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Oka, Takeshi

    2013-10-03

    The ortho to para conversion of water ion, H2O(+), due to the interaction between the magnetic moments of the unpaired electron and protons has been theoretically studied to calculate the spontaneous emission lifetime between the ortho- and para-levels. The electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(SaΔIb + SbΔIa) mixes ortho (I = 1) and para (I = 0) levels to cause the "forbidden" ortho to para |ΔI| = 1 transition. The mixing term with Tab = 72.0 MHz is 4 orders of magnitude higher for H2O(+) than for its neutral counterpart H2O where the magnetic field interacting with proton spins is by molecular rotation rather than the free electron. The resultant 10(8) increase of ortho to para conversion rate possibly makes the effect of conversion in H2O(+) measurable in laboratories and possibly explains the anomalous ortho to para ratio recently reported by Herschel heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI) observation. Results of our calculations show that the ortho ↔ para mixings involving near-degenerate ortho and para levels are high (∼10(-3)), but they tend to occur at high energy levels, ∼300 K. Because of the rapid spontaneous emission, such high levels are not populated in diffuse clouds unless the radiative temperature of the environment is very high. The low-lying 101 (para) and 111 (ortho) levels of H2O(+) are mixed by ∼10(-4) making the spontaneous emission lifetime for the para 101 → ortho 000 transition 520 years and 5200 years depending on the F value of the hyperfine structure. Thus the ortho ↔ para conversion due to the unpaired electron is not likely to seriously affect thermalization of interstellar H2O(+) unless either the radiative temperature is very high or number density of the cloud is very low.

  2. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  3. Guía para la evaluación del riesgo de los polinizadores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La Guía para la evaluación del riesgo de los polinizadores de la EPA es parte de una estrategia de la evaluación de los riesgos que presentan los pesticidas para las abejas a fin de mejorar la protección de los polinizadores.

  4. Rate of para-aortic lymph node micrometastasis in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zand, Behrouz; Euscher, Elizabeth D.; Soliman, Pamela T.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Coleman, Robert L.; Frumovitz, Michael; Jhingran, Anuja; Ramondetta, Lois M.; Ramirez, Pedro T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with micrometastasis to para-aortic lymph nodes may benefit from extended field chemoradiation. To determine the rate of para-aortic node micrometastasis in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer undergoing laparoscopic extraperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy Methods We prospectively identified consecutive patients diagnosed with stage IB2-IVA biopsy-proven cervical cancer. Eligible patients included those who were candidates for treatment with radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy and had no evidence of para-aortic lymphadenopathy (all lymph nodes < 2 cm in diameter) by preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography and laparoscopic extraperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy. All lymph nodes were assessed for metastasis by routine hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. Ultrastaging (serial sectioning) and immunohistochemical analysis were performed in H&E-negative specimens. Results Thirteen (22%) of 60 consecutive patients had para-aortic lymph node metastases detected on routine H&E staining. Of the remaining 47 patients, one (2.1%) had evidence of micrometastasis, which was detected by ultrastaging. This patient completed whole pelvic radiotherapy and chemotherapy but had a recurrence 27 months after completion of therapy. Conclusions The rate of para-aortic node micrometastasis in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer is low. The role of routine ultrastaging and immunohistochemical analysis in such patients remains uncertain. Future studies are needed to determine the clinical impact of para-aortic node micrometastasis in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. PMID:20837355

  5. The parA resolvase performs site-specific genomic excision in Arabidopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have designed a site-specific excision detection system in Arabidopsis to study the in planta activity of the small serine recombinase ParA. Using a transient expression assay as well as stable transgenic plant lines, we show that the ParA recombinase is catalytically active and capable of perfo...

  6. Norma para la Certificación de Aplicadores de Plaguicidas Revisada

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA emitió una propuesta para la revisión de la norma para la Certificación de Aplicadores de Plaguicidas. La norma ayudará a mantener nuestras comunidades seguras, salvaguardar el medio ambiente y reducir el riesgo a los que aplican los plaguicidas.

  7. Overproduction and localization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParA and ParB proteins

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Erin; Madiraju, Murty; Rajagopalan, Malini

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The ParA and ParB family proteins are required for accurate partitioning of replicated chromosomes. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome contains parB, parA and two parA homologs, Rv1708 and Rv3213c. It is unknown if parA and its homologs are functionally related. To understand the roles of ParA and ParB proteins in M. tuberculosis cell cycle, we have evaluated the consequences of their overproduction and visualized their localization patterns in M. smegmatis. We show that cells overproducing of ParA, Rv1708 and Rv3213c and ParB are filamentous and multinucleoidal indicating defects in cell cycle progression. Visualization of green-fluorescent protein fusions of ParA and its homologues showed similar localization patterns with foci at poles, quarter-cell, midcell positions and spiral-like structures indicating that they are functionally related. On the other hand, the ParBGFP fusion protein localized only to the cell poles. The cyan and yellow fluorescent fusion proteins of ParA and ParB, respectively, colocalized at the cell poles indicating that these proteins interact and possibly associate with the chromosomal origin of replication. Collectively our results suggest that the M. tuberculosis Par proteins play important roles in cell cycle progression. PMID:20006309

  8. Protection of weanling hamsters from experimental infection with wild-type parainfluenza virus type 3 (para 3) by cold-adapted mutants of para 3.

    PubMed

    Crookshanks-Newman, F K; Belshe, R B

    1986-02-01

    Parainfluenza virus type 3 (para 3) was adapted to replicate at 20 degrees C, a nonpermissive temperature for wild-type (wt) para 3. Serial passage at 20 degrees C resulted in the generation of cold-adapted (ca) and temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants. These mutant viruses have been characterized both in vitro and in vivo [Belshe and Hissom (1982): Journal of Medical Virology 10:235-242; Crookshanks and Belshe (1984): Journal of Medical Virology 13:243-249]. We now report the evaluation of three mutants (clone 1150, passaged 12 times in the cold [cp12], clone 1146, passaged 18 times in the cold [cp18], and clone 1328, passaged 45 times in the cold [cp45]) for their ability to protect hamsters from infection by wild-type para 3. Ether-anesthetized male syrian hamsters were intranasally vaccinated with either wt para 3 (clone 127) or one of the ca para 3 mutants and on day 28 post-vaccination; each animal was intranasally challenged with 10(5.0) pfu of wt para 3. On days 1, 2, 3, and 4 post-challenge, 4 to 13 hamsters from each group were sacrificed, and the quantity of para 3 in the nasal turbinates and lungs was determined. Wt virus induced protection from challenge. cp12, cp18, and cp45 reduced the peak titer of wt replication in the lungs by greater than 100-fold, tenfold, and tenfold, respectively. The duration of virus replication was shortened also by intranasal vaccination with the mutants. These data give evidence of an inverse relationship between the degree of protection induced by vaccination with cold-adapted mutants and the number of passages of the virus in the cold.

  9. DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J I

    2011-01-25

    The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of production release 10.1 in September 2010. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark in the corresponding column. The definition of ''feature'' has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds, compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

  10. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; ...

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonylmore » PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.« less

  11. Evidence for para dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls by methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, D.; Quensen, J.F.; Tiedje, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    When microorganisms eluted from upper Hudson River sediment were cultured without any substrate except polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-free Hudson River sediment, methane formation was the terminal step of the anaerobic food chain. In sediments containing Aroclor 1242, addition of eubacterium-inhibiting antibiotics, which should have directly inhibited fermentative bacteria and thereby should have indirectly inhibited methanogens, resulted in no dechlorination activity or methane production. However, when substrates for methanogenic bacteria were provided along with the antibiotics (to free the methanogens from dependence on eubacteria), concomitant methane production and dechlorination of PCBs were observed. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 was from the para positions, a pattern distinctly different from, and more limited than, the pattern observed with untreated or pasteurized inocula. Both methane production and dechlorination in cultures amended with antibiotics plus methanogenic substrates were inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. These results suggest that the methanogenic bacteria are among the physiological groups capable of anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs, but that the dechlorination observed with methanogenic bacteria is less extensive than the dechlorination observed with more complex anaerobic consortia. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry I.

    2016-09-01

    The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of preliminary release 16.1 in September 2016. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark (√) in the corresponding column. The definition of “feature” has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors, except problems involving features only available in serial mode. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds; compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

  13. Para-hydrogen induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions

    SciTech Connect

    Koptyug, Igor V.; Kovtunov, Kirill; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar, M.Sabieh; Hilty, Christian; Han, Song-I; Pines, Alexander; Sagdeev, Renad Z.

    2007-01-31

    We demonstrate the creation and observation ofpara-hydrogen-induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions. Wilkinson's catalyst, RhCl(PPh3)3, supported on eithermodified silica gel or a polymer, is shown to hydrogenate styrene intoethylbenzene and to produce enhanced spin polarizations, observed throughNMR, when the reaction was performed with H2 gas enriched in the paraspinisomer. Furthermore, gaseous phase para-hydrogenation of propylene topropane with two catalysts, the Wilkinson's catalyst supported onmodified silica gel and Rh(cod)(sulfos) (cod = cycloocta-1,5-diene;sulfos) - O3S(C6H4)CH2C(CH2PPh2)3) supported on silica gel, demonstratesheterogeneous catalytic conversion resulting in large spin polarizations.These experiments serve as a direct verification of the mechanism ofheterogeneous hydrogenation reactions involving immobilized metalcomplexes and can be potentially developed into a practical tool forproducing catalyst-free fluids with highly polarized nuclear spins for abroad range of hyperpolarized NMR and MRI applications.

  14. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1999-05-25

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  15. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  16. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  17. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases. These enzymes exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  18. Females prefer carotenoid colored males as mates in the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Godfrey R; Breden, Felix; Allen, Teresa C

    2003-09-01

    The first results of female preference and chosen male mating success in a new model organism, the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae, are presented. Poecilia parae is a relative of the guppy, P. reticulata, and is assumed to have similar reproductive behavior. We tested the hypothesis that P. parae females, like female guppies, prefer carotenoid colored males as mates. Here we show that the time a female spent with males was significantly greater for carotenoid coloration in red and yellow melanzona, but time with these two morphs did not differ. The preferred red and yellow males mated significantly more often with their choosing females than did the non-preferred blue and parae males. The few blue melanzona and parae males that mated did so without performing courtship displays. Some females mated with all phenotypes including immaculata males during open group trials. Female P. parae clearly preferred males with carotenoid coloration, thereby corroborating the hypothesis. Alternative male mating tactics by blue melanzona, parae, and immaculata morphs and promiscuous mating by females also resembled features of reproductive behaviors exhibited by guppies.

  19. Quantum fluctuations increase the self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen in narrow carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Gauden, Piotr A; Terzyk, Artur P; Furmaniak, Sylwester

    2011-05-28

    Quantum fluctuations significantly increase the self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen adsorbed in narrow carbon nanotubes at 30 K comparing to its classical counterpart. Rigorous Feynman's path integral calculations reveal that self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube at 30 K and pore densities below ∼29 mmol cm(-3) is one order of magnitude faster than the classical counterpart. We find that the zero-point energy and tunneling significantly smoothed out the free energy landscape of para-hydrogen molecules adsorbed in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube. This promotes a delocalization of the confined para-hydrogen at 30 K (i.e., population of unclassical paths due to quantum effects). Contrary the self-diffusive motion of classical para-hydrogen molecules in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube at 30 K is very slow. This is because classical para-hydrogen molecules undergo highly correlated movement when their collision diameter approached the carbon nanotube size (i.e., anomalous diffusion in quasi-one dimensional pores). On the basis of current results we predict that narrow single-walled carbon nanotubes are promising nanoporous molecular sieves being able to separate para-hydrogen molecules from mixtures of classical particles at cryogenic temperatures.

  20. Contextual Factors that Foster or Inhibit Para-Teacher Professional Development: The Case of an Indian, Non-Governmental Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

    2012-01-01

    The appointment of para-professionals to overcome skill shortages and/or make efficient use of expensive resources is well established in both developing and developed countries. The present research concerns para-teachers in India. The literature on para-teachers is dominated by training for special needs settings, largely in developed societies.…

  1. Irradiation of Pelvic and Para-Aortic Nodes in Carcinoma of the Cervix.

    PubMed

    Rotman; Aziz; Eifel

    1994-01-01

    Extended-field irradiation offers a significant chance of cure for patients with para-aortic node metastases if pelvic disease can be controlled. Prognosis is best for patients with microscopic para-aortic disease or with a single enlarged node. Complications of extended-field irradiation can be minimized with careful radiation therapy technique that uses multiple fields and high-energy beams of 18 MV or greater and by avoiding transperitoneal surgical staging. Although the role of prophylactic para-aortic irradiation is still being defined, randomized trials suggest that extended fields do benefit some patients with locoregionally advanced disease.

  2. Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Para-Anastomotic Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Sfyroeras, Giorgos S.; Lioupis, Christos Bessias, Nikolaos; Maras, Dimitris; Pomoni, Maria; Andrikopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-07-15

    We report a case of a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm treated with implantation of a bifurcated stent-graft. A 72-year-old patient, who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease 16 years ago, presented with a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent-graft was successfully deployed into the old bifurcated graft. This is the first report of a bifurcated stent-graft being placed through an 'end-to-side' anastomosed old aortobifemoral graft. Endovascular treatment of ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysms can be accomplished successfully, avoiding open surgery which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

  3. Measurement of the formaldehyde ortho to para ratio in three molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahane, C.; Lucas, R.; Frerking, M. A.; Langer, W. D.; Encrenaz, P.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of ortho and para H2CO in two types of clouds, a warm cloud (Orion A) and two cold clouds (L183 and TMC1), are presented. The ortho to para ratio in Orion deduced from the H2(C-13)O data is about three, while that for TMC1 is about one and that for L183 is 1-2. The former value is in agreement with the value calculated from chemical models of ortho and para H2CO production. The values for the cold clouds are consistent with thermal equilibrium at a temperature slightly smaller than 10 K.

  4. All the three ParaHox genes are present in Nuttallochiton mirandus (Mollusca: polyplacophora): evolutionary considerations.

    PubMed

    Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria A; Olmo, Ettore; Canapa, Adriana

    2006-03-15

    The ParaHox gene cluster contains three homeobox genes, Gsx, Xlox and Cdx and has been demonstrated to be an evolutionary sister of the Hox gene cluster. Among deuterostomes the three genes are found in the majority of taxa, whereas among protostomes they have so far been isolated only in the phylum Sipuncula. We report the partial sequences of all three ParaHox genes in the polyplacophoran Nuttallochiton mirandus, the first species of the phylum Mollusca where all ParaHox genes have been isolated. This finding has phylogenetic implications for the phylum Mollusca and for its relationships with the other lophotrochozoan taxa.

  5. Measurement of the formaldehyde ortho to para ratio in three molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahane, C.; Lucas, R.; Frerking, M. A.; Langer, W. D.; Encrenaz, P.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of ortho and para H2CO in two types of clouds, a warm cloud (Orion A) and two cold clouds (L183 and TMC1), are presented. The ortho to para ratio in Orion deduced from the H2(C-13)O data is about three, while that for TMC1 is about one and that for L183 is 1-2. The former value is in agreement with the value calculated from chemical models of ortho and para H2CO production. The values for the cold clouds are consistent with thermal equilibrium at a temperature slightly smaller than 10 K.

  6. Time is of the essence for ParaHox homeobox gene clustering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ParaHox genes, and their evolutionary sisters the Hox genes, are integral to patterning the anterior-posterior axis of most animals. Like the Hox genes, ParaHox genes can be clustered and exhibit the phenomenon of colinearity - gene order within the cluster matching gene activation. Two new instances of ParaHox clustering provide the first examples of intact clusters outside chordates, with gene expression lending weight to the argument that temporal colinearity is the key to understanding clustering. See research articles: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/11/68 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/13/129 PMID:23803337

  7. Blood transfusion in the para-Bombay phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lin-Chu, M; Broadberry, R E

    1990-08-01

    The H-deficient phenotypes found in Chinese so far, have all been secretors of soluble blood group substances in saliva. The corresponding isoagglutinin activity (e.g. anti-B in OB(Hm) persons) has been found to be weak in all cases. To determine the clinical significance of these weak isoagglutinins 51Cr red cell survival tests were performed on three OB(Hm) individuals transfused with small volumes (4 ml) of groups B and O RBC. Rapid destruction of most of the RBC occurred whether or not the isoagglutinins of the OB(Hm) individuals were indirect antiglobulin test (IAGT) reactive. When a larger volume (54 ml packed RBC) of group B cells (weakly incompatible by IAGT) was transfused to another OB(Hm) individual with IAGT active anti-HI, the survival of the transfused RBC was 93% at 24 h, with 30% of the RBC remaining in the circulation at 28 d in contrast to 76% as would be expected if the survival was normal. Therefore when whole units of blood of normal ABO blood groups, compatible by IAGT, are transfused, the survival is expected to be almost normal. These weak isoagglutinins may not be very clinically significant and we suggest that when para-Bombay blood is not available, the compatibility testing for OA(Hm) persons should be performed with group A and group O packed RBC; OB(Hm) with group B and group O packed RBC: OAB(Hm) with groups A, B, AB and O packed RBC. For cross matching, the indirect antiglobulin test by a prewarmed technique should be used.

  8. Management of large para-esophageal hiatal hernias.

    PubMed

    Collet, D; Luc, G; Chiche, L

    2013-12-01

    Para-esophageal hernias are relatively rare and typically occur in elderly patients. The various presenting symptoms are non-specific and often occur in combination. These include symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD) in 26 to 70% of cases, microcytic anemia in 17 to 47%, and respiratory symptoms in 9 to 59%. Respiratory symptoms are not completely resolved by surgical intervention. Acute complications such as gastric volvulus with incarceration or strangulation are rare (estimated incidence of 1.2% per patient per year) but gastric ischemia leading to perforation is the main cause of mortality. Only patients with symptomatic hernias should undergo surgery. Prophylactic repair to prevent acute incarceration should only be undertaken in patients younger than 75 in good condition; surgical indications must be discussed individually beyond this age. The laparoscopic approach is now generally accepted. Resection of the hernia sac is associated with a lower incidence of recurrence. Repair of the hiatus can be reinforced with prosthetic material (either synthetic or biologic), but the benefit of prosthetic repair has not been clearly shown. Results of prosthetic reinforcement vary in different studies; it has been variably associated with four times fewer recurrences or with no measurable difference. A Collis type gastroplasty may be useful to lengthen a foreshortened esophagus, but no objective criteria have been defined to support this approach. The anatomic recurrence rate can be as high as 60% at 12years. But most recurrences are asymptomatic and do not affect the quality of life index. It therefore seems more appropriate to evaluate functional results and quality of life measures rather than to gauge success by a strict evaluation of anatomic hernia reduction.

  9. Cold-plasma assisted hydrophobisation of cellulose fibres with styrene and para-halogenated homologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaiolas, C.; Costa, A. P.; Santos Silva, M. J.; Belgacem, M. N.

    2012-07-01

    Cold-plasma-assisted treatment of additive-free hand sheet paper samples with styrene (ST), para-fluorostyrene (FST), para-fluoro-α-methylstyrene (FMST) and para-chloro-α-methylstyrene (ClMST) and para-bromostyrene (BrST) was studied and found that the grafting has occurred efficiently, as established by contact angle measurement. Thus, after solvent extraction of the modified substrates, in order to remove unbounded grafts, the contact angle value of a drop of water deposited at the surface of paper increased from 40° for unmodified substrate to 102, 99, 116, 100 and 107°, for ST-, FST- FMST-, ClMST- and BrST-treated samples, respectively, indicating that the surface has became totally hydrophobic. In fact, the polar component of the surface energy of treated samples decreased from 25 mJ/m2 to practically zero, indicating that treated surfaces were rendered totally non polar.

  10. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  11. Genomic organisation of the seven ParaHox genes of coelacanths.

    PubMed

    Mulley, John F; Holland, Peter W H

    2014-09-01

    Human and mouse genomes contain six ParaHox genes implicated in gut and neural patterning. In coelacanths and cartilaginous fish, an additional ParaHox gene exists-Pdx2-that dates back to the genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. Here we examine the genomic arrangement and flanking genes of all ParaHox genes in coelacanths, to determine the full complement of these genes. We find that coelacanths have seven ParaHox genes in total, in four chromosomal locations, revealing that five gene losses occurred soon after vertebrate genome duplication. Comparison of intergenic sequences reveals that some Pdx1 regulatory regions associated with development of pancreatic islets are older than tetrapods, that Pdx1 and Pdx2 share few if any conserved non-coding elements, and that there is very high sequence conservation between coelacanth species.

  12. Lampreys, the jawless vertebrates, contain only two ParaHox gene clusters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huixian; Ravi, Vydianathan; Tay, Boon-Hui; Tohari, Sumanty; Pillai, Nisha E; Prasad, Aravind; Lin, Qiang; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2017-08-22

    ParaHox genes (Gsx, Pdx, and Cdx) are an ancient family of developmental genes closely related to the Hox genes. They play critical roles in the patterning of brain and gut. The basal chordate, amphioxus, contains a single ParaHox cluster comprising one member of each family, whereas nonteleost jawed vertebrates contain four ParaHox genomic loci with six or seven ParaHox genes. Teleosts, which have experienced an additional whole-genome duplication, contain six ParaHox genomic loci with six ParaHox genes. Jawless vertebrates, represented by lampreys and hagfish, are the most ancient group of vertebrates and are crucial for understanding the origin and evolution of vertebrate gene families. We have previously shown that lampreys contain six Hox gene loci. Here we report that lampreys contain only two ParaHox gene clusters (designated as α- and β-clusters) bearing five ParaHox genes (Gsxα, Pdxα, Cdxα, Gsxβ, and Cdxβ). The order and orientation of the three genes in the α-cluster are identical to that of the single cluster in amphioxus. However, the orientation of Gsxβ in the β-cluster is inverted. Interestingly, Gsxβ is expressed in the eye, unlike its homologs in jawed vertebrates, which are expressed mainly in the brain. The lamprey Pdxα is expressed in the pancreas similar to jawed vertebrate Pdx genes, indicating that the pancreatic expression of Pdx was acquired before the divergence of jawless and jawed vertebrate lineages. It is likely that the lamprey Pdxα plays a crucial role in pancreas specification and insulin production similar to the Pdx of jawed vertebrates.

  13. Spanish Coastal Patrol Ships for Argentina and Mexico (Guardacostas Espanoles para Argentina y Mejico),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-22

    IN TRANS ATION ~TITLE: .SPANISH COASTAL PATROL SHIPS FOR ARGENTINA AND MEXICO GUARDACOSTAS EFPANOLES PARA ARGENTINA Y MEJICO AUTHOR: M; RAMIREZ...SHIPS FOR ARGENTINA AND MEXICO [Ramirez Gabarrus, M.; Guardacostas espaioles para Argentina y Mejico; Tecnologia Militar, No. 4, 1983; pP. 50, 53-54... Mexico , Mr. Alvarez de Vayo, signed a contract with the Mexican War Minister, General Cardenas, to build a series of 10 coastal patrol boats and five

  14. Chordate Hox and ParaHox gene clusters differ dramatically in their repetitive element content.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Peter W; Ferrier, David E K

    2010-02-01

    The ParaHox and Hox gene clusters control aspects of animal anterior-posterior development and are related as paralogous evolutionary sisters. Despite this relationship, it is not clear if the clusters operate in similar ways, with similar constraints. To compare clusters, we examined the transposable-element (TE) content of amphioxus and mammalian ParaHox and Hox clusters. Chordate Hox clusters are known to be largely devoid of TEs, possibly due to gene regulation and constraints on clustering in these animals. Here, we describe several novel amphioxus TEs and show that the amphioxus ParaHox cluster is a hotspot for TE insertion. TE contents of mammalian ParaHox loci are at background levels, in stark contrast to chordate Hox clusters. This marks a significant difference between Hox and ParaHox clusters. The presence of so many potentially disruptive elements implies selection constrains these ParaHox clusters as they have not dispersed despite 500 My of evolution for each lineage.

  15. para-C-H Borylation of Benzene Derivatives by a Bulky Iridium Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yutaro; Segawa, Yasutomo; Itami, Kenichiro

    2015-04-22

    A highly para-selective aromatic C-H borylation has been accomplished. By a new iridium catalyst bearing a bulky diphosphine ligand, Xyl-MeO-BIPHEP, the C-H borylation of monosubstituted benzenes can be affected with para-selectivity up to 91%. This catalytic system is quite different from the usual iridium catalysts that cannot distinguish meta- and para-C-H bonds of monosubstituted benzene derivatives, resulting in the preferred formation of meta-products. The para-selectivity increases with increasing bulkiness of the substituent on the arene, indicating that the regioselectivity of the present reaction is primarily controlled by steric repulsion between substrate and catalyst. Caramiphen, an anticholinergic drug used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, was converted into five derivatives via our para-selective borylation. The present [Ir(cod)OH]2/Xyl-MeO-BIPHEP catalyst represents a unique, sterically controlled, para-selective, aromatic C-H borylation system that should find use in streamlined, predictable chemical synthesis and in the rapid discovery and optimization of pharmaceuticals and materials.

  16. Diffusion Monte Carlo Study of Para-Diiodobenzene Polymorphism Revisited.

    PubMed

    Hongo, Kenta; Watson, Mark A; Iitaka, Toshiaki; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Maezono, Ryo

    2015-03-10

    We revisit our investigation of the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) simulation of para-diiodobenzene (p-DIB) molecular crystal polymorphism. [See J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1789-1794.] We perform, for the first time, a rigorous study of finite-size effects and choice of nodal surface on the prediction of polymorph stability in molecular crystals using fixed-node DMC. Our calculations are the largest that are currently feasible using the resources of the K-computer and provide insights into the formidable challenge of predicting such properties from first principles. In particular, we show that finite-size effects can influence the trial nodal surface of a small (1 × 1 × 1) simulation cell considerably. Therefore, we repeated our DMC simulations with a 1 × 3 × 3 simulation cell, which is the largest such calculation to date. We used a density functional theory (DFT) nodal surface generated with the PBE functional, and we accumulated statistical samples with ∼6.4 × 10(5) core hours for each polymorph. Our final results predict a polymorph stability that is consistent with experiment, but they also indicate that the results in our previous paper were somewhat fortuitous. We analyze the finite-size errors using model periodic Coulomb (MPC) interactions and kinetic energy corrections, according to the CCMH scheme of Chiesa, Ceperley, Martin, and Holzmann. We investigate the dependence of the finite-size errors on different aspect ratios of the simulation cell (k-mesh convergence) in order to understand how to choose an appropriate ratio for the DMC calculations. Even in the most expensive simulations currently possible, we show that the finite size errors in the DMC total energies are much larger than the energy difference between the two polymorphs, although error cancellation means that the polymorph prediction is accurate. Finally, we found that the T-move scheme is essential for these massive DMC simulations in order to circumvent population explosions and

  17. The PARA-suite: PAR-CLIP specific sequence read simulation and processing

    PubMed Central

    Kloetgen, Andreas; Borkhardt, Arndt; Hoell, Jessica I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Next-generation sequencing technologies have profoundly impacted biology over recent years. Experimental protocols, such as photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP), which identifies protein–RNA interactions on a genome-wide scale, commonly employ deep sequencing. With PAR-CLIP, the incorporation of photoactivatable nucleosides into nascent transcripts leads to high rates of specific nucleotide conversions during reverse transcription. So far, the specific properties of PAR-CLIP-derived sequencing reads have not been assessed in depth. Methods We here compared PAR-CLIP sequencing reads to regular transcriptome sequencing reads (RNA-Seq) to identify distinctive properties that are relevant for reference-based read alignment of PAR-CLIP datasets. We developed a set of freely available tools for PAR-CLIP data analysis, called the PAR-CLIP analyzer suite (PARA-suite). The PARA-suite includes error model inference, PAR-CLIP read simulation based on PAR-CLIP specific properties, a full read alignment pipeline with a modified Burrows–Wheeler Aligner algorithm and CLIP read clustering for binding site detection. Results We show that differences in the error profiles of PAR-CLIP reads relative to regular transcriptome sequencing reads (RNA-Seq) make a distinct processing advantageous. We examine the alignment accuracy of commonly applied read aligners on 10 simulated PAR-CLIP datasets using different parameter settings and identified the most accurate setup among those read aligners. We demonstrate the performance of the PARA-suite in conjunction with different binding site detection algorithms on several real PAR-CLIP and HITS-CLIP datasets. Our processing pipeline allowed the improvement of both alignment and binding site detection accuracy. Availability The PARA-suite toolkit and the PARA-suite aligner are available at https://github.com/akloetgen/PARA-suite and https://github.com/akloetgen/PARA

  18. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of dru...

  19. Slip maxima at fault junctions and rupturing of barriers during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shen, Z.-K.; Sun, Jielun; Zhang, P.; Wan, Y.; Wang, M.; Burgmann, R.; Zeng, Y.; Gan, Weijun; Liao, H.; Wang, Q.

    2009-01-01

    The disastrous 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China took the local population as well as scientists by surprise. Although the Longmen Shan fault zonewhich includes the fault segments along which this earthquake nucleatedwas well known, geologic and geodetic data indicate relatively low (<3 mm yr -1) deformation rates. Here we invert Global Positioning System and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar data to infer fault geometry and slip distribution associated with the earthquake. Our analysis shows that the geometry of the fault changes along its length: in the southwest, the fault plane dips moderately to the northwest but becomes nearly vertical in the northeast. Associated with this is a change in the motion along the fault from predominantly thrusting to strike-slip. Peak slip along the fault occurs at the intersections of fault segments located near the towns of Yingxiu, Beichuan and Nanba, where fatalities and damage were concentrated. We suggest that these locations represent barriers that failed in a single event, enabling the rupture to cascade through several fault segments and cause a major moment magnitude (Mw) 7.9 earthquake. Using coseismic slip distribution and geodetic and geological slip rates, we estimate that the failure of barriers and rupture along multiple segments takes place approximately once in 4,000 years. ?? 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Enthalpy and entropy contributions to the solubility of sulphamethoxypyridazine in solvent mixtures showing two solubility maxima.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, P; Escalera, B

    1995-07-01

    The solubility of sulphamethoxypyridazine was measured at several temperatures in mixtures of water:ethanol and ethanol:ethyl acetate. Sulphamethoxypyridazine was chosen as a model drug to compare the solvation effects of proton donor-proton acceptor (water and ethanol) and proton acceptor (ethyl acetate) solvents and mixtures of these solvents because this drug contains functional groups capable of Lewis acid-base interaction. A plot of the mole fraction solubility against the solubility parameter (delta 1 = 30.87 MPa1/2 (20:80 v/v water:ethanol) and another at delta 1 = 20.88 MPa1/2 (30:70 v/v ethanol:ethyl acetate) at all the temperatures under study. The enthalpies and entropies of mixing as well as the enthalpies and entropies of transfer of sulphamethoxypyridazine from ethanol of mixing as well as the enthalpies and entropies of transfer of sulphamethoxypyridazine from ethanol to water:ethanol and ethanol:ethyl acetate mixtures were calculated to compare solvation characteristics of the solvent mixtures toward the drug. As ethanol is added to water, the entropy increases and the structure of the solvent mixture became less ordered, favouring the interaction of the drug with the solvent mixture. On the other hand, in the case of the ethanol:ethyl acetate mixture, solubility is favoured by the more negative enthalpy values. This way, the same result, i.e. a solubility maximum, is obtained by different routes. In the ethanol:water mixtures, the dissolution process if entropy-controlled while enthalpy is the driving force in the case of ethanol:ethyl acetate mixtures. The two solvent systems show enthalpy-entropy compensation. Water deviates from the linear relationship due possibly to its hydrophobic effect.