Science.gov

Sample records for elevated metals compromise

  1. Bioavailable transition metals in particulate matter mediate cardiopulmonary injury in healthy and compromised animal models.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, D L; Dreher, K L

    1997-01-01

    Many epidemiologic reports associate ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) with human mortality and morbidity, particularly in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary disease (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, infection, asthma). Because much ambient PM is derived from combustion sources, we tested the hypothesis that the health effects of PM arise from anthropogenic PM that contains bioavailable transition metals. The PM samples studied derived from three emission sources (two oil and one coal fly ash) and four ambient airsheds (St. Louis, MO; Washington; Dusseldorf, Germany; and Ottawa, Canada). PM was administered to rats by intratracheal instillation in equimass or equimetal doses to address directly the influence of PM mass versus metal content on acute lung injury and inflammation. Our results indicated that the lung dose of bioavailable transition metal, not instilled PM mass, was the primary determinant of the acute inflammatory response for both the combustion source and ambient PM samples. Residual oil fly ash, a combustion PM rich in bioavailable metal, was evaluated in a rat model of cardiopulmonary disease (pulmonary vasculitis/hypertension) to ascertain whether the disease state augmented sensitivity to that PM. Significant mortality and enhanced airway responsiveness were observed. Analysis of the lavaged lung fluids suggested that the milieu of the inflamed lung amplified metal-mediated oxidant chemistry to jeopardize the compromised cardiopulmonary system. We propose that soluble metals from PM mediate the array of PM-associated injuries to the cardiopulmonary system of the healthy and at-risk compromised host. PMID:9400700

  2. Elevated-Temperature Tribology of Metallic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2010-01-01

    The wear of metals and alloys takes place in many forms, and the type of wear that dominates in each instance is influenced by the mechanics of contact, material properties, the interfacial temperature, and the surrounding environment. The control of elevated-temperature friction and wear is important for applications like internal combustion engines, aerospace propulsion systems, and metalworking equipment. The progression of interacting, often synergistic processes produces surface deformation, subsurface damage accumulation, the formation of tribolayers, and the creation of free particles. Reaction products, particularly oxides, play a primary role in debris formation and microstructural evolution. Chemical reactions are known to be influenced by the energetic state of the exposed surfaces, and that surface energy is in turn affected by localized deformation and fracture. At relatively low temperatures, work-hardening can occur beneath tribo-contacts, but exposure to high temperatures can modify the resultant defect density and grain structure to affect the mechanisms of re-oxidation. As research by others has shown, the rate of wear at elevated temperatures can either be enhanced or reduced, depending on contact conditions and nature of oxide layer formation. Furthermore, the thermodynamic driving force for certain chemical reactions is moderated by kinetics and microstructure. The role of deformation, oxidation, and tribo-corrosion in the elevated temperature tribology of metallic alloys will be exemplified by three examples involving sliding wear, single-point abrasion, and repetitive impact plus slip.

  3. Elevated serum zinc levels in metal fume fever

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, N.E.; Ruthman, J.C.

    1988-11-01

    Metal fume fever is not an uncommon syndrome among welders following exposure to oxidized metal fumes (usually zinc). The relationship of serum zinc level to the acute phase of this illness is not known. Two cases of metal fume fever, associated with elevated serum zinc levels, are presented. Further studies are necessary to determine the diagnostic usefulness of serum zinc levels in metal fume fever.

  4. Detail of metal canopy on south elevation of loading dock, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of metal canopy on south elevation of loading dock, looking west toward two story section of Railway Express Building - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  5. Detail of metal canopy on north elevation of loading dock, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of metal canopy on north elevation of loading dock, looking west - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  6. Detail of metal canopy on west elevation of Railway Express ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of metal canopy on west elevation of Railway Express Building, facing east - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  7. Elevated temperature fatigue testing of metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschberg, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    The major technology areas needed to perform a life prediction of an aircraft turbine engine hot section component are discussed and the steps required for life prediction are outlined. These include the determination of the operating environment, the calculation of the thermal and mechanical loading of the component, the cyclic stress-strain and creep behavior of the material required for structural analysis, and the structural analysis to determine the local stress-strain-temperature-time response of the material at the critical location in the components. From a knowledge of the fatigue, creep, and failure resistance of the material, a prediction of the life of the component is made. Material characterization and evaluation conducted for the purpose of calculating fatigue crack initiation lives of components operating at elevated temperatures are emphasized.

  8. EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER AIR POLLUTION ON CARDIOPULMONARY AND THERMOREGULATORY PARAMETERS IN HEALTH AND COMPROMISED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER AIR POLLUTION ON CARDIOPULMONARY AND THERMOREGULATORY PARAMETERS IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RATS. Watkinson, WP, Campen, MJ, Wichers, LB, Nolan, JP, Kodavanti, UP, Schladweiler, MCJ, Evansky, PA, Lappi, ER,...

  9. Cumulative Effects of Nutrient Enrichment and Elevated Temperature Compromise the Early Life History Stages of the Coral Acropora tenuis

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Sam H. C.; Willis, Bette L.; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Negri, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Inshore coral reefs are experiencing the combined pressures of excess nutrient availability associated with coastal activities and warming seawater temperatures. Both pressures are known to have detrimental effects on the early life history stages of hard corals, but studies of their combined effects on early demographic stages are lacking. We conducted a series of experiments to test the combined effects of nutrient enrichment (three levels) and elevated seawater temperature (up to five levels) on early life history stages of the inshore coral Acropora tenuis, a common species in the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea. Gamete fertilization, larval survivorship and larval settlement were all significantly reduced as temperature increased, but only fertilization was further affected by simultaneous nutrient enrichment. Combined high temperatures and nutrient enrichment affected fertilization in an additive manner, whereas embryo abnormalities increased synergistically. Higher than normal temperatures (32°C) increased coral juvenile growth rates 1.6-fold, but mortality also increased by 50%. The co-occurrence of nutrient enrichment with high temperatures reduced juvenile mortality to 36%, ameliorating temperature stress (antagonistic interaction). Overall, the types of effect (additive vs synergistic or antagonistic) and their magnitude varied among life stages. Gamete and embryo stages were more affected by temperature stress and, in some cases, also by nutrient enrichment than juveniles. The data suggest that coastal runoff events might exacerbate the impacts of warming temperatures on fertilization if these events co-occur during corals spawning. The cumulative impacts of simultaneous exposure to nutrient enrichment and elevated temperatures over all early life history stages increases the likelihood for failure of larval supply and recruitment for this coral species. Our results suggest that improving the water quality of river discharges into coastal areas might help to

  10. Elevated temperature creep properties for selected active metal braze alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.J.

    1997-02-01

    Active metal braze alloys reduce the number of processes required for the joining of metal to ceramic components by eliminating the need for metallization and/or Ni plating of the ceramic surfaces. Titanium (Ti), V, and Zr are examples of active element additions which have been used successfully in such braze alloys. Since the braze alloy is expected to accommodate thermal expansion mismatch strains between the metal and ceramic materials, a knowledge of its elevated temperature mechanical properties is important. In particular, the issue of whether or not the creep strength of an active metal braze alloy is increased or decreased relative to its non-activated counterpart is important when designing new brazing processes and alloy systems. This paper presents a survey of high temperature mechanical properties for two pairs of conventional braze alloys and their active metal counterparts: (a) the conventional 72Ag-28Cu (Cusil) alloy, and the active braze alloy 62.2Ag- 36.2Cu-1.6Ti (Cusil ABA), and (b) the 82Au-18Ni (Nioro) alloy and the active braze alloy Mu-15.5M-0.75Mo-1.75V (Nioro ABA). For the case of the Cusil/Cusil ABA pair, the active metal addition contributes to solid solution strengthening of the braze alloy, resulting in a higher creep strength as compared to the non-active alloy. In the case of the Nioro/Nioro ABA pair, the Mo and V additions cause the active braze alloy to have a two-phase microstructure, which results in a reduced creep strength than the conventional braze alloy. The Garofalo sinh equation has been used to quantitatively describe the stress and temperature dependence of the deformation behavior. It will be observed that the effective stress exponent in the Garofalo sinh equation is a function of the instantaneous value of the stress argument.

  11. Promoted Metals Combustion at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Carl D.; Herald, Stephen D.; Davis, S. Eddie

    2005-01-01

    Promoted combustion testing of materials, Test 17 of NASA STD-6001, has been used to assess metal propensity to burn in oxygen rich environments. An igniter is used at the bottom end of a rod to promote ignition, and if combustion is sustained, the burning progresses from the bottom to the top of the rod. The physical mechanisms are very similar to the upward flammability test, Test 1 of NASA STD-6001. The differences are in the normal environmental range of pressures, oxygen content, and sample geometry. Upward flammability testing of organic materials can exhibit a significant transitional region between no burning to complete quasi-state burning. In this transitional region, the burn process exhibits a probabilistic nature. This transitional region has been identified for metals using the promoted combustion testing method at ambient initial temperatures. The work given here is focused on examining the transitional region and the quasi-steady burning region both at conventional ambient testing conditions and at elevated temperatures. A new heated promoted combustion facility and equipment at Marshall Space Flight Center have just been completed to provide the basic data regarding the metals operating temperature limits in contact with oxygen rich atmospheres at high pressures. Initial data have been obtained for Stainless Steel 304L, Stainless Steel 321, Haynes 214, and Inconel 718 at elevated temperatures in 100-percent oxygen atmospheres. These data along with an extended data set at ambient initial temperature test conditions are examined. The pressure boundaries of acceptable, non-burning usage is found to be lowered at elevated temperature.

  12. High strain rate behavior of pure metals at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Gabriel; Bonora, Nicola; Ruggiero, Andrew; Iannitti, Gianluca; Domenico, Gentile

    2013-06-01

    In many applications and technology processes, such as stamping, forging, hot working etc., metals and alloys are subjected to elevated temperature and high strain rate deformation process. Characterization tests, such as quasistatic and dynamic tension or compression test, and validation tests, such as Taylor impact and DTE - dynamic tensile extrusion -, provide the experimental base of data for constitutive model validation and material parameters identification. Testing material at high strain rate and temperature requires dedicated equipment. In this work, both tensile Hopkinson bar and light gas gun where modified in order to allow material testing under sample controlled temperature conditions. Dynamic tension tests and Taylor impact tests, at different temperatures, on high purity copper (99.98%), tungsten (99.95%) and 316L stainless steel were performed. The accuracy of several constitutive models (Johnson and Cook, Zerilli-Armstrong, etc.) in predicting the observed material response was verified by means of extensive finite element analysis (FEA).

  13. Elevated sulfate reduction in metal-contaminated freshwater lake sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, H.L.; Dahl, A.L.; Tribou, E.; Noble, P.A.; Gaillard, J.-F.; Stahl, D.A.

    2009-01-06

    Although sulfate-reducing prokaryotes have long been studied as agents of metals bioremediation, impacts of long-term metals exposure on biologically mediated sulfur cycling in natural systems remains poorly understood. The effects of long-term exposure to metal stress on the freshwater sulfur cycle were studied, with a focus on biologic sulfate reduction using a combination of microbial and chemical methods. To examine the effects after decades of adaptation time, a field-based experiment was conducted using multiple study sites in a natural system historically impacted by a nearby zinc smelter (Lake DePue, Illinois). Rates were highest at the most metals-contaminated sites (-35 {mu}mol/cm{sup 3}/day) and decreased with decreased pore water zinc and arsenic contamination levels, while other environmental characteristics (i.e., pH, nutrient concentrations and physical properties) showed little between-site variation. Correlations were established using an artificial neural network to evaluate potentially non-linear relationships between sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and measured environmental variables. SRR in Lake DePue were up to 50 times higher than rates previously reported for lake sediments and the chemical speciation of Zn was dominated by the presence of ZnS as shown by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). These results suggest that long-term metal stress of natural systems might alter the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur by contributing to higher rates of sulfate reduction.

  14. Tropospheric O(3) compromises net primary production in young stands of trembling aspen, paper birch and sugar maple in response to elevated atmospheric CO(2).

    PubMed

    King, John S; Kubiske, Mark E; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Hendrey, George R; McDonald, Evan P; Giardina, Christian P; Quinn, Vanessa S; Karnosky, David F

    2005-12-01

    Concentrations of atmospheric CO(2) and tropospheric ozone (O(3)) are rising concurrently in the atmosphere, with potentially antagonistic effects on forest net primary production (NPP) and implications for terrestrial carbon sequestration. Using free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) technology, we exposed north-temperate forest communities to concentrations of CO(2) and O(3) predicted for the year 2050 for the first 7 yr of stand development. Site-specific allometric equations were applied to annual nondestructive growth measurements to estimate above- and below-ground biomass and NPP for each year of the experiment. Relative to the control, elevated CO(2) increased total biomass 25, 45 and 60% in the aspen, aspen-birch and aspen-maple communities, respectively. Tropospheric O(3) caused 23, 13 and 14% reductions in total biomass relative to the control in the respective communities. Combined fumigation resulted in total biomass response of -7.8, +8.4 and +24.3% relative to the control in the aspen, aspen-birch and aspen-sugar maple communities, respectively. These results indicate that exposure to even moderate levels of O(3) significantly reduce the capacity of NPP to respond to elevated CO(2) in some forests.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF ELEVATED METALS ON BENTHIC COMMUNITY METABOLISM IN A ROCKY MOUNTAIN STREAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated metals (dissolved Zn, Mn and/or Fe) in a Rocky Mountain stream were assessed using measures of primary productivity, community respiration and water-column toxicity. Primary productivity was measured as rates of O2 evolution from natural substrates incubat...

  16. ETR, TRA642. ELEVATIONS. METAL SIDING. OFFICE BUILDING (TRA647) AND ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ELEVATIONS. METAL SIDING. OFFICE BUILDING (TRA-647) AND ELECTRICAL BUILDING (TRA-648) ATTACHED. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-642-A-11, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-486-100919, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Ignition and combustion of bulk metals at normal, elevated and reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branch, Melvyn C.; Daily, John W.; Abbud-Madrid, Angel

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the oxidation, ignition, and combustion of bulk metals is important for fire safety in the production, management, and utilization of liquid and gaseous oxygen for ground based and space applications. This proposal outlines studies in continuation of research initiated earlier under NASA support to investigate the ignition and combustion characteristics of bulk metals under varying gravity conditions. Metal ignition and combustion have not been studied previously under these conditions and the results are important not only for improved fire safety but also to increase knowledge of basic ignition and combustion mechanisms. The studies completed to date have led to the development of a clean and reproducible ignition source and diagnostic techniques for combustion measurements and have provided normal, elevated, and reduced gravity combustion data on a variety of different pure metals. The research conducted under this grant will use the apparatus and techniques developed earlier to continue the elevated and low gravity experiments, and to develop the overall modeling of the ignition and combustion process. Metal specimens are to be ignited using a xenon short-arc lamp and measurements are to be made of the ignition energy, surface temperature history, burning rates, spectroscopy of surface and gas products, and surface morphology and chemistry. Elevated gravity will be provided by the University of Colorado Geotechnical Centrifuge and microgravity will be obtained in NASA's DC-9 Reduced Gravity aircraft.

  18. Ignition and combustion of bulk metals under elevated, normal and reduced gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; Branch, Melvyn C.; Daily, John W.

    1995-01-01

    This research effort is aimed at providing further insight into this multi-variable dependent phenomena by looking at the effects of gravity on the ignition and combustion behavior of metals. Since spacecraft are subjected to higher-than-1g gravity loads during launch and reentry and to zero-gravity environments while in orbit, the study of ignition and combustion of bulk metals at different gravitational potentials is of great practical concern. From the scientific standpoint, studies conducted under microgravity conditions provide simplified boundary conditions since buoyancy is removed, and make possible the identification of fundamental ignition mechanisms. The effect of microgravity on the combustion of bulk metals has been investigated by Steinberg, et al. on a drop tower simulator. However, no detailed quantitative work has been done on ignition phenomena of bulk metals at lower or higher-than-normal gravitational fields or on the combustion characteristics of metals at elevated gravity. The primary objective of this investigation is the development of an experimental system capable of providing fundamental physical and chemical information on the ignition of bulk metals under different gravity levels. The metals used in the study, iron (Fe), titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) were selected because of their importance as elements of structural metals and their simple chemical composition (pure metals instead of multi-component alloys to avoid complication in morphology and spectroscopic studies). These samples were also chosen to study the two different combustion modes experienced by metals: heterogeneous or surface oxidation, and homogeneous or gas-phase reaction. The experimental approach provides surface temperature profiles, spectroscopic measurements, surface morphology, x-ray spectrometry of metals specimens and their combustion products, and high-speed cinematography of the heating, ignition and combustion

  19. Fundamental studies of ceramic/metal interfacial reactions at elevated temperatures.

    SciTech Connect

    McDeavitt, S. M.; Billings, G. W.; Indacochea, J. E.

    2000-12-14

    This work characterizes the interfaces resulting from exposing oxide and non-oxide ceramic substrates to zirconium metal and stainless steel-zirconium containing alloys. The ceramic/metal systems together were preheated at about 600 C and then the temperatures were increased to the test maximum temperature, which exceeded 1800 C, in an atmosphere of high purity argon. Metal samples were placed onto ceramic substrates, and the system was heated to elevated temperatures past the melting point of the metallic specimen. After a short stay at the peak temperature, the system was cooled to room temperature and examined. The chemical changes across the interface and other microstructural developments were analyzed with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). This paper reports on the condition of the interfaces in the different systems studied and describes possible mechanisms influencing the microstructure.

  20. Elevated concentrations of trace elements in soil do not necessarily reflect metals available to plants.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Silitonga, Maifan R; Tsegaye, Teferi D; Unrine, Jason M; Coolong, Timothy; Snyder, John C

    2013-01-01

    Bioaccumulation and entry of trace elements from soil into the food chain have made trace-elements major environmental pollutants. The main objective of this investigation was to study the impact of mixing native agricultural soil with municipal sewage sludge (SS) or SS mixed with yard waste (SS+YW) compost on total concentration of trace elements in soil, metals available to plants, and mobility of metals from soil into peppers and melon fruits. Regardless of soil treatment, the average concentrations of Ni, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Mo in melon fruits were 5.2, 0.7, 3.9, 0.9, 34.3, 96.1, and 3.5μg g(-1), respectively. Overall concentrations of Ni, Cd, Pb, and Zn in melon fruits were significantly greater (P < 0.05) than pepper fruits. No significant differences were found in Cr, Cu, and Mo concentrations between pepper and melon fruits at harvest time. Total metal concentrations and metal ions in soil available to melon and pepper plants were also determined. Total concentration of each metal in the soil was significantly greater than concentration of metal ions available to plants. Elevated Ni and Mo bioaccumulation factor (BAF > 1) of melon fruits of plants grown in SS+YW mixed soil is a characteristic that would be less favorable when plants grown on sites having high concentrations of these metals.

  1. Gluteal muscle fatty atrophy is not associated with elevated blood metal ions or pseudotumors in patients with a unilateral metal-on-metal hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Reito, Aleksi; Elo, Petra; Nieminen, Jyrki; Puolakka, Timo; Eskelinen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose There are no international guidelines to define adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD). Muscle fatty atrophy has been reported to be common in patients with failing metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements. We assessed whether gluteal muscle fatty atrophy is associated with elevated blood metal ion levels and pseudotumors. Patients and methods 263 consecutive patients with unilateral ASR XL total hip replacement using a posterior approach and with an unoperated contralateral hip were included in the study. All patients had undergone a standard screening program at our institution, including MRI and blood metal ion measurement. Muscle fatty atrophy was graded as being absent, mild, moderate, or severe in each of the gluteal muscles. Results The prevalance of moderate-to-severe gluteal muscle atrophy was low (12% for gluteus minimus, 10% for gluteus medius, and 2% for gluteus maximus). Muscle atrophy was neither associated with elevated blood metal ion levels (> 5 ppb) nor with the presence of a clear (solid- or mixed-type) pseudotumor seen in MRI. A combination of moderate-to-severe atrophy in MRI, elevated blood metal ion levels, and MRI-confirmed mixed or solid pseudotumor was rare. Multivariable regression revealed that “preoperative diagnosis other than osteoarthrosis” was the strongest predictor of the presence of fatty atrophy. Interpretation Gluteal muscle atrophy may be a clinically significant finding with influence on hip muscle strength in patients with MoM hip replacement. However, our results suggest that gluteal muscle atrophy seen in MRI is not associated with either the presence or severity of ARMD, at least not in patients who have been operated on using the posterior approach. PMID:26427902

  2. Evaluation of Potential pH-Driven Metal Release Due to Elevated Groundwater CO2 Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinnacher, R. M.; Varadharajan, C.; Zheng, L.; Spycher, N.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Trautz, R. C.; Pugh, J. D.; Esposito, R.; Nico, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into deep geologic formations is a potential option for the control of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. While the risk of CO2 migration from the storage reservoir into potable groundwater is low considering the safeguards of site characterization and permitting, it is important to understand what type of potential impacts could occur and how to identify these impacts. Elevated CO2 concentrations may potentially lead to a decrease in groundwater pH and the subsequent release of metals and ions from natural sediments into the groundwater solution. In this risk scenario, potential metal release processes, such as enhanced mineral dissolution, metal desorption and/or ion exchange reactions, may be driven by changes in groundwater pH, the presence of carbonate ligands in solution or a combination of the two. However, a detailed understanding and a distinction of pH-driven and carbonate-driven metal release reactions are important for the development of site monitoring plans and remediation strategies, required by regulations in the unlikely event of a release. Hence, in this study we characterized metal release from natural sediments into synthetic groundwater solutions at two pH conditions in order to mimic the native groundwater pH (pH ~8.5) and the low pH conditions expected in the event of elevated CO2 concentrations (pH~5). In addition, results are compared between tests performed in the presence and absence of elevated CO2. Metal release was investigated in lab-scale sequential leaching experiments using two sediment types with different organic carbon contents over a time-frame of 25 days. Supernatant solutions were monitored for pH and characterized in terms of metal concentrations (ICP-MS), total inorganic carbon (TIC) and anion composition. Furthermore, experimental results were compared with data from a field study involving the controlled release of groundwater containing dissolved

  3. Process Simulation of Aluminium Sheet Metal Deep Drawing at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Winklhofer, Johannes; Trattnig, Gernot; Sommitsch, Christof

    2010-06-15

    Lightweight design is essential for an economic and environmentally friendly vehicle. Aluminium sheet metal is well known for its ability to improve the strength to weight ratio of lightweight structures. One disadvantage of aluminium is that it is less formable than steel. Therefore complex part geometries can only be realized by expensive multi-step production processes. One method for overcoming this disadvantage is deep drawing at elevated temperatures. In this way the formability of aluminium sheet metal can be improved significantly, and the number of necessary production steps can thereby be reduced. This paper introduces deep drawing of aluminium sheet metal at elevated temperatures, a corresponding simulation method, a characteristic process and its optimization. The temperature and strain rate dependent material properties of a 5xxx series alloy and their modelling are discussed. A three dimensional thermomechanically coupled finite element deep drawing simulation model and its validation are presented. Based on the validated simulation model an optimised process strategy regarding formability, time and cost is introduced.

  4. Elevated pCO2 effects on the geochemistry of carbonate aquifers: calcite dissolution as a driver of elevated metal concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunsch, A.; Navarre-Sitchler, A. K.; Moore, J.; McCray, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Geological carbon capture, utilization and storage has gained momentum in the last decade as a viable option of reducing anthropogenic emissions of CO2, with several demonstration projects completed, in progress or planned for upcoming years. However, large-scale CO2-injection operations are accompanied by concerns of CO2 leakage from deep geological repositories and subsequent contact with shallower aquifers, such as underground sources of drinking water. Direct toxicity of CO2 is of lesser concern; rather, it is the acidification of aquifers from increased CO2 partial-pressures (pCO2), which may lead to release of metals into groundwater through mineral dissolution and metal desorption. Previous geochemical studies have suggested that the presence of calcite in aquifer material would reduce the hazard of metal release by effectively buffering acidity via calcite dissolution at elevated pCO2, thus placing carbonate aquifers at lesser risk in case of CO2 leakage. Yet calcite is rarely found in pure form, and often contains a wide range of impurities, including metals such as As, Cr, and Pb, in solid-solution. Dissolution of calcite during acidity buffering is accompanied by release of these impurities from the calcite lattice. We show through experimental work that dissolution of calcite is the primary mechanism responsible for elevated concentrations of metals in carbonate aquifers at high pCO2. It is also evident that the mechanism responsible for metal release, i.e. dissolution or desorption, is metal-specific and pCO2-specific. Modeling work based on our experimental results suggests that in reducing aquifers calcite can contribute more to release of metals than sulfides, which are generally viewed as likely sources of metals in aquifers, during a hypothetical 30-year CO2 leak. In addition, modeling work suggests that when sulfide minerals are present in a carbonate aquifer, metals release would be more sensitive to pO2 than to pCO2.

  5. Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Hafnium-Based Bulk Metallic Glass at Room and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshri, Anup Kumar; Behl, Lovish; Lahiri, Debrupa; Dulikravich, George S.; Agarwal, Arvind

    2016-09-01

    Dry sliding wear behavior of hafnium-based bulk metallic glass was studied at two loads (5 and 15 N) and two temperatures (298 and 673 K) using aluminum oxide (Al2O3) ball as a wear counterpart. At 5 N load, wear reduced by ~71% on increasing the temperature from 298 to 673 K. At a higher load of 15 N, the weight loss reduction was much lower (45%) on increasing the temperature from 298 to 673 K. Decreased wear weight loss on increasing the temperature was attributed to the increased hardness of the Hf-based metallic glass at high temperatures. Micro-hardness of the alloy at 293 K was found to be 636 Hv, which gradually increased to 655 Hv on annealing at 673 K. Improvement in the hardness at elevated temperature is attributed to: (1) free volume annihilation, (2) surface oxide formation and (3) nano-crystallites precipitation. Reduced wear at elevated temperature resulted in smaller volume of debris generation that restricted three-body wear to obtain lower coefficient of friction (COF) (0.25-0.35) compared to COF (0.65-0.75) at room temperature.

  6. Fuel/cladding compatibility in irradiated metallic fuel pins at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Hanchung.

    1990-04-01

    Over fifty fuel/cladding compatibility tests on irradiated metallic fuel specimens have been conducted in an in-cell facility at elevated temperatures. At temperatures below 700--725{degree}C, no fuel/cladding interaction was noted in tests up to 7 h. Liquid-phase cladding penetration occurred in some of the tests at temperatures greater than 725--750{degree}C. The effective rates of liquid- phase cladding penetration of six different fuel/cladding combinations during 1-h testing are reported. After the initial liquefaction at the fuel/cladding interface, which may be affected by the solid-state diffusional interaction during the steady-state irradiation, the rate of further cladding penetration stays constant or decreases with time. There was no runaway cladding penetration in the latter part of a heating cycle.

  7. Experimental and Computational Study of Interphase Properties and Mechanics in Titanium Metal Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    properties of this region 3 depend directly upon the chemical, mechanical and thermodynamic nature of the bonding process between the matrix and the fiber...Experimental and Computational Study of Interphase Properties and Mechanics in Titanium Metal Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures Final Report...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Experimental and Computational Study of Interphase Properties and Sb. GRANT NUMBER Mechanics in Titanium Metal

  8. Elevated Concentrations of U and Co-occurring Metals in Abandoned Mine Wastes in a Northeastern Arizona Native American Community.

    PubMed

    Blake, Johanna M; Avasarala, Sumant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi S; Brearley, Adrian J; Shuey, Christopher; Robinson, Wm Paul; Nez, Christopher; Bill, Sadie; Lewis, Johnnye; Hirani, Chris; Pacheco, Juan S Lezama; Cerrato, José M

    2015-07-21

    The chemical interactions of U and co-occurring metals in abandoned mine wastes in a Native American community in northeastern Arizona were investigated using spectroscopy, microscopy and aqueous chemistry. The concentrations of U (67-169 μg L(-1)) in spring water samples exceed the EPA maximum contaminant limit of 30 μg L(-1). Elevated U (6,614 mg kg(-1)), V (15,814 mg kg(-1)), and As (40 mg kg(-1)) concentrations were detected in mine waste solids. Spectroscopy (XPS and XANES) solid analyses identified U (VI), As (-I and III) and Fe (II, III). Linear correlations for the release of U vs V and As vs Fe were observed for batch experiments when reacting mine waste solids with 10 mM ascorbic acid (∼pH 3.8) after 264 h. The release of U, V, As, and Fe was at least 4-fold lower after reaction with 10 mM bicarbonate (∼pH 8.3). These results suggest that U-V mineral phases similar to carnotite [K2(UO2)2V2O8] and As-Fe-bearing phases control the availability of U and As in these abandoned mine wastes. Elevated concentrations of metals are of concern due to human exposure pathways and exposure of livestock currently ingesting water in the area. This study contributes to understanding the occurrence and mobility of metals in communities located close to abandoned mine waste sites.

  9. Test System for Elevated Temperature Characterization of Thin Metallic Foils (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    19428-2959, USA. 13. Hartman, G.A., Zawada , L.P., and Russ, S.M., “Techniques for Elevated Temperature Testing of Advanced Ceramic Composite...CT, 1988, pp. 31-38. 14. Butkus, L.M., Zawada , L.P., and Hartman, G.A., “Fatigue Test Methodology and Resutls for Ceramic Matrix Composites at

  10. Metals in diet of Bering Sea walrus: Mya sp. as a possible transmitter of elevated cadmium and other metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A. Keith; Hills, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Elevated levels of cadmium in Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) have been reported in populations from the Bering Sea (Goldblatt & Anthony, 1983; Taylor et al., 1989). Russian and US authorities are concerned because of the possible health hazards from consuming pinniped meat harvested for subsistence peoples. The effects of cadmium on marine mammals have not been determined, but high concentrations of this element in humans and laboratory animals have been correlated with renal, skeletal, and biochemical dysfunctions (Friberg et al., 1986).

  11. Progressive Cardiomyopathy in a Patient With Elevated Cobalt Ion Levels and Bilateral Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Brian A; Maynard, Lance; Sotereanos, Nicholas G; Sewecke, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Systemic cobalt toxicity is a rare complication after metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip arthroplasty. Here we present a case of progressive cardiomyopathy, as evidenced by biopsy and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in a patient with bilateral MOM total hip arthroplasties. To our knowledge, it is one of the first cases in which cardiomyopathy resulting from systemic cobalt disease has been shown on MRI. While there is no guideline to unequivocally diagnose cobalt cardiomyopathy, the constellation of findings, including pathologic, biologic, blood levels, imaging, and surgical, all uniformly indicate a unifying diagnosis. The lack of improvement after removal of the prosthetic device supports a diagnosis of permanent myocardial damage, which is consistent with cardiomyopathy of advanced toxic etiology.

  12. Growth, composition and metal removal potential of a Phormidium bigranulatum-dominated mat at elevated levels of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhananjay; Yadav, Arpana; Gaur, J P

    2012-07-15

    Prompted by the fact that interaction of metals with cyanobacterial mats has been little studied, the present study evaluates the response of a cyanobacterial mat, dominated by Phormidium bigranulatum, to elevated concentrations of Cd²⁺ in the medium. The mat failed to grow at 7 μM of Cd²⁺ when the metal as also the mat inoculum were simultaneously added to the medium right in the beginning of the experiment due to marked sensitivity of P. bigranulatum, the main constituent of the mat, to high concentrations of Cd²⁺. However, the mat previously grown in Cd²⁺-free medium for a time period of 1-4 weeks grew successfully when exposed to media containing very high concentrations of Cd²⁺. Four-week-old mat could grow at 250 μM of Cd²⁺, which has been found toxic to many cyanobacteria and algae by previous researchers. Greater tolerance of older mats to Cd²⁺ may be due to greater proportion of exopolysaccharides, which are well known to sequester metal ions extracellularly, in them. Whereas the relative proportion of P. bigranulatum declined at high concentrations of the test metal that of green algae increased due most likely to their tolerance to Cd²⁺. Air bubbles were seen entrapped in the mat due obviously to photosynthetic activity. Elevated concentrations of Cd²⁺ reduced the number of air bubbles in the mat. Decline in number of air bubbles at high concentrations of metal ions was more prominent in the case of younger mat than in the older one. The present study also evaluated changes in species composition of mats of different age that were subsequently grown in Cd²⁺ enriched culture medium. Younger mats showed change in species composition at very low concentrations of Cd²⁺, but older mats showed little changes even at very high concentrations of the test metal. Hence older mats more strongly resisted to changes in its species composition than the younger ones upon exposure to high concentrations of Cd²⁺. The growing mat

  13. Elevated concentrations of U and co-occurring metals in abandoned mine wastes in a northeastern Arizona Native American community

    DOE PAGES

    Blake, Johanna M.; Avasarala, Sumant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; ...

    2015-07-09

    The chemical interactions of U and co-occurring metals in abandoned mine wastes in a Native American community in northeastern Arizona were investigated using spectroscopy, microscopy and aqueous chemistry. The concentrations of U (67–169 μg L–1) in spring water samples exceed the EPA maximum contaminant limit of 30 μg L–1. Elevated U (6,614 mg kg–1), V (15,814 mg kg–1), and As (40 mg kg–1) concentrations were detected in mine waste solids. Spectroscopy (XPS and XANES) solid analyses identified U (VI), As (-I and III) and Fe (II, III). Linear correlations for the release of U vs V and As vs Femore » were observed for batch experiments when reacting mine waste solids with 10 mM ascorbic acid (~pH 3.8) after 264 h. The release of U, V, As, and Fe was at least 4-fold lower after reaction with 10 mM bicarbonate (~pH 8.3). These results suggest that U–V mineral phases similar to carnotite [K2(UO2)2V2O8] and As–Fe-bearing phases control the availability of U and As in these abandoned mine wastes. Elevated concentrations of metals are of concern due to human exposure pathways and exposure of livestock currently ingesting water in the area. This study contributes to understanding the occurrence and mobility of metals in communities located close to abandoned mine waste sites.« less

  14. Elevated concentrations of U and co-occurring metals in abandoned mine wastes in a northeastern Arizona Native American community

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Johanna M.; Avasarala, Sumant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Ali, Abdul -Mehdi S.; Brearley, Adrian J.; Shuey, Christopher; Robinson, Wm. Paul; Nez, Christopher; Bill, Sadie; Lewis, Johnnye; Hirani, Chris; Pacheco, Juan S. Lezama; Cerrato, José M.

    2015-07-09

    The chemical interactions of U and co-occurring metals in abandoned mine wastes in a Native American community in northeastern Arizona were investigated using spectroscopy, microscopy and aqueous chemistry. The concentrations of U (67–169 μg L–1) in spring water samples exceed the EPA maximum contaminant limit of 30 μg L–1. Elevated U (6,614 mg kg–1), V (15,814 mg kg–1), and As (40 mg kg–1) concentrations were detected in mine waste solids. Spectroscopy (XPS and XANES) solid analyses identified U (VI), As (-I and III) and Fe (II, III). Linear correlations for the release of U vs V and As vs Fe were observed for batch experiments when reacting mine waste solids with 10 mM ascorbic acid (~pH 3.8) after 264 h. The release of U, V, As, and Fe was at least 4-fold lower after reaction with 10 mM bicarbonate (~pH 8.3). These results suggest that U–V mineral phases similar to carnotite [K2(UO2)2V2O8] and As–Fe-bearing phases control the availability of U and As in these abandoned mine wastes. Elevated concentrations of metals are of concern due to human exposure pathways and exposure of livestock currently ingesting water in the area. This study contributes to understanding the occurrence and mobility of metals in communities located close to abandoned mine waste sites.

  15. The transcriptome and proteome are altered in marine polychaetes (Annelida) exposed to elevated metal levels.

    PubMed

    Neave, Matthew J; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Nouwens, Amanda S; Glasby, Chris J; McGuinness, Keith A; Parry, David L; Gibb, Karen S

    2012-05-17

    Polychaetes are often used in toxicological studies to understand mechanisms of resistance and for biomarker detection, however, we know of only a few genetic pathways involved in resistance. We found the marine polychaete Ophelina sp.1 (Opheliidae) in sediment containing high copper levels and investigated this phenomenon by measuring metal accumulation in the worms and changes in gene and protein expression. We sequenced the transcriptome of Ophelina sp.1 from both the impacted and reference sediments using 454-sequencing and analysed their proteomes using differential in gel electrophoresis (DIGE). We used the sequenced transcriptome to guide protein identification. Transcripts coding for the copper chaperone, Atox1, were up-regulated in the worms inhabiting the high copper sediment. In addition, genes coding for respiratory proteins, detoxification proteins and cytoskeletal proteins were significantly altered in metal-exposed worms; many of these changes were also detected in the proteome. This dual approach has provided a better understanding of heavy metal resistance in polychaetes and we now have a wider range of suitable indicator genes and proteins for future biomarker development.

  16. The Deformation of the Multi-Layered Panel of Sheet Metals Under Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Wook; Woo, Dong-Uk

    A Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) stack consists of several layered unit cells. In each unit cell, the stiff structure of the separator plate contains the softer components, such as electrodes. When surface pressure acts on the stack over an extended period of time at elevated temperatures, the stiffness of the separator plate tends to degrade. Moreover, the demands for large electrode area (to increase the electric capacity of a unit cell) and thinner separator plates (to reduce weight) complicate the design of a separator plate with high stiffness. To evaluate the stiffness of the separator plate at elevated temperatures, we design and test a tiny, multi-layered separator plate specimen using a three-point bending tool. To determine the optimal structure of the separator plate, we investigate three design factors: angle, pitch and height. We adopt the Taguchi method to evaluate the experiments, and use finite element analysis to examine the experimental results. Based on these results, pitch is the most effective of these factors. As the pitch narrows, the stiffness of the separator plate increases. Therefore, we propose the pitch factor as a design criterion for the separator plate of the MCFC stack.

  17. Long-term Outcomes of Drug-eluting versus Bare-metal stent for ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liping; Wang, Hongyun; Dong, Pingshuan; Li, Zhuanzhen; Wang, Yanyu; Duan, Nana; Zhao, Yuwei; Wang, Shaoxin

    2014-01-01

    Background Long-term outcomes of drug-eluting stents (DES) versus bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remain uncertain. Objective To investigate long-term outcomes of drug-eluting stents (DES) versus bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods We performed search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and ISI Web of Science (until February 2013) for randomized trials comparing more than 12-month efficacy or safety of DES with BMS in patients with STEMI. Pooled estimate was presented with risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) using random-effects model. Results Ten trials with 7,592 participants with STEMI were included. The overall results showed that there was no significant difference in the incidence of all-cause death and definite/probable stent thrombosis between DES and BMS at long-term follow-up. Patients receiving DES implantation appeared to have a lower 1-year incidence of recurrent myocardial infarction than those receiving BMS (RR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.00, p= 0.05). Moreover, the risk of target vessel revascularization (TVR) after receiving DES was consistently lowered during long-term observation (all p< 0.01). In subgroup analysis, the use of everolimus-eluting stents (EES) was associated with reduced risk of stent thrombosis in STEMI patients (RR = 0.37, p=0.02). Conclusions DES did not increase the risk of stent thrombosis in patients with STEMI compared with BMS. Moreover, the use of DES did lower long-term risk of repeat revascularization and might decrease the occurrence of reinfarction. PMID:25004414

  18. Numerical Modeling of Magnesium Alloy Sheet Metal Forming at Elevated Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myeong-Han; Oh, Soo-Ik; Kim, Heon-Young; Kim, Hyung-Jong; Choi, Yi-Chun

    2007-05-17

    The development of light-weight vehicle is in great demand for enhancement of fuel efficiency and dynamic performance. The vehicle weight can be reduced effectively by using lightweight materials such as magnesium alloys. However, the use of magnesium alloys in sheet forming processes is still limited because of their low formability at room temperature and the lack of understanding of the forming process of magnesium alloys at elevated temperatures. In this study, uniaxial tensile tests of the magnesium alloy AZ31B-O at various temperatures were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of this alloy relevant for forming of magnesium sheets. To construct a FLD (forming limit diagram), a forming limit test were conducted at temperature of 100 and 200 deg. C. For the evaluation of the effects of the punch temperature on the formability of a rectangular cup drawing with AZ31B-O, numerical modelling was conducted. The experiment results indicate that the stresses and possible strains of AZ31B-O sheets largely depend on the temperature. The stress decreases with temperature increase. Also, the strain increase with temperature increase. The numerical modelling results indicate that formability increases with the decrease in the punch temperature at the constant temperature of the die and holder.

  19. An investigation of the thermoviscoplastic behavior of a metal matrix composite at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogacki, John R.; Tuttle, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    This research investigates the response of a fiberless 13 layer hot isostatically pressed Ti-15-3 laminate to creep, constant strain rate, and cyclic constant strain rate loading at temperatures ranging from 482C to 649C. Creep stresses from 48 to 260 MPa and strain rates of .0001 to .01 m/m/sec were used. Material parameters for three unified constitutive models (Bodner-Partom, Miller, and Walker models) were determined for Ti-15-3 from the experimental data. Each of the three models was subsequently incorporated into a rule of mixtures and evaluated for accuracy and ease of use in predicting the thermoviscoplastic response of unidirectional metal matrix composite laminates (both 0 and 90). The laminates were comprised of a Ti-15-3 matrix with 29 volume percent SCS6 fibers. The predicted values were compared to experimentally determined creep and constant strain rate data. It was found that all three models predicted the viscoplastic response of the 0 specimens reasonably well, but seriously underestimated the viscoplastic response of the 90 specimens. It is believed that this discrepancy is due to compliant and/or weak fiber-matrix interphase. In general, it was found that of the three models studied, the Bodner-Partom model was easiest to implement, primarily because this model does not require the use of cyclic constant strain rate tests to determine the material parameters involved. However, the version of the Bodner-Partom model used in this study does not include back stress as an internal state variable, and hence may not be suitable for use with materials which exhibit a pronounced Baushinger effect. The back stress is accounted for in both the Walker and Miller models; determination of the material parameters associated with the Walker model was somewhat easier than in the Miller model.

  20. Vegetation and Cold Trapping Modulating Elevation-dependent Distribution of Trace Metals in Soils of a High Mountain in Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Bing, Haijian; Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Jun; Li, Rui; Luo, Ji; Yu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals adsorbed onto fine particles can be transported long distances and ultimately deposited in Polar Regions via the cold condensation effect. This study indicated the possible sources of silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and zinc (Zn) in soils on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga, eastern Tibetan Plateau, and deciphered the effects of vegetation and mountain cold condensation on their distributions with elevation. The metal concentrations in the soils were comparable to other mountains worldwide except the remarkably high concentrations of Cd. Trace metals with high enrichment in the soils were influenced from anthropogenic contributions. Spatially, the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the surface horizons decreased from 2000 to 3700 m a.s.l., and then increased with elevation, whereas other metals were notably enriched in the mid-elevation area (approximately 3000 m a.s.l.). After normalization for soil organic carbon, high concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were observed above the timberline. Our results indicated the importance of vegetation in trace metal accumulation in an alpine ecosystem and highlighted the mountain cold trapping effect on trace metal deposition sourced from long-range atmospheric transport. PMID:27052807

  1. 22 CFR 309.20 - Compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Compromise. 309.20 Section 309.20 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 309.20 Compromise. Peace Corps may attempt to effect compromise in accordance with the standards set forth in the FCCS (31 CFR part 902)....

  2. 22 CFR 309.20 - Compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Compromise. 309.20 Section 309.20 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 309.20 Compromise. Peace Corps may attempt to effect compromise in accordance with the standards set forth in the FCCS (31 CFR part 902)....

  3. 22 CFR 309.20 - Compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Compromise. 309.20 Section 309.20 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 309.20 Compromise. Peace Corps may attempt to effect compromise in accordance with the standards set forth in the FCCS (31 CFR part 902)....

  4. 22 CFR 309.20 - Compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Compromise. 309.20 Section 309.20 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 309.20 Compromise. Peace Corps may attempt to effect compromise in accordance with the standards set forth in the FCCS (31 CFR part 902)....

  5. 22 CFR 309.20 - Compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Compromise. 309.20 Section 309.20 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 309.20 Compromise. Peace Corps may attempt to effect compromise in accordance with the standards set forth in the FCCS (31 CFR part 902)....

  6. 22 CFR 34.19 - Compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compromise. 34.19 Section 34.19 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY DEBT COLLECTION Collection Adjustments § 34.19 Compromise. STATE may attempt to effect compromise in accordance with the standards set forth in the FCCS,...

  7. Randomised comparison of drug-eluting versus bare-metal stenting in patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Remkes, Wouter S; Badings, Erik A; Hermanides, Renicus S; Rasoul, Saman; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E; Koopmans, Petra C; The, Salem HK; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Gosselink, A T Marcel; Hoorntje, Jan CA; Suryapranata, Harry; van 't Hof, Arnoud WJ

    2016-01-01

    Objective The superiority of drug-eluting stents (DES) over bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is well studied; however, randomised data in patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) are lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate whether stenting with everolimus-eluting stents (EES) safely reduces restenosis in patients with NSTEMI as compared to BMS. Methods ELISA-3 patients were asked to participate in the angiographic substudy and were randomised to DE (Xience V) or BM (Vision) stenting (ELISA-3 group). The primary end point was minimal luminal diameter (MLD) at 9-month follow-up angiography. In addition, 296 patients with NSTEMI who were excluded or did not want to participate in the ELISA-3 trial (RELI group) were randomised to DE or BM stenting and underwent clinical follow-up only (major adverse cardiac events (MACE), stent thrombosis (ST)). A pooled analysis was performed to assess an effect on clinical outcome. Results 178 of 540 ELISA-3 patients participated in the angiographic substudy. MLD at 9 months angiography was 2.37±0.63 mm (DES) versus 1.84±0.62 mm (BMS), p<0.001. Binary restenosis occurred in 1.9% in the DES group versus 16.7% in the BMS group (RR 0.11, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.84, p=0.007). In the pooled analysis, the incidence of MACE, target vessel revascularisation and ST at 2 years follow-up in the DES versus BMS group was 12.5% versus 16.0% (p=0.28), 4.0% versus 10.4% (p=0.009) and 1.3% versus 3.0% (p=0.34), respectively. Conclusions In patients with NSTEMI, use of EES is safe and decreases both angiographic and clinical restenosis as compared to BMS http://www.isrctn.com/search?q=39230163. Trial registration number 39230163; Post-results. PMID:27933192

  8. Elevating your elevator talk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  9. Forensic Analysis of Compromised Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Directory Tree Analysis File Generator is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) script that simplifies and automates the collection of information for forensic analysis of compromised computer systems. During such an analysis, it is sometimes necessary to collect and analyze information about files on a specific directory tree. Directory Tree Analysis File Generator collects information of this type (except information about directories) and writes it to a text file. In particular, the script asks the user for the root of the directory tree to be processed, the name of the output file, and the number of subtree levels to process. The script then processes the directory tree and puts out the aforementioned text file. The format of the text file is designed to enable the submission of the file as input to a spreadsheet program, wherein the forensic analysis is performed. The analysis usually consists of sorting files and examination of such characteristics of files as ownership, time of creation, and time of most recent access, all of which characteristics are among the data included in the text file.

  10. Accumulation, sources and health risks of trace metals in elevated geochemical background soils used for greenhouse vegetable production in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haidong; Huang, Biao; Dong, Linlin; Hu, Wenyou; Akhtar, Mohammad Saleem; Qu, Mingkai

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable cultivation with substantive manure and fertilizer input on soils with an elevated geochemical background can accumulate trace metals in soils and plants leading to human health risks. Studies on trace metal accumulation over a land use shift duration in an elevated geochemical background scenario are lacking. Accumulation characteristics of seven trace metals in greenhouse soil and edible plants were evaluated along with an assessment of the health risk to the consumers. A total of 118 greenhouse surface soils (0-20cm) and 30 vegetables were collected from Kunming City, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, and analyzed for total Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, As, Hg, and Cr content by ICP-MS and AFS. The trace metals were ordered Cu>Cd>Hg>Zn>Pb>As>Cr in greenhouse soils accumulation level, and the geo-accumulation index suggested the soil more severely polluted with Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn. The greenhouse and open-field soils had significant difference in Cd, Cr and Zn. The duration of shift from paddy to greenhouse land-use significantly influenced trace metal accumulation with a dramatic change during five to ten year greenhouse land-use, and continuous increase of Cd and Hg. A spatial pattern from north to south for Cd and Hg and a zonal pattern for Cu and Zn were found. An anthropogenic source primarily caused trace metal accumulation, where the principal component analysis/multiple linear regression indicated a contribution 61.2%. While the assessment showed no potential risk for children and adults, the hazard health risks index was greater than one for adolescents. The extended duration of land use as greenhouses caused the trace metal accumulation, rotation in land use should be promoted to reduce the health risks.

  11. The clinical implications of elevated blood metal ion concentrations in asymptomatic patients with MoM hip resurfacings: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Langton, David J; Sidaginamale, Raghavendra P; Joyce, Thomas J; Natu, Shonali; Blain, Peter; Jefferson, Robert Drysdale; Rushton, Stephen; Nargol, Antoni V F

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether elevated blood cobalt (Co) concentrations are associated with early failure of metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacings secondary to adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD). Design Cohort study. Setting Single centre orthopaedic unit. Participants Following the identification of complications potentially related to metal wear debris, a blood metal ion screening programme was instigated at our unit in 2007 for all patients with Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) and Birmingham MoM hip resurfacings. Patients were followed annually unless symptoms presented earlier. Symptomatic patients were investigated with ultrasound scan and joint aspiration. The clinical course of all 278 patients with ‘no pain’ or ‘slight/occasional’ pain and a Harris Hip Score greater than or equal to 95 at the time of venesection were documented. A retrospective analysis was subsequently conducted using mixed effect modelling to investigate the temporal pattern of blood Co levels in the patients and survival analysis to investigate the potential role of case demographics and blood Co levels as risk factors for subsequent failure secondary to ARMD. Results Blood Co concentration was a positive and significant risk factor (z=8.44, p=2×10–16) for joint failure, as was the device, where the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing posed a significantly reduced risk for revision by 89% (z=−3.445, p=0.00005 (95% CI on risk 62 to 97)). Analysis using Cox-proportional hazards models indicated that men had a 66% lower risk of joint failure than women (z=−2.29419, p=0.0218, (95% CI on risk reduction 23 to 89)). Conclusions The results suggest that elevated blood metal ion concentrations are associated with early failure of MoM devices secondary to adverse reactions to metal debris. Co concentrations greater than 20 µg/l are frequently associated with metal staining of tissues and the development of osteolysis. Development of soft tissue damage appears to be more complex

  12. 48 CFR 1432.610 - Compromising debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compromising debts. 1432.610 Section 1432.610 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 1432.610 Compromising debts. The CO may...

  13. 26 CFR 301.7122-1 - Compromises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for taxes, interest, or penalties. Unless the terms of the offer and acceptance expressly provide otherwise, acceptance of an offer to compromise a civil liability does not remit a criminal liability, nor does acceptance of an offer to compromise a criminal liability remit a civil liability. (b) Grounds...

  14. 48 CFR 1432.610 - Compromising debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compromising debts. 1432.610 Section 1432.610 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 1432.610 Compromising debts. The CO may...

  15. Clayton's compromises and the assisted dying debate.

    PubMed

    Parker, Malcolm

    2015-03-01

    Richard Huxtable has recently argued that while assisted dying has been both repeatedly condemned and commended, a compromise resolution is possible. Following critique of other purported solutions, he argues for a new legal offence of "compassionate killing" as a plausible compromise between supporters and opponents of legalised assisted dying, because it offers something of significance to both sides. However, it turns out that "compassionate killing" would leave both sides with insufficient net benefit for the proposal to qualify as a compromise between them. By analogy with another apparently intractable bioethical debate, concerning destructive embryo research, this column rejects Huxtable's solution as another "Clayton's compromise". True compromise is not possible in bioethical debates involving divisions over deeply held values and world views. Resolving such debates inevitably involves the substitution of one dominant world view with another.

  16. Adverse Reactions to Metal on Polyethylene Implants: Highly destructive lesions related to elevated concentration of Cobalt and Chromium in synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Eltit, Felipe; Assiri, Ali; Garbuz, Donald; Duncan, Clive; Masri, Bassam; Greidanus, Nelson; Bell, Robert; Sharma, Manju; Cox, Michael; Wang, Rizhi

    2017-03-07

    Adverse local tissue reactions (ALTR) are the primary cause of failure of metal on metal (MoM) hip implants, and fewer but not negligible number cases of non-modular metal on polyethylene (MoP) implants. In this study we analyzed 17 cases of MoP ALTR, and equal number of MoM, by histological observation, cobalt and chromium concentration in serum and synovial fluid and cytokine analysis in ALTR tissues. ALTRs in MoP are highly necrotic, affecting larger areas than MoM ALTRs. Degenerative changes in blood vessels' wall were seen in all MoP ALTRs. The concentration of cobalt and chromium was higher in synovial fluid but lower in serum of MoP patients compared to MoM patients. Elevated concentrations of chemokines were observed in ALTR tissues. We conclude that ALTRs in MoP systems are highly necrotizing lesions that seem to have a similar development to ALTRs in MoM. Alteration of vessels wall seems to have a role in the tissues necrosis, as well as the elevated concentration of cobalt and chromium in synovial fluid of MoP patients. Chemokines may be involved in the pathogenesis of ALTR and constitute possible diagnostic targets. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Obesity May Not Compromise Knee Surgery Success

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164282.html Obesity May Not Compromise Knee Surgery Success Results similar ... over 35, so it's unclear if more severe obesity might increase the risk of meniscal repair failure, ...

  18. Patency of paclitaxel-eluting versus bare metal stents long term after implantation in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Vink, Maarten A; Van Nooijen, Ferdinand C; Laarman, Gerrit J; Suttorp, Maarten J; Tijssen, Jan G; Slagboom, Ton; Patterson, Mark S; Van Der Schaaf, Rene J; Kiemeneij, Ferdinand; Amoroso, Giovanni; Dirksen, Maurits T

    2011-11-01

    Drug-eluting stents effectively inhibit neointimal hyperplasia within the first year, thereby reducing the need for repeat revascularization. However, a delayed pattern of restenosis might be more prominent in drug-eluting stents compared to bare metal stents (BMSs). The extent of restenosis of paclitaxel-eluting stents (PESs) long term after implantation in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is currently unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate very late luminal loss (VLLL) of PESs used in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction compared to BMSs. A total of 116 patients (61 with PESs and 55 with BMSs) initially included in the Paclitaxel Eluting Stent Versus Conventional Stent in ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (PASSION) trial and who were free from previous lesion failure underwent angiographic follow-up. Off-line quantitative coronary analysis of the angiogram immediately after stent implantation and at follow-up was performed. The primary end point was VLLL within the stent. The presence of binary restenosis was defined as diameter stenosis >50% as a secondary end point. The mean interval between stent implantation and follow-up was 4.1 ± 0.5 years in both stent groups. In-stent VLLL was 0.12 mm (interquartile range -0.03 to 0.42) in the PES group versus 0.30 mm (interquartile range 0.08 to 0.69) in the BMS group (p = 0.011). In-segment binary restenosis was found in 4 patients (6.6%) with a PES and 6 patients (10.9%) with a BMS (p = 0.40). In conclusion, angiographic follow-up 4 years after implantation in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction showed that in patients prospectively randomized to PESs or BMSs, VLLL was low in both stent groups. PESs were associated with lower VLLL than BMSs, and the observed rate of binary restenosis was not significantly different between the 2 stent groups.

  19. Investigation of Tension-Compression Fatigue Behavior of a Cross-Ply Metal Matrix Composite at Room and Elevated Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    fatigued composite. These dislocation structures, which are characteristic of persistent slip bands (PSBs) in body centered cubic metals, indicate that...performed using a hand polishing tool similar to a dental tool. A diamond grinding pad was attached to the tool and the specimen was ground until all...or polishing stage, was also performed with the dental tool, but with a nylon pad. The specimens were successively wet with 45, 15, 6, 3, and I pim

  20. 45 CFR 30.22 - Bases for compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bases for compromise. 30.22 Section 30.22 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS COLLECTION Debt Compromise § 30.22 Bases for compromise. (a) Compromise. The Secretary may compromise a debt if the full...

  1. 45 CFR 30.22 - Bases for compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bases for compromise. 30.22 Section 30.22 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS COLLECTION Debt Compromise § 30.22 Bases for compromise. (a) Compromise. The Secretary may compromise a debt if the full...

  2. 45 CFR 30.22 - Bases for compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bases for compromise. 30.22 Section 30.22 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS COLLECTION Debt Compromise § 30.22 Bases for compromise. (a) Compromise. The Secretary may compromise a debt if the full...

  3. 45 CFR 30.22 - Bases for compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bases for compromise. 30.22 Section 30.22 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS COLLECTION Debt Compromise § 30.22 Bases for compromise. (a) Compromise. The Secretary may compromise a debt if the full...

  4. Modifications of system for elevated temperature tensile testing and stress-strain measurement of metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, J.O.

    1994-09-01

    Composites consisting of tungsten alloy wires in superalloy matrices are being studied because they offer the potential for increased strength compared to current materials used at temperatures up to a least 1093{degrees}C (2000{degrees}F). Previous research at the NASA Lewis Research Center and at other laboratories in the U.S., Europe, and Japan has demonstrated laboratory feasibility for fiber reinforced superalloys (FRS). The data for the mechanical and physical properties used to evaluate candidate materials is limited and a need exists for a more detailed and complete data base. The focus of this work was to develop a test procedure to provide a more complete FRS data base to quantitatively evaluate the composite`s potential for component applications. This paper will describe and discuss the equipment and procedures under development to obtain elevated temperature tensile stress-strain, strength and modulus data for the first generation of tungsten reinforced superalloy composite (TFRS) materials. Tensile stress-strain tests were conducted using a constant crosshead speed tensile testing machine and a modified load-strain measuring apparatus. Elevated temperature tensile tests were performed using a resistance wound commercial furnace capable of heating tests specimens up to 1093{degrees}C (2000{degrees}F). Tensile stress-strain data were obtained for hollow tubular stainless steel specimens serving as a prototype for future composite specimens.

  5. Vascular Compromise from Soft Tissue Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Shannon; Carruthers, Jean D.A.; Carruthers, Alastair

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of soft tissue fillers is, in part, due to their favorable side-effect profile. However, serious complications can occur. The authors describe their extensive clinical experience with soft-tissue augmentation and the rare complication of vascular compromise, which can lead to necrosis and scarring. Over a 10-year period between January 2003 and January 2013, the authors observed a total of 12 cases of vascular compromise. Eight patients in their clinical practice showed evidence of vascular compromise out of a total of 14,355 filler injections (0.05%). In addition, four patients treated with an experimental particulate filler had vascular complications. All cases were examined for filler type, location of complication, risk factors, treatment, and outcomes. Although treatment plans differed for each patient in their series, all cases of vascular compromise resolved fully. The authors believe that an office-based protocol for both immediate and ongoing care—including a thorough individualized assessment and treatment plan for each patient—is critical to timely and effective resolution of side effects. They propose key recommendations for the prevention and management of vascular compromise to improve patient outcomes and reduce the risk of permanent complications. PMID:25276276

  6. Influence of elevated alkalinity and natural organic matter (NOM) on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproductive performance in fathead minnows during chronic, multi-trophic exposures to a metal mine effluent.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, Jacob D; Dubé, Monique G; Niyogi, Som

    2013-09-01

    Metal bioavailability in aquatic organisms is known to be influenced by various water chemistry parameters. The present study examined the influence of alkalinity and natural organic matter (NOM) on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproductive performance of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) during environmentally relevant chronic exposures to a metal mine effluent (MME). Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or NOM (as commercial humic acid) were added to a Canadian MME [45 percent process water effluent (PWE)] in order to evaluate whether increases in alkalinity (3-4 fold) or NOM (~1.5-3mg/L dissolved organic carbon) would reduce metal accumulation and mitigate reproductive toxicity in fathead minnows during a 21-day multi-trophic exposure. Eleven metals (barium, boron, cobalt, copper, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, rubidium, selenium, and strontium) were elevated in the 45 percent PWE relative to the reference water. Exposure to the unmodified 45 percent PWE resulted in a decrease of fathead minnow egg production (~300 fewer eggs/pair) relative to the unmodified reference water, over the 21-day exposure period. Water chemistry modifications produced a modest decrease in free ion activity of some metals (as shown by MINTEQ, Version 3) in the 45 percent PWE exposure water, but did not alter the metal burden in the treatment-matched larval Chironomus dilutus (the food source of fish during exposure). The tissue-specific metal accumulation increased in fish exposed to the 45 percent PWE relative to the reference water, irrespective of water chemistry modifications, and the tissue metal concentrations were found to be similar between fish in the unmodified and modified 45 percent PWE (higher alkalinity or NOM) treatments. Interestingly however, increased alkalinity and NOM markedly improved fish egg production both in the reference water (~500 and ~590 additional eggs/pair, respectively) and 45 percent PWE treatments (~570 and ~260 additional eggs

  7. Elevated levels of metals and organic pollutants in fish and clams in the Cape Fear River watershed.

    PubMed

    Mallin, Michael A; McIver, Matthew R; Fulton, Michael; Wirth, Ed

    2011-10-01

    A study was performed in 2003 to 2004 to assess metal and organic contaminant concentrations at three areas in the lower Cape Fear River system, North Carolina, United States. Sites examined were Livingston Creek along the mainstem of the Cape Fear River near Riegelwood, Six Runs Creek in the Black River Basin, and Rockfish Creek in the Northeast Cape Fear River basin. The results of the investigation showed that levels of metals and organic pollutants in the sediments were lower than limits considered harmful to aquatic life. However, results of fish (adult bowfin) tissue analyses showed that concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), and now-banned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the pesticide dieldrin were higher than levels considered safe for human consumption by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the North Carolina Health Director's Office. Fish tissue concentrations of Hg, Se, and PCBs were also higher than concentrations determined by researchers to be detrimental either to the health of the fish themselves or their avian and mammalian predators. Due to the rural nature of two of the sites, increased concentrations of As, Cd, Se, and PCBs in fish tissue were unexpected. The likely reason the levels are increased in fish and some clams but not in sediments is that these pollutants are biomagnified in the food chain. These pollutants will also biomagnify in humans. In these rural areas there is subsistence fishing by low-income families; thus, increased fish tissue metals and toxicant concentrations may present a direct threat to human health.

  8. Investigation of fatigue damage mechanisms in SCS-6/Ti-15-3 metal matrix composite at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mall, S.; Portner, B. D.

    A study was conducted to study the fatigue behavior of cross-ply, (0/90)2s, laminate of silicon fiber reinforced titanium matrix composite, SCS-6/Ti-15-3 at an elevated temperature of 427 C. Two sets of tests, at frequencies 0.02 and 2 Hz, were run at different stress levels which were either below or above the static first ply failure strength of laminate. Crack initiation locations and growth patterns were dependent on to specific test conditions of frequency and stress level. Also, microscopic analysis of the fatigued specimens revealed matrix failure mechanisms ranging from ductile failure to cleavage fracture. The results of this study clearly showed that temperature, frequency as well as stress levels are important design considerations for this composite in fatigue loading applications.

  9. The theory of compromised eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Furman, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry was to develop substantive theory that describes the social process that influences the eating behavior of hospitalized older adults. Undernutrition contributes to negative health outcomes, such as increased morbidity and mortality in hospitalized older adults. Despite the availability of vast nutritional resources within the hospital environment, hospitalized older adults often have inadequate dietary intake. A grounded theory methodology was used to explore this phenomenon. The Theory of Compromised Eating Behavior describes the process of compromise that older adults experience related to eating behavior while hospitalized. The theory has four stages: self-indication, joint action, negotiation, and action. The meaning of hospital food and mealtimes differs from at-home food and mealtimes for the older adult, resulting in compromise. Intervention, which enhances the meaning of food and mealtimes for the older adult during hospitalization, may improve dietary intake and nutritional outcomes.

  10. Interfacial Reactions at Elevated Temperatures in New Low-Cost AL/SiC Metal Matrix Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Glenn J.; Mccready, David E.; Herling, Darrell R.; Smith, M. T.

    2001-08-21

    The mechanical properties of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) are strongly affected by the quality of the bond between the matrix and the reinforcing particle. In aluminum MMCs reinforced with SiC particles, the particle/matrix interface can be degraded at high temperature by the formation of aluminum carbide and aluminum/magnesium oxides. The temperature that these reactions occur at is an important process limit during melting, casting, and eventual product recycling. Recently, lower cost Al/SiC MMCs have become available that utilize less well-graded particulate and a unique rapid-mixing technique. However, as a result of the relaxed control on the particle size fraction, a significantly larger percentage of the particulate is found in the finer size ranges. This leads to an increase in the interface area between the SiC particles and the aluminum melt, and raises the possibility that detrimental aluminum carbide and oxide reactions could occur at lower temperatures, or lower time-at-temperature, than in current commercial products. In this study, we quantify by conventional, and in-situ liquid metal XRD, the time-temperature relationship for interfacial carbide/oxide formation, and compare commercially available MMC materials to MMC material produced from less well-graded SiC particulate.

  11. Modeling the Dynamics of Compromised Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Soper, B; Merl, D M

    2011-09-12

    Accurate predictive models of compromised networks would contribute greatly to improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the detection and control of network attacks. Compartmental epidemiological models have been applied to modeling attack vectors such as viruses and worms. We extend the application of these models to capture a wider class of dynamics applicable to cyber security. By making basic assumptions regarding network topology we use multi-group epidemiological models and reaction rate kinetics to model the stochastic evolution of a compromised network. The Gillespie Algorithm is used to run simulations under a worst case scenario in which the intruder follows the basic connection rates of network traffic as a method of obfuscation.

  12. Political Compromise Makes the World Go 'Round

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Diana

    2007-01-01

    Compromise in any context is often hard to accept. It feels like a person is giving up on his or her ideals. This is especially true in dealing with politics. Legislative and congressional bills can be written with the highest of ideals in mind. By the time the bill progresses through committees and the floor debate process, it can look like a…

  13. Funhaler spacer: improving adherence without compromising delivery

    PubMed Central

    Watt, P; Clements, B; Devadason, S; Chaney, G

    2003-01-01

    A novel asthma spacer device, the "Funhaler", incorporates incentive toys which are isolated from the main inspiratory circuit by a valve. Here we show that its use does not compromise drug delivery. Improved adherence combined with satisfactory delivery characteristics suggest that the Funhaler may be useful for management of young asthmatics. PMID:12818901

  14. Elevated gas flux and trace metal degassing from the 2014-2015 fissure eruption at the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Pierre-Jean; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Gouhier, Mathieu; Haddadi, Baptiste; Moune, Séverine

    2016-03-01

    The 2014 Bárðarbunga rifting event in Iceland resulted in a 6-month long eruption at Holuhraun. This eruption was characterized by high lava discharge rate and significant gas emission. The SO2 flux for the first 3 months was measured with satellite sensors and the petrologic method. High-resolution time series of the satellite data give 1200 kg/s that concurs with 1050 kg/s obtained from melt inclusion minus degassed lava sulfur contents scaled to the mass of magma produced. A high-purity gas sample, with elevated S/Cl due to limited chlorine degassing, reveals a similar degassing pattern of trace metals as observed at Kīlauea (Hawai'i) and Erta Ale (Ethiopia). This suggests a common degassing mechanism at mantle plume-related volcanoes. The trace metal fluxes, calculated from trace element to sulfur ratios in the gas sample and scaled to the sulfur dioxide flux, are 1-2 orders of magnitude stronger at Holuhraun than Kīlauea and Erta Ale. In contrast, volcanoes at convergent margins (Etna and Stromboli, Italy) have 1-2 orders of magnitude higher trace element fluxes, most likely caused by abundant chlorine degassing. This emphasizes the importance of metal degassing as chlorine species. Short-lived disequilibria between radon daughters, 210Pb-210Bi-210Po measured in the gas, suggest degassing of a continuously replenished magma batch beneath the eruption site. Earlier and deep degassing phase of carbon dioxide and polonium is inferred from low (210Po/210Pb) in the gas, consistent with magma transfer rate of 0.75 m/s.

  15. 19 CFR 171.32 - Acceptance of offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance of offers in compromise. 171.32 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Offers in Compromise § 171.32 Acceptance of offers in compromise. An offer in compromise will be considered accepted only when the...

  16. 19 CFR 172.33 - Acceptance of offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance of offers in compromise. 172.33 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) CLAIMS FOR LIQUIDATED DAMAGES; PENALTIES SECURED BY BONDS Offers in Compromise § 172.33 Acceptance of offers in compromise. An offer in compromise will be considered...

  17. Radiosurgical planning of meningiomas: compromises with conformity.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Jeremy G; Walton, Lee; Vaughan, Paul; Malik, Irfan; Radatz, Matthias; Kemeny, Andras

    2004-01-01

    The radiosurgical planning of meningiomas frequently necessitates compromises between irradiating tumour and risking damage to adjacent structures. In selected cases, we resolved this by excluding part of the tumour from the prescription isodose volume. Most of these compromises or 'suboptimal' plans achieved growth control. Growth control could not be related to conformity indices or to various measures of the radiation dose received by the meningioma. Examining recurrences, 75% arose from dura outside the original treatment field. These findings are discussed in terms of dose prescription protocols and the use of conformity indices in planning. The importance of the dural origin of meningiomas is well established in surgical practice, as reflected by Simpson's grades, but may be equally significant in radiosurgical practice.

  18. Elevated levels of ferrimagnetic metals in foodchains supporting the Guam cluster of neurodegeneration: do metal nucleated crystal contaminants [corrected] evoke magnetic fields that initiate the progressive pathogenesis of neurodegeneration?

    PubMed

    Purdey, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Elevated levels of aluminium (Al), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) cations - combined with deficiencies of magnesium (Mg)/calcium (Ca) - have been observed in the foodchains that traditionally support the Chamorro populations affected by high incidence clusters of Alzheimer (AD), Parkinson-like (PD), motor neurone diseases and multiple sclerosis on the island of Guam. Soils drawn from the cluster region demonstrated an excessive fivefold increase in 'magnetic susceptibility' readings in relation to soils from disease free adjoining regions. A multifactorial aetiological hypothesis is proposed that pivots upon the combined exposure to high levels of natural/industrial sources of ferrimagnetic/ferroelectric compounds incorporating Al, Fe, Mn, Sr, Ba (e.g., via yam/seafood consumption or exposure to world war 2 (WW2) munitions) and to low levels of Mg/Ca in all S. Pacific locations where these clusters of neurodegenerative disease have simultaneously erupted. Once gut/blood brain barrier permeability is impaired, the increased uptake of Al, Fe, Sr, Ba, or Mn into the Mg/Ca depleted brain leads to rogue metal substitutions at the Mg/Ca vacated binding domains on various enzyme/proteoglycan groups, causing a broad ranging disruption in Mg/Ca dependent systems - such as the glutamine synthetase which prevents the accumulation of neurotoxic glutamate. The rogue metals chelate sulphate, disrupting sulphated-proteoglycan mediated inhibition of crystal proliferation, as well as its regulation of the Fibroblast growth factor receptor complex which disturbs the molecular conformation of those receptors and their regulation of transphosphorylation between intracellular kinase domains; ultimately collapsing proteoglycan mediated cell-cell signalling pathways which maintain the growth and structural integrity of the neuronal networks. The depression of Mg/Ca dependent systems in conjunction with the progressive ferrimagnetisation of the CNS due to an

  19. Very Late Stent Thrombosis After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Bare-Metal and Drug-Eluting Stents for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, Bruce; Pokharel, Yashashwi; Fleishman, Nathan; Bensimhon, Adam; Kissling, Grace; Hansen, Charles; Milks, Sally; Cooper, Michael; McAlhany, Christopher; Stuckey, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of very late stent thrombosis (VLST) after stenting with bare-metal stents (BMS) and drug-eluting stents (DES) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Background Stent thrombosis occurs more frequently after stenting for STEMI than after elective stenting, but there are little data regarding VLST. Methods Consecutive patients (n = 1,463) who underwent stenting for STEMI were prospectively enrolled in our database. BMS were implanted exclusively from 1995 to 2002, and DES and BMS were implanted from 2003 to 2009. Follow-up was obtained at 1 to 15 years. Results Bare-metal stent patients (n = 1,095) were older and had more shock, whereas DES patients (n = 368) had more diabetes and smaller vessels. Stent thrombosis occurred in 107 patients, of which 42 were VLST (>1 year). Stent thrombosis continued to increase to at least 11 years with BMS and to at least 4.5 years with DES. Stent thrombosis rates with BMS versus DES were similar at 1 year (5.1% and 4.0%, respectively) but increased more with DES after the first year (1.9%/year vs. 0.6%/year, respectively). Landmark analysis (>1 year) found DES had a higher frequency of VLST (p < 0.001) and reinfarction (p = 0.003). Drug-eluting stent was the only significant independent predictor of VLST (hazard ratio: 3.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.64 to 8.79, p = 0.002). Conclusions Very late stent thrombosis after primary PCI for STEMI occurs with relatively high frequency to at least 11 years with BMS and to at least 4.5 years with DES. Very late stent thrombosis and reinfarction (>1 year) were more frequent with DES. New strategies are needed to manage this problem. PMID:21251626

  20. Compromises in career-related decisions: examining the role of compromise severity.

    PubMed

    Wee, Serena

    2014-10-01

    This study tested L. S. Gottfredson's (1996) revised compromise theory by examining whether the relative importance of job sex type, job prestige, and person-job interest congruence for predicting job choice changed as the level of compromise required changed. The fully within-persons design had participants engage in a simulated occupational choice task where job sex type and job prestige were manipulated to be experimentally independent. Participants 1st categorized jobs as unacceptable, acceptable, or preferred. Then, within each category, they made further pairwise choices among jobs in that category. In Study 1, participants were 168 college seniors (124 women, 44 men) from a large Midwestern university. In Study 2, participants were 262 (146 women, 116 men) individuals residing in the United States and recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk platform. Across both studies, job sex type predicted choice when large compromises were required. Across both studies, job prestige did not predict choice when moderate compromises were required. In Study 2 but not Study 1, person-job interest congruence predicted choice when minimal compromises were required.

  1. ELEVATING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Frederick, H.S.; Kinsella, M.A.

    1959-02-24

    An elevator is described, which is arranged for movement both in a horizontal and in a vertical direction so that the elevating mechanism may be employed for servicing equipment at separated points in a plant. In accordance with the present invention, the main elevator chassis is suspended from a monorail. The chassis, in turn supports a vertically moveable carriage, a sub- carriage vertically moveable on the carriage, and a turntable carried by the sub- carriage and moveable through an arc of 90 with the equipment attached thereto. In addition, the chassis supports all the means required to elevate or rotate the equipment.

  2. The dental management of medically compromised patients.

    PubMed

    Goss, A N

    1984-12-01

    There is an increasing population of apparently well, but in fact medically compromised people in the community. Most will require dental treatment at some stage and will usually seek it away from a hospital environment. In a recent survey of a general dental practice in Australia it was found that up to 55 per cent of some age groups had concurrent medical problems. Thus there is a real risk that adverse interactions between medical conditions and dental treatment may occur--on some occasions, even fatal ones. It is not possible for any one individual to know the details of all medical conditions, their treatment and the possible interactions with dental treatment. However, by the application of some sound general principles the risks of any potential interactions can be evaluated. The essential steps are: knowledge of the medical history of all patients; knowledge of the potential interactions; and knowledge of the management of medical emergencies. These principles will be discussed and illustrated by examples of medically compromised patients who may experience common or potentially serious sequelae as a result of dental treatment.

  3. 40 CFR 13.26 - Payment of compromised claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... will be required to execute a confess-judgment agreement which accelerates payment of the balance due... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment of compromised claims. 13.26... STANDARDS Compromise of Debts § 13.26 Payment of compromised claims. The Administrator normally will...

  4. 40 CFR 13.26 - Payment of compromised claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... will be required to execute a confess-judgment agreement which accelerates payment of the balance due... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of compromised claims. 13.26... STANDARDS Compromise of Debts § 13.26 Payment of compromised claims. The Administrator normally will...

  5. Morgellons: contested illness, diagnostic compromise and medicalisation.

    PubMed

    Fair, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The case of Morgellons illustrates how the emergence of a new medically contested illness intersected with and impacted on the diagnostic processes of an existing uncontested psychiatric condition, Delusional Parasitosis (DP). More specifically, the sociopolitical processes at play in the contested illness, Morgellons, dubiously reflect patient empowerment, as well the resilience and power of medical jurisdiction. This research offers insights into the contested illness and medicalisation literatures, and aims to bridge these two approaches towards the relationship between patient empowerment and medical authority, which I do through the notion of doctor-patient compromise. The data for this research come from a comprehensive qualitative analysis of Morgellons discourse through four key sources: the pro-Morgellons website Morgellons.org; the anti-Morgellons website Morgellonswatch.com; the popular media's portrayal of Morgellons; and the DP and Morgellons articles published in peer-reviewed medical journals, as made available on PubMed.

  6. Protection characteristics of a Faraday cage compromised by lightning burnthrough.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Bystrom, Edward; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Montoya, Sandra L.; Merewether, Kimball O.; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Martinez, Leonard E.; Jojola, John M.

    2012-01-01

    A lightning flash consists of multiple, high-amplitude but short duration return strokes. Between the return strokes is a lower amplitude, continuing current which flows for longer duration. If the walls of a Faraday cage are made of thin enough metal, the continuing current can melt a hole through the metal in a process called burnthrough. A subsequent return stroke can couple energy through this newly-formed hole. This LDRD is a study of the protection provided by a Faraday cage when it has been compromised by burnthrough. We initially repeated some previous experiments and expanded on them in terms of scope and diagnostics to form a knowledge baseline of the coupling phenomena. We then used a combination of experiment, analysis and numerical modeling to study four coupling mechanisms: indirect electric field coupling, indirect magnetic field coupling, conduction through plasma and breakdown through the hole. We discovered voltages higher than those encountered in the previous set of experiments (on the order of several hundreds of volts).

  7. Environmentally persistent free radicals compromise left ventricular function during ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Brendan R.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in airborne particulate matter (PM) are linked to increased mortality from myocardial ischemia. PM contains environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) that form as halogenated hydrocarbons chemisorb to transition metal oxide-coated particles, and are capable of sustained redox cycling. We hypothesized that exposure to the EPFR DCB230 would increase cardiac vulnerability to subsequent myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Rats were exposed to DCB230 or vehicle via nose-only inhalation (230 μg max/day) over 30 min/day for 7 days. MI/R or sham MI/R (sham) was initiated 24 h after the final exposure. Following 1 or 7 days of reperfusion, left ventricular (LV) function was assessed and infarct size measured. In vehicle-exposed rats, MI/R injury did not significantly reduce cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), stroke work (SW), end-diastolic volume (EDV), or end-systolic volume (ESV) after 1 day of reperfusion, despite significant reductions in end-systolic pressure (ESP). Preload-recruitable SW (PRSW; contractility) was elevated, presumably to maintain LV function. MI/R 1-day rats exposed to DCB230 also had similarly reduced ESP. Compared with vehicle controls, CO, SV, and SW were significantly reduced in DCB230-exposed MI/R 1-day rats; moreover, PRSW did not increase. DCB230’s effects on LV function dissipated within 8 days of exposure. These data show that inhalation of EPFRs can exacerbate the deficits in LV function produced by subsequent MI/R injury. Infarct size was not different between the MI/R groups. We conclude that inhalation of EPFRs can compromise cardiac function during MI/R injury and may help to explain the link between PM and MI/R-related mortality. PMID:25681431

  8. Zinc reduces epithelial barrier compromise induced by human seminal plasma

    PubMed Central

    Mullin, James M.; Diguilio, Katherine M.; Valenzano, Mary C.; Deis, Rachael; Thomas, Sunil; Zurbach, E. Peter; Abdulhaqq, Shaheed; Montaner, Luis J.

    2017-01-01

    Human semen has the potential to modulate the epithelial mucosal tissues it contacts, as seminal plasma (SP) is recognized to contain both pro- and anti-barrier components, yet its effects on epithelial barrier function are largely unknown. We addressed the role of human SP when exposed to the basal-lateral epithelial surface, a situation that would occur clinically with prior mechanical or disease-related injury of the human epithelial mucosal cell layers in contact with semen. The action of SP on claudins-2, -4, -5, and -7 expression, as well as on a target epithelium whose basolateral surface has been made accessible to SP, showed upregulation of claudins-4 and -5 in CACO-2 human epithelial cell layers, despite broad variance in SP-induced modulation of transepithelial electrical resistance and mannitol permeability. Upregulation of claudin-2 by SP also exhibited such variance by SP sample. We characterize individual effects on CACO-2 barrier function of nine factors known to be present abundantly in seminal plasma (zinc, EGF, citrate, spermine, fructose, urea, TGF, histone, inflammatory cytokines) to establish that zinc, spermine and fructose had significant potential to raise CACO-2 transepithelial resistance, whereas inflammatory cytokines and EGF decreased this measure of barrier function. The role of zinc as a dominant factor in determining higher levels of transepithelial resistance and lower levels of paracellular leak were confirmed by zinc chelation and exogenous zinc addition. As expected, SP presentation to the basolateral cell surface also caused a very dramatic yet transient elevation of pErk levels. Results suggest that increased zinc content in SP can compete against the barrier-compromising effect of negative modulators in SP when SP gains access to that epithelium’s basolateral surface. Prophylactic elevation of zinc in an epithelial cell layer prior to contact by SP may help to protect an epithelial barrier from invasion by SP-containing STD

  9. Compromised natural killer cells in pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Qiang; Shen, Yuqin; Song, Haoming; Gong, Zhu; Wang, Lemin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The high morbidity, mortality and misdiagnosis rate render pulmonary embolism (PE) as a worldwide health problem. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease have not been well characterized. Increasing studies indicate infection and immunity play a crucial role in PE. Natural killer (NK) cells act as a bridge between the innate immune and acquired immune. This study aimed to investigate the possible function of NK cells in PE. Methods: Human cDNA microarray analysis was employed to detect genes associated with NK cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Random variance model corrected t-test was used for statistical analysis of differential gene expression. Flow cytometry was performed to detect the CD16+CD56+ NK cells. Results: In the present study, based on gene expression microarray analysis, we showed four inhibitory receptors (KLRB1, KLRD1, KLRF1, KLRG1) and four activating receptors (KLRC1, KLRC3, KLRK1 and NCR1) on NK cells were remarkably down-regulated and the cytological experiment demonstrated the proportion of CD16+CD56+ NK cells among PBMCs decreased in the PE group. Conclusions: We confirmed the presence of reduced expression of critical activating as well as inhibitory NK cell receptors and low proportion of CD16+CD56+ NK cells in PE. The consistence between genomic and cytological examination suggests compromised NK cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of PE. PMID:26339393

  10. Morphine induces albuminuria by compromising podocyte integrity.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xiqian; Rai, Partab; Chandel, Nirupama; Cheng, Kang; Lederman, Rivka; Saleem, Moin A; Mathieson, Peter W; Husain, Mohammad; Crosson, John T; Gupta, Kalpna; Malhotra, Ashwani; Singhal, Pravin C

    2013-01-01

    Morphine has been reported to accelerate the progression of chronic kidney disease. However, whether morphine affects slit diaphragm (SD), the major constituent of glomerular filtration barrier, is still unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of morphine on glomerular filtration barrier in general and podocyte integrity in particular. Mice were administered either normal saline or morphine for 72 h, then urine samples were collected and kidneys were subsequently isolated for immunohistochemical studies and Western blot. For in vitro studies, human podocytes were treated with morphine and then probed for the molecular markers of slit diaphragm. Morphine-receiving mice displayed a significant increase in albuminuria and showed effacement of podocyte foot processes. In both in vivo and in vitro studies, the expression of synaptopodin, a molecular marker for podocyte integrity, and the slit diaphragm constituting molecules (SDCM), such as nephrin, podocin, and CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), were decreased in morphine-treated podocytes. In vitro studies indicated that morphine modulated podocyte expression of SDCM through opiate mu (MOR) and kappa (KOR) receptors. Since morphine also enhanced podocyte oxidative stress, the latter seems to contribute to decreased SDCM expression. In addition, AKT, p38, and JNK pathways were involved in morphine-induced down regulation of SDCM in human podocytes. These findings demonstrate that morphine has the potential to alter the glomerular filtration barrier by compromising the integrity of podocytes.

  11. Female genital alteration: a compromise solution.

    PubMed

    Arora, Kavita Shah; Jacobs, Allan J

    2016-03-01

    Despite 30 years of advocacy, the prevalence of non-therapeutic female genital alteration (FGA) in minors is stable in many countries. Educational efforts have minimally changed the prevalence of this procedure in regions where it has been widely practiced. In order to better protect female children from the serious and long-term harms of some types of non-therapeutic FGA, we must adopt a more nuanced position that acknowledges a wide spectrum of procedures that alter female genitalia. We offer a revised categorisation for non-therapeutic FGA that groups procedures by effect and not by process. Acceptance of de minimis procedures that generally do not carry long-term medical risks is culturally sensitive, does not discriminate on the basis of gender, and does not violate human rights. More morbid procedures should not be performed. However, accepting de minimis non-therapeutic f FGA procedures enhances the effort of compassionate practitioners searching for a compromise position that respects cultural differences but protects the health of their patients.

  12. Elevated p66Shc is associated with intracellular redox imbalance in developmentally compromised bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Bain, Nathan T; Madan, Pavneesh; Betts, Dean H

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro production of mammalian embryos suffers from low efficiency, with 50-70% of all fertilized oocytes failing to develop to the blastocyst stage. This high rate of developmental failure is due, in part, to the effects of oxidative stress generated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The p66Shc adaptor protein controls oxidative stress response by regulating intracellular ROS levels through multiple pathways, including mitochondrial ROS generation and the repression of antioxidants. This study explored the relationship between p66Shc levels, redox state, and developmental potential in early bovine embryos. Embryo developmental potential was established based on observing their time of first cleavage. P66Shc, catalase, and mitochondrial-specific, manganese-superoxide dismutate (MnSOD) levels were compared between embryos with high and low developmental potentials. Additionally, p66Shc, catalase, and MnSOD content were assayed following a variety of oxidative stress-inducing and-alleviating conditions. Increased developmental potential correlated with significantly lower p66Shc content, significantly higher levels of catalase and MnSOD, and significantly lower intracellular ROS levels (MitoSOX staining) and reduced DNA damage (γ-H2A.X(phospho S139) immunostaining). p66Shc content was increased by either high (20%) O(2) culture or H(2)O(2) treatment, and significantly decreased by supplementing culture media with the antioxidant polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase. While the abundance of p66Shc varied according to pro/anti-oxidant culture conditions, antioxidant content varied only according to developmental potential. This discrepancy has important implications regarding ongoing efforts towards maximizing in vitro embryo production.

  13. Elevated [CO2] compromises both Type I and Type II wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the world’s most devastating wheat diseases, and results in significant yield loss and contamination of grain with harmful mycotoxins called trichothecenes. Despite emerging risks of increased mycotoxin contamination in food and feed associated with climate chang...

  14. Surface metallization on Si(001) at elevated temperatures studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure: Effect of thermal adatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, C.; Hwang, C. C.; Kang, T.-H.; Kim, K.-J.; Kim, B.; Kim, Y.; Noh, D. Y.; Park, C.-Y.

    2009-10-01

    We report the metallization of the Si(001)2×1 surface at elevated temperatures using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). A metallic state (Sm) over the EF , which corresponds to the empty (π∗) state of the 2×1 asymmetric dimer model, increases in the ARPES spectra, while the π∗ state decreases in the NEXAFS spectra with increasing temperature. Since Sm is observed even at 400 K, the structural phase transition at ˜900K [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 126103 (2003); Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3869 (1996)] is not related to the metallization. Thermal excitation seems to be too small to detect in ARPES in initial stage of the metallization and cannot account for the different behavior of Sm and the filled surface state of the up-dimer upon oxidation. We suggest, based on the existence of Sm even at 400 K and the oxidation behavior, that the metallization is attributed to thermal adatoms.

  15. 32 CFR 757.19 - Waiver and compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS Medical Care Recovery Act (MCRA) Claims and Claims Asserted Pursuant to 10 U.S.C. 1095 § 757.19 Waiver and compromise. (a) General. OJAG Code 15 (Claims and Tort Litigation) may authorize waiver or... with Code 15 approval. (b) Waiver and compromise. The JAG designee may waive the Federal...

  16. 19 CFR 161.5 - Compromise of Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Compromise of Government claims. 161.5 Section 161... Government claims. (a) Offer. An offer made pursuant to section 617, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1617), in compromise of a Government claim arising under the Customs laws and the terms upon which...

  17. 41 CFR 105-55.020 - Bases for compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... risks involved, GSA will consider the probable amount of court costs and attorney fees pursuant to the... for repayment in the manner set forth in § 105-55.015. (g) To assess the merits of a compromise offer... financial information to assess compromise offers. GSA may use their own financial information form or...

  18. 38 CFR 1.970 - Standards for compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Committee respecting acceptance or rejection of a compromise offer shall be in conformity with the standards in §§ 1.930 through 1.936. In loan guaranty cases the offer of a veteran or other obligor to effect a... shall be reviewed by the Committee. An offer to effect a compromise may be accepted if it is...

  19. 26 CFR 300.3 - Offer to compromise fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... taxpayer if the offer is accepted, rejected, withdrawn, or returned as nonprocessable after acceptance for... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offer to compromise fee. 300.3 Section 300.3... ADMINISTRATION USER FEES § 300.3 Offer to compromise fee. (a) Applicability. This section applies to...

  20. Implant surgery in healthy compromised patients-review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Gheorghiu, IM; Stoian, IM

    2014-01-01

    Systemic diseases are of major importance in terms of prosthetic restorations supported by dental implants in healthy compromised patients. Each treatment stage from conception of the treatment plan to the long-term monitoring is under the necessity of the interdisciplinary approach to the underlying disease. Abbreviations: healthy compromised patients = HCP PMID:25870664

  1. 5 CFR 1312.30 - Loss or possible compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loss or possible compromise. 1312.30 Section 1312.30 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION... Classified Information § 1312.30 Loss or possible compromise. Any person who has knowledge of the loss...

  2. 38 CFR 42.46 - Compromise and settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compromise and settlement. 42.46 Section 42.46 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.46 Compromise and settlement. (a)...

  3. 38 CFR 42.46 - Compromise and settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compromise and settlement. 42.46 Section 42.46 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.46 Compromise and settlement. (a)...

  4. A Modified Johnson-Cook Model for Sheet Metal Forming at Elevated Temperatures and Its Application for Cooled Stress-Strain Curve and Spring-Back Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Duc-Toan, Nguyen; Tien-Long, Banh; Young-Suk, Kim; Dong-Won, Jung

    2011-08-22

    In this study, a modified Johnson-Cook (J-C) model and an innovated method to determine (J-C) material parameters are proposed to predict more correctly stress-strain curve for tensile tests in elevated temperatures. A MATLAB tool is used to determine material parameters by fitting a curve to follow Ludwick's hardening law at various elevated temperatures. Those hardening law parameters are then utilized to determine modified (J-C) model material parameters. The modified (J-C) model shows the better prediction compared to the conventional one. As the first verification, an FEM tensile test simulation based on the isotropic hardening model for boron sheet steel at elevated temperatures was carried out via a user-material subroutine, using an explicit finite element code, and compared with the measurements. The temperature decrease of all elements due to the air cooling process was then calculated when considering the modified (J-C) model and coded to VUMAT subroutine for tensile test simulation of cooling process. The modified (J-C) model showed the good agreement between the simulation results and the corresponding experiments. The second investigation was applied for V-bending spring-back prediction of magnesium alloy sheets at elevated temperatures. Here, the combination of proposed J-C model with modified hardening law considering the unusual plastic behaviour for magnesium alloy sheet was adopted for FEM simulation of V-bending spring-back prediction and shown the good comparability with corresponding experiments.

  5. A Modified Johnson-Cook Model for Sheet Metal Forming at Elevated Temperatures and Its Application for Cooled Stress-Strain Curve and Spring-Back Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc-Toan, Nguyen; Tien-Long, Banh; Young-Suk, Kim; Dong-Won, Jung

    2011-08-01

    In this study, a modified Johnson-Cook (J-C) model and an innovated method to determine (J-C) material parameters are proposed to predict more correctly stress-strain curve for tensile tests in elevated temperatures. A MATLAB tool is used to determine material parameters by fitting a curve to follow Ludwick's hardening law at various elevated temperatures. Those hardening law parameters are then utilized to determine modified (J-C) model material parameters. The modified (J-C) model shows the better prediction compared to the conventional one. As the first verification, an FEM tensile test simulation based on the isotropic hardening model for boron sheet steel at elevated temperatures was carried out via a user-material subroutine, using an explicit finite element code, and compared with the measurements. The temperature decrease of all elements due to the air cooling process was then calculated when considering the modified (J-C) model and coded to VUMAT subroutine for tensile test simulation of cooling process. The modified (J-C) model showed the good agreement between the simulation results and the corresponding experiments. The second investigation was applied for V-bending spring-back prediction of magnesium alloy sheets at elevated temperatures. Here, the combination of proposed J-C model with modified hardening law considering the unusual plastic behaviour for magnesium alloy sheet was adopted for FEM simulation of V-bending spring-back prediction and shown the good comparability with corresponding experiments.

  6. The Effect of Metal Composition on Fe-Ni Partition Behavior between Olivine and FeNi-Metal, FeNi-Carbide, FeNi-Sulfide at Elevated Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzheid, Astrid; Grove, Timothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Metal-olivine Fe-Ni exchange distribution coefficients were determined at 1500 C over the pressure range of 1 to 9 GPa for solid and liquid alloy compositions. The metal alloy composition was varied with respect to the Fe/Ni ratio and the amount of dissolved carbon and sulfur. The Fe/Ni ratio of the metal phase exercises an important control on the abundance of Ni in the olivine. The Ni abundance in the olivine decreases as the Fe/Ni ratio of the coexisting metal increases. The presence of carbon (up to approx. 3.5 wt.%) and sulfur (up to approx. 7.5 wt.%) in solution in the liquid Fe-Ni-metal phase has a minor effect on the partitioning of Fe and Ni between metal and olivine phases. No pressure dependence of the Fe-Ni-metal-olivine exchange behavior in carbon- and sulfur-free and carbon- and sulfur-containing systems was found within the investigated pressure range. To match the Ni abundance in terrestrial mantle olivine, assuming an equilibrium metal-olivine distribution, a sub-chondritic Fe/Ni-metal ratio that is a factor of 17 to 27 lower than the Fe/Ni ratios in estimated Earth core compositions would be required, implying higher Fe concentrations in the core forming metal phase. A simple metal-olivine equilibrium distribution does not seem to be feasible to explain the Ni abundances in the Earth's mantle. An equilibrium between metal and olivine does not exercise a control on the problem of Ni overabundance in the Earth's mantle. The experimental results do not contradict the presence of a magma ocean at the time of terrestrial core formation, if olivine was present in only minor amounts at the time of metal segregation.

  7. Elevation changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A. S.; Marshall, G.A.; Carver, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Elevation changes, as well as horizontal displacements of the Earth's surface, are an expected consequence of dip-slip displacement on earthquake faults. the rock surrounding and overlying the fault is forced to stretch and bend to accommodate fault slip. Slip in the case of the April 25 mainshock is thought to have occurred on a gently inclined plane dipping to the northeast at a small angle (see article on preliminary seismological results in this issue).The associated fault-plane solution implies that rock overlying the fault plane (the hanging-wall block west and south of the epicenter) rose and shifted to the northeast. The map on the next page shows the location of the epicenter and approximate extent of uplift and subsidence derived from estimates of the geometry, location. and slip on the buried fault plane. 

  8. Growth and metal removal potential of a Phormidium bigranulatum-dominated mat following long-term exposure to elevated levels of copper.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhananjay; Gaur, J P

    2014-09-01

    The present study explores the tolerance and metal removal response of a well-developed 2-week-old Phormidium mat after long-term exposure to Cu(2+)-enriched medium. Cu(2+) enrichment inhibited increase in mat biomass in a concentration-dependent manner. Mat area and the number of entrapped air bubbles decreased as Cu(2+) concentration increased in the medium. Decrease in number of air bubbles obviously reflects the adverse effect of Cu(2+) on photosynthetic performance of the mat. Metal enrichment did not substantially alter the amount of pigments, such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, and phycocyanin, in the mat. Enhancement of Cu(2+) concentration in the medium led to changes in species composition of the test mat; however, Phormidium bigranulatum always remained the dominant organism. Relative share of green algae and some cyanobacterial taxa, namely, Lyngbya sp. and Oscillatoria tenuis, in the mat were increased by Cu(2+) enrichment. The mat successfully removed 80 to 94 % Cu(2+) from the growth medium containing 10 to 100 μM Cu(2+). Extracellular polysaccharides, whose share increased in the mat community after metal addition, seem to have contributed substantially to metal binding by the mat biomass.

  9. 15 CFR 904.106 - Compromise of civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be sent to Agency counsel at the address specified in the NOVA. (c) Neither the existence of the... which a NOVA becomes final. (d) NOAA will not compromise, modify, or remit a civil penalty assessed,...

  10. 15 CFR 904.106 - Compromise of civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... be sent to Agency counsel at the address specified in the NOVA. (c) Neither the existence of the... which a NOVA becomes final. (d) NOAA will not compromise, modify, or remit a civil penalty assessed,...

  11. 15 CFR 904.106 - Compromise of civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be sent to Agency counsel at the address specified in the NOVA. (c) Neither the existence of the... which a NOVA becomes final. (d) NOAA will not compromise, modify, or remit a civil penalty assessed,...

  12. 15 CFR 904.106 - Compromise of civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be sent to Agency counsel at the address specified in the NOVA. (c) Neither the existence of the... which a NOVA becomes final. (d) NOAA will not compromise, modify, or remit a civil penalty assessed,...

  13. 15 CFR 904.106 - Compromise of civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be sent to Agency counsel at the address specified in the NOVA. (c) Neither the existence of the... which a NOVA becomes final. (d) NOAA will not compromise, modify, or remit a civil penalty assessed,...

  14. 22 CFR 213.25 - Standards for compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other evidentiary data required to support the Government's claim. In determining the litigative risks.... (d) To assess the merits of a compromise offer, USAID may obtain a current financial statement...

  15. 32 CFR 2400.33 - Loss or possible compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... measures taken to negate or minimize any adverse effect of the compromise. (b) The Security Officer shall initiate an inquiry to: (1) Determine cause, (2) Place responsibility, and (3) Take corrective measures...

  16. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sucking thus creating a "wink" when chewing or sucking. Is Monocular Elevation Deficiency associated with other diseases or developmental problems? There is no known association between Monocular Elevation ...

  17. Response of Tribolium castaneum to elevated copper concentrations is influenced by history of metal exposure, sex-specific defences, and infection by the parasite Steinernema feltiae.

    PubMed

    Kramarz, Paulina E; Mordarska, Anna; Mroczka, Magdalena

    2014-07-01

    We studied how copper toxicity in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum changed as a result of infection by the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae. Measured traits were: respiration, growth and survival, as well as the concentrations of copper within beetle tissues and in its diet. By comparing F1 and F5 generation we were able to answer how long-term metal exposure changed the responses to both copper and the parasite. The beetles did accumulate copper; however, the results indicated that copper concentrations in beetle tissues were affected by nematode infection, the sex of the experimental animals, and the number of generations of exposure. Five generations of exposure to copper resulted in the highest dry body mass of infected beetles of both sexes; additionally, this group also had the lowest copper concentrations in their tissues. The only factor that had a significant effect on respiration was infection by nematodes: infected beetles of both sexes in both generational groups had significantly decreased respiration rates. Survival was lowest in nematode-infected animals of both sexes from both generations, regardless of exposure to copper. Our results confirm that an organism's response to metal pollution is dependent on its health status and sex. We also found that the history of exposure to metal was equally important-we found enhanced resistance to copper intoxication after only five generations of exposure.

  18. The 'Nuts and Bolts' of 13C NMR Spectroscopy at Elevated-Pressures and -Temperatures for Monitoring In Situ CO2 Conversion to Metal Carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. K.; Surface, J. A.; Skemer, P. A.; Conradi, M. S.; Hayes, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    We will present details of newly-constructed specialized NMR designed to conduct in situ elevated-pressure, elevated-temperature 13C NMR studies on unmixed slurries of minerals in the presence of CO2 or other gases. This static probe is capable of achieving 300 bar, 300C conditions, and it is designed to spectroscopically examine 13C signals in mixtures of solids, liquids, gases, and supercritical fluids. Ultimately, our aim is to monitor CO2 uptake in both ultramafic rocks and in more porous geological materials to understand the mechanisms of chemisorption as a function of temperature, pressure and pH. We will give details of the hardware setup, and we will show a variety of static in situ NMR, as well as ex situ 'magic-angle spinning' NMR to show the analyses that are possible of minerals in pure form and in mixtures. In addition, specific NMR pulse sequences, techniques, and modeling will be described in detail. In this in situ NMR probe, we are able to simulate processes at geologically relevant fluid pressures and temperatures, monitoring the kinetics of CO2 conversion to carbonates. The in situ NMR experiments consist of heterogeneous mixtures of rock, salty brine solution, and moderate pressure CO2 gas at elevated temperatures. The purpose of studying these reactions is to determine conditions that affect the efficacy of carbonate formation in various targeted geological reservoirs (i.e., peroditite, or others). Via 13C NMR, we have spectroscopically characterized and quantified the conversion of CO2 to magnesium carbonate and calcium carbonate minerals, including metastable intermediates (such as hydromagnesite, or dypingite in the case of magnesium carbonate species, or vaterite in the case of calcium carbonate species). Such species are distinguishable from a combination of the 13C isotropic chemical shift, the static 13C lineshape, and changes in spin-lattice (T1) relaxation times. We will demonstrate that NMR can be used for quantitative

  19. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Elevated Temperature Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) Alloy and Its Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, David C.; Gegal, Gerald A.

    2014-04-15

    The objective of this project was to provide a production capable cast aluminum metal matrix composite (MMC) alloy with an operating temperature capability of 250-300°C. Important industrial sectors as well as the military now seek lightweight aluminum alloy castings that can operate in temperature ranges of 250-300°C. Current needs in this temperature range are being satisfied by the use of titanium alloy castings. These have the desired strength properties but the end components are heavier and significantly more costly. Also, the energy requirements for production of titanium alloy castings are significantly higher than those required for production of aluminum alloys and aluminum alloy castings.

  20. Compromising positions: emergent neo-Fordisms and embedded gender contracts.

    PubMed

    Gottfried, H

    2000-06-01

    This paper adopts a regulation framework to chart the emergence of neo-Fordism as a flexible accumulation regime and mode of social regulation. Neo-Fordism relies on old Fordist principles as well as incorporating new models of emergent post-Fordisms; old and new social relationships, in their particular combination, specify the trajectory of national variants. I argue that Fordist bargains institutionalized the terms of a compromise between labour, capital and the state. These bargains embedded a male-breadwinner gender contract compromising women's positions and standardizing employment contracts around the needs, interests and authority of men. A focus on compromises and contracts makes visible the differentiated gender effects of work transformation in each country.

  1. The acute abdomen in the immune compromised host

    PubMed Central

    Power, Niall

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Recent advances in transplantation, oncology and AIDS therapy have greatly increased life expectancies of patients diagnosed with malignancy, auto-immune disorders and organ failure. However, as this immune compromised population grows, complications of such therapies have become a major source of morbidity and mortality. Classical clinical and laboratory evidence of intra-abdominal pathology may be absent in the immune compromised host. Consequently, the radiologist is increasingly called upon to diagnose acute intra-abdominal complications associated with immunodeficiency. This review explores the aetiology of the acute abdomen in the immune compromised host. The typical radiological appearances of the commonest conditions are illustrated. The challenges and limitations in the radiological diagnosis of these conditions are discussed. PMID:18442955

  2. Alchemy or Science? Compromising Archaeology in the Deep Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    In the torrid debate between archaeology and treasure hunting, compromise is often suggested as the pragmatic solution, especially for archaeology carried out either in deep water or beyond the constraints that commonly regulate such activities in territorial seas. Both the wisdom and the need for such compromise have even been advocated by some archaeologists, particularly in forums such as the internet and conferences. This paper argues that such a compromise is impossible, not in order to fuel confrontation but simply because of the nature of any academic discipline. We can define what archaeology is in terms of its aims, theories, methods and ethics, so combining it with an activity founded on opposing principles must transform it into something else. The way forward for archaeology in the deep sea does not lie in a contradictory realignment of archaeology’s goals but in collaborative research designed to mesh with emerging national and regional research and management plans.

  3. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for the Compromised Graft or Flap

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Ashish; Baynosa, Richard C.

    2017-01-01

    Significance: Tissue grafts and flaps are used to reconstruct wounds from trauma, chronic disease, tumor extirpation, burns, and infection. Despite careful surgical planning and execution, reconstructive failure can occur due to poor wound beds, radiation, random flap necrosis, vascular insufficiency, or ischemia–reperfusion (IR). Traumatic avulsions and amputated composite tissues—compromised tissue—may fail from crush injury and excessively large sizes. While never intended, these complications result in tissue loss, additional surgery, accrued costs, and negative psychosocial patient effects. Recent Advances: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has demonstrated utility in the salvage of compromised grafts/flaps. It can increase the likelihood and effective size of composite graft survival, improve skin graft outcomes, and enhance flap survival. Mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects include increased oxygenation, improved fibroblast function, neovascularization, and amelioration of IR injury. Critical Issues: Common strategies for the compromised graft or flap include local wound care, surgical debridement, and repeated reconstruction. These modalities are associated with added costs, time, need for reoperation, morbidity, and psychosocial effects. Preservation of the amputated/avulsed tissues minimizes morbidity and maximizes the reconstructive outcome by salvaging the compromised tissue and obviating additional surgery. HBO is often overlooked as a potential tool that can limit these issues. Future Directions: Animal studies demonstrate a benefit of HBO in the treatment of compromised tissues. Clinical studies support these findings, but are limited to case reports and series. Further research is needed to provide multicenter prospective clinical studies and cost analyses comparing HBO to other adjunctive therapies in the treatment of compromised grafts/flaps. PMID:28116225

  4. Critical appraisal. Reversal of compromised bonding after bleaching.

    PubMed

    Swift, Edward J

    2012-10-01

    Bleaching with peroxide agents compromises the adhesion of resin-based materials to enamel and dentin. The problem is likely caused by delayed release of oxygen from the teeth that inhibits resin polymerization at the interface. The typical method for avoiding problems with bonding to bleached teeth is simply to delay the bonding procedure for a week or two after bleaching. However, there is evidence that bonding can be done immediately if bleaching is followed by the application of an antioxidant. This Critical Appraisal reviews some of the published reports on the reversal of compromised bonding after bleaching via the use of antioxidants such as sodium ascorbate.

  5. Fuzzy compromise: An effective way to solve hierarchical design problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, J. K.; Krishnamachari, R. S.; Masetta, J.; Pearce, D.; Rigby, D.; Mistree, F.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for modeling design problems using a compromise decision support problem (DSP) incorporating the principles embodied in fuzzy set theory. Specifically, the fuzzy compromise decision support problem is used to study hierarchical design problems. This approach has the advantage that although the system modeled has an element of uncertainty associated with it, the solution obtained is crisp and precise. The efficacy of incorporating fuzzy sets into the solution process is discussed in the context of results obtained for a portal frame.

  6. Codeswitching and Compromise Strategies: Implications for Lexical Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jake, Janice L.; Myers-Scotton, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Deals with two compromise strategies: (1) embedded language islands (EL Islands), and (2) "bare forms" in code switching (CS) within the projection of complementizer. These elements are discussed within the framework of the Matrix Language Frame Model. Shows how this model provides an explanatory account for the occurrence of both EL…

  7. 42 CFR 401.613 - Compromise of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compromise of claims. 401.613 Section 401.613 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... claim must— (1) Bear a reasonable relation to the amount of the claim; and (2) Be recoverable...

  8. 45 CFR 30.22 - Bases for compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bases for compromise. 30.22 Section 30.22 Public... an amount that bears a reasonable relation to the amount that can be recovered by enforced collection... amount claimed, either because of the legal issues involved or because of a bona fide dispute as to...

  9. Tissue response: biomaterials, dental implants, and compromised osseous tissue.

    PubMed

    Babu RS, Arvind; Ogle, Orrett

    2015-04-01

    Tissue response represents an important feature in biocompatibility in implant procedures. This review article highlights the fundamental characteristics of tissue response after the implant procedure. This article also highlights the tissue response in compromised osseous conditions. Understanding the histologic events after dental implants in normal and abnormal bone reinforces the concept of case selection in dental implants.

  10. 14 CFR 1261.414 - Compromise of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Department of Justice for litigation. The Comptroller General may exercise such compromise authority with... weight should be given to the probable amount of court costs and attorney fees pursuant to the Equal... the settlement of small claims, but normally will not carry great weight in the settlement of...

  11. 41 CFR 105-70.046 - Compromise or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compromise or settlement. 105-70.046 Section 105-70.046 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General...

  12. 32 CFR 310.50 - Lost, stolen, or compromised information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.50 Lost, stolen, or compromised... reported to: (1) The United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US CERT) within one hour of...., computer incident, theft, loss of material, etc.) shall continue to be reported in accordance...

  13. 32 CFR 310.50 - Lost, stolen, or compromised information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.50 Lost, stolen, or compromised... reported to: (1) The United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US CERT) within one hour of...., computer incident, theft, loss of material, etc.) shall continue to be reported in accordance...

  14. 32 CFR 2400.33 - Loss or possible compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Loss or possible compromise. 2400.33 Section 2400.33 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  15. 32 CFR 2400.33 - Loss or possible compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Loss or possible compromise. 2400.33 Section 2400.33 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  16. 32 CFR 2400.33 - Loss or possible compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loss or possible compromise. 2400.33 Section 2400.33 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  17. 32 CFR 2400.33 - Loss or possible compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Loss or possible compromise. 2400.33 Section 2400.33 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  18. Whatever It Takes: Health Compromising Behaviors in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Jennifer J.; Krane, Vikki

    2005-01-01

    The power and performance model of sport stresses a sport ethic of doing "whatever it takes" to win (Coakley, 2004). Uncritical acceptance of this model may lead to various health-compromising behaviors. Employing achievement goal theory, we examine why female athletes may adopt the power and performance approach. An ego motivational climate and a…

  19. CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE STUDIES IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RODENTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE STUDIES IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RODENTS. WP Watkinson1, LB Wichers2, JP Nolan1, DW Winsett1, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, LC Walsh1, ER Lappi1, D Terrell1, R Slade1, AD Ledbetter1, and DL Costa1. 1USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD/PTB, RTP, NC, US...

  20. An Item Response Model for Characterizing Test Compromise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Daniel O.

    2002-01-01

    Developed an item response model for characterizing test-compromise that enables the estimation of item preview and score-gain distributions. In the approach, models parameters and posterior distributions are estimated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedures. Simulation study results suggest that when at least some test items are known to be…

  1. 49 CFR 107.327 - Compromise and settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compromise and settlement. 107.327 Section 107.327 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... consent agreement to the Chief Counsel. If the Chief Counsel accepts the agreement, he issues an order...

  2. 49 CFR 107.327 - Compromise and settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compromise and settlement. 107.327 Section 107.327 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... consent agreement to the Chief Counsel. If the Chief Counsel accepts the agreement, he issues an order...

  3. 49 CFR 107.327 - Compromise and settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compromise and settlement. 107.327 Section 107.327 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... consent agreement to the Chief Counsel. If the Chief Counsel accepts the agreement, he issues an order...

  4. 17 CFR 143.5 - Collection by compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection by compromise. 143.5 Section 143.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES ARISING FROM ACTIVITIES UNDER THE COMMISSION'S JURISDICTION...

  5. 14 CFR 1261.414 - Compromise of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Justice. NASA should evaluate the offer, using the factors set forth in paragraphs (c) through (f) of this... offer of compromise which is substantial in amount and the agency is uncertain as to whether the offer should be accepted, it may refer the offer, the supporting data, and particulars concerning the claim...

  6. 22 CFR 213.25 - Standards for compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... proceedings. In evaluating the acceptability of the offer, the CFO may consider, among other factors, the... applicable exemptions available to the debtor under State and Federal law in determining the Government's ability to enforce collection. (b) USAID may compromise a claim, or recommend acceptance of a...

  7. Vehicle influence on permeation through intact and compromised skin.

    PubMed

    Gujjar, Meera; Banga, Ajay K

    2014-09-10

    The purpose of this study was to compare the transdermal permeation of a model compound, diclofenac diethylamine, from a hydrophilic and lipophilic vehicle across in vitro models simulating compromised skin. Mineral oil served as a lipophilic vehicle while 10mM phosphate buffered saline served as a hydrophilic vehicle. Compromised skin was simulated by tape stripping, delipidization, or microneedle application and compared with intact skin as a control. Transepidermal water loss was measured to assess barrier function. Skin compromised with tape stripping and delipidization significantly (p<0.05) increased permeation of diclofenac diethylamine compared to intact and microneedle treated skin with phosphate buffered saline vehicle. A similar trend in permeation was observed with mineral oil as the vehicle. For both vehicles, permeation across skin increased in the same order and correlated with degree of barrier impairment as indicated by transepidermal water loss values: intactcompromised skin.

  8. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  9. 2-Sulfonylpyrimidines: Mild alkylating agents with anticancer activity toward p53-compromised cells

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Matthias R.; Joerger, Andreas C.; Fersht, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 has the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers. Many of p53’s oncogenic mutants are just destabilized and rapidly aggregate, and are targets for stabilization by drugs. We found certain 2-sulfonylpyrimidines, including one named PK11007, to be mild thiol alkylators with anticancer activity in several cell lines, especially those with mutationally compromised p53. PK11007 acted by two routes: p53 dependent and p53 independent. PK11007 stabilized p53 in vitro via selective alkylation of two surface-exposed cysteines without compromising its DNA binding activity. Unstable p53 was reactivated by PK11007 in some cancer cell lines, leading to up-regulation of p53 target genes such as p21 and PUMA. More generally, there was cell death that was independent of p53 but dependent on glutathione depletion and associated with highly elevated levels of reactive oxygen species and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as also found for the anticancer agent PRIMA-1MET(APR-246). PK11007 may be a lead for anticancer drugs that target cells with nonfunctional p53 or impaired reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification in a wide variety of mutant p53 cells. PMID:27551077

  10. 2-Sulfonylpyrimidines: Mild alkylating agents with anticancer activity toward p53-compromised cells.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Matthias R; Joerger, Andreas C; Fersht, Alan R

    2016-09-06

    The tumor suppressor p53 has the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers. Many of p53's oncogenic mutants are just destabilized and rapidly aggregate, and are targets for stabilization by drugs. We found certain 2-sulfonylpyrimidines, including one named PK11007, to be mild thiol alkylators with anticancer activity in several cell lines, especially those with mutationally compromised p53. PK11007 acted by two routes: p53 dependent and p53 independent. PK11007 stabilized p53 in vitro via selective alkylation of two surface-exposed cysteines without compromising its DNA binding activity. Unstable p53 was reactivated by PK11007 in some cancer cell lines, leading to up-regulation of p53 target genes such as p21 and PUMA. More generally, there was cell death that was independent of p53 but dependent on glutathione depletion and associated with highly elevated levels of reactive oxygen species and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as also found for the anticancer agent PRIMA-1(MET)(APR-246). PK11007 may be a lead for anticancer drugs that target cells with nonfunctional p53 or impaired reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification in a wide variety of mutant p53 cells.

  11. Artemisinin mimics calorie restriction to trigger mitochondrial biogenesis and compromise telomere shortening in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Ting; He, Jiang; Wu, Ming; Li, Si-Ming; Gao, Qian; Zeng, Qing-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Calorie restriction is known to extend lifespan among organisms by a debating mechanism underlying nitric oxide-driven mitochondrial biogenesis. We report here that nitric oxide generators including artemisinin, sodium nitroprusside, and L-arginine mimics calorie restriction and resembles hydrogen peroxide to initiate the nitric oxide signaling cascades and elicit the global antioxidative responses in mice. The large quantities of antioxidant enzymes are correlated with the low levels of reactive oxygen species, which allow the down-regulation of tumor suppressors and accessory DNA repair partners, eventually leading to the compromise of telomere shortening. Accompanying with the up-regulation of signal transducers and respiratory chain signatures, mitochondrial biogenesis occurs with the elevation of adenosine triphosphate levels upon exposure of mouse skeletal muscles to the mimetics of calorie restriction. In conclusion, calorie restriction-triggered nitric oxide provides antioxidative protection and alleviates telomere attrition via mitochondrial biogenesis, thereby maintaining chromosomal stability and integrity, which are the hallmarks of longevity.

  12. Securing Single Points of Compromise (SPoC)

    SciTech Connect

    Belangia, David Warren

    2015-06-25

    Securing the Single Points of Compromise that provide central services to the institution’s environment is paramount to success when trying to protect the business. (Fisk, 2014) Time Based Security mandates protection (erecting and ensuring effective controls) that last longer than the time to detect and react to a compromise. When enterprise protections fail, providing additional layered controls for these central services provides more time to detect and react. While guidance is readily available for securing the individual critical asset, protecting these assets as a group is not often discussed. Using best business practices to protect these resources as individual assets while leveraging holistic defenses for the group increases the opportunity to maximize protection time, allowing detection and reaction time for the SPoCs that is commensurate with the inherent risk of these centralized services.

  13. Creating clones, kids & chimera: liberal democratic compromise at the crossroads.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nathan A

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this article is to find middle ground between the supporters and opponents of biotechnology by perpetuating the existing legal compromise pertaining to the complete range of health and welfare doctrines relevant to the biotechnological industry. The author aspires neither to add to nor detract from this liberal democratic consensus, but to preserve its constitutive balance between positivism and natural law and over-regulation and under-regulation in the hopes of stabilizing new political fault lines developing around the few biotechnological innovations already grabbing headlines. The most feasible solution is to extend the existing liberal democratic compromise with respect to equal protection, reproductive rights, the First Amendment, human subject experimentation, patent law, and parental rights. This includes banning or monopolizing certain biotechnologies and extending substantive special respect to the ex vivo living human embryo. Biotechnology must not be left to regulate itself.

  14. The ethics of moral compromise for stem cell research policy.

    PubMed

    Master, Zubin; Crozier, G K D

    2012-03-01

    In the US, stem cell research is at a moral impasse-many see this research as ethically mandated due to its potential for ameliorating major diseases, while others see this research as ethically impermissible because it typically involves the destruction of embryos and use of ova from women. Because their creation does not require embryos or ova, induced pluripotent stem cells offer the most promising path for addressing the main ethical objections to stem cell research; however, this technology is still in development. In order for scientists to advance induced pluripotent stem cell research to a point of translational readiness, they must continue to use ova and embryos in the interim. How then are we to ethically move forward with stem cell research? We argue that there is personal integrity and value in adopting a 'moral compromise' as a means for moving past the moral impasse in stem cell research. In a moral compromise, each party concedes part of their desired outcome in order to engage in a process that respects the values and desires of all parties equitably. Whereas some contend that moral compromise in stem cell research necessarily involves self-contradiction or loss of personal integrity, we argue that in the US context, stem cell research satisfies many of the key pre-conditions of an effective moral compromise. To illustrate our point, we offer a model solution wherein eggs and embryos are temporarily used until non-egg and non-embryonic sources of pluripotent stem cells are developed to a state of translational readiness.

  15. Placental angiogenesis in sheep models of compromised pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Borowicz, Pawel P; Vonnahme, Kimberly A; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Redmer, Dale A; Caton, Joel S

    2005-01-01

    Because the placenta is the organ that transports nutrients, respiratory gases and wastes between the maternal and fetal systems, development of its vascular beds is essential to normal placental function, and thus in supporting normal fetal growth. Compromised fetal growth and development have adverse health consequences during the neonatal period and throughout adult life. To establish the role of placental angiogenesis in compromised pregnancies, we first evaluated the pattern of placental angiogenesis and expression of angiogenic factors throughout normal pregnancy. In addition, we and others have established a variety of sheep models to evaluate the effects on fetal growth of various factors including maternal nutrient excess or deprivation and specific nutrients, maternal age, maternal and fetal genotype, increased numbers of fetuses, environmental thermal stress, and high altitude (hypobaric) conditions. Although placental angiogenesis is altered in each of these models in which fetal growth is adversely affected, the specific effect on placental angiogenesis depends on the type of ‘stress’ to which the pregnancy is subjected, and also differs between the fetal and maternal systems and between genotypes. We believe that the models of compromised pregnancy and the methods described in this review will enable us to develop a much better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for alterations in placental vascular development. PMID:15760944

  16. Potential Soviet compromise on ballistic missile defense. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.P.

    1989-11-01

    The body of this research memorandum was written before the Baker-Shevardnadze meeting in Wyoming. It presented evidence suggesting that the Soviet Union might agree to a compromise at the Wyoming meeting that defers the issue of ballistic missile defense (BMD) negotiations to a later stage in arms reductions, thus facilitating a first-stage cut in offensive arms without an explicit Soviet endorsement of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Through this compromise, offensive arms reductions should first be delinked from an agreement on BMD, and then be relinked during the second stage of deeper cuts. Therefore, negotiations on limiting BMD systems, though deterred, are deemed inevitable if the U.S. persists in deploying a strategic defense system (SDS). Moreover, some Soviet arms controllers already look beyond the first stage to the prospect of negotiated transition into a strategic defense environment (i.e., a reliance on defensive deterrence). In this approach, Wyoming, then, was expected to be only a first move in the Soviet negotiating strategy for a grand compromise on strategic defense. As explained in the afterword added to the paper, the actual events at Wyoming seem consistent with that interpretation.

  17. 2. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) WOOD FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION, SHIPLOADER SIDE. WEST WALL. MARINE LEG ADDED SOME TIME BETWEEN 1907-1919. METAL PASSENGER ELEVATOR SHAFT ADDED IN EARLY 1970S. - Peavey Globe Elevator, No. 1 House, West Gate Basin & Howard's Bay, east side of slip, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  18. Compromise - An effective approach for conceptual aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mistree, Farrokh; Marinopoulos, Stergios; Jackson, david; Shupe, Jon

    1987-01-01

    The Decision Support Problem (DSP) technique for aircraft design is presently demonstrated through the development of a compromise DSP template for the conceptual design of subsonic transport aircraft. System variables are wing span and area, fuselage diameter and length, takeoff weight, and installed thrust. Such system constraints as range and wing loading are represented algebraically using standard subsonic aircraft theory, and economic efficiency is modeled in terms of rates-of-return. The DSP template thus obtained has been tested and validated using the known mission requirements and design constants of the B 727-200 airliner.

  19. [Cat-scratch disease with bone compromise: atypical manifestation].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez C, Magdalena; Giachetto L, Gustavo; Cuneo E, Alejandro; Gutiérrez B, María del C; Shimchack R, Mario; Pírez G, M Catalina

    2009-08-01

    Fever, headache, myalgias and lymphadenopathy are characteristic manifestations of cat-scratch disease but other less common findings are described in 2 to 10% of cases. We report two children that presented with hepatosplenic abscesses and bone involvement. One child, had multiple areas of increased uptake in the bone scintigram with a positive serology (IgG > 1/256, IgM slightly positive). The second child had destruction of the L2 vertebral body that compromised the channel and right foramen as visualized by MRI. In both cases, bacilli were observed in the bone biopsy by Warthing-Starry stain.

  20. Neonatal Airway Compromise by a Giant Cervicothoracic Venous Haemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Janardhan; Coutinho, Anita; Pai, Suresh; Rai, Santosh PV

    2017-01-01

    Haemangiomas are most common non-malignant vascular tumours of infancy. Here, we describe an antenatally detected mass over the neck causing compressive respiratory compromise at birth requiring resuscitative measures at birth. The mass showed increased vascularity on Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) with extension upto superior mediastinum. Surgical excision was required following failure to medical measures with steroids and propranolol. Histopathology confirmed it to be a venous haemangioma. This case highlights that these benign lesions may reach large sizes and antenatal detection may help in planning effective delivery and resuscitative measures. PMID:28384953

  1. Compromise budget gives extra funding for HIV programs.

    PubMed

    1999-06-25

    California lawmakers will vote soon on the proposed 1999-2000 State budget that would increase funding for HIV prevention, treatment, and housing programs by $16.9 million. The Senate and Assembly did not originally agree on the appropriation, but the Budget Conference Committee resolved the dispute. Details of the compromise are included. The plan must now go back to both chambers for final action, and the California HIV Advocacy Coalition is optimistic the budget measures will reach the governor's office intact. Governor Gray Davis has promised that the budget will be enacted by the start of the next fiscal year.

  2. Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    A 3 year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for nonproportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved understanding were through several critical nonproportional loading experiments. The direction of cracking observed on failed specimens was also recorded and used to guide the development of the theory. Cyclic deformation responses were permanently recorded digitally during each test. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C. In contrast to some other metals, loading path in nonproportional loading had little effect on fatigue lives. Strain rate had a small effect on fatigue lives at 649 C. Of the various correlating parameters the modified plastic work and octahedral shear stress were the most successful.

  3. Voices of discontent? Conscience, compromise, and assisted dying.

    PubMed

    Huxtable, Richard; Mullock, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    If some form of assisted dying is to be legalised, we are likely to hear voices of discontent, not least from the medical profession and some of its members, who might be expected to provide the service. The profession generally favours a position of opposition, premised on an ethic of 'caring not killing', which might be said to convey its 'professional conscience'. There will, of course, also be individual conscientious objectors. In this article, we initially explore the nature and sources of conscience and we argue that conscience does merit respect. We also recognise that professionals, qua professionals, are bound to serve their patients, some of whom will want (and may be entitled to) that which their doctors do not wish to provide. Reflecting on the different values in issue, we suggest that there is a case for principled compromise which would afford professionals a limited right to conscientiously object, while also protecting patients. We then relate these reflections to assisted dying specifically. In the absence of any definitive steer from the purported integrity of medicine, we suspect that the profession could adopt a neutral stance on this divisive issue. We nevertheless anticipate individual objections if the law does move to embrace assisted dying, and we argue that such objections should be respected, according to the terms of the compromise model we defend.

  4. Frontostriatal fiber bundle compromise in HIV infection without dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Rosenbloom, Margaret J.; Rohlfing, Torsten; Kemper, Carol A.; Deresinski, Stanley; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantitative fiber tracking derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to determine whether white matter association, projection, or commissural tracts are affected in nondemented individuals with HIV infection and to identify the regional distribution of sparing and impairment of fiber systems. Methods DTI measured fractional anisotropy and diffusivity, quantified separately for longitudinal (λL) diffusivity (index of axonal injury) and transverse (λT) diffusivity (index of myelin injury), in 11 association and projection white matter tracts and six commissural tracts in 29 men and 13 women with HIV infection and 88 healthy, age-matched controls (42 men and 46 women). Results The total group of HIV-infected individuals had higher diffusivity (principally longitudinal) than controls in the posterior sectors of the corpus callosum, internal and external capsules, and superior cingulate bundles. High longitudinal diffusivity, indicative of axonal compromise, was especially prominent in posterior callosal sectors, fornix, and superior cingulate bundle in HIV with AIDS. Unmedicated patients had notably high transverse diffusivity, indicative of myelin compromise, in the occipital forceps, inferior cingulate bundle, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Pontocerebellar projection fibers were resistant to HIV effects as were commissural fibers coursing through premotor and sensorimotor callosal sectors. Conclusion This quantitative survey of brain fiber tract integrity indicates that even nondemented HIV patients can have neuroradiological evidence for damage to association and commissural tracts. These abnormalities were vulnerable to exacerbation with AIDS and possibly mitigated by HAART. PMID:19730350

  5. Telomere shortening and metabolic compromise underlie dystrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alex Chia Yu; Ong, Sang-Ging; LaGory, Edward L.; Kraft, Peggy E.; Giaccia, Amato J.; Wu, Joseph C.; Blau, Helen M.

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an incurable X-linked genetic disease that is caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene and affects one in every 3,600 boys. We previously showed that long telomeres protect mice from the lethal cardiac disease seen in humans with the same genetic defect, dystrophin deficiency. By generating the mdx4cv/mTRG2 mouse model with “humanized” telomere lengths, the devastating dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype seen in patients with DMD was recapitulated. Here, we analyze the degenerative sequelae that culminate in heart failure and death in this mouse model. We report progressive telomere shortening in developing mouse cardiomyocytes after postnatal week 1, a time when the cells are no longer dividing. This proliferation-independent telomere shortening is accompanied by an induction of a DNA damage response, evident by p53 activation and increased expression of its target gene p21 in isolated cardiomyocytes. The consequent repression of Pgc1α/β leads to impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, which, in conjunction with the high demands of contraction, leads to increased oxidative stress and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. As a result, cardiomyocyte respiration and ATP output are severely compromised. Importantly, treatment with a mitochondrial-specific antioxidant before the onset of cardiac dysfunction rescues the metabolic defects. These findings provide evidence for a link between short telomere length and metabolic compromise in the etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy in DMD and identify a window of opportunity for preventive interventions. PMID:27799523

  6. 38 CFR 1.903 - Settlement, waiver, or compromise under other statutory or regulatory authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compromise under other statutory or regulatory authority. 1.903 Section 1.903 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Standards for Collection, Compromise, Suspension... Settlement, waiver, or compromise under other statutory or regulatory authority. Nothing in §§ 1.900...

  7. Perceived Career Compromise, Affect and Work-Related Satisfaction in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaousides, Theodore; Jome, LaRae

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of career compromise on positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and work-related satisfaction (WRS). Career compromise refers to the modification of occupational preferences under pressing external circumstances [Gottfredson, L. S. (1981). Circumscription and compromise: A…

  8. Compromises along the Way: Balancing Speed To Market with Sustainability while Delivering Knowledge Management Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Martha K.

    This paper will discuss some of the compromises, and the path to those compromises, that must be made while implementing a successful knowledge management program within a for-profit enterprise. Specifically the following compromises are addressed: (1) manage knowledge where it is created, but do that within a global system; (2) no single scope…

  9. 7 CFR 3.19 - Standards for the compromise of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standards for the compromise of claims. 3.19 Section 3.19 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Standards for the Administrative Collection and Compromise of Claims § 3.19 Standards for the compromise of claims. An agency...

  10. 32 CFR 842.124 - Waiver and compromise of United States interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... damages. (c) A compromise can be made upon written request from the injured party or the injured party's... CLAIMS AND LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Hospital Recovery Claims (42 U.S.C. 2651-2653) § 842.124 Waiver and compromise of United States interest. Waivers and compromises of government claims can be...

  11. Protecting Privacy of Shared Epidemiologic Data without Compromising Analysis Potential

    PubMed Central

    Cologne, John; Grant, Eric J.; Nakashima, Eiji; Chen, Yun; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Katayama, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Ensuring privacy of research subjects when epidemiologic data are shared with outside collaborators involves masking (modifying) the data, but overmasking can compromise utility (analysis potential). Methods of statistical disclosure control for protecting privacy may be impractical for individual researchers involved in small-scale collaborations. Methods. We investigated a simple approach based on measures of disclosure risk and analytical utility that are straightforward for epidemiologic researchers to derive. The method is illustrated using data from the Japanese Atomic-bomb Survivor population. Results. Masking by modest rounding did not adequately enhance security but rounding to remove several digits of relative accuracy effectively reduced the risk of identification without substantially reducing utility. Grouping or adding random noise led to noticeable bias. Conclusions. When sharing epidemiologic data, it is recommended that masking be performed using rounding. Specific treatment should be determined separately in individual situations after consideration of the disclosure risks and analysis needs. PMID:22505949

  12. [Amputation or reconstruction of a circulatory compromised severely injured extremity?].

    PubMed

    Høiness, P; Røise, O

    1999-11-20

    18 patients treated with primary or secondary amputations after severe lower limb open fractures were studied. All limbs had clinical signs of a compromised circulation at the primary evaluation. The various injuries are described and discussed with respect to the general guidelines for primary amputation. The Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) and Nerve, Ischemia, Soft tissues, Skeletal, Shock, Age (NISSSA) scores were calculated. In view of the described injuries, primary amputation was indicated in ten patients according to the general recommendations, 11 patients according to NISSSA and 15 patients according to MESS. Delayed amputation leads t a significantly (p = 0.005) higher number of operative procedures than early amputation (9.2 vs. 2.9 treatments). The decision of whether to amputate or not should be based on sound clinical judgement, but injury scores such as MESS and NISSSA may be helpful.

  13. Food irradiation: Special solutions for the immuno-compromised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohácsi-Farkas, Csilla

    2016-12-01

    Safety of food is particularly important for immuno-compromised patients, because these people are vulnerable to all sorts of infectious complications and foodborne pathogens as well, and even organisms normally considered non-pathogenic may cause problems. According to the guidelines published by the FDA, immunocompromised patients have to avoid high-risk foods, and advised to consume only pasteurized juice, milk or cheese, and well-cooked eggs, poultry, meat and fish. In the frame of an IAEA CRP the objective was to develop, in collaborations with the healthcare community, the use of irradiation to increase the variety, availability and acceptability of foods for immunocompromised, for example irradiated fresh produce (fruits, vegetables, salads) and ready-to-eat meals. Further aim was to widen the acceptance of irradiated foods by the healthcare and regulatory communities.

  14. Protecting Privacy of Shared Epidemiologic Data without Compromising Analysis Potential

    DOE PAGES

    Cologne, John; Grant, Eric J.; Nakashima, Eiji; ...

    2012-01-01

    Objective . Ensuring privacy of research subjects when epidemiologic data are shared with outside collaborators involves masking (modifying) the data, but overmasking can compromise utility (analysis potential). Methods of statistical disclosure control for protecting privacy may be impractical for individual researchers involved in small-scale collaborations. Methods . We investigated a simple approach based on measures of disclosure risk and analytical utility that are straightforward for epidemiologic researchers to derive. The method is illustrated using data from the Japanese Atomic-bomb Survivor population. Results . Masking by modest rounding did not adequately enhance security but rounding to remove several digits ofmore » relative accuracy effectively reduced the risk of identification without substantially reducing utility. Grouping or adding random noise led to noticeable bias. Conclusions . When sharing epidemiologic data, it is recommended that masking be performed using rounding. Specific treatment should be determined separately in individual situations after consideration of the disclosure risks and analysis needs.« less

  15. Thiamine absorption is not compromised in folate-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Walzem, R.L.; Clifford, A.J.

    1988-11-01

    Thiamine absorption and excretion were assessed in rats with severe folate deficiency (FD) by determining the fate of oral TH-labeled and intravenous UC-labeled thiamine over a 6-h test period. Thiamine status was evaluated in these same rats by measuring transketolase activity levels of blood before (TKA) and after (TPPE) addition of thiamine pyrophosphate to the incubation mixture of the assay procedure. Two additional experiments assessed active transport of thiamine and the effect of dietary succinylsulfathiazole (SST) on TKA and TPPE in rats with moderate FD. Intestinal absorption in general and thiamine absorption in particular and thiamine status were unaltered in rats with severe FD. Inanition associated with severe FD may impair thiamine status. Thiamine absorption by active transport was not compromised in FD, and dietary succinylsulfathiazole did not affect thiamine status.

  16. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  17. Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, Cytomegalovirus and the Compromised Host

    PubMed Central

    Ryning, Frank W.; Mills, John

    1979-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii and Toxoplasma gondii are the two major parasitic protozoan pathogens in the immunocompromised host. Both organisms cause latent infection in humans and many animals. Cats are the definitive hosts for toxoplasmosis; the animal vector for pneumocystis (if any) has not been defined. Toxoplasma is an obligate intracellular parasite, whereas the available evidence suggests that Pneumocystis carinii exists primarily extracellularly. In compromised hosts, pneumocystis infection usually involves only lungs, whereas toxoplasma causes a generalized infection with encephalitis being the principal clinical manifestation. Both types of infection are treated with combinations of folate antagonists (trimethoprim or pyrimethamine with sulfonamide). Both parasites are associated with cytomegalovirus infection in immunosuppressed hosts, an association which may be due to symbiosis between parasites, or to an additive immunosuppressive effect of dual infection on the hosts. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:217182

  18. Glutathione synthesis is compromised in erythrocytes from individuals with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Devin; Ly, Judy; Chi, Po-Ting; Daliva, John; Nguyen, Truongson; Soofer, Charleen; Chen, Yung C.; Lagman, Minette; Venketaraman, Vishwanath

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated that the levels of enzymes responsible for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) such as glutathione synthase (GSS), glutamate-cysteine ligase-catalytic subunit (GCLC), and glutathione reductase (GSR) were significantly reduced in the red blood cells (RBCs) isolated from individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and this reduction correlated with decreased levels of intracellular GSH. GSH content in RBCs can be used as a marker for increased overall oxidative stress and immune dysfunctions caused by HIV infection. Our data supports our hypothesis that compromised levels of GSH in HIV infected individuals’ is due to decreased levels of GSH-synthetic enzymes. The role of GSH in combating oxidative stress and improving the functions of immune cells in HIV patients’ indicates the benefit of an antioxidant supplement which can reduce the cellular damage and promote the functions of immune cells. PMID:24782776

  19. Glutathione synthesis is compromised in erythrocytes from individuals with HIV.

    PubMed

    Morris, Devin; Ly, Judy; Chi, Po-Ting; Daliva, John; Nguyen, Truongson; Soofer, Charleen; Chen, Yung C; Lagman, Minette; Venketaraman, Vishwanath

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated that the levels of enzymes responsible for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) such as glutathione synthase (GSS), glutamate-cysteine ligase-catalytic subunit (GCLC), and glutathione reductase (GSR) were significantly reduced in the red blood cells (RBCs) isolated from individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and this reduction correlated with decreased levels of intracellular GSH. GSH content in RBCs can be used as a marker for increased overall oxidative stress and immune dysfunctions caused by HIV infection. Our data supports our hypothesis that compromised levels of GSH in HIV infected individuals' is due to decreased levels of GSH-synthetic enzymes. The role of GSH in combating oxidative stress and improving the functions of immune cells in HIV patients' indicates the benefit of an antioxidant supplement which can reduce the cellular damage and promote the functions of immune cells.

  20. Treatment of Lung Cancer in Medically Compromised Patients.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jeffrey; Wheatley-Price, Paul; Feliciano, Josephine Louella

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes for patients with lung cancer have been improved substantially through the integration of surgery, radiation, and systemic therapy for patients with early-stage disease. Meanwhile, advances in our understanding of molecular mechanisms have substantially advanced our treatment of patients with advanced lung cancer through the introduction of targeted therapies, immune approaches, improvements in chemotherapy, and better supportive care. However, the majority of these advances have occurred among patients with good functional status, normal organ function, and with the social and economic support systems to be able to benefit most from these treatments. The aim of this article is to bring greater attention to management of lung cancer in patients who are medically compromised, which remains a major barrier to care delivery. Impaired performance status is associated with poor outcomes and correlates with the high prevalence of cachexia among patients with advanced lung cancer. CT imaging is emerging as a research tool to quantify muscle loss in patients with cancer, and new therapeutics are on the horizon that may provide important adjunctive therapy in the future. The benefits of cancer therapy for patients with organ failure are poorly understood because of their exclusion from clinical trials. The availability of targeted therapy and immunotherapy may provide alternatives that may be easier to deliver in this population, but clinical trials of these new agents in this population are vital. Patients with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by lung cancer because of higher rates of tobacco addiction and the impact of socioeconomic status on delay in diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes. For all patients who are medically compromised with lung cancer, multidisciplinary approaches are particularly needed to evaluate these patients and to incorporate rapidly changing therapeutics to improve outcomes.

  1. Cerebral autoregulation is compromised during simulated fluctuations in gravitational stress.

    PubMed

    Brown, Clive M; Dütsch, Matthias; Ohring, Susanne; Neundörfer, Bernhard; Hilz, Max J

    2004-03-01

    Gravity places considerable stress on the cardiovascular system but cerebral autoregulation usually protects the cerebral blood vessels from fluctuations in blood pressure. However, in conditions such as those encountered on board a high-performance aircraft, the gravitational stress is constantly changing and might compromise cerebral autoregulation. In this study we assessed the effect of oscillating orthostatic stress on cerebral autoregulation. Sixteen (eight male) healthy subjects [aged 27 (1) years] were exposed to steady-state lower body negative pressure (LBNP) at -15 and -40 mmHg and then to oscillating LBNP at the same pressures. The oscillatory LBNP was applied at 0.1 and 0.2 Hz. We made continuous recordings of RR-interval, blood pressure, cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), respiratory frequency and end-tidal CO(2). Oscillations in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and CBFV were assessed by autoregressive spectral analysis. Respiration was paced at 0.25 Hz to avoid interference from breathing. Steady-state LBNP at -40 mmHg significantly increased low-frequency (LF, 0.03-0.14 Hz) powers of MAP ( P<0.01) but not of CBFV. Oscillatory 0.1 Hz LBNP (0 to -40 mmHg) significantly increased the LF power of MAP to a similar level as steady-state LBNP but also resulted in a significant increase in the LF power of CBFV ( P<0.01). Oscillatory LBNP at 0.2 Hz induced oscillations in MAP and CBFV at 0.2 Hz. Cross-spectral analysis showed that the transfer of LBNP-induced oscillations in MAP onto the CBFV was significantly greater at 0.2 Hz than at 0.1 Hz ( P<0.01). These results show that the ability of the cerebral vessels to modulate fluctuations in blood pressure is compromised during oscillatory compared with constant gravitational stress. Furthermore, this effect seems to be more pronounced at higher frequencies of oscillatory stress.

  2. Mitigating Reptile Road Mortality: Fence Failures Compromise Ecopassage Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Baxter-Gilbert, James H.; Riley, Julia L.; Lesbarrères, David; Litzgus, Jacqueline D.

    2015-01-01

    Roadways pose serious threats to animal populations. The installation of roadway mitigation measures is becoming increasingly common, yet studies that rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of these conservation tools remain rare. A highway expansion project in Ontario, Canada included exclusion fencing and ecopassages as mitigation measures designed to offset detrimental effects to one of the most imperial groups of vertebrates, reptiles. Taking a multispecies approach, we used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design to compare reptile abundance on the highway before and after mitigation at an Impact site and a Control site from 1 May to 31 August in 2012 and 2013. During this time, radio telemetry, wildlife cameras, and an automated PIT-tag reading system were used to monitor reptile movements and use of ecopassages. Additionally, a willingness to utilize experiment was conducted to quantify turtle behavioral responses to ecopassages. We found no difference in abundance of turtles on the road between the un-mitigated and mitigated highways, and an increase in the percentage of both snakes and turtles detected dead on the road post-mitigation, suggesting that the fencing was not effective. Although ecopassages were used by reptiles, the number of crossings through ecopassages was lower than road-surface crossings. Furthermore, turtle willingness to use ecopassages was lower than that reported in previous arena studies, suggesting that effectiveness of ecopassages may be compromised when alternative crossing options are available (e.g., through holes in exclusion structures). Our rigorous evaluation of reptile roadway mitigation demonstrated that when exclusion structures fail, the effectiveness of population connectivity structures is compromised. Our project emphasizes the need to design mitigation measures with the biology and behavior of the target species in mind, to implement mitigation designs in a rigorous fashion, and quantitatively evaluate road

  3. Blood–Retinal Barrier Compromise and Endogenous Staphylococcus aureus Endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, Phillip S.; Wiskur, Brandt J.; Astley, Roger A.; Callegan, Michelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that blood–retinal barrier compromise is associated with the development of endogenous Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis. Methods To compromise the blood–retinal barrier in vivo, streptozotocin-induced diabetes was induced in C57BL/6J mice for 1, 3, or 5 months. Diabetic and age-matched nondiabetic mice were intravenously injected with 108 colony-forming units (cfu) of S. aureus, a common cause of endogenous endophthalmitis in diabetics. After 4 days post infection, electroretinography, histology, and bacterial counts were performed. Staphylococcus aureus–induced alterations in in vitro retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell barrier structure and function were assessed by anti–ZO-1 immunohistochemistry, FITC-dextran conjugate diffusion, and bacterial transmigration assays. Results We observed one bilateral infection in a control, nondiabetic animal (mean = 1.54 × 103 ± 1.78 × 102 cfu/eye, 7% incidence). Among the 1-month diabetic mice, we observed culture-confirmed unilateral infections in two animals (mean = 5.54 × 102 ± 7.09 × 102 cfu/eye, 12% incidence). Among the 3-month diabetic mice, infections were observed in 11 animals, three with bilateral infections (mean = 2.67 × 102 ± 2.49 × 102 cfu/eye, 58% incidence). Among the 5-month diabetic mice, we observed infections in five animals (mean = 7.88 × 102 ± 1.08 × 103 cfu/eye, 33% incidence). In vitro, S. aureus infection reduced ZO-1 immunostaining and disrupted the barrier function of cultured RPE cells, resulting in diffusion of fluorophore-conjugated dextrans and transmigration of live bacteria across a permeabilized RPE barrier. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicated that S. aureus is capable of inducing blood–retinal barrier permeability and causing endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis in normal and diabetic animals. PMID:26559476

  4. A compromised liver alters polychlorinated biphenyl-mediated toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wahlang, Banrida; Perkins, Jordan T; Petriello, Michael C; Hoffman, Jessie B; Stromberg, Arnold J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2017-02-02

    Exposure to environmental toxicants namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is correlated with multiple health disorders including liver and cardiovascular diseases. The liver is important for both xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism. However, the responses of an injured liver to subsequent environmental insults has not been investigated. The current study aims to evaluate the role of a compromised liver in PCB-induced toxicity and define the implications on overall body homeostasis. Male C57Bl/6 mice were fed either an amino acid control diet (CD) or a methionine-choline deficient diet (MCD) during the 12-week study. Mice were subsequently exposed to either PCB126 (4.9mg/kg) or the PCB mixture, Arcolor1260 (20mg/kg) and analyzed for inflammatory, calorimetry and metabolic parameters. Consistent with the literature, MCD diet-fed mice demonstrated steatosis, indicative of a compromised liver. Mice fed the MCD-diet and subsequently exposed to PCB126 showed observable wasting syndrome leading to mortality. PCB126 and Aroclor1260 exposure worsened hepatic fibrosis exhibited by the MCD groups. Interestingly, PCB126 but not Aroclor1260 induced steatosis and inflammation in CD-fed mice. Mice with liver injury and subsequently exposed to PCBs also manifested metabolic disturbances due to alterations in hepatic gene expression. Furthermore, PCB exposure in MCD-fed mice led to extra-hepatic toxicity such as upregulated circulating inflammatory biomarkers, implicating endothelial cell dysfunction. Taken together, these results indicate that environmental pollution can exacerbate toxicity caused by diet-induced liver injury which may be partially due to dysfunctional energy homeostasis. This is relevant to PCB-exposed human cohorts who suffer from alcohol or diet-induced fatty liver diseases.

  5. Immediate implants and immediate loading in periodontally compromised patients-a 3-year prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Alves, Celia Coutinho; Correia, Andre Ricardo; Neves, Manuel

    2010-10-01

    To avoid the necessity of a removable provisional prosthesis, and therefore preserve the patient's functional outcome, esthetics, and quality of life, a clinical protocol was developed to approach periodontally compromised patients presenting a full-arch irreversibly lost dentition: full-arch extraction and immediate replacement with a provisional acrylic resin implant-supported fixed partial denture (FPD). A total of 23 periodontally compromised patients (11 women, 12 men; 4 smokers, 4 controlled diabetics) were included in this study. Pretreatment casts were taken and vertical dimension of occlusion was determined. In most patients, 6 Straumann implants were distributed along the arch according to the surgical guide or bone availability, with the most distal ones in the maxilla slightly tilted so they could emerge more distally. A total of 168 implants (146 Straumann, 10 Nobel Biocare, 8 Biomet 3i, and 4 Lifecore) were placed (83 in the maxilla, 85 in the mandible). Of those in the maxilla, 74 were loaded immediately (implant stability quotient mentor [ISQm] > 70) and 9 placed with delayed loading (ISQm =/< 70). Of the 85 implants placed in the mandible, all were loaded immediately (ISQm > 70). If an FPD had not been fabricated already, impressions were taken during surgery to do so. The prosthesis was then adapted (cemented or screwed) to the 6 implants within the first 48 hours postsurgery. After 2 months, definitive impressions were taken, and a definitive porcelain-fused-to-metal implant-supported 12-element FPD was fabricated and cemented or screwed to all 6 implants. Of the 168 implants, 108 were immediate implants and 159 immediately loaded. Only 2 implants (1 in the mandible, 1 in the maxilla) did not osseointegrate. This yields a 3-year cumulative survival rate of 98.74% (98.65% in the maxilla, 98.82% in the mandible). From a total of 26 immediately loaded prostheses (12 in the maxilla, 14 in the mandible), 6 were cemented and 20 screw-retained. The 3

  6. The National Map - Elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, Dean; Evans, Gayla; Mauck, James; Hutchinson, John; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is the primary elevation data product produced and distributed by the USGS. The NED provides seamless raster elevation data of the conterminous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and the island territories. The NED is derived from diverse source data sets that are processed to a specification with a consistent resolution, coordinate system, elevation units, and horizontal and vertical datums. The NED is the logical result of the maturation of the long-standing USGS elevation program, which for many years concentrated on production of topographic map quadrangle-based digital elevation models. The NED serves as the elevation layer of The National Map, and provides basic elevation information for earth science studies and mapping applications in the United States. The NED is a multi-resolution dataset that is updated bimonthly to integrate newly available, improved elevation source data. NED data are available nationally at grid spacings of 1 arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, and at 1/3 and 1/9 arc-seconds (approximately 10 and 3 meters, respectively) for parts of the United States. Most of the NED for Alaska is available at 2-arc-second (about 60 meters) grid spacing, where only lower resolution source data exist. Part of Alaska is available at the 1/3-arc-second resolution, and plans are in development for a significant upgrade in elevation data coverage of the State over the next 5 years. Specifications for the NED include the following: *Coordinate system: Geographic (decimal degrees of latitude and longitude), *Horizontal datum: North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), *Vertical datum: North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) over the conterminous United States and varies in other areas, and *Elevation units: Decimal meters.

  7. Metabolic Stress and Compromised Identity of Pancreatic Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Swisa, Avital; Glaser, Benjamin; Dor, Yuval

    2017-01-01

    Beta cell failure is a central feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the molecular underpinnings of the process remain only partly understood. It has been suggested that beta cell failure in T2D involves massive cell death. Other studies ascribe beta cell failure to cell exhaustion, due to chronic oxidative or endoplasmic reticulum stress leading to cellular dysfunction. More recently it was proposed that beta cells in T2D may lose their differentiated identity, possibly even gaining features of other islet cell types. The loss of beta cell identity appears to be driven by glucotoxicity inhibiting the activity of key beta cell transcription factors including Pdx1, Nkx6.1, MafA and Pax6, thereby silencing beta cell genes and derepressing alternative islet cell genes. The loss of beta cell identity is at least partly reversible upon normalization of glycemia, with implications for the reversibility of T2D, although it is not known if beta cell failure reaches eventually a point of no return. In this review we discuss current evidence for metabolism-driven compromised beta cell identity, key knowledge gaps and opportunities for utility in the treatment of T2D. PMID:28270834

  8. Tert-butylhydroquinone Compromises Survival in Murine Experimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiahong; Hu, Heng; Ren, Xuefang; Simpkins, James W.

    2016-01-01

    tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), an Nrf2 signaling pathway inducer that is widely used as a food additive in the U.S., prevents oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity in neurons. This study assesses the effects of tBHQ on ischemic stroke outcomes in mice. We measured infarct size, neurological deficits, and brain volume after tBHQ treatments in murine permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) model in vivo. Further, we evaluated the regulation of tBHQ on mitochondrial function in cerebrovascular endothelial cells in vitro, which is critical to the blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Our results demonstrated that tBHQ increased post-stroke mortality and worsened stroke outcomes. Mitochondrial function was suppressed by tBHQ treatment of cerebrovascular endothelial cells, and this suppression was potentiated by co-treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the bacterial mimic. These data indicate that tBHQ-exacerbated stroke damage might due to the compromised BBB permeability in permanent stroke. PMID:26827673

  9. Oviposition site selection in Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera): constraints and compromises.

    PubMed

    Robertson, H G

    1987-10-01

    Oviposition by Cactoblastis cactorum on Opuntia ficus-indica and O. aurantiaca was assessed from the positioning of egg sticks on plants in the field. The number of egg sticks laid on O. ficus-indica plants was affected by: (1) plant size; (2) moth emergence near the plant; (3) cladode condition; and (4) plant conspicuousness. These factors contributed towards the clumping of egg sticks on plants. There was no apparent oviposition preference for one of the two host plant species despite the fact that egg predation was higher and fecundity lower on O. aurantiaca. The selection of a site for oviposition on the host plants was influenced by: (1) cladode condition; (2) height above ground; and (3) shelter from wind during oviposition. Succulent cladodes were the favoured sites for oviposition. The evidence suggests that in C. cactorum, oviposition site selection is largely the net result of a compromise between oviposition behaviour selected for increasing the probability of juvenile survival and oviposition behaviour selected for increasing the probability of laying the full complement of eggs. In addition, environmental and physiological factors such as wind and wing-loading, are thought to place constraints on the range of sites available for oviposition.

  10. Compromised central tolerance of ICA69 induces multiple organ autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yong; Gualtierotti, Giulio; Tajima, Asako; Grupillo, Maria; Coppola, Antonina; He, Jing; Bertera, Suzanne; Owens, Gregory; Pietropaolo, Massimo; Rudert, William A.; Trucco, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    For reasons not fully understood, patients with an organ-specific autoimmune disease have increased risks of developing autoimmune responses against other organs/tissues. We identified ICA69, a known β-cell autoantigen in Type 1 diabetes, as a potential common target in multi-organ autoimmunity. NOD mice immunized with ICA69 polypeptides exhibited exacerbated inflammation not only in the islets, but also in the salivary glands. To further investigate ICA69 autoimmunity, two genetically modified mouse lines were generated to modulate thymic ICA69 expression: the heterozygous ICA69del/wt line and the thymic medullary epithelial cell-specific deletion Aire-ΔICA69 line. Suboptimal central negative selection of ICA69-reactive T-cells was observed in both lines. Aire-ΔICA69 mice spontaneously developed coincident autoimmune responses to the pancreas, the salivary glands, the thyroid, and the stomach. Our findings establish a direct link between compromised thymic ICA69 expression and autoimmunity against multiple ICA69-expressing organs, and identify a potential novel mechanism for the development of multi-organ autoimmune diseases. PMID:25088457

  11. Predicting early nonelective hospital readmission in nutritionally compromised older adults.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, J M; Jensen, G L; Smiciklas-Wright, H; McCamish, M A

    1997-06-01

    This study determined predictors of early nonelective hospital readmission in 92 (49 women and 43 men) nutritionally compromised Medicare patients. Subjects ranged in age from 65 to 92 y and represented patients hospitalized previously for medical or surgical services. The study used a repeated-measures design of multiple variables representing demographics, anthropometric and clinical values, and functional status. Data were collected during hospitalization and during home visits at 1 and 3 mo postdischarge. There were 26 readmissions, making the 4-mo nonelective readmission rate 26%. Subjects who were readmitted nonelectively were compared with those not readmitted. Univariate analyses suggested strong relations between readmission outcome and serum albumin, total lymphocyte count, change in weight, and change in white blood cell count. Sociodemographic variables were less useful in predicting readmission than were measurements of patients' clinical status. Measurements of change in clinical variables were generally more predictive of readmission than was any one single measurement. Multivariate-logistic-regression analyses suggested a model consisting of change in weight and change in serum albumin from hospitalization to 1 mo after discharge as being highly predictive of early nonelective readmission. Individuals with any amount of weight loss and no improvement in albumin concentrations during the first month after hospitalization were at a much higher risk of readmission than were those who maintained or increased their postdischarge weight and had repleted their serum albumin concentrations. More study is warranted to clarify whether routine monitoring of changes in weight and serum albumin after hospitalization is appropriate in older adults.

  12. Compromise and Synergy in High-Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tiejun; Liu, Yintu; Fu, Chenguang; Heremans, Joseph P; Snyder, Jeffrey G; Zhao, Xinbing

    2017-03-06

    The past two decades have witnessed the rapid growth of thermoelectric (TE) research. Novel concepts and paradigms are described here that have emerged, targeting superior TE materials and higher TE performance. These superior aspects include band convergence, "phonon-glass electron-crystal", multiscale phonon scattering, resonant states, anharmonicity, etc. Based on these concepts, some new TE materials with distinct features have been identified, including solids with high band degeneracy, with cages in which atoms rattle, with nanostructures at various length scales, etc. In addition, the performance of classical materials has been improved remarkably. However, the figure of merit zT of most TE materials is still lower than 2.0, generally around 1.0, due to interrelated TE properties. In order to realize an "overall zT > 2.0," it is imperative that the interrelated properties are decoupled more thoroughly, or new degrees of freedom are added to the overall optimization problem. The electrical and thermal transport must be synergistically optimized. Here, a detailed discussion about the commonly adopted strategies to optimize individual TE properties is presented. Then, four main compromises between the TE properties are elaborated from the point of view of the underlying mechanisms and decoupling strategies. Finally, some representative systems of synergistic optimization are also presented, which can serve as references for other TE materials. In conclusion, some of the newest ideas for the future are discussed.

  13. House: Southeast/Front Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Rear Elevation, Southwest/Side Elevation, House ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    House: Southeast/Front Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Rear Elevation, Southwest/Side Elevation, House Plan - Driapsa Centennial Farm, Potts Hill European Community, 4511 Potts Hill Road, Bainbridge, Ross County, OH

  14. Mars elevation distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.; Ablin, Karyn K.

    1991-01-01

    A Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of Mars was derived with both Mercator and Sinusoidal Equal-Area projections from the global topographic map of Mars (scale 1:15 million, contour interval 1 km). Elevations on the map are referred to Mars' topographic datum that is defined by the gravity field at a 6.1-millibar pressure surface with respect to the center of mass of Mars. The DTM has a resolution at the equator of 1/59.226 degrees (exactly 1 km) per pixel. By using the DTM, the volumetric distribution of Mars topography above and below the datum has previously been calculated. Three types of elevation distributions of Mars' topography were calculated from the same DTM: (1) the frequency distribution of elevations at the pixel resolution; (2) average elevations in increments of 6 degrees in both longitude and latitude; and (3) average elevations in 36 separate blocks, each covering 30 degrees of latitude and 60 degrees of longitude.

  15. 11. General interior elevation viewed from midspan toward the northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. General interior elevation viewed from midspan toward the northeast, showing the corrugated metal barriers on both sides and the asphalt deck. - Post Road Bridge, State Route 7-A, Havre de Grace, Harford County, MD

  16. Experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis compromises ureagenesis, an essential hepatic metabolic function.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Karen Louise; Grønbæk, Henning; Glavind, Emilie; Hebbard, Lionel; Jessen, Niels; Clouston, Andrew; George, Jacob; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2014-08-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing in prevalence, yet its consequences for liver function are unknown. We studied ureagenesis, an essential metabolic liver function of importance for whole body nitrogen homeostasis, in a rodent model of diet-induced NASH. Rats were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet for 4 and 16 wk, resulting in early and advanced experimental NASH, respectively. We examined the urea cycle enzyme mRNAs in liver tissue, the hepatocyte urea cycle enzyme proteins, and the in vivo capacity of urea-nitrogen synthesis (CUNS). Early NASH decreased all of the urea cycle mRNAs to an average of 60% and the ornithine transcarbamylase protein to 10%, whereas the CUNS remained unchanged. Advanced NASH further decreased the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase protein to 63% and, in addition, decreased the CUNS by 20% [from 5.65 ± 0.23 to 4.58 ± 0.30 μmol × (min × 100 g)(-1); P = 0.01]. Early NASH compromised the genes and enzyme proteins involved in ureagenesis, whereas advanced NASH resulted in a functional reduction in the capacity for ureagenesis. The pattern of urea cycle perturbations suggests a prevailing mitochondrial impairment by NASH. The decrease in CUNS has consequences for the ability of the body to adjust to changes in the requirements for nitrogen homeostasis e.g., at stressful events. NASH, thus, in terms of metabolic consequences, is not an innocuous lesion, and the manifestations of the damage seem to be a continuum with increasing disease severity.

  17. Glutaric acid moderately compromises energy metabolism in rat brain.

    PubMed

    da C Ferreira, Gustavo; Viegas, Carolina M; Schuck, Patrícia F; Latini, Alexandra; Dutra-Filho, Carlos S; Wyse, Angela T S; Wannmacher, Clóvis M D; Vargas, Carmen R; Wajner, Moacir

    2005-12-01

    Glutaric acidemia type I is an inherited metabolic disorder biochemically characterized by tissue accumulation of predominantly glutaric acid (GA). Affected patients present frontotemporal hypotrophy, as well as caudate and putamen injury following acute encephalopathic crises. Considering that the underlying mechanisms of basal ganglia damage in this disorder are poorly known, in the present study we tested the effects of glutaric acid (0.2-5mM) on critical enzyme activities of energy metabolism, namely the respiratory chain complexes I-IV, succinate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in midbrain of developing rats. Glutaric acid significantly inhibited creatine kinase activity (up to 26%) even at the lowest dose used in the assays (0.2mM). We also observed that CK inhibition was prevented by pre-incubation of the homogenates with reduced glutathione, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of GA was possibly mediated by oxidation of essential thiol groups of the enzyme. In addition, the activities of the respiratory chain complex I-III and of succinate dehydrogenase were also significantly inhibited by 20 and 30%, respectively, at the highest glutaric acid concentration tested (5mM). In contrast, complexes II-III and IV activities of the electron transport chain were not affected by the acid. The effect of glutaric acid on the rate of oxygen consumption in intact mitochondria from the rat cerebrum was also investigated. Glutaric acid (1mM) significantly lowered the respiratory control ratio (state III/state IV) up to 40% in the presence of the respiratory substrates glutamate/malate or succinate. Moreover, state IV respiration linked to NAD and FAD substrates was significantly increased in GA-treated mitochondria while state III was significantly diminished. The results indicate that the major metabolite accumulating in glutaric acidemia type I moderately compromises brain energy metabolism in vitro.

  18. The muscle-mechanical compromise framework: Implications for the scaling of gait and posture

    PubMed Central

    Usherwood, James Richard (Jim)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many aspects of animal and human gait and posture cannot be predicted from purely mechanical work minimization or entirely based on optimizing muscle efficiency. Here, the Muscle-Mechanical Compromise Framework is introduced as a conceptual paradigm for considering the interactions and compromises between these two objectives. Current assumptions in implementing the Framework are presented. Implications of the compromise are discussed and related to the scaling of running mechanics and animal posture. PMID:28149398

  19. Child mental health consultation with families of medically compromised infants.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Linda C

    2003-07-01

    behavioral and psychological interventions are integrated with the child's biomedical care. 5. Fostering a brief, or sometimes long-term, therapeutic relationship with the family or facilitating the family's finding such a relationship with another clinician. There will never be enough child and adolescent psychiatrists and psychologists to treat all families of medically compromised infants. Knowledge of normative responses has advanced to the point at which basic skills can be used by and transmitted to others who can provide basic services. There is much to be learned about the short- and long-term sequelae of such stressful situations on individuals and family systems with preexisting psychopathology. For such families, child mental health professionals are uniquely suited to play a further role in research and treatment.

  20. location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch removed, south elevation, building section - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  1. Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top Plan, Base Plan; Fresnel Lens: Isometric, Elevation, Plan - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  2. 10 CFR 15.41 - When a claim may be compromised.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When a claim may be compromised. 15.41 Section 15.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES Compromise of a Claim § 15.41 When a... principal balance of a debt, exclusive of interest, penalties, and administrative costs, exceeds $100,000...

  3. Compromise, Well-Being, and Action Behaviors in Young Adults in Career Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Blume, Kellie

    2013-01-01

    The authors surveyed 186 first-year university students and assessed their level of career compromise associated with making the transition to university. Compromise was operationalized as the discrepancy between the job characteristics of ideal and expected occupations. The authors also assessed career well-being (satisfaction, distress), action…

  4. 20 CFR 340.14 - Factors due to be considered in a compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Factors due to be considered in a compromise. 340.14 Section 340.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.14 Factors due to be considered in a compromise....

  5. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart Y of... - Redelegations of Authority To Compromise and Close Civil Claims

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Environment and Natural Resources Division Redelegation Of Authority To Initiate And To Compromise Environment and Natural Resources Division Cases This directive supersedes Land and Natural Resources Memorandum... with, and to compromise, Environment and Natural Resources Division cases: Section I—Authority...

  6. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart Y of... - Redelegations of Authority To Compromise and Close Civil Claims

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Environment and Natural Resources Division Redelegation Of Authority To Initiate And To Compromise Environment and Natural Resources Division Cases This directive supersedes Land and Natural Resources Memorandum... with, and to compromise, Environment and Natural Resources Division cases: Section I—Authority...

  7. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart Y of... - Redelegations of Authority To Compromise and Close Civil Claims

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Environment and Natural Resources Division Redelegation Of Authority To Initiate And To Compromise Environment and Natural Resources Division Cases This directive supersedes Land and Natural Resources Memorandum... with, and to compromise, Environment and Natural Resources Division cases: Section I—Authority...

  8. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart Y of... - Redelegations of Authority To Compromise and Close Civil Claims

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Environment and Natural Resources Division Redelegation Of Authority To Initiate And To Compromise Environment and Natural Resources Division Cases This directive supersedes Land and Natural Resources Memorandum... with, and to compromise, Environment and Natural Resources Division cases: Section I—Authority...

  9. 22 CFR 304.7 - Authority to adjust, determine, compromise, and settle claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority to adjust, determine, compromise, and settle claims. 304.7 Section 304.7 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL... the Peace Corps retains authority to consider, ascertain, adjust, determine, compromise and...

  10. 22 CFR 304.7 - Authority to adjust, determine, compromise, and settle claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Authority to adjust, determine, compromise, and settle claims. 304.7 Section 304.7 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL... the Peace Corps retains authority to consider, ascertain, adjust, determine, compromise and...

  11. 22 CFR 304.7 - Authority to adjust, determine, compromise, and settle claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Authority to adjust, determine, compromise, and settle claims. 304.7 Section 304.7 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL... the Peace Corps retains authority to consider, ascertain, adjust, determine, compromise and...

  12. 22 CFR 304.7 - Authority to adjust, determine, compromise, and settle claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Authority to adjust, determine, compromise, and settle claims. 304.7 Section 304.7 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL... the Peace Corps retains authority to consider, ascertain, adjust, determine, compromise and...

  13. 22 CFR 304.7 - Authority to adjust, determine, compromise, and settle claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Authority to adjust, determine, compromise, and settle claims. 304.7 Section 304.7 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL... the Peace Corps retains authority to consider, ascertain, adjust, determine, compromise and...

  14. 48 CFR 239.7102-2 - Compromising emanations-TEMPEST or other standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Security and Privacy for Computer Systems 239.7102-2 Compromising emanations—TEMPEST or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compromising emanations-TEMPEST or other standard. 239.7102-2 Section 239.7102-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  15. 32 CFR 2001.48 - Loss, possible compromise or unauthorized disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Loss, possible compromise or unauthorized disclosure. 2001.48 Section 2001.48 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense... SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.48 Loss, possible compromise or unauthorized disclosure....

  16. 32 CFR 2001.48 - Loss, possible compromise or unauthorized disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Loss, possible compromise or unauthorized disclosure. 2001.48 Section 2001.48 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense... SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.48 Loss, possible compromise or unauthorized disclosure....

  17. 32 CFR 2001.48 - Loss, possible compromise or unauthorized disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Loss, possible compromise or unauthorized disclosure. 2001.48 Section 2001.48 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense... SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.48 Loss, possible compromise or unauthorized disclosure....

  18. 10 CFR 15.41 - When a claim may be compromised.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... it has not been referred to DOJ for litigation. (b) Unless otherwise provided by law, when the... with the DOJ. The NRC will evaluate the compromise offer, using the factors set forth in this part. If an offer to compromise any debt in excess of $100,000 is acceptable to the NRC, the NRC shall...

  19. 27 CFR 70.484 - Offers in compromise of forfeiture liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... proponent is notified of the acceptance or rejection of the offer. If the offer is rejected, the sum... is notified and the case is closed. Acceptance of an offer in compromise of civil liabilities does not remit criminal liabilities, nor does acceptance of an offer in compromise of criminal...

  20. Gas-Alloy Interactions at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Arroyave, Raymundo; Gao, Michael

    2012-11-07

    The understanding of the stability of metals and alloys against oxidation and other detrimental reactions, to the catalysis of important chemical reactions and the minimization of defects associated with processing and synthesis have one thing in common: At the most fundamental level, all these scientific/engineering problems involve interactions between metals and alloys (in the solid or liquid state) and gaseous atmospheres at elevated temperatures. In this special issue, we have collected a series of articles that illustrate the application of different theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques to investigate gas-alloy interactions.

  1. Metal Preferences and Metallation*

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W.; Osman, Deenah; Robinson, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    The metal binding preferences of most metalloproteins do not match their metal requirements. Thus, metallation of an estimated 30% of metalloenzymes is aided by metal delivery systems, with ∼25% acquiring preassembled metal cofactors. The remaining ∼70% are presumed to compete for metals from buffered metal pools. Metallation is further aided by maintaining the relative concentrations of these pools as an inverse function of the stabilities of the respective metal complexes. For example, magnesium enzymes always prefer to bind zinc, and these metals dominate the metalloenzymes without metal delivery systems. Therefore, the buffered concentration of zinc is held at least a million-fold below magnesium inside most cells. PMID:25160626

  2. Host lung immunity is severely compromised during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia: role of lung eosinophils and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Sharma, Aditi; Vishwakarma, Achchhe Lal; Agnihotri, Promod Kumar; Sharma, Sharad; Srivastava, Mrigank

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophils play a central role in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, a rare, but fatal, manifestation of filariasis. However, no exhaustive study has been done to identify the genes and proteins of eosinophils involved in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. In the present study, we established a mouse model of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia that mimicked filarial manifestations of human tropical pulmonary eosinophilia pathogenesis and used flow cytometry-assisted cell sorting and real-time RT-PCR to study the gene expression profile of flow-sorted, lung eosinophils and lung macrophages during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia pathogenesis. Our results show that tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice exhibited increased levels of IL-4, IL-5, CCL5, and CCL11 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung parenchyma along with elevated titers of IgE and IgG subtypes in the serum. Alveolar macrophages from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice displayed decreased phagocytosis, attenuated nitric oxide production, and reduced T-cell proliferation capacity, and FACS-sorted lung eosinophils from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice upregulated transcript levels of ficolin A and anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2,but proapoptotic genes Bim and Bax were downregulated. Similarly, flow-sorted lung macrophages upregulated transcript levels of TLR-2, TLR-6, arginase-1, Ym-1, and FIZZ-1 but downregulated nitric oxide synthase-2 levels, signifying their alternative activation. Taken together, we show that the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia is marked by functional impairment of alveolar macrophages, alternative activation of lung macrophages, and upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes by eosinophils. These events combine together to cause severe lung inflammation and compromised lung immunity. Therapeutic interventions that can boost host immune response in the lungs might thus provide relief to patients with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia.

  3. Compromised oxygen uptake in speed skaters during treadmill in-line skating.

    PubMed

    Rundell, K W

    1996-01-01

    The "sitting" posture of speed skating may result in compromised blood flow to the working muscles, thus limiting oxygen uptake. To examine this metabolic problem, male (N = 7) short track speed skaters performed running (TR), in-line skating upright (US), and in-line skating in the "sitting" position (LS) on a motor driven treadmill on randomized days. Each test consisted of four 4-min stages at 2.24, 2.68, 3.13, and 3.58 m.s-1 (5, 6, 7, and 8 mph) at 5% incline. After a brief rest, athletes performed at 4.03 m.s-1 (9 mph) with elevation increasing 1% each minute to exhaustion. Two on-ice 1000-m time trials (TT) were performed to assess the relationship between performance and laboratory measurements. Peak VO2 was lower during LS (57.2 +/- 2.7, 62.3 +/- 4.0, and 64.3 +/- 1.6; for LS, US, and TR, respectively; P < 0.05). At equivalent speeds, submaximal O2 uptake was lower for LS and blood lactate was higher (P < 0.05). LS peak VO2 (ml.kg-1.min-1) was strongly related to TT (P < 0.05). The depressed VO2 and higher blood lactate during LS may be related to decreased knee or trunk angle. Peak VO2 values during skating did not approach values during running. Evaluation of speed skaters in a sports-specific test is congruent with performance and demonstrates potential in addressing the unique physiological demands of the sport.

  4. Fatigue microcracks that initiate fracture are located near elevated intracortical porosity but not elevated mineralization.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Travis L; Baumann, Andrew P; Roeder, Ryan K

    2014-09-22

    In vivo microcracks in cortical bone are typically observed within more highly mineralized interstitial tissue, but postmortem investigations are inherently limited to cracks that did not lead to fracture which may be misleading with respect to understanding fracture mechanisms. We hypothesized that the one fatigue microcrack which initiates fracture is located spatially adjacent to elevated intracortical porosity but not elevated mineralization. Therefore, the spatial correlation between intracortical porosity, elevated mineralization, and fatigue microdamage was investigated by combining, for the first time, sequential, nondestructive, three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) measurements of each in cortical bone specimens subjected to compressive fatigue loading followed by a tensile overload to fracture. Fatigue loading resulted in significant microdamage accumulation and compromised mechanical properties upon tensile overload compared to control specimens. The microdamage that initiated fracture upon tensile overload was able to be identified in all fatigue-loaded specimens using contrast-enhanced micro-CT and registered images. Two-point (or pair) correlation functions revealed a spatial correlation between microdamage at the fracture initiation site and intracortical porosity, but not highly mineralized tissue, confirming the hypothesis. This difference was unique to the fracture initiation site. Intracortical porosity and highly mineralized tissue exhibited a significantly lower and higher probability, respectively, of being located spatially adjacent to all sites of microdamage compared to the fracture initiation site. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that human cortical bone is tolerant of most microcracks, which are generally compartmentalized within the more highly mineralized interstitial tissue, but a single microcrack of sufficient size located in spatial proximity to intracortical porosity can compromise fracture resistance.

  5. National Elevation Dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2002-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey. NED is designed to provide National elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, perform edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data. NED has a resolution of one arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the island territories and a resolution of two arc-seconds for Alaska. NED data sources have a variety of elevation units, horizontal datums, and map projections. In the NED assembly process the elevation values are converted to decimal meters as a consistent unit of measure, NAD83 is consistently used as horizontal datum, and all the data are recast in a geographic projection. Older DEM's produced by methods that are now obsolete have been filtered during the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts that are commonly found in data produced by these methods. Artifact removal greatly improves the quality of the slope, shaded-relief, and synthetic drainage information that can be derived from the elevation data. Figure 2 illustrates the results of this artifact removal filtering. NED processing also includes steps to adjust values where adjacent DEM's do not match well, and to fill sliver areas of missing data between DEM's. These processing steps ensure that NED has no void areas and artificial discontinuities have been minimized. The artifact removal filtering process does not eliminate all of the artifacts. In areas where the only available DEM is produced by older methods, then "striping" may still occur.

  6. Elevated BP after AKI.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-yuan; Hsu, Raymond K; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP--defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit--during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization.

  7. Elevated BP after AKI

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Raymond K.; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D.; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP—defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit—during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization. PMID:26134154

  8. Elevated temperature strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brittain, J. O.; Geslin, D.; Lei, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Materials were evaluated that could be used in manufacturing electrical resistance strain gages for static strain measurements at temperatures at or above 1273 K. Strain gage materials must have a characteristic response to strain, temperature and time that is reproducible or that varies in a predictable manner within specified limits. Several metallic alloys were evaluated, as well as a series of transition metal carbides, nitrides and silicides.

  9. 60. FORWARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR PIT WITH ELEVATOR IN RAISED POSITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. FORWARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR PIT WITH ELEVATOR IN RAISED POSITION AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE SHOWING ELEVATOR GUIDES, WIREWAYS, SHEAVES, HYDRAULIC OIL TANKS AND ELEVATOR LANDING PADS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  10. [Guidelines for chagas disease: Part IV. Chagas disease in immune compromised patients].

    PubMed

    Apt B, Werner; Heitmann G, Ingrid; Jercic L, M Isabel; Jotré M, Leonor; Muñoz C Del V, Patricia; Noemí H, Isabel; San Martin V, Ana M; Sapunar P, Jorge; Torres H, Marisa; Zulantay A, Inés

    2008-08-01

    A summary of different kind of immune suppressed hosts and the importance of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in this group of patients is presented. Then, most relevant aspects of immune compromised host-parasite interaction are analyzed such as the moment of acquiring the infection, immune compromise level, mechanisms of acquisition the infection and geographic region. Clinical features of primary infection and reactivation of infection in chronic Chagasic patients are described making special emphasis in solid organ transplant and BMT. Chagas disease in AIDS patients is discussed including its treatment, follow up, monitoring the immune compromise level and prophylaxis.

  11. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, J. F.; Malik, S. N.; Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Laflen, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Project is to evaluate proposed nonlinear fracture mechanics methods for application to combustor liners of aircraft gas turbine engines. During the first year of this program, proposed path-independent (P-I) integrals were reviewed for such applications. Several P-I integrals were implemented into a finite-element postprocessor which was developed and verified as part of the work. Alloy 718 was selected as the analog material for use in the forthcoming experimental work. A buttonhead, single-edge notch specimen was designed and verified for use in elevated-temperature strain control testing with significant inelastic strains. A crack mouth opening displacement measurement device was developed for further use.

  12. Elevated temperature envelope forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burg, Bruce M. (Inventor); Gane, David H. (Inventor); Starowski, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Elevated temperature envelope forming includes enclosing a part blank and form tool within an envelope sealed against the atmosphere, heat treating the combination while forming pressure holds the envelope and part against the form tool, and allowing part cool down to occur in an inert atmosphere with forming pressure removed. The forming pressure is provided by evacuating the envelope and may be aided by differential force applied between the envelope and the form tool.

  13. 7 CFR 1956.68 - Compromise or adjustment without debtor's signature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Loan Programs and Multi-Family Housing § 1956.68 Compromise or adjustment without debtor's...

  14. 32 CFR 2001.48 - Loss, possible compromise or unauthorized disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... governments normally will not be advised of any security system vulnerabilities that contributed to the... INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.48 Loss, possible compromise or unauthorized disclosure....

  15. 45 CFR 608.2 - Collection, compromise, and use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLAIMS COLLECTION AND ADMINISTRATIVE OFFSET § 608.2 Collection, compromise, and... briefly describing the nature of the review performed and the conclusion reached shall be made....

  16. 45 CFR 608.2 - Collection, compromise, and use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLAIMS COLLECTION AND ADMINISTRATIVE OFFSET § 608.2 Collection, compromise, and... briefly describing the nature of the review performed and the conclusion reached shall be made....

  17. Combating QR-Code-Based Compromised Accounts in Mobile Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong; Cao, Jian; Wang, Xiaoqi; Fu, Qiang; Li, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Cyber Physical Social Sensing makes mobile social networks (MSNs) popular with users. However, such attacks are rampant as malicious URLs are spread covertly through quick response (QR) codes to control compromised accounts in MSNs to propagate malicious messages. Currently, there are generally two types of methods to identify compromised accounts in MSNs: one type is to analyze the potential threats on wireless access points and the potential threats on handheld devices’ operation systems so as to stop compromised accounts from spreading malicious messages; the other type is to apply the method of detecting compromised accounts in online social networks to MSNs. The above types of methods above focus neither on the problems of MSNs themselves nor on the interaction of sensors’ messages, which leads to the restrictiveness of platforms and the simplification of methods. In order to stop the spreading of compromised accounts in MSNs effectively, the attacks have to be traced to their sources first. Through sensors, users exchange information in MSNs and acquire information by scanning QR codes. Therefore, analyzing the traces of sensor-related information helps to identify the compromised accounts in MSNs. This paper analyzes the diversity of information sending modes of compromised accounts and normal accounts, analyzes the regularity of GPS (Global Positioning System)-based location information, and introduces the concepts of entropy and conditional entropy so as to construct an entropy-based model based on machine learning strategies. To achieve the goal, about 500,000 accounts of Sina Weibo and about 100 million corresponding messages are collected. Through the validation, the accuracy rate of the model is proved to be as high as 87.6%, and the false positive rate is only 3.7%. Meanwhile, the comparative experiments of the feature sets prove that sensor-based location information can be applied to detect the compromised accounts in MSNs. PMID:27657071

  18. Combating QR-Code-Based Compromised Accounts in Mobile Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong; Cao, Jian; Wang, Xiaoqi; Fu, Qiang; Li, Qiang

    2016-09-20

    Cyber Physical Social Sensing makes mobile social networks (MSNs) popular with users. However, such attacks are rampant as malicious URLs are spread covertly through quick response (QR) codes to control compromised accounts in MSNs to propagate malicious messages. Currently, there are generally two types of methods to identify compromised accounts in MSNs: one type is to analyze the potential threats on wireless access points and the potential threats on handheld devices' operation systems so as to stop compromised accounts from spreading malicious messages; the other type is to apply the method of detecting compromised accounts in online social networks to MSNs. The above types of methods above focus neither on the problems of MSNs themselves nor on the interaction of sensors' messages, which leads to the restrictiveness of platforms and the simplification of methods. In order to stop the spreading of compromised accounts in MSNs effectively, the attacks have to be traced to their sources first. Through sensors, users exchange information in MSNs and acquire information by scanning QR codes. Therefore, analyzing the traces of sensor-related information helps to identify the compromised accounts in MSNs. This paper analyzes the diversity of information sending modes of compromised accounts and normal accounts, analyzes the regularity of GPS (Global Positioning System)-based location information, and introduces the concepts of entropy and conditional entropy so as to construct an entropy-based model based on machine learning strategies. To achieve the goal, about 500,000 accounts of Sina Weibo and about 100 million corresponding messages are collected. Through the validation, the accuracy rate of the model is proved to be as high as 87.6%, and the false positive rate is only 3.7%. Meanwhile, the comparative experiments of the feature sets prove that sensor-based location information can be applied to detect the compromised accounts in MSNs.

  19. Recognizing and caring for the medically compromised child: 4. Children with other chronic medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, S C; Barnard, K M; Harrison, V E

    1999-01-01

    This is the fourth and final part of a series on recognizing and caring for medically compromised children. In this article, an outline of appropriate dental management for children with other more commonly encountered chronic medical conditions is given, together with a description of the disorders and their significance in dentistry. This group includes children with physically handicapping conditions and children with learning difficulties, as well as those who are medically compromised.

  20. A one-appointment impression and centric relation record technique for compromised complete denture patients.

    PubMed

    Ansari, I H

    1997-09-01

    This article describes a two-in-one modified custom tray and record block system that is recommended for compromised elderly patients. Custom trays, which are made on primary casts and formed from a patient's functionally corrected old dentures, are used to make final impressions and centric jaw relation records in one clinical appointment. The clinical visits are reduced without compromising the quality of denture construction.

  1. Respiratory Compromise as a New Paradigm for the Care of Vulnerable Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Morris, Timothy A; Gay, Peter C; MacIntyre, Neil R; Hess, Dean R; Hanneman, Sandra K; Lamberti, James P; Doherty, Dennis E; Chang, Lydia; Seckel, Maureen A

    2017-04-01

    Acute respiratory compromise describes a deterioration in respiratory function with a high likelihood of rapid progression to respiratory failure and death. Identifying patients at risk for respiratory compromise coupled with monitoring of patients who have developed respiratory compromise might allow earlier interventions to prevent or mitigate further decompensation. The National Association for the Medical Direction of Respiratory Care (NAMDRC) organized a workshop meeting with representation from many national societies to address the unmet needs of respiratory compromise from a clinical practice perspective. Respiratory compromise may arise de novo or may complicate preexisting lung disease. The group identified distinct subsets of respiratory compromise that present similar opportunities for early detection and useful intervention to prevent respiratory failure. The subtypes were characterized by the pathophysiological mechanisms they had in common: impaired control of breathing, impaired airway protection, parenchymal lung disease, increased airway resistance, hydrostatic pulmonary edema, and right-ventricular failure. Classification of acutely ill respiratory patients into one or more of these categories may help in selecting the screening and monitoring strategies that are most appropriate for the patient's particular pathophysiology. Standardized screening and monitoring practices for patients with similar mechanisms of deterioration may enhance the ability to predict respiratory failure early and prevent its occurrence.

  2. Identification of hemodynamically compromised regions by means of cerebral blood volume mapping utilizing computed tomography perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Akaji, Kazunori; Kimura, Hiroaki; Katano, Takehiro; Suzuki, Kentaro; Mochizuki, Yoichi; Shidoh, Satoka; Nakazawa, Masaki; Yoshida, Kazunari; Mihara, Ban

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential role of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging in identifying hemodynamically compromised regions in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease. Twelve patients diagnosed with either occlusion or severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery or the M1 portion of the middle cerebral artery underwent CTP imaging. The data was analyzed by an automated ROI-determining software. Patients were classified into two subgroups: an asymptomatic group consisting of three patients in whom perfusion pressure distal to the site of occlusion/stenosis (PPdis) could be maintained in spite of the arterial occlusion/stenosis, and a symptomatic group consisting of nine patients in whom PPdis could not be maintained enough to avoid watershed infarction. Four CTP-related parameters were independently compared between the two groups. Significant differences were determined using a two-sample t-test. When statistically significant differences were identified, cut-off points were calculated using ROC curves. Analysis revealed statistically significant differences between the asymptomatic and symptomatic subgroups only in the measure of relCBV (p=0.028). Higher relCBV values were observed in the symptomatic subgroup. ROC curve analysis revealed 1.059 to be the optimal relCBV cut-off value for distinguishing between the asymptomatic and symptomatic subgroups. The data revealed that, in patients whose PPdis is maintained, relCBV remains around 1.00. Conversely, in patients whose PPdis decreased, relCBV increased. From these findings, we conclude that elevation of relCBV as observed using CTP imaging accurately reflects the extent of compensatory vasodilatation involvement and can identify hemodynamically compromised regions.

  3. VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST GABLE ELEVATIONS AND NORTH ELEVATIONS OF ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST GABLE ELEVATIONS AND NORTH ELEVATIONS OF ENGINE HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND ECCENTRIC HOUSE IN REAR NOTE ROD LINES IN FOREGROUND RIGHT. - Golden Oil Company, Lot 410 Lease, Sheffield Field, Donaldson, Warren County, PA

  4. 21. Interior of elevator, view from upper elevator room. Lyon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Interior of elevator, view from upper elevator room. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  5. location plan, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, louver window detail, mechanical room door profile, partition profile - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Staff Bath House, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  6. first floor plan, building section, west elevation, south elevation, baseboard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    first floor plan, building section, west elevation, south elevation, baseboard profile, crown molding profile, window and door details - Cedar Pass Lodge, Cabin 22, 20681 South Dakota Highway 240, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  7. View to southwest showing facade (east elevation) and north elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to southwest showing facade (east elevation) and north elevation - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Service Building, Between Williamson Drive & Green Street, adjacent to northern driveway behind Medical Officer's Quarters C, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  8. 33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (right) Photographs taken by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  9. Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground Floor Plan, Section A-A - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  10. 3. A general elevation view looking west highlights the Elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. A general elevation view looking west highlights the Elevator and Silo Complex C, commonly known as the 'Landmark' (1940). - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  11. Detecting Elevated Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, H.L.; Elford, R.W.; Shumak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Reflotron dry chemistry reflectance photometer was studied as a case-finding method in physicians' offices. A total of 713 adult patients had their risk factor profiles determined along with fingerprick blood cholesterol measurements. Blood cholesterol levels were classified into three categories, (<5.2 mmol/L), 51%; borderline high (5.2 to 6.1 mmol/L), 28%; and high (≥6.2 mmol/L), 21%. The physicians' predictions from clinical risk factor profiles of which patients had elevated serum cholesterol levels were inaccurate. PMID:21229051

  12. Building C west elevation showing south elevation of Building B ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building C west elevation showing south elevation of Building B (on left) and north elevation of Building D (on right). The Germantown Dyeworks complex and smoke stack appear in the background. View looking east - Hinckley Knitting Mills, Building C, 21-35 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 3. Occident Terminal Elevator. Reinforced concrete. First total "electric" elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Occident Terminal Elevator. Reinforced concrete. First total "electric" elevator at Duluth. (Powered by electrical substation instead of steam generator). - Occident Terminal Elevator & Storage Annex, South side of second slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  14. Digital Elevation Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    The Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) distributes digital cartographic/geographic data files produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Mapping Program. Digital cartographic data files may be grouped into four basic types. The first of these, called a Digital Line Graph (DLG), is the line map information in digital form. These data files include information on base data categories, such as transportation, hypsography, hydrography, and boundaries. The second type, called a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), consists of a sampled array of elevations for a number of ground positions at regularly spaced intervals. The third type is Land Use and Land Cover digital data which provides information on nine major classes of land use such as urban, agricultural, or forest as well as associated map data such as political units and Federal land ownership. The fourth type, the Geographic Names Information System, provides primary information for all known places, features, and areas in the United States identified by a proper name.

  15. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    Alloy 718 crack growth experiments were conducted to assess the ability of the selected path-independent (P-I) integrals to describe the elevated temperature crack growth behavior. These tests were performed on single edge notch (SEN) specimens under displacement control with multiple extensometers to monitor the specimen and crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD). The displacements in these tests were sufficiently high to induce bulk cyclic inelastic deformation of the specimen. Under these conditions, the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) parameter K does not correlate the crack growth data. The experimentally measured displacement gradients at the end of specimen gage length were used as the boundary conditions in elastic-plastic finite element method (FEM) analyses. These analyses were performed with a node release approach using CYANIDE, a GEAE FEM code, which included a gap element which is capable of efficiently simulating crack closure. Excellent correlation was obtained between the experimentally measured and predicted variation of stress and CMOD with crack length and the stress-CMOD loops for Alloy 718 tests conducted at 538 C. This confirmed the accuracy of the FEM crack growth simulation approach. The experimentally measured crack growth rate data correlated well the selected P-I integrals. These investigations have produced significant progress in developing P-I integrals as non-linear fracture mechanics parameters. The results suggest that this methodology has the potential of accurately describing elevated temperature crack growth behavior under the combined influence of thermal cycling and bulk elastic-inelastic deformation states.

  16. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to extend the work performed in the base program (CR 182247) into the regime of time-dependent crack growth under isothermal and thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) loading, where creep deformation also influences the crack growth behavior. The investigation was performed in a two-year, six-task, combined experimental and analytical program. The path-independent integrals for application to time-dependent crack growth were critically reviewed. The crack growth was simulated using a finite element method. The path-independent integrals were computed from the results of finite-element analyses. The ability of these integrals to correlate experimental crack growth data were evaluated under various loading and temperature conditions. The results indicate that some of these integrals are viable parameters for crack growth prediction at elevated temperatures.

  17. Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    A three year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for non-proportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved undertanding were through several critical non-proportional loading experiments. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C.

  18. Charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.

    1995-12-01

    High quality charcoal has been produced with very high yields of 50% to 60% from macadamia nut and kukui nut shells and of 44% to 47% from Eucalyptus and Leucaena wood in a bench scale unit at elevated pressure on a 2 to 3 hour cycle, compared to commercial practice of 25% to 30% yield on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Neither air pollution nor tar is produced by the process. The effects of feedstock pretreatments with metal additives on charcoal yield are evaluated in this paper. Also, the influences of steam and air partial pressure and total pressure on yields of activated carbon from high yield charcoal are presented.

  19. Central nervous system compromise in primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Villa, Luis A; Restrepo, Lucas; Molina, Jose F; Mantilla, Rubén D; Vargas, Sergio

    2002-08-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is poorly understood, and its frequency as well as its manifestations are subjects of controversy. The current study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and the clinical and immunogenetic characteristics of CNS compromise in a well defined group of patients with primary SS. In this retrospective study, patients fulfilled the European classification criteria. Among 120 patients with primary SS, 3 (2.5%) had CNS compromise (multiple sclerosis-like illness, complicated migraine, and optic neuritis with epilepsy). The CNS involvement coincided with the onset of sicca symptoms in 1 case. All 3 patients carried the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQB1*0303 allele and tested positive for anti-Ro antibodies, but not for anti-cardiolipin antibodies. Although rare, CNS compromise in primary SS can be the presenting manifestation of the disease in a few cases, and may be severe and varied.

  20. Clinicopathologic subtypes and compromise of lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jaime Jans, B; Nicolás Escudero, M; Dahiana Pulgar, B; Francisco Acevedo, C; César Sánchez, R; Camus, A Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is currently a heterogeneous disease with variations in clinical behaviour. Classification according to subtypes has allowed progress in the individualisation of treatment. The objective of this study is to evaluate the risk of axillary node compromise in patients with BC, according to clinicopathologic subtypes. Materials and methods are a retrospective, descriptive-analytical study. All patients that had undergone surgery for invasive BC were included, with the study of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) at Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica, between May 1999 and December 2012. The results showed 632 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with the median age being 55 years (range: 28–95), and 559 (88.4%) patients presented with estrogen receptor and/or progesterone receptor positive tumours. Luminal A: 246 patients (38.9%), luminal B: 243 (38.4%), luminal not otherwise specified: 70 (11.1%) triple negative (TN): 60 (9.5%) and over expression of epidermal growth factor type 2 receptor (HER2 positive): 13 (2.1%). Luminal tumours displayed a greater risk of metastasis in the SLNs, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.67). TN and HER2 positive tumours presented the greatest proportion of metastatic compromise in non-sentinel lymph nodes (non-SLNs) (57.1% and 50%, respectively). The presence of macrometastasis (MAM) in the SLN was associated with a greater risk of compromise of the non-SLN. Conclusions: Luminal tumours are the most frequent and present a greater proportion of axillary lymph node compromise, without being statistically significant. TN and HER2 positive tumours tend to have a higher axillary compromise; however, this was not statistically significant in either. Only the presence of MAM in SLNs displayed a statistically significantly association in the compromise of non-SLNs. PMID:25114720

  1. Compromise Approach-Based Genetic Algorithm for Constrained Multiobjective Portfolio Selection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun

    In this paper, fuzzy set theory is incorporated into a multiobjective portfolio selection model for investors’ taking into three criteria: return, risk and liquidity. The cardinality constraint, the buy-in threshold constraint and the round-lots constraints are considered in the proposed model. To overcome the difficulty of evaluation a large set of efficient solutions and selection of the best one on non-dominated surface, a compromise approach-based genetic algorithm is presented to obtain a compromised solution for the proposed constrained multiobjective portfolio selection model.

  2. Reduced O2 and elevated CO2 tolerance limits of fresh-cut ‘Kent’ mango during retail display

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to unfavorable temperatures encountered during retail display may induce the development of injurious atmospheres inside improperly designed packages of fresh-cut products, compromising their quality and safety. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal reduced O2 and/or elev...

  3. Elevated Temperature Crack Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orange, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a summary of two NASA contracts on high temperature fatigue crack propagation in metals. The first evaluated the ability of fairly simple nonlinear fracture parameters to correlate crack propagation. Hastelloy-X specimens were tested under isothermal and thermomechanical cycling at temperatures up to 980 degrees C (1800 degrees F). The most successful correlating parameter was the crack tip opening displacement derived from the J-integral. The second evaluated the ability of several path-independent integrals to correlate crack propagation behavior. Inconel 718 specimens were tested under isothermal, thermomechanical, temperature gradient, and creep conditions at temperatures up to 650 degrees C (1200 degrees F). The integrals formulated by Blackburn and by Kishimoto correlated the data reasonably well under all test conditions.

  4. Elevated temperature crack propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Orange, T.W.

    1994-02-01

    This paper is a summary of two NASA contracts on high temperature fatigue crack propagation in metals. The first evaluated the ability of fairly simple nonlinear fracture parameters to correlate crack propagation. Hastelloy-X specimens were tested under isothermal and thermomechanical cycling at temperatures up to 980 degrees C (1800 degrees F). The most successful correlating parameter was the crack tip opening displacement derived from the J-integral. The second evaluated the ability of several path-independent integrals to correlate crack propagation behavior. Inconel 718 specimens were tested under isothermal, thermomechanical, temperature gradient, and creep conditions at temperatures up to 650 degrees C (1200 degrees F). The integrals formulated by Blackburn and by Kishimoto correlated the data reasonably well under all test conditions.

  5. Trace metal contamination of mineral spring water in an historical mining area in regional Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim

    2013-11-01

    Significant global consumption of spring and mineral water is fuelled by perceived therapeutic and medicinal qualities, cultural habits and taste. The Central Victorian Mineral Springs Region, Australia comprises approximately 100 naturally effervescent, cold, high CO2 content springs with distinctive tastes linked to a specific spring or pump. The area has a rich settlement history. It was first settled by miners in the 1840s closely followed by the first commercial operations of a health resort 1895. The landscape is clearly affected by gold mining with geographically proximal mine waste, mullock heaps or tailings. Repeated mineral springs sampling since 1985 has revealed elevated arsenic concentrations. In 1985 an arsenic concentration five times the current Australian Drinking Water Guideline was recorded at a popular tourist spring site. Recent sampling and analyses have confirmed elevated levels of heavy metals/metalloids, with higher concentrations occurring during periods of low rainfall. Despite the elevated levels, mineral water source points remain accessible to the public with some springs actively promoting the therapeutic benefits of the waters. In light of our analysis, the risk to consumers (some of whom are likely to be negatively health-affected or health-compromised) needs to be considered with a view to appropriate and verified analyses made available to the public.

  6. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOEpatents

    Ray, Siba P.; Woods, Robert W.; Dawless, Robert K.; Hosler, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  7. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOEpatents

    Ray, Siba P.; Woods, Robert W.; Dawless, Robert K.; Hosler, Robert B.

    2001-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  8. Metallized gelled monopropellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieder, Erin G.; Harrod, Charles E.; Rodgers, Frederick C.; Rapp, Douglas C.; Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1992-01-01

    Thermochemical calculations of seven metallized monopropellants were conducted to quantify theoretical specific impulse and density specific impulse performance. On the basis of theoretical performance, commercial availability of formulation constituents, and anticipated viscometric behavior, two metallized monopropellants were selected for formulation characterization: triethylene glycol dinitrate, ammonium perchlorate, aluminum and hydrogen peroxide, aluminum. Formulation goals were established, and monopropellant formulation compatibility and hazard sensitivity were experimentally determined. These experimental results indicate that the friction sensitivity, detonation susceptibility, and material handling difficulties of the elevated monopropellant formulations and their constituents pose formidable barriers to their future application as metallized monopropellants.

  9. PARTIAL ELEVATION OF THE SOUTHWEST SIDE SHOWING THE LARGE SLIDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PARTIAL ELEVATION OF THE SOUTHWEST SIDE SHOWING THE LARGE SLIDING DOORS WITH MULTI-LIGHT WINDOWS AND METAL SECTIONS AT THE BOTTOM. NOTE THE FRAMEWORK WHICH SUPPORTS THE OVERHEAD GUIDEWAYS. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Seaplane Hangar, Lexington Boulevard, south of Enterprise Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Trace mineral interactions during elevated calcium consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.T.; Luhrsen, K.R.

    1986-03-01

    Elevated calcium consumption is reported to affect trace mineral bioavailability. The authors examined this phenomenon in both single dose radio-label test meals and an eight week feeding trial in rats. In the single dose studies, human milk, cows milk, and various calcium sources were examined in relation to radio-iron and radio-zinc retention. /sup 59/Fe retention was greater from human milk than cows milk. However, when the calcium content of human milk was adjusted (with CaHPO/sub 4/ or CaCO/sub 3/) to equal the level in cows milk, iron retention was depressed. Similarly, when calcium sources (CaCO/sub 3/, CaHPO/sub 4/, hydroxy-apatite, bone meal) were examined at different calcium:metal molar ratios, the degree of inhibition on metal retention varied. In general, phosphate salts were more inhibiting than carbonates. In the feeding trial, calcium was fed in diets at normal (0.5%) or elevated (1.5%) levels. Serum, liver, kidney, and bone trace mineral profiles were obtained. In general, most trace elements showed decreased levels in the tissues. Zinc and iron were most striking, followed by magnesium with minor changes in copper. A high calcium:high mineral supplemented group was also fed. Mixed mineral supplementation prevented all calcium interactions. These data indicate the importance of calcium mineral interactions in bioavailability considerations in both milk sources and in mineral supplementation.

  11. 15 CFR 19.7 - When will Commerce entities compromise a Commerce debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities compromise a Commerce debt? 19.7 Section 19.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.7 When will Commerce entities...

  12. Unconsciously competing goals can collaborate or compromise as well as win or lose.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Peter

    2014-04-01

    This commentary offers a friendly extension of Huang & Bargh's (H&B's) account. Not only do active goals sometimes operate unconsciously to dominate or preempt others, but simultaneously active goals can also collaborate or compromise in shaping behavior. Because neither goal wins complete control of behavior, the result may be that each is only partly satisfied.

  13. Inadequate satellite cell replication compromises muscle regrowth following postnatal nutrient restriction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perinatal growth impairment permanently compromises skeletal muscle mass. The present study assessed the contribution of muscle satellite cell replicative capacity to this deficit. Mouse dams were fed either a low protein (LP, n=7) or control (C, n=6) diet during lactation. Pups were weaned at 21 d ...

  14. Using Emergence Theory-Based Curriculum to Teach Compromise Skills to Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Lance; Jones, Don

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the compromise skills that are taught to students diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and related social and communication deficits. A private school in the southeastern United States implemented an emergence theory-based curriculum to address these skills, yet no formal analysis was conducted to determine its…

  15. 31 CFR 5.7 - When will Treasury entities compromise a Treasury debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When will Treasury entities compromise a Treasury debt? 5.7 Section 5.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TREASURY DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Treasury Debts § 5.7 When will Treasury...

  16. 7 CFR 1956.66 - Compromise and adjustment of nonjudgment debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...'s essential family living expenses, and farm or business operation expenses necessary to continue... SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... Programs and Multi-Family Housing § 1956.66 Compromise and adjustment of nonjudgment debts....

  17. 40 CFR 1620.6 - Authority to adjust, determine, compromise, and settle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to adjust, determine, compromise, and settle. 1620.6 Section 1620.6 Protection of Environment CHEMICAL SAFETY AND HAZARD INVESTIGATION BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.6 Authority to...

  18. Comments on James Q. Wilson's Compromise on Affirmative Action in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Charles; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Provides responses from a small group of conservative scholars concerning the compromise proposed by Dr. James Q. Wilson indicating that the nation will allow some affirmative action in the form of race-based preferential admissions at the undergraduate level, but not in graduate programs. (GR)

  19. 45 CFR 30.4 - Compromise, waiver, or disposition under other statutes not precluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compromise, waiver, or disposition under other statutes not precluded. 30.4 Section 30.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... States Code and the Federal Claims Collection Standards, 31 CFR parts 900 through 904. Any statute...

  20. 45 CFR 30.4 - Compromise, waiver, or disposition under other statutes not precluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compromise, waiver, or disposition under other statutes not precluded. 30.4 Section 30.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... States Code and the Federal Claims Collection Standards, 31 CFR parts 900 through 904. Any statute...

  1. Is patient confidentiality compromised with the electronic health record?: a position paper.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Ilse M

    2015-02-01

    In order for electronic health records to fulfill their expected benefits, protection of privacy of patient information is key. Lack of trust in confidentiality can lead to reluctance in disclosing all relevant information, which could have grave consequences. This position paper contemplates whether patient confidentiality is compromised by electronic health records. The position that confidentiality is compromised was supported by the four bioethical principles and argued that despite laws and various safeguards to protect patients' confidentiality, numerous data breaches have occurred. The position that confidentiality is not compromised was supported by virtue ethics and a utilitarian viewpoint and argued that safeguards keep information confidential and the public feels relatively safe with the electronic health record. The article concludes with an ethically superior position that confidentiality is compromised with the electronic health record. Although organizational and governmental ways of enhancing the confidentiality of patient information within the electronic health record facilitate confidentiality, the ultimate responsibility of maintaining confidentiality rests with the individual end-users and their ethical code of conduct. The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for nurses calls for nurses to be watchful with data security in electronic communications.

  2. 10 CFR 1015.104 - Compromise, waiver, or disposition under other statutes not precluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compromise, waiver, or disposition under other statutes not precluded. 1015.104 Section 1015.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COLLECTION... applicable laws and regulations will generally take precedence over this part....

  3. TEMPORAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN HEALTHY AND CARDIOVASCULAR COMPROMISED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temporal association between pulmonary and systemic effects of particulate matter in healthy and cardiovascular compromised rats

    Urmila P. Kodavanti, Mette C. Schladweiler, Allen D. Ledbetter, Russ Hauser*, David C. Christiani*, John McGee, Judy R. Richards, Daniel L. Co...

  4. Happenstance and Compromise: A Gendered Analysis of Students' Computing Degree Course Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The number of students choosing to study computing at university continues to decline this century, with an even sharper decline in female students. This article presents the results of a series of interviews with university students studying computing courses in Australia that uncovered the influence of happenstance and compromise on course…

  5. 13 CFR 108.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 108.1710 Section 108.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies...

  6. 13 CFR 108.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 108.1710 Section 108.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies...

  7. 13 CFR 108.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 108.1710 Section 108.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies...

  8. 13 CFR 108.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 108.1710 Section 108.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies...

  9. 13 CFR 108.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 108.1710 Section 108.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies...

  10. 13 CFR 107.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 107.1710 Section 107.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage)...

  11. 13 CFR 107.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 107.1710 Section 107.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage)...

  12. 13 CFR 107.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 107.1710 Section 107.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage)...

  13. 13 CFR 107.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 107.1710 Section 107.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage)...

  14. Fungemia and interstitial lung compromise caused by Malassezia sympodialis in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Clarisa; Euliarte, Cristina; Finquelievich, Jorge; Sosa, María de los Ángeles; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    A case of fungemia with interstitial lung compromise caused by Malassezia sympodialis is reported in an obese pediatric patient on long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids for asthma. The patient was hospitalized due to a post-surgical complication of appendicitis. The patient was treated with amphotericin B for 3 weeks, with good clinical evolution and subsequent negative cultures.

  15. 28 CFR 71.54 - Collection and compromise of liabilities imposed by Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection and compromise of liabilities...) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 Assignment of Responsibilities... and civil penalties imposed under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986, and, subsequent to...

  16. State, Labor, Capital: Institutionalizing Democratic Class Compromise in the Southern Cone.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    at promoting, in limited fashion, the structural bases of class compromise. 36La Voz Argentina, V.7, N 70 (December 1985), p. 1. 37C. Pareja , "Las...fiscal crisis. This per force changes the orientation of concertation, and complicates its mission. On concertation in the Southern Cone, see C. Pareja

  17. Effects of Warmth of Interaction, Accuracy of Understanding, and the Proposal of Compromises on Listener's Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David W.

    1971-01-01

    The results of this experiment demonstrate a causal relationship (a) between the expressed accuracy of understanding and the proposal of compromises and the induction of cooperation in a negotiation situation and (b) between the expressed warmth and degree of favorableness of interpersonal attitudes, thus giving support to the efficacy of Rogerian…

  18. 78 FR 53702 - User Fees for Processing Installment Agreements and Offers in Compromise

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ...). The public hearing will be held in the IRS Auditorium beginning at 10 a.m. at the Internal Revenue... proposed fees balance the need to recover costs with the goals of encouraging the use of installment... proposed fee balances the need to recover costs with the goal of encouraging offers in compromise. The...

  19. Adolescent Occupational Aspirations: Test of Gottfredson's Theory of Circumscription and Compromise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Daria B.; Wang, Eugene W.; Stevenson, Sarah J.; Johnson, Leah E.; Crews, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between adolescent occupational aspirations and midlife career success. The model for adolescent occupational aspirations was derived from Gottfredson's (1981) theory of circumscription and compromise. The authors hypothesized that parental socioeconomic status (SES), ability, and gender predict adolescent…

  20. 32 CFR 310.14 - Notification when information is lost, stolen, or compromised.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... purposes, such as identity theft, fraud, stalking, etc. The personal impact on the affected individual may... the Federal Trade Commission's public Web site on identity theft at http://www.consumer.gov/idtheft... the individual of any loss, theft, or compromise (See also, § 310.50 for reporting of the breach...

  1. 32 CFR 310.14 - Notification when information is lost, stolen, or compromised.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... purposes, such as identity theft, fraud, stalking, etc. The personal impact on the affected individual may... the Federal Trade Commission's public Web site on identity theft at http://www.consumer.gov/idtheft... the individual of any loss, theft, or compromise (See also, § 310.50 for reporting of the breach...

  2. 32 CFR 310.14 - Notification when information is lost, stolen, or compromised.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... purposes, such as identity theft, fraud, stalking, etc. The personal impact on the affected individual may... the Federal Trade Commission's public Web site on identity theft at http://www.consumer.gov/idtheft... the individual of any loss, theft, or compromise (See also, § 310.50 for reporting of the breach...

  3. 32 CFR 310.14 - Notification when information is lost, stolen, or compromised.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... purposes, such as identity theft, fraud, stalking, etc. The personal impact on the affected individual may... the Federal Trade Commission's public Web site on identity theft at http://www.consumer.gov/idtheft... the individual of any loss, theft, or compromise (See also, § 310.50 for reporting of the breach...

  4. 32 CFR 310.14 - Notification when information is lost, stolen, or compromised.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... purposes, such as identity theft, fraud, stalking, etc. The personal impact on the affected individual may... the Federal Trade Commission's public Web site on identity theft at http://www.consumer.gov/idtheft... the individual of any loss, theft, or compromise (See also, § 310.50 for reporting of the breach...

  5. 20 CFR 410.565 - Collection and compromise of claims for overpayment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection and compromise of claims for overpayment. 410.565 Section 410.565 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits §...

  6. 20 CFR 410.565 - Collection and compromise of claims for overpayment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Collection and compromise of claims for overpayment. 410.565 Section 410.565 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits §...

  7. Tragic Choices and Moral Compromise: The Ethics of Allocating Kidneys for Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmaster, Barry; Hooker, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    Context For almost a decade, the Kidney Transplantation Committee of the United Network for Organ Sharing has been striving to revise its approach to allocating kidneys from deceased donors for transplantation. Two fundamental values, equality and efficiency, are central to distributing this scarce resource. The prevailing approach gives primacy to equality in the temporal form of first-come, first-served, whereas the motivation for a new approach is to redeem efficiency by increasing the length of survival of transplanted kidneys and their recipients. But decision making about a better way of allocating kidneys flounders because it is constrained by the amorphous notion of “balancing” values. Methods This article develops a more fitting, productive approach to resolving the conflict between equality and efficiency by embedding the notion of compromise in the analysis of a tragic choice provided by Guido Calabresi and Philip Bobbitt. For Calabresi and Bobbitt, the goals of public policy with respect to tragic choices are to limit tragedy and to deal with the irreducible minimum of tragedy in the least offensive way. Satisfying the value of efficiency limits tragedy, and satisfying the value of equality deals with the irreducible minimum of tragedy in the least offensive way. But both values cannot be completely satisfied simultaneously. Compromise is occasioned when not all the several obligations that exist in a situation can be met and when neglecting some obligations entirely in order to fulfill others entirely is improper. Compromise is amalgamated with the notion of a tragic choice and then used to assess proposals for revising the allocation of kidneys considered by the Kidney Transplantation Committee. Findings Compromise takes two forms in allocating kidneys: it occurs within particular approaches to allocating kidneys because neither equality nor efficiency can be fully satisfied, and it occurs over the course of sequential approaches to allocating

  8. Root Cellar: Plan, Southeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Side Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Southwest/Side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Root Cellar: Plan, Southeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Side Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Southwest/Side Elevation - Driapsa Centennial Farm, Potts Hill European Community, 4511 Potts Hill Road, Bainbridge, Ross County, OH

  9. 180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating front elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating front elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing west - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  12. 35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  13. Influence of political opposition and compromise on conservation outcomes in the Tongass National Forest, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Beier, Colin M

    2008-12-01

    To understand how a highly contentious policy process influenced a major conservation effort, I examined the origins, compromises, and outcomes of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 (ANILCA) for the Tongass National Forest. Tongass wilderness designation was among the most controversial issues in the ANILCA debate, and it faced strong opposition from influential lawmakers, land managers, and Alaska residents. To investigate the influence of this opposition on Tongass conservation outcomes, I conducted a gap analysis of Tongass reserves and a policy analysis of the ANILCA debate and traced the influence of specific interests through the amendments, negotiations, and resulting compromises needed to enact ANILCA. Overall, I found that Tongass reserves comprise a broadly representative cross-section of ecosystems and species habitats in southeastern Alaska. Redrawn reserve boundaries, industry subsidies, and special access regulations reflected compromises to minimize the impact of wilderness conservation on mining, timber, and local stakeholder interests, respectively. Fragmentation of the Admiralty Island National Monument-the most ecologically valuable and politically controversial reserve-resulted from compromises with Alaskan Native (indigenous peoples of Alaska) corporations and timber interests. Despite language to accommodate "reasonable access" to wilderness reserves, ongoing access limitations highlight the concerns of Alaska residents that opposed ANILCA several decades ago. More broadly, the Tongass case suggests that early and ambitious conservation action may offset strong political opposition; compromises needed to establish key reserves often exacerbate development impacts in unprotected areas; and efforts to minimize social conflicts are needed to safeguard the long-term viability of conservation measures.

  14. Clinical outcomes of compromised side branch (stent jail) after coronary stenting with the NIR stent.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, B; Waksman, R; Lansky, A J; Kornowski, R; Mehran, R; Leon, M B

    2001-11-01

    Acute side-branch (SB) compromise or occlusion stent jail after native coronary stenting is a matter of concern. Attempts at maintaining SB patency can be a technical challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical impact of SB compromise or occlusion in patients undergoing stenting of parent vessel lesions. We evaluated in-hospital and long-term clinical outcomes (death, Q-wave myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization rates at 6 months) in 318 consecutive patients undergoing NIR stent implantation across an SB. Based on independent angiographic analysis, 218 (68.6%) patients had no poststent SB compromise, 85 (26.7%) patients had narrowed SB (> 70% narrowing, without total occlusion), and 15 (4.7%) patients had an occluded SB after stent implantation. The baseline patient and lesion characteristics were similar between the groups. Procedural success was 100%. Patients with SB occlusion had a higher stents/lesion ratio (P < 0.006). Side-branch occlusion was associated with higher in-hospital ischemic complications (Q-wave myocardial infarction, 7%; non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, 20%; P < 0.05) compared to patients with SB compromise or normal SB. At 6-month follow-up, there was a trend for more myocardial infarctions in the group with SB occlusion during the index procedure (Q-wave myocardial infarction, 7% vs. 1% in the narrowed and 0% in normal SB; P = 0.09). However, late target lesion revascularization and mortality were similar in the three groups (P = 0.91). SB occlusion after parent vessel stenting is associated with more frequent in-hospital Q-wave and non-Q-wave myocardial infarctions. However, with the NIR stent, side-branch compromise or occlusion does not influence late (6 month) major adverse events, including death, myocardial infarction, or need for repeat revascularization.

  15. Surface Defection Reduces Cytotoxicity of Zn(2-methylimidazole)2 (ZIF-8) without Compromising its Drug Delivery Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Shearier, Emily; Cheng, Peifu; Bao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Zn(2-methylimidazole)2 (ZIF-8), as one of the most important metal-organic framework (MOF) molecules, is a promising candidate for drug delivery due to its low-density structure, high surface area, and tunable frameworks. However, ZIF-8 exhibits a high cytotoxicity associated with its external hydrophobic surface, which significantly restricts its application in drug delivery and other biomedical applications. Commonly used chemical functionalization methods would convert the hydrophobic surface of ZIF-8 to hydrophilic, but the generated functional groups on its internal surface may reduce its pore sizes or even block its pores. Herein, a surface defection strategy was applied on the external surface of ZIF-8 to enhance its hydrophilicity without reducing or blocking the internal pores. In this approach, mechanical ball-milling was used to incur defects on the external surface of ZIF-8, leading to unsaturated Zn-sites and N-sites which subsequently bound H2O molecules in an aqueous environment. Furthermore, hydroxyurea delivery and cell cytotoxicity of ZIF-8 with and without the external surface treatment were evaluated. It was found that 5-min ball milling changed the hydrophobic–hydrophilic balance of ZIF-8, resulting in significantly higher cell viability without compromising its hydroxyurea loading and release capacity. Such a simple mechanical ball-milling followed by water-treatment provides a general technique for surface-modification of other MOF molecules, which will undoubtedly magnify their biomedical applications. PMID:26998256

  16. Right-to-left shunt has modest effects on CO2 delivery to the gut during digestion, but compromises oxygen delivery.

    PubMed

    Malte, Christian Lind; Malte, Hans; Reinholdt, Lærke Rønlev; Findsen, Anders; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias

    2017-02-15

    By virtue of their cardiovascular anatomy, reptiles and amphibians can shunt blood away from the pulmonary or systemic circuits, but the functional role of this characteristic trait remains unclear. It has been suggested that right-to-left (R-L) shunt (recirculation of systemic blood within the body) fuels the gastric mucosa with acidified and CO2-rich blood to facilitate gastric acid secretion during digestion. However, in addition to elevating PCO2 , R-L shunt also reduces arterial O2 levels and would compromise O2 delivery during the increased metabolic state of digestion. Conversely, arterial PCO2  can also be elevated by lowering ventilation relative to metabolism (i.e. reducing the air convection requirement, ACR). Based on a mathematical analysis of the relative roles of ACR and R-L shunt on O2 and CO2 levels, we predict that ventilatory modifications are much more effective for gastric CO2 supply with only modest effects on O2 delivery. Conversely, elevating CO2 levels by means of R-L shunt would come at a cost of significant reductions in O2 levels. The different effects of altering ACR and R-L shunt on O2 and CO2 levels are explained by the differences in the effective blood capacitance coefficients.

  17. OBLIQUE VIEW, FRONT ELEVATION (EAST FACADE) LOOKING NORTH ALONG 20TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW, FRONT ELEVATION (EAST FACADE) LOOKING NORTH ALONG 20TH STREET FROM THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF FOURTH AVENUE NORTH. - Gibson Sheet Metal Works & Western Rope & Fittings, Incorporated, Twentieth Street at Fourth Avenue North, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  18. A widely displaced Galeazzi-equivalent lesion with median nerve compromise.

    PubMed

    Galanopoulos, Ilias; Fogg, Quentin; Ashwood, Neil; Fu, Katherine

    2012-08-18

    We present the case of a 14-year-old boy with a right distal radial fracture accompanied by a severely displaced complete distal ulnar physeal separation and associated median nerve compromise. This injury is known as Galeazzi-equivalent lesion in children and is an extremely rare injury associated with growth arrest. Recognition of the lesion can be difficult but wide displacement may be associated with other significant injuries such as neurovascular compromise. Prompt intervention reversed the neurological symptoms. At 10-month postoperation there was neither growth arrest nor loss of motion. Complete separation of the ulna physis remains often because of soft tissue interposition or capsule problems and prompt reduction is recommended in the literature as a priority.

  19. Genomic imprinting effects in a compromised in utero environment: implications for a healthy pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lim, A L; Ferguson-Smith, A C

    2010-04-01

    Genomic imprinting in gametogenesis marks a subset of mammalian genes for parent-of-origin-dependent monoallelic expression in the offspring. In mice, the identification and manipulation of individual imprinted genes has shown that the diverse products of these genes are largely devoted to controlling pre- and postnatal growth. Human syndromes with parental origin effects have been characterized both at the phenotypic and genotypic levels, allowing further elucidation of the function and regulation of imprinted genes. Evidence suggests that a compromised in utero environment influences fetal growth through the modulation of epigenetic states. However it is not known whether imprinted genes, by their nature, might be more or less susceptible to such environmental influences. Here we review the progress made in addressing the influence of a compromised in utero environment on the behavior of imprinted genes. We also examine whether these environmental influences may have an impact on the later development of human disease.

  20. Human Milk for Ill and Medically Compromised Infants: Strategies and Ongoing Innovation.

    PubMed

    DiLauro, Sara; Unger, Sharon; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2016-08-01

    The use of human milk (mother's own milk and/or donor milk) in ill or medically compromised infants frequently requires some adaptation to address medical diagnoses and/or altered nutrition requirements. This tutorial describes the nutrition and immunological benefits of breast milk as well as provides evidence for the use of donor milk when mother's own milk is unavailable. Several strategies used to modify human milk to meet the medical and nutrition needs of an ill or medically compromised infant are reviewed. These strategies include (1) the standard fortification of human milk to support adequate growth, (2) the novel concept of target fortification in preterm infants, (3) instructions on how to alter maternal diet to address cow's milk protein intolerance and/or allergy in breast milk-fed infants, and (4) the removal and modification of the fat in breast milk used in infants diagnosed with chylothorax.

  1. Transient vascular compromise of the lunate after fracture-dislocation or dislocation of the carpus.

    PubMed

    White, R E; Omer, G E

    1984-03-01

    Although classic avascular necrosis of the lunate is rare after fracture-dislocation or dislocation of the carpus, these severe carpal injuries can compromise the vascular supply of the lunate. The lunate thus develops a relative increase in radiodensity. Our finding of an incidence of 12.5%--three of 24 cases--suggests a relatively frequent occurrence. The clinical course was transient with resolution of abnormal radiodensity and subjective findings. Moreover, none of the three cases progressed to classic avascular necrosis of the lunate, Kienböck's disease. The clinician should not confuse this transient vascular compromise of the lunate with Kienböck's disease, but should be aware of the entity and its benign, self-limited course and should treat it expectantly.

  2. Early Visual Deprivation Severely Compromises the Auditory Sense of Space in Congenitally Blind Children

    PubMed Central

    Vercillo, Tiziana; Burr, David; Gori, Monica

    2016-01-01

    A recent study has shown that congenitally blind adults, who have never had visual experience, are impaired on an auditory spatial bisection task (Gori, Sandini, Martinoli, & Burr, 2014). In this study we investigated how thresholds for auditory spatial bisection and auditory discrimination develop with age in sighted and congenitally blind children (9 to 14 years old). Children performed 2 spatial tasks (minimum audible angle and space bisection) and 1 temporal task (temporal bisection). There was no impairment in the temporal task for blind children but, like adults, they showed severely compromised thresholds for spatial bisection. Interestingly, the blind children also showed lower precision in judging minimum audible angle. These results confirm the adult study and go on to suggest that even simpler auditory spatial tasks are compromised in children, and that this capacity recovers over time. PMID:27228448

  3. Rescue of a periodontally compromised tooth by non-surgical treatment: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article describes a case of the successful non-surgical management of a periodontally compromised maxillary premolar. Methods A combination therapy, including root planing, occlusal adjustment, and tooth splinting, was applied. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed during the 16-month follow-up period. Results All periodontal parameters were improved. There were dramatic decreases (3–6 mm) in the probing pocket depth, tooth mobility, and marginal bone loss. Interestingly, gradual resolution of the periapical radiolucency and alveolar bone regeneration were observed in the radiographs, and the periodontal condition was maintained during the follow-up period. Conclusions Within the limits of this study, these results demonstrate the importance of natural tooth preservation through proper periodontal treatment and occlusal adjustment of the periodontally compromised tooth, which is typically targeted for tooth extraction and dental implantation. PMID:27127693

  4. A widely displaced Galeazzi-equivalent lesion with median nerve compromise

    PubMed Central

    Galanopoulos, Ilias; Fogg, Quentin; Ashwood, Neil; Fu, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    We present the case of a 14-year-old boy with a right distal radial fracture accompanied by a severely displaced complete distal ulnar physeal separation and associated median nerve compromise. This injury is known as Galeazzi-equivalent lesion in children and is an extremely rare injury associated with growth arrest. Recognition of the lesion can be difficult but wide displacement may be associated with other significant injuries such as neurovascular compromise. Prompt intervention reversed the neurological symptoms. At 10-month postoperation there was neither growth arrest nor loss of motion. Complete separation of the ulna physis remains often because of soft tissue interposition or capsule problems and prompt reduction is recommended in the literature as a priority. PMID:22907852

  5. Corporate corruption of the environment: sustainability as a process of compromise.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Daniel; Wright, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    A key response to environmental degradation, climate change and declining biodiversity has been the growing adoption of market principles in an effort to better value the social good of nature. Through concepts such as 'natural capitalism' and 'corporate environmentalism', nature is increasingly viewed as a domain of capitalist endeavour. In this article, we use convention theory and a pluralist understanding of social goods to investigate how the social good of the environment is usurped by the alternate social good of the market. Through analysis of interviews with sustainability managers and corporate documentation, we highlight how organizational actors employ compromise to temporally settle disputes between competing claims about environmental activities. Our findings contribute to an understanding of the processes of empirically grounded critique and the under-theorized concept of compromise between social goods. Rather than protecting the environment, the corporate promotion of sustainability facilitates the corruption of the social good of the environment and its conversion into a market commodity.

  6. Tail loss compromises immunity in the many-lined skink, Eutropis multifasciata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Yao, Chiou-Ju; Lin, Te-En; Liu, Hsu-Che; Hsu, Yu-Cheng; Hsieh, Ming-Kun; Huang, Wen-San

    2013-04-01

    Tail autotomy incurs energetic costs, and thus, a trade-off in resource allocation may lead to compromised immunity in lizards. We tested the hypothesis that tailless lizards will favor constitutive innate immunity responses over an energetically costly inflammatory response. The influence of fasting and colorful ornamentation was also investigated. We experimentally induced tail autotomy in the lizard Eutropis multifasciata and found that inflammation was suppressed by tail loss, but not further affected by fasting; the suppressive effect of colorful ornamentation was manifested only in males, but not in females. Constitutive innate immunity was not affected by any of these factors. As expected, only costly inflammation was compromised, and a less expensive constitutive innate immunity might be favored as a competent first-line defense during energetically demanding periods. After considering conventional trade-offs among tail regeneration and reproduction, further extending these studies to incorporate disease risk and how this influences escape responses to predators and future reproduction would make worthwhile studies.

  7. Sterile diets for the immuno-compromised: Is there a need?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterweck, Joseph S.

    1995-02-01

    There is a general misunderstanding in the radiation processing industry about the use of sterile diets in the medical profession. Sterile diets are used on a limited basis in hospitals that specialize in cancer treatment and organ transplants. These patients are severely immuno-compromised. There are many other patients that are immuno-compromised that do not require sterile diets. These patients may require a diet that is pathogen-free and are aslo "low-microbial diets". Nosocomial infections have become a major issue in US hospitals. The "infection control committee" is the focus group responsible to assure nosocomial infections incidence are below the hospital goals. Application of ionizing radiation to sterilize diets has not been chosen because the product is not available at a reasonable total cost. This paper will discuss the hospitals views.

  8. Evidence for altered placental blood flow and vascularity in compromised pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Caton, Joel S; Redmer, Dale A; Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Vonnahme, Kimberly A; Borowicz, Pawel P; Luther, Justin S; Wallace, Jacqueline M; Wu, Guoyao; Spencer, Thomas E

    2006-01-01

    The placenta is the organ that transports nutrients, respiratory gases, and wastes between the maternal and fetal systems. Consequently, placental blood flow and vascular development are essential components of normal placental function and are critical to fetal growth and development. Normal fetal growth and development are important to ensure optimum health of offspring throughout their subsequent life course. In numerous sheep models of compromised pregnancy, in which fetal or placental growth, or both, are impaired, utero-placental blood flows are reduced. In the models that have been evaluated, placental vascular development also is altered. Recent studies found that treatments designed to increase placental blood flow can ‘rescue’ fetal growth that was reduced due to low maternal dietary intake. Placental blood flow and vascular development are thus potential therapeutic targets in compromised pregnancies. PMID:16469783

  9. 1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1909. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. Immediate Esthetic Rehabilitation of Periodontally Compromised Anterior Tooth Using Natural Tooth as Pontic

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. Pavan; Nujella, Surya Kumari; Gopal, S. Sujatha

    2016-01-01

    For patients who require removal of anterior teeth and their replacement various treatment modalities are available. With advancement in technology and availability of glass/polyethylene fibres, use of natural tooth as pontic with fibre reinforced composite restorations offers the promising results. The present case report describes management of periodontally compromised mandibular anterior tooth using natural tooth pontic with fibre reinforcement. A 1-year follow-up showed that the bridge was intact with good esthetics and no problem was reported. PMID:27195156

  11. The administration of probiotics and synbiotics in immune compromised adults: is it safe?

    PubMed

    Van den Nieuwboer, M; Brummer, R J; Guarner, F; Morelli, L; Cabana, M; Claasen, E

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to systematically evaluate safety of probiotics and synbiotics in immune compromised adults (≥18 years). Safety was analysed using the Common Terminology Clinical Adverse Events (CTCAE version 4.0) classification, thereby providing an update on previous reports using the most recent available clinical data (2008-2013). Safety aspects are represented and related to number of participants per probiotic strain/culture, study duration, dosage, clinical condition and selected afflictions. Analysis of 57 clinical studies indicates that probiotic and/or synbiotic administration in immune compromised adults is safe with regard to the current evaluated probiotic strains, dosages and duration. Individuals were considered immune compromised if HIV-infected, critically ill, underwent surgery or had an organ- or an autoimmune disease. There were no major safety concerns in the study, as none of the serious adverse events (AE)s were related, or suspected to be related, to the probiotic or synbiotic product and the study products were well tolerated. Overall, AEs occurred less frequent in immune compromised subjects receiving probiotics and/or synbiotics compared to the control group. In addition, the results demonstrated a flaw in precise reporting and classification of AE in most studies. Furthermore, generalisability of conclusions are greatly limited by the inconsistent, imprecise and potentially incomplete reporting as well as the variation in probiotic strains, dosages, administration regimes, study populations and reported outcomes. We argue that standardised reporting on adverse events (CTCAE) in 'food' studies should be obligatory, thereby improving reliability of data and re-enforcing the safety profile of probiotics.

  12. Dental implants in bilateral bifid canal and compromised interocclusal space using cone beam computerized tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nizar; Arunachalam, Lalitha Tanjore; Jacob, Caroline Annette; Kumar, Suresh Anand

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of various anatomic landmarks is pivotal for important success. Bifid canals pose a challenge and can lead to difficulties while performing implant surgery in the mandible. Bifid canals can be diagnosed with panoramic radiography and more accurately with cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT). This case report details the placement of the implant in a patient with bilateral bifid canal and compromised interocclusal space, which was successfully treated using CBCT. PMID:27433073

  13. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  14. Breast milk metal ion levels in a young and active patient with a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Nelis, Raymond; de Waal Malefijt, Jan; Gosens, Taco

    2013-01-01

    Metal-on-metal resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip has been used increasingly over the last 10 years in younger active patients. The dissolution of the metal wear particles results in measurable increases in cobalt and chromium ions in the serum and urine of patients with a metal-on-metal bearing. We measured the cobalt, chromium, and molybdenum ion levels in urine; serum; and breast milk in a young and active patient with a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis after a pathologic fracture of the femoral neck. Metal-on-metal hip prosthesis leads to increasing levels of molybdenum in breast milk in the short-term follow-up. There are no increasing levels of chromium and cobalt ions in breast milk. Besides the already known elevated concentrations in serum of chromium and cobalt after implantation of a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis, we found no increasing levels of chromium and cobalt in urine.

  15. Pilot Analysis of Asbestos-induced Diffuse Pleural Thickening with Respiratory Compromise.

    PubMed

    Nojima, Daisuke; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Kato, Katsuya; Fuchimoto, Yasuko; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Kishimoto, Takumi; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the clinical features of asbestos-induced diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) with severe respiratory compromise. We conducted a retrospective study of consecutive subjects with asbestos-induced DPT. Medical data such as initial symptoms, radiological findings, respiratory function test results, and clinical course were collected and analyzed. There were 24 patients between 2003 and 2012. All were men, and the median age at the development of DPT was 74 years. The top occupational category associated with asbestos exposure was dockyard workers. The median duration of asbestos exposure was 35.0 years, and the median latency from first exposure to the onset of DPT was 49.0 years. There were no significant differences in respiratory function test results between the higher and lower Brinkman index groups or between unilateral and bilateral DPT. Thirteen patients had a history of benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE), and the median duration from pleural fluid accumulation to DPT with severe respiratory compromise was 28.4 months. DPT with severe respiratory compromise can develop after a long latency following occupational asbestos exposure and a history of BAPE.

  16. Indications and contraindications of dental implants in medically compromised patients: Update

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-de Diego, Rafael; Mang-de la Rosa, María del Rocío; Romero-Pérez, María J.; Cutando-Soriano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the current scientific literature in order to analyse the indications and contraindications of dental implants in medically compromised patients. A reference research was carried out on PubMed using the key words “implant” AND (oral OR dental) AND (systemic disease OR medically compromised), in articles published between 1993 and 2013. The inclusion criteria were the following: clinical studies in which, at least, 10 patients were treated, consensus articles, reviewed articles and meta-analysis performed in humans treated with dental implants, and which included the disease diagnosis. A total of 64 articles were found, from which 16 met the inclusion criteria. Cardiac systemic diseases, diabetic endocrine pathologies or controlled metabolic disorders do not seem to be a total or partial contraindication to the placement of dental implants. Tobacco addiction, and head and neck radiotherapy are correlated to a higher loss of dental implants. Patients suffering from osteoporosis undergoing biphosphonates therapy show an increased risk of developing bone necrosis after an oral surgery, especially if the drugs are administered intravenously or they are associated to certain concomitant medication. Key words:Dental implants, medically compromised patient, systemic diseases. PMID:24608222

  17. Further development of an in vitro model for studying the penetration of chemicals through compromised skin.

    PubMed

    Davies, Diane J; Heylings, Jon R; Gayes, Heather; McCarthy, Timothy J; Mack, M Catherine

    2017-02-01

    A new in vitro model based on the electrical resistance properties of the skin barrier has been established in this laboratory. The model utilises a tape stripping procedure in dermatomed pig skin that removes a specific proportion of the stratum corneum, mimicking impaired barrier function observed in humans with damaged skin. The skin penetration and distribution of chemicals with differing physicochemical properties, namely; Benzoic acid, 3-Aminophenol, Caffeine and Sucrose has been assessed in this model. Although, skin penetration over 24h differed for each chemical, compromising the skin did not alter the shape of the time course profile, although absorption into receptor fluid was higher for each chemical. Systemic exposure (receptor fluid, epidermis and dermis), was marginally higher in compromised skin following exposure to the fast penetrant, Benzoic acid, and the slow penetrant Sucrose. The systemically available dose of 3-Aminophenol increased to a greater extent and the absorption of Caffeine was more than double in compromised skin, suggesting that Molecular Weight and Log Pow, are not the only determinants for assessing systemic exposure under these conditions. Although further investigations are required, this in vitro model may be useful for prediction of dermal route exposure under conditions where skin barrier is impaired.

  18. The appropriateness of referral of medically compromised dental patients to hospital.

    PubMed

    Absi, E G; Satterthwaite, J; Shepherd, J P; Thomas, D W

    1997-04-01

    Hospital departments of oral and maxillofacial surgery make a substantial contribution to both managing and treating medically-compromised dental patients. Contracting arrangements should take account of this. Demographic data suggest that the treatment of medically-compromised elderly dentate patients will become increasingly important in the General Dental Service (GDS). To determine the medical conditions and treatment requirements prompting referral of these patients to hospital, a prospective study was undertaken of 75 consecutive adults referred for hospital treatment specifically because of a medical condition which prevented delivery of routine dental care in the GDS. Patients (mean age: 56 years) were referred mainly from general medical (33%) and dental (62%) practitioners. Cardiovascular disease was the most frequently cited medical condition requiring referral (43%; n = 32 cases). Forty-eight patients (64%) were symptomatic on presentation and on average had attended on 2.3 occasions before definitive treatment was instituted. Fifty-two patients (70%) had no special treatment requirements other than those available in the GDS, 11 patients (15%) simply required antibiotic prophylaxis and 81% were treated by undergraduates or junior staff. These data suggest that many patients referred for dental hospital treatment because of underlying medical condition are not in fact medically-compromised and may be treated in the primary care setting.

  19. Loss of GSNOR1 Function Leads to Compromised Auxin Signaling and Polar Auxin Transport.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ya-Fei; Wang, Da-Li; Wang, Chao; Culler, Angela Hendrickson; Kreiser, Molly A; Suresh, Jayanti; Cohen, Jerry D; Pan, Jianwei; Baker, Barbara; Liu, Jian-Zhong

    2015-09-01

    Cross talk between phytohormones, nitric oxide (NO), and auxin has been implicated in the control of plant growth and development. Two recent reports indicate that NO promoted auxin signaling but inhibited auxin transport probably through S-nitrosylation. However, genetic evidence for the effect of S-nitrosylation on auxin physiology has been lacking. In this study, we used a genetic approach to understand the broader role of S-nitrosylation in auxin physiology in Arabidopsis. We compared auxin signaling and transport in Col-0 and gsnor1-3, a loss-of-function GSNOR1 mutant defective in protein de-nitrosylation. Our results showed that auxin signaling was impaired in the gsnor1-3 mutant as revealed by significantly reduced DR5-GUS/DR5-GFP accumulation and compromised degradation of AXR3NT-GUS, a useful reporter in interrogating auxin-mediated degradation of Aux/IAA by auxin receptors. In addition, polar auxin transport was compromised in gsnor1-3, which was correlated with universally reduced levels of PIN or GFP-PIN proteins in the roots of the mutant in a manner independent of transcription and 26S proteasome degradation. Our results suggest that S-nitrosylation and GSNOR1-mediated de-nitrosylation contribute to auxin physiology, and impaired auxin signaling and compromised auxin transport are responsible for the auxin-related morphological phenotypes displayed by the gsnor1-3 mutant.

  20. Normal and Malignant Muscle Cell Transplantation into Immune Compromised Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Moore, John C.; Langenau, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish have become a powerful tool for assessing development, regeneration, and cancer. More recently, allograft cell transplantation protocols have been developed that permit engraftment of normal and malignant cells into irradiated, syngeneic, and immune compromised adult zebrafish. These models when coupled with optimized cell transplantation protocols allow for the rapid assessment of stem cell function, regeneration following injury, and cancer. Here, we present a method for cell transplantation of zebrafish adult skeletal muscle and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS), a pediatric sarcoma that shares features with embryonic muscle, into immune compromised adult rag2E450fs homozygous mutant zebrafish. Importantly, these animals lack T cells and have reduced B cell function, facilitating engraftment of a wide range of tissues from unrelated donor animals. Our optimized protocols show that fluorescently labeled muscle cell preparations from α-actin-RFP transgenic zebrafish engraft robustly when implanted into the dorsal musculature of rag2 homozygous mutant fish. We also demonstrate engraftment of fluorescent-transgenic ERMS where fluorescence is confined to cells based on differentiation status. Specifically, ERMS were created in AB-strain myf5-GFP; mylpfa-mCherry double transgenic animals and tumors injected into the peritoneum of adult immune compromised fish. The utility of these protocols extends to engraftment of a wide range of normal and malignant donor cells that can be implanted into dorsal musculature or peritoneum of adult zebrafish. PMID:25591079

  1. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-02-07

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  2. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  3. Area and mammalian elevational diversity.

    PubMed

    McCain, Christy M

    2007-01-01

    Elevational gradients hold enormous potential for understanding general properties of biodiversity. Like latitudinal gradients, the hypotheses for diversity patterns can be grouped into historical explanations, climatic drivers, and spatial hypotheses. The spatial hypotheses include the species-area effect and spatial constraint (mid-domain effect null models). I test these two spatial hypotheses using regional diversity patterns for mammals (non-volant small mammals and bats) along 34 elevational gradients spanning 24.4 degrees S-40.4 degrees N latitude. There was high variability in the fit to the species-area hypothesis and the mid-domain effect. Both hypotheses can be eliminated as primary drivers of elevational diversity. Area and spatial constraint both represent sources of error rather than mechanisms underlying these mammalian diversity patterns. Similar results are expected for other vertebrate taxa, plants, and invertebrates since they show comparable distributions of elevational diversity patterns to mammalian patterns.

  4. Space Elevator Base Leg Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, C.; Swan, P. A.

    While the Space Elevator stretches for 104,000 kilometers, the region of most concern, from the survival perspective, is 2,500 kms and below. The threats inside this dangerous arena include debris, spacecraft, meteorites, lightening, winds, rogue waves, aircraft, and intentional human acts. Two major questions will be addressed that will influence the overall systems architecture of a Space Elevator. While the deployment phase of the development of the Space Elevator will only have a single ribbon from the surface of the Earth to well beyond the Geosynchronous altitude, a mature Space Elevator must never allow a complete sever of the system. Design approaches, materials selections, international policy development and assembly must ensure that the integrity of the Space Elevator be maintained. The trade space analysis will address the probability of an individual ribbon being severed, the length of time to repair, and the potential for a catastrophic Space Elevator cut. The architecture proposed for the base leg portion will address two questions: Shall there be multiple base legs to 2,500 kms altitude? And Should the anchor be based on land or at sea?

  5. Elevated Temperature Behavior of Metal-Matrix Composites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    three main parts. In the part METHOD OF ANALYSIS: ONE DIMENSIONAL EFFECTIVE STRESS- STRAIN RELATIONS, we formulate the elasto- plastic problem of the...A112 and AE1 3 . These are computed by numerical -19- solution of the plasticity problem for the repeating element subject to boundary and interface

  6. ELEVATED TEMPERATURE RESISTANT MODIFIED EPOXIDE RESIN ADHESIVES FOR METALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    composed of Epon 1001 resin, Plyophen 5023, and dicyandiamide as the curing agent. Al dust was used as the reinforcing filler. The adhesive was cured at...to the development of the following formula (parts by weight): 33 Epon 1001 + 67 Polyophen 5023 + 100 Al dust + 6 dicyandiamide . Higher Epon 1001...or curing without dicyandiamide reduced adhesive shear strength, especially at room temperature.

  7. Elevated temperature forming method and preheater apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Krajewski, Paul E; Hammar, Richard Harry; Singh, Jugraj; Cedar, Dennis; Friedman, Peter A; Luo, Yingbing

    2013-06-11

    An elevated temperature forming system in which a sheet metal workpiece is provided in a first stage position of a multi-stage pre-heater, is heated to a first stage temperature lower than a desired pre-heat temperature, is moved to a final stage position where it is heated to a desired final stage temperature, is transferred to a forming press, and is formed by the forming press. The preheater includes upper and lower platens that transfer heat into workpieces disposed between the platens. A shim spaces the upper platen from the lower platen by a distance greater than a thickness of the workpieces to be heated by the platens and less than a distance at which the upper platen would require an undesirably high input of energy to effectively heat the workpiece without being pressed into contact with the workpiece.

  8. Battlefield-Acquired Immunogenicity to Metals Affects Orthopaedic Implant Outcome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    indicated for subacute removal when they are located near or within a joint, in weight bearing areas, or in proximity to neurovascular structures...and Cr) had metal-on-metal bearing surfaces. In the past these elevated metal ion concentrations demonstrated a positive correlation with...associated with metal-on-metal bearings : A local effect of metal hypersensitivity? J Bone Joint Surg Am 2006 Jun;88(6):1171-2. (5) Ren W, Wu B, Peng

  9. 2. 'Tunnel No 6 West End, Front Elevation, Sectional Elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 'Tunnel No 6 West End, Front Elevation, Sectional Elevation on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1910. Tunnel 6, which today would be Tunnel 20, was daylighted and no longer exists. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. The Electrolytic Production of Metallic Uranium

    DOEpatents

    Rosen, R.

    1950-08-22

    This patent covers a process for producing metallic uranium by electrolyzing uranium tetrafluoride at an elevated temperature in a fused bath consisting essentially of mixed alkali and alkaline earth halides.

  11. Live Attenuated S. Typhimurium Vaccine with Improved Safety in Immuno-Compromised Mice

    PubMed Central

    Periaswamy, Balamurugan; Maier, Lisa; Vishwakarma, Vikalp; Slack, Emma; Kremer, Marcus; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L.; McClelland, Michael; Grant, Andrew J.; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines are of great value for preventing infectious diseases. They represent a delicate compromise between sufficient colonization-mediated adaptive immunity and minimizing the risk for infection by the vaccine strain itself. Immune defects can predispose to vaccine strain infections. It has remained unclear whether vaccine safety could be improved via mutations attenuating a vaccine in immune-deficient individuals without compromising the vaccine's performance in the normal host. We have addressed this hypothesis using a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea and a live attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strain (ssaV). Vaccination with this strain elicited protective immunity in wild type mice, but a fatal systemic infection in immune-deficient cybb−/−nos2−/− animals lacking NADPH oxidase and inducible NO synthase. In cybb−/−nos2−/− mice, we analyzed the attenuation of 35 ssaV strains carrying one additional mutation each. One strain, Z234 (ssaV SL1344_3093), was >1000-fold attenuated in cybb−/−nos2−/− mice and ≈100 fold attenuated in tnfr1−/− animals. However, in wt mice, Z234 was as efficient as ssaV with respect to host colonization and the elicitation of a protective, O-antigen specific mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA) response. These data suggest that it is possible to engineer live attenuated vaccines which are specifically attenuated in immuno-compromised hosts. This might help to improve vaccine safety. PMID:23029007

  12. Risky Driving, Mental Health, and Health-Compromising Behaviors: Risk Clustering in Late Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sommers, Marilyn S.; Fargo, Jamison D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Health-compromising behaviors in adolescents and adults co-occur. Because motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and disability for these age groups, understanding the association between risky driving and other health compromising behaviors is critical. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention for participants who screened positive for risky driving and problem drinking. Using baseline data, we examined relationships among conduct behavior problems before and after age 15, depressive symptoms, sleep, problem drinking, and risky driving (hostile, reckless and drinking and driving) in late adolescents ages 18–24 (n= 110) and adults ages 25–44 (n= 202). We developed a measurement model for the entire sample using confirmatory factor analysis, which was then specified as a multi-group structural equation model. Results Late adolescents and adults had some similar associations for pathways through problem drinking to drinking and driving; depression to reckless driving; and conduct behavior problems after 15 to hostile driving. Late adolescents, however, had more complex relationships: depressive symptoms and conduct behavior problems before 15 were associated with more risky driving behaviors through multiple pathways and males reported more risky driving. Conclusions Risky driving is associated with other health-compromising behaviors and mental health factors. It is a multidimensional phenomenon more pronounced in late adolescence than adulthood. In order to promote safe driving, the findings support the need to consider behaviors that are a health threat in the late adolescent population during driving training and licensure. PMID:24814717

  13. Clinical Outcomes of Osseointegrated Prosthetic Auricular Reconstruction in Patients With a Compromised Ipsilateral Temporoparietal Fascial Flap.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Kevin J; Wilkes, Gordon H

    2016-01-01

    Patients with major ear deformities and associated compromise of the superficial temporal artery are poor candidates for autogenous ear reconstruction because of a tenuous ipsilateral temporoparietal fascial flap (TPFF). Osseointegrated prosthetic auricular reconstruction (OPAR) is an alternative to contralateral free TPFF microsurgical and autogenous reconstruction, but data on clinical outcomes are limited. The records of patients with ear loss or major deformity and a compromised ipsilateral TPFF who underwent OPAR from 1989 to 2013 were reviewed. Satisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire based on a 5 point Likert scale. Thirty-two patients (8 women, 24 men) with mean age 43.0 years (range, 10-70 years) underwent OPAR. The ipsilateral TPFF was compromised due to major trauma (13 patients), cancer extirpation (9), burn injury (4), previous harvest (4), arteriovenous malformation (1), or infection (1). All but 2 patients had an associated craniofacial defect, such as soft tissue deformity (87.5%), hearing loss (46.9%), or bony deformity (31.3%). The overall implant success rate was 88.6% at mean follow-up time of 7.6 years post-OPAR. Prosthesis wear averaged 12.2 hours/day and 6.6 days/week (80.5 hours/week). All 5 patients who experienced implant failures had received prior head and neck irradiation. With their prosthesis, 76.2% (16 patients) stated that their self-consciousness and self-esteem were "better" or "much better," whereas 85.7% (18 patients) stated that their self-image was "better" or "much better." All patients declared that they would undergo the treatment again. Osseointegrated prosthetic auricular reconstruction is a reliable option in this challenging population with high patient satisfaction. Patients with prior radiotherapy may have a higher chance of implant failure and would benefit from extended annual follow-up.

  14. Arsenic promotes centrosome abnormalities and cell colony formation in p53 compromised human lung cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Weiting; Lin Pinpin; Cheng, T.-S.; Yu, H.-S.; Chang, Louis W.

    2007-12-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicated that residents, especially cigarette smokers, in arseniasis areas had significantly higher lung cancer risk than those living in non-arseniasis areas. Thus, an interaction between arsenic and cigarette smoking in lung carcinogenesis was suspected. p53 dysfunction or mutation in lung epithelial cells was frequently observed in cigarette smokers. Our present study was to explore the differential effects by arsenic on H1355 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma cell line with mutation in p53), BEAS-2B (immortalized lung epithelial cell with functional p53) and pifithrin-{alpha}-treated BEAS-2B cells (p53-inhibited cells). These cells were treated with different doses of sodium arsenite (0, 0.1, 1, 5 and 10 {mu}M) for 48 h. A greater reduction in cell viability was observed in the BEAS-2B cells vs. p53 compromised cells (H1355 or p53-inhibited BEAS-2B). Similar observation was also made on 7-day cell survival (growth) study. TUNEL analysis confirmed that there was indeed a significantly reduced arsenite-induced apoptosis found in p53-compromised cells. Centrosomal abnormality has been attributed to eventual chromosomal missegregation, aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. In our present study, reduced p21 and Gadd45a expressions and increased centrosomal abnormality (atopic and multiple centrosomes) were observed in both arsenite-treated H1355 and p53-inhibited BEAS-2B cells as compared with similarly treated BEAS-2B cells. Increased anchorage-independent growth (colony formation) of BEAS-2B cells co-treated with pifithrin-{alpha} and 5 {mu}M sodium arsenite was also observed in soft agar. Our present investigation demonstrated that arsenic would act specifically on p53 compromised cells (either with p53 dysfunction or inhibited) to induce centrosomal abnormality and colony formation. These findings provided strong evidence on the carcinogenic promotional role of arsenic, especially under the condition of p53 dysfunction.

  15. Compromised Bone Microarchitecture and Estimated Bone Strength in Young Adults With Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Milliren, Carly E.; Derrico, Nicholas; Uluer, Ahmet; Sicilian, Leonard; Lapey, Allen; Sawicki, Gregory; Gordon, Catherine M.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Finkelstein, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Young adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at risk for low bone density and fractures, but the underlying alterations in bone microarchitecture that may contribute to their increased fracture risk are currently unknown. Objective: The main goal of this study was to use high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) to characterize the bone microarchitecture, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and estimated strength of the radius and tibia in young adults with CF compared with healthy volunteers. Design and Setting: This was a cross-sectional study at an outpatient clinical research center within a tertiary academic medical center. Participants: Thirty young adults with CF, 18 to 40 years of age, were evaluated and compared with 60 healthy volunteers matched by age (±2 years), gender, and race. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcomes were HR-pQCT–derived cortical and trabecular vBMD, bone microarchitecture, and estimates of bone strength. Results: At the radius and tibia, young adults with CF had smaller bone cross-sectional area and lower vBMD. Cortical and trabecular microarchitecture were compromised at both sites, most notably involving the trabecular bone of the tibia. These differences translated into lower estimated bone strength both at the radius and tibia. After accounting for body mass index differences, young adults with CF had lower bone area and estimated bone strength at the radius and had compromised trabecular microarchitecture and lower total and trabecular vBMD and estimated bone strength at the tibia. Alterations in trabecular bone density and microarchitecture and estimated strength measures of the tibia were also greater than expected based on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived areal BMD differences. Conclusions: Young adults with CF have compromised bone microarchitecture and lower estimated bone strength at both the radius and tibia, even after accounting for their smaller body size. These

  16. Compromise of Multiple Time-Resolved Transcriptomics Experiments Identifies Tightly Regulated Functions

    PubMed Central

    Klie, Sebastian; Caldana, Camila; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of high-throughput technologies for data acquisition from different components (i.e., genes, proteins, and metabolites) of a given biological system, generation of hypotheses, and biological interpretations based on multivariate data sets become increasingly important. These technologies allow for simultaneous gathering of data from the same biological components under different perturbations, including genotypic variation and/or changes in conditions, resulting in so-called multiple data tables. Moreover, these data tables are obtained over a well-chosen time domain to capture the dynamics of the response of the biological system to the perturbation. The computational problem we address in this study is twofold: (1) derive a single data table, referred to as a compromise, which captures information common to the investigated set of multiple tables and (2) identify biological components which contribute most to the determined compromise. Here we argue that recent extensions to principle component analysis called STATIS and dual-STATIS can be used to determine the compromise on which classical techniques for data analysis, such as clustering and term over-enrichment, can be subsequently applied. In addition, we illustrate that STATIS and dual-STATIS facilitate interpretations of a publically available transcriptomics data set capturing the time-resolved response of Arabidopsis thaliana to changing light and/or temperature conditions. We demonstrate that STATIS and dual-STATIS can be used not only to identify the components of a biological system whose behavior is similarly affected due to the perturbation (e.g., in time or condition), but also to specify the extent to which each dimension of the data tables reflect the perturbation. These findings ultimately provide insights in the components and pathways which could be under tight control in plant systems. PMID:23162561

  17. Elevator mode convection in flows with strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Li; Zikanov, Oleg

    2015-04-15

    Instability modes in the form of axially uniform vertical jets, also called “elevator modes,” are known to be the solutions of thermal convection problems for vertically unbounded systems. Typically, their relevance to the actual flow state is limited by three-dimensional breakdown caused by rapid growth of secondary instabilities. We consider a flow of a liquid metal in a vertical duct with a heated wall and strong transverse magnetic field and find elevator modes that are stable and, thus, not just relevant, but a dominant feature of the flow. We then explore the hypothesis suggested by recent experimental data that an analogous instability to modes of slow axial variation develops in finite-length ducts, where it causes large-amplitude fluctuations of temperature. The implications for liquid metal blankets for tokamak fusion reactors that potentially invalidate some of the currently pursued design concepts are discussed.

  18. Elevator mode convection in flows with strong magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Zikanov, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    Instability modes in the form of axially uniform vertical jets, also called "elevator modes," are known to be the solutions of thermal convection problems for vertically unbounded systems. Typically, their relevance to the actual flow state is limited by three-dimensional breakdown caused by rapid growth of secondary instabilities. We consider a flow of a liquid metal in a vertical duct with a heated wall and strong transverse magnetic field and find elevator modes that are stable and, thus, not just relevant, but a dominant feature of the flow. We then explore the hypothesis suggested by recent experimental data that an analogous instability to modes of slow axial variation develops in finite-length ducts, where it causes large-amplitude fluctuations of temperature. The implications for liquid metal blankets for tokamak fusion reactors that potentially invalidate some of the currently pursued design concepts are discussed.

  19. Absence of YbeY RNase compromises the growth and enhances the virulence plasmid gene expression of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3.

    PubMed

    Leskinen, Katarzyna; Varjosalo, Markku; Skurnik, Mikael

    2015-02-01

    YbeY was recently recognized as an endoribonuclease playing a role in ribosome biosynthesis. In Escherichia coli it functions as a single-strand-specific RNase that processes the 3' end of the 16S rRNA and is crucial for the late-stage 70S ribosome quality control system. Here we report that YbeY is not essential in Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3, yet its absence strongly compromised the bacterium. The lack of YbeY resulted in misprocessing of 16S rRNA and a severe decrease of growth rate with complete growth arrest observed at elevated temperatures. Moreover, a ybeY mutation severely disturbed regulation of the Yersinia virulence plasmid (pYV) genes and affected the expression of regulatory small RNA species. Transcription of the pYV genes was upregulated in the ybeY mutant at 22 °C; the same genes were repressed in the wild-type bacterium. Furthermore, ybeY inactivation impaired many virulence-related features, such as resistance to elevated temperature and acid, and hindered utilization of different carbohydrates. In addition, the ybeY mutant strain showed decreased infectivity in a tissue culture infection model, especially at the stage of cell adhesion. Taken together, this study demonstrates the crucial role of YbeY in Y. enterocolitica O:3 physiology and pathogenicity.

  20. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia as an Unusual Cause of Rapid Airway Compromise

    PubMed Central

    Ezzell, Erin E.; Renshaw, John S.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in Western countries predominantly affecting adults over the age of 65. CLL is commonly indolent in nature but can present locally and aggressively at extranodal sites. Although CLL may commonly present with cervical lymphadenopathy, manifestation in nonlymphoid regions of the head and neck is not well described. CLL causing upper airway obstruction is even more uncommon. We describe a case of a patient with known history of CLL and stable lymphocytosis that developed an enlarging lymphoid base of tongue (BOT) mass resulting in rapid airway compromise.

  1. Demographic corrections appear to compromise classification accuracy for severely skewed cognitive tests.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Megan E; Tuokko, Holly; Kadlec, Helena

    2011-04-01

    Demographic corrections for cognitive tests should improve classification accuracy by reducing age or education biases, but empirical support has been equivocal. Using a simulation procedure, we show that creating moderate or extreme skewness in cognitive tests compromises the classification accuracy of demographic corrections, findings that appear replicated within clinical data for the few neuropsychological test scores with an extreme degree of skew. For most neuropsychological tests, the dementia classification accuracy of raw and demographically corrected scores was equivalent. These findings suggest that the dementia classification accuracy of demographic corrections is robust to slight degrees of skew (i.e., skewness <1.5).

  2. Immediate Implant Loading in Compromised Maxillary Partially Edentulous Arch- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Sachhi; Patil, Veena; Jain, Anoop; Gaddale, Reetika

    2014-01-01

    As the aesthetic demands are increasing day by day, demand of immediate restoration or replacement of teeth is also increasing. Because of this, immediate implant placement, along with immediate loading of implant, is a favourite treatment option for patients as well as dentists. This case report discusses the immediate implant loading in compromised maxillary anterior region, in which patient got immediate restoration of edentulous area. More importantly, from the patients’ points of view, immediate loading can produce positive social and psychological effects. PMID:24959519

  3. Corrosion resistant coatings suitable for elevated temperature application

    DOEpatents

    Chan, Kwai S [San Antonio, TX; Cheruvu, Narayana Sastry [San Antonio, TX; Liang, Wuwei [Austin, TX

    2012-07-31

    The present invention relates to corrosion resistance coatings suitable for elevated temperature applications, which employ compositions of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and/or aluminum (Al). The compositions may be configured to regulate the diffusion of metals between a coating and a substrate, which may then influence coating performance, via the formation of an inter-diffusion barrier layer. The inter-diffusion barrier layer may comprise a face-centered cubic phase.

  4. 48. MAIN WAREHOUSE THIRD LEVEL Elevator drive mechanism is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. MAIN WAREHOUSE - THIRD LEVEL Elevator drive mechanism is seen to the right, while drive wheels, belt wheels and chain drives are visible in the wooden wall framing. The horizontal metal conveyor (at the top of the wall Just under the inverted 'V' brace) is part of the empty can supply system connected to the external can conveyor. See Photo No. 28. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  5. Barn: Loft Plan, Ground Floor Plan, Northwest/Side Elevation, Southeast/Front Elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Barn: Loft Plan, Ground Floor Plan, Northwest/Side Elevation, Southeast/Front Elevation, Southwest/Side Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation - Driapsa Centennial Farm, Potts Hill European Community, 4511 Potts Hill Road, Bainbridge, Ross County, OH

  6. Anthropogenic increase in carbon dioxide compromises plant defense against invasive insects

    SciTech Connect

    Zavala, J.; Casteel, C.; DeLucia, E.; Berenbaum, M.

    2008-04-01

    Elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), a consequence of anthropogenic global change, can profoundly affect the interactions between crop plants and insect pests and may promote yet another form of global change: the rapid establishment of invasive species. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased the susceptibility of soybean plants grown under field conditions to the invasive Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) and to a variant of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) resistant to crop rotation by down-regulating gene expression related to defense signaling [lipoxygenase 7 (lox7), lipoxygenase 8 (lox8), and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (acc-s)]. The down-regulation of these genes, in turn, reduced the production of cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CystPIs), which are specific deterrents to coleopteran herbivores. Beetle herbivory increased CystPI activity to a greater degree in plants grown under ambient than under elevated CO{sub 2}. Gut cysteine proteinase activity was higher in beetles consuming foliage of soybeans grown under elevated CO{sub 2} than in beetles consuming soybeans grown in ambient CO{sub 2}, consistent with enhanced growth and development of these beetles on plants grown in elevated CO{sub 2}. These findings suggest that predicted increases in soybean productivity under projected elevated CO{sub 2} levels may be reduced by increased susceptibility to invasive crop pests.

  7. Metals Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory information about the metals sector (NAICS 331 & 332), including NESHAPs for metal coatings, effluent guidelines for metal products, combustion compliance assistance, and information about foundry sand recycling.

  8. Metal aminoboranes

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya Kaviraj; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  9. Indications and contraindications of dental implants in medically compromised patients: update.

    PubMed

    Gómez-de Diego, Rafael; Mang-de la Rosa, María del Rocío; Romero-Pérez, María-Jesús; Cutando-Soriano, Antonio; López-Valverde-Centeno, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to review the current scientific literature in order to analyse the indications and contraindications of dental implants in medically compromised patients. A reference research was carried out on PubMed using the key words "implant" AND (oral OR dental) AND (systemic disease OR medically compromised), in articles published between 1993 and 2013. The inclusion criteria were the following: clinical studies in which, at least, 10 patients were treated, consensus articles, reviewed articles and meta-analysis performed in humans treated with dental implants, and which included the disease diagnosis. A total of 64 articles were found, from which 16 met the inclusion criteria. Cardiac systemic diseases, diabetic endocrine pathologies or controlled metabolic disorders do not seem to be a total or partial contraindication to the placement of dental implants. Tobacco addiction, and head and neck radiotherapy are correlated to a higher loss of dental implants. Patients suffering from osteoporosis undergoing biphosphonates therapy show an increased risk of developing bone necrosis after an oral surgery, especially if the drugs are administered intravenously or they are associated to certain concomitant medication.

  10. Glucocorticoids may compromise the effect of gefitinib in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsian-Yu; Chang, Yu-Ling; Cheng, Chun-Chun; Chao, Min-Wu; Lin, Su-I; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Tsang-Wu; Cheng, Han-Chin; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Liu, Shih-Jen; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Hsu, John T.-A.

    2016-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown remarkable benefits in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with drug-sensitive mutations in the EGFR gene. Responsive patients are usually continuously prescribed with TKIs until disease progression. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent homeostasis maintaining drugs and are frequently used in cancer patients to alleviate discomforts caused by anti-cancer therapies. Several previous studies reported that concomitant use of GCs may compromise the efficacy of chemo-therapeutics in patients with solid tumors. Little is known in the concomitant use of target therapy with GCs in treating NSCLC. In this study, we hypothesized that concomitant use of GCs in EGFR-TKI therapy may be detrimental and addressed this issue using cell cultures and xenograft studies followed by a retrospective population study based on data from the Taiwan national health insurance system. In cell cultures and xenograft studies, GCs were shown to unequally compromise the anti-cancer efficacy of TKIs in both PC9 and NCI-H1975 NSCLC cells models. In the retrospective population study, patients with similar disease status that were co-medicated with GCs had a significantly higher risk of disease progression. PMID:27835586

  11. Compromised Prefrontal Cognitive Control Over Emotional Interference in Adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghan; Lee, Seojung; Chun, Ji Won; Cho, Hyun; Kim, Dai-jin; Jung, Young-Chul

    2015-11-01

    Increased reports of impulsivity and aggression in male adolescents with Internet gaming might reflect their dysfunction in emotion regulation, particularly in suppression of negative emotions, which should affect the various stages of Internet gaming disorder. This study tested the hypothesis that adolescents with Internet gaming disorder would be more disturbed by the emotional interference and demonstrate compromised dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activation during a Stroop Match-to-Sample task. In addition, functional connectivity analysis was conducted to examine the interplays between neural correlates involved in emotional processing and how they were altered in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder. The Internet gaming disorder group demonstrated weaker dACC activation and stronger insular activations to interfering angry facial stimuli compared with the healthy control group. Negative functional connectivity between stronger insular activation and weaker dorsolateral prefrontal activation correlated with higher cognitive impulsivity in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder. These findings provide evidence of the compromised prefrontal cognitive control over emotional interference in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder.

  12. Tyrosine Hydroxylase Binding to Phospholipid Membranes Prompts Its Amyloid Aggregation and Compromises Bilayer Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Anne; Jorge-Finnigan, Ana; Jung-KC, Kunwar; Sauter, Alexander; Horvath, Istvan; Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A.; Martinez, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters and hormones, binds to negatively charged phospholipid membranes. Binding to both large and giant unilamellar vesicles causes membrane permeabilization, as observed by efflux and influx of fluorescence dyes. Whereas the initial protein-membrane interaction involves the N-terminal tail that constitutes an extension of the regulatory ACT-domain, prolonged membrane binding induces misfolding and self-oligomerization of TH over time as shown by circular dichroism and Thioflavin T fluorescence. The gradual amyloid-like aggregation likely occurs through cross-β interactions involving aggregation-prone motives in the catalytic domains, consistent with the formation of chain and ring-like protofilaments observed by atomic force microscopy in monolayer-bound TH. PC12 cells treated with the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine displayed increased TH levels in the mitochondrial fraction, while incubation of isolated mitochondria with TH led to a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, cell-substrate impedance and viability assays showed that supplementing the culture media with TH compromises cell viability over time. Our results revealed that the disruptive effect of TH on cell membranes may be a cytotoxic and pathogenic factor if the regulation and intracellular stability of TH is compromised. PMID:28004763

  13. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    PubMed Central

    Geary, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children’s and adolescent’s physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children’s play) and cognitive (e.g., language fluency) traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments. PMID:27077746

  14. Metabolic engineering of lipid catabolism increases microalgal lipid accumulation without compromising growth.

    PubMed

    Trentacoste, Emily M; Shrestha, Roshan P; Smith, Sarah R; Glé, Corine; Hartmann, Aaron C; Hildebrand, Mark; Gerwick, William H

    2013-12-03

    Biologically derived fuels are viable alternatives to traditional fossil fuels, and microalgae are a particularly promising source, but improvements are required throughout the production process to increase productivity and reduce cost. Metabolic engineering to increase yields of biofuel-relevant lipids in these organisms without compromising growth is an important aspect of advancing economic feasibility. We report that the targeted knockdown of a multifunctional lipase/phospholipase/acyltransferase increased lipid yields without affecting growth in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Antisense-expressing knockdown strains 1A6 and 1B1 exhibited wild-type-like growth and increased lipid content under both continuous light and alternating light/dark conditions. Strains 1A6 and 1B1, respectively, contained 2.4- and 3.3-fold higher lipid content than wild-type during exponential growth, and 4.1- and 3.2-fold higher lipid content than wild-type after 40 h of silicon starvation. Analyses of fatty acids, lipid classes, and membrane stability in the transgenic strains suggest a role for this enzyme in membrane lipid turnover and lipid homeostasis. These results demonstrate that targeted metabolic manipulations can be used to increase lipid accumulation in eukaryotic microalgae without compromising growth.

  15. Home intravenous antibiotic treatment for febrile episodes in immune-compromised pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Shemesh, E; Yaniv, I; Drucker, M; Hadad, S; Goshen, Y; Stein, J; Ash, S; Fisher, S; Zaizov, R

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the feasibility of home intravenous antibiotic treatment (HIAT) for febrile episodes in immune-compromised (neutropenic, splenectomized), low-risk pediatric patients. Thirty hematology-oncology patients who presented to our emergency room from January 1993 to January 1995 and who suffered from a febrile episode and were considered at low risk for septic complications were immediately discharged on HIAT. Patients were followed for at least 3 weeks after recovery. Patients and parents were retrospectively questioned about adverse effects and about their degree of satisfaction with home treatment. Patients who required hospitalization during this period were considered unresponsive to HIAT and were analyzed for causes and adverse effects. Thirteen out of 60 (22%) febrile episodes, or eight out of 42 (19%) episodes of fever and neutropenia eventually led to hospitalization. Pseudomonas species infections were associated with the highest rate of unresponsiveness (88%). A central venous catheter infection developed in two cases following HIAT (two cases out of 640 days of therapy). No other complications were identified. No infection-related morbidity was observed. Patients and parents were highly satisfied with HIAT and wanted to use it again, if necessary. Immediate discharge on HIAT for low-risk pediatric immune-compromised patients suffering from a febrile episode is feasible, safe, and well accepted by patients and families. Patients who are found to have Pseudomonas infections should probably be hospitalized. Our results are preliminary and must be confirmed by a prospective, randomized trial before definite recommendations can be made.

  16. Designing and Operating Through Compromise: Architectural Analysis of CKMS for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Duren, Mike; Aldridge, Hal; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2013-01-01

    Compromises attributable to the Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) highlight the necessity for constant vigilance. The APT provides a new perspective on security metrics (e.g., statistics based cyber security) and quantitative risk assessments. We consider design principals and models/tools that provide high assurance for energy delivery systems (EDS) operations regardless of the state of compromise. Cryptographic keys must be securely exchanged, then held and protected on either end of a communications link. This is challenging for a utility with numerous substations that must secure the intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) that may comprise complex control system of systems. For example, distribution and management of keys among the millions of intelligent meters within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is being implemented as part of the National Smart Grid initiative. Without a means for a secure cryptographic key management system (CKMS) no cryptographic solution can be widely deployed to protect the EDS infrastructure from cyber-attack. We consider 1) how security modeling is applied to key management and cyber security concerns on a continuous basis from design through operation, 2) how trusted models and key management architectures greatly impact failure scenarios, and 3) how hardware-enabled trust is a critical element to detecting, surviving, and recovering from attack.

  17. Focal cartilage defect compromises fluid-pressure dependent load support in the knee joint.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, Yaghoub; Li, LePing

    2015-06-01

    A focal cartilage defect involves tissue loss or rupture. Altered mechanics in the affected joint may play an essential role in the onset and progression of osteoarthritis. The objective of the present study was to determine the compromised load support in the human knee joint during defect progression from the cartilage surface to the cartilage-bone interface. Ten normal and defect cases were simulated with a previously tested 3D finite element model of the knee. The focal defects were considered in both condyles within high load-bearing regions. Fluid pressurization, anisotropic fibril-reinforcement, and depth-dependent mechanical properties were considered for the articular cartilages and menisci. The results showed that a small cartilage defect could cause 25% reduction in the load support of the knee joint due to a reduced capacity of fluid pressurization in the defect cartilage. A partial-thickness defect could cause a fluid pressure decrease or increase in the remaining underlying cartilage depending on the defect depth. A cartilage defect also increased the shear strain at the cartilage-bone interface, which was more significant with a full-thickness defect. The effect of cartilage defect on the fluid pressurization also depended on the defect sites and contact conditions. In conclusion, a focal cartilage defect causes a fluid-pressure dependent load reallocation and a compromised load support in the joint, which depend on the defect depth, site, and contact condition.

  18. Compromised epidermal barrier stimulates Harderian gland activity and hypertrophy in ACBP−/− mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Bek, Signe; Neess, Ditte; Dixen, Karen; Bloksgaard, Maria; Marcher, Ann-Britt; Chemnitz, John; Færgeman, Nils J.; Mandrup, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) is a small, ubiquitously expressed intracellular protein that binds C14-C22 acyl-CoA esters with very high affinity and specificity. We have recently shown that targeted disruption of the Acbp gene leads to a compromised epidermal barrier and that this causes delayed adaptation to weaning, including the induction of the hepatic lipogenic and cholesterogenic gene programs. Here we show that ACBP is highly expressed in the Harderian gland, a gland that is located behind the eyeball of rodents and involved in the production of fur lipids and lipids used for lubrication of the eye lid. We show that disruption of the Acbp gene leads to a significant enlargement of this gland with hypertrophy of the acinar cells and increased de novo synthesis of monoalkyl diacylglycerol, the main lipid species produced by the gland. Mice with conditional targeting of the Acbp gene in the epidermis recapitulate this phenotype, whereas generation of an artificial epidermal barrier during gland development reverses the phenotype. Our findings indicate that the Harderian gland is activated by the compromised epidermal barrier as an adaptive and protective mechanism to overcome the barrier defect. PMID:26142722

  19. Compromised epidermal barrier stimulates Harderian gland activity and hypertrophy in ACBP-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Bek, Signe; Neess, Ditte; Dixen, Karen; Bloksgaard, Maria; Marcher, Ann-Britt; Chemnitz, John; Færgeman, Nils J; Mandrup, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    Acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) is a small, ubiquitously expressed intracellular protein that binds C14-C22 acyl-CoA esters with very high affinity and specificity. We have recently shown that targeted disruption of the Acbp gene leads to a compromised epidermal barrier and that this causes delayed adaptation to weaning, including the induction of the hepatic lipogenic and cholesterogenic gene programs. Here we show that ACBP is highly expressed in the Harderian gland, a gland that is located behind the eyeball of rodents and involved in the production of fur lipids and lipids used for lubrication of the eye lid. We show that disruption of the Acbp gene leads to a significant enlargement of this gland with hypertrophy of the acinar cells and increased de novo synthesis of monoalkyl diacylglycerol, the main lipid species produced by the gland. Mice with conditional targeting of the Acbp gene in the epidermis recapitulate this phenotype, whereas generation of an artificial epidermal barrier during gland development reverses the phenotype. Our findings indicate that the Harderian gland is activated by the compromised epidermal barrier as an adaptive and protective mechanism to overcome the barrier defect.

  20. Metabolic engineering of lipid catabolism increases microalgal lipid accumulation without compromising growth

    PubMed Central

    Trentacoste, Emily M.; Shrestha, Roshan P.; Smith, Sarah R.; Glé, Corine; Hartmann, Aaron C.; Hildebrand, Mark; Gerwick, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Biologically derived fuels are viable alternatives to traditional fossil fuels, and microalgae are a particularly promising source, but improvements are required throughout the production process to increase productivity and reduce cost. Metabolic engineering to increase yields of biofuel-relevant lipids in these organisms without compromising growth is an important aspect of advancing economic feasibility. We report that the targeted knockdown of a multifunctional lipase/phospholipase/acyltransferase increased lipid yields without affecting growth in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Antisense-expressing knockdown strains 1A6 and 1B1 exhibited wild-type–like growth and increased lipid content under both continuous light and alternating light/dark conditions. Strains 1A6 and 1B1, respectively, contained 2.4- and 3.3-fold higher lipid content than wild-type during exponential growth, and 4.1- and 3.2-fold higher lipid content than wild-type after 40 h of silicon starvation. Analyses of fatty acids, lipid classes, and membrane stability in the transgenic strains suggest a role for this enzyme in membrane lipid turnover and lipid homeostasis. These results demonstrate that targeted metabolic manipulations can be used to increase lipid accumulation in eukaryotic microalgae without compromising growth. PMID:24248374

  1. Natural Tooth Pontic: An Instant Esthetic Option for Periodontally Compromised Teeth—A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Rishi; Narayan, Ipshita; Gowda, Triveni Mavinakote; Mehta, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden tooth loss in the esthetic zone of the maxillary or mandibular anterior region can be due to trauma, periodontal disease, or endodontic failure. The treatment options for replacing the missing tooth can vary between removable prosthesis, tooth-supported prosthesis, and implant-supported prosthesis. Irrespective of the final treatment, the first line of management would be to provisionally restore the patient's esthetic appearance at the earliest, while functionally stabilizing the compromised arch. Using the patient's own natural tooth as a pontic offers the benefits of being the right size, shape, and color and provides exact repositioning in its original intraoral three-dimensional position. Additionally, using the patient's platelet concentrate (platelet rich fibrin) facilitates early wound healing and preservation of alveolar ridge shape following tooth extraction. The abutment teeth can also be preserved with minimal or no preparation, thus keeping the technique reversible, and can be completed at the chair side thereby avoiding laboratory costs. This helps the patient better tolerate the effect of tooth loss psychologically. The article describes a successful, immediate, and viable technique for rehabilitation of three different patients requiring replacement of a single periodontally compromised tooth in an esthetic region. PMID:27994892

  2. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    PubMed

    Geary, David C

    2016-04-01

    Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children's and adolescent's physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children's play) and cognitive (e.g., language fluency) traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments.

  3. Psychological stress compromises CD8+ T cell control of latent herpes simplex virus type 1 infections.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael L; Sheridan, Brian S; Bonneau, Robert H; Hendricks, Robert L

    2007-07-01

    Recurrent HSV-1 ocular disease results from reactivation of latent virus in trigeminal ganglia, often following immunosuppression or exposure to a variety of psychological or physical stressors. HSV-specific CD8+ T cells can block HSV-1 reactivation from latency in ex vivo trigeminal ganglia cultures through production of IFN-gamma. In this study, we establish that either CD8+ T cell depletion or exposure to restraint stress permit HSV-1 to transiently escape from latency in vivo. Restraint stress caused a reduction of TG-resident HSV-specific CD8+ T cells and a functional compromise of those cells that survive. Together, these effects of stress resulted in an approximate 65% reduction of cells capable of producing IFN-gamma in response to reactivating virus. Our findings demonstrate persistent in vivo regulation of latent HSV-1 by CD8+ T cells, and strongly support the concept that stress induces HSV-1 reactivation from latency at least in part by compromising CD8+ T cell surveillance of latently infected neurons.

  4. Hydraulic efficiency compromises compression strength perpendicular to the grain in Norway spruce trunkwood

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate bending stiffness and compression strength perpendicular to the grain of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trunkwood with different anatomical and hydraulic properties. Hydraulically less safe mature sapwood had bigger hydraulic lumen diameters and higher specific hydraulic conductivities than hydraulically safer juvenile wood. Bending stiffness (MOE) was higher, whereas radial compression strength lower in mature than in juvenile wood. A density-based tradeoff between MOE and hydraulic efficiency was apparent in mature wood only. Across cambial age, bending stiffness did not compromise hydraulic efficiency due to variation in latewood percent and because of the structural demands of the tree top (e.g. high flexibility). Radial compression strength compromised, however, hydraulic efficiency because it was extremely dependent on the characteristics of the “weakest” wood part, the highly conductive earlywood. An increase in conduit wall reinforcement of earlywood tracheids would be too costly for the tree. Increasing radial compression strength by modification of microfibril angles or ray cell number could result in a decrease of MOE, which would negatively affect the trunk’s capability to support the crown. We propose that radial compression strength could be an easily assessable and highly predictive parameter for the resistance against implosion or vulnerability to cavitation across conifer species, which should be topic of further studies. PMID:22058609

  5. DMP-1-mediated Ghr gene recombination compromises skeletal development and impairs skeletal response to intermittent PTH

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongbo; Kennedy, Oran D.; Cardoso, Luis; Basta-Pljakic, Jelena; Partridge, Nicola C.; Schaffler, Mitchell B.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Yakar, Shoshana

    2016-01-01

    Bone minerals are acquired during growth and are key determinants of adult skeletal health. During puberty, the serum levels of growth hormone (GH) and its downstream effector IGF-1 increase and play critical roles in bone acquisition. The goal of the current study was to determine how bone cells integrate signals from the GH/IGF-1 to enhance skeletal mineralization and strength during pubertal growth. Osteocytes, the most abundant bone cells, were shown to orchestrate bone modeling during growth. We used dentin matrix protein (Dmp)-1-mediated Ghr knockout (DMP-GHRKO) mice to address the role of the GH/IGF axis in osteocytes. We found that DMP-GHRKO did not affect linear growth but compromised overall bone accrual. DMP-GHRKO mice exhibited reduced serum inorganic phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and decreased bone formation indices and were associated with an impaired response to intermittent PTH treatment. Using an osteocyte-like cell line along with in vivo studies, we found that PTH sensitized the response of bone to GH by increasing Janus kinase-2 and IGF-1R protein levels. We concluded that endogenously secreted PTH and GHR signaling in bone are necessary to establish radial bone growth and optimize mineral acquisition during growth.—Liu, Z., Kennedy, O. D., Cardoso, L., Basta-Pljakic, J., Partridge, N. C., Schaffler, M. B., Rosen, C. J., Yakar, S. DMP-1-mediated Ghr gene recombination compromises skeletal development and impairs skeletal response to intermittent PTH. PMID:26481310

  6. Glucocorticoids may compromise the effect of gefitinib in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsian-Yu; Chang, Yu-Ling; Cheng, Chun-Chun; Chao, Min-Wu; Lin, Su-I; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Tsang-Wu; Cheng, Han-Chin; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Liu, Shih-Jen; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Hsu, John T-A

    2016-12-27

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown remarkable benefits in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with drug-sensitive mutations in the EGFR gene. Responsive patients are usually continuously prescribed with TKIs until disease progression. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent homeostasis maintaining drugs and are frequently used in cancer patients to alleviate discomforts caused by anti-cancer therapies. Several previous studies reported that concomitant use of GCs may compromise the efficacy of chemo-therapeutics in patients with solid tumors. Little is known in the concomitant use of target therapy with GCs in treating NSCLC. In this study, we hypothesized that concomitant use of GCs in EGFR-TKI therapy may be detrimental and addressed this issue using cell cultures and xenograft studies followed by a retrospective population study based on data from the Taiwan national health insurance system. In cell cultures and xenograft studies, GCs were shown to unequally compromise the anti-cancer efficacy of TKIs in both PC9 and NCI-H1975 NSCLC cells models. In the retrospective population study, patients with similar disease status that were co-medicated with GCs had a significantly higher risk of disease progression.

  7. In vivo induction of antioxidant response and oxidative stress associated with genotoxicity and histopathological alteration in two commercial fish species due to heavy metals exposure in northern India (Kali) river.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Mahino; Usmani, Nazura; Firdaus, Fakiha; Zafeer, Mohammad Faraz; Ahmad, Shafeeque; Akhtar, Kafil; Dawar Husain, S M; Ahmad, Mir Hilal; Anis, Ehraz; Mobarak Hossain, M

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals can significantly bioaccumulate in fish tissues. The step wise mechanism of heavy metal toxicities on fish health is still limited. The present study assessed the tissue-specific antioxidant response and oxidative stress biomarkers of commercially important fish species namely, Channa striatus and Heteropneustes fossilis inhabiting Kali River of northern India where heavy-metal load is beyond the World Health Organisation - maximum permissible limits. Heavy metals chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were elevated in both fish species compared to recommended values of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), 1999 for edible fishes. Reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CATA) activities in all tissues (brachial, neural, renal and hepatic) were altered. Cellular lipid and protein compromisation in both fishes induced by heavy metals was determined by lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonylation (PC) assays. Micronucleus (MN) test of erythrocytes and comet assay of liver cells confirmed genotoxicity. Histopathology of the liver, kidney and brain of affected fishes was distorted significantly with its reference fishes thereby affecting the quality and quantity of these fish stocks. This raises a serious concern as these fishes are consumed by the local population which would ultimately affect human health.

  8. New extensions in the development of deformation processed metal-metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, T.W.; Gibson, E.D.

    1993-10-01

    Copper-Refractory metal composites have been under development for some time. The experience gained with these materials has been used as a starting point for investigations into other alloy systems. Deformation processing for the production of metal-metal matrix composites has been applied to titanium-yttrium, yttrium-niobium, copper-cobalt, aluminum-niobium and magnesium-refractory metal alloys. This process has been used to produce elevated strength material and also for the production of electrical capacitors.

  9. Metal-binding proteins as metal pollution indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, H F

    1986-01-01

    The fact that metal-binding proteins are a consequence of elevated metal concentration in organisms is well known. What has been overlooked is that the presence of these proteins provides a unique opportunity to reformulate the criteria of metal pollution. The detoxification effect of metal-binding proteins in animals from polluted areas has been cited, but there have been only very few studies relating metal-binding proteins to pollution. This lack is due partly to the design of most experiments, which were aimed at isolation of metal-binding proteins and hence were of too short duration to allow for correlation to adverse physiological effects on the organism. In this study metal-binding proteins were isolated and characterized from five different marine animals (rock lobster, Jasus lalandii; hermit crab, Diogenes brevirostris; sandshrimp, Palaemon pacificus; black mussel, Choromytilus meridionalis; and limpet, Patella granularis). These animals were kept under identical metal-enriched conditions, hence eliminating differences in method and seasons. The study animals belonged to different phyla; varied in size, mass, age, behavior, food requirements and life stages; and accumulated metals at different rates. It is possible to link unseasonal moulting in crustacea, a known physiological effect due to a metal-enriched environment, to the production of the metal-binding protein without evidence of obvious metal body burden. Thus a new concept of pollution is defined: the presence of metal-binding proteins confirms toxic metal pollution. This concept was then tested under field conditions in the whelk Bullia digitalis and in metal-enriched grass. PMID:3709437

  10. Metal-binding proteins as metal pollution indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, H.F.

    1986-03-01

    The fact that metal-binding proteins are a consequence of elevated metal concentration in organisms is well known. What has been overlooked is that the presence of these proteins provides a unique opportunity to reformulate the criteria of metal pollution. The detoxification effect of metal-binding proteins in animals from polluted areas has been cited, but there have been only very few studies relating metal-binding proteins to pollution. This lack is due partly to the design of most experiments, which were aimed at isolation of metal-binding proteins and hence were of too short duration to allow for correlation to adverse physiological effects on the organism. In this study metal-binding proteins were isolated and characterized from five different marine animals (rock lobster, Jasus lalandii; hermit crab, Diogenes brevirostris; sandshrimp, Palaemon pacificus; black mussel, Choromytilus meridionalis; and limpet, Patella granularis). These animals were kept under identical metal-enriched conditions, hence eliminating differences in method and seasons. The study animals belonged to different phyla; varied in size, mass, age, behavior, food requirements and life stages; and accumulated metals at different rates. It is possible to link unseasonal moulting in crustacea, a known physiological effect due to a metal-enriched environment, to the production of the metal-binding protein without evidence of obvious metal body burden. Thus a new concept of pollution is defined: the presence of metal-binding proteins confirms toxic metal pollution. This concept was then tested under field conditions in the whelk Bullia digitalis and in metal-enriched grass.

  11. Complications Related to Metal-on-Metal Articulation in Trapeziometacarpal Joint Total Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Frølich, Christina; Hansen, Torben Bæk

    2015-01-01

    Adverse reactions to metal-on-metal (MoM) prostheses are well known from total hip joint resurfacing arthroplasty with elevated serum chrome or cobalt, pain and pseudo tumor formation. It may, however, also be seen after total joint replacement of the trapeziometacarpal joint using MoM articulation, and we present two cases of failure of MoM prostheses due to elevated metal-serum levels in one case and pseudo tumor formation in another case. Furthermore, we suggest a diagnostic algorithm for joint pain after MoM trapeziometacarpal joint replacement based on published experiences from MoM hip prostheses and adverse reactions to metal. PMID:26020592

  12. Effectiveness of metal-metal and metal-organic compound combinations against Plutella xylostella: implications for plant elemental defense.

    PubMed

    Jhee, Edward M; Boyd, Robert S; Eubanks, Micky D

    2006-02-01

    Plants that contain elevated foliar metal concentrations can be categorized as accumulators or, if the accumulation is extreme, hyperaccumulators. The defense hypothesis suggests that these plants may be defended against folivore attack, and recent research has indicated that metal concentrations at or below the accumulator range may be defensively effective. This experiment explored the toxicity of four metals hyper-accumulated by plants (Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and asked if combinations of metals, or metals and organic chemicals, might broaden the defensive effectiveness of metals. Metals were used alone and in certain metal + metal (Zn plus Ni, Pb, or Cd) and metal + organic defensive chemical (Ni plus tannic acid, atropine, or nicotine) combinations. Artificial diet amended with these treatments was fed to larvae of the crucifer specialist herbivore Plutella xylostella. Combinations of metals and metals + organic chemicals significantly decreased survival and pupation rates, compared to single treatments, for at least some concentrations in every experiment. Effects of combinations were additive rather than synergistic or antagonistic. Because Zn enhanced the toxicity of other metals and Ni enhanced the toxicity of organic defensive chemicals, our findings suggest that the defensive effects of metals are more widespread among plants than previously believed. They also support the hypothesis that herbivore defense may have led to the evolution of metal hyper-accumulation by increasing the preexisting defensive effects of metals at accumulator levels in plants.

  13. Guard cell hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide mediate elevated CO2 -induced stomatal movement in tomato.

    PubMed

    Shi, Kai; Li, Xin; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Guanqun; Liu, Yaru; Zhou, Yanhong; Xia, Xiaojian; Chen, Zhixiang; Yu, Jingquan

    2015-10-01

    Climate change as a consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2 influences plant photosynthesis and transpiration. Although the involvement of stomata in plant responses to elevated CO2 has been well established, the underlying mechanism of elevated CO2 -induced stomatal movement remains largely unknown. We used diverse techniques, including laser scanning confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, biochemical methodologies and gene silencing to investigate the signaling pathway for elevated CO2 -induced stomatal movement in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Elevated CO2 -induced stomatal closure was dependent on the production of RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE 1 (RBOH1)-mediated hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and NITRATE REDUCTASE (NR)-mediated nitric oxide (NO) in guard cells in an abscisic acid (ABA)-independent manner. Silencing of OPEN STOMATA 1 (OST1) compromised the elevated CO2 -induced accumulation of H2 O2 and NO, upregulation of SLOW ANION CHANNEL ASSOCIATED 1 (SLAC1) gene expression and reduction of stomatal aperture, whereas silencing of RBOH1 or NR had no effects on the expression of OST1. Our results demonstrate that as critical signaling molecules, RBOH1-dependent H2 O2 and NR-dependent NO act downstream of OST1 that regulate SLAC1 expression and elevated CO2 -induced stomatal movement. This information is crucial to deepen the understanding of CO2 signaling pathway in guard cells.

  14. 36 CFR 1201.20 - What is the extent of the Archivist's authority to compromise debts owed to NARA, or to suspend...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Archivist's authority to compromise debts owed to NARA, or to suspend or terminate collection action on such... Archivist's authority to compromise debts owed to NARA, or to suspend or terminate collection action on such debts? (a) The Archivist may compromise, suspend, or terminate collection action on those debts owed...

  15. 36 CFR 1201.20 - What is the extent of the Archivist's authority to compromise debts owed to NARA, or to suspend...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Archivist's authority to compromise debts owed to NARA, or to suspend or terminate collection action on such... Archivist's authority to compromise debts owed to NARA, or to suspend or terminate collection action on such debts? (a) The Archivist may compromise, suspend, or terminate collection action on those debts owed...

  16. Elevated drum testing Phase 1 test plan

    SciTech Connect

    McBeath, R.S.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1994-09-01

    An important part of the Hanford environmental mission is the packaging, transportation, and storage of solid radioactive wastes in metal drums. Presently storage drums are placed four to a wooden pallet with the drums banded to each other. Palletized drums are stacked three units high in pre-engineered steel structures in the 200 Area of the Hanford site. Permitted storage space is expensive to construct, maintain, and operate. Storage capacity is increased if additional drum can be stacked within existing facilities and a cost savings over new construction realized. The purpose of this plan is to outline the testing required to provide the safety criteria for elevated (i.e., tiers of four high) drum storage. The major safety concern with elevated drum storage is the danger of a significant fire in the storage facility. The major fire load within the storage facilities is combustible material contained in the drums. If a seismic event, fork lift accident, or other credible incident were to cause drum failure or lid separation, combustible material could be available for fuel. To increase the initial burn in the facilities, the drums must spill their combustible contents, making them free for ignition. If it can be shown that there is not sufficient damage to the drums to allow for release of their solid contents, then the data used for safety documentation will be re-examined. Preliminary tests conducted in the configurations detailed in this test plan have shown that drums maintain their integrity; that is the drum covers remain attached and the drums do not breach. These tests will be conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company, Equipment Development organization, who is the designated DOE Center of Excellence to conduct drop tests for Department of Transportation (DOT) certification of DOE designed packages and containers.

  17. Natural physical and biological processes compromise the long-term performance of compacted soil caps

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.D.

    1995-12-01

    Compacted soil barriers are components of essentially all caps placed on closed waste disposal sites. The intended functions of soil barriers in waste facility caps include restricting infiltration of water and release of gases and vapors, either independently or in combination with synthetic membrane barriers, and protecting other manmade or natural barrier components. Review of the performance of installed soil barriers and of natural processes affecting their performance indicates that compacted soil caps may function effectively for relatively short periods (years to decades), but natural physical and biological processes can be expected to cause them to fail in the long term (decades to centuries). This paper addresses natural physical and biological processes that compromise the performance of compacted soil caps and suggests measures that may reduce the adverse consequences of these natural failure mechanisms.

  18. Better innovate than compromise: a novel hepatic outflow reconstruction technique in pediatric living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cherian, P Thomas; Mishra, Ashish K; Bangaari, Ashish; Kota, Venugopal; Sathyanarayanan, Mohan; Raya, Ravichandra; Rela, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    Pediatric LDLT using donors with unfavorable vascular anatomy is challenging in terms of donor safety, and complexity of reconstruction in the recipient. We describe an innovative technique of hepatic venous outflow reconstruction involving the recipient RHV, in the presence of a rudimentary RHV in the donor. The postoperative course of the donor and recipient was uneventful with satisfactory venous outflow in both. This technique avoided the use of prosthetic material, an important consideration given the recipient age and requirement for growth. This shows that donors previously considered unsuitable for donation can be utilized safely as long as principles of vascular anastomosis are adhered to. Moreover, it highlights that innovation is sometimes necessary to avoid compromise in donor safety.

  19. Nothing is safe: Intolerance of uncertainty is associated with compromised fear extinction learning.

    PubMed

    Morriss, Jayne; Christakou, Anastasia; van Reekum, Carien M

    2016-12-01

    Extinction-resistant fear is considered to be a central feature of pathological anxiety. Here we sought to determine if individual differences in Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU), a potential risk factor for anxiety disorders, underlies compromised fear extinction. We tested this hypothesis by recording electrodermal activity in 38 healthy participants during fear acquisition and extinction. We assessed the temporality of fear extinction, by examining early and late extinction learning. During early extinction, low IU was associated with larger skin conductance responses to learned threat vs. safety cues, whereas high IU was associated with skin conductance responding to both threat and safety cues, but no cue discrimination. During late extinction, low IU showed no difference in skin conductance between learned threat and safety cues, whilst high IU predicted continued fear expression to learned threat, indexed by larger skin conductance to threat vs. safety cues. These findings suggest a critical role of uncertainty-based mechanisms in the maintenance of learned fear.

  20. Compromising the 19S proteasome complex protects cells from reduced flux through the proteasome.

    PubMed

    Tsvetkov, Peter; Mendillo, Marc L; Zhao, Jinghui; Carette, Jan E; Merrill, Parker H; Cikes, Domagoj; Varadarajan, Malini; van Diemen, Ferdy R; Penninger, Josef M; Goldberg, Alfred L; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Santagata, Sandro; Lindquist, Susan

    2015-09-01

    Proteasomes are central regulators of protein homeostasis in eukaryotes. Proteasome function is vulnerable to environmental insults, cellular protein imbalance and targeted pharmaceuticals. Yet, mechanisms that cells deploy to counteract inhibition of this central regulator are little understood. To find such mechanisms, we reduced flux through the proteasome to the point of toxicity with specific inhibitors and performed genome-wide screens for mutations that allowed cells to survive. Counter to expectation, reducing expression of individual subunits of the proteasome's 19S regulatory complex increased survival. Strong 19S reduction was cytotoxic but modest reduction protected cells from inhibitors. Protection was accompanied by an increased ratio of 20S to 26S proteasomes, preservation of protein degradation capacity and reduced proteotoxic stress. While compromise of 19S function can have a fitness cost under basal conditions, it provided a powerful survival advantage when proteasome function was impaired. This means of rebalancing proteostasis is conserved from yeast to humans.

  1. A deletion in the bovine FANCI gene compromises fertility by causing fetal death and brachyspina.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Carole; Agerholm, Jorgen Steen; Coppieters, Wouter; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Li, Wanbo; de Jong, Gerben; Fasquelle, Corinne; Karim, Latifa; Cirera, Susanna; Cambisano, Nadine; Ahariz, Naima; Mullaart, Erik; Georges, Michel; Fredholm, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Fertility is one of the most important traits in dairy cattle, and has been steadily declining over the last decades. We herein use state-of-the-art genomic tools, including high-throughput SNP genotyping and next-generation sequencing, to identify a 3.3 Kb deletion in the FANCI gene causing the brachyspina syndrome (BS), a rare recessive genetic defect in Holstein dairy cattle. We determine that despite the very low incidence of BS (<1/100,000), carrier frequency is as high as 7.4% in the Holstein breed. We demonstrate that this apparent discrepancy is likely due to the fact that a large proportion of homozygous mutant calves die during pregnancy. We postulate that several other embryonic lethals may segregate in livestock and significantly compromise fertility, and propose a genotype-driven screening strategy to detect the corresponding deleterious mutations.

  2. Induction of mitochondrial dysfunction as a strategy for targeting tumour cells in metabolically compromised microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaonan; Fryknäs, Mårten; Hernlund, Emma; Fayad, Walid; De Milito, Angelo; Olofsson, Maria Hägg; Gogvadze, Vladimir; Dang, Long; Påhlman, Sven; Schughart, Leoni A Kunz; Rickardson, Linda; D'Arcy, Padraig; Gullbo, Joachim; Nygren, Peter; Larsson, Rolf; Linder, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal vascularization of solid tumours results in the development of microenvironments deprived of oxygen and nutrients that harbour slowly growing and metabolically stressed cells. Such cells display enhanced resistance to standard chemotherapeutic agents and repopulate tumours after therapy. Here we identify the small molecule VLX600 as a drug that is preferentially active against quiescent cells in colon cancer 3-D microtissues. The anticancer activity is associated with reduced mitochondrial respiration, leading to bioenergetic catastrophe and tumour cell death. VLX600 shows enhanced cytotoxic activity under conditions of nutrient starvation. Importantly, VLX600 displays tumour growth inhibition in vivo. Our findings suggest that tumour cells in metabolically compromised microenvironments have a limited ability to respond to decreased mitochondrial function, and suggest a strategy for targeting the quiescent populations of tumour cells for improved cancer treatment.

  3. Reexamining the Phosphorus-Protein Dilemma: Does Phosphorus Restriction Compromise Protein Status?

    PubMed

    St-Jules, David E; Woolf, Kathleen; Pompeii, Mary Lou; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2016-05-01

    Dietary phosphorus restriction is recommended to help control hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients, but many high-phosphorus foods are important sources of protein. In this review, we examine whether restricting dietary phosphorus compromises protein status in hemodialysis patients. Although dietary phosphorus and protein are highly correlated, phosphorus intakes can range up to 600 mg/day for a given energy and protein intake level. Furthermore, the collinearity of phosphorus and protein may be biased because the phosphorus burden of food depends on: (1) the presence of phosphate additives, (2) food preparation method, and (3) bioavailability of phosphorus, which are often unaccounted for in nutrition assessments. Ultimately, we argue that clinically relevant reductions in phosphorus intake can be made without limiting protein intake by avoiding phosphate additives in processed foods, using wet cooking methods such as boiling, and if needed, substituting high-phosphorus foods for nutritionally equivalent foods that are lower in bioavailable phosphorus.

  4. Compromised nutrition in gerbils infected by Cystoisospora felis detected through an animal performance analysis tool.

    PubMed

    Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; Fiuza, Vagner Ricardo da Silva; Jiménez-Sanz, Amanda Lucía; Detmann, Edenio

    2011-01-01

    The impact of Cystoisospora felis infection on the nutritional efficiency of gerbils was studied. The variables weight gain and feed intake were measured during four weeks in 28 laboratory gerbils, of which 14 were inoculated with 3.5 × 10(5) sporulated oocysts of C. felis and the remaining 14 were controls. The animals from both groups were weighted, killed, eviscerated and had their carcasses and tissues weighted and compared. A modern tool designed for measuring nutritional performance of farm animals was applied. The results showed compromised nutritional efficiency of the infected animals within the first week after infection. The consequences of these results are discussed here, including the potential impact of infection on farm animals performance.

  5. Conflicts of interest in research: is clinical decision-making compromised? An opinion paper.

    PubMed

    Adibi, Shawn; Abidi, Shawn; Bebermeyer, Richard D

    2010-08-01

    Lack of transparency in funded research can compromise clinical decision-making in an evidence-based practice. Transparency can be defined as full disclosure of all financial assistance and support to authors and investigators. There is a perception that ethical principles are eroding and that research data can be biased due to conflicts of interest. These research outcomes biased or not, are used for clinical decision-making in the evidence-based practice. One suggested solution to this common ethical dilemma is to continue the dialogue on transparency in research and to create oversight bodies which include representatives from business and industry, private practice, academia, and research. There is increasing evidence of the need for more ethics education at all levels.

  6. Armc5 deletion causes developmental defects and compromises T-cell immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yan; Lao, Linjiang; Mao, Jianning; Jin, Wei; Luo, Hongyu; Charpentier, Tania; Qi, Shijie; Peng, Junzheng; Hu, Bing; Marcinkiewicz, Mieczyslaw Martin; Lamarre, Alain; Wu, Jiangping

    2017-01-01

    Armadillo repeat containing 5 (ARMC5) is a cytosolic protein with no enzymatic activities. Little is known about its function and mechanisms of action, except that gene mutations are associated with risks of primary macronodular adrenal gland hyperplasia. Here we map Armc5 expression by in situ hybridization, and generate Armc5 knockout mice, which are small in body size. Armc5 knockout mice have compromised T-cell proliferation and differentiation into Th1 and Th17 cells, increased T-cell apoptosis, reduced severity of experimental autoimmune encephalitis, and defective immune responses to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. These mice also develop adrenal gland hyperplasia in old age. Yeast 2-hybrid assays identify 16 ARMC5-binding partners. Together these data indicate that ARMC5 is crucial in fetal development, T-cell function and adrenal gland growth homeostasis, and that the functions of ARMC5 probably depend on interaction with multiple signalling pathways. PMID:28169274

  7. Radiation-treated ready-to-eat (RTE) chicken breast Adobo for immuno-compromised patients.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Chitho P; De Guzman, Zenaida M; Tolentino, Levelyn Mitos M; Cobar, Maria Lucia C; Abrera, Gina B

    2014-11-15

    Usually in hospitals low-bacterial diets are served to immuno-compromised patients (ICPs). However, low-bacterial diets still pose a high risk of microbial infections and limit the food selection of the patients. Thus, pathogen-free dishes must be made available. This study presents the development of pathogen-free ready-to-eat (RTE) Filipino ethnic food chicken breast Adobo, sterilized by exposure to high-dose gamma rays (25 kGy) in combination with conventional treatments. Frozen vacuum-packed samples artificially inoculated with Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, were exposed to 25 kGy gamma radiation for complete sterilization. Microbial quality and sterility of the samples were analysed following 15, 30, and 60 days of storage at -4°C. The effects of high-dose gamma irradiation on the nutritional quality and sensory characteristics of RTE chicken breast Adobo were also evaluated.

  8. Self-inflicted Cardiac Injury with Nail Gun Without Hemodynamic Compromise: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Simon; Feranec, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Pneumatically powered nail guns have been used in construction since 1959. Penetrating injuries to the heart with nail guns have a wide range of presentations from asymptomatic to cardiac tamponade and exsanguination. Mortality related to cardiac nail gun injuries is similar to knife injuries, estimated at 25%. Surgical exploration is the treatment of choice. We describe a case of self-inflicted nail gun injury to the chest without hemodynamic compromise in a 51-year-old man. Computed tomography (CT) imaging confirmed nail penetrating the right ventricle, with the tip adjacent to but not violating the abdominal aorta. The patient was successfully treated with thoracotomy and foreign body removal. PMID:28191375

  9. Interdisciplinary treatment of a periodontally compromised adult patient with multiple missing posterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sachin; Gupta, Sumita; Chugh, Vinay K; Jain, Eety; Valiathan, Ashima; Nanda, Ravindra

    2014-02-01

    This article reports the comprehensive, interdisciplinary treatment of a 50-year-old periodontally compromised adult patient with multiple missing posterior teeth. After initial periodontal treatment, the maxillary first molars and right central incisor were intruded orthodontically. Miniscrews were used to intrude the maxillary first molars by 3 mm. The mandibular arch was restored with a tooth-supported overdenture. Root coverage of the maxillary right central incisor was performed using Alloderm (Biohorizons, Birmingham, Ala). At the end of the interdisciplinary therapy, the results were esthetically pleasing, with the patient's oral functions restored to the optimum. The emphasis of this report is to highlight the importance of integrating various specialties such as periodontics, orthodontics, endodontics, and restorative dentistry toward a common goal of improving the patient's oral health, function, and esthetics.

  10. Audiologic Management of Older Adults With Hearing Loss and Compromised Cognitive/Psychoacoustic Auditory Processing Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Kricos, Patricia B.

    2006-01-01

    The number and proportion of older adults in the United States population is increasing, and more clinical audiologists will be called upon to deliver hearing care to the approximately 35% to 50% of them who experience hearing difficulties. In recent years, the characteristics and sources of receptive communication difficulties in older individuals have been investigated by hearing scientists, cognitive psychologists, and audiologists. It is becoming increasingly apparent that cognitive compromises and psychoacoustic auditory processing disorders associated with aging may contribute to communication difficulties in this population. This paper presents an overview of best practices, based on our current knowledge base, for clinical management of older individuals with limitations in cognitive or psychoacoustic auditory processing capabilities, or both, that accompany aging. PMID:16528428

  11. Esthetic Rehabilitation of a Severely Compromised Anterior Area: Combined Periodontal and Restorative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Censi, Rachele; Vavassori, Virna; Borgonovo, Andrea Enrico; Re, Dino

    2014-01-01

    The complete oral rehabilitation of patients demanding a beautiful and attractive smile involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes the change of both the morphological aspect of the teeth and the architecture of gum tissues. This clinical report describes a successful interdisciplinary approach for the treatment of an esthetically compromised dentition. In a first phase, the periodontal plastic surgery was performed for root coverage and, in particular, it was decided for the execution of a coronally advanced flap for the treatment of multiple recession defects. Once complete healing of soft tissues was obtained, six lithium disilicate veneers were placed over the anterior maxillary teeth. Lithium disilicate is a glass-based ceramic which presents excellent aesthetics and allows the passage of light without creating unnatural reflections. This feature has made it possible to recreate a natural aspect of teeth that in combination with the harmonic architecture of soft tissue has permitted obtaining a beautiful and pleasant smile. PMID:24715999

  12. Is conceptual understanding compromised by a problem-solving emphasis in an introductory physics course?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridenour, J.; Feldman, G.; Teodorescu, R.; Medsker, L.; Benmouna, N.

    2013-01-01

    Developing competency in problem solving and enhancing conceptual understanding are primary objectives in introductory physics, and many techniques and tools are available to help instructors achieve them. Pedagogically, we use an easy-to-implement intervention, the ACCESS protocol, to develop and assess problem-solving skills in our SCALE-UP classroom environment for algebra-based physics. Based on our research and teaching experience, an important question has emerged: while primarily targeting improvements in problem-solving and cognitive development, is it necessary that conceptual understanding be compromised? To address this question, we gathered and analyzed information about student abilities, backgrounds, and instructional preferences. We report on our progress and give insights into matching the instructional tools to student profiles in order to achieve optimal learning in group-based active learning. The ultimate goal of our work is to integrate individual student learning needs into a pedagogy that moves students closer to expert-like status in problem solving.

  13. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time compromise sleep and the rest-activity cycles

    PubMed Central

    Lahti, Tuuli A; Leppämäki, Sami; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partonen, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of transition out of and into daylight saving time on the rest-activity cycles and sleep. Rest-activity cycles of nine healthy participants aged 20 to 40 years were measured around transitions out of and into daylight saving time on fall 2005 and spring 2006 respectively. Rest-activity cycles were measured using wrist-worn accelerometers. The participants filled in the Morningness-Eveningness and Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaires before starting the study and kept a sleep diary during the study. Results Fall transition was more disturbing for the more morning type and spring transition for the more evening type of persons. Individuals having a higher global seasonality score suffered more from the transitions. Conclusion Transitions out of and into daylight saving time enhanced night-time restlessness and thereby compromised the quality of sleep. PMID:18269740

  14. [Surgical dilemmas. Sinus floor elevation].

    PubMed

    ten Bruggenkate, C M; Schulten, E A J M; Zijderveld, S A

    2008-12-01

    Limited alveolar bone height prevents the placement of dental implants. Sinus floor elevation is an internal augmentation of the maxillary sinus that allows implants to be placed. The principle of this surgical procedure is the preparation of a 'top hinge door', that is raised together with the Schneiderian membrane in the cranial direction. The space which created under this lid is filled with a bone transplant. Autogenous bone is the standard transplant material, despite the fact that a second surgery site is necessary. Under certain circumstances bone substitutes can be used, with a longer healing phase. If sufficient alveolar bone height is available to secure implant stability, simultaneous implantation and sinus floor elevation are possible. Considering the significant anatomical variation in the region of the maxillary sinus, a sound knowledge of the anatomy is of great importance.

  15. Clonal types of Toxoplasma gondii among immune compromised and immune competent individuals in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ayi, Irene; Kwofie, Kofi Dadzie; Blay, Emmanuel Awusah; Osei, Joseph Harold Nyarko; Frempong, Kwadwo Kyeremeh; Koku, Roberta; Ghansah, Anita; Lartey, Margaret; Suzuki, Takashi; Boakye, Daniel Adjei; Koram, Kwadwo Ansah; Ohta, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    There are three major clonal lineages, types I, II, and III, of Toxoplasma gondii known to cause human toxoplasmosis worldwide. Toxoplasma gondii infections have, however, not been genotyped in Ghana. This study detected the clonal types infecting immune compromised and immune competent individuals in Accra, Ghana. Blood samples were obtained from 148 HIV seropositive pre-antiretroviral therapy individuals (0 ≤ CD4(+) T-cell count/μl blood ≤ 200) at the Fevers Unit and 149 HIV seronegative apparently healthy blood donors at the blood bank, all of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Genomic DNA was extracted and multilocus genotyping conducted by nested PCR-RFLP analysis using GRA6, SAG3, and BTUB gene markers. Among the HIV seropositive participants, 54.7% (81/148) were T. gondii DNA positive for any of the markers. Out of the 81, 42.0% (34) were positive for SAG3 only, 30.9% (25) for GRA6 only, 24.7% (20) for both SAG3 and GRA6, and 2.5% (2) for SAG3, GRA6, and BTUB. Overall, 93.8% of the positives were of clonal type II, 1.2% type I, while 4.9% (4) were atypical or mixed types (I and II). In the healthy blood donors, prevalence of T. gondii DNA positivity was 3.4% (5/149) by SAG3 and/or GRA6; among them, 60.0% (3/5) were type I, and the remaining 40.0%, type II. This study showed a relatively high prevalence of active T. gondii infections in immune compromised patients and low prevalence in immune competent individuals in Accra. Type II was highly prevalent. Detection of T. gondii in blood donors raises public health concerns and screening for T. gondii should be considered.

  16. Processing of visual information compromises the ability of older adults to control novel fine motor tasks.

    PubMed

    Baweja, Harsimran S; Kwon, MinHyuk; Onushko, Tanya; Wright, David L; Corcos, Daniel M; Christou, Evangelos A

    2015-12-01

    We performed two experiments to determine whether amplified motor output variability and compromised processing of visual information in older adults impair short-term adaptations when learning novel fine motor tasks. In Experiment 1, 12 young and 12 older adults underwent training to learn how to accurately trace a sinusoidal position target with abduction-adduction of their index finger. They performed 48 trials, which included 8 blocks of 6 trials (the last trial of each block was performed without visual feedback). Afterward, subjects received an interference task (watched a movie) for 60 min. We tested retention by asking subjects to perform the sinusoidal task (5 trials) with and without visual feedback. In Experiment 2, 12 young and 10 older adults traced the same sinusoidal position target with their index finger and ankle at three distinct visual angles (0.25°, 1° and 5.4°). In Experiment 1, the movement error and variability were greater for older adults during the visual feedback trials when compared with young adults. In contrast, during the no-vision trials, age-associated differences in movement error and variability were ameliorated. Short-term adaptations in learning the sinusoidal task were similar for young and older adults. In Experiment 2, lower amount of visual feedback minimized the age-associated differences in movement variability for both the index finger and ankle movements. We demonstrate that although short-term adaptations are similar for young and older adults, older adults do not process visual information as well as young adults and that compromises their ability to control novel fine motor tasks during acquisition, which could influence long-term retention and transfer.

  17. The Bacterial Virulence Factor Lymphostatin Compromises Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function by Modulating Rho GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Babbin, Brian A.; Sasaki, Maiko; Gerner-Schmidt, Kirsten W.; Nusrat, Asma; Klapproth, Jan-Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Lymphocyte inhibitory factor A (lifA) in Citrobacter rodentium encodes the large toxin lymphostatin, which contains two enzymatic motifs associated with bacterial pathogenesis, a glucosyltransferase and a protease. Our aim was to determine the effects of each lymphostatin motif on intestinal epithelial-barrier function. In-frame mutations of C. rodentium lifA glucosyltransferase (CrGlM21) and protease (CrPrM5) were generated by homologous recombination. Infection of both model intestinal epithelial monolayers and mice with C. rodentium wild type resulted in compromised epithelial barrier function and mislocalization of key intercellular junction proteins in the tight junction and adherens junction. In contrast, CrGlM21 was impaired in its ability to reduce barrier function and influenced the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin. CrPrM5 demonstrated decreased effects on the adherens junction proteins β-catenin and E-cadherin. Analysis of the mechanisms revealed that C. rodentium wild type differentially influenced Rho GTPase activation, suppressed Cdc42 activation, and induced Rho GTPase activation. CrGlM21 lost its suppressive effects on Cdc42 activation, whereas CrPrM5 was unable to activate Rho signaling. Rescue experiments using constitutively active Cdc42 or C3 exotoxin to inhibit Rho GTPase supported a role of Rho GTPases in the epithelial barrier compromise induced by C. rodentium. Taken together, our results suggest that lymphostatin is a bacterial virulence factor that contributes to the disruption of intestinal epithelial-barrier function via the modulation of Rho GTPase activities. PMID:19286565

  18. Compromising abnormalities of the brachial plexus as displayed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Collins, J D; Shaver, M L; Disher, A C; Miller, T Q

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance images (MRI) of brachial plexus anatomy bilaterally, not possible by plain radiographs or CT, were presented to the Vascular Surgery, Neurology, and the Neurosurgery departments. Patients were requested for MRI of their brachial plexus. They were referred for imaging and the imaging results were presented to the faculty and housestaff. Our technique was accepted and adopted to begin referrals for MRI evaluation of brachial plexopathy. Over 175 patients have been studied. Eighty-five patients were imaged with the 1.5 Tesla magnet (Signa; General Electric Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) 3-D reconstruction MRI. Coronal, transverse (axial), oblique transverse, and sagittal plane T1-weighted and selected T2-weighted pulse sequences were obtained at 4-5 mm slice thickness, 40-45 full field of view, and a 512 x 256 size matrix. Saline water bags were used to enhance the signal between the neck and the thorax. Sites of brachial plexus compromise were demonstrated. Our technique with 3-D reconstruction increased the definition of brachial plexus pathology. The increased anatomical definition enabled the vascular surgeons and neurosurgeons to improve patient care. Brachial plexus in vivo anatomy as displayed by MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and 3-D reconstruction offered an opportunity to augment the teaching of clinical anatomy to medical students and health professionals. Selected case presentations (bodybuilder, anomalous muscle, fractured clavicle, thyroid goiter, silicone breast implant rupture, and cervical rib) demonstrated compromise of the brachial plexus displayed by MRI. The MRI and 3-D reconstruction techniques, demonstrating the bilateral landmark anatomy, increased the definition of the clinical anatomy and resulted in greater knowledge of patient care management.

  19. Assessing relocation strategies of urban air quality monitoring stations by GA-based compromise programming.

    PubMed

    Tseng, C C; Chang, N B

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents a GA-based compromise programming technique for assessing the relocation strategy of urban air quality monitoring network with respect to the multi-objective and multi-pollutant design criteria. While the impact of conservative, quasi-stable, and reactive pollutants are considered in the design principles via a simulation analysis, cost, effectiveness, and efficiency characteristics are postulated in the optimization process. Therefore, technical coverage for illustrating the needs of siting air quality monitoring stations (AQMS) includes both the air quality simulation and optimization modeling analyses in a two-stage analytical framework simultaneously. It starts from determining the spatial interrelationship among those candidate sites using various types of air quality simulation models as an integrated means. And the outputs drawn from the simulation models can then be used as the required inputs in the compromise programming model in order to screen all those siting alternatives that may satisfy the planning goals subject to the essential constraints throughout the multi-objective optimization process. For the illustrating purposes, a series of technical settings for finding the optimal relocation scenarios of AQMS were examined in the case study for the city of Kaohsiung in South Taiwan where the long-term violations of official standards of ozone and particulates turn out to be critical. It not only expresses the ideas of relocation strategy but also indicates how to utilize those alternatives in the decision-making process for improving the functionality of air quality monitoring in the urban environment. Experience gained in this study clearly indicates that the more the number of pollutants and objectives considered simultaneously, the higher the number of candidate sites to be selected in the relocation strategy.

  20. Ionoregulatory Aspects of the Osmorespiratory Compromise during Acute Environmental Hypoxia in 12 Tropical and Temperate Teleosts.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lisa M; Val, Adalberto Luis; Almeida-Val, Vera F; Wood, Chris M

    2015-01-01

    In the traditional osmorespiratory compromise, as seen in the hypoxia-intolerant freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the branchial modifications that occur to improve O2 uptake during hypoxia result in unfavorable increases in the fluxes of ions and water. However, at least one hypoxia-tolerant freshwater species, the Amazonian oscar (Astronotus ocellatus), shows exactly the opposite: decreased branchial flux rates of ions, water, and nitrogenous wastes during acute hypoxia. In order to find out whether the two strategies were widespread, we used a standard 2-h normoxia, 2-h hypoxia (20%-30% saturation), 2-h normoxic recovery protocol to survey 10 other phylogenetically diverse tropical and temperate species. Unidirectional influx and efflux rates of Na(+) and net flux rates of K(+), ammonia, and urea-N were measured. The flux reduction strategy was seen only in one additional species, the Amazonian tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), which is similarly hypoxia tolerant and lives in the same ion-poor waters as the oscar. However, five other species exhibited evidence of the increased flux rates typical of the traditional osmorespiratory compromise in the trout: the rosaceu tetra (Hyphessobrycon bentosi rosaceus), the moenkhausia tetra (Moenkhausia diktyota), the bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), the zebra fish (Danio rerio), and the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Four other species exhibited no marked flux changes during hypoxia: the cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi), the hemigrammus tetra (Hemigrammus rhodostomus), the pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus), and the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Overall, a diversity of strategies exist; we speculate that these may be linked to differences in habitat and/or lifestyle.

  1. Do low-income lone mothers compromise their nutrition to feed their children?

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Lynn; Glanville, N. Theresa; Raine, Kim D.; Dayle, Jutta B.; Anderson, Bonnie; Battaglia, Noreen

    2003-01-01

    Background Women who live in disadvantaged circumstances in Canada exhibit dietary intakes below recommended levels, but their children often do not. One reason for this difference may be that mothers modify their own food intake to spare their children nutritional deprivation. The objective of our study was to document whether or not low-income lone mothers compromise their own diets to feed their children. Methods We studied 141 low-income lone mothers with at least 2 children under the age of 14 years who lived in Atlantic Canada. Women were identified through community organizations using a variety of recruitment strategies. The women were asked weekly for 1 month to recall their food intake over the previous 24 hours; they also reported their children's (n = 333) food intake. Mothers also completed a questionnaire about “food insecurity,” that is, a lack of access to adequate, nutritious food through socially acceptable means, during each interview. Results Household food insecurity was reported by 78% of mothers during the study month. Mothers' dietary intakes and the adequacy of intake were consistently poorer than their children's intake overall and over the course of a month. The difference in adequacy of intake between mothers and children widened from Time 1, when the family had the most money to purchase food, to Time 4, when the family had the least money. The children experienced some improvement in nutritional intake at Time 3, which was possibly related to food purchases for them associated with receipt of the Child Tax Benefit Credit or the Goods and Services Tax Credit. Interpretation Our study demonstrates that low-income lone mothers compromise their own nutritional intake in order to preserve the adequacy of their children's diets. PMID:12642423

  2. Science on a space elevator

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.; Jorgensen, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe in-situ science stations mounted on a science-dedicated space elevator tether. The concept presented here involves a carbon nanotube ribbon that is constructed by an existing space elevator and then science sensors are stationed along the ribbon at differing altitudes. The finished ribbon can be moved across the earth to the position at which its scientific measurements are to be taken. The ability to station scientific, in-situ instrumentation at different altitudes for round-the-clock observations is a unique capability of the SE. The environments that the science packages sense range from the troposphere out beyond the magnetopause of the magnetosphere on the solar side of the earth. Therefore, the very end of the SE can sense the solar wind. The measurements at various points along its length include temperature, pressure, density, sampling, chemical analyses, wind speed, turbulence, free oxygen, electromagnetic radiation, cosmic rays, energetic particles and plasmas in the earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind. There exist some altitudes that are difficult to access with aircraft or balloons or rockets and so remain relatively unexplored. The space elevator solves these problems and opens these regions up to in-situ measurements. Without the need for propulsion, the SE provides a more benign and pristine environment for atmospheric measurements than available with powered aircraft. Moreover, replacing and upgrading instrumentation is expected to be very cost effective with the SE. Moving and stationing the science SE affords the opportunity to sense multiple regions of the atmosphere. The SE's geosynchronous, orbital motion through the magnetosphere, albeit nominally with Earth's magnetic field, will trace a plane through that region

  3. Acute acetaminophen toxicity in transgenic mice with elevated hepatic glutathione.

    PubMed

    Rzucidlo, S J; Bounous, D I; Jones, D P; Brackett, B G

    2000-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that elevation of hepatic glutathione (GSH) concentrations protect against acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity in mice. Employing transgenic mice overexpressing glutathione synthetase, this study was conducted to determine if sustained elevation of hepatic GSH concentrations could ameliorate or prevent APAP toxicity. International Cancer Research transgenic mouse males and matched (ie same strain, sex, and age) control nontransgenic mice were pretreated ip with GSH synthetase substrate gamma-glutamylcysteinyl ethyl ester (gamma-GCE) or with saline. After a 16-h fast, mice received a single dose of 500 mg APAP/kg bw in saline ip and were sacrificed 4 h later. Other mice similarly pretreated were killed without APAP challenge. The elevated GSH concentrations in transgenic mice livers did not lessen APAP hepatotoxicity. Instead higher degrees of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were observed in transgenic mice than in controls as indicated by higher serum alanine aminotransferase activity and more severe histopathological lesions in transgenic mice livers and kidneys. Pretreatment with gamma-GCE did not affect either initial or post-APAP treatment tissue GSH concentrations or observed degrees of toxicity. Detection of a higher level of serum APAP in transgenic mice and the histopathological lesions found in transgenic mice kidneys together with no observable nephrotoxicity in control mice indicated early kidney damage in transgenic mice. Our findings suggest that high levels of GSH-APAP conjugates resulting from increased GSH concentrations in the livers of transgenic mice caused rapid kidney damage. Compromised excretory ability may have caused retention of APAP, which, in effect, elicited higher hepatotoxicity than that observed in nontransgenic mice.

  4. Metal inks

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

    2014-02-04

    Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

  5. Effects of elevated [CO2] on maize defence against mycotoxigenic Fusarium verticillioides

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Martha M; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A; Dafoe, Nicole J; Christensen, Shawn; Sims, James; Martins, Vitor F; Swerbilow, Jay; Romero, Maritza; Alborn, Hans T; Allen, Leon HARTWELL; Teal, Peter EA

    2014-01-01

    Maize is by quantity the most important C4 cereal crop; however, future climate changes are expected to increase maize susceptibility to mycotoxigenic fungal pathogens and reduce productivity. While rising atmospheric [CO2] is a driving force behind the warmer temperatures and drought, which aggravate fungal disease and mycotoxin accumulation, our understanding of how elevated [CO2] will effect maize defences against such pathogens is limited. Here we report that elevated [CO2] increases maize susceptibility to Fusarium verticillioides proliferation, while mycotoxin levels are unaltered. Fumonisin production is not proportional to the increase in F. verticillioides biomass, and the amount of fumonisin produced per unit pathogen is reduced at elevated [CO2]. Following F. verticillioides stalk inoculation, the accumulation of sugars, free fatty acids, lipoxygenase (LOX) transcripts, phytohormones and downstream phytoalexins is dampened in maize grown at elevated [CO2]. The attenuation of maize 13-LOXs and jasmonic acid production correlates with reduced terpenoid phytoalexins and increased susceptibility. Furthermore, the attenuated induction of 9-LOXs, which have been suggested to stimulate mycotoxin biosynthesis, is consistent with reduced fumonisin per unit fungal biomass at elevated [CO2]. Our findings suggest that elevated [CO2] will compromise maize LOX-dependent signalling, which will influence the interactions between maize and mycotoxigenic fungi. Elevated [CO2] increases maize susceptibility to Fusarium verticillioides proliferation but mycotoxin levels are unaltered. The attenuation of maize 13-LOXs and JA production correlates with reduced terpenoid phytoalexins and increased susceptibility. Furthermore, the attenuated induction of 9-LOXs, which have been suggested to stimulate mycotoxin biosynthesis, is consistent with reduced fumonisin per unit fungal biomass at elevated [CO2]. PMID:24689748

  6. HIV Infection and Compromised Mucosal Immunity: Oral Manifestations and Systemic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Samantha E.; Elahi, Shokrollah

    2017-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces account for the vast majority of HIV transmission. In adults, HIV transmission occurs mainly by vaginal and rectal routes but rarely via oral route. By contrast, pediatric HIV infections could be as the result of oral route by breastfeeding. As such mucosal surfaces play a crucial role in HIV acquisition, and spread of the virus depends on its ability to cross a mucosal barrier. HIV selectively infects, depletes, and/or dysregulates multiple arms of the human immune system particularly at the mucosal sites and causes substantial irreversible damage to the mucosal barriers. This leads to microbial products translocation and subsequently hyper-immune activation. Although introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to significant reduction in morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients, viral replication persists. As a result, antigen presence and immune activation are linked to “inflammaging” that attributes to a pro-inflammatory environment and the accelerated aging process in HIV patients. HIV infection is also associated with the prevalence of oral mucosal infections and dysregulation of oral microbiota, both of which may compromise the oral mucosal immunity of HIV-infected individuals. In addition, impaired oral immunity in HIV infection may predispose the patients to periodontal diseases that are associated with systemic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this review is to examine existing evidence regarding the role of innate and cellular components of the oral cavity in HIV infection and how HIV infection may drive systemic hyper-immune activation in these patients. We will also discuss current knowledge on HIV oral transmission, HIV immunosenescence in relation to the oral mucosal alterations during the course of HIV infection and periodontal disease. Finally, we discuss oral manifestations associated with HIV infection and how HIV infection and ART influence the oral microbiome

  7. Transient inhibition of cell proliferation does not compromise self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruoxing; Guo, Yan-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have unlimited capacity for self-renewal and can differentiate into various cell types when induced. They also have an unusual cell cycle control mechanism driven by constitutively active cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks). In mouse ESCs (mESCs). It is proposed that the rapid cell proliferation could be a necessary part of mechanisms that maintain mESC self-renewal and pluripotency, but this hypothesis is not in line with the finding in human ESCs (hESCs) that the length of the cell cycle is similar to differentiated cells. Therefore, whether rapid cell proliferation is essential for the maintenance of mESC state remains unclear. We provide insight into this uncertainty through chemical intervention of mESC cell cycle. We report here that inhibition of Cdks with olomoucine II can dramatically slow down cell proliferation of mESCs with concurrent down-regulation of cyclin A, B and E, and the activation of the Rb pathway. However, mESCs display can recover upon the removal of olomoucine II and are able to resume normal cell proliferation without losing self-renewal and pluripotency, as demonstrated by the expression of ESC markers, colony formation, embryoid body formation, and induced differentiation. We provide a mechanistic explanation for these observations by demonstrating that Oct4 and Nanog, two major transcription factors that play critical roles in the maintenance of ESC properties, are up-regulated via de novo protein synthesis when the cells are exposed to olomoucine II. Together, our data suggest that short-term inhibition of cell proliferation does not compromise the basic properties of mESCs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of Cdks slows down mESCs proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer mESCs display remarkable recovery capacity from short-term cell cycle interruption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Short-term cell cycle interruption does not compromise mESC self-renewal. Black

  8. Differential pattern of hand-tapping compromise in vascular versus idiopathic parkinsonism: a study based on computerized movement analysis.

    PubMed

    Bäzner, Hansjörg; Schanz, Jurik; Blahak, Christian; Grips, Eva; Wöhrle, Johannes C; Hennerici, Michael

    2005-04-01

    We tested the characteristics and the differential pattern of upper extremity motor compromise, comparing hand tapping in patients with subcortical vascular encephalopathy (SVE; n = 18), idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD; n = 18), and in healthy controls (n = 18). Both patient groups showed significant compromise in hand tapping compared with that in controls, with higher coefficients of variability (CV) regarding tapping amplitude and angular velocity, determined using a computerized movement analysis system. A differential tapping pattern in both patient groups could be demonstrated in that patients with PD showed lower tapping amplitudes than patients with SVE. Both patient groups displayed abnormalities in tapping rhythmicity compared with that in the control group.

  9. Intelligent elevator management system using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, H. Sai; Karunamurthy, Vignesh; Kumar, R. Barath

    2015-03-01

    In the modern era, the increase in the number of shopping malls and industrial building has led to an exponential increase in the usage of elevator systems. Thus there is an increased need for an effective control system to manage the elevator system. This paper is aimed at introducing an effective method to control the movement of the elevators by considering various cases where in the location of the person is found and the elevators are controlled based on various conditions like Load, proximity etc... This method continuously monitors the weight limit of each elevator while also making use of image processing to determine the number of persons waiting for an elevator in respective floors. Canny edge detection technique is used to find out the number of persons waiting for an elevator. Hence the algorithm takes a lot of cases into account and locates the correct elevator to service the respective persons waiting in different floors.

  10. METAL PHTHALOCYANINES

    DOEpatents

    Frigerio, N.A.

    1962-03-27

    A process is given for preparing heavy metal phthalocyanines, sulfonated or not. The process comprises mixing an inorganic metal salt with dimethyl formamide or methyl sulfoxide; separating the metal complex formed from the solution; mixing the complex with an equimolar amount of sodium, potassium, lithium, magnesium, or beryllium sulfonated or unsulfonated phthalocyanine whereby heavy-metal phthalocyanine crystals are formed; and separating the crystals from the solution. Uranyl, thorium, lead, hafnium, and lanthanide rare earth phthalocyanines can be produced by the process. (AEC)

  11. Increased cerebral matrix metalloprotease-9 activity is associated with compromised recovery in the diabetic db/db mouse following a stroke.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Rashmi; Willing, Lisa B; Patel, Shyama D; Baskerville, Karen A; Simpson, Ian A

    2011-12-01

    Diabetes is a major risk factor of stroke and is associated with increased frequency of stroke and a poorer prognosis for recovery. In earlier studies we have utilized type 2 diabetic mouse models of stroke and demonstrated that diabetic db/db and ob/ob mice experience larger infarct volumes and impaired recovery associated with greater infiltration of macrophage following hypoxic-ischemic (H/I) insult than their heterozygous non-diabetic db/+ and ob/+ littermates. To obtain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the impaired recovery, we have investigated the role of matrix metalloproteases and their endogenous inhibitors in the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following H/I. Diabetic db/db mice showed a significant and more rapid increase in matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9 mRNA, protein and gelatinolytic activity compared with db/+, which resulted in an increased degradation of occludin and collagen IV and subsequently, an increased BBB permeability and greater infiltration of neutrophils into the infarct area. The expression of the MMPs, especially in the db/+ mice, is preceded by an elevated expression of their endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs) 1, 2, and 3, whereas in the db/db mice, a lower expression of the TIMPs is associated with greater MMP 3 and 9 expression. These results suggest that an imbalance in the MMPs/TIMPs cascade in the diabetic mouse, particularly MMP-9, results in a greater neutrophil invasion, a compromised BBB and consequently a greater insult.

  12. Silicone metalization

    SciTech Connect

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  13. Silicone metalization

    SciTech Connect

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2006-12-05

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  14. The oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussner, H G; Schwartz, I

    1941-01-01

    The two-dimensional problem of the oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator is treated in the manner that the wing is replaced by a plate with bends and stages and the airfoil section by a mean line consisting of one or more straights. The computed formulas and tables permit, on these premises, the prediction of the pressure distribution and of the aerodynamic reactions of oscillating elevators and tabs with any position of elevator hinge in respect to elevator leading edge.

  15. Abnormal splicing switch of DMD's penultimate exon compromises muscle fibre maintenance in myotonic dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Frédérique; Lainé, Jeanne; Ramanoudjame, Laetitita; Ferry, Arnaud; Arandel, Ludovic; Delalande, Olivier; Jollet, Arnaud; Dingli, Florent; Lee, Kuang-Yung; Peccate, Cécile; Lorain, Stéphanie; Kabashi, Edor; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Koo, Taeyoung; Loew, Damarys; Swanson, Maurice S.; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Dickson, George; Allamand, Valérie; Marie, Joëlle; Furling, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a dominant neuromuscular disease caused by nuclear-retained RNAs containing expanded CUG repeats. These toxic RNAs alter the activities of RNA splicing factors resulting in alternative splicing misregulation and muscular dysfunction. Here we show that the abnormal splicing of DMD exon 78 found in dystrophic muscles of DM1 patients is due to the functional loss of MBNL1 and leads to the re-expression of an embryonic dystrophin in place of the adult isoform. Forced expression of embryonic dystrophin in zebrafish using an exon-skipping approach severely impairs the mobility and muscle architecture. Moreover, reproducing Dmd exon 78 missplicing switch in mice induces muscle fibre remodelling and ultrastructural abnormalities including ringed fibres, sarcoplasmic masses or Z-band disorganization, which are characteristic features of dystrophic DM1 skeletal muscles. Thus, we propose that splicing misregulation of DMD exon 78 compromises muscle fibre maintenance and contributes to the progressive dystrophic process in DM1. PMID:26018658

  16. Protozoan predation in soil slurries compromises determination of contaminant mineralization potential.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R; Brandt, Kristian K; Sørensen, Jan; Aamand, Jens

    2012-11-01

    Soil suspensions (slurries) are commonly used to estimate the potential of soil microbial communities to mineralize organic contaminants. The preparation of soil slurries disrupts soil structure, however, potentially affecting both the bacterial populations and their protozoan predators. We studied the importance of this "slurry effect" on mineralization of the herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, (14)C-labelled), focussing on the effects of protozoan predation. Mineralization of MCPA was studied in "intact" soil and soil slurries differing in soil:water ratio, both in the presence and absence of the protozoan activity inhibitor cycloheximide. Protozoan predation inhibited mineralization in dense slurry of subsoil (soil:water ratio 1:3), but only in the most dilute slurry of topsoil (soil:water ratio 1:100). Our results demonstrate that protozoan predation in soil slurries may compromise quantification of contaminant mineralization potential, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low and their growth is controlled by predation during the incubation period.

  17. Siphon regeneration capacity is compromised during aging in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, William R

    2012-01-01

    The ascidian Ciona intestinalis has a short life span and powerful regeneration capacities. The regeneration of the oral siphon (OS) involves wound healing, blastema formation, cell proliferation, and replacement of 8 oral pigment organs (OPO), the latter via differentiation and migration of stem/precursor cells from localized niches in the siphon. The restoration of OPO pattern during OS regeneration occurs with a high degree of accuracy through three successive cycles of amputation. It is shown here that oral siphons of the largest and oldest members of a wild Ciona population do not completely regenerate their siphons after amputation. The loss of regeneration capacity was accompanied by reduced cell proliferation. In contrast to arrested OS outgrowth, the stem/precursor cells responsible for OPO replacement "over-differentiate" after OS amputation in the oldest animals, the typical number of OPO is increased from 8 to 12-16, and malformed OPO are produced. Also in contrast to younger animals, the oldest animals of the population show arrested OPO development after two consecutive cycles of amputation and regeneration. We conclude that there is a size and age threshold in Ciona after which the regenerative capacity of the OS is compromised due to effects of aging on cell proliferation.

  18. Increased Dynamic Effects in a Catalytically Compromised Variant of Escherichia coli Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Isotopic substitution (15N, 13C, 2H) of a catalytically compromised variant of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase, EcDHFR-N23PP/S148A, has been used to investigate the effect of these mutations on catalysis. The reduction of the rate constant of the chemical step in the EcDHFR-N23PP/S148A catalyzed reaction is essentially a consequence of an increase of the quasi-classical free energy barrier and to a minor extent of an increased number of recrossing trajectories on the transition state dividing surface. Since the variant enzyme is less well set up to catalyze the reaction, a higher degree of active site reorganization is needed to reach the TS. Although millisecond active site motions are lost in the variant, there is greater flexibility on the femtosecond time scale. The “dynamic knockout” EcDHFR-N23PP/S148A is therefore a “dynamic knock-in” at the level of the chemical step, and the increased dynamic coupling to the chemical coordinate is in fact detrimental to catalysis. This finding is most likely applicable not just to hydrogen transfer in EcDHFR but also to other enzymatic systems. PMID:24252106

  19. Compromised fronto-striatal functioning in HIV: an fMRI investigation of semantic event sequencing.

    PubMed

    Melrose, Rebecca J; Tinaz, Sule; Castelo, J Mimi Boer; Courtney, Maureen G; Stern, Chantal E

    2008-04-09

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) damages fronto-striatal regions, and is associated with deficits in executive functioning. We recently developed a semantic event sequencing task based on the Picture Arrangement subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III for use with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and found recruitment of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia in healthy participants. To assess the impact of HIV on the functioning of the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex, we administered this task to 11 HIV+ and 11 Control participants matched for age and education. Neuropsychological evaluation demonstrated that the HIV+ group had mild impairment in memory retrieval and motor functioning, but was not demented. Morphometric measurements suggested no atrophy in basal ganglia regions. The results of the fMRI analysis revealed hypoactivation of the left caudate, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and bilateral ventral prefrontal cortex in the HIV+ group. Functional connectivity analysis demonstrated less functional connectivity between the caudate and prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia regions in the HIV+ group. In contrast, the HIV+ group demonstrated increased activation of right postcentral/supramarginal gyrus, and greater connectivity between the caudate and this same anterior parietal region. The results of this study extend previous investigations by demonstrating compromised function of the caudate and connected prefrontal regions in HIV during cognition. This disruption of fronto-striatal circuitry likely precedes the development of cognitive impairment in HIV.

  20. Loss of CARD9-mediated innate activation attenuates severe influenza pneumonia without compromising host viral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Uematsu, Takayuki; Iizasa, Ei’ichi; Kobayashi, Noritada; Yoshida, Hiroki; Hara, Hiromitsu

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) infection is a common cause of severe viral pneumonia associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is difficult to control with general immunosuppressive therapy including corticosteroids due to the unfavorable effect on viral replication. Studies have suggested that the excessive activation of the innate immunity by IFV is responsible for severe pathologies. In this study, we focused on CARD9, a signaling adaptor known to regulate innate immune activation through multiple innate sensor proteins, and investigated its role in anti-IFV defense and lung pathogenesis in a mouse model recapitulating severe influenza pneumonia with ARDS. We found that influenza pneumonia was dramatically attenuated in Card9-deficient mice, which showed improved mortality with reduced inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the infected lungs. However, viral clearance, type-I interferon production, and the development of anti-viral B and T cell immunity were not compromised by CARD9 deficiency. Syk or CARD9-deficient DCs but not macrophages showed impaired cytokine but not type-I interferon production in response to IFV in vitro, indicating a possible role for the Syk-CARD9 pathway in DCs in excessive inflammation of IFV-infected lungs. Therefore, inhibition of this pathway is an ideal therapeutic target for severe influenza pneumonia without affecting viral clearance. PMID:26627732

  1. 3-bromopyruvate inhibits glycolysis, depletes cellular glutathione, and compromises the viability of cultured primary rat astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ehrke, Eric; Arend, Christian; Dringen, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    The pyruvate analogue 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an electrophilic alkylator that is considered a promising anticancer drug because it has been shown to kill cancer cells efficiently while having little toxic effect on nontumor cells. To test for potential adverse effects of 3-BP on brain cells, we exposed cultured primary rat astrocytes to 3-BP and investigated the effects of this compound on cell viability, glucose metabolism, and glutathione (GSH) content. The presence of 3-BP severely compromised cell viability and slowed cellular glucose consumption and lactate production in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal effects observed at about 100 µM 3-BP after 4 hr of incubation. The cellular hexokinase activity was not affected in 3-BP-treated astrocytes, whereas within 30 min after application of 3-BP the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was inhibited, and cellular GSH content was depleted in a concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal effects observed at about 30 µM 3-BP. The depletion of cellular GSH after exposure to 100 µM 3-BP was not prevented by the presence of 10 mM of the monocarboxylates lactate or pyruvate, suggesting that 3-BP is not taken up into astrocytes predominantly by monocarboxylate transporters. The data suggest that inhibition of glycolysis by inactivation of GAPDH and GSH depletion contributes to the toxicity that was observed for 3-BP-treated cultured astrocytes.

  2. Diuretics prevent thiazolidinedione-induced cardiac hypertrophy without compromising insulin-sensitizing effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cherng-Shyang; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Sung, Junne-Ming; Chen, Ju-Yi; Ho, Li-Chun; Pandya, Kumar; Maeda, Nobuyo; Tsai, Yau-Sheng

    2014-02-01

    Much concern has arisen regarding critical adverse effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs), including rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, on cardiac tissue. Although TZD-induced cardiac hypertrophy (CH) has been attributed to an increase in plasma volume or a change in cardiac nutrient preference, causative roles have not been established. To test the hypothesis that volume expansion directly mediates rosiglitazone-induced CH, mice were fed a high-fat diet with rosiglitazone, and cardiac and metabolic consequences were examined. Rosiglitazone treatment induced volume expansion and CH in wild-type and PPARγ heterozygous knockout (Pparg(+/-)) mice, but not in mice defective for ligand binding (Pparg(P465L/+)). Cotreatment with the diuretic furosemide in wild-type mice attenuated rosiglitazone-induced CH, hypertrophic gene reprogramming, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, hypertrophy-related signal activation, and left ventricular dysfunction. Similar changes were observed in mice treated with pioglitazone. The diuretics spironolactone and trichlormethiazide, but not amiloride, attenuated rosiglitazone effects on volume expansion and CH. Interestingly, expression of glucose and lipid metabolism genes in the heart was altered by rosiglitazone, but these changes were not attenuated by furosemide cotreatment. Importantly, rosiglitazone-mediated whole-body metabolic improvements were not affected by furosemide cotreatment. We conclude that releasing plasma volume reduces adverse effects of TZD-induced volume expansion and cardiac events without compromising TZD actions in metabolic switch in the heart and whole-body insulin sensitivity.

  3. Siphon Regeneration Capacity is Compromised During Aging in the Ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, William R.

    2012-01-01

    The ascidian Ciona intestinalis has a short life span and powerful regeneration capacities. The regeneration of the oral siphon (OS) involves wound healing, blastema formation, cell proliferation, and replacement of eight oral pigment organs (OPO), the latter via differentiation and migration of stem/precursor cells from localized siphon niches in the siphon. The restoration of OPO pattern during OS regeneration occurs with a high degree of accuracy through three successive cycles of amputation. It is shown here that oral siphons of the largest and oldest members of a wild Ciona population do not completely regenerate their siphons after amputation. The loss of regeneration capacity was accompanied by reduced cell proliferation. In contrast to arrested OS outgrowth, the stem/precursor cells responsible for OPO replacement “over-differentiate” after OS amputation in the oldest animals, the typical number of OPO is increased from eight to twelve-sixteen, and malformed OPO are produced. Also in contrast to younger animals, the oldest animals of the population show arrested OPO development after two consecutive cycles of amputation and regeneration. We conclude that there is a size and age threshold in Ciona after which the regenerative capacity of the OS is compromised due to effects of aging on cell proliferation. PMID:22935550

  4. A Person-Centered Analysis of Risk Factors that Compromise Wellbeing in Emerging Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Newcomb-Anjo, Sarah E; Barker, Erin T; Howard, Andrea L

    2016-11-08

    The transition to adulthood is a major life course transition that can pose risk to wellbeing. Research is needed to identify patterns of risk for compromised wellbeing, in order to best identify supports for individuals during this potentially vulnerable transition. The purpose of this study was to identify profiles of risk in an emerging adulthood sample, and to relate these profiles to mental health and subjective and academic wellbeing. Undergraduate emerging adults (N = 903, 82 % female), aged 18-25 years (M = 21.14, SD = 1.75), completed a series of questionnaires about risk factors, mental health, and academic variables. Results from a latent profile analysis identified four distinct risk profiles: Low Risk (76 %), Low Social Support Risk (4 %), Financial Risk (11 %), and Multiple Risk (8 %). The risk profiles were subsequently related to mental health and subjective and academic wellbeing outcomes, using a pseudo-class draws approach. Analyses indicated that the risk-pattern profiles differed in several ways across outcomes. Implications for targeted interventions are discussed.

  5. Effect of low-level laser therapy on repair of the bone compromised by radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Batista, Jonas D; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny; Cardoso, Sérgio V; Dechichi, Paula; Rocha, Flaviana S; Pagnoncelli, Rogério M

    2014-11-01

    Radiotherapy (RDT) is commonly used for cancer treatment, but high doses of ionizing radiation can directly affect healthy tissues. Positive biological effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone repair have been demonstrated; however, this effect on surgical defects of bone previously compromised by radiotherapy has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of LLLT (λ = 830 nm) in femur repair after ionizing radiation. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group (GC, n = 5) creation of bone defects (BDs) only; laser group (GL), with BD and LLLT (n = 5); radiotherapy group (GR), submitted to RDT and BD (n = 5); and radiotherapy and laser group (GRL), submitted to RDT, BD, and LLLT (n = 5). GL and GRL received punctual laser application (DE = 210 J/cm(2), P = 50 mW, t = 120 s, and beam diameter of 0.04 cm(2)) immediately after surgery, with 48-h interval during 7 days. Animals were euthanized at 7 days after surgery, and bone sections were evaluated morphometrically with conventional microscopy. Bone repair was only observed in nonirradiated bone, with significant improvement in GL in comparison to GC. GR and GRL did not present any bone neoformation. The result demonstrated a positive local biostimulative effect of LLLT in normal bone. However, LLLT was not able to revert the bone metabolic damage due to ionizing radiation.

  6. Inflammation-induced desmoglein-2 ectodomain shedding compromises the mucosal barrier

    PubMed Central

    Kamekura, Ryuta; Nava, Porfirio; Feng, Mingli; Quiros, Miguel; Nishio, Hikaru; Weber, Dominique A.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2015-01-01

    Desmosomal cadherins mediate intercellular adhesion and control epithelial homeostasis. Recent studies show that proteinases play an important role in the pathobiology of cancer by targeting epithelial intercellular junction proteins such as cadherins. Here we describe the proinflammatory cytokine-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain–containing protein 10, which promote the shedding of desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-2 (Dsg2) ectodomains in intestinal epithelial cells. Epithelial exposure to Dsg2 ectodomains compromises intercellular adhesion by promoting the relocalization of endogenous Dsg2 and E-cadherin from the plasma membrane while also promoting proliferation by activation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/3 signaling. Cadherin ectodomains were detected in the inflamed intestinal mucosa of mice with colitis and patients with ulcerative colitis. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel response pathway in which inflammation-induced modification of columnar epithelial cell cadherins decreases intercellular adhesion while enhancing cellular proliferation, which may serve as a compensatory mechanism to promote repair. PMID:26224314

  7. Clavicle fracture with thoracic penetration and hemopneumothorax but without neurovascular compromise.

    PubMed

    Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Matzon, Jonas L; Williams, Gerald R

    2011-10-05

    Clavicle fractures are rarely associated with more severe neurologic or vascular injuries. When these associated injuries are encountered, prompt recognition and treatment are paramount to optimize outcome. The majority of fractures that result in neurovascular compromise are from high-energy trauma; however, a high index of suspicion should be present in all cases as low-energy trauma can also result in more catastrophic injury. This article describes a case of a low-energy clavicle fracture in a 28-year-old woman that resulted in intrathoracic penetration of the fracture fragment with hemopneumothorax. The patient underwent successful chest tube placement and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture. A multidisciplinary team was used during surgery, including cardiothoracic, trauma, and orthopedic surgery. Two years postoperatively, the patient was back to normal activities with no neurologic, pulmonary, or vascular sequelae. This case highlights the importance of a comprehensive physical examination and inspection of all radiographs so that associated injuries are not missed.

  8. Respect in forensic psychiatric nurse-patient relationships: a practical compromise.

    PubMed

    Rose, Donald N; Peter, Elizabeth; Gallop, Ruth; Angus, Jan E; Liaschenko, Joan

    2011-03-01

    The context of forensic psychiatric nursing is distinct from other psychiatric settings as, it involves placement of patients in secure environments with restrictions determined by the courts. Previous literature has identified that nurses morally struggle with respecting patients who have committed heinous offences, which can lead to the patient being depersonalized and dehumanized. Although respect is fundamental to ethical nursing practice, it has not been adequately explored conceptually or empirically. As a result, little knowledge exists that identifies how nurses develop, maintain, and express respect for patients. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concept of respect systematically, from a forensic psychiatric nurse's perspective using the qualitative methodology of focused ethnography. Forensic psychiatric nurses were recruited from two medium secure forensic rehabilitation units. In the first interview, 13 registered nurses (RNs) and two registered practical nurses (RPNs) participated, and although all informants were invited to the second interview, six RNs were lost to follow-up. Despite this loss, saturation was achieved and the data were interpreted through a feminist philosophical lens. Respect was influenced by factors categorized into four themes: (1) emotive-cognitive reactions, (2) nonjudgmental approach, (3) social identity and power, and (4) context. The data from the themes indicate that forensic psychiatric nurses strike a practical compromise, in their understanding and enactment of respect in therapeutic relationships with forensic psychiatric patients.

  9. Neural Evidence for Compromised Motor Imagery in Right Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    van Elk, Michiel; Crajé, Celine; Beeren, Manuela E. G. V.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Schie, Hein T.; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    In the present event-related potential (ERP) study we investigated the neural and temporal dynamics of motor imagery in participants with right-sided hemiparetic cerebral palsy (HCP; n = 10) and in left-handed control participants (n = 10). A mental rotation task was used in which participants were required to judge the laterality of hand pictures. At a behavioral level participants with HCP were slower in making hand laterality judgments compared to control subjects, especially when presented with pictures representing the affected hand. At a neural level, individuals with HCP were characterized by a reduced rotation-related negativity (RRN) over parietal areas, that was delayed in onset with respect to control participants. Interestingly, participants that were relatively mildly impaired showed a stronger RRN for the rotation of right-hand stimuli than participants that were more strongly impaired in their motor function, suggesting a direct relation between the motor imagery process and the biomechanical constraints of the participant. Together, the results provide new insights in the relation between motor imagery and motor capabilities and indicate that participants with HCP may be characterized by a compromised ability to use motor imagery. PMID:21206766

  10. Optimizing Maxillary Aesthetics of a Severe Compromised Tooth through Orthodontic Movement and Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; Capelozza-Filho, Leopoldino; Borelli Barros, Luiz Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of severe compromised tooth in the maxillary anterior area still poses great challenge to the clinicians. Several treatment modalities have been proposed to restore the function and aesthetics in teeth with advanced periodontal disease. The present study aims to report a case of traumatic injury of a left-maxillary central incisor with ridge preservation, orthodontic movement, and implant therapy. A 45-year-old woman underwent the proposed treatment for her left central incisor: basic periodontal therapy, xenogenous bone graft, and guided bone regeneration (GBR). Six months after the graft procedure, orthodontic movement by means of alignment and leveling was made and a coronal displacement of the gingival margin and vertical bone apposition could be observed after 13 months of active movement. Afterwards, a dental implant was placed followed by a connective tissue graft and immediate provisionalization of the crown. In conclusion, orthodontic movement was effective to improve the gingival tissue and alveolar bone prior to implant placement favoring the aesthetic results. Six years postoperatively, the results revealed height and width alveolar bone gain indicating that the treatment proposed was able to restore all the functional and aesthetic parameters. PMID:24523969

  11. 'Compromise' in Echolocation Calls between Different Colonies of the Intermediate Leaf-Nosed Bat (Hipposideros larvatus).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Liu, Qi; Su, Qianqian; Sun, Yunxiao; Peng, Xingwen; He, Xiangyang; Zhang, Libiao

    2016-01-01

    Each animal population has its own acoustic signature which facilitates identification, communication and reproduction. The sonar signals of bats can convey social information, such as species identity and contextual information. The goal of this study was to determine whether bats adjust their echolocation call structures to mutually recognize and communicate when they encounter the bats from different colonies. We used the intermediate leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros larvatus) as a case study to investigate the variations of echolocation calls when bats from one colony were introduced singly into the home cage of a new colony or two bats from different colonies were cohabitated together for one month. Our experiments showed that the single bat individual altered its peak frequency of echolocation calls to approach the call of new colony members and two bats from different colonies adjusted their call frequencies toward each other to a similar frequency after being chronically cohabitated. These results indicate that the 'compromise' in echolocation calls might be used to ensure effective mutual communication among bats.

  12. 2016 Rio Olympic Games: Can the schedule of events compromise athletes' performance?

    PubMed

    Rosa, João Paulo P; Rodrigues, Dayane F; Silva, Andressa; de Moura Simim, Mário Antônio; Costa, Varley T; Noce, Franco; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The organizing committee of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games recently announced that some of the preliminary and final competitions will be held at night. The present article discusses the potential harmful effects of these late-night competitions on sleep, circadian rhythms and athletic performance during the Olympic Games. Specifically, night-time competition could lead to injury and may compromise an athlete's decision-making, attentional, physiological and other processes. Consequently, these impacts could negatively affect the performance of athletes and their teams. Thus, it is suggested that technical commissions take special care when creating strategies to minimize harm to the athletes by considering factors such as light exposure, melatonin intake, sleep hygiene and scheduled naps, and training at local competition time. Furthermore, it is necessary for specialists in chronobiology and sleep to engage with members of the national teams to develop an activity schedule for physical, technical, tactical and psychological preparation that accounts for circadian rhythms, thereby creating the best possible environment for the athletes to achieve their ideal performance.

  13. A peptide-retrieval strategy enables significant improvement of quantitative performance without compromising confidence of identification.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chengjian; Shen, Shichen; Sheng, Quanhu; Shyr, Yu; Qu, Jun

    2017-01-30

    Reliable quantification of low-abundance proteins in complex proteomes is challenging largely owing to the limited number of spectra/peptides identified. In this study we developed a straightforward method to improve the quantitative accuracy and precision of proteins by strategically retrieving the less confident peptides that were previously filtered out using the standard target-decoy search strategy. The filtered-out MS/MS spectra matched to confidently-identified proteins were recovered, and the peptide-spectrum-match FDR were re-calculated and controlled at a confident level of FDR≤1%, while protein FDR maintained at ~1%. We evaluated the performance of this strategy in both spectral count- and ion current-based methods. >60% increase of total quantified spectra/peptides was respectively achieved for analyzing a spike-in sample set and a public dataset from CPTAC. Incorporating the peptide retrieval strategy significantly improved the quantitative accuracy and precision, especially for low-abundance proteins (e.g. one-hit proteins). Moreover, the capacity of confidently discovering significantly-altered proteins was also enhanced substantially, as demonstrated with two spike-in datasets. In summary, improved quantitative performance was achieved by this peptide recovery strategy without compromising confidence of protein identification, which can be readily implemented in a broad range of quantitative proteomics techniques including label-free or labeling approaches.

  14. Generation of DNA single-strand displacement by compromised nucleotide excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Godon, Camille; Mourgues, Sophie; Nonnekens, Julie; Mourcet, Amandine; Coin, Fréderic; Vermeulen, Wim; Mari, Pierre-Olivier; Giglia-Mari, Giuseppina

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a precisely coordinated process essential to avoid DNA damage-induced cellular malfunction and mutagenesis. Here, we investigate the mechanistic details and effects of the NER machinery when it is compromised by a pathologically significant mutation in a subunit of the repair/transcription factor TFIIH, namely XPD. In contrast to previous studies, we find that no single- or double-strand DNA breaks are produced at early time points after UV irradiation of cells bearing a specific XPD mutation, despite the presence of a clear histone H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX) signal in the UV-exposed areas. We show that the observed γH2AX signal can be explained by the presence of longer single-strand gaps possibly generated by strand displacement. Our in vivo measurements also indicate a strongly reduced TFIIH-XPG binding that could promote single-strand displacement at the site of UV lesions. This finding not only highlights the crucial role of XPG's interactions with TFIIH for proper NER, but also sheds new light on how a faulty DNA repair process can induce extreme genomic instability in human patients. PMID:22863773

  15. SEMA4D compromises blood-brain barrier, activates microglia, and inhibits remyelination in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ernest S; Jonason, Alan; Reilly, Christine; Veeraraghavan, Janaki; Fisher, Terrence; Doherty, Michael; Klimatcheva, Ekaterina; Mallow, Crystal; Cornelius, Chad; Leonard, John E; Marchi, Nicola; Janigro, Damir; Argaw, Azeb Tadesse; Pham, Trinh; Seils, Jennifer; Bussler, Holm; Torno, Sebold; Kirk, Renee; Howell, Alan; Evans, Elizabeth E; Paris, Mark; Bowers, William J; John, Gareth; Zauderer, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuroinflammatory disease characterized by immune cell infiltration of CNS, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, localized myelin destruction, and progressive neuronal degeneration. There exists a significant need to identify novel therapeutic targets and strategies that effectively and safely disrupt and even reverse disease pathophysiology. Signaling cascades initiated by semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D) induce glial activation, neuronal process collapse, inhibit migration and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and disrupt endothelial tight junctions forming the BBB. To target SEMA4D, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognizes mouse, rat, monkey and human SEMA4D with high affinity and blocks interaction between SEMA4D and its cognate receptors. In vitro, anti-SEMA4D reverses the inhibitory effects of recombinant SEMA4D on OPC survival and differentiation. In vivo, anti-SEMA4D significantly attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in multiple rodent models by preserving BBB integrity and axonal myelination and can be shown to promote migration of OPC to the site of lesions and improve myelin status following chemically-induced demyelination. Our study underscores SEMA4D as a key factor in CNS disease and supports the further development of antibody-based inhibition of SEMA4D as a novel therapeutic strategy for MS and other neurologic diseases with evidence of demyelination and/or compromise to the neurovascular unit.

  16. Compromised virus-induced gene silencing in RDR6-deficient plants.

    PubMed

    Vaistij, Fabián E; Jones, Louise

    2009-03-01

    RNA silencing in plants serves as a potent antiviral defense mechanism through the action of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which direct RNA degradation. siRNAs can be derived directly from the viral genome or via the action of host-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs). Plant genomes encode multiple RDRs, and it has been demonstrated that plants defective for RDR6 hyperaccumulate several classes of virus. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) in wild-type and RDR6-deficient Nicotiana benthamiana plants. For the potexvirus Potato virus X (PVX) and the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV), the efficiency of both VIGS and RdDM were compromised in RDR6-defective plants despite accumulating high levels of viral siRNAs similar to infection of wild-type plants. The reduced efficiency of VIGS and RdDM was unrelated to the size class of siRNA produced and, at least for PVX, was not dependent on the presence of the virus-encoded silencing suppressor protein, 25K. We suggest that primary siRNAs produced from PVX and PPV in the absence of RDR6 may not be good effectors of silencing and that RDR6 is required to produce secondary siRNAs that drive a more effective antiviral response.

  17. Contralateral Abdominal Pocketing in Salvation of Replanted Fingertips with Compromised Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Hyung-Sup; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pocketing is one of the most useful methods in salvation of compromised replanted fingertips. Abdominal pocketing has generally been performed in the ipsilateral lower abdominal quadrant, but we have also performed contralateral pocketing at our institute. To determine which approach is more beneficial, a total of 40 patients underwent an abdominal pocketing procedure in either the ipsilateral or contralateral lower abdominal quadrant after fingertip replantation. Dates of abdominal pocketing after initial replantation, detachment after abdominal pocketing, range of motion (ROM) before abdominal pocketing, and sequential ROM after the detachment operation and date of full ROM recovery and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH) score were recorded through medical chart review. Mean detachment date, mean abduction of shoulder after the detachment operation, and mean days to return to full ROM were not significantly different between the ipsilateral and contralateral pocketing groups. However, the mean DASH score was significantly lower in the contralateral group than the ipsilateral group. There were also fewer postoperative wound complications in the contralateral group than in the ipsilateral group. We, therefore, recommend contralateral abdominal pocketing rather than ipsilateral abdominal pocketing to increase patient comfort and reduce pain and complications. PMID:25379539

  18. Contralateral abdominal pocketing in salvation of replanted fingertips with compromised circulation.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyung-Sup; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pocketing is one of the most useful methods in salvation of compromised replanted fingertips. Abdominal pocketing has generally been performed in the ipsilateral lower abdominal quadrant, but we have also performed contralateral pocketing at our institute. To determine which approach is more beneficial, a total of 40 patients underwent an abdominal pocketing procedure in either the ipsilateral or contralateral lower abdominal quadrant after fingertip replantation. Dates of abdominal pocketing after initial replantation, detachment after abdominal pocketing, range of motion (ROM) before abdominal pocketing, and sequential ROM after the detachment operation and date of full ROM recovery and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH) score were recorded through medical chart review. Mean detachment date, mean abduction of shoulder after the detachment operation, and mean days to return to full ROM were not significantly different between the ipsilateral and contralateral pocketing groups. However, the mean DASH score was significantly lower in the contralateral group than the ipsilateral group. There were also fewer postoperative wound complications in the contralateral group than in the ipsilateral group. We, therefore, recommend contralateral abdominal pocketing rather than ipsilateral abdominal pocketing to increase patient comfort and reduce pain and complications.

  19. ["Need-driven-dementia-compromised-behavior" model and "gentle care" as answer to Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Gallese, Giulia; Stobbione, Tiziana

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by a progressive cognitive, behavioural and functional decline which determines ability loss. With the gradual aging of the population, Alzheimer's disease is becoming a major health and social problem which involves not only the individuals but also their whole family. The aim of this study is to identify the most important needs of patients and to suggest interventions to manage it at home, according to the pattern of Gentle Care. Care needs of Alzheimer's disease patients have been investigated, through the use of semi-structured interview of caregivers who take care of loved ones at home. The survey has been carried out through the use of a data collection tool proposed in the conceptual model of nursing "Need-driven Dementia-compromised Behaviour Model", validated and tested in the United States. Data highlights an high degree of patient dependence from their caregiver for numerous activities of daily living. Interviews show a poor level of information and lack of support from professionals who can help caregivers in their everyday life. On the basis of the data gathered, a number of care interventions, which seams as the most appropriate in order to best take care of patients, were identified. Moreover, main needs of family caregivers were also identified, they need more information and support with respect to caregiving responsibilities.

  20. Reduction of tissue injury without compromising stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Auge, Brian; Preminger, Glenn M.; Zhong, Pei

    2002-05-01

    To ameliorate vascular injury without compromising stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy, we have recently developed an in situ pulse superposition technique to suppress large intraluminal bubble expansion [Zhong and Zhou, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 3283-3291 (2001)]. This strategy was implemented using a simple modification of a HM-3 lithotripter reflector. In this work, further optimization of the reflector geometry was carried out based on theoretical analysis and in vitro pressure waveform measurements using a fiber optical hydrophone. Using the upgraded reflector, no rupture of a cellulose hollow fiber (i.d.=0.2 mm) vessel phantom could be observed around the lithotripter beam focus even after 200 shocks at 24 kV. In comparison, less than 50 shocks were needed to cause a rupture of the vessel phantom using the original reflector at 20 kV. At corresponding output settings, stone comminution is comparable between the two reflector configurations, although the size of the fragments produced by the upgraded reflector is slightly larger. In addition, preliminary results from animal studies have demonstrated a significant reduction in tissue injury using the upgraded reflector, which confirms the validity of this approach in vivo. [Work supported by NIH.

  1. Bioactive bilayered dressing for compromised epidermal tissue regeneration with sequential activity of complementary agents.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Ortega, Felisa; Cifuentes, Alberto; Rodríguez, Gema; Aguilar, María Rosa; González-Gómez, Álvaro; Solis, Raul; García-Honduvilla, Natalio; Buján, Julia; García-Sanmartin, Josune; Martínez, Alfredo; Román, Julio San

    2015-09-01

    The article deals with the design, preparation, and evaluation of a new bilayered dressing for application in the healing of compromised wounds. The system is based on the sequential release of two complementary bioactive components to enhance the activation of the regeneration of dermal tissue. The internal layer is a highly hydrophilic and biodegradable film of gelatin and hyaluronic acid (HG), crosslinked with the natural compound genipin, which reacts with the amine groups of gelatin. This film is loaded with the proangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial peptide, proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP), that is released slowly in the wound site. The external layer, more stable and less hydrophilic, is constituted by a biodegradable polyurethane derived from poly(caprolactone) and pluronic L61. This layer is loaded with resorbable nanoparticles of bemiparin (a fractionated low molecular weight heparin), which promotes the activation of growth factors, FGF and VEGF, and provides a good biomechanical stability and controlled permeability of the bilayered dressing. Experiments carried out in mice demonstrate the excellent angiogenic effect of the HG film in the dermal tissue. Application of the bilayered dressing in the wound healing rabbit ear model shows an improved cicatrization of the wound in both ischemic and non-ischemic defects, favoring epithelialization and reducing noticeably the contraction and the inflammation.

  2. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) spermatozoon decondensation in vitro is not compromised by cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Rebecca E; Huang, Yan; Howard, Jo Gayle; Wang, Peng Yan; Zhang, Hemin; Zhang, Guiquan; Wildt, David E

    2006-01-01

    Natural breeding of giant pandas in captivity is compromised, making artificial insemination and spermatozoa cryopreservation essential for genetic management. This study examined the influence of freeze-thawing on traditional parameters such as motility and spermatozoon functionality, specifically decondensation in vitro. Giant panda spermatozoa were assessed before and after rapid cryopreservation (4 degrees C to -130 degrees C over 2 min) in liquid nitrogen vapour. Spermatozoa pre-incubated in medium for 6 h were co-incubated with cat zonae (2 zonae microL(-1)) for 30 min to effect capacitation and an acrosome reaction. Spermatozoa were then mixed with mature cat oocyte cytoplasm (2 cytoplasm microL(-1)) for 4 h and evaluated for decondensation. Frozen spermatozoa were less motile (P < 0.05) than fresh counterparts immediately post-thawing, but not after 6 h incubation. There were more (P < 0.05) spermatozoa with completely diffused chromatin post-thaw (10.4 +/- 1.3%; mean +/- s.e.m.) compared to fresh counterparts (5.1 +/- 1.0%). However, there was no overall difference (P > 0.05) in the incidence of decondensation between fresh (4 h, 69.8 +/- 5.9%) and thawed (4 h, 71.5 +/- 4.9%) spermatozoa after exposure to cat oocyte cytoplasm. It is concluded that the 'rapid' method now used to cryopreserve giant panda spermatozoa has little impact on spermatozoon decondensation.

  3. Food security: the challenge of increasing wheat yield and the importance of not compromising food safety

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, T; Halford, N G

    2014-01-01

    Current wheat yield and consumption is considered in the context of the historical development of wheat, from early domestication through to modern plant breeding, the Green Revolution and wheat’s place as one of the world’s most productive and important crops in the 21st Century. The need for further improvement in the yield potential of wheat in order to meet current and impending challenges is discussed, including rising consumption and the demand for grain for fuel as well as food. Research on the complex genetics underlying wheat yield is described, including the identification of quantitative trait loci and individual genes, and the prospects of biotechnology playing a role in wheat improvement in the future are discussed. The challenge of preparing wheat to meet the problems of drought, high temperature and increasing carbon dioxide concentration that are anticipated to come about as a result of climate change is also reviewed. Wheat yield must be increased while not compromising food safety, and the emerging problem of processing contaminants is reviewed, focussing in particular on acrylamide, a contaminant that forms from free asparagine and reducing sugars during high temperature cooking and processing. Wheat breeders are strongly encouraged to consider the contaminant issue when breeding for yield. PMID:25540461

  4. Heavy Cigarette Smokers in a Chinese Population Display a Compromised Permeability Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Shujun; Ye, Li; Lv, Chengzhi; Elias, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with various cutaneous disorders with defective permeability. Yet, whether cigarette smoking influences epidermal permeability barrier function is largely unknown. Here, we measured skin biophysical properties, including permeability barrier homeostasis, stratum corneum (SC) integrity, SC hydration, skin surface pH, and skin melanin/erythema index, in cigarette smokers. A total of 99 male volunteers were enrolled in this study. Smokers were categorized as light-to-moderate (<20 cigarettes/day) or heavy smokers (≥20 cigarettes/day). An MPA5 was used to measure SC hydration and skin melanin/erythema index on the dorsal hand, forehead, and cheek. Basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and barrier recovery rates were assessed on the forearm. A Skin-pH-Meter pH900 was used to measure skin surface pH. Our results showed that heavy cigarette smokers exhibited delayed barrier recovery after acute abrogation (1.02% ± 13.06 versus 16.48% ± 6.07), and barrier recovery rates correlated negatively with the number of daily cigarettes consumption (p = 0.0087). Changes in biophysical parameters in cigarette smokers varied with body sites. In conclusion, heavy cigarette smokers display compromised permeability barrier homeostasis, which could contribute, in part, to the increased prevalence of certain cutaneous disorders characterized by defective permeability. Thus, improving epidermal permeability barrier should be considered for heavy cigarette smokers. PMID:27437403

  5. Alcohol Doesn’t Always Compromise Cognitive Function: Exploring Moderate Doses in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Lauren A.; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to clarify inconsistent findings regarding the acute cognitive effects of subintoxicating alcohol doses (i.e., <80 mg/dl) by controlling for and evaluating variables that might modulate dose-related outcomes. Method: The current study examined the effects of sex/gender and alcohol concentration on select cognitive functions in 94 individuals (49 men) between 25 and 35 years of age. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three dose conditions: target peak breath alcohol concentration of 0 mg/dl (placebo), 40 mg/dl (low), or 65 mg/dl (moderate). After beverage consumption, they completed tasks assessing psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory ability. Results: Analyses revealed no significant effect of dose for any cognitive domain. A trend-level effect of dose on psychomotor performance was observed, with the low-dose group performing somewhat better than the moderate-dose and placebo groups. No sex main effects or interactions were revealed. Conclusions: Consistent with our previous studies, these data suggest that low and moderate doses of alcohol may not compromise cognitive ability in non–problem drinkers under certain task conditions. Given the outcomes, sex differences cannot be meaningfully addressed. Future consideration of potentially influential variables and assessment of similarly well-defined cohorts might yield a clearer interpretation of alcohol’s behavioral consequences. PMID:26562604

  6. Chronic Temporomandibular Disorder Is Not Necessarily Associated with a Compromised Endogenous Analgesic System

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Pauline H.; Sarlani, Eleni; Grace, Edward G.; Greenspan, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Our previous work demonstrated that women with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) exhibit enhanced temporal summation of pain upon repetitive mechanical stimulation of the fingers, compared to healthy controls, suggestive of widespread up regulated central nociceptive processing in this patient population. The current study asks whether TMD case-control differences in Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM) exist, using a mechanically evoked Temporal Summation (TS) model. Methods A series of 10 repetitive, mildly noxious, mechanical stimuli were applied to the fingers of 30 TMD women and 30 age-matched healthy women. The subjects rated the pain intensity caused by the 1st, 5th and 10th stimulus in the train. To evaluate CPM, the same series of mechanical stimulations were applied with concomitant exposure of the other hand to a painfully cold water bath. Results Pain ratings increased significantly with stimulus repetition (p<0.01) and CPM significantly reduced TS of pain (p<0.01). Of particular note, both groups showed very similar degrees of CPM, with no significant group difference. Conclusion Painful TMD is not necessarily associated with a compromised ability to engage the endogenous analgesic system in an experimental setting. PMID:23630686

  7. Compromise-based Robust Prioritization of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Chung, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    This study suggests a robust prioritization framework for climate change adaptation strategies under multiple climate change scenarios with a case study of selecting sites for reusing treated wastewater (TWW) in a Korean urban watershed. The framework utilizes various multi-criteria decision making techniques, including the VIKOR method and the Shannon entropy-based weights. In this case study, the sustainability of TWW use is quantified with indicator-based approaches with the DPSIR framework, which considers both hydro-environmental and socio-economic aspects of the watershed management. Under the various climate change scenarios, the hydro-environmental responses to reusing TWW in potential alternative sub-watersheds are determined using the Hydrologic Simulation Program in Fortran (HSPF). The socio-economic indicators are obtained from the statistical databases. Sustainability scores for multiple scenarios are estimated individually and then integrated with the proposed approach. At last, the suggested framework allows us to prioritize adaptation strategies in a robust manner with varying levels of compromise between utility-based and regret-based strategies.

  8. Reproductive investment compromises maternal health in three species of freshwater turtle.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anthony R; Scheelings, T Franciscus; Foley, Laura J; Johnstone, Christopher P; Reina, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that a trade-off in the allocation of resources between different physiological systems exists because resources are finite. As a result, females investing heavily in reproduction may compromise their future health. We used hematology, serum biochemistry, mass, and morphometric measurements as indicators of physiological health state to investigate whether reproductive investment altered subsequent maternal health in three Australian freshwater turtles: the oblong turtle (Chelodina oblonga; n = 12), the Macquarie turtle (Emydura macquarii; n = 9), and the eastern long-necked turtle (Chelodina longicollis; n = 8). Maternal health was impaired in turtles that produced larger and heavier eggs and clutches. In C. oblonga and E. macquarii, increased reproductive investment generally resulted in negative changes to the hematology and serum biochemistry profile of maternal blood. Generally, increases in heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase, calcium/phosphorus ratio, and albumin/globulin ratio were observed following reproduction, in addition to a decrease in glucose and total protein. These findings agree with the physiological constraint hypothesis and highlight the connection between life-history evolution and animal physiology by documenting, for the first time, how measures of physiological health state relate to reproductive investment in Australian freshwater turtles. Additionally, our findings suggest that body condition, a readily used morphological biomarker, is a poor predictor of health in turtles. Our results emphasize the need to investigate how maternal health is influenced by the reproductive process in different species.

  9. Silencing GhNDR1 and GhMKK2 compromises cotton resistance to Verticillium wilt.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiquan; Wheeler, Terry; Li, Zhaohu; Kenerley, Charles M; He, Ping; Shan, Libo

    2011-04-01

    Cotton is an important cash crop worldwide, and is a significant source of fiber, feed, foodstuff, oil and biofuel products. Considerable effort has been expended to increase sustainable yield and quality through molecular breeding and genetic engineering of new cotton cultivars. Given the recent availability of the whole-genome sequence of cotton, it is necessary to develop molecular tools and resources for large-scale analysis of gene functions at the genome-wide level. We have successfully developed an Agrobacterium-mediated virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assay in several cotton cultivars with various genetic backgrounds. The genes of interest were potently and readily silenced within 2 weeks after inoculation at the seedling stage. Importantly, we showed that silencing GhNDR1 and GhMKK2 compromised cotton resistance to the infection by Verticillium dahliae, a fungal pathogen causing Verticillium wilt. Furthermore, we developed a cotton protoplast system for transient gene expression to study gene functions by a gain-of-function approach. The viable protoplasts were isolated from green cotyledons, etiolated cotyledons and true leaves, and responded to a wide range of pathogen elicitors and phytohormones. Remarkably, cotton plants possess conserved, but also distinct, MAP kinase activation with Arabidopsis upon bacterial elicitor flagellin perception. Thus, using gene silencing assays, we have shown that GhNDR1 and GhMKK2 are required for Verticillium resistance in cotton, and have developed high throughput loss-of-function and gain-of-function assays for functional genomic studies in cotton.

  10. Simulated Microgravity Using a Rotary Culture System Compromises the In Vitro Development of Mouse Preantral Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yonggen; Lin, Wei; Chen, Zaichong; Meng, Luhe; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Growing cells in simulated weightlessness condition might be a highly promising new technique to maintain or generate tissue constructs in a scaffold-free manner. There is limited evidence that microgravity condition may affect development of ovarian follicles. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of simulated microgravity on the in vitro development of mouse preantral follicles. Methods and Results Ovarian tissue from 14-day-old mice, or preantral follicles mechanically isolated from 14-day-old mouse ovaries were cultured at a simulated microgravity condition generated using a rotating wall vessel apparatus. Follicle survival was assessed quantitatively using H&E staining. Follicle diameter and oocyte diameter were measured under an inverted microscope. Ultrastructure of oocytes was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. We observed that simulated microgravity compromised follicle survival in vitro, downregulated PCNA and GDF-9 expressions, and caused ultrastructural abnormalities in oocytes. Conclusion This study showed for the first time that three-dimensional culture condition generated by simulated microgravity is detrimental to the initial stage development of mouse preantral follicles in vitro. The experimental setup provides a model to further investigate the mechanisms involved in the in vitro developmental processes of oocytes/granulosa cells under the microgravity condition. PMID:26963099

  11. Oral health promotion interventions on oral yeast in hospitalised and medically compromised patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Otto L T; Bandara, H M H N; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; McGrath, Colman; Li, Leonard S W

    2012-03-01

    Yeast are major aetiological agents of localised oral mucosal lesions, and are also leading causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of oral health promotion interventions on the prevalence and incidence of these opportunistic oral pathogens in hospitalised and medically compromised patients. The PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases were searched for clinical trials assessing the effect of oral health promotion interventions on oral yeast. Chlorhexidine delivered in a variety of oral hygiene products appeared to have some effect on oral yeast, although some studies found equivocal effects. Although a wide array of other compounds have also been investigated, their clinical effectiveness remains to be substantiated. Likewise, the utility of mechanical oral hygiene interventions and other oral health promotion measures such as topical application of salivary substitute, remains unsettled. Although many chemical agents contained in oral hygiene products have proven in vitro activity against oral yeast, their clinical effectiveness and potential role as adjuncts or alternative therapies to conventional treatment remains to be confirmed by further high-quality randomised controlled trials. This is pertinent, given the recent emergence of yeast resistance to conventional antifungal agents.

  12. The Munsell Color System: a scientific compromise from the world of art.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Sally

    2014-09-01

    Color systems make accurate color specification and matching possible in science, art, and industry by defining a coordinate system for all possible color perceptions. The Munsell Color System, developed by the artist Albert Henry Munsell in the early twentieth century, has influenced color science to this day. I trace the development of the Munsell Color System from its origins in the art world to its acceptance in the scientific community. Munsell's system was the first to accurately and quantitatively describe the psychological experience of color. By considering the problems that color posed for Munsell's art community and examining his diaries and published material, I conclude that Munsell arrived at his results by remaining agnostic as to the scientific definition of color, while retaining faith that color perceptions could be objectively quantified. I argue that Munsell was able to interest the scientific community in his work because color had become a controversial topic between physicists and psychologists. Parts of Munsell's system appealed to each field, making it a workable compromise. For contrast, I suggest that three contemporary scientists with whom Munsell had contact--Wilhelm Ostwald, Ogden Rood, and Edward Titchener--did not reach the same conclusions in their color systems because they started from scientific assumptions about the nature of color.

  13. Gamma processing of Arabic bread for immune system-compromised cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Grecz, N.; Brannon, R.; Jaw, R.; Al-Harithy, R.; Hahn, E.W.

    1985-12-01

    Arabic bread prepared from local Saudi flour contained a total of up to 105/sup 4/ organisms per g. Most of these were bacterial spores that survived the baking process (1.3 x 10/sup 2/ to 3.5 x 10/sup 3/) and a small number of yeasts and molds (10 to 40 cells per g). The organisms in Arabic bread appear to be harmless to healthy individuals. However, for immune system-compromised cancer patients and bone marrow transplant recipients, it is prudent to irradiate the bread to reduce microbial contamination. The decimal reduction doses (10% survival) for the most radiation-resistant organisms (spore formers) in bread were 0.11 to 0.15 Mrad. Accordingly, 0.6 Mrad was sufficient to reduce the number of spores in Arabic bread by a factor of 10,000, i.e., to <1/g. This treatment constitutes radiation pasteurization (radicidation), and to this extent, provides a margin of microbiological safety. Sensory evaluation by the nine-point hedonic scale showed no detectable loss of organoleptic quality of bread up to 0.6 Mrad, while irradiation to 2.5 Mrad induced unacceptable organoleptic changes.

  14. Sampling of prenatal and postnatal offspring from individual rat dams enhances animal use without compromising development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, J. R.; Burden, H. W.; Hawes, N.; Ronca, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess prenatal and postnatal developmental status in the offspring of a group of animals, it is typical to examine fetuses from some of the dams as well as infants born to the remaining dams. Statistical limitations often arise, particularly when the animals are rare or especially precious, because all offspring of the dam represent only a single statistical observation; littermates are not independent observations (biologically or statistically). We describe a study in which pregnant laboratory rats were laparotomized on day 7 of gestation (GD7) to ascertain the number and distribution of uterine implantation sites and were subjected to a simulated experience on a 10-day space shuttle flight. After the simulated landing on GD18, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized, thus providing a sample of fetuses from 10 independent uteruses, followed by successful vaginal delivery on GD22, yielding postnatal samples from 10 uteruses. A broad profile of maternal and offspring morphologic and physiologic measures indicated that these novel sampling procedures did not compromise maternal well-being and maintained normal offspring development and function. Measures included maternal organ weights and hormone concentrations, offspring body size, growth, organ weights, sexual differentiation, and catecholamine concentrations.

  15. Just-in-Time Compound Pooling Increases Primary Screening Capacity without Compromising Screening Quality.

    PubMed

    Elkin, L L; Harden, D G; Saldanha, S; Ferguson, H; Cheney, D L; Pieniazek, S N; Maloney, D P; Zewinski, J; O'Connell, J; Banks, M

    2015-06-01

    Compound pooling, or multiplexing more than one compound per well during primary high-throughput screening (HTS), is a controversial approach with a long history of limited success. Many issues with this approach likely arise from long-term storage of library plates containing complex mixtures of compounds at high concentrations. Due to the historical difficulties with using multiplexed library plates, primary HTS often uses a one-compound-one-well approach. However, as compound collections grow, innovative strategies are required to increase the capacity of primary screening campaigns. Toward this goal, we have developed a novel compound pooling method that increases screening capacity without compromising data quality. This method circumvents issues related to the long-term storage of complex compound mixtures by using acoustic dispensing to enable "just-in-time" compound pooling directly in the assay well immediately prior to assay. Using this method, we can pool two compounds per well, effectively doubling the capacity of a primary screen. Here, we present data from pilot studies using just-in-time pooling, as well as data from a large >2-million-compound screen using this approach. These data suggest that, for many targets, this method can be used to vastly increase screening capacity without significant reduction in the ability to detect screening hits.

  16. Brief inhalation of asbestos compromises superoxide production in cells from bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed

    Petruska, J M; Marsh, J; Bergeron, M; Mossman, B T

    1990-02-01

    Production of superoxide (O-.2) was measured in alveolar macrophages (AM) exposed to asbestos in vitro and in cells obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of rats inhaling asbestos. Steady state levels of O-.2 released by AM in vitro were dose and time dependent in response to crocidolite, chrysotile, and opsonized zymosan, a particulate used to trigger O-.2 generation. In contrast, an inhalation exposure for 1 h to crocidolite or for 6 days to either crocidolite or chrysotile asbestos resulted in a decreased production of O-.2 by BAL cells. Likewise, BAL cells from rats inhaling chrysotile for 1 h or crocidolite for 9 days exhibited a diminished capacity to secrete O-.2 when challenged with the particulate opsonized zymosan. Diminished generation of O-.2 by asbestos occurred in BAL cell populations containing either significantly increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lymphocytes (6- and 9-day exposures) or 99% AM (1-h exposure). Thus, these novel observations suggest that short-term inhalation of asbestos compromises the ability of BAL cells to produce O-.2 in the presence or absence of an additional phagocytic stimulus.

  17. 76 FR 58436 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  18. 75 FR 5925 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  19. 75 FR 43479 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  20. 75 FR 34415 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  1. 76 FR 50446 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY..., FEMA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule that included an erroneous Base Flood Elevation...) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood...

  2. 76 FR 66887 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  3. 75 FR 23642 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for ] the reach described by the downstream and...

  4. 75 FR 78650 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1159] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table... regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the...

  5. 76 FR 59960 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  6. 76 FR 23528 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  7. 75 FR 59192 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  8. 76 FR 19007 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  9. 76 FR 73534 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  10. 76 FR 40670 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  11. 75 FR 5909 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  12. 76 FR 19005 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  13. 75 FR 59184 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  14. 76 FR 62006 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  15. 75 FR 59188 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  16. 76 FR 13569 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY..., FEMA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule that included erroneous Base Flood Elevation... Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in...

  17. 76 FR 43968 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  18. 75 FR 78647 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  19. 76 FR 46701 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  20. 75 FR 31368 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...