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Sample records for elevated serum calcium

  1. Trace mineral interactions during elevated calcium consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.T.; Luhrsen, K.R.

    1986-03-01

    Elevated calcium consumption is reported to affect trace mineral bioavailability. The authors examined this phenomenon in both single dose radio-label test meals and an eight week feeding trial in rats. In the single dose studies, human milk, cows milk, and various calcium sources were examined in relation to radio-iron and radio-zinc retention. /sup 59/Fe retention was greater from human milk than cows milk. However, when the calcium content of human milk was adjusted (with CaHPO/sub 4/ or CaCO/sub 3/) to equal the level in cows milk, iron retention was depressed. Similarly, when calcium sources (CaCO/sub 3/, CaHPO/sub 4/, hydroxy-apatite, bone meal) were examined at different calcium:metal molar ratios, the degree of inhibition on metal retention varied. In general, phosphate salts were more inhibiting than carbonates. In the feeding trial, calcium was fed in diets at normal (0.5%) or elevated (1.5%) levels. Serum, liver, kidney, and bone trace mineral profiles were obtained. In general, most trace elements showed decreased levels in the tissues. Zinc and iron were most striking, followed by magnesium with minor changes in copper. A high calcium:high mineral supplemented group was also fed. Mixed mineral supplementation prevented all calcium interactions. These data indicate the importance of calcium mineral interactions in bioavailability considerations in both milk sources and in mineral supplementation.

  2. Refractory intraoperative hypotension with elevated serum tryptase

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Kelly J.; Divekar, Rohit D.; Butterfield, Joseph H.; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Weingarten, Toby N.

    2015-01-01

    Severe intraoperative hypotension has been reported in patients on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 antagonists. We describe a patient on lisinopril who developed refractory intraoperative hypotension associated with increased serum tryptase level suggesting mast cell activation (allergic reaction). However, allergology workup ruled out an allergic etiology as well as mastocytosis, and hypotension recalcitrant to treatment was attributed to uninterrupted lisinopril therapy. Elevated serum tryptase was attributed to our patient's chronic renal insufficiency. PMID:25653920

  3. Serum prolactin concentrations are elevated after syncope.

    PubMed

    Oribe, E; Amini, R; Nissenbaum, E; Boal, B

    1996-07-01

    The distinction between syncope and epileptic seizures is a common clinical diagnostic problem. Elevated serum prolactin (PRL) concentrations are used to help differentiate epileptic from nonepileptic attacks such as pseudoseizures. Reports of PRL concentrations following syncope have been variable. To determine whether PRL rises after syncope, we measured serum PRL concentrations during a 45-minute passive 60-degree head-up tilt in 21 patients with a history of near-fainting or syncope. Head-up tilt triggered hypotension (mean arterial pressure 51 mm Hg, 95% CI = 45-57) with syncope in 11 patients. PRL concentrations were elevated ( > 19 ng/mL) and reached a maximum within the first 30 minutes after tilt-induced syncope in nine patients (PRL supine: 11 ng/mL, 95% CI = 7-15, vs. PRL after syncope: 52 ng/mL, 95% CI = 36-67; a greater than fourfold rise), while they remained unchanged in 10 patients who had a normal response to head-up tilt (PRL supine: 6 ng/mL, 95% CI = 5-8, vs. maximum PRL while upright: 8 ng/mL, 95% CI = 6-10). The findings indicate that elevated PRL concentrations are present after hypotensive syncope and are of little use in differentiating such syncope from epileptic seizures.

  4. Dietary Calcium Intake, Serum Calcium Level, and their Association with Preeclampsia in Rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anant; Kant, Shashi; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Rai, Sanjay K.; Misra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia in pregnancy has been shown to be associated with low serum calcium level. Though the evidence is abundant, it is equivocal. Objectives: The study aimed to estimate the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status among pregnant women, and to document the association of the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status with incidence of preeclampsia in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, Ballabgarh, Haryana, India. All pregnant women between 28 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were interviewed. A semi-structured interview schedule and a 24-h dietary recall questionnaire were administered to assess the dietary calcium intake. AutoAnalyser (Biolis 24i) was used for measuring serum calcium. Results: We enrolled 217 pregnant women. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] dietary calcium intake was 858 (377) mg/day. The mean (SD) serum calcium level was 9.6 mg/dL (0.56). Incidence of preeclampsia was 13.4%. Preeclampsia was not associated with hypocalcemia [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.27-3.98]. Conclusion: The majority of pregnant women had inadequate dietary calcium intake. The prevalence of hypocalcemia was low. Low serum calcium level was not associated with preeclampsia. Calcium supplementation may not reduce preeclampsia in this population. PMID:27385877

  5. Effects of elevated lead and cadmium burdens on renal function and calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, A.; Parkinson, D.K.; Fetterolf, D.E.; Puschett, J.B.; Ellis, K.J.; Wielopolski, L.; Vaswani, A.N.; Cohn, S.H.; Landrigan, P.J.

    1986-03-01

    To assess the pathophysiologic significance of increased body burdens of lead and cadmium, detailed renal function studies and evaluation of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D metabolism were carried out in 38 industrial workers exposed to lead and cadmium for 11 to 37 yr. Body burden of lead, as assessed by x-ray fluorescence measurement of tibia lead content, was elevated in 58% of the men and, when assessed by excretion of lead after Ca-EDTA infusion, was elevated in 36%. Liver or kidney cadmium burden, as assessed by neutron activation analysis, was elevated in 31%. Creatinine clearance was normal in all workers. One worker was hyperuricemic and two were proteinuric; three had increased beta 2 microglobulin excretion and one had diminished urinary acidifying ability. Maximal urinary concentrating ability was abnormal in a significant fraction, i.e., 52% of the men. Individuals with a high lead burden had a slight decrease in mean serum phosphorus but no accompanying phosphaturia. There was no abnormality of serum calcium. Twenty-two percent of subjects were hypercalciuric and two had low vitamin D levels, but these abnormalities bore no relation to heavy metal burden. In this carefully characterized group of men with chronic lead and calcium exposure, definite, if subclinical, effects on renal function and serum phosphorus but not calcium or vitamin D metabolism were demonstrable.

  6. Elevation of serum acid phosphatase in cancers with bone metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Tavassoli, M.; Rizo, M.; Yam, L.T.

    1980-05-01

    In patients with nonprostatic cancer, serum acid phosphatase activity is usually elevated when bone metastasis is present but not when bone metastasis is absent. The fraction responsible for serum enzyme elevation is a normal component of serum; it appears in gel electrophoresis as band 5; and is tartrate-resistant. It is suggested that the origin of acid phosphatase elevation is bone osteoclasts rather than cancer tissue, as is the case with prostatic carcinoma. Determination of serum acid phosphatase activity may be useful in the detection of bone metastasis.

  7. Rapid and precise analysis for calcium in blood serum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, R. B.; Ilcewicz, F. H.

    1969-01-01

    Differential absorption spectrophotometric technique, using murexide, gives a highly precise analysis of calcium in volumes of blood serum as small as 0.01 ml. The method of additions and proper timing allows compensation to be made for fading, variation in type of serum or plasma, and aging of the specimen.

  8. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C.; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Irace, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk. Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods. We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women. Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  9. Extra-intestinal calcium handling contributes to normal serum calcium levels when intestinal calcium absorption is suboptimal.

    PubMed

    Lieben, Liesbet; Verlinden, Lieve; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Torrekens, Sophie; Moermans, Karen; Schoonjans, Luc; Carmeliet, Peter; Carmeliet, Geert

    2015-12-01

    The active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, is a crucial regulator of calcium homeostasis, especially through stimulation of intestinal calcium transport. Lack of intestinal vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling does however not result in hypocalcemia, because the increased 1,25(OH)2D levels stimulate calcium handling in extra-intestinal tissues. Systemic VDR deficiency, on the other hand, results in hypocalcemia because calcium handling is impaired not only in the intestine, but also in kidney and bone. It remains however unclear whether low intestinal VDR activity, as observed during aging, is sufficient for intestinal calcium transport and for mineral and bone homeostasis. To this end, we generated mice that expressed the Vdr exclusively in the gut, but at reduced levels. We found that ~15% of intestinal VDR expression greatly prevented the Vdr null phenotype in young-adult mice, including the severe hypocalcemia. Serum calcium levels were, however, in the low-normal range, which may be due to the suboptimal intestinal calcium absorption, renal calcium loss, insufficient increase in bone resorption and normal calcium incorporation in the bone matrix. In conclusion, our results indicate that low intestinal VDR levels improve intestinal calcium absorption compared to Vdr null mice, but also show that 1,25(OH)2D-mediated fine-tuning of renal calcium reabsorption and bone mineralization and resorption is required to maintain fully normal serum calcium levels.

  10. Variant Prostate Carcinoma and Elevated Serum CA-125

    PubMed Central

    Bilen, Mehmet Asim; Reyes, Adriana; Bhowmick, Deb; Maa, April; Bast, Robert; Pisters, Louis L.; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Tu, Shi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction About 10% of tumors derived from nongynecologic, noncoelomic tissues react with the OC125 antibody. Some patients with advanced prostate cancer were found to have elevated serum CA-125 level. Materials and Methods We examined the clinical history of 11 patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and an elevated serum CA-125 level. Pathological review and immunohistochemical staining were performed on tumors from 8 of these patients. Results Patients with advanced prostate cancer and an elevated serum CA-125 level responded to androgen ablative therapy (median duration, 27 months). They were predisposed to develop persistent or recurrent urinary symptoms and visceral metastases. Eight of 11 patients had a low or undetectable serum prostate-specific antigen level (≤4 ng/ml) or an elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen level (>6 ng/ml). In 3 of 7 patients whose specimens were available for further review, the tumors contained histologic features compatible with a diagnosis of ductal or endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Conclusions Patients with prostate cancer and an elevated serum CA-125 level have unique clinical and pathologic characteristics. Some of these patients possess tumors compatible with a subtype of prostate cancer known as ductal adenocarcinoma. Additional studies need to be performed to elucidate the biologic basis of the various subtypes of prostate cancer. PMID:25347368

  11. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Anita; Bonny, Olivier; Guessous, Idris; Suter, Paolo M.; Conen, David; Erne, Paul; Binet, Isabelle; Gabutti, Luca; Gallino, Augusto; Muggli, Franco; Hayoz, Daniel; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. Design, settings, participants, & measurements Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root–transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dependent variable with a focus on month-specific vitamin D tertiles and serum calcium in the Swiss Survey on Salt Study. Results In total, 624 men and 669 women were studied with mean ages of 49.2 and 47.0 years, respectively (age range=15–95 years). Mean urinary calcium excretion was higher in men than in women (183.05 versus 144.60 mg/24 h; P<0.001). In adjusted models, the association (95% confidence interval) of square root urinary calcium excretion with protein–corrected serum calcium was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.34) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in women and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, −0.11 to 1.29) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in men. Men in the third 25(OH)D3 tertile had higher square root urinary calcium excretion than men in the first tertile (0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 1.63 mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter), and the corresponding association was 0.32 (95% confidence interval, −0.22 to 0.85) mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter in women. These sex differences were more marked under conditions of high urinary sodium or urea excretions. Conclusions There was a positive association of serum calcium with urinary calcium excretion in women but not men. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 was associated with urinary calcium excretion in men but not women. These results suggest important sex differences in the hormonal and dietary control of urinary calcium excretion. PMID:25518946

  12. Calcium acetate versus calcium carbonate for the control of serum phosphorus in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Almirall, J; Veciana, L; Llibre, J

    1994-01-01

    Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that calcium acetate (CaAC) is a more effective phosphorus binder than, among other calcium salts, calcium carbonate (CaCO3). More efficient binding allows serum phosphorus to be controlled with a lower dose; moreover, less calcium seems to be absorbed when CaAC is used. These properties could reduce the incidence of hypercalcemia; however, in clinical practice few reports have compared these two calcium salts, and results disagree. We evaluated in a 24-week prospective cross-over study the clinical efficiency of CaCO3 and CaAC in 10 selected chronic hemodialysis patients. Only 7 patients completed the study period. The patients were randomly assigned to start treatment with one of the two calcium salts; after 12 weeks they shifted to the other treatment. Serum analytical tests included weekly control of calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. PTH values (intact molecule) were obtained initially and at the end of every study period. The same good control of the phosphorus level (4.79 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.94 +/- 0.8 mg/dl) was obtained with CaAC (mean doses 4.1 +/- 0.3 g/day) as with CaCO3 (mean doses 4.01 +/- 0.8 g/day). The mean serum calcium levels were similar (10.36 +/- 0.5 vs. 10.20 +/- 0.5 mg/dl). The dose of elemental calcium administered was significantly less with CaAC (957 +/- 83 mg/day) than with CaCO3 (1,590 +/- 317 mg/day). However, the incidence of hypercalcemia (Ca > 11 mg/dl) was similar during the two treatment periods (13% with CaAC vs. 14% with CaCO3). Also the incidence of Ca x P products 765 was comparable (9.5 vs. 11.9%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Elevation of Serum Acid Sphingomyelinase Activity in Acute Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Konno, Yuuki; Takahashi, Ikuko; Narita, Ayuko; Takeda, Osamu; Koizumi, Hiromi; Tamura, Masamichi; Kikuchi, Wataru; Komatsu, Akira; Tamura, Hiroaki; Tsuchida, Satoko; Noguchi, Atsuko; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis that affects both small and medium-sized vessels including the coronary arteries in infants and children. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a lysosomal glycoprotein that hydrolyzes sphingomyelin to ceramide, a lipid, that functions as a second messenger in the regulation of cell functions. ASM activation has been implicated in numerous cellular stress responses and is associated with cellular ASM secretion, either through alternative trafficking of the ASM precursor protein or by means of an unidentified mechanism. Elevation of serum ASM activity has been described in several human diseases, suggesting that patients with diseases involving vascular endothelial cells may exhibit a preferential elevation of serum ASM activity. As acute KD is characterized by systemic vasculitis that could affect vascular endothelial cells, the elevation of serum ASM activity should be considered in these patients. In the present study, serum ASM activity in the sera of 15 patients with acute KD was determined both before and after treatment with infusion of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a first-line treatment for acute KD. Serum ASM activity before IVIG was significantly elevated in KD patients when compared to the control group (3.85 ± 1.46 nmol/0.1 ml/6 h vs. 1.15 ± 0.10 nmol/0.1 ml/6 h, p < 0.001), suggesting that ASM activation may be involved in the pathophysiology of this condition. Serum ASM activity before IVIG was significantly correlated with levels of C-reactive protein (p < 0.05). These results suggest the involvement of sphingolipid metabolism in the pathophysiology of KD. PMID:26447086

  14. Adsorption of serum calcium by plastic sample cups.

    PubMed

    Hall, R A; Whitehead, T P

    1970-05-01

    Sera left overnight in plastic AutoAnalyzer sample cups may give low calcium values; the effect is attributed to adsorption of calcium onto the walls of the vessel. The adsorption is brought about by a rise in the pH of the sera, and factors which promote the rise in pH increase the adsorption. This phenomenon is of practical importance because as much as 10% of the calcium in the serum may be adsorbed. Adsorption occurs particularly onto the walls of polystyrene cups, and when polypropylene cups were used the adsorption was reduced. The phenomenon cannot be evaluated or controlled by the use of control sera. In order to avoid the sampling error, serum for calcium analysis should be used fresh or stored at 4 degrees C under conditions such that any change in pH is minimal. Sera should not be left to stand in AutoAnalyzer cups at room temperature for longer than three hours before analysis.

  15. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and elevated serum uric acid in US adults

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Anoop; Xiao, Jie; Ducatman, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl chemicals, including perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate, are man-made chemicals that have been detected in the blood of over 98% of the US population. Serum uric acid is a novel biomarker, even mild elevations of which has been implicated in the development of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. We examined the relationship of serum perfluoroalkyl chemicals, including perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate, and elevated uric acid levels in a representative sample of US adults. Methods: We examined 3883 participants from the 1999–2000 and 2003–2006 National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys, a representative, multiethnic population-based survey of noninstitutionalized US adults. Serum perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate were analyzed as quartiles. The main outcome was hyperuricemia. Results: We found that serum levels of perfluoroalkyl chemicals, including perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate, were positively associated with hyperuricemia. This association appeared to be independent of confounders such as age, gender, race-ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, and serum cholesterol. Compared with subjects in quartile 1 (referent), the multivariate odds ratio for hyperuricemia among subjects in quartile 4 was 1.97 (95% confidence interval 1.44–2.70, P < 0.0001) for perfluorooctanoic acid and 1.48% (95% confidence interval 0.99–2.22, P = 0.0433) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. This observed association persisted in subgroup analysis by gender and body mass index. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl chemicals are associated with hyperuricemia even at low perfluoroalkyl chemical exposure levels as seen in the US general population. PMID:22003309

  16. Serum Calcium Concentration Is Inversely Associated With Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Gao, Shu-Guang; Li, Yu-Sheng; Luo, Wei; Xiao, Wen-Feng; Xiong, Yi-Lin; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To examine the relationship between serum calcium (Ca) concentration and radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study covered a total of 2855 subjects. The serum Ca concentration was detected by the Arsenazo III method. The radiographic OA of the knee was defined as changes equivalent to Kellgren–Lawrence grade 2 on 1 side at least. The serum Ca concentration was categorized into 4 quartiles, which are ≤2.27, 2.28–2.34, 2.35–2.41, and ≥2.42 mmol/L, respectively. The relationship between serum Ca and radiographic knee OA was examined using the multivariable logistic analysis after adjusting a series of potential confounding factors. For each quartile of the relationship between serum Ca concentration and radiographic knee OA, the OR with 95% CI was calculated, and the one with the lowest value was considered to be the reference. An inverse association existed between serum Ca concentration and radiographic OA of the knee in the multivariable model and the model where the factors of age, sex, and BMI were adjusted. The multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) for radiographic knee OA in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of serum Ca concentration were 1.05 (95% CI: 0.83–1.31), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.80–1.27), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.62–1.00), respectively, in comparison with the reference (first) quartile. A trend approaching to statistical significant (P = 0.06) was observed. Meanwhile, the relative odds of radiographic OA of the knee were decreased by 0.79 times in the fourth quartile in comparison with the reference. There is likely to be an inverse association between serum Ca concentration and radiographic OA of the knee. PMID:26871857

  17. Elevated serum levels of Chromogranin A in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the past three decades, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States has tripled. The neuroendocrine character has been observed in some tumor cells within some hepatocellular carcinoma nodules and elevated serum chromogranin A also been reported in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of serum concentration of chromogranin A in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at different stages. Methods The study population consisted of 96 patients (63 males and 33 females age range 52-84) at their first hospital admission for hepatocellular carcinoma. The control group consisted of 35 volunteers (20 males and 15 females age range 50-80). The hepatocellular carcinoma patients were stratified according the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer classification. Venous blood samples were collected before treatment from each patients before surgery, centrifuged to obtain serum samples and stored at -80° C until assayed. Results The chromogranin A serum levels were elevated (> 100 ng/ml) in 72/96 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The serum levels of chromogranin A were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with alpha-fetoprotein. In comparison with controls, the hepatocellular carcinoma patients showed a significant increase (p<0.001) vs controls. The chromogranin A levels in the Barcelona staging of hepatocellular carcinoma was higher in stage D compared to stage C (p<0.01), to stage B (p<0.001), and to stage A (p<0.001). Conclusions Molecular markers, such as chromogranin A, could be very useful tools for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. However the molecular classification should be incorporated into a staging scheme, which effectively separated patients into groups with homogeneous prognosis and response to treatment, and thus serves to aid in the selection of appropriate therapy. PMID:23173843

  18. Effect of dietary calcium on serum BGP (osteocalcin).

    PubMed

    Kusuhara, R; Katayama, S; Itabashi, A; Maruno, Y; Inaba, M; Akabane, S; Tanaka, K; Morita, K; Shibuya, M; Kawazu, S

    1991-04-01

    The present study was designed to clarify the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) intake on serum BGP (osteocalcin) levels. Twelve women with a mean age of 21.2 years participated in the study. After one week of normal Ca intake (mean +/- SE, 535 +/- 2 mg/day), a low-Ca diet (163 +/- 1 mg/day) was given for one further week. Additional asparagine Ca (3 g as Ca/day) was also given to half of the subjects. Serum total and ionized Ca concentrations as well as BGP, PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3 were measured at the end of each period. Amounts of Ca and hydroxyproline excreted in urine were also determined. The plasma level of ionized Ca was significantly increased without any change in total Ca in either group. Low and high Ca intake decreased and increased urinary Ca excretion by 28% and 56%, respectively. Serum levels of BGP and 1,25(OH)2D3 were significantly augmented along with a transient increase in urinary hydroxyproline excretion after Ca deprivation. These results suggest that serum BGP is increased after one week of Ca restriction in healthy subjects.

  19. Acute Alcohol Consumption Elevates Serum Bilirubin, an Endogenous Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Wu, Ran; Jatlow, Peter I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with both negative and favorable effects on health. The mechanisms responsible for reported favorable effects remain unclear. Higher (not necessarily elevated) concentrations of serum bilirubin, an antioxidant, have also been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. This study tests the hypothesis that single dose alcohol consumption elevates bilirubin providing a potential link between these observations. Methods 18 healthy individuals (8 cigarette smokers) were administered alcohol, calibrated to achieve blood concentrations of 20, 80 and 120 mg/dL, in random order in 3 laboratory sessions separated by a week. Each session was preceded by and followed by 5–7 days of alcohol abstinence. Serum bilirubin was measured at 7:45 am prior to drinking, at 2 pm, and at 7:45 the next morning. Mixed effects regression models compared baseline and 24 hr. post-drinking bilirubin concentrations. Results Total serum bilirubin (sum of indirect and direct) concentration increased significantly after drinking from baseline to 24 hours in non-smokers (from Mean=0.38, SD=0.24 to Mean=0.51 SD=0.30, F(1, 32.2) =24.24, p<.0001) but not in smokers (from Mean=0.25, SD=0.12 to Mean=0.26, SD=0.15, F(1, 31.1) =0.04, p=0.84). In nonsmokers the indirect bilirubin concentration and the ratio of indirect (unconjugated) to direct (conjugated) bilirubin also increased significantly. Conclusions Alcohol consumption leads to increases in serum bilirubin in nonsmokers. Considering the antioxidant properties of bilirubin, our findings suggest one possible mechanism for the reported association between alcohol consumption and reduced risk of some disorders that could be tested in future longitudinal studies. PMID:25707709

  20. Elevated levels of serum creatinine: recommendations for management and referral

    PubMed Central

    Mendelssohn, D C; Barrett, B J; Brownscombe, L M; Ethier, J; Greenberg, D E; Kanani, S D; Levin, A; Toffelmire, E B

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential benefits of earlier referral to a nephrologist of patients with elevated levels of serum creatinine include identifying and treating reversible causes of renal failure, slowing the rate of decline associated with progressive renal insufficiency, managing the coexisting conditions associated with chronic renal failure and facilitating efficient entry into dialysis programs for all patients who might benefit. METHODS: A subcommittee of the Canadian Society of Nephrology, which included representatives from family practice and internal medicine, conducted a MEDLINE search for the period 1966 to 1998 using the key words referral and consultation, dialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal replacement therapy and kidney diseases. Where published evidence was lacking, conclusions were reached by consensus. GUIDELINES: Earlier referral to nephrologists of patients with elevated creatinine levels is expected to lead to better health care outcomes and lower costs for both the patients and the health care system. All patients with newly discovered renal insufficiency (as evidenced by serum creatinine elevated to a level above the upper limit of the normal range of that laboratory, adjusted for age and height in children) must undergo investigations to determine the potential reversibility of disease, to evaluate the prognosis and to optimize planning of care. All patients with an established, progressive increase in serum creatinine level should be followed with a nephrologist. Adequate preparation for dialysis or transplantation (or both) requires at least 12 months of relatively frequent contact with a renal care team. Nephrologists should provide consultation in a timely manner for any patient with an elevated serum creatinine level. In addition, they should provide advice about what aspects of the condition require particularly urgent or emergency assessment. SPONSORS: This clinical practice guideline has been endorsed by the Canadian

  1. An Optical Method for Serum Calcium and Phosphorus Level Assessment during Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Holmar, Jana; Uhlin, Fredrik; Fernström, Anders; Luman, Merike; Jankowski, Joachim; Fridolin, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Survival among hemodialysis patients is disturbingly low, partly because vascular calcification (VC) and cardiovascular disease are highly prevalent. Elevated serum phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) levels play an essential role in the formation of VC events. The purpose of the current study was to reveal optical monitoring possibilities of serum P and Ca values during dialysis. Twenty-eight patients from Tallinn (Estonia) and Linköping (Sweden) were included in the study. The serum levels of Ca and P on the basis of optical information, i.e., absorbance and fluorescence of the spent dialysate (optical method) were assessed. Obtained levels were compared in means and SD. The mean serum level of Ca was 2.54 ± 0.21 and 2.53 ± 0.19 mmol/L; P levels varied between 1.08 ± 0.51 and 1.08 ± 0.48 mmol/L, measured in the laboratory and estimated by the optical method respectively. The levels achieved were not significantly different (p = 0.5). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement between the two methods varied from −0.19 to 0.19 for Ca and from −0.37 to 0.37 in the case of P. In conclusion, optical monitoring of the spent dialysate for assessing the serum levels of Ca and P during dialysis seems to be feasible and could offer valuable and continuous information to medical staff. PMID:25734785

  2. Determination of Reference Intervals for Serum Total Calcium in the Vitamin D-Replete Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Roizen, Jeffrey D.; Shah, Vipul; Levine, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Widespread vitamin D insufficiency raises concerns regarding the reliability of reference intervals for serum calcium. Objective: We sought to determine the reference intervals for serum total calcium in pediatric subjects without vitamin D [25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D

  3. Testosterone substitution normalizes elevated serum leptin levels in hypogonadal men.

    PubMed

    Jockenhövel, F; Blum, W F; Vogel, E; Englaro, P; Müller-Wieland, D; Reinwein, D; Rascher, W; Krone, W

    1997-08-01

    The ob gene product leptin (OB) is a feedback signal from the adipocyte to the hypothalamus and is involved in regulation of food intake and energy expenditure in rodents. A major determinant of serum OB levels is fat mass. Several studies suggest that men have lower OB levels than women even after adjustment for percent body fat. We, therefore, investigated the influence of testosterone (T) substitution in hypogonadal men on serum OB levels. Hypogonadal men with T levels of 3.6 nmol/L or less and off substitution therapy for at least 3 months were assigned to two treatment groups: testosterone enanthate (TE; 250 mg, i.m., every 21 days; n = 10) or a single s.c. implantation of 1200 mg crystalline T (TPEL; n = 12). Blood samples for determination of T, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), sex hormone-binding globulin, and 17 beta-estradiol were obtained before therapy and then every 21 days until day 189 and at follow-up visits on days 246 and 300. Serum OB levels were assessed on days 0, 42, 84, 126, 168, and 300. OB levels were referred to a normal range for men based on the analysis of OB levels in 393 adult men. Substitution with T led to a large rise in T and DHT in both groups compared to baseline values (average T, days 21-189: TE, 14.33 +/- 2.63 nmol/L; TPEL, 24.98 +/- 1.64; average DHT, days 21-189: TE, 4.20 +/- 0.57 nmol/L; TPEL, 5.11 +/- 0.56; P < or = 0.05). Concomitantly, 17 beta-estradiol increased in both groups, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were significantly decreased. At baseline, serum OB levels in hypogonadal men were 3-fold elevated compared to those in normal men (12.39 +/- 2.93 micrograms/L vs. 4.28 +/- 0.52; P < 0.01) and not different between groups (TE, 13.7 +/- 5.6; TPEL, 11.3 +/- 2.9 micrograms/L). This elevation was retained after adjustment for body mass index in the normal control group [TE, 1.45 +/- 0.51 SD score (P < 0.0001); TPEL, 0.98 +/- 0.35 SD score (P < 0.0008)]. During T substitution serum OB was completely

  4. Relationships between coronary heart disease risk factors and serum ionized calcium in Kennedy Space Center Cohort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Lisa Ann; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Merz, Marion P.; Alford, William R.

    1987-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) employees are reported to be at high risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Risk factors for CHD include high serum total cholesterol levels, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), elevated triglyceride, smoking, inactivity, high blood pressure, being male, and being older. Higher dietary and/or serum calcium Ca(++) may be related to a lower risk for CHD. Fifty men and 37 women participated. Subjects were tested in the morning after fasting 12 hours. Information relative to smoking and exercise habits was obtained; seated blood pressures were measured; and blood drawn. KCS men had higher risk values than KCS women as related to HDLC, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Smoking and nonsmoking groups did not differ for other risk factors or for serum Ca(++) levels. Exercise and sedentary groups differed in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Serum Ca(++) levels were related to age, increasing with age in the sedentary group and decreasing in the exercisers, equally for men and women. It is concluded that these relationships may be significant to the risk of CHD and/or the risk of bone demineralization in an aging population.

  5. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, and calcium-regulating hormones in preeclamptics and controls during first day postpartum.

    PubMed

    Dalmar, Ahmed; Raff, Hershel; Chauhan, Suneet P; Singh, Maharaj; Siddiqui, Danish S

    2015-02-01

    The evidence for a link between vitamin D and preeclampsia is conflicting. There is a paucity of studies reporting simultaneous 25-hydroxyvitamin D (inactive form) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (biologically active form). We investigated if levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium-regulating hormones (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone), and calcium differ significantly between preeclamptics and controls. On postpartum day one, 98 subjects (44 with preeclampsia, 54 controls) were recruited among women admitted to the postdelivery unit, and their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, and serum albumin levels were prospectively measured. The majority of participants (70%) had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level<20 ng/mL; 53% had <15 ng/mL. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was similar between cases and controls (p=0.50). Mean total serum calcium adjusted for albumin and magnesium was similar between cases and controls (p=0.78). Mean serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels were normal, and there were no differences between cases and controls. The only significant differences found between preeclamptic cases and controls were mean body mass index, parity, and season of blood draw. Vitamin D levels did not differ among preeclamptic cases and controls.

  6. Nutritional impact of elevated calcium transport activity in carrots.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jay; Hawthorne, Keli M; Hotze, Tim; Abrams, Steven A; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2008-02-01

    Nutrition recommendations worldwide emphasize ingestion of plant-based diets rather than diets that rely primarily on animal products. However, this plant-based diet could limit the intake of essential nutrients such as calcium. Osteoporosis is one of the world's most prevalent nutritional disorders, and inadequate dietary calcium is a known contributor to the pathophysiology of this condition. Previously, we have modified carrots to express increased levels of a plant calcium transporter (sCAX1), and these plants contain approximately 2-fold-higher calcium content in the edible portions of the carrots. However, it was unproven whether this change would increase the total amount of bioavailable calcium. In randomized trials, we labeled these modified carrots with isotopic calcium and fed them to mice and humans to assess calcium bioavailability. In mice feeding regimes (n = 120), we measured (45)Ca incorporation into bones and determined that mice required twice the serving size of control carrots to obtain the calcium found in sCAX1 carrots. We used a dual-stable isotope method with (42)Ca-labeled carrots and i.v. (46)Ca to determine the absorption of calcium from these carrots in humans. In a cross-over study of 15 male and 15 female adults, we found that when people were fed sCAX1 and control carrots, total calcium absorption per 100 g of carrots was 41% +/- 2% higher in sCAX1 carrots. Both the mice and human feeding studies demonstrate increased calcium absorption from sCAX1-expressing carrots compared with controls. These results demonstrate an alternative means of fortifying vegetables with bioavailable calcium.

  7. Acute changes in serum calcium and parathyroid hormone circulating levels induced by the oral intake of five currently available calcium salts in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Deroisy, R; Zartarian, M; Meurmans, L; Nelissenne, N; Micheletti, M C; Albert, A; Reginster, J Y

    1997-05-01

    Several calcium supplements are currently available and many of them are marketed without proper comparison of the bioavailability of the actual preparations. The aim of the present trial was to evaluate and compare the acute changes in serum calcium (Ca) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels following the oral administration of a vehicle and of five calcium salts currently prescribed in Western Europe. No significant changes in serum Ca or PTH levels were observed after administration of the vehicle. All calcium salts induced significant increases in serum Ca and decreases in serum PTH compared to baseline values. Comparison of the six response curves revealed a significantly greater increase in serum Ca and a greater decrease in serum PTH after each of the calcium salts than observed after the vehicle. However, no statistically significant differences were observed between the different calcium salts for serum Ca increments. The decrease in serum PTH observed after administration of an ossein-hydroxyapatite complex was significantly less important than after the four other calcium salts, even if statistically different than after vehicle. When assessing the area under the curve (AUC) of PTH values, we observed that calcium carbonate and citrate induce a significantly greater decrease in serum PTH than the other calcium salts which are, however, statistically more active than the vehicle. Serum PTH is decreased under the lower limit of the normal range (10 pg/ml), between t60 and t120 for calcium carbonate and citrate and between t60 and t90 for calcium gluconolactate while the mean PTH values remain within the normal range throughout the study with calcium pidolate, the ossein-hydroxyapatite complex and the vehicle. In conclusion, all calcium preparations significantly increase serum calcium and decrease serum parathormone, compared to what is observed after oral intake of a vehicle. However, significant differences in suppression of parathormone are observed

  8. Effects of magnesium, calcium, and serum on reversion of stable L-forms.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, A H; Casida, L E

    1978-11-01

    The L-form of Agromyces ramosus was stable in the absence of penicillin when transferred on heart infusion agar containing NaCl and serum. It reverted to its bacterial form, however, when magnesium replaced the serum in this medium. On a dilute medium containing NaCl but lacking serum, the L-form died out unless calcium, magnesium, or serum was added. It grew as the L-form in the presence of calcium of serum but reverted to the bacterial form in the presence of magnesium. Reversion also occurred when magnesium was added to the dilute medium containing serum. Calcium interfered with or prevented the magnesium-induced reversion. The revertant bacterial form resulting from these studies was not NaCl sensitive, as was the case of the bacterial revertant of this organism produced in soil (A. H. Horwitz and L. E. Casida, Jr., Can. J. Microbiol, 24:50--55, 1978). PMID:711674

  9. Oral iron acutely elevates bacterial growth in human serum.

    PubMed

    Cross, James H; Bradbury, Richard S; Fulford, Anthony J; Jallow, Amadou T; Wegmüller, Rita; Prentice, Andrew M; Cerami, Carla

    2015-11-23

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and routine supplementation is standard policy for pregnant mothers and children in most low-income countries. However, iron lies at the center of host-pathogen competition for nutritional resources and recent trials of iron administration in African and Asian children have resulted in significant excesses of serious adverse events including hospitalizations and deaths. Increased rates of malaria, respiratory infections, severe diarrhea and febrile illnesses of unknown origin have all been reported, but the mechanisms are unclear. We here investigated the ex vivo growth characteristics of exemplar sentinel bacteria in adult sera collected before and 4 h after oral supplementation with 2 mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate. Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (all gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive) showed markedly elevated growth in serum collected after iron supplementation. Growth rates were very strongly correlated with transferrin saturation (p < 0.0001 in all cases). Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which preferentially scavenges heme iron, was unaffected. These data suggest that even modest oral supplements with highly soluble (non-physiological) iron, as typically used in low-income settings, could promote bacteremia by accelerating early phase bacterial growth prior to the induction of immune defenses.

  10. Oral iron acutely elevates bacterial growth in human serum

    PubMed Central

    Cross, James H.; Bradbury, Richard S.; Fulford, Anthony J.; Jallow, Amadou T.; Wegmüller, Rita; Prentice, Andrew M.; Cerami, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and routine supplementation is standard policy for pregnant mothers and children in most low-income countries. However, iron lies at the center of host-pathogen competition for nutritional resources and recent trials of iron administration in African and Asian children have resulted in significant excesses of serious adverse events including hospitalizations and deaths. Increased rates of malaria, respiratory infections, severe diarrhea and febrile illnesses of unknown origin have all been reported, but the mechanisms are unclear. We here investigated the ex vivo growth characteristics of exemplar sentinel bacteria in adult sera collected before and 4 h after oral supplementation with 2 mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate. Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (all gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive) showed markedly elevated growth in serum collected after iron supplementation. Growth rates were very strongly correlated with transferrin saturation (p < 0.0001 in all cases). Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which preferentially scavenges heme iron, was unaffected. These data suggest that even modest oral supplements with highly soluble (non-physiological) iron, as typically used in low-income settings, could promote bacteremia by accelerating early phase bacterial growth prior to the induction of immune defenses. PMID:26593732

  11. Oral iron acutely elevates bacterial growth in human serum.

    PubMed

    Cross, James H; Bradbury, Richard S; Fulford, Anthony J; Jallow, Amadou T; Wegmüller, Rita; Prentice, Andrew M; Cerami, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and routine supplementation is standard policy for pregnant mothers and children in most low-income countries. However, iron lies at the center of host-pathogen competition for nutritional resources and recent trials of iron administration in African and Asian children have resulted in significant excesses of serious adverse events including hospitalizations and deaths. Increased rates of malaria, respiratory infections, severe diarrhea and febrile illnesses of unknown origin have all been reported, but the mechanisms are unclear. We here investigated the ex vivo growth characteristics of exemplar sentinel bacteria in adult sera collected before and 4 h after oral supplementation with 2 mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate. Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (all gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive) showed markedly elevated growth in serum collected after iron supplementation. Growth rates were very strongly correlated with transferrin saturation (p < 0.0001 in all cases). Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which preferentially scavenges heme iron, was unaffected. These data suggest that even modest oral supplements with highly soluble (non-physiological) iron, as typically used in low-income settings, could promote bacteremia by accelerating early phase bacterial growth prior to the induction of immune defenses. PMID:26593732

  12. Separation and quantitation of serum constituents associated with calcium by gel filtration.

    PubMed

    Toffaletti, J; Gitelman, H J; Savory, J

    1976-12-01

    Gel filtration of serum by use of polyacrylamide beads (Biogel P-2) separates total colcium into four distinct peaks: an initial peak, corresponding to protein-bound calcium; a second peak containing the calcium complexes of citrate, phosphate, lactate, and sulfate; a third peak containing calcium bicarbonate; and a fourth peak or trough corresponding to the serum ionic calcium. An eluent containing (per liter) 140 mmol of sodium, 1.1o mmol of calcium, 0.50 mmol of magnesium, and 10 mmol of 2-([tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl]amino)ethanesulfonic acid(pH 7.40 at 37 degrees C) provides physiological conditions that determine the equilibria between these calcium components. Association constants determined under these conditions permit calculation of the expected concentration of the calcium complexes in each tube of eluent, and these concentrations closely correspond to the amount of bound calcium measured experimentally. The mean distribution of calcium in healthy individuals, as determined by this method, is (per liter): calcium protein, 1.00 mmol; calcium complexes, 0.31 mmol; and ionic calcium, 1.07 mmol.

  13. Comparison Between Measured and Calculated Free Calcium Values at Different Serum Albumin Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Altaf Ahmad; Goyal, Bela; Datta, Sudip Kumar; Ikkurthi, Saidaiah; Pal, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Free ionic calcium is the metabolically active component of total calcium (TCa) in blood. However, most laboratories report TCa levels that are dependent on serum albumin concentration. Hence, several formulae have evolved to calculate free calcium levels from TCa after adjustment for albumin. However, free calcium can directly be measured using direction selective electrodes rather than spectrophotometric methods used in autoanalyzers. Objectives: This study compares the levels of free calcium obtained by measurement by direct ion selective electrode (ISE) and the one calculated as a function of TCa by formulae. Materials and Methods: A total of 254 serum samples submitted to clinical biochemistry laboratory of a tertiary care hospital were analyzed for total protein, albumin, and TCa by standard spectrophotometric methods and for free calcium by direct ISE. Three commonly used formulae viz. Orrell, Berry et al. and Payne et al. were used to calculate adjusted TCa. Calculated free calcium was obtained by taking 50% of these values. Results: A significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between calculated free calcium by all the three formulae and measured free calcium estimated by direct ISE using paired t-test and Bland–Altman plots. Conclusion: Formulae for predicting free calcium by estimating TCa and albumin lacks consistency in prediction and free calcium should be evaluated by direct measurement. PMID:27365914

  14. Influence of dietary calcium on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in renal stone formers.

    PubMed

    D'Amour, P; Gascon-Barré, M; Dufresne, L; Perreault, J P

    1984-11-01

    The role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) in the pathogenesis of idiopathic hypercalciuria was studied in 37 renal stone formers who, during two 10-day periods, followed first a normal and then a low calcium diet. The following samples were taken during each diet; 24 h urine; fasting blood and urine; blood and urine following a 1 g oral calcium load. Patients were divided according to serum calcium level, 24 h urinary calcium excretion on the first diet and fasting calcium excretion on the second diet. Eight patients were found to be normocalciuric (NSF), 16 had absorptive hypercalciuria (AH), five renal hypercalciuria (RH) and eight primary hyperparathyroidism. In NSF and AH, a positive correlation was found between the fasting and the 24 hour urinary calcium (r = 0.787, P less than 0.001), while negative correlations were found between the fasting urinary calcium and the serum parathyroid hormone (r = -0.703, P less than 0.001) or the fasting urinary cyclic AMP (r = -0.434, P less than 0.01). Patients with RH had higher serum PTH and urinary cAMP levels for a given degree of fasting calciuria mainly on the low calcium diet. Mean serum 1,25(OH)2D was similar in NSF (43.6 +/- 4.5 pg/ml), AH (43.6 +/- 2.3 pg/ml) and RH (40.4 +/- 4.8 pg/ml) on the first diet; increases were similar in all groups after 10 d of calcium restriction. A positive correlation was found between the serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations and the 24 h urinary calcium excretion on the first diet in NSF (r = 0.889, P less than 0.001) but not in AH or RH. There was no evidence of such correlation with the low calcium diet. No correlation between the calciuric response to calcium loading and the serum concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D was found. The results suggest that serum concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D may be related to urinary calcium excretion in NSF more than in AH or RH. The factors responsible for the hyperabsorption of calcium in the latter patients remain to be elucidated.

  15. Calcium and Magnesium Supplementation Improves Serum OPG/RANKL in Calcium-Deficient Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yun Jung; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2010-10-01

    Magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been reported to result in increases in bone resorption through changes in the cytokine system, such as decreases in serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) concentrations and increases in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) concentrations. However, there are few data about the effects of Mg supplementation on OPG and RANKL. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of Mg supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), serum OPG, and RANKL in ovariectomized (OVX) rats relative to calcium (Ca) intake levels. Fifty-five Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into the following five groups and fed for 12 weeks as indicated: sham-operated control group (sham), OVX Ca-deficient group (OLCa, 0.1% Ca and 0.05% Mg), OVX Ca-deficient and Mg-supplemented group (OLCaMg, 0.1% Ca and 0.1% Mg), OVX Ca-adequate group (OACa, 0.5% Ca and 0.05% Mg), and OVX Ca-adequate and Mg-supplemented group (OACaMg, 0.5% Ca and 0.1% Mg). The BMD of the lumbar spine, femur, and tibia in the OVX groups was significantly lower than that in the sham group. The OVX group with an adequate-Ca diet showed significantly higher BMC of the lumbar spine compared to the low Ca-diet group regardless of Mg supplementation. The OACaMg group had significantly higher levels of OPG and OPG/RANKL ratio than did the OLCa group. From the above results, it is still unclear whether Mg supplementation can improve bone mineral status, while Mg supplementation with an adequate-Ca diet resulted in a change in cytokines that may promote bone formation.

  16. A theoretical model of cytosolic calcium elevation following wounding in urothelial cell monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, Peter A.; Shabir, Saqib; Southgate, Jennifer; Walker, Dawn

    2013-02-01

    Scratch wounding of a urothelial cell monolayer triggers a number of events including the release of soluble, diffusible signalling factors and mechanical stimulation of cells at the wound edge. These events cause a sustained elevation in cytosolic calcium concentration in the cells surrounding the wound and a transient rise in those further away. The precise form of this calcium transient is believed to play a central role in determining the subsequent response of individual cells and ultimately leads to a co-ordinated, population-level response that rapidly closes the wound. Here we present a framework for modelling the initial phases of this process. We combine a PDE model of diffusion in the extracellular medium and an ODE model of calcium signalling that has been tailored to represent urothelial cells. The ODE model is capable of generating a wide range of calcium transients, including spikes, bursts, oscillations and sustained elevations in the cytosolic calcium concentration. In multi-cell simulations of scratch wounding in a perfusion flow we find that the spatial position of the cells relative to the wound site leads to distinct classes of calcium response, with cells proximal to the wound exhibiting a sustained elevation and cells distal to the wound exhibiting a more transient elevation. We compare these results to existing experimental data and generate a number of novel predictions that could be used to test the model experimentally.

  17. Acromegalic gigantism with low serum level of growth hormone and elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-I.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, R; Yoshida, T; Sakane, N; Yasuda, T; Umekawa, T; Kondo, M; Shimatsu, A; Hizuka, N; Sano, T

    1995-03-01

    In a case of acromegalic gigantism with hyperprolactinemia is reported, the basal serum growth hormone (GH) levels ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 ng/ml. Serum GH response to either insulin-induced hypoglycemia or GH-releasing hormone was blunted. Frequent blood sampling showed non-pulsatile GH secretion. Serum prolactin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were elevated. After unsuccessful surgery, bromocriptine treatment normalized serum prolactin without affecting serum GH and IGF-I levels. Combined administration of octreotide with bromocriptine reduced serum GH and IGF-I levels. In this case, non-pulsatile GH secretion and enhanced tissue sensitivity to GH may induce hypersecretion of IGF-I and cause clinical acromegalic gigantism. PMID:7787324

  18. Elevation of intracellular calcium levels in spiral ganglion cells by trimethyltin.

    PubMed

    Fechter, L D; Liu, Y

    1995-11-01

    The neurotoxicant, trimethyltin (TMT) produces cochlear impairment at far lower dose levels and far more rapidly than it does central nervous system effects. The initial effects of TMT in the cochlea, in vivo, are consistent with disruption of the inner hair cell type-1 spiral ganglion cell synapse although it is uncertain whether the effect is on presynaptic and/or postsynaptic units. This synapse is believed to be an excitatory glutamatergic one, providing the possibility that TMT could induce an excitotoxic process resulting in elevations in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). The objective of this study was to determine whether TMT had direct toxic effects on the postsynaptic spiral ganglion cells studied in primary culture and to identify the role of extracellular calcium in such an effect. The marker of interest was the effect of this agent on [Ca2+]i levels as determined using quantitation of the fluorescent calcium dye, Fura-2. TMT did induce a marked and sustained elevation in [Ca2+]i level in the spiral ganglion cells that appeared to have a rapid initial phase and a slower saturating phase. Studies performed using calcium-free medium showed that elevation of [Ca2+]i in spiral ganglion cells by TMT was attenuated but not entirely blocked. Further, the L-type calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, was able to inhibit the initial increase in [Ca2+]i, suggesting that at least this phase of the TMT effect was mediated by calcium channels, although nifedipine had no significant effect on the time to reach the maximal [Ca2+]i level. Parallel control experiments performed using application of exogenous glutamate and depolarizing K+ concentrations also produced elevation in [Ca2+]i levels. The data indicate that TMT elevates [Ca2+]i in isolated spiral ganglion cells both by increasing extracellular uptake via Ca2+ channels and also by releasing Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Thus TMT ototoxicity appears to include a direct postsynaptic toxic event. PMID:8647712

  19. The influence of lithium on calcium and magnesium homeostasis in serum and tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Pasternak, Kazimierz; Musik, Irena

    2003-01-01

    Lithium is used in medicine. However, its administration can have negative side effects, disturb the water-electrolyte equilibrium and affect the level of essential elements. For these reasons the influence of oral lithium intoxication at the dose of 150 mg Li dm(-3) on magnesium and calcium levels in serum and tissues of rats was investigated. The concentration of Mg and Ca in serum increased throughout the experiment. The concentration of magnesium in tissues decreased after three weeks in liver, kidney, brain and femoral muscle. The trend of the changes of calcium tissue concentration was opposite to the one observed in the case of magnesium.

  20. A Case of Vitamin D Deficiency without Elevation of Serum Alkaline Phosphatase in a Carrier of Hypophosphatasia.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kumihiro; Mukai, Tokuo; Furuya, Akiko; Suzuki, Shigeru; Tanahashi, Yusuke; Azuma, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a screening marker for the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency, which may fail to be diagnosed if serum ALP is not elevated. Here, we describe a case of vitamin D deficiency without elevation of serum ALP. A 1-year-old Japanese girl was referred to our hospital for the evaluation of genu varum. Her serum intact PTH level was elevated, while her serum ALP level was normal. Furthermore, her serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was reduced, and her urine phosphoethanolamine (PEA) level was mildly elevated. ALPL gene analysis revealed she was a heterozygous carrier of hypophosphatasia (c.1559delT). Serum intact PTH and urine PEA evaluations were helpful for diagnosing vitamin D deficiency and hypophosphatasia carrier status, respectively. Therefore, the possibility of vitamin D deficiency without elevation of serum ALP should be considered. PMID:24170964

  1. Transient elevations of cytosolic free calcium retard subsequent apoptosis in neutrophils in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, M K; Hardwick, S J; Meagher, L C; Savill, J S; Haslett, C

    1993-01-01

    Elevation of cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) has been reported to induce apoptosis in a number of cell types. However, in the neutrophil, which undergoes apoptosis constitutively during aging in vitro, activation by inflammatory mediators elevates [Ca2+]i and prolongs lifespan via inhibition of apoptosis. To examine this paradox, we investigated the effects of modulation of [Ca2+]i upon apoptosis of neutrophils in vitro. Calcium ionophores (A23187, ionomycin) retarded apoptosis in neutrophil populations after 20 h (P < 0.001). Conversely, intracellular Ca(2+)-chelation, using bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) acetoxymethyl ester (AM) promoted apoptosis (P < 0.02). W-7 (an inhibitor of calmodulin) also promoted apoptosis (P < 0.05). Measurements of [Ca2+]i, using fura-2, showed (a) increased apoptosis in neutrophil populations was not associated with elevated [Ca2+]i, (b) neutrophils cultured with ionophore at concentrations inhibiting apoptosis exhibited transient (< 1 h) elevations of [Ca2+]i, to levels previously reported with receptor-mediated stimuli, and (c) BAPTA was able to prevent the elevation of [Ca2+]i and the inhibition of apoptosis produced by ionophore. Modulation of apoptosis occurred without alterations in intracellular pH. Thus, in the neutrophil, unlike lymphoid cells, elevation of [Ca2+]i exerts an inhibitory effect upon apoptosis. Furthermore, these data suggest that transient elevation of [Ca2+]i elicits signaling events leading to prolonged inhibition of apoptosis. Images PMID:8392090

  2. Association of serum calcium concentrations with fibrinogen and homocysteine in nondiabetic Korean subjects

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Lee, Sung Won; Shin, Juyoung; Moon, Sung Dae; Han, Je Ho; Cha, Bong Yun; Kim, Eun Sook

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Considerable evidence shows that increased serum calcium levels are associated with metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and increased mortality. This study investigated whether serum calcium, within a normal range, is significantly associated with serum fibrinogen and homocysteine, markers of increased cardiovascular disease risk in nondiabetic Korean subjects. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on 1096 subjects (mean age, 55.1 ± 11.1 years; 36.1% women) undergoing a general health checkup. Serum biochemistry was analyzed including serum albumin-corrected calcium (Cac), insulin resistance (IR, using homeostasis model assessment [HOMA]), fibrinogen, and homocysteine. Compared with patients within the lowest Cac quartile, those with higher Cac levels had increased fibrinogen and homocysteine levels as well as an increased proportion of smoking, dyslipidemia, and HOMA-IR. Correlation analyses revealed linear relationships for Cac with fibrinogen and homocysteine in both genders. After adjustment for confounding factors, serum Cac was significantly associated with high fibrinogen (odds ratio [OR] for the highest vs the lowest quartile = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09–2.83, P = 0.02) and homocysteine (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.07–3.11, P = 0.027). Multivariate regression models showed that Cac was linearly associated with fibrinogen (standardized β = 0.14, P < 0.001) and homocysteine (standardized β = 0.07, P = 0.009). High normal calcium concentrations were independently associated with increased levels of fibrinogen and homocysteine. Further investigation is needed to validate whether slightly increased calcium levels within the normal range indicate a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27310988

  3. Serum creatine kinase elevation associated with olanzapine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Punukollu, Bhaskar; Rutherford, Helen

    2008-01-01

    On 2 May 2008, a 25-year-old male patient on olanzapine 15 mg developed mild central chest pain, and blood tests revealed a high creatine kinase (CK) value at 1016 iu/l. Troponin, CK-MB, CK:MB ratio, full blood count (FBC), urea and electrolytes (U&E), C reactive protein (CRP) and glucose were all normal. Liver enzymes were marginally raised: alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 91 iu/l, γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) 46 iu/l, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 137 iu/l. The ECG was normal and the chest pain later resolved and was thought likely to be due to costochondritis. A repeat blood test on 7 May revealed further elevation of CK at 1391 iu/l and olanzapine was stopped. CK continued to rise: 19 May 2857 iu/l, 20 May 3285 iu/l, and 22 May 3646 iu/l. On 30 May CK dropped to 708 iu/l, on 20 June it was 593 iu/l, and on 30 June CK was 343 iu/l. The patient was started on amisulpiride on 15 July and CK began to rise again: on 18 July it was 445 iu/l and on 31 July CK was 480 iu/l, at which time the medication was stopped. The patient did not have any signs or symptoms of physical disorder on this occasion. We have never seen a patient develop such high CK values in the absence of any clinical or other significant laboratory abnormalities. We can rule out exercise as the cause as he attends an inpatient unit and we are aware that his exercise has been light to moderate at most; also, he stopped exercising at our request on 7 May 2008, yet CK continued to rise. There is no clinical indication of other causes of elevated CK such as myositis, and CK-MB and CK-MB:CK ratio were normal throughout, so it was not cardiac in origin. We believe olanzapine caused the elevated CK value. When the patient was rechallenged with amisulpiride on 15 May his CK again rose and the medication therefore had to be stopped. There are three similar cases that have been reported in the past when patients on second generation antipsychotics developed CK elevation in the absence of other clinical or

  4. Acute Cholecystitis with Significantly Elevated Levels of Serum Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9

    PubMed Central

    Akimoto, Shuji; Banshodani, Masataka; Nishihara, Masahiro; Nambu, Junko; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Shimamoto, Fumio; Dohi, Kiyohiko; Sugino, Keizo; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), a marker of malignant tumors, is generally slightly elevated in benign conditions. We report a case of acute cholecystitis with a significantly elevated level of serum CA 19-9 based on positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) findings. A 65-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain and fever. A CT image revealed an enlarged gallbladder without tumor shadows. The C-reactive protein (CRP) level was elevated to 7.66 mg/dl. Moreover, the serum CA 19-9 level was significantly elevated to 19,392 U/ml. We started antibiotic treatment, because we suspected acute cholecystitis, but still, we could not ignore the possible presence of malignant tumors. After 11 days of antibiotic treatment, serum CRP and CA 19-9 levels decreased to 0.11 mg/dl and 1,049 U/ml, respectively. There was an accumulation of fluorine 18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (maximum standardized uptake value, 9.3) without tumor shadows in the liver, near the gallbladder, on the PET-CT examination. We considered the possibility that the inflammation had spread from the gallbladder to the liver, made a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, and performed a cholecystectomy 33 days after treatment initiation. The serum CA 19-9 level decreased to 45 U/ml after the surgery. One year after the surgery, the patient was alive, and the serum CA 19-9 level was 34 U/ml. Acute cholecystitis with a significantly high elevation of the serum CA 19-9 level is rare. In such cases, it is important to confirm the change in the serum CA 19-9 level over time after antibiotic treatment and perform imaging studies to distinguish between inflammation and malignancy. PMID:27721726

  5. Significantly Elevated Serum Lipase in Pregnancy with Nausea and Vomiting: Acute Pancreatitis or Hyperemesis Gravidarum?

    PubMed Central

    Hooshvar, Nina; Tice, Daphne; Kao, Elaine; Nawabi, Suhalia; Jones, Steven; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is a severe manifestation of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and it is associated with weight loss and metabolic abnormalities. It is known that abnormal laboratory values, including mildly elevated serum lipase level, could be associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. However, in this case report details of two women with hyperemesis gravidarum but with significantly elevated serum lipase levels were discussed. These patients presented with severe nausea and vomiting but without abdominal pain. They were found to have severely elevated lipase levels over 1,000 units/liter. In the absence of other findings of pancreatitis, they were treated with conservative measures for hyperemesis gravidarum, with eventual resolution to normal lipase levels. Although significantly elevated lipase level in pregnant patients with nausea and vomiting is a concern for acute pancreatitis, these two cases of significantly elevated serum lipase without other clinical findings of pancreatitis led to this report that serum lipase could be quite elevated in hyperemesis gravidarum and that it might not be an accurate biochemical marker for acute pancreatitis. Imaging studies are thus necessary to establish the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25709846

  6. Pentagastrin, calcium and whisky stimulated serum calcitonin in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Emmertsen, K K; Nielsen, H E; Mosekilde, L; Hansen, H H

    1980-01-01

    The efficiency of pentagastrin, calcium and whisky in raising serum immunoreactive calcitonin (S-iCT) concentrations was analysed in 6 patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and in 8 healthy controls. All 6 patients responded to pentagastrin with a significant increase in S-iCT, 5 responded to calcium and only 3 to whisky. In the 8 controls no or only a modest increase in S-iCT occurred following pentagastrin, calcium and whisky with no difference between the three. It is concluded that pentagastrin is the most useful stimulative agent for ICT secretion in patients with C-cell neoplasms. In selected cases the additional use of calcium could be advantageous.

  7. A rare case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome without elevated serum creatine kinase.

    PubMed

    Nisijima, Koichi; Shioda, Katutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening adverse reaction to antipsychotic drugs. Although there is no specific examination able to diagnose NMS, serum creatine kinase (CK) elevation has been reported in over 90% of NMS patients. In this report, we describe a patient who developed NMS but had normal CK levels. The patient presented with hyperthermia of over 38°C, severe muscle rigidity, autonomic dysfunction, and altered mental status. Although serum CK levels were measured three times during the course of NMS, the levels were within the normal range. The patient died of respiratory failure 13 days after the onset of NMS symptoms. As patients without elevated serum CK levels are rarely reported, we discuss potential reasons why the serum CK was not elevated in our patient. This case shows clinicians that although serum CK elevation is a useful indicator for the early detection of NMS, the diagnosis of NMS must be determined by clinical symptoms as otherwise, the appropriate treatment procedures for NMS may be delayed.

  8. [Studies on the mechanism of elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in alcoholic liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Sakizono, Kenji; Oita, Tatsuo; Eto, Masaaki; Bito, Sanae; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Kasakura, Shinpei

    2002-03-01

    We measured serum PIVKA-II concentrations in 18 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease was diagnosed by the history of ethanol intake of more than 900 ml/day for over 10 years. Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed histologically. Infections with hepatitis B and C viruses were ruled out by assaying serum virus markers. No tumor was detected in liver by ultrasonography and computed tomography during observation period. None of the patients studied were positive for alpafetoprotein (AFP). Eight out of 18 (44.4%) patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis showed elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. In contrast, only eight out of 93 (8.6%) patients with nonalcholic liver cirrhosis had elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. PIVKA-II is well known as a tumor marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The rates of positive PIVKA-II found in alcoholic liver cirrhosis approached its rates in HCC. However, the time course for the elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels was different each other in alcoholic liver cirrhosis and HCC. In HCC, serum PIVKA-II "levels" continued to elevate until therapy. In contrast, its elevation was transient and its levels returned to baseline in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The values of ALT (GPT), gamma-GTP, and ALP correlated poorly with serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. To investigate the mechanism by which elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis occurred, we studied the effect of vitamin K on production of PIVKA-II and AFP by hepatocytes. Hepatocytes(Alexander PLC/PRF/F cell line) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of vitamin K (Kaytwo, Eisai, Tokyo). Vitamin K had no effect on AFP production. In contrast, PIVKA-II production was inhibited by addition of vitamin K in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was suppressed by administration of vitamin K (Kaytwo) to these patients. Taken

  9. Elevation of circulating serotonin improves calcium dynamics in the peripartum dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Samantha R; Prichard, Austin P; Endres, Elizabeth L; Newhouse, Stefanie A; Peters, Tonia L; Crump, Peter M; Akins, Matthew S; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Hernandez, Laura L

    2016-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a metabolic disorder that affects dairy cows during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 days prepartum with either saline or 1.0mg/kg bodyweight of the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, 5hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP). On infusion days, blood was collected before, after, and at 2, 4, and 8h postinfusion. Blood and urine were collected daily before the infusion period, for 14 days postpartum and on day 30 postpartum. Milk was collected daily during the postpartum period. Feed intake and milk yield were unaffected by 5-HTP infusion postpartum. Cows infused with 5-HTP had elevated circulating serotonin concentrations prepartum. Infusion with 5-HTP induced a transient hypocalcemia in Jersey cows prepartum, but not in any other treatment. Holstein cows infused with saline had the highest milk calcium on the day of and day after parturition. Postpartum, circulating total calcium tended to be elevated, and urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) concentrations were elevated in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP. Overall, Jerseys had higher urine DPD concentrations postpartum when compared with Holsteins. Taken together, these data warrant further investigation of the potential therapeutic benefit of 5-HTP administration prepartum for prevention of hypocalcemia. Further research should focus on delineation of mechanisms associated with 5-HTP infusion that control calcium homeostasis during the peripartum period in Holstein and Jersey cows.

  10. Overexpression of Sly41 suppresses COPII vesicle–tethering deficiencies by elevating intracellular calcium levels

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Indrani; Barlowe, Charles

    2016-01-01

    SLY41 was identified as a multicopy suppressor of loss of Ypt1, a Rab GTPase essential for COPII vesicle tethering at the Golgi complex. SLY41 encodes a polytopic membrane protein with homology to a class of solute transporter proteins, but how overexpression suppresses vesicle-tethering deficiencies is not known. Here we show that Sly41 is efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles and actively cycles between the ER and Golgi compartments. SLY41 displays synthetic negative genetic interactions with PMR1, which encodes the major Golgi-localized Ca2+/Mn2+ transporter and suggests that Sly41 influences cellular Ca2+ and Mn2+ homeostasis. Experiments using the calcium probe aequorin to measure intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in live cells reveal that Sly41 overexpression significantly increases cytosolic calcium levels. Although specific substrates of the Sly41 transporter were not identified, our findings indicate that localized overexpression of Sly41 to the early secretory pathway elevates cytosolic calcium levels to suppress vesicle-tethering mutants. In vitro SNARE cross-linking assays were used to directly monitor the influence of Ca2+ on tethering and fusion of COPII vesicles with Golgi membranes. Strikingly, calcium at suppressive concentrations stimulated SNARE-dependent membrane fusion when vesicle-tethering activity was reduced. These results show that calcium positively regulates the SNARE-dependent fusion stage of ER–Golgi transport. PMID:27030673

  11. Calcium intake, serum vitamin D and obesity in children: is there an association?

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Kelly Aparecida; Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Loureiro, Laís Monteiro Rodrigues; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; de Novaes, Juliana Farias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between calcium intake and serum vitamin D levels and childhood obesity by an integrative review. DATA SOURCE: The research was conducted in the databases PubMed/medLine, Science Direct and SciELO with 2001 to 2014 publications. We used the combined terms in English: ''children'' and ''calcium'' or ''children'' and ''vitamin D'' associated with the descriptors: ''obesity'', ''adiposity'' or ''body fat'' for all bases. Cross-sectional and cohort studies, as well as clinical trials, were included. Review articles or those that that have not addressed the association of interest were excluded. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eight articles were part of this review, five of which were related to calcium and three to vitamin D. Most studies had a longitudinal design. The analyzed studies found an association between calcium intake and obesity, especially when age and sex were considered. Inverse relationship between serum vitamin D and measures of adiposity in children has been observed and this association was influenced by the sex of the patient and by the seasons of the year. CONCLUSIONS: The studies reviewed showed an association between calcium and vitamin D with childhood obesity. Considering the possible protective effect of these micronutrients in relation to childhood obesity, preventive public health actions should be designed, with emphasis on nutritional education. PMID:25890445

  12. Changes in serum calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in captive ruminants affected by diet manipulation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele; Weber, Martha; Valdes, Eduardo V; Neiffer, Donald; Fontenot, Diedre; Fleming, Gregory; Stetter, Mark

    2010-09-01

    A combination of low serum calcium (Ca), high serum phosphorus (P), and low serum magnesium (Mg) has been observed in individual captive ruminants, primarily affecting kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), eland (Taurotragus oryx), nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus), and giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). These mineral abnormalities have been associated with chronic laminitis, acute tetany, seizures, and death. Underlying rumen disease secondary to feeding highly fermentable carbohydrates was suspected to be contributing to the mineral deficiencies, and diet changes that decreased the amount of starch fed were implemented in 2003. Serum chemistry values from before and after the diet change were compared. The most notable improvement after the diet change was a decrease in mean serum P. Statistically significant decreases in mean serum P were observed for the kudu (102.1-66.4 ppm), eland (73.3-58.4 ppm), and bongo (92.1-64.2 ppm; P < 0.05). Although not statistically significant, mean serum P levels also decreased for nyala (99.3-86.8 ppm) and giraffe (82.6-68.7 ppm). Significant increases in mean serum Mg were also observed for kudu (15.9-17.9 ppm) and eland (17.1-19.7 ppm). A trend toward increased serum Mg was also observed in nyala, bongo, and giraffe after the diet change. No significant changes in mean serum Ca were observed in any of the five species evaluated, and Ca was within normal ranges for domestic ruminants. The mean Ca:P ratio increased to greater than one in every species after the diet change, with kudu, eland, and bongo showing a statistically significant change. The results of this study indicate that the diet change had a generally positive effect on serum P and Mg levels. PMID:20945636

  13. Effect of elevated serum prolactin concentrations on cytokine production and natural killer cell activity.

    PubMed

    Clodi, M; Svoboda, T; Kotzmann, H; Deyssig, R; Woloszczuk, W; Zielinski, C C; Luger, A

    1992-12-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies in rodents and human suggested an immunostimulatory effect of prolactin. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of chronically elevated serum prolactin concentrations on the immune system in patients with prolactinomas. For this purpose parameters of the humoral and cellular immune system were studied in seven patients with prolactinomas on two occasions (1) when their serum prolactin concentration had been normalized through treatment with dopamine agonists and (2) when their serum prolactin concentration was high. Serum concentrations of immunoglobulines, interleukin 1, 3 and 6, TNF-alpha, interferon-gamma and the soluble interleukin 2 receptor, leukocyte subsets and the natural killer cell activity were found to be within the normal range on both occasions, i.e. at normal and at high serum prolactin concentrations. The assumption could be made that long-lasting elevation of serum prolactin concentration induces adaptive changes when the acute stimulatory effects of prolactin on several parameters of the immune system have subsided.

  14. Clinical significance of elevated serum and urine amylase levels in patients with appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Swensson, E E; Maull, K I

    1981-12-01

    During the 45 month period beginning January 1977, 251 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of acute appendicitis underwent celiotomy at the Medical College of Virginia Hospital. A preoperative serum or urine amylase determination was recorded in 155 of the patients (62 percent). Of this group, 15 patients (10 percent) had elevation of serum amylase or 2 hour urine amylase. Hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria directly led to misdiagnosis or treatment delay in 5 of the 15 patients. Appendiceal rupture occurred in three patients, two of whom had prolonged (greater than 1 month) hospitalizations directly attributable to the misdiagnosis. As a result of this study, we conclude that (1) acute appendicitis and elevated amylase levels may occur concurrently, (2) hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria should not dissuade the surgeon from early operation if other clinical features suggest appendicitis, and (3) abdominal pain and elevation of amylase level define significant intraabdominal disease, not specifically pancreatic disease.

  15. Characterization of the effect of chronic administration of a calcium-sensing receptor antagonist, ronacaleret, on renal calcium excretion and serum calcium in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Caltabiano, Stephen; Dollery, Colin T; Hossain, Mohammad; Kurtinecz, Milena T; Desjardins, John P; Favus, Murray J; Kumar, Rajiv; Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A

    2013-09-01

    Ronacaleret is an orally-active calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) antagonist that has the potential for therapeutic utility in the stimulation of PTH release, notably as a bone anabolic agent comparable to recombinant human PTH(1-34) (rhPTH(1-34)). A recent study has shown that, despite the ability to increase circulating PTH levels in postmenopausal women in a dose-dependent manner, minimal effects of ronacaleret on bone mineral density have been observed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the PTH profile as well as calcium metabolism parameters as a marker of PTH biological activity following the administration of ronacaleret or rhPTH(1-34). Administration of ronacaleret led to lower peak levels of PTH than were observed with rhPTH(1-34), however, greater total PTH exposure was observed. Further, chronic administration of either agent was associated with increases in urinary calcium excretion and serum calcium levels, with the magnitude of the changes following ronacaleret significantly greater than that for rhPTH(1-34). The greater magnitude of effects observed with ronacaleret is likely due to the greater total PTH exposure, and is potentially reflective of a state comparable to mild hyperparathyroidism. It is not clear whether the administration of all calcilytics would lead to a similar result, or is due to characteristics specific to ronacaleret.

  16. Helminths and malaria co-infections are associated with elevated serum IgE

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Both helminth and malaria infections result in a highly polarized immune response characterized by IgE production. This study aimed to investigate the total serum IgE profile in vivo as a measure of Th2 immune response in malaria patients with and without helminth co-infection. Methods A cross sectional observational study composed of microscopically confirmed malaria positive (N = 197) and malaria negative (N = 216) apparently healthy controls with and without helminth infection was conducted at Wondo Genet Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. A pre-designed structured format was utilized to collect socio-demographic and clinical data of the subjects. Detection and quantification of helminths, malaria parasites and determination of serum IgE levels were carried out following standard procedures. Results Irrespective of helminth infection, individuals infected by malaria showed significantly high levels of serum IgE compared with malaria free apparently healthy controls (with and without helminth infections). Moreover, malaria patients co-infected with intestinal helminths showed high level of serum IgE compared with those malaria patients without intestinal helminths (2198 IU/ml versus 1668 IU/ml). A strong statistically significant association was observed between malaria parasite density and elevated serum IgE levels (2047 IU/ml versus 1778 IU/ml; P = 0.001) with high and low parasitaemia (parasite density >50,000 parasite/μl of blood), respectively. Likewise, helminth egg loads were significantly associated with elevated serum IgE levels (P = 0.003). Conclusions The elevated serum IgE response in malaria patients irrespective of helminth infection and its correlation with malaria parasite density and helminth egg intensity support that malaria infection is also a strong driver of IgE production as compared to helminths. PMID:24886689

  17. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme is elevated in association with underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.B.; Cale, W.F.; Lapp, N.L. )

    1991-10-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (SACE) and lysozyme activity were measured in a group of 40 underground coal miners and two control groups, 20 subjects with sarcoidosis and 15 normal non-dust-exposed volunteers. The miners were grouped first according to whether they had recent exposure (still actively mining or retired three years or less prior to measurement) or temporally more distant exposure (retired more than three years prior to measurement). Secondly, they were grouped as to whether or not they had coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). The subjects with sarcoidosis were grouped according to disease activity. As expected, the subjects with active sarcoidosis had elevated SACE activity compared with normal subjects. The coal miners as a group did not have elevation of their SACE activity. However, the coal miners with recent exposure had elevated SACE activity (57.1 {plus minus} 3.9 U/ml) compared with normal controls (43.8 {plus minus} 1.5 U/ml, p = 0.007). The SACE activity in miners without recent exposure was not elevated (39.8 {plus minus} 1.3 U/ml) compared with the normal controls. No increase in SACE activity was found when the miners were grouped according to the presence or absence of CWP. In contrast, the miners' serum lysozyme activity was not elevated. Since alveolar macrophages are a potential source of SACE, elevation of SACE activity in underground coal miners may reflect alveolar macrophage activation caused by increased pulmonary mixed coal mine dust burden. Furthermore, since both SACE and serum lysozyme are elevated in association with silicosis, these findings may confirm that the macrophage responses to inhaled silica and coal dust differ.

  18. Chemotherapy Response Rates among Endometrial Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Kizer, Nora T.; Hatem, Hatem; Nugent, Elizabeth K.; Zhou, Gongfu; Moore, Kathleen; Heller, Paul; Mutch, David G.; Thaker, Premal H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This retrospective study evaluates the influence of serum platelet count on chemotherapy response rates among women with endometrial cancer. Methods From three separate cancer centers, a total of 318 patients with endometrial cancer who received post-operative chemotherapy between June 1999 and October 2009 were retrospectively identified. Endometrioid, serous, clear cell, and carcinosarcoma histologies were included. Subjects were classified as having an elevated platelet count if their serum platelet count was greater than 400 × 109/L at the time of initial diagnosis. Primary outcome was chemotherapy response, classified as either complete or partial/refractory. Secondary outcomes were disease free and disease specific survival (DFS, DSS). Chi-square and Student t-tests were performed as appropriate. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess serum platelet effect on survival. Results There were 125 deaths, 76 recurrences, and 48 disease progressions. Of the total group, 53 (16.7%) were categorized as having an elevated platelet count. An elevated platelet count was associated with a lower chemotherapy response rate in univariate analysis (HR 2.8; 95% CI 1.46, 5.38; p <0.01). Multivariate analysis showed elevated platelets to be independently associated with decreased DFS (HR 2.24; 95% CI 1.26, 3.98; p<0.01) but not DSS (HR 1.03, 95%CI 0.56, 1.88, p=0.93). Conclusions Endometrial cancer patients with an elevated serum platelet count > 400 × 109/L may have lower chemotherapy response rates and are at increased risk for recurrence when compared to patients with a count within normal range. PMID:26098089

  19. Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to bone mineral density among US adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A higher calcium intake is still the primary recommendation for the prevention of osteoporosis, while vitamin D deficiency is often not addressed. To study the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in regard to hip bone mineral density (BMD) in ...

  20. Dietary calcium intake, serum copper concentration and bone density in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Strause, L.; Andon, M.B.; Howard, G.; Smith, K.T.; Saltman, P. Procter and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH )

    1991-03-11

    Data from experimental animal nutrition and animal husbandry indicate that several trace minerals, including copper (Cu) are involved in bone metabolism. In addition, a large body of data suggests that low dietary calcium (Ca) intake is a risk factor for age related bone loss. The authors measured the serum (Cu), dietary Ca intake (dCa) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine of 225 postmenopausal women. The median dCa and serum (Cu) were 562 mg/d and 9.73 umoles/L, respectively. Serum (Cu) but, not dCa, was greater in subjects with a history of estrogen therapy (ERT). BMD was higher in subjects with above median dCa and serum (Cu) (group 1) compared to those with below median values (group 2). BMD was intermediate for subjects with either Low serum (Cu):High dCa or High serum (Cu):Low dCa. This relationship was observed in the subject group as a whole, as well as in subgroups partitioned according to history of ERT. Groups 1 and 2 did not differ in basic demographic characteristics such as age, age at menopause, body weight and height. These data support the hypothesis that Ca and Cu nutriture are determinants of skeletal health in postmenopausal women.

  1. Adult Kawasaki's disease with myocarditis, splenomegaly, and highly elevated serum ferritin levels.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Pherez, Francisco M; Alexiadis, Varvara; Gagos, Marios; Strollo, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Kawasaki's disease is a disease of unknown cause. The characteristic clinical features of Kawasaki's disease are fever> or =102 degrees F for> or =5 days accompanied by a bilateral bulbar conjunctivitis/conjunctival suffusion, erythematous rash, cervical adenopathy, pharyngeal erythema, and swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet. Kawasaki's disease primarily affects children and is rare in adults. In children, Kawasaki's disease is more likely to be associated with aseptic meningitis, coronary artery aneurysms, and thrombocytosis. In adult Kawasaki's disease, unilateral cervical adenopathy, arthritis, conjunctival suffusion/conjunctivitis, and elevated serum transaminases (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT]/serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase [SGPT]) are more likely. Kawasaki's disease in adults may be mimicked by other acute infections with fever and rash, that is, group A streptococcal scarlet fever, toxic shock syndrome (TSS), and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF). Because there are no specific tests for Kawasaki's disease, diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and the syndromic approach. In addition to rash and fever, scarlet fever is characterized by circumoral pallor, oropharyngeal edema, Pastia's lines, and peripheral eosinophilia, but not conjunctival suffusion, splenomegaly, swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet, thrombocytosis, or an elevated SGOT/SGPT. In TSS, in addition to rash and fever, there is conjunctival suffusion, oropharyngeal erythema, and edema of the dorsum of the hands/feet, an elevated SGOT/SGPT, and thrombocytopenia. Patients with TSS do not have cervical adenopathy or splenomegaly. RMSF presents with fever and a maculopapular rash that becomes petechial, first appearing on the wrists/ankles after 3 to 5 days. RMSF is accompanied by a prominent headache, periorbital edema, conjunctival suffusion, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, an elevated SGOT/SGPT, swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet, but not oropharyngeal

  2. Influence of the nature of calcium salts on serum calcium, phosphorus, calcitonin, growth hormone, and somatomedin C.

    PubMed

    Reginster, J Y; Denis, D; Albert, A; Gaspar, S; Heynen, G; Deroisy, R; Franchimont, P

    1988-01-01

    Twenty healthy males were randomly divided into three groups. Each subject received either 405 mg elemental calcium (Ca) as a salt linked to an amino acid precursor, 405 mg CaC12 or 1000 mg Ca as Ca gluconolactate and carbonate. In all three cases, Ca intake led to an increase of serum Ca and TCT production and a decrease of PTH liberation. However, when Ca is linked to the amino acid precursor, an elective stimulation of growth hormone (GH) and somatomedin C (SmC) occurs. Due to the nature of its amino acid precursor, this salt seems to stimulate GH and SmC liberation through hypophysis. This could be a major pathway in decoupling of the sequence resorption-formation and therapy of metabolic bone diseases. PMID:3375576

  3. Elevated total serum immunoglobulin E (>1000 IU/mL): implications?

    PubMed

    Tay, T R; Bosco, J; Aumann, H; O'Hehir, R; Hew, M

    2016-07-01

    Atopic eczema, allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis, helminthic infections and rare primary immunodeficiencies are known to elevate total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) above 1000 IU/mL. However, of 352 patients with IgE >1000 IU/mL seen in our hospital over a 5-year period, less than 50% had these conditions. Markedly elevated IgE levels in the rest of the patients were associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and food allergy, instances where the test is of limited diagnostic utility. PMID:27405892

  4. Low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Ho, Wen-Chao; Caffrey, James L.; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2014-10-15

    Background: Despite animal evidence suggests that zinc modulates cadmium nephrotoxicity, limited human data are available. Objective: To test the hypothesis that low serum zinc concentrations may increase the risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction in humans. Methods: Data from 1545 subjects aged 20 or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2012 were analyzed. Renal function was defined as impaired when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) fell below 60 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and/or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio surpassed 2.5 in men and 3.5 mg/mmol in women. Results: Within the study cohort, 117 subjects had reduced eGFR and 214 had elevated urinary albumin. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with elevated blood cadmium (>0.53 μg/L) were more likely to have a reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR]=2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–4.50) and a higher urinary albumin (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.69) than their low cadmium (<0.18 μg/L) peers. In addition, for any given cadmium exposure, low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of reduced eGFR (OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.39–8.28). A similar increase in the odds ratio was observed between declining serum zinc and albuminuria but failed to reach statistical significance. Those with lower serum zinc/blood cadmium ratios were likewise at a greater risk of renal dysfunction (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study results suggest that low serum zinc concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Elevated cadmium exposure is global public health issue and the assessment of zinc nutritional status may be an important covariate in determining its effective renal toxicity. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium was associated with increased risk of nephrotoxicity. • Low serum zinc may exacerbate risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction. • Both zinc deficiency and elevated cadmium exposure are global public health issues.

  5. Association between Serum Uric Acid and Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Both the serum uric acid (SUA) level and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are related to metabolic syndrome. However, the association between SUA and elevated ALT has not been elucidated in the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between SUA and elevated ALT in the general population of China; Methods: A total of 11,572 adults (≥35 years of age) participated in this survey. Elevated ALT was defined as >40 U/L. SUA ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in males or ≥6.0 mg/dL in females was defined as hyperuricemia. SUA within the reference range was divided into quartiles, and its associations with elevated ALT were evaluated by logistic regressions; Results: A total of 7.4% participants had elevated ALT. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.9% in males and 7.3% in females. There was a significantly positive dose-response association between SUA levels and the prevalence of elevated ALT. After adjusting for potential confounders, a positive relationship for elevated ALT was observed in subjects with hyperuricemia (odds ratio [OR]: 2.032, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.443–2.861 for men; OR: 2.045, 95% CI: 1.221–3.425 for women, both p < 0.05). Within the reference range, the association between SUA and elevated ALT persisted in the fourth quartile (OR: 1.467, 95% CI: 1.063–2.025 for men; OR: 1.721, 95% CI: 1.146–2.585 for women, both p < 0.05); Conclusions: Our results indicated that an increased SUA level, even within the reference range, was independently associated with elevated ALT in Chinese adults. PMID:27563918

  6. Elevated Preoperative Serum Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase Predicts Poor Prognosis for Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shun-Jun; Zhao, Qiang; Ji, Fei; Chen, Mao-Gen; Wu, Lin-Wei; Ren, Qing-Qi; Guo, Zhi-Yong; He, Xiao-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GGT) is a membrane-bound enzyme that is involved in biotransformation, nucleic acid metabolism, and tumourigenesis. Elevated serum γ-GGT levels are related to an increased cancer risk and worse prognosis in many cancers. In the present study, we evaluated the prognostic value of preoperative serum γ-GGT in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent liver transplantation (LT). A total of 130 HCC patients after LT were included in the study. The optimal cut-off value of γ-GGT was 128U/L by receiver operating characteristic analysis, with a sensitivity and specificity of 60.0% and 72.9%, respectively. Elevated preoperative serum γ-GGT was significantly associated with high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), large tumor size, and macro- and micro-vascular invasion. The 1-, 3-, 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of HCC patients in the γ-GGT > 128U/L group were poorer than those in the γ-GGT ≤ 128U/L group. Stratification analysis revealed that γ-GGT exhibited a greater predictive value for DFS and OS in HCC patients beyond the Milan criteria and no macro-vascular invasion. In conclusion, elevated preoperative serum γ-GGT was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage and aggressive tumor behaviors, and serum γ-GGT can be considered as a prognostic factor for HCC patients after LT, especially for patients beyond the Milan criteria or without macro-vascular invasion. PMID:27381639

  7. Elevated Preoperative Serum Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase Predicts Poor Prognosis for Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shun-Jun; Zhao, Qiang; Ji, Fei; Chen, Mao-Gen; Wu, Lin-Wei; Ren, Qing-Qi; Guo, Zhi-Yong; He, Xiao-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GGT) is a membrane-bound enzyme that is involved in biotransformation, nucleic acid metabolism, and tumourigenesis. Elevated serum γ-GGT levels are related to an increased cancer risk and worse prognosis in many cancers. In the present study, we evaluated the prognostic value of preoperative serum γ-GGT in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent liver transplantation (LT). A total of 130 HCC patients after LT were included in the study. The optimal cut-off value of γ-GGT was 128U/L by receiver operating characteristic analysis, with a sensitivity and specificity of 60.0% and 72.9%, respectively. Elevated preoperative serum γ-GGT was significantly associated with high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), large tumor size, and macro- and micro-vascular invasion. The 1-, 3-, 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of HCC patients in the γ-GGT > 128U/L group were poorer than those in the γ-GGT ≤ 128U/L group. Stratification analysis revealed that γ-GGT exhibited a greater predictive value for DFS and OS in HCC patients beyond the Milan criteria and no macro-vascular invasion. In conclusion, elevated preoperative serum γ-GGT was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage and aggressive tumor behaviors, and serum γ-GGT can be considered as a prognostic factor for HCC patients after LT, especially for patients beyond the Milan criteria or without macro-vascular invasion. PMID:27381639

  8. A predictive algorithm for evaluating elevated serum prolactin in patients with a sellar mass.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jason S; Salinas, Ryan; Molinaro, Annette; Chang, Edward F; Kunwar, Sandeep; Blevins, Lewis; Aghi, Manish K

    2015-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia occurs in patients with a prolactinoma and in those with a sellar mass compressing the pituitary stalk. Distinguishing these two diagnostic possibilities guides treatment with dopamine agonist therapy or surgical resection. We aimed to identify a simple, predictive algorithm to aid in the diagnosis of prolactinoma in patients with an elevated serum prolactin and a sellar mass. A case-control analysis of pathologically confirmed prolactinomas and non-endocrine secreting controls from the University of California, San Francisco was performed. From 2001 to 2011, this resulted in 177 patients with prolactinomas and 87 controls. Univariate and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined the significance of demographic variables, patient symptoms, laboratory values, and radiographic findings in distinguishing pathology. Additionally, a subset of patients with mildly elevated serum prolactin (25-125 ng/ml) was independently analyzed. Prolactinomas had a mean pre-operative prolactin of 858 ng/ml versus 17.57 ng/ml in controls (p<0.01). One hundred and two (62.6%) of the prolactinomas were macroadenomas (size >10mm) compared to 74 (92.5%) of the controls (p<0.01). CART analysis identified preoperative prolactin (>41.5 ng/ml), age (<40.5 years), and size (<17 mm) as being predictive of prolactinoma with a misclassification rate of 7.9% (21/264). Similar analysis on the subset of patients with mildly elevated serum prolactin (<125 ng/ml) identified size (<2.5 cm) and pre-operative prolactin (>40 ng/ml) as key variables. These two factors correctly predicted 98.6% (69/70) of cases. Our model correctly classifies most patients with elevated serum prolactin and identifies those patients most amenable to surgical treatment.

  9. The role of calcium in the hydrolysis of the organophosphate paraoxon by human serum A-esterase.

    PubMed

    Vitarius, J A; Sultatos, L G

    1995-01-01

    Human serum A-esterase is a calcium-dependent enzyme that hydrolyzes the organophosphate paraoxon by an Ordered Uni Bi kinetic mechanism. Incubation of various concentrations of calcium chloride with human serum A-esterase resulted in corresponding changes in appk3 and appE for the reaction, while appk2 was unaffected. Carboxyglutamic acid (CAG) prevented calcium chloride from altering appk3, but not appE. Similarly CAG reduced the calcium-stimulated nonenzymatic hydrolysis of paraoxon, as well as the calcium-stimulated de-phosphorylation of chymotrypsin phosphorylated by paraoxon. These results suggest that calcium plays two roles in the hydrolysis of paraoxon by A-esterase. Firstly, calcium is required in order to maintain an active site. In this capacity calcium might participate directly in the catalytic reaction, or it might be required in order to maintain the appropriate confirmation of the active site. And secondly, free calcium (or calcium weakly associated with A-esterase) facilitates the removal of diethyl phosphate from A-esterase, probably by polarizing the P = O bond of the diethyl phosphate-A-esterase intermediate, thereby rendering phosphorus more susceptible to nucleophilic attack by hydroxide ions. PMID:7823759

  10. Elevated serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Young; Jang, Sun Hee; Kim, Song Yee; Chung, Kyung Soo; Song, Joo Han; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kang, Young Ae

    2016-01-01

    Increased serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with nonmalignant diseases have been investigated in previous reports. This study evaluates the clinical significance of serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease and pulmonary tuberculosis. The median CA 19-9 level was higher in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease than in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease: 13.80, tuberculosis: 5.85, p<0.001). A multivariate logistic regression analysis performed in this study showed that Mycobacterium abscessus (OR 9.97, 95% CI: 1.58, 62.80; p=0.014) and active phase of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease (OR 12.18, 95% CI: 1.07, 138.36, p=0.044) were found to be risk factors for serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. The serum CA 19-9 levels showed a tendency to decrease during successful treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease but not in pulmonary tuberculosis. These findings suggest that CA 19-9 may be a useful marker for monitoring therapeutic responses in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, although it is not pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease-specific marker.

  11. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile: An Observational Study on a Large Cohort From South Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S; Irace, Concetta

    2016-02-01

    Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk.Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods.We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women.Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  12. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile: An Observational Study on a Large Cohort From South Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S; Irace, Concetta

    2016-02-01

    Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk.Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods.We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women.Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk.

  13. Elevated Serum Sorbitol and not Fructose in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Preston, Gregory M; Calle, Roberto A

    2010-05-04

    Reductions in fasting serum fructose or erythrocyte sorbitol have been proposed as markers for early proof of mechanism in clinical development of aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors. However fructose is significantly impacted by meals and evaluation of erythrocyte sorbitol poses technical challenges. To more accurately assess the performance of these markers in biological samples, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay was modified and validated. Serum was collected on three consecutive days from 13 healthy volunteers (HV) and 14 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and assayed for sorbitol and fructose using this assay. Serum fructose and sorbitol were relatively constant across the three days. Fasting fructose levels were comparable between the two groups (T2DM: 1.48 +/- 0.49 mg/L; HV: 1.39 +/- 0.38 mg/L, mean +/- standard deviation, P = 0.61), but fasting sorbitol levels were significantly higher in diabetics (T2DM: 0.280 +/- 0.163 mg/L; HV: 0.164 +/- 0.044 mg/L, P = 0.02). Feeding resulted in a 5-6 fold increase in serum fructose levels, but only a 5%-10% increase in sorbitol. Only sorbitol remained significantly elevated pre- and post feeding in T2DM patients relative to HV. These data suggest that serum sorbitol may be a robust proof of mechanism biomarker and facilitate dose selection for clinical development of AR inhibitors.

  14. Pineal ganglioglioma in a patient with familial basal ganglia calcification and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein: case report.

    PubMed

    Tokoro, K; Chiba, Y; Ohtani, T; Abe, H; Yagishita, S

    1993-09-01

    Pineal ganglioglioma was diagnosed in a 36-year-old man with familial basal ganglia calcification and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein. The patient was treated surgically with a good result. Only four other cases of this tumor have been reported. His 38-year-old brother also showed basal ganglia calcification and elevated serum chorionic gonadotropin as well as alpha-fetoprotein. Familial basal ganglia calcification with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein in a nonhepatic benign condition is rare. The pathogenesis of these conditions is discussed. PMID:7692346

  15. Lower Serum Testosterone Associated with Elevated Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations in Native American Men

    PubMed Central

    Goncharov, Alexey; Rej, Robert; Negoita, Serban; Schymura, Maria; Santiago-Rivera, Azara; Morse, Gayle; Carpenter, David O.

    2009-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides are endocrine disruptors, altering both thyroid and estrogen hormonal systems. Less is known of action on androgenic systems. Objective We studied the relationship between serum concentrations of testosterone in relation to levels of PCBs and three chlorinated pesticides in an adult Native American (Mohawk) population. Methods We collected fasting serum samples from 703 adult Mohawks (257 men and 436 women) and analyzed samples for 101 PCB congeners, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and mirex, as well as testosterone, cholesterol, and triglycerides. The associations between testosterone and tertiles of serum organochlorine levels (both wet weight and lipid adjusted) were assessed using a logistic regression model while controlling for age, body mass index (BMI), and other analytes, with the lowest tertile being considered the referent. Males and females were considered separately. Results Testosterone concentrations in males were inversely correlated with total PCB concentration, whether using wet-weight or lipid-adjusted values. The odds ratio (OR) of having a testosterone concentration above the median was 0.17 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.05–0.69] for total wet-weight PCBs (highest vs. lowest tertile) after adjustment for age, BMI, total serum lipids, and three pesticides. The OR for lipid-adjusted total PCB concentration was 0.23 (95% CI, 0.06–0.78) after adjustment for other analytes. Testosterone levels were significantly and inversely related to concentrations of PCBs 74, 99, 153, and 206, but not PCBs 52, 105, 118, 138, 170, 180, 201, or 203. Testosterone concentrations in females are much lower than in males, and not significantly related to serum PCBs. HCB, DDE, and mirex were not associated with testosterone concentration in either men or women. Conclusions Elevation in serum PCB levels is associated with a lower concentration of serum

  16. Nalmefene induced elevation in serum prolactin in normal human volunteers: partial kappa opioid agonist activity?

    PubMed

    Bart, Gavin; Schluger, James H; Borg, Lisa; Ho, Ann; Bidlack, Jean M; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2005-12-01

    In humans, mu- and kappa-opioid receptor agonists lower tuberoinfundibular dopamine, which tonically inhibits prolactin release. Serum prolactin is, therefore, a useful biomarker for tuberoinfundibular dopamine. The current study evaluated the unexpected finding that the relative mu- and kappa-opioid receptor selective antagonist nalmefene increases serum prolactin, indicating possible kappa-opioid receptor agonist activity. In all, 33 healthy human volunteers (14 female) with no history of psychiatric or substance use disorders received placebo, nalmefene 3 mg, and nalmefene 10 mg in a double-blind manner. Drugs were administered between 0900 and 1000 on separate days via 2-min intravenous infusion. Serial blood specimens were analyzed for serum levels of prolactin. Additional in vitro studies of nalmefene binding to cloned human kappa-opioid receptors transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells were performed. Compared to placebo, both doses of nalmefene caused significant elevations in serum prolactin (p<0.002 for nalmefene 3 mg and p<0.0005 for nalmefene 10 mg). There was no difference in prolactin response between the 3 and 10 mg doses. Binding assays confirmed nalmefene's affinity at kappa-opioid receptors and antagonism of mu-opioid receptors. [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding studies demonstrated that nalmefene is a full antagonist at mu-opioid receptors and has partial agonist properties at kappa-opioid receptors. Elevations in serum prolactin following nalmefene are consistent with this partial agonist effect at kappa-opioid receptors. As kappa-opioid receptor activation can lower dopamine in brain regions important to the persistence of alcohol and cocaine dependence, the partial kappa agonist effect of nalmefene may enhance its therapeutic efficacy in selected addictive diseases.

  17. Cell swelling-induced ATP release is tightly dependent on intracellular calcium elevations

    PubMed Central

    Boudreault, Francis; Grygorczyk, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical stresses release ATP from a variety of cells by a poorly defined mechanism(s). Using custom-designed flow-through chambers, we investigated the kinetics of cell swelling-induced ATP secretion, cell volume and intracellular calcium changes in epithelial A549 and 16HBE14o− cells, and NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Fifty per cent hypotonic shock triggered transient ATP release from cell confluent monolayers, which consistently peaked at around 1 min 45 s for A549 and NIH/3T3, and at 3 min for 16HBE14o− cells, then declined to baseline within the next 15 min. Whereas the release time course had a similar pattern for the three cell types, the peak rates differed significantly (294 ± 67, 70 ± 22 and 17 ± 2.8 pmol min−1 (106 cells)−1, for A549, 16HBE14o− and NIH/3T3, respectively). The concomitant volume changes of substrate-attached cells were analysed by a 3-dimensional cell shape reconstruction method based on images acquired from two perpendicular directions. The three cell types swelled at a similar rate, reaching maximal expansion in 1 min 45 s, but differed in the duration of the volume plateau and regulatory volume decrease (RVD). These experiments revealed that ATP release does not correlate with either cell volume expansion and the expected activation of stretch-sensitive channels, or with the activation of volume-sensitive, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid-inhibitable anion channels during RVD. By contrast, ATP release was tightly synchronized, in all three cell types, with cytosolic calcium elevations. Furthermore, loading A549 cells with the calcium chelator BAPTA significantly diminished ATP release (71% inhibition of the peak rate), while the calcium ionophore ionomycin triggered ATP release in the absence of cell swelling. Lowering the temperature to 10°C almost completely abolished A549 cell swelling-induced ATP release (95% inhibition of the peak rate). These results strongly suggest that calcium-dependent exocytosis plays a

  18. The mRNA of L-Type Calcium Channel Elevated in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xi-Tao; Nagaba, Yasushi; Cross, Heide S.; Wrba, Fritz; Zhang, Lin; Guggino, Sandra E.

    2000-01-01

    Previous reports indicate that the mRNA for the cardiac isoform of the voltage-gated L-type calcium channel (α1C) is elevated in colon cancer. The aim of these experiments was to verify that the mRNA for α1C was significantly increased in tumors of two separate populations of patients when compared to normal adjacent mucosa. The second aim was to measure the distribution of α1C using immunocytochemistry in normal human colon and in colon cancer and to determine what might regulate the channel expression. Biopsies were taken from patients with various stages of colon cancer and nearby normal mucosa were used as control. RNA was prepared and mRNA level measured by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA of the calcium channel was compared with other markers including β-actin. The mRNA for α1C was increased significantly in colon cancers compared to nearby adjacent mucosa. Using confocal microscopy α1C was localized mainly at the apical membrane in the surface epithelium of normal human colon with less distribution on the lateral and basal membranes. The channel was localized on the lateral and basal membranes in crypt cells. Calcium channel localization appeared to be nearer nuclei in colon cancer samples, in part because of the smaller size of the cells. Likewise, cultured Caco-2 and T84 cells showed a membrane distribution. Western blotting indicated that α1C protein was increased in nonconfluent cultures of colonic carcinoma cells compared to confluent cells and immunocytochemistry confirms that there is more calcium channel protein in cells that are nonconfluent. We conclude that the increase in mRNA of α1 subunit of the cardiac isoform of the L-type calcium channel may be a useful marker of colon cancer compared to other markers because the increase is large and this increase can be documented on small samples using a simple semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We found that α1C protein is

  19. Association of respiratory complications and elevated serum immunoglobulins with drinking water arsenic toxicity in human.

    PubMed

    Islam, Laila N; Nabi, A H M Nurun; Rahman, M Mahfuzur; Zahid, M Shamim H

    2007-10-01

    We assessed the relationship between chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water with respiratory complications and humoral immune response by measuring serum immunoglobulin profiles in the affected subjects (arsenicosis patients) living in the arsenic endemic rural villages of Bangladesh. The duration of exposure was determined through detailed history of the patients (n=125) and the levels of arsenic in the drinking water and urine samples were determined. The mean duration of exposure in the patients was 7.4+/-5.3 y, and the levels of arsenic in the drinking water and urine samples were 216+/-211 and 223+/-302 micro g/L, respectively, compared to 11+/-20 and 29+/-19 microg/L, respectively, in the unexposed subjects. There was high prevalence of respiratory complications like breathing problems including chest sound, asthma, bronchitis and cough associated with drinking water arsenic toxicity. Arsenicosis patients had significantly elevated levels of IgG (P<0.001) and IgE (P<0.001) while the levels of IgA were also significantly higher (P<0.005) but IgM were similar to that of the control subjects. Analysis of the clinical symptoms based on skin manifestations showed the levels of both IgG and IgE were significantly elevated during the initial stages while IgE were further elevated with the duration of arsenic exposure. Arsenicosis patients with respiratory complications had mean serum IgE levels of 706+/-211 IU/mL compared to 542+/-241 IU/mL in patients without apparent involvement with the respiratory system (P<0.01). The eosinophil counts in the patients did not differ significantly from the unexposed subjects indicating that elevated levels of serum IgE might not be due to allergic diseases, rather it could be due to direct effects of arsenic. We found significant linear relationships between the levels of serum IgE and inorganic phosphorus (P<0.05), and serum IgA levels with urinary excretion of arsenic (P<0.001). These observations suggested that

  20. Cholangiolocellular carcinoma with rapid progression initially showing abnormally elevated serum alfa-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Yoh, Tomoaki; Kato, Tatsushi; Hirohata, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Yuya; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Ryuji

    2016-08-01

    Cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CoCC) is a rare malignant liver tumor derived from hepatic progenitor cells, which exist in the canals of Hering. We encountered a case of CoCC with an extremely poor clinical course, initially showing abnormally elevated serum alfa-fetoprotein (AFP). A 72-year-old male presented with a liver tumor and abnormally elevated serum AFP levels (16,399 ng/ml). We preoperatively diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma and performed extended right hepatectomy, after which the serum AFP levels remarkably decreased to 97 ng/ml. Postoperatively, the disease was pathologically diagnosed as CoCC. Furthermore, immunohistochemical pathological findings were alcian blue negative, cytokeratin (CK) 7 partially positive, CK19 positive, hepatocyte paraffin-1 negative, membranous negative for epithelial membrane antigen, and AFP negative. Fifty-five days later, intra- and extrahepatic recurrence developed, and the patient died 65 days after surgery. Although CoCCs show favorable outcomes, these characteristics of our case were not previously reported. It is necessary to accumulate more information on CoCC. PMID:27363839

  1. Polyostotic osteolysis and hypophosphatemic rickets with elevated serum fibroblast growth factor 23: A case report.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takeshi; Muroya, Koji; Asakura, Yumi; Yachie, Akihiro; Nishimura, Gen; Aida, Noriko; Machida, Jiro; Tanaka, Yukichi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Adachi, Masanori

    2015-10-01

    We report on a boy who presented with hypophosphatemic rickets with elevated serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and polyostotic osteolytic lesions at age 2 years. Tumor-induced hypophosphatemic rickets was suspected; however, bone biopsy for osteolytic changes revealed no tumorous change, except for irregularly dilated vessels associated with osteoclasts and fibrous proliferation. Venous sampling failed to point to FGF23-producing foci. After alfacalcidol and phosphate supplementation, the rachitic skeletal changes improved, but FGF23 increased and new osteolytic lesions developed. Serum levels of neopterin and a few cytokines, including plasma transforming growth factor-β and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type II, were elevated. At age 4 years, high doses of phosphate resulted in increased serum phosphate levels, decreased neopterin and cytokines, decreased FGF23, and stabilization of osteolysis. We excluded germline mutations in PHEX, FGF23, DMP1, and ENPP1 (genes for hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets) and somatic mutations in the GNAS and HRAS/KRAS (the disease-causing genes for McCune-Albright syndrome and linear nevus sebaceous syndrome, respectively). We could not perform octreotide scintigraphy or fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, and thus could not completely exclude occult FGF23-producing tumors. However, considering the course of the disease, it is intriguing to assume that dysregulation of osteoclast-macrophage lineage may have induced increased neopterin levels, increased cytokine levels, osteolytic process, and possibly FGF23 overproduction.

  2. Serum IL-6: a candidate biomarker for intracranial pressure elevation following isolated traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is a serious, life-threatening, secondary event following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In many cases, ICP rises in a delayed fashion, reaching a maximal level 48-96 hours after the initial insult. While pressure catheters can be implanted to monitor ICP, there is no clinically proven method for determining a patient's risk for developing this pathology. Methods In the present study, we employed antibody array and Luminex-based screening methods to interrogate the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the serum of healthy volunteers and in severe TBI patients (GCS≤8) with or without incidence of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). De-identified samples and ELISAs were used to confirm the sensitivity and specificity of IL-6 as a prognostic marker of elevated ICP in both isolated TBI patients, and polytrauma patients with TBI. Results Consistent with previous reports, we observed sustained increases in IL-6 levels in TBI patients irrespective of their ICP status. However, the group of patients who subsequently experienced ICP ≥ 25 mm Hg had significantly higher IL-6 levels within the first 17 hours of injury as compared to the patients whose ICP remained ≤20 mm Hg. When blinded samples (n = 22) were assessed, a serum IL-6 cut-off of <5 pg/ml correctly identified 100% of all the healthy volunteers, a cut-off of >128 pg/ml correctly identified 85% of isolated TBI patients who subsequently developed elevated ICP, and values between these cut-off values correctly identified 75% of all patients whose ICP remained ≤20 mm Hg throughout the study period. In contrast, the marker had no prognostic value in predicting elevated ICP in polytrauma patients with TBI. When the levels of serum IL-6 were assessed in patients with orthopedic injury (n = 7) in the absence of TBI, a significant increase was found in these patients compared to healthy volunteers, albeit lower than that observed in TBI patients. Conclusions Our

  3. Elevated serum IgE, eosinophilia, and lung function in rubber workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bascom, R.; Baser, M.E.; Thomas, R.J.; Fisher, J.F.; Yang, W.N.; Baker, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported an outbreak of acute respiratory illness associated with eosinophilia in a group of rubber workers who performed a thermoinjection process in which synthetic rubber was heated and then injected onto metal molds. This study was conducted to determine if persistent respiratory health effects were associated with this work area and to explore the possible allergic etiology of this syndrome. A survey was performed 1 mo after a major improvement in area ventilation and consisted of baseline, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry; diffusing capacity; serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), total eosinophil count; and skin patch testing. Baseline lung function, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry were not significantly worse in the exposed group as compared to the control group. However, either eosinophilia (greater than 450/mm3) or elevated serum IgE (greater than 470 ng/ml) were present in 44% of exposed workers vs. 11% of the control group (p = .003). Nine months later, neither eosinophilia nor elevated IgE were associated with employment in this work area. We conclude that employment in the thermoinjection process was associated with eosinophilia and elevated IgE, which suggests sensitization to one of the components of the rubber, although no effect on pulmonary function could be demonstrated.

  4. Elevated maternal serum folate in the third trimester and reduced fetal growth: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Takimoto, Hidemi; Hayashi, Fumi; Kusama, Kaoru; Kato, Noriko; Yoshiike, Nobuo; Toba, Mikayo; Ishibashi, Tomoko; Miyasaka, Naoyuki; Kubota, Toshiro

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association of fetal growth and elevated third trimester maternal serum folate due to folic acid (FA) supplement intake. Dietary intake, use of FA supplements, weight, and blood biomarkers of B-vitamins (serum folate, pyridoxal, vitamin B(12), and plasma total homocysteine) were observed in 33 healthy pregnant women at the third trimester (average gestational age 35 wk). Birth outcomes were assessed through hospital birth records. Infant anthropometry and maternal blood biomarkers were followed up at 1 mo postpartum. Fourteen women were taking FA supplements at the third trimester. Dietary intake was similar among FA users and non-users, but serum folate and pyridoxal were significantly higher in users (11.6±6.7 vs. 6.1±3.2 ng/mL, and 13.8±21.7 vs. 3.2±1.4 ng/mL, respectively). Plasma total homocystein (tHcy) was higher in non-users compared to users, but not significantly. Nine FA users and eight non-users had low serum vitamin B(12) values (<203 pg/mL). Nine FA users and all non-users had low serum pyridoxal values (<7.0 ng/mL). Infant birthweight was significantly lower in users compared to non-users (2,894±318 vs. 3,154±230 g). At 1 mo postpartum, infant weight and length were similar between FA users and non-users, but infant weight gain was larger in users. Higher serum folate values due to FA use in the third trimester was related to reduced fetal size. Excess FA under low vitamin B(6) and B(12) status may affect fetal growth. PMID:21697631

  5. Elevation of serum thymidine kinase 1 in a bacterial infection: canine pyometra.

    PubMed

    Sharif, H; Hagman, R; Wang, L; Eriksson, S

    2013-01-01

    Pyometra is a bacterial infection of the uterus that is common in dogs and is potentially life-threatening if delayed in diagnosis and/or treatment. Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a cytosolic enzyme involved in DNA precursor synthesis, and it is also present in serum from patients with malignant diseases. TK1 has been used as a cell proliferation biomarker for many years in human medicine and recently in dogs. However, little is known regarding serum TK1 levels in individuals with bacterial infection. The objective of this study was to determine the activity of serum TK1 in dogs with pyometra and compare it with hematologic and biochemical parameters, e.g., acute phase proteins and inflammatory mediators such as C-reactive protein and Prostaglandin F(2α). Serum and plasma TK1 activity of 40 healthy female dogs and 54 dogs with pyometra were analyzed using an optimized [(3)H]-thymidine phosphorylation assay. TK1 activities in serum or plasma were significantly higher in dogs with pyometra as compared with healthy female dogs (mean ± SD: 4.0 ± 7.3 pmol/min/mL in the pyometra group and 1.07 ± 0.34 pmol/min/mL in healthy control group). However, there was no difference in TK1 activity between systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) positive (n = 38) and SIRS negative (n = 16) pyometra cases. Furthermore, the plasma TK1 activity decreased in six and increased in one pyometra patients (n = 10), 24 h after ovariohysterectomy. No significant correlations (P > 0.05) were found between TK1 activity and hematological or other biochemical parameters. In conclusion, the TK1 activity was significantly elevated in dogs with pyometra. Further studies are needed to evaluate the mechanism and role of serum TK1 activity in bacterial infections and its possible diagnostic or prognostic value. PMID:23102844

  6. [Elevated serum lithium concentration due to switch from parenteral nutrition alone to parenteral with enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Goto, Hidekazu; Tomita, Takashi; Doki, Shotaro; Nakanishi, Rie; Kojima, Chikako; Yoneshima, Mihoko; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient with elevated serum lithium concentration caused by switching from parenteral nutrition alone to parenteral with enteral nutrition. A 73-year-old female inpatient was treated with lithium carbonate 600 mg/d for manic episodes of bipolar disorder. Her serum lithium level was maintained at 0.57-0.79 mEq/L. She was administered total parenteral nutrition owing to difficulty in oral intake. Her diet contained 4.8-5.8 g/d of sodium chloride. After this, parenteral with enteral nutrition was initiated. The total sodium chloride intake decreased from 6.3 to 3.0-4.0 g/d following this change. On day 15 after initiation of parenteral with enteral nutrition, her serum lithium level increased to 1.17 mEq/L, which is closer to the upper therapeutic range limit. Therefore enteral nutrition was stopped immediately, and an electrolyte solution was administered instead of enteral nutrition. An antibiotic agent was also simultaneously administered because of infection. The total amount of sodium chloride administered was increased to 7.0 g/d during this treatment. Four days after treatment, the serum lithium level returned to 0.57 mEq/L. This case suggests that administration of appropriate sodium chloride nutrition is important during treatment with lithium carbonate, because disposition of lithium ion is paralleled to that of sodium.

  7. Evidence that serum calcium oxalate supersaturation is a consequence of oxalate retention in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Worcester, E M; Nakagawa, Y; Bushinsky, D A; Coe, F L

    1986-01-01

    Serum oxalate rises in uremia because of decreased renal clearance, and crystals of calcium oxalate occur in the tissues of uremic patients. Crystal formation suggests that either uremic serum is supersaturated with calcium oxalate, or local oxalate production or accumulation causes regional supersaturation. To test the first alternative, we ultrafiltered uremic serum and measured supersaturation with two different methods previously used to study supersaturation in urine. First, the relative saturation ratio (RSR), the ratio of the dissolved calcium oxalate complex to the thermodynamic calcium oxalate solubility product, was estimated for 11 uremic (before and after dialysis) and 4 normal serum samples using a computer program. Mean ultrafiltrate oxalate predialysis was 89 +/- 8 microM/liter (+/- SEM), 31 +/- 4 postdialysis, and 10 +/- 3 in normals. Mean RSR was 1.7 +/- 0.1 (predialysis), 0.7 +/- 0.1 (postdialysis), and 0.2 +/- 0.1 (normal), where values greater than 1 denote supersaturation, less than 1, undersaturation. Second, the concentration product ratio (CPR), the ratio of the measured calcium oxalate concentration product before to that after incubation of the sample with calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal, was measured in seven uremic and seven normal serum ultrafiltrates. Mean oxalate was 91 +/- 11 (uremic) and 8 +/- 3 (normal). Mean CPR was 1.4 +/- 0.2 (uremic) and 0.2 +/- 0.1 (normal). Predialysis, 17 of 18 uremic ultrafiltrates were supersaturated with respect to calcium oxalate. The degree of supersaturation was correlated with ultrafiltrate oxalate (RSR, r = 0.99, r = 29, P less than 0.001; CPR, r = 0.75, n = 11, P less than 0.001). A value of ultrafiltrate oxalate of 50 microM/liter separated undersaturated from supersaturated samples and occurred at a creatinine of approximately 9.0 mg/dl. PMID:3711339

  8. Mushroom toxicosis in dogs in general practice causing gastroenteritis, ptyalism and elevated serum lipase activity.

    PubMed

    Hall, J; Barton, L

    2013-05-01

    Mushroom toxicosis is rarely diagnosed in dogs and is poorly reported in the veterinary literature. This report suggests that mushroom toxicosis is a potentially under-diagnosed condition in first opinion practice in the UK. Nine dogs with clinical signs consistent with mushroom toxicosis were identified from the records of an out-of-hours emergency service between August 2010 and January 2011. Four dogs were later excluded because of clinical inconsistencies. Clinical signs included acute profuse ptyalism (5/5), diarrhoea (5/5), vomiting (4/5), hypovolaemia (4/5), stuporous (3/5) or obtunded mentation (1/5), miosis (2/5) and hypothermia (2/5). Serum lipase activity was elevated in 4/4 dogs; canine-specific pancreatic lipase was elevated in the remaining dog. Four dogs recovered with aggressive intravenous fluid therapy, analgesia and supportive care; the remaining dog was euthanased due to severe clinical signs and financial constraints. Mushroom toxicosis is an important differential diagnosis for acute gastroenteritis and one possible cause of some cases of "Seasonal Canine Illness". Affected dogs may demonstrate elevated pancreatic enzymes and mushroom toxicosis should be considered in cases of elevated lipase or abnormal semi-quantitative canine-specific pancreatic lipase activities.

  9. Serum levels of the homeostatic B cell chemokine, CXCL13, are elevated during HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Widney, Daniel P; Breen, Elizabeth C; Boscardin, W John; Kitchen, Scott G; Alcantar, Juan M; Smith, Jeffrey B; Zack, Jerome A; Detels, Roger; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel

    2005-11-01

    HIV infection is associated with B cell dysfunction, which includes B cell hyperactivation, hypergammaglobulinemia, impaired production of antibodies against specific antigens, and a loss of B cell memory. Because lymph node architecture is progressively destroyed during HIV infection, it is possible that normal B cell trafficking is impaired as well, which could be a cause or a result of these abnormalities. Because the homeostatic chemokine, CXCL13 (BLC, BCA-1), is a major regulator of B cell trafficking, we assessed circulating levels of this molecule in HIV infection. Serum levels of CXCL13 were seen to be progressively elevated in HIV disease. Serum levels of CXCL13 correlated strongly with those of the inflammation-associated chemokine, inducible protein-10 (IP-10), in subjects who had advanced HIV disease, and more moderately with levels of soluble CD30 (sCD30), sCD27, and sCD23. CXCL13 levels also correlated moderately with viral load and showed a significant decline after use of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Elevated levels of CXCL13 could cause impaired or altered trafficking of B cells during HIV infection and could contribute to the previously reported loss of CXCR5, the receptor for CXCL13, from the surface of circulating B cells in HIV infection. PMID:16318584

  10. Kynurenic acid, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand, is elevated in serum of Zucker fatty rats

    PubMed Central

    Oxenkrug, G; Cornicelli, J; van der Hart, M; Roeser, J; Summergrad, P

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an increasingly urgent global problem and the molecular mechanisms of obesity are not fully understood. Dysregulation of the tryptophan (Trp) – kynurenine (Kyn) metabolic pathway (TKP) have been suggested as a mechanism of obesity and described in obese humans and in animal models of obesity. However, to the best of our knowledge, TKP metabolism has not been studied in leptin-receptor-deficient Zucker fatty rats (ZFR) (fa/fa), the best-known and most widely used rat model of obesity. We were interested to determine if there are any deviations of TKP in ZFR. Concentrations of major TKP metabolites were evaluated (HPLC- MS method) in serum of ZFR (fa/fa) and age-matched lean rats (FA/-). Concentrations of kynurenic acid (KYNA) were 50% higher in ZFR than in lean rats (p<0.004, Mann-Whitney two-tailed test). Anthranilic acid (AA) concentrations, while elevated by 33%, did not reach statistical significance (p<0.04, one-tailed test). Elevated KYNA serum concentrations might contribute to development of obesity via KYNA-induced activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Present results warrant further studies of KYNA and AA in ZFR and other animal models of obesity. PMID:27738521

  11. Freeze-dried strawberries lower serum cholesterol and lipid peroxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J

    2014-06-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m(2) (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (-3 ± 11 mg/dL, -3 ± 9 mg/dL, and -28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion molecules

  12. Freeze-Dried Strawberries Lower Serum Cholesterol and Lipid Peroxidation in Adults with Abdominal Adiposity and Elevated Serum Lipids123

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M.; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)–derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (−3 ± 11 mg/dL, −3 ± 9 mg/dL, and −28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion

  13. Elevation of serum carcinoembryonic antigen level in a patient with hypothyroidism after radiation therapy for cervical esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Gen; Abe, Eisuke; Sasamoto, Ryuta; Sasai, Keisuke

    2010-02-01

    We report the case of a 51-year-old woman who showed elevation of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level 14 months after chemoradiation therapy for her cervical esophageal cancer. Close examination demonstrated that the patient was suffering from hypothyroidism probably due to the chemoradiation therapy. The serum CEA level decreased after starting supplementary treatment with oral levothyroxine. The exact mechanism underlying the elevated level of CEA observed in a patient with hypothyroidism is unclear. However, we should be aware of the possibility of transient elevation of CEA affected by thyroid function in patients after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer.

  14. Elevated serum aluminum levels in hemodialysis patients associated with use of electric pumps--Wyoming, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-06-27

    Aluminum toxicity can cause osteomalacia, anemia, and dementia in hemodialysis patients and has historically been associated with exposure to contaminated water or dialysate preparations or ingestion of aluminum-containing phosphate binders. Since 2002, improvements in water treatment methods and use of non-aluminum-containing phosphate binders have resulted in low prevalence (<1%) of aluminum toxicity among hemodialysis patients. In the United States, reported cases of aluminum toxicosis are rare, and no outbreak has been reported since 1992. This report describes 10 patients treated at a hemodialysis unit in a Wyoming hospital (hospital A) in 2007 who had elevated serum aluminum levels that were detected through routine serum aluminum screening. An investigation was conducted by the Wyoming Department of Health, which determined that the source of exposure was dialysate acid concentrate that became contaminated with aluminum as it passed through two electric drum pumps. The drum pumps had been used to transfer dialysate acid concentrate from 55-gallon storage drums to 1-gallon jugs for use on individual hemodialysis machines. Removal of the pumps from service resulted in a rapid reduction in patient serum aluminum levels. The findings suggest that regular assessment of machine compatibility with dialysate fluid is needed.

  15. Extensive serum biomarker analysis in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Lin, Peiyi; Jiang, Huilin; Xu, Jieling; Luo, Shuhong; Mo, Junrong; Li, Yunmei; Chen, Xiaohui

    2015-12-01

    ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and some characteristics of STEMI are poorly understood. The aim of the present study is to detect protein expression profiles in the serum of STEMI patients, and to identify biomarkers for this disease. Cytokine profiles of serum from STEMI patients and healthy controls were analyzed with a semi-quantitative human antibody array for 174 proteins, and the results showed blood serum concentrations of 21 cytokines differed considerably between STEMI patients and healthy subjects. In the next phase, a sandwich ELISA kit individually validated eight biomarker results from 21 of the microarray experiments. Clinical validation demonstrated a significant increase of BNDF, PDGF-AA and MMP-9 in patients with AMI. Meanwhile, BNDF, PDGF-AA and MMP-9 distinguished AMI patients from healthy controls with a mean area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of 0.870, 0.885, and 0.81, respectively, with diagnostic cut-off points of 0.688 ng/mL, 297.86 ng/mL and 690.066 ng/mL. Our study indicated that these three cytokines were up-regulated in STEMI samples, and may hold promise for the assessment of STEMI.

  16. Solution combustion synthesis of calcium phosphate particles for controlled release of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Junjie; Qian, Yu; Zhang, Xiali; Zhou, Feifei; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Hongbin; Chen, JianHua; Wang, XuHong; Yu, Wencong

    2015-05-01

    Four different phase compositions of calcium phosphate (CaP) particles were prepared via a solution combustion method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld analysis results revealed that the variations in the nominal Ca/P (molar) ratios were found to provide a favorable control in the different proportions of CaP materials. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein to study the loading and release behavior. The release profile indicated that the BSA release rates depended on the phase compositions of the CaP particles, and showed an order of TCP-BSA>BCP-1-BSA>BCP-2-BSA>HA-BSA. The results suggested that the BSA protein release rate can be controlled by varying the phase compositions of CaP carriers. Moreover, the release process involved two stages: firstly surface diffusion via ion exchange and secondly intraparticle diffusion.

  17. The effect of intravenous magnesium hypophosphite in calcium borogluconate solution on the serum concentration of inorganic phosphorus in healthy cows.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Jehle, W

    2007-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of intravenous (IV) administration of phosphite on the serum concentration of inorganic phosphorus in cows. Twelve clinically healthy cows were divided into four groups of three. All cows received 600 mL of a 40% calcium borogluconate solution; three cows each received this as a rapid (20 min) IV infusion with and without 6% magnesium hypophosphite, and three other cows each received this as a slow IV infusion (8 h) with and without 6% magnesium hypophosphite. Samples of blood were collected for the determination of serum concentrations of calcium, inorganic phosphorus and magnesium before and 10, 20, 40, 60 and 90 min and 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h after the start of treatment. The concentration of calcium increased after treatment in all cows but the increase was most rapid in cows that received the rapid infusion. In cows that received the rapid IV infusion containing magnesium hypophosphite, the mean concentration of inorganic phosphorus decreased significantly 3-4 h after treatment compared with initial serum levels. The serum concentration of inorganic phosphorus did not change significantly in cows that received the rapid IV solution without magnesium hypophosphite or the slow IV infusion with or without magnesium hypophosphite. The serum concentration of magnesium increased after treatment in all cows receiving magnesium hypophosphite but remained unchanged in the others. The rapid infusion of calcium borogluconate without magnesium hypophosphite made all three cows anorexic and hypercalcaemic and the slow infusion made 1/3 anorexic. It is concluded that the IV administration of a calcium solution containing magnesium hypophosphite does not increase the serum concentration of inorganic phosphorus.

  18. Arterial stiffness depends on serum ionized calcium levels during dialysis with regional citrate anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Moor, Matthias B; Kruse, Anja; Uehlinger, Dominik E; Eisenberger, Ute

    2013-05-01

    Hemodynamic effects related to changes in serum ionized calcium (iCa) are difficult to determine during conventional hemodialysis (HD) using a fixed dialysate concentration of calcium. Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) allows the study of the effects of predefined iCa changes on arterial stiffness and blood pressure (BP) during a single dialysis session. In a crossover study, 15 patients with end-stage renal disease underwent two HD sessions with RCA. Each session was divided into two study phases in which iCa was titrated either to 0.8-1.0 mm or to 1.1-1.4 mm. The sequence of phases was randomly chosen and alternated for the second session. After reaching a stable iCa level, pulse wave velocity (PWV), arterial BP, and heart rate were measured. iCa levels were modified during sequence 1 (iCa low-high) from a predialysis baseline value of 1.15 ± 0.09 mm, first to 0.92 ± 0.05 mm (time point 1; P < 0.001 vs. baseline) and then to 1.18 ± 0.05 (time point 2; ns). During sequence 2 (iCa high-low), iCa levels were modified from 1.15 ± 0.12 mm first to 1.20 ± 0.05 mm (time point 1; ns vs. baseline) and then to 0.93 ± 0.03 (time point 2; P < 0.001). Assuming a basic linear repeated measures model, PWV was positively related to iCa levels (P < 0.03) independent of systolic or diastolic BP, heart rate, or ultrafiltration rate. PWV is closely related to acute changes in serum iCa levels in HD patients using RCA. RCA provides an interesting opportunity to study the effects of acute iCa changes during one dialysis procedure.

  19. The Effect of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D on Elevated Homocysteine Concentrations in Participants of a Preventive Health Program

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Truong-Minh; Ekwaru, John Paul; Mastroeni, Silmara S.; Mastroeni, Marco F.; Loehr, Sarah A.; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Both lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and elevated homocysteine concentrations are potential risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). A recent analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reported an inverse association of serum 25(OH)D with homocysteine, however, the longitudinal relationship has yet to be investigated. We hypothesized and examined whether a temporal increase in 25(OH)D concentrations is paralleled by a reduction in the risk for elevated homocysteine. We analyzed data of 4475 participants with repeated assessments of serum 25(OH)D and homocysteine concentrations who enrolled in a preventive health program that encourages vitamin D supplementation and monitors serum 25(OH)D and homocysteine concentrations. We defined elevated homocysteine as concentrations greater than 13 micromoles per liter. Logistic regression was applied to assess the association of temporal changes in serum 25(OH)D with the risk of elevated homocysteine. We observed an inverse gradient whereby greater increases in 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a lower prevalence of elevated homocysteine. Relative to those without temporal increases in 25(OH)D, participants who showed improvements in their serum 25(OH)D concentrations of “<25”, “25–50”, “50–75”, and “≥75” nanomoles per liter at follow up were 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.62–1.37), 0.52 (0.33–0.80), 0.34 (0.20–0.58), and 0.32 (0.19–0.54) times as likely to have elevated homocysteine, respectively. These observations suggest that temporal improvements in vitamin D status reduce serum homocysteine concentrations, and therefore may potentially contribute to the primary prevention of CVD. PMID:27548258

  20. Restoration of parathyroid function after change of phosphate binder from calcium carbonate to lanthanum carbonate in hemodialysis patients with suppressed serum parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Masaaki; Okuno, Senji; Nagayama, Harumi; Yamada, Shinsuke; Ishimura, Eiji; Imanishi, Yasuo; Shoji, Shigeichi

    2015-03-01

    Control of phosphate is the most critical in the treatment of chronic kidney disease with mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Because calcium-containing phosphate binder to CKD patients is known to induce adynamic bone disease with ectopic calcification by increasing calcium load, we examined the effect of lanthanum carbonate (LaC), a non-calcium containing phosphate binder, to restore bone turnover in 27 hemodialysis patients with suppressed parathyroid function (serum intact parathyroid hormone [iPTH] ≦ 150 pg/mL). At the initiation of LaC administration, the dose of calcium-containing phosphate binder calcium carbonate (CaC) was withdrawn or reduced based on serum phosphate. After initiation of LaC administration, serum calcium and phosphate decreased significantly by 4 weeks, whereas whole PTH and iPTH increased. A significant and positive correlation between decreases of serum calcium, but not phosphate, with increases of whole PTH and iPTH, suggested that the decline in serum calcium with reduction of calcium load by LaC might increase parathyroid function. Serum bone resorption markers, such as serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, and N-telopeptide of type I collagen increased significantly by 4 weeks after LaC administration, which was followed by increases of serum bone formation markers including serum bone alkaline phosphatase, intact procollagen N-propeptide, and osteocalcin. Therefore, it was suggested that LaC attenuated CaC-induced suppression of parathyroid function and bone turnover by decreasing calcium load. In conclusion, replacement of CaC with LaC, either partially or totally, could increase parathyroid function and resultant bone turnover in hemodialysis patients with serum iPTH ≦ 150 pg/mL.

  1. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. -- Highlights: ► Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ► Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ► Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ► Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  2. Decreased fractional urinary calcium excretion and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and IGF-I levels in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Halhali, Ali; Díaz, Lorenza; Avila, Euclides; Ariza, Ana Carolina; Garabédian, Michèle; Larrea, Fernando

    2007-03-01

    During preeclampsia several alterations of calcium metabolism have been described, the most common of them is hypocalciuria, which pathophysiology is still unclear. In order to assess the contribution of calciotropic hormones to urinary calcium excretion, a cross-sectional study was done including 26 preeclamptic Mexican women (PE group) and 26 normotensive control pregnant women (NT group). Total and fractional urinary calcium excretion were significantly lower (P<0.0001) in the PE group than in the NT group (82+/-7 versus 171+/-7 mg/24h and 0.62+/-0.38 versus 1.38+/-0.71%, respectively), without significant differences in creatinine clearance, urinary sodium excretion and phosphate tubular reabsorption. In addition, serum 1,25-(OH)(2)D and IGF-I levels were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the PE than in NT group (43+/-9 versus 50+/-9 pg/mL and 195+/-67 versus 293+/-105 ng/mL, respectively), without significant differences in serum PTH levels. In the NT group, association analysis showed that total and fractional urinary calcium excretions positively correlated with serum levels of 1,25-(OH)(2)D (P<0.01) and IGF-I (P<0.001). In the PE group, total urinary calcium excretion positively correlated only with serum 1,25-(OH)(2)D (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results obtained in this study confirm that PE is associated with hypocalciuria and suggest that 1,25-(OH)(2)D and/or IGF-I may be involved in the regulation of urinary calcium excretion.

  3. Retrorectal epidermoid cyst with unusually elevated serum SCC level, initially diagnosed as an ovarian tumor.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaru; Tomita, Shigeki; Fujimori, Takahiro; Nagata, Hitoshi; Kubota, Keiichi; Shoda, Akiko; Tada, Kazumi; Kosaka, Nobuaki; Fukasawa, Ichio; Inaba, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    Retrorectal epidermoid cyst is one of the developmental cysts which arise from remnants of embryonic tissues. We report a rare case of retrorectal epidermoid cyst, initially diagnosed as an ovarian tumor. Serum SCC value as tumor marker was elevated to the high level. Laparoscopy revealed ovaries, uterus and other pelvic organs were all normal. This tumor existed in the retroperitoneal cavity and compressed the rectum. Later, complete tumor resection was performed by laparotomy. Histological study revealed the epithelium of this tumor consisted of only squamous cells without atypia, and the diagnosis of this tumor was retrorectal epidermoid cyst. Retrorectal epidermoid cyst is very rare, and difficult to diagnose before surgery. However, if we have-knowledge of developmental cysts, and by careful digital examination and image diagnosis, a differential diagnosis can be made.

  4. Elevated mercury bound to serum proteins in methylmercury poisoned rats after selenium treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunyun; Fan, Yuqin; Zhao, Jiating; Xu, Xiaohan; Jing, Hui; Shang, Lihai; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Bai; Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Methylmercury is a toxic pollutant and is generated by microbial methylation of elemental or inorganic mercury in the environment. Previous study found decreased hepatic MDA levels and urinary mercury levels in methylmercury poisoned rats after sodium selenite treatment. This study further found increased mercury levels in serum samples from methylmercury poisoned rats after selenium treatment. By using size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, three Hg- binding protein fractions and two Se-binding protein fractions were identified with the molecular weight of approximately 21, 40, and 75 kDa and of 40 and 75 kDa, respectively. Elevated mercury level in the 75 kDa protein fraction was found binding with both Hg and Se, which may explain the decreased urinary Hg excretion in MeHg poisoned rats after Se treatment. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of the serum found that the 75 kDa protein fractions were albumin binding with both Hg and Se and the 21 kDa fraction was Hg- binding metallothionein. PMID:27542163

  5. Retroperitoneal Leiomyosarcoma Associated with an Elevated β-HCG Serum Level Mimicking Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Hans-Juergen; Manseck, Andreas; Oehlschlaeger, Sven; Wirth, Manfred P.

    2000-01-01

    Patient. A 65-year-old man was admitted with a large primary retroperitoneal tumor and an increased β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) serum level. A germ cell tumor was suspected; however, a computed tomography-guided biopsy failed to enable tumor classification. After two courses of chemotherapy, the β-HCG serum level had returned to the normal level and a diagnostic laparotomy with incisional biopsy was performed. The immunohistochemical examination of the specimen identified the tumor as a retroperitoneal pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. Discussion. Tumor markers play only a marginal role in the work-up of patients with soft tissue sarcomas. In men with suspected retroperitoneal sarcomas, however, the determination of germ cell tumor markers occasionally enables a preoperative distinguishing of primary retroperitoneal germ cell tumors with considerable consequences for management. In this setting, a retroperitoneal tumor associated with a moderately elevated β-HCG is a diagnostic dilemma, and surgeons should be aware of the pitfall of a β-HCG-producing leiomyosarcoma in the differential diagnosis. PMID:18521299

  6. The Significance of Serum CA-125 Elevation in Chinese Patients with Primary Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, De-lei; Xu, Hao; Lv, Wei-fu; Hua, Rong; Du, Hongtao; Zhang, Qing-qiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the serum level of CA-125 and its corresponding clinical significance in Chinese patients with primary BCS. Methods. Serum CA-125 was measured in 243 patients with primary BCS receiving interventional treatment in the participating hospitals and in 120 healthy volunteers. The correlation between serum CA-125 levels and ascites volume, liver function, and prognosis was analyzed. Results. Serum CA-125 was significantly elevated in BCS patients compared to healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). Higher levels of CA-125 were found in BCS patients with abnormal hepatic function and low serum albumin levels and in patients with high volume of ascites compared to patients without these abnormalities. Serum CA-125 levels significantly correlated with ascites volume, serum level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, and Rotterdam BCS scores. The follow-up study indicated that the survival rate and asymptomatic survival rate after interventional treatment were lower in BCS patients with serum CA-125 > 175 U/mL (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Serum CA-125 was significantly higher in patients with primary BCS and had a positive correlation with the volume of ascites, severity of liver damage, and poor prognosis. Thus the serum CA-125 levels may be used to estimate the severity and prognosis of BCS in Chinese patients. PMID:26451141

  7. Elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase during growth hormone treatment in patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Momoi, T; Yamanaka, C; Tanaka, R; Yoshida, A; Okumura, M; Yamakura, S; Takasaki, Y; Sasaki, H; Kawai, M

    1995-11-01

    Serum creatinine phosphokinase (s-CPK) increased to more than 500 U/l in 5 out of 21 patients with growth hormone (GH) deficiency during the 2 years of treatment with biosynthetic GH. In three of these five patients, s-CPK had elevated gradually after the start of GH treatment and remained high in one patient except in the period when GH injection was interrupted, and gradually decreased in the other two patients during treatment. These three patients had complete GH deficiency associated with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency due to pituitary stalk transection. One of the remaining two patients had Noonan syndrome and his s-CPK levels before therapy were relatively high. The fifth patient was a baseball athlete and the elevation of s-CPK seemed to be attributable to the strenuous exercise. Conclusion. s-CPK increases significantly in a certain group of patients with GH deficiency during GH replacement therapy. Measurement of s-CPK is to be included in the follow up laboratory tests at least in the 1st treatment year to evaluate the potential hazardous effects of GH on muscle.

  8. High serum carotenoids are associated with lower risk for developing elevated serum alanine aminotransferase among Japanese subjects: the Mikkabi cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Minoru; Nakamura, Mieko; Ogawa, Kazunori; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Yano, Masamichi

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have shown that antioxidant vitamins and/or carotenoids may reduce liver disease, but this association has not been well established with thorough longitudinal cohort studies. The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate whether serum carotenoids at baseline are associated with the risk of developing elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) among Japanese subjects. We conducted a follow-up study of 1073 males and females aged between 30 and 79 years at baseline from the Mikkabi prospective cohort study. Those who participated in the baseline study and completed follow-up surveys were examined longitudinally. Exclusions included excessive alcohol consumption (≥60 g alcohol/d), hepatitis B and C and having a history of medication use for liver disease. A cohort of 213 males and 574 females free of elevated serum ALT (>30 IU/ml) at baseline was studied. Over a mean follow-up period of 7·4 (sd 3·1) years, thirty-one males and forty-nine females developed new elevated serum ALT. After adjustments for confounders, the hazard ratios for elevated serum ALT in the highest tertiles of basal serum β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and total provitamin A carotenoids against the lowest tertiles were 0·43 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·81), 0·51 (CI 0·27, 0·94) and 0·52 (CI 0·28, 0·97), respectively. For α-carotene and lycopene, borderline reduced risks were also observed; however, these were not significant. Our results further support the hypothesis that antioxidant carotenoids, especially provitamin A carotenoids, might help prevent earlier pathogenesis of non-alcoholic liver disease in Japanese subjects. PMID:26916997

  9. Serum calcium and magnesium concentrations and the use of a calcium-magnesium-borogluconate solution in the treatment of Friesian mares with retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Sevinga, M; Barkema, H W; Hesselink, J W

    2002-01-15

    The purpose of the present study was to compare serum calcium and magnesium concentrations in mares with or without a retained placenta (RP) and to evaluate treatment of mares with RP with oxytocin versus oxytocin combined with Ca-Mg-borogluconate solution. Blood samples were obtained within 12 h of foaling from Friesian mares with and without an RP (n = 90 and 65, respectively). Serum Ca and Mg concentrations were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In total, we treated 112 cases of RP in 101 Friesian mares by infusion of either oxytocin dissolved in saline solution or oxytocin dissolved in Ca-Mg-borogluconate solution. We defined RP as the failure to expel all or a part of the fetal membranes up to 3 h after delivery of the foal. We defined a positive response to the treatment as the passage of the entire placenta within 2 h after the infusion. Mares with RP had significantly lower serum calcium levels within 12 h of foaling than mares without RP. Serum magnesium levels showed no difference. Sixty-four percent of the mares treated with oxytocin in Ca-Mg-borogluconate solution responded positively to the treatment, compared to 44% of the mares treated with oxytocin in saline solution (P < 0.05).

  10. Patients with metal-on-metal articulation in trapeziometacarpal total joint arthroplasty may have elevated serum chrome and cobalt.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T B; Dremstrup, L; Stilling, M

    2013-10-01

    Serum chrome and cobalt was measured in 50 patients with trapeziometacarpal total joint replacement with metal-on-metal articulation and compared with serum chrome and cobalt values in 23 patients with trapeziometacarpal total joint replacement with metal-on-polyethylene articulation. In 10 of 50 (20%) patients with metal-on-metal articulation, slightly elevated serum chrome or cobalt values were found compared with only one in 23 (4%) patients with metal-on-polyethylene articulation. All metal values were lower than accepted 'normal values' for metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty and so considered not to be a general health risk. However, the mean disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score was 24 in patients with elevated serum chrome or cobalt compared with 10 in patients with normal metal values (p < 0.05) suggesting a local clinical effect of the elevated serum chrome or cobalt values. We recommend that patients with trapeziometacarpal total joint replacement with metal-on-metal articulation are followed with DASH score and radiological examination every 3-5 years and serum chrome and cobalt should be analysed in symptomatic cases to learn more about possible local complications leading to, or arising from, metal debris.

  11. Possibility of elevated parathyroid function in patients with calcium-containing nephrolithiasis as compared with normal controls.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T; Hirano, Y; Ueda, D; Niijima, T

    1987-01-01

    109 patients with calcium-containing nephrolithiasis and 10 normal controls underwent oral calcium load test. After thorough examination, 6 of the 109 patients were diagnosed as having primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and the remainder as having normocalcemic nephrolithiasis without PHPT. Following the oral calcium load test, the latter were operationally divided into 3 groups - normocalciuric nephrolithiasis (NN), n = 78; absorptive hypercalciuria (AH), n = 10, and renal hypercalciuria (RH), n = 15 - according to the criteria reported by Pak et al. Before the oral calcium load test, nephrogenous adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (NcAMP), urinary adenosine 3'-5'-monophosphate (urinary cAMP), and plasma immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were determined to evaluate parathyroid function. This function, as assessed by mean basal NcAMP in the NN, AH and RH groups as well as the PHPT group, was significantly increased as compared with that in the normal controls. Within the NcAMP-elevated 4 groups, the mean basal NcAMP was highest in the PHPT group followed by the RH, AH and NN groups. In view of the mean basal NcAMP, disregarding the PHPT group, the NN and AH groups seemed to be intermediate types between the normal controls and the RH groups. Similar, but less distinctive results were obtained in the determination of urinary cAMP and plasma iPTH. On the other hand, when leaving the PHPT group out, the mean basal urinary calcium creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr) was highest in the RH group followed by the AH and NN groups, and lowest in normal controls, suggesting that the NN and AH groups were intermediate between normal controls and the RH group. The mean basal urinary Ca/Cr ratio in the PHPT group was moderately elevated but not remarkable. Almost similar tendencies were observed in 24-hour urinary calcium excretions on a calcium-restricted diet. A weakly positive correlation (r = 0.232, p less than 0.05) between basal NcAMP and basal urinary Ca/Cr ratio was observed in

  12. On the effect of the injection of potassium phosphate in vivo inducing the precipitation of serum calcium with inorganic phosphate.

    PubMed

    Soares, Alcimar B; Ticianeli, José G; Soares, Letícia B M; Amaro, George

    2013-01-01

    High concentrations of inorganic phosphate (Pi) resulted from the hydrolysis of ATP is strongly associated to the weakness of the contractile mechanism of muscles due to its attractiveness to calcium. The majority of the experiments to study such effect are conducted in vitro. This work investigates the effects of different concentrations of Pi, induced by the injection of potassium phosphate in live animals, in the precipitation with serum calcium and the generation of calcium phosphate composites. The experiments were also designed to find out the ideal amount of potassium phosphate to induce an effective reaction. Potassium phosphate was injected in Wistar rats, randomly separated and distributed into seven groups. Group I was injected with 0.5 ml of saline solution (control) and groups II through VII were injected with 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg/kg of potassium phosphate, respectively. Blood collected from the inferior vena cava was submitted to biochemical analyses to measure the concentrations of calcium, Pi, urea and creatinine. The results showed that Pi, induced by the injection of potassium phosphate in live animals, causes precipitation with serum calcium, with statistically significant differences between the control and the treatment groups for doses up to 5.0 mg/kg. No statistically significant differences were found between the different doses and the concentration of urea and creatinine in the plasma. We conclude that potassium phosphate can be used to induce serum calcium precipitation in-vivo, with minor effects on other physiological variables, and the ideal dose to do so is 5.0 mg/kg.

  13. On the effect of the injection of potassium phosphate in vivo inducing the precipitation of serum calcium with inorganic phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Alcimar B; Ticianeli, José G; Soares, Letícia B M; Amaro, George

    2013-01-01

    High concentrations of inorganic phosphate (Pi) resulted from the hydrolysis of ATP is strongly associated to the weakness of the contractile mechanism of muscles due to its attractiveness to calcium. The majority of the experiments to study such effect are conducted in vitro. This work investigates the effects of different concentrations of Pi, induced by the injection of potassium phosphate in live animals, in the precipitation with serum calcium and the generation of calcium phosphate composites. The experiments were also designed to find out the ideal amount of potassium phosphate to induce an effective reaction. Potassium phosphate was injected in Wistar rats, randomly separated and distributed into seven groups. Group I was injected with 0.5 ml of saline solution (control) and groups II through VII were injected with 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg/kg of potassium phosphate, respectively. Blood collected from the inferior vena cava was submitted to biochemical analyses to measure the concentrations of calcium, Pi, urea and creatinine. The results showed that Pi, induced by the injection of potassium phosphate in live animals, causes precipitation with serum calcium, with statistically significant differences between the control and the treatment groups for doses up to 5.0 mg/kg. No statistically significant differences were found between the different doses and the concentration of urea and creatinine in the plasma. We conclude that potassium phosphate can be used to induce serum calcium precipitation in-vivo, with minor effects on other physiological variables, and the ideal dose to do so is 5.0 mg/kg. PMID:24379908

  14. Hypercalcaemia, hypermagnesaemia, hyperphosphataemia and hyperaluminaemia in CAPD: improvement in serum biochemistry by reduction in dialysate calcium and magnesium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, A J; Were, A J; Boulton, H F; Mawer, E B; Laing, I; Gokal, R

    1996-01-01

    Phosphate binders are necessary to control hyperphosphataemia in the majority of dialysis patients. Whilst aluminium salts are efficient phosphate binders, their use is associated with toxic side effects. Calcium salts are a widely used alternative, but hypercalcaemia is a common side effect, limiting their use and raising concern about metastatic calcification. Reduction of the dialysis fluid calcium concentration has been shown to reduce hypercalcaemia in haemodialysis patients, with an associated decrease in serum PTH. We analysed the effect of reduced calcium/magnesium (1.25/0.25 mmol/l), 40 mmol/l lactate, PD fluid (PD4) on 11 CAPD patients with uncontrollable hypercalcaemia (> 2.65 mmol/l) and hyperphosphataemia (> 1.80 mmol/l). Only 1 patient remained hypercalcaemic, while phosphate fell in 6 patients (2.23 +/- 0.16 on no binder, to 1.68 +/- 0.08 mmol/l at 6 months (p < 0.05), but was unchanged in 5 (2.10 +/- 0.15 to 2.48 +/- 0.14 mmol/l [p = NS]). Overall mean calcium x phosphate product changed little. However, in a subgroup it fell significantly (p < 0.05). Geometric mean iPTH rose, but not significantly. The subgroup of patients whose calcium x phosphate product fell, exhibited a much smaller rise in iPTH than the others (57.3-73.2 vs. 52.8-167.1 pg/ml). 1.25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 was subnormal in all patients. Mean serum magnesium fell from 1.24 +/- 0.06 to 0.89 +/- 0.04 mmol/l (p < 0.001), whilst mean serum bicarbonate rose significantly (25.2 +/- 0.4 to 28.9 +/- 1.2 mmol/l; p < 0.01). Withdrawal of aluminium-containing phosphate binders resulted in mean serum aluminium falling significantly from 31.1 +/- 5.7 at start of PD4 to 15.4 +/- 2.7 mu g/l at 6 months (p < 0.05). In summary, in around 50% of CAPD patients with persistent hypercalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia, reduction in PD fluid calcium can produce significant improvement in phosphate, reduction of calcium x phosphate product, and enable avoidance of aluminium-containing phosphate binders

  15. Serum phosphate and calcium should be primarily and consistently controlled in prevalent hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Masatomo; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Fujii, Naohiko; Hamano, Takayuki; Shoji, Tetsuo; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Nakai, Shigeru; Shigematsu, Takashi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu

    2013-04-01

    Mineral metabolism affects mortality in hemodialysis patients and is identified by imbalances in serum phosphate (P), calcium (Ca), and parathyroid hormone (PTH). We examined associations between annual mineral values (P, Ca, PTH) and mortality in a 3-year cohort (Dec 2006-2009) of 128,125 hemodialysis patients using three models, that is, baseline, time-dependent and time-average Cox models. We also examined associations between achieved Japanese guideline targets (P: 3.5-6.0 mg/dL, corrected Ca 8.4-10.0 mg/dL, intact PTH 60-180 mg/dL) and all-cause survival to elucidate which parameter should be controlled as a priority. High and low serum P (>6.0 or ≤ 3.5 mg/dL), high Ca (>9.5 mg/dL), higher PTH (>300 pg/mL) and lower PTH (≤ 60 pg/mL) were significantly associated with high mortality in all three models (P < 0.01). When we examined the association between combination of mineral targets and mortality, patients who achieved all targets simultaneously (20% of subjects, reference) showed lowest mortality. Those who achieved both P and Ca targets showed the same mortality as the reference group. Those who only met P target had a lower risk of death (hazard ratio = 1.17) compared to those that achieved Ca or PTH target (1.41, 1.47, respectively). As time of achieving P and Ca targets increased, all-cause mortalities diminished incrementally, significantly. Mineral metabolism disorder would lead to high mortality in prevalent hemodialysis patients. Among mineral values, P would be the strongest predictor for high mortality. Consistent achievement of P and Ca targets would lead to good survival.

  16. Clinical efficacy of serum lipase subtype analysis for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic and non-pancreatic lipase elevation

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Chang Seok; Kim, Jin Bong; Park, Sang Hyun; Baik, Gwang Ho; Su, Ki Tae; Yoon, Jai Hoon; Kim, Yeon Soo; Kim, Dong Joon

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Non-pancreatic elevations of serum lipase have been reported, and differential diagnosis is necessary for clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of serum lipase subtype analysis for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic and non-pancreatic lipase elevation. Methods: Patients who were referred for the serum lipase elevation were prospectively enrolled. Clinical findings and serum lipase subtypes were analyzed and compared by dividing the patients into pancreatitis and non-pancreatitis groups. Results: A total of 34 patients (12 pancreatitis vs. 22 non-pancreatitis cases) were enrolled. In univariate analysis, the fraction of pancreatic lipase (FPL) in the total amount of serum lipase subtypes was statistically higher in patients with pancreatitis ([median, 0.004; interquartile range [IQR], 0.003 to 0.011] vs. [median, 0.002; IQR, 0.001 to 0.004], p = 0.04). Based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for the prediction of acute pancreatitis, FPL was the most valuable predictor (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.86; sensitivity, 83.3%; specificity, 63.6%; positive predictive value, 55.6%; negative predictive value, 97.5%). In multivariate analysis, a cut-off value higher than 0.0027 for the FPL was associated with acute pancreatitis (odds ratio, 8.3; 95% CI, 1.3 to 51.7; p = 0.02). Conclusions: The results did not support that serum lipase subtype analysis could replace standard lipase measurement for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. However, the test demonstrated adequate sensitivity for use in triage or as an add-on test for serum lipase elevation. PMID:27243230

  17. Effect of sustained serum prolactin elevation on breast epithelial and myoepithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Stringer, B M; Rowson, J; Greer, W; Wynford-Thomas, D; Williams, E D

    1990-01-01

    Oral administration of the dopamine antagonist perphenazine (0.01% in drinking water) to adult female Sprague-Dawley rats led to a three- to fourfold increase in serum prolactin by the first time point sampled (day 2) and a sustained fourfold elevation from day 4 of treatment to the end of the experiment (day 54). In response, five- to sixfold (day 7) and three- to fourfold (day 4) peak elevations in the epithelial cell metaphase indices were seen in the breast lobular and ductular compartments respectively. Both indices fell to basal levels on day 14 but returned to a second, but diminished, peak on day 27. By day 54, the mitotic activity of the epithelium had fallen to just above basal levels in both compartments. A similar mitotic response occurred in the myoepithelial cells, clearly indicating that these must be considered an important cell kinetic component during breast stimulation. Breast epithelial cell number increased 13-14 fold in the lobular but only two- to threefold in the ductular compartments in response to perphenazine administration. Again, similar responses were seen in the myoepithelial cell population. The major proliferative response therefore occurred within the lobular as opposed to the ductular compartment. A considerable discrepancy was shown between the cell number at each time point and that predicted on the assumption of constant cell death rate. We conclude that a growth desensitizing mechanism exists in the rat breast which limits breast growth in the presence of a sustained trophic hormone stimulation. Furthermore, we suggest that this limitation in breast growth is brought about by a mechanism which involves increased cell death in addition to decreased mitotic activity.

  18. Elevated Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Relationship to Ultrasound Features

    PubMed Central

    Pawelczak, Melissa; Kenigsberg, Lisa; Milla, Sarah; Liu, Ying-Hua; Shah, Bina

    2013-01-01

    Context Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) is linked to the ovarian follicle pool. Little is known about the relationship between serum AMH and ovarian ultrasound (US) features in adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Objectives To confirm that serum AMH is elevated in adolescents with PCOS and to correlate serum AMH with ovarian ultrasound features in this population. Design A retrospective chart review of clinical, biochemical, and ultrasonographic data in adolescents with PCOS and normal controls. Serum AMH was measured and compared between groups and correlated with ovarian ultrasound findings. Setting Two urban tertiary academic medical centers. Participants Study groups included 23 adolescent females with PCOS and 12 age and BMI matched female controls. Main Outcome Measures We hypothesized that serum AMH would be elevated in the PCOS group compared with controls and would positively correlate with follicle number, distribution, and ovarian volume. Results Serum AMH was 6.78 +−3.55 ng/mL in the PCOS group versus 3.38 +−1.48 ng/mL in controls (P=0.0004). AMH positively correlated with ovarian volume (left ovary r=0.65, P=0.0007, right ovary r=0.55, P=0.0065) and peripheral follicle distribution (P=0.0027). Ten or more follicles were observed in 83% of ultrasounds. Conclusions There is a positive relationship between serum AMH and ovarian volume as well as peripheral follicular distribution in adolescents with PCOS. Our findings support the use of serum AMH as a useful marker to reflect ovarian ultrasound features typical of PCOS in cases where accurate ultrasounds are not available and for follow up. PMID:23426830

  19. Elevated baseline serum glutamate as a pharmacometabolomic biomarker for acamprosate treatment outcome in alcohol-dependent subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nam, H W; Karpyak, V M; Hinton, D J; Geske, J R; Ho, A M C; Prieto, M L; Biernacka, J M; Frye, M A; Weinshilboum, R M; Choi, D-S

    2015-01-01

    Acamprosate has been widely used since the Food and Drug Administration approved the medication for treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in 2004. Although the detailed molecular mechanism of acamprosate remains unclear, it has been largely known that acamprosate inhibits glutamate action in the brain. However, AUD is a complex and heterogeneous disorder. Thus, biomarkers are required to prescribe this medication to patients who will have the highest likelihood of responding positively. To identify pharmacometabolomic biomarkers of acamprosate response, we utilized serum samples from 120 alcohol-dependent subjects, including 71 responders (maintained continuous abstinence) and 49 non-responders (any alcohol use) during 12 weeks of acamprosate treatment. Notably, baseline serum glutamate levels were significantly higher in responders compared with non-responders. Importantly, serum glutamate levels of responders are normalized after acamprosate treatment, whereas there was no significant glutamate change in non-responders. Subsequent functional studies in animal models revealed that, in the absence of alcohol, acamprosate activates glutamine synthetase, which synthesizes glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. These results suggest that acamprosate reduces serum glutamate levels for those who have elevated baseline serum glutamate levels among responders. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that elevated baseline serum glutamate levels are a potential biomarker associated with positive acamprosate response, which is an important step towards development of a personalized approach to treatment for AUD. PMID:26285131

  20. Extrarenal teratoid Wilms' tumor: two cases in unusual locations, one associated with elevated serum AFP.

    PubMed

    Song, Joon Seon; Kim, In Koo; Kim, Yong Man; Khang, Shin-Kwang; Kim, Kyu-Rae; Lee, Yonghee

    2010-01-01

    Teratoid Wilms' tumor is an unusual morphological entity characterized by a classic triphasic malignancy with predominantly heterologous tissue. The authors describe two cases of teratoid Wilms' tumor with an extrarenal site: one in a 13-year-old girl with vaginal spotting (patient 1) and another in a 1-day-old girl with a sacrococcygeal mass (patient 2). The tumors were located in the vagina and coccyx, respectively. Under the initial clinical diagnosis of sarcoma botryoides in patient 1 and teratoma in patient 2, the masses were removed. Microscopically, both tumors were composed of typical triphasic Wilms' tumor tissue with primitive cartilage and skeletal muscle, and squamous and columnar mucinous epithelia. The patient with sacrococcygeal mass (patient 2) had an elevated serum AFP level. The patients were given chemotherapy and have now remained disease free for 7 years 1 month, and 2 years 5 months after surgery, respectively. Familiarity with this rare variant of Wilms' tumor might be important in arriving at a correct diagnosis.

  1. Multicommutated flow analysis system based on fluorescence microdetectors for simultaneous determination of phosphate and calcium ions in human serum.

    PubMed

    Fiedoruk-Pogrebniak, Marta; Koncki, Robert

    2015-11-01

    A bianalyte multicommutated flow analysis (MCFA) system allowing simultaneous determination of calcium and phosphate ions is developed. The detection of ions is based on measurements of fluorescence of calcein and rhodamine B, respectively. For such measurements performed under flow analysis conditions two dedicated detectors made of three integrated light emitting diodes each and operating according to fluorometric paired emitter detector diode (FPEDD) principle, have been used. The developed 2FPEDD-MCFA system has been applied for serum analysis. The system provides low detection limits (16 µM and 3.6 µM for calcium and phosphate ions, respectively) and therefore small consumption of sample (8 µL) for analysis. The throughput of the system allows about 20 bianalyte determinations per hour. The presented system was validated using human serum samples. The analysis results show good correlation with those from the clinical laboratory obtained using reference photometric methods. The results of real samples analysis show that it is necessary to determine both calcium and phosphate ions simultaneously because their levels is serum are rather weakly correlated.

  2. Study of Denosumab in the Treatment of Hypercalcemia of Malignancy in Subjects With Elevated Serum Calcium

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-18

    Breast Cancer; Hypercalcemia of Malignancy; Colon Cancer; Endocrine Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Lung Cancer; Lymphoma; Metastatic Cancer; Multiple Myeloma; Parathyroid Neoplasms; Renal Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  3. Elevated serum levels of a biliary glycoprotein (BGP I) in patients with liver or biliary tract disease.

    PubMed

    Svenberg, T; Wahren, B; Hammarström, S

    1979-05-01

    Human hepatic bile contains a glycoprotein (biliary glycoprotein I, BGP I) which cross-reacts with the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). A radioimmunoassay for BGP I was developed. The interference of CEA or 'non-specific cross-reacting antigen' (NCA) in the assay was small. The serum levels of BGP I were determined in healthy subjects, in patients with hepato-biliary diseases and in patients with various infectious or inflammatory disorders. Healthy individuals, including pregnant women, had a serum BGP I concentration of about 0.5-1 mg/l. Diseases of the liver or biliary tract (e.g. hepatitis A or B, cytomegalovirus hepatitis, obstructive jaundice or primary biliary cirrhosis) were associated with elevated serum levels of BGP I, as opposed to infectious diseases not affecting the liver mostly showing values within the normal range. Raised levels of serum BGP I activity may reflect biliary obstruction as a result of interference with normal BGP I secretion to the bile.

  4. Serum Calcium and the Risk of Breast Cancer: Findings from the Swedish AMORIS Study and a Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Sagoo, Harkiran K.; Hamza, Mustafa; Melvin, Jennifer; Holmberg, Lars; Garmo, Hans; Malmström, Håkan; Lambe, Mats; Hammar, Niklas; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between serum calcium and risk of breast cancer using a large cohort and a systematic review with meta-analysis. From the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS) Study we included 229,674 women who had baseline measurements of serum total calcium and albumin. Multivariable Cox regression was used to assess the association between total and albumin-corrected calcium and breast cancer risk. For the systematic review, an electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to identify other prospective cohorts assessing the relationship between serum calcium and breast cancer risk. We pooled the results of our AMORIS cohort with other eligible studies in a meta-analysis using a random effects model. I2 test was used to assess heterogeneity. In the AMORIS study, 10,863 women were diagnosed with breast cancer (mean follow-up: 19 years). We found an inverse association between total serum calcium and breast cancer when comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile (HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.88–0.99, p value for trend 0.04) and similar results using albumin-corrected calcium. In the systematic review, we identified another two prospective cohorts evaluating pre-diagnostic serum total calcium and breast cancer. Combining these studies and our findings in AMORIS in a meta-analysis showed a protective effect of serum calcium against breast cancer, with a summary RR of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.66–0.97). No substantial heterogeneity was observed. Our findings in AMORIS and the meta-analysis support an inverse association between serum calcium and breast cancer risk, which warrants mechanistic investigations. PMID:27608013

  5. Serum Calcium and the Risk of Breast Cancer: Findings from the Swedish AMORIS Study and a Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    PubMed

    Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Sagoo, Harkiran K; Hamza, Mustafa; Melvin, Jennifer; Holmberg, Lars; Garmo, Hans; Malmström, Håkan; Lambe, Mats; Hammar, Niklas; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between serum calcium and risk of breast cancer using a large cohort and a systematic review with meta-analysis. From the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS) Study we included 229,674 women who had baseline measurements of serum total calcium and albumin. Multivariable Cox regression was used to assess the association between total and albumin-corrected calcium and breast cancer risk. For the systematic review, an electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to identify other prospective cohorts assessing the relationship between serum calcium and breast cancer risk. We pooled the results of our AMORIS cohort with other eligible studies in a meta-analysis using a random effects model. I² test was used to assess heterogeneity. In the AMORIS study, 10,863 women were diagnosed with breast cancer (mean follow-up: 19 years). We found an inverse association between total serum calcium and breast cancer when comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile (HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.88-0.99, p value for trend 0.04) and similar results using albumin-corrected calcium. In the systematic review, we identified another two prospective cohorts evaluating pre-diagnostic serum total calcium and breast cancer. Combining these studies and our findings in AMORIS in a meta-analysis showed a protective effect of serum calcium against breast cancer, with a summary RR of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.66-0.97). No substantial heterogeneity was observed. Our findings in AMORIS and the meta-analysis support an inverse association between serum calcium and breast cancer risk, which warrants mechanistic investigations. PMID:27608013

  6. Hypophysectomy eliminates and growth hormone (GH) maintains the midpregnancy elevation in GH receptor and serum binding protein in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Jimenez, F.; Fielder, P.J.; Martinez, R.R.; Smith, W.C.; Talamantes, F. )

    1990-02-01

    ({sup 125}I)Iodomouse GH (({sup 125}I)iodo-mGH) binding to samples of serum and hepatic microsomal membranes was measured in hypophysectomized pregnant, sham-operated pregnant, intact pregnant, and intact adult virgin mice. Surgeries were carried out on day 11 of pregnancy, and the animals were killed on day 14. The binding of mGH to both serum and hepatic microsomal membranes of intact virgin mice was much lower than to those of intact pregnant mice. In hypophysectomized mice, the mGH-binding capacity of both serum and hepatic microsomes decreased to values similar to those of nonpregnant mice. No significant differences were observed between intact and sham-operated pregnant animals in the maternal serum mGH concentration, the serum GH-binding protein concentration, or the hepatic GH receptor concentration. GH receptor and binding protein-encoding mRNAs were also higher in intact and sham-operated pregnant mice than in virgin and hypophysectomized mice. Hypophysectomized mice were treated with 200 micrograms/day bovine GH, administered by osmotic minipump; after 3 days of treatment, a significant elevation of hepatic GH receptor and serum GH-binding protein levels was observed. These results demonstrate an up-regulation of hepatic GH receptors and serum GH-binding protein by GH during pregnancy in the mouse.

  7. HIGH SERUM PCBs ARE ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATION OF SERUM LIPIDS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN A NATIVE AMERICAN POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Goncharov, Alexey; Haase, Richard F.; Santiago-Rivera, Azara; Morse, Gayle; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Rej, Robert; Carpenter, David O.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the relationships among the concentration of total serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), various PCB congener groupings, and three pesticides to total serum lipids in humans with and without self-reported cardiovascular disease. Blood samples were obtained from 335 adult Akwesasne Mohawks, and were analyzed for 101 PCB congeners, mirex, DDE, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), as well as serum triglycerides and cholesterol. Structural equation modeling, following the definition of latent variables by means of confirmatory factor analysis, was used to analyze the relationships between serum lipids with PCBs and heart disease. There were significant associations among PCBs, lipids, age, and body mass index (BMI), a fact which justified the application of the structural equation model. Gender of the participant was unrelated to any of the remaining study variables. The results of this study are consistent with a model in which age is considered as both an exogenous explanatory variable and a biological driving mechanism for the acquisition of PCBs. Moreover, the results of this study are consistent with the conclusion that PCBs, acting through P450 enzymes, are directly responsible for increased synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides, substances known to be major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:18054906

  8. Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR) activation elevates proinflammatory factor expression in human adipose cells and adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cifuentes, Mariana; Fuentes, Cecilia; Acevedo, Ingrid; Villalobos, Elisa; Hugo, Eric; Ben Jonathan, Nira; Reyes, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    We have previously established that human adipose cells and the human adipose cell line LS14 express the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) and that its expression is elevated upon exposure to inflammatory cytokines that are typically elevated in obese humans. Research in recent years has established that an important part of the adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of obesity derive from a dysfunction of the tissue, one of the mechanisms being a disordered secretion pattern leading to an excess of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Given the reported association of the CaSR to inflammatory processes in other tissues, we sought to evaluate its role elevating the adipose expression of inflammatory factors. We exposed adipose tissue and in-vitro cultured LS14 preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes to the calcimimetic cinacalcet and evaluated the expression or production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL6, IL1β and TNFα as well as the chemoattractant factor CCL2. CaSR activation elicited an elevation in the expression of the inflammatory factors, which was in part reverted by SN50, an inhibitor of the inflammatory mediator NFκB. Our observations suggest that CaSR activation elevates cytokine and chemokine production through a signaling pathway involving activation of NFκB nuclear translocation. These findings confirm the relevance of the CaSR in the pathophysiology of obesity-induced adipose tissue dysfunction, with an interesting potential for pharmacological manipulation in the fight against obesity- associated diseases. PMID:22449852

  9. [Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and bone. Targets of serum calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone levels and their controls in maintenance dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Akiba, Takashi

    2009-04-01

    Introduction of CKD-MBD changed clinical attitudes for the therapy of metabolic bone disease in maintenance dialysis therapy as the systemic diseases of calcium phosphate metabolism. We present the variation of target serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone levels in the guidelines of US and European countries. We also review the management of drug use especially concomitant active vitamin D metabolites and calcium carbonate to cinacalcet prescription.

  10. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... milligrams) of calcium each day. Get it from: Dairy products. Low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, and cottage ... lactase that helps digest the sugar (lactose) in dairy products, and may have gas, bloating, cramps, or ...

  11. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements and fortified foods include gluconate, lactate, and phosphate. Calcium absorption is best when a person consumes ... also interfere with the body's ability to absorb iron and zinc, but this effect is not well ...

  12. Serum Metabolite Profiles and Target Tissue Gene Expression Define the Effect of Cholecalciferol Intake on Calcium Metabolism in Rats and Mice1,2

    PubMed Central

    Fleet, James C.; Gliniak, Christy; Zhang, Zhentao; Xue, Yingben; Smith, Kathleen B.; McCreedy, Rebecca; Adedokun, Sunday A.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effect of cholecalciferol (VD3) intake on VD3 status and markers of calcium (Ca) homeostasis in mice and rats. Serum 25 hydroxycholecalciferol (25OH-VD3) concentrations were increased in animals fed diets containing 400–20,000 international units (IU) VD3/kg (37 nmol·L−1·1000 IU VD3−1), but body weight, serum Ca, and duodenal gene expression were not altered. High-VD3 intake decreased serum 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2-VD3] and renal 25 hydroxycholecalciferol-1ahydroxylase (CYP27B1) mRNA, suggesting that rodents tolerate high-VD3 intake by suppressing the activity of the VD3 endocrine system. Serum 25OH-VD3 declined when animals were fed diets containing 1000 to 25 IU VD3/kg (9–11 wk, inflection at 200 IU/kg, 4-fold steeper slope below this). Neither body weight nor serum Ca were influenced by low-VD3 intake. However, mice fed the 25-IU/kg diet had lower serum 1,25(OH)2-VD3, duodenal calbindin D9k mRNA, bone mineral density, and renal 25 hydroxycholecalciferol-24 hydroxylase mRNA, whereas renal CYP27B1 mRNA was elevated when rodents were fed ,200 IU VD3/kg. These data reveal a stress on VD3 and Ca metabolism at low dietary VD3 intake. Dietary Ca restriction (0.25 vs. 0.5%, 9 wk) increased serum 1,25(OH)2-VD3 and was 30% greater in rats fed a 10,000-IU VD3/kg diet. High-VD3 intake did not prevent Ca restriction-induced bone loss. Our data show that modeling human VD3 status requires lower intake than the current NRC rodent requirement (1000-IU/kg diet). Also, although rodents are very tolerant of high-VD3 intake, it cannot compensate for moderate Ca restriction. PMID:18492843

  13. A cohort study of relationship between serum calcium levels and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in ischemic stroke patients with AF and/or RHD

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junfeng; Wang, Deren; Xiong, Yao; Liu, Bian; Wei, Chenchen; Ma, Zhenxing; Wu, Bo; Yuan, Ruozhen; Tang, Hehan; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Calcium is an essential element for life and has cerebroprotective property in stroke patients. Low serum calcium levels were found to be related to large hematoma volumes in intracerebral hemorrhagic patients and hemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke patients after thrombolysis. However, their impact on hemorrhage-prone small vessel disease represented by cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) is uncertain. We aim to investigate whether low serum calcium levels are associated with presence and location of CMBs. Ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or rheumatic heart disease admitted to our hospital were consecutively and prospectively enrolled. Demographic and clinical information were collected and analyzed according to the occurrence and location of CMBs, and levels of serum calcium. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate the multivariable adjusted relationship between serum calcium levels and the presence or location of CMBs. Among the 67 patients (28 males; mean age, 67.3 years) in the final analysis, 39 (58.2%) were found to have CMBs. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking habits, drinking habits, and renal impairment, the presence of CMBs and deep CMBs was, respectively, 4.96- and 4.83-fold higher in patients with lower serum calcium levels (≤2.15 mmol/L) than in patients with higher serum calcium levels. Lower serum calcium levels (≤2.15 mmol/L) are independently associated with the presence of CMBs and deep CMBs in ischemic stroke patients with AF and/or rheumatic heart disease, which should be verified and extended in large cohorts, with other types of stroke patients and the general population. PMID:27368027

  14. Unusual presentation of retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma mimicking an adnexal tumor with highly elevated serum CA-19-9.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong Hyu; Lee, Jeong Heon; Oh, Byung Chan

    2014-01-01

    When retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma develops in pelvic cavity, it often presents similar symptoms and radiological findings to adnexal tumor, therefore obscures diagnostic approaches until an exploratory laparotomy is performed. We report an unusual presentation of retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma mimicking an adnexal tumor with extremely elevated serum CA-19-9. Though the most of the prominent mass was removed during surgery, there was massive bleeding due to tearing of internal iliac vein while dissecting the ureter close to vessels. This case focuses on the significance of considering retroperitoneal tumor even if the mass is located in ovarian fossa and has highly elevated serum level of CA-19-9. And in attempt of tumor removal, the excision needs to be clean-cut without damaging nerves or vessels around the mass and avoid causing any prospective complications.

  15. Sulfation of Lithocholate as a Possible Modifier of Chenodeoxycholic Acid-induced Elevations of Serum Transaminase in Patients with Gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Marks, J. W.; Sue, S. O.; Pearlman, B. J.; Bonorris, G. G.; Varady, P.; Lachin, J. M.; Schoenfield, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDC), through its metabolite, lithocholic acid (LC), is hepatotoxic in certain species. The cause of elevations of serum transaminase in 25% of humans ingesting CDC, however, is unknown, but also may be due to LC. Because efficient hepatic sulfation of LC may protect against hepatic injury, the aim of this study was to determine if sulfation of LC might modify CDC-induced elevations of transaminase. Pretreatment sulfation fraction (SF) was estimated in 63 randomly selected patients with gallstones in a double-blind randomized trial of CDC, 750 mg/d, 375 mg/d, or placebo; in 27 of these, SF was repeated at 1 or 2 yr. In four other patients, the SF was measured at 2 yr only. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase were determined monthly for 3 mo and then every 3 or 4 mo; an elevation of transaminase was defined as > 150% of the normal upper limit in asymptomatic patients. 10 μCi of 3H-glyco-LC (sp act 84 mCi/mol) was ingested 10-12 h before fasting duodenal biliary drainage. Bile acids in bile were separated by thin-layer chromatography. The SF was estimated as a percentage of total radioactivity (scintillation counting) in sulfated glyco-LC. The standard deviation for replicate SF determinations (n = 311) was 2.1% The pretreatment SF (mean 60.7±1.7 SEM) correlated inversely with age (r = 0.336, P < 0.005) and directly with the obesity index (r = 0.495, P > 0.001), but was independent of sex. The SF, remeasured at 1 or 2 yr, did not change significantly with time or CDC. Among CDC-treated patients, elevations of transaminase occurred in 75% of patients with a SF < 45% vs. 11% with a SF > 45% (P < 0.001). In conclusion, a SF < 45% occurred in patients with gallstones who had a high probability of developing elevated serum transaminase when treated with CDC. Thus, sulfation of lithocholate may modify CDC-induced elevations of serum transaminase. Images PMID:7298846

  16. Elevated amylase creatinine clearance ratio and normal serum amylase levels in chronic relapsing pancreatitis after partial pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Cattau, E L; Garcia-Torres, F

    1980-12-01

    A 29-year-old woman admitted for alcohol detoxification five years after a 90% distal pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis had abdominal pain similar to that associated with preoperative pancreatitis. Although her clinical course was consistent with recurrent pancreatitis, the serum amylase level remained normal, but the amylase creatinine clearance ratio became elevated and then returned to normal, paralleling her clinical course. The ACCR may be a useful laboratory method in diagnosing chronic recurrent pancreatitis in patients with decreased functional pancreatic tissue.

  17. How the use of creatine supplements can elevate serum creatinine in the absence of underlying kidney pathology.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Lydia; New, David

    2014-09-19

    Serum creatinine is a widely used marker in the assessment of renal function. Elevated creatinine levels suggest kidney dysfunction, prompting the need for further investigation. This report describes a case in which the consumption of the bodybuilding supplement creatine ethyl ester resulted in raised serum creatinine in the absence of true underlying kidney pathology. The abnormalities reversed after discontinuation of the supplement. A case of pseudo renal failure was recognised and kidney function was concluded to be normal. This report aims to address the mechanisms by which the ingestion of creatine ethyl ester can mimic the blood results expected in advanced renal failure, and confronts the problems faced when relying on serum creatinine as a diagnostic tool.

  18. How the use of creatine supplements can elevate serum creatinine in the absence of underlying kidney pathology

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Lydia; New, David

    2014-01-01

    Serum creatinine is a widely used marker in the assessment of renal function. Elevated creatinine levels suggest kidney dysfunction, prompting the need for further investigation. This report describes a case in which the consumption of the bodybuilding supplement creatine ethyl ester resulted in raised serum creatinine in the absence of true underlying kidney pathology. The abnormalities reversed after discontinuation of the supplement. A case of pseudo renal failure was recognised and kidney function was concluded to be normal. This report aims to address the mechanisms by which the ingestion of creatine ethyl ester can mimic the blood results expected in advanced renal failure, and confronts the problems faced when relying on serum creatinine as a diagnostic tool. PMID:25239988

  19. Serum CEACAM1 Elevation Correlates with Melanoma Progression and Failure to Respond to Adoptive Cell Transfer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ortenberg, R.; Sapoznik, S.; Zippel, D.; Shapira-Frommer, R.; Itzhaki, O.; Kubi, A.; Zikich, D.; Besser, M. J.; Schachter, J.; Markel, G.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a devastating disease whose incidences are continuously rising. The recently approved antimelanoma therapies carry new hope for metastatic patients for the first time in decades. However, the clinical management of melanoma is severely hampered by the absence of effective screening tools. The expression of the CEACAM1 adhesion molecule on melanoma cells is a strong predictor of poor prognosis. Interestingly, a melanoma-secreted form of CEACAM1 (sCEACAM1) has recently emerged as a potential tumor biomarker. Here we add novel evidences supporting the prognostic role of serum CEACAM1 by using a mice xenograft model of human melanoma and showing a correlation between serum CEACAM1 and tumor burden. Moreover, we demonstrate that serum CEACAM1 is elevated over time in progressive melanoma patients who fail to respond to immunotherapy as opposed to responders and stable disease patients, thus proving a correlation between sCEACAM1, response to treatment, and clinical deterioration. PMID:26688824

  20. Calcium-substituted Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors with enhanced Tc synthesized at elevated oxygen pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, D. E.; Narwankar, P.; Sinha, A. P. B.; Takano, K.; Fayn, B.; Shum, V. T.

    1990-03-01

    Calcium substitution in the Y-Ba-Cu-O system at elevated P(O2) results in superconducting compounds with novel and enhanced properties: tetragonal CaxY(1-x)Ba2Cu3Oy with Tc=86 K for x=0.2 prepared at P(O2)=16 bars, and CaxY(1-x)Ba2Cu4Oy (1:2:4) with Tc=89 K for x=0.1 prepared at 50-200 bars. Calcium substitution shifts the phase-stability boundary between 1:2:3, 2:4:7, and 1:2:4 phases to higher P(O2), and stabilizes a tetragonal 1:2:3 structure at moderately elevated P(O2) without substantial decrease in Tc. The Tc of 1:2:4 increases with Ca substitution up to x=0.1, and then decreases gradually for larger x, possibly because of excessive hole concentration.

  1. Elevated Preoperative Serum CA19-9 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Is Associated with Poor Prognosis after Resection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Hung; Hu, Rey-Heng; Ho, Ming-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Serum levels of the tumor marker CA19-9 have been reported to be elevated in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its clinicopathologic significance is still unknown. A cohort of 304 patients undergoing surgical resection for HCC and having preoperative CA19-9 data was enrolled in this study. Serum CA19-9 levels were correlated with clinicopathologic factors. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the predictors of patient survival. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cut off value of CA19-9 was determined to be 27 U/mL. One hundred and six patients had preoperative CA19-9 values >27 U/mL. High serum CA19-9 levels did not correlate with patient age, sex, viral status, α-fetoprotein level, tumor size, tumor grade, tumor stage, multiplicity, and vascular invasion. Patients with elevated preoperative CA19-9 levels had lower 10-year survival than those without CA19-9 elevation. Multivariate analysis revealed that CA19-9 level, tumor grade, and tumor size are independent prognostic factors for long-term survival. In conclusion, a preoperative CA19-9 value >27 U/mL is associated with poor prognosis after resection for HCC. PMID:23843733

  2. Calcium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert J P

    2002-01-01

    This chapter describes the chemical and biological value of the calcium ion. In calcium chemistry, our main interest is in equilibria within static, nonflowing systems. Hence, we examined the way calcium formed precipitates and complex ions in solution. We observed thereafter its uses by humankind in a vast number of materials such as minerals, e.g., marble, concrete, mortars, which parallel the biological use in shells and bones. In complex formation, we noted that many combinations were of anion interaction with calcium for example in the uses of detergents and medicines. The rates of exchange of calcium from bound states were noted but they had little application. Calcium ions do not act as catalysts of organic reactions. In biological systems, interest is in the above chemistry, but extends to the fact that Ca2+ ions can carry information by flowing in one solution or from one solution to another through membranes. Hence, we became interested in the details of rates of calcium exchange. The fast exchange of this divalent ion from most organic binding sites has allowed it to develop as the dominant second messenger. Now the flow can be examined in vitro as calcium binds particular isolated proteins, which it activates as seen in physical mechanical changes or chemical changes and this piece-by-piece study of cells is common. Here, however, we have chosen to stress the whole circuit of Ca2+ action indicating that the cell is organized both at a basal and an activated state kinetic level by the steady state flow of the ion (see Fig. 11). Different time constants of exchange utilizing very similar binding constants lead to: 1) fast responses as in the muscle of an animal; or 2) slower change as in differentiation of an egg or seed. Many other changes of state may relate to Ca2+ steady-state levels of flow in the circuitry and here we point to two: 1) dormancy in reptiles and animals; and 2) sporulation in both bacteria and lower plants. In the other chapters of

  3. Effect of Oestrogen on Altering the Serum and Urinary Levels of Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium in Hysterectomised Women Compared to Natural Menopausal South Indian Women: A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Sonu, Yeldose; Avinash, S S; Sreekantha; Arun Kumar, K; Malathi, M; Shivashankara, A R

    2016-07-01

    Given the paucity of studies conducted to know the effect of suddenness and earlier onset of endocrinological changes associated with hysterectomy, on the serum and urinary levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphate the present study was conducted to compare the levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphate in serum and urine of hysterectomised and natural menopausal south Indian women. This is a cross-sectional observational study. The study included three groups of 30 healthy premenopausal, 30 early surgical menopausal and 30 natural post menopausal women. Women suffering from any endocrine disease were excluded. Analysis was performed in serum and urine sample. The levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphate in serum and calcium/creatinine, magnesium/creatinine and phosphate/creatinine ratio were estimated in urine by spectrophotometric method. Hysterectomised women (serum calcium: 8.7 ± 0.09 mg/dl; urine calcium/creatinine: 0.16 ± 0.02) have significantly low serum calcium (p < 0.001) and high urinary calcium/creatinine (p = 0.002) ratio and post menopausal women (serum magnesium: 2.1 ± 0.03; serum phosphate: 4.4 ± 0.16; urinary calcium/creatinine: 0.17 ± 0.02; urinary magnesium/creatinine: 0.09 ± 0.01) have significantly high serum magnesium (p = 0.016), serum phosphate (p = 0.043) and high urinary calcium/creatinine (p = 0.002), magnesium/creatinine ratio (p = 0.025) compared to healthy pre menopausal women. Post menopausal women (serum calcium: 9.1 ± 0.08) have significantly high serum calcium and phosphate compared to hysterectomised women (serum phosphate: 3.93 ± 0.11). Hysterectomised women have significantly low serum calcium, oestrogen and high urinary calcium/creatinine ratio compared to healthy premenopausal women and low serum calcium and low serum phosphate compared to natural postmenopausal women. Natural postmenopausal women had low serum oestrogen and high serum magnesium, serum phosphate, urinary calcium

  4. Soluble Serum CD81 Is Elevated in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C and Correlates with Alanine Aminotransferase Serum Activity

    PubMed Central

    Welker, Martin-Walter; Reichert, David; Susser, Simone; Sarrazin, Christoph; Martinez, Yolanda; Herrmann, Eva; Zeuzem, Stefan; Piiper, Albrecht; Kronenberger, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Aim Cellular CD81 is a well characterized hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry factor, while the relevance of soluble exosomal CD81 in HCV pathogenesis is poorly defined. We performed a case-control study to investigate whether soluble CD81 in the exosomal serum fraction is associated with HCV replication and inflammatory activity. Patients and Methods Four cohorts were investigated, patients with chronic hepatitis C (n = 37), patients with chronic HCV infection and persistently normal ALT levels (n = 24), patients with long term sustained virologic response (SVR, n = 7), and healthy volunteers (n = 23). Concentration of soluble CD81 was assessed semi-quantitatively after differential centrifugation ranging from 200 g to 100,000 g in the fifth centrifugation fraction by immunoblotting and densitometry. Results Soluble CD81 was increased in patients with chronic hepatitis C compared to healthy subjects (p = 0.03) and cured patients (p = 0.017). Patients with chronic HCV infection and persistently normal ALT levels and patients with long term SVR had similar soluble CD81 levels as healthy controls (p>0.2). Overall, soluble CD81 levels were associated with ALT levels (r = 0.334, p = 0.016) and severe liver fibrosis (p = 0.027). Conclusion CD81 is increased in the exosomal serum fraction in patients with chronic hepatitis C and appears to be associated with inflammatory activity and severity of fibrosis. PMID:22355327

  5. Impact of Elevated Hemoglobin and Serum Protein on Vasovagal Reaction from Blood Donation

    PubMed Central

    Tanba, Taiko; Yoshinaga, Kentaro; Motoji, Toshiko; Munakata, Masaya; Nakajima, Kazunori; Minami, Mutsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to elucidate factors contributing to vasovagal reaction (VVR), the most frequent side effect following whole blood and apheresis donations. Complications recorded at the collection sites after voluntary donations by the Japanese Red Cross Tokyo Blood Center (JRC), in the 2006 and 2007 fiscal years, were analyzed by both univariate analysis and the multivariate conditional logistic regression model. Of 1,119,716 blood donations over the full two years, complications were recorded for 13,320 donations (1.18%), among which 67% were VVR. There were 4,303 VVR cases which had sufficient information and could be used for this study. For each VVR case, two sex- and age-matched controls (n = 8,606) were randomly selected from the donors without complications. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), predonation blood pressure, pulse and blood test results, including total protein, albumin, and hemoglobin, were compared between the VVR group and the control group. In univariate analysis, the VVR group was significantly younger, with a lower BMI, higher blood pressure and higher blood protein and hemoglobin levels than the control group (p<0.001). Furthermore, blood protein and hemoglobin levels showed dose-dependent relationships with VVR incidences by the Cochran-Armitage trend test (p<0.01). For both sexes, after adjusting for confounders with the multivariate conditional logistic regression model, the higher than median groups for total protein (male: OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.76,-2.21; female: OR 2.29; 95%CI 2.05–2.56), albumin (male: 1.75; 1.55–1.96; female: 1.76; 1.57–1.97) and hemoglobin (male: 1.98; 1.76–2.22; female: 1.62; 1.45–1.81) had statistically significant higher risk of VVR compared to the lower than median groups. These elevated serum protein and hemoglobin levels might offer new indicators to help understand VVR occurrence. PMID:26894814

  6. Impact of calcium and vitamin D insufficiencies on serum parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density: analysis of the 4th & 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative contributions of calcium and vitamin D to calcium metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) have been examined previously, but not in a population with very low calcium intake. To determine the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concent...

  7. Postprandial metabolic responses of serum calcium, parathyroid hormone and C-telopeptide of type I collagen to three doses of calcium delivered in milk.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Marlena C; von Hurst, Pamela R; Booth, Christine L; Kuhn-Sherlock, Barbara; Todd, Joanne M; Schollum, Linda M

    2014-01-01

    Acute doses of Ca rapidly increase serum Ca and reduce bone resorption concomitant with a reduction in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. The physiological response to a dose of Ca in milk and to a Ca salt may be different. The present study investigated Ca absorption patterns with increasing levels of fortification in milk, and the response to one dose of a Ca salt. A group of twenty-eight Asian women aged 20-45 years volunteered to attend the laboratory over several weeks. The fasted volunteers were randomised to one of three experimental drinks: 200 ml skimmed milk containing 250, 500 or 1000 mg Ca. A subgroup of seven volunteers also received a calcium gluconate/carbonate salt containing 1000 mg Ca in 200 ml water. Serial blood samples and urine were collected for 5 h from baseline. Different doses of Ca in milk resulted in a graded response in serum corrected Ca, PTH and C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx) but not ionised Ca. Serum Ca increased in response to all milk drinks and from 2 to 5 h the blood Ca levels were significantly different for the 250 and 1000 mg doses, as was the integrated response between the loads. The PTH response to the two higher doses was significantly more than following the 250 mg dose. The integrated response for CTx and urinary Ca between all three doses of Ca in milk was significantly different. A dose of Ca salt elicited a more immediate response reaching a plateau faster, and declining faster to baseline. Fortified milk is a safe matrix for delivering larger doses of Ca. PMID:25191614

  8. Acute and 3-month effects of microcrystalline hydroxyapatite, calcium citrate and calcium carbonate on serum calcium and markers of bone turnover: a randomised controlled trial in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Sarah M; Gamble, Greg D; Stewart, Angela; Horne, Lauren; House, Meaghan E; Aati, Opetaia; Mihov, Borislav; Horne, Anne M; Reid, Ian R

    2014-11-28

    Ca supplements are used for bone health; however, they have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which may relate to their acute effects on serum Ca concentrations. Microcrystalline hydroxyapatite (MCH) could affect serum Ca concentrations less than conventional Ca supplements, but its effects on bone turnover are unclear. In the present study, we compared the acute and 3-month effects of MCH with conventional Ca supplements on concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers. We randomised 100 women (mean age 71 years) to 1 g/d of Ca as citrate or carbonate (citrate-carbonate), one of two MCH preparations, or a placebo. Blood was sampled for 8 h after the first dose, and after 3 months of daily supplementation. To determine whether the acute effects changed over time, eight participants assigned to the citrate dose repeated 8 h of blood sampling at 3 months. There were no differences between the citrate and carbonate groups, or between the two MCH groups, so their results were pooled. The citrate-carbonate dose increased ionised and total Ca concentrations for up to 8 h, and this was not diminished after 3 months. MCH increased ionised Ca concentrations less than the citrate-carbonate dose; however, it raised the concentrations of phosphate and the Ca-phosphate product. The citrate-carbonate and MCH doses produced comparable decreases in bone resorption (measured as serum C-telopeptide (CTX)) over 8 h and bone turnover (CTX and procollagen type-I N-terminal propeptide) at 3 months. These findings suggest that Ca preparations, in general, produce repeated sustained increases in serum Ca concentrations after ingestion of each dose and that Ca supplements with smaller effects on serum Ca concentrations may have equivalent efficacy in suppressing bone turnover.

  9. [Determination of the content of serum calcium with methylthymol blue as chromogenic reagent].

    PubMed

    Yang, C; Liu, W; Zhao, Z; Wu, H

    1998-08-01

    It is reported in this paper that calcium can be determined with MTB as chromogenic reagent by isoabsorption dual-wavelength elimination. The measuring wavelength and referential wavelength were 613.7 and 590.0nm, respectively. No masking reagent was necessary in the analysis. The average recovery and RSD of calcium are 98.98% and 0.81%, respectively. Compared with titration, this method is rapid, simple and precise. PMID:15825349

  10. Association of serum uric acid level with mortality and morbidity of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Reza; Ghaffari, Samad; Salehi, Rezvanieh; Mazani, Sarvin; Aghavali, Sharmin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Investigating the clinical impact of serum uric acid (UA) and its lowering agents on the complications and mortality of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) can open a new era in STEMI treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of on admission serum UA level on the mortality and morbidity of patients admitted with STEMI. Methods: A number of 608 patients with STEMI were enrolled in this study from December 21, 2012 until February 19, 2014. Patients were followed for 20 months. Male to female ratio was 2.53, and the mean age of patients was 62.6±13.4. The relationship between the level of UA and patients’ mortality and morbidity, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), atrial and ventricular arrhythmia was analyzed. Results: Patients with high serum UA level had higher Killip class after STEMI (P=0.001). Mean LVEF was measured to be 39.5±9.6 in normal UA group and 34.6±11.6 in high UA group (P=0.001). In comparison with normal UA group, high UA group had significantly higher cTnI (2.68±0.09 vs 4.09±0.42, respectively, P=0.001), increased blood pressure (P=0.009), and higher atrial fibrillation (AF) occurrence (P=0.03), but no association was seen between ventricular tachycardia and serum UA level. Short term and midterm mortality were not different in two groups (P=0.44 and 0.31, respectively). Conclusion: In the current study, high serum UA level in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) was not associated with higher in-hospital or midterm mortality, but it was associated with lower LVEF, higher Killip class, elevated cTnI, creatinine, triglyceride, and higher AF. PMID:27489597

  11. Characterization of Granulations of Calcium and Apatite in Serum as Pleomorphic Mineralo-Protein Complexes and as Precursors of Putative Nanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Young, John D.; Young, Andrew; Hung, Chin-Ming; Young, Lena; Chao, Ying-Jie; Young, James; Wu, Cheng-Yeu

    2009-01-01

    Calcium and apatite granulations are demonstrated here to form in both human and fetal bovine serum in response to the simple addition of either calcium or phosphate, or a combination of both. These granulations are shown to represent precipitating complexes of protein and hydroxyapatite (HAP) that display marked pleomorphism, appearing as round, laminated particles, spindles, and films. These same complexes can be found in normal untreated serum, albeit at much lower amounts, and appear to result from the progressive binding of serum proteins with apatite until reaching saturation, upon which the mineralo-protein complexes precipitate. Chemically and morphologically, these complexes are virtually identical to the so-called nanobacteria (NB) implicated in numerous diseases and considered unusual for their small size, pleomorphism, and the presence of HAP. Like NB, serum granulations can seed particles upon transfer to serum-free medium, and their main protein constituents include albumin, complement components 3 and 4A, fetuin-A, and apolipoproteins A1 and B100, as well as other calcium and apatite binding proteins found in the serum. However, these serum mineralo-protein complexes are formed from the direct chemical binding of inorganic and organic phases, bypassing the need for any biological processes, including the long cultivation in cell culture conditions deemed necessary for the demonstration of NB. Thus, these serum granulations may result from physiologically inherent processes that become amplified with calcium phosphate loading or when subjected to culturing in medium. They may be viewed as simple mineralo-protein complexes formed from the deployment of calcification-inhibitory pathways used by the body to cope with excess calcium phosphate so as to prevent unwarranted calcification. Rather than representing novel pathophysiological mechanisms or exotic lifeforms, these results indicate that the entities described earlier as NB most likely originate

  12. Characterization of granulations of calcium and apatite in serum as pleomorphic mineralo-protein complexes and as precursors of putative nanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Young, John D; Martel, Jan; Young, David; Young, Andrew; Hung, Chin-Ming; Young, Lena; Chao, Ying-Jie; Young, James; Wu, Cheng-Yeu

    2009-01-01

    Calcium and apatite granulations are demonstrated here to form in both human and fetal bovine serum in response to the simple addition of either calcium or phosphate, or a combination of both. These granulations are shown to represent precipitating complexes of protein and hydroxyapatite (HAP) that display marked pleomorphism, appearing as round, laminated particles, spindles, and films. These same complexes can be found in normal untreated serum, albeit at much lower amounts, and appear to result from the progressive binding of serum proteins with apatite until reaching saturation, upon which the mineralo-protein complexes precipitate. Chemically and morphologically, these complexes are virtually identical to the so-called nanobacteria (NB) implicated in numerous diseases and considered unusual for their small size, pleomorphism, and the presence of HAP. Like NB, serum granulations can seed particles upon transfer to serum-free medium, and their main protein constituents include albumin, complement components 3 and 4A, fetuin-A, and apolipoproteins A1 and B100, as well as other calcium and apatite binding proteins found in the serum. However, these serum mineralo-protein complexes are formed from the direct chemical binding of inorganic and organic phases, bypassing the need for any biological processes, including the long cultivation in cell culture conditions deemed necessary for the demonstration of NB. Thus, these serum granulations may result from physiologically inherent processes that become amplified with calcium phosphate loading or when subjected to culturing in medium. They may be viewed as simple mineralo-protein complexes formed from the deployment of calcification-inhibitory pathways used by the body to cope with excess calcium phosphate so as to prevent unwarranted calcification. Rather than representing novel pathophysiological mechanisms or exotic lifeforms, these results indicate that the entities described earlier as NB most likely originate

  13. Elevated serum brain natriuretic peptide and matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Nan; Wang, Honghao; Dong, Jianjian; Pan, Suyue; Wang, Xun; Han, Yongsheng; Han, Yongzhu; Yang, Renmin

    2015-08-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is a disease of copper metabolism characterized by excessive copper deposition in the body. It is reported abnormal copper metabolism has been associated with cardiovascular disease. BNP and MMP2/9 were biomarkers of congestive heart failure (CHF). There is rare study to explore whether serum concentrations of BNP, MMP2, and or MMP9 are altered in patients with WD. In this study we determine whether serum concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 are increased in patients with WD. Serum BNP, MMP2 and MMP9 were measured by an ELISA in 34 patients with hepatic WD, in 68 patients with neurological WD, and in 33 healthy controls. We found serum BNP levels were higher in patients with neurological WD than in healthy controls (p = 0.033). Serum MMP2 levels were higher in patients with hepatic (p = 0.009) and neurologic (p = 0.0004) WD than in controls. Serum MMP9 levels were higher in patients with neurologic WD than in patients with hepatic WD (p = 0.002) and controls (p = 0.00005), and were higher in patients with hepatic WD than in controls (p = 0.03). Serum BNP levels were negatively correlated with ceruloplasmin (p = 0.017, r = -0.215), while serum (p = 0.019, r = -0.221) and MMP9 (p = 0.011, r = -0.231) in patients with WD were negatively correlated with ceruloplasmin. BNP, MMP2, and MMP9 may reflect the deposition of copper in the heart.

  14. Serum calcium levels, TRPM7, TRPC1, microcalcifications, and breast cancer using breast imaging reporting and data system scores

    PubMed Central

    Mandavilli, Shravya; Singh, Brij B; Sahmoun, Abe E

    2013-01-01

    Background An association between higher serum calcium (Ca2+) levels and breast cancer has been previously reported. However, little is known regarding the relationship between serum Ca2+ levels and the expression of Ca2+ channels in the presence of breast microcalcifications. Methods A retrospective analysis of women newly diagnosed with breast microcalcifications was performed based on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). The expression of TRPC1, TRPC3, and TRPM7 using normal biopsy without microcalcifications (controls) and infiltrating ductal carcinoma with microcalcifications was evaluated. Results Data on 138 women were analyzed. Seventy percent of women had a BI-RADS score (1–3) corresponding to benign disease. Seventy-six percent of women with a BI-RADS score (4 or 5) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 56% were cancers in situ, and 93% were infiltrating ductal carcinomas. No difference in the distribution of corrected serum Ca2+ levels between BI-RADS scores (1–3) and BI-RADS scores (4–5) (P = 0.82) was observed. Serum Ca2+ levels were similar in women without cancer and women diagnosed with breast cancer (P = 0.94). However, the expression of TRPM7 and TRPC1, but not TRPC3, Ca2+ channels were increased in infiltrating ductal carcinoma samples with microcalcifications when compared with age-matched controls without calcification or cancer. Conclusion We observed an increase in the expression of TRPM7 and TRPC1 Ca2+ channels in infiltrating ductal carcinoma samples with microcalcifications, whereas no change in serum Ca2+ levels was observed. Together these data suggest that increased expression of these channels might lead to an increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels thereby restoring serum Ca2+ levels, but these can contribute to the breast microcalcifications. However, future studies exploring the intracellular Ca2+ levels as well as the role of TRPM7 and TRPC1 function according to BI-RADS scores are needed. PMID:23662076

  15. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan

    2015-11-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS.

  16. Elevated levels of soluble CD14 in serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Nockher, W A; Wigand, R; Schoeppe, W; Scherberich, J E

    1994-01-01

    A soluble form of CD14 (sCD14) was assessed with an ELISA assay in the serum of the following three clinical groups: 35 patients with an inactive phase of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 17 patients with SLE relapses, and 65 normal healthy volunteers. Increased levels of sCD14 were observed in all patients suffering from SLE compared with normal controls. In addition, patients with active SLE revealed higher serum concentrations of sCD14 (median 6.9 mg/l) than patients under remission (4.1 mg/l; P < 0.0001). Serum values of sCD14 correlated neither with the number of peripheral blood monocytes bearing the CD14 membrane antigen, nor with serum concentrations of IL-1 beta. Serum sCD14 was compared with other clinical parameters used to monitor the clinical course of patients with SLE, among them complement C3, anti-dsDNA antibodies and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R). A good correlation emerged between sCD14 and C3 as well as sIL-2R concentrations, but sCD14 and anti-dsDNA titres disclosed no significant correlation in both groups of patients with SLE. Serial studies in patients with severe SLE showed that serum sCD14 closely parallels the clinical course as defined by an activity score. Our data suggest that serum sCD14 represents a promising parameter to monitor disease activity in patients with SLE. PMID:7512005

  17. Macro creatine kinase type 1: a cause of spuriously elevated serum creatine kinase associated with leukoencephalopathy in a child.

    PubMed

    Bodensteiner, John B

    2014-07-01

    Macro creatine kinase type 1 is a complex formed by the creatine kinase isoenzyme BB and monoclonal IgG and occurs in about 1% of patients studied. First identified as a cause of spurious elevation of the total serum creatine kinase in patients suspected of myocardial infarction, the test has been largely replaced by the measurement of troponin levels. We present a child with delayed milestones and persistently elevated total serum creatine kinase measurements (∼ 1000-4000 IU) normal electromyogram and brisk myotatic reflexes. Creatine kinase isoenzymes and brain imaging showed the presence of macro creatine kinase type 1 and extensive signal abnormality of the cerebral white matter. Macro creatine kinase type 1 has been associated with several conditions though it has not been described in association with leukoencephalopathy or in patients this young. Macro creatine kinase type 1 can be a cause of elevated total creatine kinase in patients without primary muscle disease. The significance of the relationship of the macro creatine kinase to the leukoencephalopathy in this patient is unknown.

  18. Effect of curing conditions on the dimensional and thermal stability of calcium phosphate cement for elevated temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Blom, Johan; Rahier, Hubert; Wastiels, Jan

    2014-12-15

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are attractive materials for elevated temperature applications, like moulds to process thermoplastics up to 300 °C. The CPC resulting from the reaction of wollastonite with phosphoric acid cured at room temperature however contains hydrated phases like brushite, and is thus not stable when exposed to temperatures above 200 °C. A non-contact method based on digital image correlation demonstrated that isothermal curing at 60 °C reduces the thermal shrinkage up to 300 °C by 25%. This curing method results in the direct formation of the more stable monetite in a shorter curing time. The correlated results of TGA, pH of the filtration water, and DSC analysis on partially cured material indicate this. XRD diffractograms and SEM images in combination with EDX show the evolution of the transformation of wollastonite into monetite, and the structure and morphology of the formed material.

  19. Unique Responsiveness of Angiosperm Stomata to Elevated CO2 Explained by Calcium Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Brodribb, Timothy J.; McAdam, Scott A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperm and conifer tree species respond differently when exposed to elevated CO2, with angiosperms found to dynamically reduce water loss while conifers appear insensitive. Such distinct responses are likely to affect competition between these tree groups as atmospheric CO2 concentration rises. Seeking the mechanism behind this globally important phenomenon we targeted the Ca2+-dependent signalling pathway, a mediator of stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2, as a possible explanation for the differentiation of stomatal behaviours. Sampling across the diversity of vascular plants including lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms we show that only angiosperms possess the stomatal behaviour and prerequisite genetic coding, linked to Ca2+-dependent stomatal signalling. We conclude that the evolution of Ca2+-dependent stomatal signalling gives angiosperms adaptive benefits in terms of highly efficient water use, but that stomatal sensitivity to high CO2 may penalise angiosperm productivity relative to other plant groups in the current era of soaring atmospheric CO2. PMID:24278470

  20. Reinforcement of calcium phosphate cement with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and bovine serum albumin for injectable bone substitute applications.

    PubMed

    Chew, Kean-Khoon; Low, Kah-Ling; Sharif Zein, Sharif Hussein; McPhail, David S; Gerhardt, Lutz-Christian; Roether, Judith A; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the development of novel alternative injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) composites for orthopaedic applications. The new CPC composites comprise β-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) and di-calcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) mixed with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and incorporated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNTs-OH and MWCNTs-COOH). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), compressive strength tests, injectability tests, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to evaluate the properties of the final products. Compressive strength tests and SEM observations demonstrated particularly that the concomitant admixture of BSA and MWCNT improved the mechanical properties, resulting in stronger CPC composites. The presence of MWCNTs and BSA influenced the morphology of the hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals in the CPC matrix. BSA was found to act as a promoter of HA growth when bounded to the surface of CPC grains. MWCNT-OH-containing composites exhibited the highest compressive strengths (16.3 MPa), being in the range of values for trabecular bone (2-12 MPa).

  1. Relation of Serum Fetuin-A Levels to Coronary Artery Calcium in African-American Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Sijie; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Bierhals, Andrew; Ash-Bernal, Rachel; Spence, Karen; Slatopolsky, Eduardo; Davila-Roman, Victor G.; Delmez, James

    2008-01-01

    Vascular calcium deposition in end-stage renal disease occurs commonly, however its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors and fetuin-A levels in African-Americans is not known. Compliant African-American HD patients (n=17) agreed to undergo a 64-slice multidetector computed tomography for the assessment of coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The relationship between traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, gender, dialysis vintage, history of diabetes, means of the previous 3 years of the weekly pre-dialysis blood pressure and hemoglobin, means of monthly values of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid and albumin, and means of quarterly measures of parathyroid hormone and lipids), and fetuin-A levels and CACS was explored by univariate analyses. Serum phosphorus levels over the previous 3 years were well controlled. The CACS range was 0-3,877 Agatston units (mean: 996; median :196). Among the tested variables, only fetuin-A was significantly and inversely associated with CACS (standardized β = -0.64 [95% confidence limits [CL]: -18.09, -3.62], p=0.006). There was no association between age and fetuin-A level (standardized β = -0.02 [95%CL: -0.10, 0.23]). In conclusion, African-American patients on long-term HD and with good phosphorus control exhibit a strong inverse correlation between fetuin-A levels and CACS which is independent of age. PMID:19101228

  2. Reinforcement of calcium phosphate cement with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and bovine serum albumin for injectable bone substitute applications.

    PubMed

    Chew, Kean-Khoon; Low, Kah-Ling; Sharif Zein, Sharif Hussein; McPhail, David S; Gerhardt, Lutz-Christian; Roether, Judith A; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the development of novel alternative injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) composites for orthopaedic applications. The new CPC composites comprise β-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) and di-calcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) mixed with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and incorporated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNTs-OH and MWCNTs-COOH). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), compressive strength tests, injectability tests, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to evaluate the properties of the final products. Compressive strength tests and SEM observations demonstrated particularly that the concomitant admixture of BSA and MWCNT improved the mechanical properties, resulting in stronger CPC composites. The presence of MWCNTs and BSA influenced the morphology of the hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals in the CPC matrix. BSA was found to act as a promoter of HA growth when bounded to the surface of CPC grains. MWCNT-OH-containing composites exhibited the highest compressive strengths (16.3 MPa), being in the range of values for trabecular bone (2-12 MPa). PMID:21316621

  3. Elevated serum levels of neopterin in adult patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Samsonov, M Y; Nassonov, E L; Tilz, G P; Geht, B M; Demel, U; Gurkina, G T; Shtutman, V Z; Guseva, A G; Wachter, H; Fuchs, D

    1997-06-01

    We determined serum concentrations of neopterin, soluble tumour necrosis factor (55 kDa) receptor (sTNF-R) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) in plasma of 44 patients with polymyositis (PM)/dermatomyositis (DM), including 15 patients with primary PM, 13 patients with primary DM, and 16 patients with myositis and systemic sclerosis in overlap. Concentrations of neopterin, sTNF-R and sIL-2R were measured using commercially available immunoassays. Serum neopterin was increased in 35 of 44 PM/DM patients (80%), sTNF-R in 14 (32%) and sIL-2R in 18 (41%) patients, respectively. There were significant correlations between serum neopterin and sTNF-R, sIL-2R and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (all P < 0.001). Neopterin, as well as sTNF-R and sIL-2R, did not correlate with clinical (neuromuscular and activities of daily living scores) and laboratory (creatine kinase levels) manifestations of myositis. Increased serum levels of neopterin were associated with non-muscular manifestations of PM/DM. In conclusion, serum neopterin appears to be a useful laboratory marker for ongoing immune activation and global disease activity in PM/DM.

  4. Elevation of cytosolic calcium precedes anoxic gene expression in maize suspension-cultured cells.

    PubMed Central

    Subbaiah, C C; Bush, D S; Sachs, M M

    1994-01-01

    Based on pharmacological evidence, we previously proposed that intracellular Ca2+ mediates the perception of O2 deprivation in maize seedlings. Herein, using fluorescence imaging and photometry of Ca2+ in maize suspension-cultured cells, the proposal was further investigated. Two complementary approaches were taken: (1) real time analysis of anoxia-induced changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca]i) and (2) experimental manipulation of [Ca]i and then assay of the resultant anoxia-specific responses. O2 depletion caused an immediate increase in [Ca2+]i, and this was reversible within a few seconds of reoxygenation. The [Ca]i elevation proceeded independent of extracellular Ca2+. The kinetics of the Ca2+ response showed that it occurred much earlier than any detectable changes in gene expression. Ruthenium red blocked the anoxic [Ca]i elevation and also the induction of adh1 (encoding alcohol dehydrogenase) and sh1 (encoding sucrose synthase) mRNA. Ca2+, when added along with ruthenium red, prevented the effects of the antagonist on the anoxic responses. Verapamil and bepridil failed to block the [Ca]i rise induced by anoxia and were equally ineffective on anoxic gene expression. Caffeine induced an elevation of [Ca]i as well as ADH activity under normoxia. The data provide direct evidence for [Ca]i elevation in maize cells as a result of anoxia-induced mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Furthermore, any manipulation that modified the [Ca]i rise brought about a parallel change in the expression of two anoxia-inducible genes. Thus, these results corroborate our proposal that [Ca]i is a physiological transducer of anoxia signals in plants. PMID:7866021

  5. Serum Estradiol and Testosterone Levels in Kidney Stones Disease with and without Calcium Oxalate Components in Naturally Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Lili; Duan, Xiaolu; Zeng, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological data reveal that the overall risk for kidney stones disease is lower for women compared to age-matched men. However, the beneficial effect for the female sex is lost upon menopause, a time corresponding to the onset of fall in estrogen levels. The aim of this study was to describe the serum estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) characteristics of naturally postmenopausal women with kidney stones. Methods 113 naturally postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed kidney stones (aged 57.4±4.98 years) and 84 age frequency matched stone-free controls (56.9±4.56 years) were validly recruited in the case-control study. The odds ratios (ORs) for the associations between sex hormones and kidney stones were estimated with logistic regression models, adjusting for demographic data and medical history. Patients were also stratified analyzed according to stone components (calcium oxalate stones [COS]; non-calcium oxalate stones [NCOS]). Results Serum E2 (21.1 vs. 31.1 pg/ml) was significantly lower in kidney stones patients compared to controls. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that this effect was driven by COS patients (p<0.001). According to tertiles of the E2 levels, a significant higher frequency of COS was seen in the lowest E2 group (p <0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified E2 level as a strong factor that was independently associated with the risk for COS (per 1 SD increase, OR=0.951, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.919-0.985; highest: lowest tertile, OR=0.214, 95%CI = 0.069-0.665). However, serum T levels did not significantly differ among the groups. Conclusions Naturally postmenopausal women with higher remaining estradiol levels appear less likely to suffer from kidney calcium oxalate stones. However, no correlation was found between serum T level and kidney stones. These findings support the hypothesis that higher postmenopausal endogenous estrogens may protect against kidney stones with ageing. PMID:24086550

  6. [Squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis with elevation of G-CSF in the serum: a case report].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hidetaka; Nakamura, Terukazu; Mikami, Kazuya; Okihara, Koji; Mizutani, Yoichi; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2008-11-01

    A 67-year-old man was admitted with left renal pelvic tumor. He had a leukocytosis of 26,500/mm3 (neutrophils: 81.7%) in the peripheral blood, but with no obvious focus of infection. Moreover, the serum granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) were elevated. Abdominal enhanced computed tomography (CT) and left retrograde pyelography showed left renal pelvic cancer T4N0M0. He received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (M-VAC: cisplatin + methotrexate + vinblastin + doxorubicin, TN: paclitaxel + nedaplatin). After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, left nephroureterectomy was performed because of normalization of the serum SCC and G-CSF. Histological examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. He is alive with no evidence of disease for 4 years.

  7. Elevation of serum sphingosine-1-phosphate attenuates impaired cardiac function in experimental sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Coldewey, Sina M.; Benetti, Elisa; Collino, Massimo; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Sponholz, Christoph; Bauer, Michael; Huwiler, Andrea; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Serum levels of the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are reduced in septic patients and are inversely associated with disease severity. We show that serum S1P is reduced in human sepsis and in murine models of sepsis. We then investigated whether pharmacological or genetic approaches that alter serum S1P may attenuate cardiac dysfunction and whether S1P signaling might serve as a novel theragnostic tool in sepsis. Mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan (LPS/PepG). LPS/PepG resulted in an impaired systolic contractility and reduced serum S1P. Administration of the immunomodulator FTY720 increased serum S1P, improved impaired systolic contractility and activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-pathway in the heart. Cardioprotective effects of FTY720 were abolished following administration of a S1P receptor 2 (S1P2) antagonist or a PI3K inhibitor. Sphingosine kinase-2 deficient mice had higher endogenous S1P levels and the LPS/PepG-induced impaired systolic contractility was attenuated in comparison with wild-type mice. Cardioprotective effects of FTY720 were confirmed in polymicrobial sepsis. We show here for the first time that the impaired left ventricular systolic contractility in experimental sepsis is attenuated by FTY720. Mechanistically, our results indicate that activation of S1P2 by increased serum S1P and the subsequent activation of the PI3K-Akt survival pathway significantly contributes to the observed cardioprotective effect of FTY720. PMID:27277195

  8. Elevation of serum sphingosine-1-phosphate attenuates impaired cardiac function in experimental sepsis.

    PubMed

    Coldewey, Sina M; Benetti, Elisa; Collino, Massimo; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Sponholz, Christoph; Bauer, Michael; Huwiler, Andrea; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Serum levels of the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are reduced in septic patients and are inversely associated with disease severity. We show that serum S1P is reduced in human sepsis and in murine models of sepsis. We then investigated whether pharmacological or genetic approaches that alter serum S1P may attenuate cardiac dysfunction and whether S1P signaling might serve as a novel theragnostic tool in sepsis. Mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan (LPS/PepG). LPS/PepG resulted in an impaired systolic contractility and reduced serum S1P. Administration of the immunomodulator FTY720 increased serum S1P, improved impaired systolic contractility and activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-pathway in the heart. Cardioprotective effects of FTY720 were abolished following administration of a S1P receptor 2 (S1P2) antagonist or a PI3K inhibitor. Sphingosine kinase-2 deficient mice had higher endogenous S1P levels and the LPS/PepG-induced impaired systolic contractility was attenuated in comparison with wild-type mice. Cardioprotective effects of FTY720 were confirmed in polymicrobial sepsis. We show here for the first time that the impaired left ventricular systolic contractility in experimental sepsis is attenuated by FTY720. Mechanistically, our results indicate that activation of S1P2 by increased serum S1P and the subsequent activation of the PI3K-Akt survival pathway significantly contributes to the observed cardioprotective effect of FTY720. PMID:27277195

  9. Intravenous injection of Candida-derived mannan results in elevated tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in serum.

    PubMed

    Garner, R E; Hudson, J A

    1996-11-01

    Intravenous injection of Candida albicans into mice produced elevated serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels. We hypothesized that immunostimulants released in vivo from C. albicans during fungal sepsis might contribute to the elevated levels of TNF-alpha in serum. We tested this hypothesis in mice with C. albicans mannan (CAM). Increased serum TNF-alpha levels were observed following intravenous and intraperitoneal injections of CAM. Injection of CAM into mice resulted in increased serum TNF-alpha concentrations that reached 1,200 pg/ml of blood, compared with 2,400 microg/ml of blood following injection of 10 microg of endotoxin. The response to CAM was concentration dependent, requiring a minimum dose of 20 microg of CAM per g of body weight. Sera from mice were tested 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after intravenous injections with CAM. TNF-alpha concentrations were minimal 30 and 120 min after intravenous injection and maximal 60 and 90 min after CAM injection. The relative distribution of CAM in vivo in decreasing order was determined to be as follows: blood > liver > lung > spleen, 90 min following injection of a single 5-mg dose of CAM. CAM was confirmed as the stimulating substance by utilizing anti-CAM antibodies in vivo to block the response. Rabbit anti-mannan antibodies administered by intraperitoneal injection 24 h before CAM injection significantly suppressed (P < 0.05) the accumulation of TNF-alpha in the sera. Dexamethasone administered to mice before intravenous injection of mannan significantly reduced (40 to 90% reduction; P < 0.05) the concentrations of TNF-alpha in the sera of treated mice. Thus, when in vivo CAM clearance mechanisms are exceeded, sufficient CAM may become available to stimulate TNF-alpha production, making CAM an important part of pathogenesis in Candida sepsis.

  10. Joint Effect of Hypertension and Elevated Serum Phosphorus on the Risk of Mortality in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-III

    PubMed Central

    Vart, Priya; Nigatu, Yeshambel T; Jaglan, Ajay; van Zon, Sander K R; Shafique, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum phosphorus might aggravate the effect of hypertension on mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the joint effect of hypertension and serum phosphorus on the risk of mortality. Methods and Results A large prospective (n=15 833), population-based cohort of participants from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III was examined to test potential synergism between hypertension, elevated serum phosphorus, and the risk of mortality. Interaction on additive scale and multiplicative scale was estimated. After a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 1691 cases of cardiovascular mortality and 3875 cases of all-cause mortality were identified. Interaction was observed between hypertension and elevated serum phosphorus on the additive scale for cardiovascular mortality (relative excess risk due to interaction, 0.99, 95% CI: 0.06; 1.92, adjusted for age, gender, race, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). No statistically significant interaction was found between hypertension and serum phosphorus for all-cause mortality on the additive scale. No significant interaction was detected on the multiplicative scale. In sensitivity analysis, excluding participants who died in first 2 years and adjustment for additional confounders resulted in essentially similar findings. Conclusions The joint effect of hypertension and elevated serum phosphorus was larger than the sum of the independent effects on cardiovascular mortality but not on all-cause mortality. Future studies should investigate whether controlling elevated serum phosphorus in hypertensive individuals helps in prevention of extra risk of cardiovascular mortality. PMID:25994440

  11. Elevated amylase creatinine clearance ratio and normal serum amylase levels in chronic relapsing pancreatitis after partial pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Cattau, E L; Garcia-Torres, F

    1980-12-01

    A 29-year-old woman admitted for alcohol detoxification five years after a 90% distal pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis had abdominal pain similar to that associated with preoperative pancreatitis. Although her clinical course was consistent with recurrent pancreatitis, the serum amylase level remained normal, but the amylase creatinine clearance ratio became elevated and then returned to normal, paralleling her clinical course. The ACCR may be a useful laboratory method in diagnosing chronic recurrent pancreatitis in patients with decreased functional pancreatic tissue. PMID:6160621

  12. Clinical significance of elevated serum A-FABP and free fatty acid in neonates with hypoxic ischemic brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei; Jiang, Lian; Zhang, Huifen; Wang, Dandan; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Lianshan

    2016-01-01

    The main function of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) is to regulate fatty acid metabolism as its molecular chaperone. The clinical significance of A-FABP in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) neonates is not yet clear. Free fatty acid (FFA) in cerebral cortex increases along with hypoxia ischemia degree. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether FFA can induce A-FABP expression and elevate the serum A-FABP level in HIBD neonates. In the present study, 42 HIBD neonates were selected including 11 cases as mild, 16 cases as moderate and 15 cases as severe. The serum was collected from peripheral vein at 72 h after the first visit (acute stage) and 7 days after birth (recovery stage), and the serum from 10 normal neonates was used as the control. The serum level of A-FABP and FFA in 42 neonates with acute phase and recovery phase HIBD were detected using ELISA and copper colorimetric method. The overall serum A-FABP content in HIBD neonates at the acute stage was significantly higher compared to the normal neonates (P<0.05). The serum A-FABP level in severe HIBD neonates was significantly higher than that in mild HIBD, moderate HIBD and normal neonates (P<0.05). The serum FFA level in HIBD neonates at the acute stage was 1,521.57±605.63 µmol/l, which was significantly higher than that in the normal neonates 838.24±294.22 µmol/l. The serum FFA levels in mild, moderate and severe HIBD neonates were significantly higher than those in the normal neonates. The overall A-FABP level in HIBD neonates at the recovery stage was significantly lower compared to the acute stage, which was significant in severe HIBD neonates. A-FABP levels in mild and moderate HIBD neonates at recovery stage were decreased compared with the acute stage, although there was no statistical difference. There was a positive correlation between serum A-FABP and FFA in HIBD neonates at acute stage (r=0.369, P<0.05). In conclusion, serum A-FABP and FFA levels were signifcantly increased in

  13. Elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in women with postadolescent acne.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, H; Niimura, M

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the serum levels of IGF-1 in women with postadolescent acne compared to normal controls, and evaluate the relationship of these levels to the levels of androgens, in order to investigate the possible role of IGF-1 in the pathogenesis of acne. Eighty-two female patients with acne between 20 and 25 years of age and thirty-one age-matched control women were studied. We measured the serum levels of total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). The levels of IGF-1 in patients with acne (1.26 +/- 0.52 U/ml) were significantly (p < 0.001) increased over those of controls (0.96 +/- 0.32 U/ml). Of 82 acne patients, six (7%) had IGF-1 levels which exceeded the normal range, but there were no significant correlations between IGF-1 and T, FT, DHT or DHEA-S levels or between IGF-1 and acne severity. Since the measurement of serum IGF-1 levels is a convenient indicator of GH secretion, the increase of serum IGF-1 levels seen in some acne patients might reflect an increase of GH. PMID:7608381

  14. Elevated serum free thyroxine by thyroxine analog radioimmunoassays in euthyroid patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Rajatanavin, R.; Fournier, L.; DeCosimo, D.; Abreau, C.; Braverman, L.E.

    1982-12-01

    A study was done to ascertain whether the serum free T4 measured by free T4 radioimmunoassay kits would, like equilibrium dialysis, be normal in patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia. Five free T4 radioimmunoassay kits were used to measure free T4 in serum samples from 19 patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia and 20 healthy volunteers. Values (mean +/- SE) for T4, free T4 index, and free T4 (equilibrium dialysis) in these normal subjects and patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia, respectively, were as follows: T4, 8.1 +/- 0.2 and 18.3 +/- 0.7 ..mu..g/dL; free T4 index, 3.1 +/- 0.1 and 7.3 +/- 0.3 ..mu..g/dL; free T4, 1.4 +/- 0.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.1 ng/dL. The following free T4 radioimmunoassay methods were used: antibody coated microfine silica, microencapsulated antibody, two-step antibody-coated tube, and one-step /sup 125/I-T4 analog (2 kits). The present findings in patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia and previous observations in ill euthyroid patients suggest that serum free T4 measured by some radioimmunoassay methods must be interpreted with caution in these two clinical situations. (JMT)

  15. Elevated serum triiodothyronine and intellectual and motor disability with paroxysmal dyskinesia caused by a monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Oliver; Pfarr, Nicole; Pohlenz, Joachim; Schmidt, Heinrich

    2009-03-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8 or SLC16A2) is important for the neuronal uptake of triiodothyronine (T3) in its function as a specific and active transporter of thyroid hormones across the cell membrane, thus being essential for human brain development. We report on a German male with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome presenting with severe intellectual and motor disability, paroxysmal dyskinesia combined with truncal muscular hypotonia, and peripheral muscular hypertonia at his current age of 9 years. Additionally, the patient has a lesion in the left putamen region revealed by magnetic resonance imaging and elevated serum T3 levels. The male appeared to have a hemizygous mutation (R271H) in the MCT8 gene that was sequenced directly from genomic DNA and occurred de novo in the maternal germline, as both his mother and his sister were not carriers of the mutation. Ruling out a common polymorphism, 50 normal individuals of the same ethnic background did not harbour the mutation. The identified MCT8 gene mutation (R271H) is very likely to be the genetic cause for neuronal hypothyroidism despite elevated serum T3 levels. PMID:19018842

  16. Comparison of some recent methods for the differentiation of elevated serum amylase and the detection of macroamylasaemia.

    PubMed

    Van Deun, A; Cobbaert, C; Van Orshoven, A; Claeys, G; Lissens, W

    1989-09-01

    A pancreatic isoamylase method (Pancreatic Alpha-Amylase EPS, Boehringer) that uses monoclonal antibodies showed almost complete immunoinhibition of salivary (S) amylase activity with only a minor decrease of pancreatic (P) amylase activity. The method displayed good sensitivity and linearity. The correlations of P-amylase activities determined by this technique with a wheat-germ inhibition method and with agarose electrophoresis followed by densitometric scanning were excellent. However, both the wheat-germ and monoclonal inhibition methods failed to detect macroamylasaemia. To recognise macroamylases we used the PEG precipitation method and confirmed the results with agarose electrophoresis. Of 161 serum samples with elevated amylase activities, only four out of five with macroamylasaemia were detected by the PEG precipitation method. No false positives were demonstrated. After PEG precipitation of 28 samples, P-amylase determinations were performed on the supernatants. Again, four out of five with macroamylasaemia were recognised. We consider P-amylase measurement and, when macroamylasaemia is suspected, the combined use of the PEG precipitation method and P-amylase or total amylase determination to be the most practical way to differentiate between elevated serum amylase levels.

  17. Elevated serum tumor markers in patients with testicular cancer after induction chemotherapy due to a reservoir of markers in cystic differentiated mature teratoma.

    PubMed

    van der Gaast, A; Hoekstra, J W; Croles, J J; Splinter, T A

    1991-04-01

    Elevated serum tumor markers in patients with testicular cancer after induction chemotherapy indicate in most instances the presence of residual malignant disease. We describe 2 patients with elevated tumor markers after chemotherapy and before retroperitoneal lymph node dissection who did not prove to have residual malignant disease but cystic differentiated mature teratoma with a high content of alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, respectively, in the cysts. It is postulated that leakage of the contents of these cysts to the plasma compartment was responsible for maintaining elevated serum tumor marker levels. Recognition of such entities is of consequence since unnecessary salvage chemotherapy in these patients may be avoided.

  18. Elevated serum levels of two anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in a lung cancer patient: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Okauchi, Shinichiro; Tamura, Tomohiro; Kagohashi, Katsunori; Kawaguchi, Mio; Satoh, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    A 71-year-old woman with arthralgia and lung fibrosis was referred to Mito Kyodo General Hospital (Mito, Japan) for a mass, which was incidentally observed on a chest radiograph. The chest computed tomography scan demonstrated fibrotic lesions in the lower lobes of the lung and a nodule in the left upper lobe. The serum levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA were 60.3 and 7.5 U/ml, respectively. A transbronchial biopsy obtained from the nodule in the left upper lobe of the lung revealed a lung adenocarcinoma and the patient underwent standard upper lobectomy of the left lung. Subsequent to the resection, the serum levels of PR3-ANCA and MPO-ANCA returned to 10.0 and <1.0 U/ml, respectively. Notably, titers of antinuclear antibodies were also decreased during the postoperative course. Although elevated serum ANCA levels are rarely seen in lung cancer, they may be associated with the occurrence of lung cancer in certain patients, as observed in the present case. PMID:27699023

  19. Elevated serum levels of two anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in a lung cancer patient: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Okauchi, Shinichiro; Tamura, Tomohiro; Kagohashi, Katsunori; Kawaguchi, Mio; Satoh, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    A 71-year-old woman with arthralgia and lung fibrosis was referred to Mito Kyodo General Hospital (Mito, Japan) for a mass, which was incidentally observed on a chest radiograph. The chest computed tomography scan demonstrated fibrotic lesions in the lower lobes of the lung and a nodule in the left upper lobe. The serum levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA were 60.3 and 7.5 U/ml, respectively. A transbronchial biopsy obtained from the nodule in the left upper lobe of the lung revealed a lung adenocarcinoma and the patient underwent standard upper lobectomy of the left lung. Subsequent to the resection, the serum levels of PR3-ANCA and MPO-ANCA returned to 10.0 and <1.0 U/ml, respectively. Notably, titers of antinuclear antibodies were also decreased during the postoperative course. Although elevated serum ANCA levels are rarely seen in lung cancer, they may be associated with the occurrence of lung cancer in certain patients, as observed in the present case.

  20. Elevated serum amyloid A levels in cases of aborted equine fetuses due to fetal and placental infections.

    PubMed

    Erol, Erdal; Jackson, Carney; Horohov, David; Locke, Stephan; Smith, Jacqueline; Carter, Craig

    2016-09-01

    Determination of fetal serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations in aborted fetuses can provide valuable information regarding the infectious and/or inflammatory process of abortion in horses. To investigate the relationship between fetal SAA levels and the infectious/inflammatory disease process in feto-placental tissues, a SAA ELISA was used to test heart serum samples of 89 equine fetuses that were necropsied and diagnosed in the following groups: a multiorgan disease process diagnosed with an identified microorganism (14 cases, group 1); only placentitis diagnosed with an identified microorganism (nine cases, group 2); only placentitis diagnosed with no microorganism identified (six cases, group 3); and no infectious or inflammatory disease process diagnosed (60 cases, group 4). Serum amyloid A concentrations in equine fetuses were elevated from 10.5 to ≥40 mg/L in 10 of 14 cases in group 1; and from less than 2.5 mg/L to greater than 40 mg/L in seven of nine cases in group 2. In group 3, SAA concentrations were found to be less than 2.5 mg/L in five of six cases. In group 4, SAA concentrations were less than 2.5 mg/L in 55 cases, whereas in five cases SAA concentrations were elevated. Statistical significant differences were found between the concentrations of SAA in fetal horse blood and the presence of infectious and/or inflammatory disease process in the feto-placental tissues when a causative microorganism was identified. These results suggest that testing SAA concentrations in fetal heart blood may aid in further understanding the causes of abortions in horses. PMID:27125694

  1. Elevated serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II and IGF binding protein-2 in patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Renehan, A G; Jones, J; Potten, C S; Shalet, S M; O'Dwyer, S T

    2000-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of serum insulin-like growth factors, IGF-I and IGF-II, and their binding proteins (IGFBP)-2 and IGFBP-3, with key clinicopathological parameters in 92 patients with colorectal cancer (cases). Comparisons were made with 57 individuals who had a normal colonoscopy (controls). Serial changes were examined in 27 cases. As IGF-related peptides are age- and sex-dependent, absolute concentrations were converted to standard deviation scores (SDS). Mean IGF-II SDS were elevated in Dukes A (n= 12 P< 0.001) and Dukes B (n= 25 P< 0.001) cases compared with controls, but not in advanced disease. Compared with controls, mean IGFBP-2 SDS were significantly elevated in patients with Dukes B (P< 0.001), Dukes C (n= 13 P< 0.001) and advanced disease (n= 42 P< 0.0001), with a significant trend from early to advanced disease (one-way ANOVA P< 0.001). Furthermore, IGFBP-2 SDS were positively related to tumour size (P= 0.01) and fell significantly in patients following curative resection (P= 0.04), suggesting that circulating levels reflect tumour load. We tested the potential tumour marker characteristics of IGFBP-2 SDS against three endpoints: metastasis alone; local pelvic recurrence alone; and metastasis and recurrence combined. The sensitivities for IGFBP-2 alone (≥ + 2SD) were modest at 55%, 46%, and 52%, but in combination with CEA, increased substantially to 90%, 77% and 86%, respectively. We conclude that the serum IGF-II and IGFBP-2 profiles may provide insights into underlying biological mechanisms, and that serum IGFBP-2 may have an adjunct role in cancer surveillance in patients with colorectal cancer. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11044360

  2. Effect of soluble calcium and lactose on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The tendency of calcium to promote microfiltration (MF) membrane fouling is well documented, but the role of lactose has not been studied. Milk protein concentrate that is 85% protein on a dry basis (MPC85) contains less calcium and lactose than skim milk. Our objectives were to determine the effects of skim milk soluble calcium and lactose concentrations on the limiting fluxes (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal factors of 0.1-µm ceramic graded permeability membranes. The MF was fed with 3 different milks: skim milk, liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein content of skim milk with reverse osmosis water (MPC), and liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein and lactose contents of skim milk with reverse osmosis water and lactose monohydrate (MPC+L). Retentate and permeate were continuously recycled to the feed tank. The LF for each feed was determined by increasing flux once per hour from 55 kg·m(-2)·h(-1) until flux did not increase with increasing transmembrane pressure. Temperature, pressure drop across the membrane length, and protein concentration in the retentate recirculation loop were maintained at 50°C, 220 kPa, and 8.77 ± 0.2%, respectively. Experiments were replicated 3 times and the Proc GLM procedure of SAS was used for statistical analysis. An increase in LF between skim milk (91 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) and MPC+L (124 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) was associated with a reduction in soluble calcium. The LF of MPC+L was lower than the LF of MPC (137 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) due to the higher viscosity contributed by lactose. Permeates produced from the MPC and MPC+L contained more protein than the skim milk permeate due to the transfer of caseins from the micelles into the reduced-calcium sera of the MPC and MPC+L. A SP removal factor was calculated by dividing true protein in the permeate by SP in the permeate portion of the feed to describe the ease of SP passage through the membrane. No differences in SP removal factors were detected among the

  3. Coexistence of benign struma ovarii, pseudo-Meigs’ syndrome and elevated serum CA 125: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    JIN, CHENGJUAN; DONG, RUIYING; BU, HUALEI; YUAN, MINGYUAN; ZHANG, YOUZHONG; KONG, BEIHUA

    2015-01-01

    Struma ovarii is an uncommon ovarian teratoma comprised predominantly of mature thyroid tissue. The combination of pseudo-Meigs’ syndrome, and elevation of CA 125 to the struma ovarii is a rare condition that can mimic ovarian malignancy. We reported a case of benign struma ovarii, presenting with the clinical features of advanced ovarian carcinoma: complex pelvic mass, gross ascites, bilateral pleural effusion and markedly elevated serum CA 125 levels. The patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Ascites and pleural effusion were not evident and the CA 125 levels returned to normal following surgical excision. A systematic review of reported cases of coexistent benign struma ovarii, pseudo-Meigs’ syndrome and elevated serum CA 125 was performed. Struma ovarii accompanied by pseudo-Meigs’ syndrome and elevated serum CA 125 should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian epithelial cancer. PMID:25789033

  4. Concurrence of replicative senescence and elevated expression of p16(INK4A) with subculture-induced but not calcium-induced differentiation in normal human oral keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, G; Park, B S; Han, S E; Oh, J E; You, Y O; Baek, J H; Kim, G S; Min, B M

    2000-10-01

    Primary normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOKs) undergo differentiation in the presence of calcium concentrations higher than 0.15 mM in vitro, which is useful in investigating the mechanisms involved in the differentiation of epithelial cells. Serial subculture of NHOKs to the postmitotic stage also induces terminal differentiation. However, the detailed mechanisms of both differentiation processes remain substantially unknown. To investigate the molecular differences in these processes, NHOKs were induced to differentiate by exposure to 1.2 mM of calcium and by serial subculture to the postmitotic stage. To study whether the cells were induced to differentiate and to undergo replicative senescence, the amount of cellular involucrin and the expression of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-gal) were measured respectively. The expression of replicative senescence-associated genes and the activity of telomerase from the differentiated cells were also determined. Both calcium treatment and serial subculture to the postmitotic stage notably elevated the cellular involucrin. The percentage of SA-beta-gal-positive cells was significantly elevated by the continued subculture, but such changes were not observed in keratinocytes exposed to calcium. The concentration of cellular p16(INK4A) protein was progressively increased by the continued subculture but was not changed by calcium treatment. On the other hand, the concentrations of cellular p53 were similar in both differentiation processes. However, telomerase activity was lost in NHOKs that had undergone differentiation by both calcium treatment and serial subculture. The results indicate that calcium-induced differentiation of NHOKs has similar characteristics to their serial subculture-induced differentiation, but that the differentiation processes are not identical, because calcium-induced differentiation does not concur with either replicative senescence or the gradually increased concentration of p16

  5. Elevated Level of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Search for a Malignancy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Asad-Ur-Rahman, Fnu; Saif, Muhammad W

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been shown to be associated with tumor burden in patients with colorectal cancer. However, it is also elevated to a significant degree in a number of other malignant and non-malignant conditions. We report a case of reversible CEA elevation in a patient using lithium for bipolar disorder. A 58-year-old female with a longstanding smoking history and a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bipolar illness, hypothyroidism, and obesity was found to have an elevated CEA level of 11.2 ng/ml (normal level <5 ng/ml) in the workup for postmenopausal bleeding. Her history was not positive for malignancy of colorectum, ovaries, thyroid, or breast.  She underwent a large number of imaging and endoscopic studies to evaluate for colorectal, breast, ovarian, and lung cancer; however, it did not reveal any evidence of malignancy. Upon review of her medications, she reported that she had recently started lithium for her bipolar illness. We followed up her CEA level while her dose of lithium was reduced from 450 to 300 mg per day. Her CEA level decreased from 25 mg/dl to 6.1 mg/dl and remained stable over the course of the next eight months. Our case is the first case report that identifies lithium as a potential cause of reversible CEA elevation. The underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated, but it underscores the importance of investigating the medications as part of the workup. PMID:27446768

  6. Elevated Level of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Search for a Malignancy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Muhammad W

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been shown to be associated with tumor burden in patients with colorectal cancer. However, it is also elevated to a significant degree in a number of other malignant and non-malignant conditions. We report a case of reversible CEA elevation in a patient using lithium for bipolar disorder. A 58-year-old female with a longstanding smoking history and a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bipolar illness, hypothyroidism, and obesity was found to have an elevated CEA level of 11.2 ng/ml (normal level <5 ng/ml) in the workup for postmenopausal bleeding. Her history was not positive for malignancy of colorectum, ovaries, thyroid, or breast.  She underwent a large number of imaging and endoscopic studies to evaluate for colorectal, breast, ovarian, and lung cancer; however, it did not reveal any evidence of malignancy. Upon review of her medications, she reported that she had recently started lithium for her bipolar illness. We followed up her CEA level while her dose of lithium was reduced from 450 to 300 mg per day. Her CEA level decreased from 25 mg/dl to 6.1 mg/dl and remained stable over the course of the next eight months. Our case is the first case report that identifies lithium as a potential cause of reversible CEA elevation. The underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated, but it underscores the importance of investigating the medications as part of the workup. PMID:27446768

  7. Elevated serum creatinine and low albumin are associated with poor outcomes in patients with liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Panotopoulos, Joannis; Posch, Florian; Funovics, Philipp T; Willegger, Madeleine; Scharrer, Anke; Lamm, Wolfgang; Brodowicz, Thomas; Windhager, Reinhard; Ay, Cihan

    2016-03-01

    Low serum albumin levels and impaired kidney function have been associated with decreased survival in patients with a variety of cancer types. In a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed 84 patients with liposarcoma treated at from May 1994 to October 2011. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models and competing risk analyses were performed to evaluate the association between putative biomarkers with disease-specific and overall survival. The median age of the study population was 51.7 (range 19.6-83.8) years. In multivariable analysis adjusted for AJCC tumor stage, serum creatinine was highly associated with disease-specific survival (Subdistribution Hazard ratio (SHR) per 1 mg/dl increase = 2.94; 95%CI 1.39-6.23; p = 0.005). High albumin was associated with improved overall and disease-specific survival (Hazard Ratio (HR) per 10 units increase = 0.50; 95%CI 0.26-0.95; p = 0.033 and SHR = 0.64; 95%CI 0.42-1.00; p = 0.049). The serum albumin-creatinine-ratio emerged to be associated with both overall and disease-specific survival after adjusting for AJCC tumor stage (HR = 0.95; 95%CI 0.92-0.99; p = 0.011 and SHR = 0.96; 95%CI 0.93-0.99; p = 0.08). Our study provides evidence for a tumor-stage-independent association between higher creatinine and lower albumin with worse disease-specific survival. Low albumin and a high albumin-creatinine-ratio independently predict poor overall survival. Our work identified novel prognostic biomarkers for prognosis of patients with liposarcoma.

  8. Serum Levels of Neurofilament-H are Elevated in Patients Suffering From Severe Burns.

    PubMed

    Gatson, Joshua W; Liu, Ming-Mei; Rivera-Chavez, Fernando A; Minei, Joseph P; Wolf, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, after injury, burn patients experienced an increase in neuro-inflammation, edema, and neuronal cell death. As demonstrated in other brain injury models, fluid-based biomarkers such as phosphorylated neurofilament-H (pNFL-H) have been shown to correlate with injury severity. In this study the authors hypothesized that burn-injured patients have an increase in pNFL-H in the blood during the acute and chronic time-points after injury. In this prospective clinical study, blood (8 cc) was collected from burn patients (n = 36; TBSA 10-60%) at Parkland hospital, Dallas, Texas, on days 1, 7, and 14 after injury. The serum levels of pNFL-H were measured using the enzyme-linked immunoassay. Compared to noninjured controls, the burn patients exhibited a significant increase in the serum levels of pNFL-H on days 7 (P < .0001) and 14 (P < .0001) after burn injury. No significant increase was observed on day 1 (P < .07) after injury. A positive correlation between TBSA and pNFL-H levels was observed for day 14 (r = .55; P < .03). Additionally, using the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the authors determined the area under the curve was 98% for both day 7 and 14. In conclusion, this study describes the serum profile of pNFL-H in patients suffering from severe burns during the acute (day 1) and chronic (days 7 and 14) time-points. These results suggest that detection of pNFL-H may be useful in determining which individuals suffer from nerve cell degeneration after burn.

  9. ERK1/2 mediates sperm acrosome reaction through elevation of intracellular calcium concentration.

    PubMed

    Jaldety, Yael; Breitbart, Haim

    2015-10-01

    Mammalian sperm acquire fertilization capacity after residing in the female reproductive tract for a few hours in a process called capacitation. Only capacitated sperm can bind the zona pellucida (ZP) of the egg and undergo the acrosome reaction, a process that allows penetration and fertilization. Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) mediates signalling in many cell types, however its role in sperm function is largely unknown. Here we show that ERK1/2 is highly phosphorylated/activated after a short incubation of mouse sperm under capacitation conditions and that this phosphorylation is reduced after longer incubation. Further phosphorylation was observed upon addition of crude extract of egg ZP or epidermal growth factor (EGF). The mitogen-activated ERK-kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 abolished ERK1/2 phosphorylation, in vitro fertilization rate and the acrosome reaction induced by ZP or EGF but not by the Ca2+-ionophore A23187. Moreover, inhibition of ERK1/2 along the capacitation process diminished almost completely the sperm's ability to go through the acrosome reaction, while inhibition at the end of capacitation attenuated the acrosome reaction rate by only 45%. The fact that the acrosome reaction, induced by the Ca2+ -ionophore A23187, was not inhibited by U0126 suggests that ERK1/2 mediates the acrosome reaction by activating Ca2+ transport into the cell. Direct determination of intracellular [Ca2+] revealed that Ca2+ influx induced by EGF or ZP was completely blocked by U0126. Thus, it has been established that the increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation/activation in response to ZP or by activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) by EGF, is a key event for intracellular Ca2+ elevation and the subsequent occurrence of the acrosome reaction.

  10. Biphasic modulation by mGlu5 receptors of TRPV1-mediated intracellular calcium elevation in sensory neurons contributes to heat sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Masuoka, T; Nakamura, T; Kudo, M; Yoshida, J; Takaoka, Y; Kato, N; Ishibashi, T; Imaizumi, N; Nishio, M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Elevation of glutamate, an excitatory amino acid, during inflammation and injury plays a crucial role in the reception and transmission of sensory information via ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the biphasic effects of metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptor activation on responses to noxious heat. Experimental Approach We assessed the effects of intraplantar quisqualate, a non-selective glutamate receptor agonist, on heat and mechanical pain behaviours in mice. In addition, the effects of quisqualate on the intracellular calcium response and on membrane currents mediated by TRPV1 channels, were examined in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons from mice. Key Results Activation of mGlu5 receptors in hind paw transiently increased, then decreased, the response to noxious heat. In sensory neurons, activation of mGlu5 receptors potentiated TRPV1-mediated intracellular calcium elevation, while terminating activation of mGlu5 receptors depressed it. TRPV1-induced currents were potentiated by activation of mGlu5 receptors under voltage clamp conditions and these disappeared after washout. However, voltage-gated calcium currents were inhibited by the mGlu5 receptor agonist, even after washout. Conclusions and Implications These results suggest that, in sensory neurons, mGlu5 receptors biphasically modulate TRPV1-mediated intracellular calcium response via transient potentiation of TRPV1 channel-induced currents and persistent inhibition of voltage-gated calcium currents, contributing to heat hyper- and hypoalgesia. PMID:25297838

  11. The importance of preoperative elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 in patients with breast cancer in predicting its histological type.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, A K; Jelen, M; Rudnicki, J; Grzebieniak, Z; Zyśko, D; Kielan, W; Słonina, J; Marek, G

    2010-01-01

    It is not known whether in patients with breast cancer the occurrence of elevated serum tumour markers depends on its histological type. The aim of the study was to assess relationship between breast cancer histological type and the presence of increased serum levels of CEA and CA 15-3. The study population was 428 patients (all women, mean age 52.5 years), treated at The Department of Surgery of Wroclaw Medical University from 2005 to 2008 due to breast cancer. All of them had their preoperative CA 15-3 and CEA serum concentrations measured. According to the TNM system, 21% of patients were in stage I, 32.5% in stage II, 46.5% in stage III of the disease. In patients with ductal type of the cancer the elevated serum levels of CEA and CA 15-3 were observed in 48.7% and 42.2%, in lobular type in 42.4% and 52.5%, and in non-ductal/tubular types in 48.1% and 40.4% (p=N/S). Stepwise logistic regression analyses showed that ductal breast cancer is related to elevated CEA and normal CA 15-3 serum levels. The histological types of breast cancer are not significantly related to elevated serum levels of CEA and/or CA 15-3.

  12. Diabetes and Pancreas: Why So Difficult? Potential Mechanisms of Elevated Serum Pancreatic Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Matteucci, Elena; Giampietro, Ottavio

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been associated with a higher risk of exocrine pancreas disorders despite inconsistencies among studies, presumably due to the presence of several (often unmeasured) confounding factors. As a direct consequence of this uncertainty, the relationship between anti-diabetic therapies and pancreatic adverse reactions is difficult to evaluate and remains far from being clarified. Indeed, the on going debate on the safety of incretin-based therapies does not lie in any definite conclusion. Serum level of amylases and lipase reflects the balance between production from different tissues and clearance, but it may be also influenced by numerous molecular, cellular, and systems mechanisms. The present review tries to provide an overview of potential biochemical pathways that may underlie pancreatic hyperenzymemia in health and diabetes mellitus.

  13. Diabetes and Pancreas: Why So Difficult? Potential Mechanisms of Elevated Serum Pancreatic Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Matteucci, Elena; Giampietro, Ottavio

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been associated with a higher risk of exocrine pancreas disorders despite inconsistencies among studies, presumably due to the presence of several (often unmeasured) confounding factors. As a direct consequence of this uncertainty, the relationship between anti-diabetic therapies and pancreatic adverse reactions is difficult to evaluate and remains far from being clarified. Indeed, the on going debate on the safety of incretin-based therapies does not lie in any definite conclusion. Serum level of amylases and lipase reflects the balance between production from different tissues and clearance, but it may be also influenced by numerous molecular, cellular, and systems mechanisms. The present review tries to provide an overview of potential biochemical pathways that may underlie pancreatic hyperenzymemia in health and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26639098

  14. Prognostic Value of Elevated Serum Ceruloplasmin Levels in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Hammadah, Muhammad; Fan, Yiying; Wu, Yuping; Hazen, Stanley L.; Wilson Tang, W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is a copper-binding acute-phase protein that is increased in inflammatory states and deficient in Wilson’s disease. Recent studies demonstrate increased levels of Cp are associated with increased risk of developing heart failure. Our objective is to test the hypothesis that serum Cp provides incremental and independent prediction of survival in stable patients with heart failure. Methods and Results We measured serum Cp levels in 890 patients with stable heart failure undergoing elective cardiac evaluation that included coronary angiography. We examine the role of Cp levels in predicting survival over 5-years of follow-up. Mean Cp level was 26.6±6.9 mg/dL, and demonstrated relatively weak correlation with BNP (r=0.187, p<0.001). Increased Cp levels were associated with increased 5 year all-cause mortality (Q4 vs Q1 HR 1.9, 95%CI 1.4–2.8, p<0.001). When controlled for coronary disease traditional risk factors, creatinine clearance, dialysis, body mass index, medications, history of myocardial infarction, BNP, LVEF, heart rate, QRS duration, left bundle branch blockage and ICD, higher Cp remained an independent predictor of increased mortality (Q4 vs Q1 HR1.7, 95%CI 1.1 – 2.6, p<0.05). Model quality was improved with addition of Cp to aforementioned co-variables (NRI of 9.3%, p<0.001) Conclusions Ceruloplasmin is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure. Use of Cp may help to identify patients at heightened mortality risk. PMID:25128745

  15. Highly elevated serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances in fishery employees from Tangxun lake, china.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Shi, Yali; Vestergren, Robin; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Cai, Yaqi

    2014-04-01

    Increasing production and use of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been reported from China, and a few studies have shown there are subpopulations in China with high and increasing exposure to these chemicals. In this paper, we present a comprehensive exposure assessment of PFASs in fishery employees from Tangxun Lake, China. Exceptionally high serum concentrations of C4 to C12 PFASs were observed in fishery employees (n = 39, median perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) 10 400 ng/mL) compared to a reference group from the same city (n = 9, median PFOS 18.7 ng/mL). On the basis of the comparison of different exposure pathways, it was concluded that contaminated fish from Tangxun Lake was the primary source of PFAS exposure to fishery employees, and there was a positive association between serum PFAS concentrations and time of employment in the fishery. PFOS isomer profiles in fishery employees showed a significantly higher proportion of linear PFOS (78.4%) compared to the background-exposed reference group (66.8%), reflecting the highly linear PFOS isomer profile (>90%) of lake fish. Median renal clearance rates (CLrenal) of C4 to C10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkanesulfonic acids (PFSAs) ranged from 0.020 to 16.5 mL/day/kg and 0.013 to 9.43 mL/day/kg, respectively. PFCAs with less than eight perfluoroalkyl carbons were primarily eliminated via urine, whereas other routes of excretion may have contributed to the elimination for long-chain PFCAs and PFSAs. Calculated daily PFOS exposures of fishery employees significantly exceeded tolerable daily intake limits, but clinical blood chemistry parameters were mostly within normal reference ranges. However, additional epidemiological studies are needed to address potential associations between PFAS exposure and health effects in the Tangxun Lake area.

  16. Bilateral Ovarian Fibrothecoma Associated with Ascites, Bilateral Pleural Effusion, and Marked Elevated Serum CA-125

    PubMed Central

    Loué, Védi André Serges; Gbary, Eléonore; Koui, Sylvanus; Akpa, Bédi; Kouassi, Adélaide

    2013-01-01

    Background. The risk of ovarian cancer is increased in the association of ovarian tumor, ascites, and hydrothorax with the significant elevated tumor marker CA-125. However, this association can be observed in a rare clinical and benign pathological entity, that is Demons-Meigs' syndrome. Objective. To describe a rare case of Demons-Meigs' syndrome observed in our department. Methods. A black African woman of 35 years old, seventh gravida and fourth parous, underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoophorectomy for large bilateral ovarian masses associated with significant ascites, bilateral pleural effusion, and particular highly elevated tumor marker CA-125 (1835 UI/mL) in a pronounced general alteration condition. Results. The postoperative course was uneventful characterized by a complete remission of hydrothorax and ascites with normal level of CA-125 three months after tumor excision. Histology of both masses revealed a bilateral ovarian fibrothecoma, a benign tumor of the ovary, thus confirming the diagnosis of Demons-Meigs' syndrome. Conclusion. The Demons-Meigs syndrome, although it strongly mimics the clinical picture of malignant metastatic ovarian cancer, remains a disease with benign prognosis after surgical tumor resection. This is a rare condition that must be known and recognized by practitioners to avoid unnecessary practices. PMID:23431489

  17. Platelet Activating Factor Enhances Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis Via PKC, Elevated Intracellular Calcium, and Modulation of Synapsin 1 Dynamics and Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Jennetta W.; Lu, Shao-Ming; Gelbard, Harris A.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) is an inflammatory phospholipid signaling molecule implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory and neurotoxicity during neuroinflammation. However, little is known about the intracellular mechanisms mediating PAF’s physiological or pathological effects on synaptic facilitation. We show here that PAF receptors are localized at the synapse. Using fluorescent reporters of presynaptic activity we show that a non-hydrolysable analog of PAF (cPAF) enhances synaptic vesicle release from individual presynaptic boutons by increasing the size or release of the readily releasable pool and the exocytosis rate of the total recycling pool. cPAF also activates previously silent boutons resulting in vesicle release from a larger number of terminals. The underlying mechanism involves elevated calcium within presynaptic boutons and protein kinase C activation. Furthermore, cPAF increases synapsin I phosphorylation at sites 1 and 3, and increases dispersion of synapsin I from the presynaptic compartment during stimulation, freeing synaptic vesicles for subsequent release. These findings provide a conceptual framework for how PAF, regardless of its cellular origin, can modulate synapses during normal and pathologic synaptic activity. PMID:26778968

  18. IgG4-Related Lung Disease without Elevation of Serum IgG4 Level: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Kyu; Cho, Yongseon; Han, Minsoo; Jung, Sun Young; Moon, Kyoung Min; Kim, Jinyoung; Kim, Ju Ri; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Park, Jun Hyung; Chung, So Hee

    2016-07-01

    Since IgG4-related pancreatitis was first reported in 2001, IgG4-related disease has been identified in other organs such as salivary gland, gallbladder, thyroid, retroperitoneum and kidney; but lung invasion is rare. A 63-year-old man presented with hemoptysis at the pulmonary clinic and chest computed tomography revealed about 4.1 cm irregular shaped mass with spiculated margin at the left upper lobe. Despite no elevation of serum IgG4 level, he was finally diagnosed as IgG4-related lung disease by transthoracic needle biopsy. After treatment with oral glucocorticoids, hemoptysis disappeared and the size of lung mass was decreased. PMID:27433179

  19. Excessive collagen turnover products are released during colorectal cancer progression and elevated in serum from metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kehlet, S N; Sanz-Pamplona, R; Brix, S; Leeming, D J; Karsdal, M A; Moreno, V

    2016-01-01

    During cancer progression, the homeostasis of the extracellular matrix becomes imbalanced with an excessive collagen remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases. As a consequence, small protein fragments of degraded collagens are released into the circulation. We have investigated the potential of protein fragments of collagen type I, III and IV as novel biomarkers for colorectal cancer. Specific fragments of degraded type I, III and IV collagen (C1M, C3M, C4M) and type III collagen formation (Pro-C3) were assessed in serum from colorectal cancer patients, subjects with adenomas and matched healthy controls using well-characterized and validated ELISAs. Serum levels of the biomarkers were significantly elevated in colorectal cancer patients compared to subjects with adenomas (C1M, Pro-C3, C3M) and controls (C1M, Pro-C3). When patients were stratified according to their tumour stage, all four biomarkers were able to differentiate stage IV metastatic patients from all other stages. Combination of all markers with age and gender in a logistic regression model discriminated between metastatic and non-metastatic patients with an AUROC of 0.80. The data suggest that the levels of these collagen remodeling biomarkers may be a measure of tumour activity and invasiveness and may provide new clinical tools for monitoring of patients with advanced stage colorectal cancer. PMID:27465284

  20. Serum levels of innate immunity cytokines are elevated in dogs with metaphyseal osteopathy (hypertrophic osteodytrophy) during active disease and remission.

    PubMed

    Safra, Noa; Hitchens, Peta L; Maverakis, Emanual; Mitra, Anupam; Korff, Courtney; Johnson, Eric; Kol, Amir; Bannasch, Michael J; Pedersen, Niels C; Bannasch, Danika L

    2016-10-15

    Metaphyseal osteopathy (MO) (hypertrophic osteodystrophy) is a developmental disorder of unexplained etiology affecting dogs during rapid growth. Affected dogs experience relapsing episodes of lytic/sclerotic metaphyseal lesions and systemic inflammation. MO is rare in the general dog population; however, some breeds (Weimaraner, Great Dane and Irish Setter) have a much higher incidence, supporting a hereditary etiology. Autoinflammatory childhood disorders of parallel presentation such as chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), and deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), involve impaired innate immunity pathways and aberrant cytokine production. Given the similarities between these diseases, we hypothesize that MO is an autoinflammatory disease mediated by cytokines involved in innate immunity. To characterize immune dysregulation in MO dogs we measured serum levels of inflammatory markers in 26 MO and 102 control dogs. MO dogs had significantly higher levels (pg/ml) of serum Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-18, IL-6, Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and IL-10. Notably, recovered MO dogs were not different from dogs during active MO disease, providing a suggestive mechanism for disease predisposition. This is the first documentation of elevated immune markers in MO dogs, uncovering an immune profile similar to comparable autoinflammatory disorders in children.

  1. Excessive collagen turnover products are released during colorectal cancer progression and elevated in serum from metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kehlet, S. N.; Sanz-Pamplona, R.; Brix, S.; Leeming, D. J.; Karsdal, M. A.; Moreno, V.

    2016-01-01

    During cancer progression, the homeostasis of the extracellular matrix becomes imbalanced with an excessive collagen remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases. As a consequence, small protein fragments of degraded collagens are released into the circulation. We have investigated the potential of protein fragments of collagen type I, III and IV as novel biomarkers for colorectal cancer. Specific fragments of degraded type I, III and IV collagen (C1M, C3M, C4M) and type III collagen formation (Pro-C3) were assessed in serum from colorectal cancer patients, subjects with adenomas and matched healthy controls using well-characterized and validated ELISAs. Serum levels of the biomarkers were significantly elevated in colorectal cancer patients compared to subjects with adenomas (C1M, Pro-C3, C3M) and controls (C1M, Pro-C3). When patients were stratified according to their tumour stage, all four biomarkers were able to differentiate stage IV metastatic patients from all other stages. Combination of all markers with age and gender in a logistic regression model discriminated between metastatic and non-metastatic patients with an AUROC of 0.80. The data suggest that the levels of these collagen remodeling biomarkers may be a measure of tumour activity and invasiveness and may provide new clinical tools for monitoring of patients with advanced stage colorectal cancer. PMID:27465284

  2. Serum levels of innate immunity cytokines are elevated in dogs with metaphyseal osteopathy (hypertrophic osteodytrophy) during active disease and remission.

    PubMed

    Safra, Noa; Hitchens, Peta L; Maverakis, Emanual; Mitra, Anupam; Korff, Courtney; Johnson, Eric; Kol, Amir; Bannasch, Michael J; Pedersen, Niels C; Bannasch, Danika L

    2016-10-15

    Metaphyseal osteopathy (MO) (hypertrophic osteodystrophy) is a developmental disorder of unexplained etiology affecting dogs during rapid growth. Affected dogs experience relapsing episodes of lytic/sclerotic metaphyseal lesions and systemic inflammation. MO is rare in the general dog population; however, some breeds (Weimaraner, Great Dane and Irish Setter) have a much higher incidence, supporting a hereditary etiology. Autoinflammatory childhood disorders of parallel presentation such as chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), and deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), involve impaired innate immunity pathways and aberrant cytokine production. Given the similarities between these diseases, we hypothesize that MO is an autoinflammatory disease mediated by cytokines involved in innate immunity. To characterize immune dysregulation in MO dogs we measured serum levels of inflammatory markers in 26 MO and 102 control dogs. MO dogs had significantly higher levels (pg/ml) of serum Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-18, IL-6, Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and IL-10. Notably, recovered MO dogs were not different from dogs during active MO disease, providing a suggestive mechanism for disease predisposition. This is the first documentation of elevated immune markers in MO dogs, uncovering an immune profile similar to comparable autoinflammatory disorders in children. PMID:27590423

  3. Serum levels of pregnancy zone protein are elevated in presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ijsselstijn, Linda; Dekker, Lennard J M; Stingl, Christoph; van der Weiden, Marcel M; Hofman, Albert; Kros, Johan M; Koudstaal, Peter J; Sillevis Smitt, Peter A E; Ikram, M Arfan; Breteler, Monique M B; Luider, Theo M

    2011-11-01

    We have sought for disease-related proteins that could predict the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a study population derived from the Rotterdam Scan Study, a population-based prospective cohort study designed to investigate the etiology and natural history of age-related brain changes in the elderly. The serum proteome of 43 persons who developed AD, after an average of 4.2 years (±2.6 years SD) after blood sampling, and 43 gender- and age-matched controls who remained dementia-free during follow-up was investigated by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. We identified 61 differentially expressed peptides between presymptomatic AD and controls, 9 of which were derived from pregnancy zone protein (PZP). Quantitative measurements using a multiple reaction monitoring assay showed a significant increase in concentration of PZP in presymptomatic AD (34.3 ± 20.6 mg/L) compared with controls (23.6 ± 13.6 mg/L) (p = 0.006). The difference in PZP was significant in women. Immunohistochemical validation of the findings on brain tissue sections showed strong PZP expression in senile plaques and in microglial and glial cells in AD with only low expression in some scattered glial cells in controls.

  4. Protective value of elevated levels of gamma interferon in serum against exoerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Deloron, P; Chougnet, C; Lepers, J P; Tallet, S; Coulanges, P

    1991-09-01

    In vitro experiments suggested that gamma interferon, CD8+ T cells, and anticircumsporozoite antibodies inhibited the exoerythrocytic stages of malaria parasites. To assess the role played in vivo by these factors, we conducted a prospective study in Madagascar. Forty individuals with a negative blood smear were followed for 8 weeks to detect the appearance of parasites in blood. Nineteen subjects remained negative for malaria, whereas 21 individuals became positive during follow-up. Among these, seven presented with blood parasites within the first 2 weeks and were excluded, as they probably were infected by sporozoites at enrollment. When measured at enrollment, antibodies to the synthetic peptide (NANP)5, lymphocyte proliferation with (NANP)5, and various lymphocytes subsets were similar among individuals that later presented with a Plasmodium falciparum blood infection or were not infected. Conversely, the level of gamma interferon in serum was higher in individuals that did not present with a P. falciparum infection during follow-up. These data suggest that gamma interferon may inhibit the malaria exoerythrocytic stages of development under in vivo conditions, as it does in vitro.

  5. Protective value of elevated levels of gamma interferon in serum against exoerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Deloron, P; Chougnet, C; Lepers, J P; Tallet, S; Coulanges, P

    1991-01-01

    In vitro experiments suggested that gamma interferon, CD8+ T cells, and anticircumsporozoite antibodies inhibited the exoerythrocytic stages of malaria parasites. To assess the role played in vivo by these factors, we conducted a prospective study in Madagascar. Forty individuals with a negative blood smear were followed for 8 weeks to detect the appearance of parasites in blood. Nineteen subjects remained negative for malaria, whereas 21 individuals became positive during follow-up. Among these, seven presented with blood parasites within the first 2 weeks and were excluded, as they probably were infected by sporozoites at enrollment. When measured at enrollment, antibodies to the synthetic peptide (NANP)5, lymphocyte proliferation with (NANP)5, and various lymphocytes subsets were similar among individuals that later presented with a Plasmodium falciparum blood infection or were not infected. Conversely, the level of gamma interferon in serum was higher in individuals that did not present with a P. falciparum infection during follow-up. These data suggest that gamma interferon may inhibit the malaria exoerythrocytic stages of development under in vivo conditions, as it does in vitro. PMID:1774292

  6. Elevation of serum lactate dehydrogenase at posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome onset in chemotherapy-treated cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Ryan T; Wright, Steven M; Samant, Rohan S; Kumar, Manoj; Ramakrishnaiah, Raghu H; Van Hemert, Rudy; Brown, Aliza T; Angtuaco, Edgardo J

    2014-09-01

    The pathophysiology of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is incompletely understood; however, an underlying state of immune dysregulation and endothelial dysfunction has been proposed. We examined alterations of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a marker of endothelial dysfunction, relative to the development of PRES in patients receiving chemotherapy. A retrospective Institutional Review Board approved database of 88 PRES patients was examined. PRES diagnosis was confirmed by congruent clinical diagnosis and MRI. Clinical features at presentation were recorded. Serum LDH values were collected at three time points: prior to, at the time of, and following PRES diagnosis. Student's t-test was employed. LDH values were available during the course of treatment in 12 patients (nine women; mean age 57.8 years [range 33-75 years]). Chemotherapy-associated PRES patients were more likely to be normotensive (25%) versus the non-chemotherapy group (9%). LDH levels at the time of PRES diagnosis were higher than those before and after (p=0.0263), with a mean difference of 114.8 international units/L. Mean time intervals between LDH measurement prior to and following PRES diagnosis were 44.8 days and 51.4 days, respectively. Mean elapsed time between last chemotherapy administration and PRES onset was 11.1days. In conclusion, serum LDH, a marker of endothelial dysfunction, shows statistically significant elevation at the onset of PRES toxicity in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Our findings support a systemic process characterized by endothelial injury/dysfunction as a factor, if not the prime event, in the pathophysiology of PRES.

  7. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio might help prediction of acute myocardial infarction in patients with elevated serum creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Nalbant, Ahmet; Cinemre, Hakan; Kaya, Tezcan; Varim, Ceyhun; Varim, Perihan; Tamer, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Diagnostic performance of troponin assays is affected by renal insufficiency. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio(NLR) is an independent predictor of acute coronary syndrome. Our objective was to evaluate performance of NLR in diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among patients with elevated serum creatinine. Methods: Patients with elevated creatinine levels evaluated for coronary artery disease were included (n=284). Patients were divided into two groups according to having AMI or non-specific chest pain. AMI diagnosis was made based on clinical and laboratory data, including serial EKG and cardiac enzymes, ECHO and coronary angiography. Results: Troponin, neutrophil, and NLR were found to be higher in patients with AMI, compared to patients without AMI (P= 0.001, P= 0.001 and P=0.028, respectively). ROC curve analysis for NLR in diagnosing AMI was significant (AUC: 0.607; P=0.003). Sensitivity, specificity, LR +, LR-, PPV and NPV for NLR>7.4 were found as 42.3%, 74.7%, 1.68%, 0.77%, 77% and 40%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that patients whose NLR>7.4 were 2.18 times as likely to have AMI. Conclusions: NLR can be used as an independent predictor of AMI in patients with renal insufficiency. This seems to get more important in the era of high sensitivity troponin assays. Our results might also help in early diagnosis of AMI in this high risk population while serial cardiac enzyme results are pending. PMID:27022355

  8. Benign Hydronephrosis and Elevated of Serum Levels of Carbohydrate Antigen CA 19-9: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Filipovic, Branka; Milinić, Nikola; Gacic, Jasna; Markovic, Olivera; Djokovic, Aleksandra; Filipovic, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 58 Final Diagnosis: Hydronephrosis Symptoms: Blunt abdominal pain • constipation • constipation Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrostolithotomy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Carbohydrate tumor-associated antigen (CA 19-9) has been shown to be upregulated in other malignant tumors including gastric, ovarian, hepatocellular, and colorectal carcinoma as well as benign diseases of the biliary track such as pancreatitis, cholangitis, and choledocholithiasis. According to the available literature, in several cases of benign hydronephrosis and in a few cases of benign renal diseases, elevated CA 19-9 has been noted. Case Report: A 58-year-old Caucasian male patient was admitted in our clinic with complaints about blunt abdominal pain in the past two-month period localized in the right lumbar region and irradiating into the right inguinal area, constipation, abdominal bloating, and intermittent hematuria. The concentration of serum CA 19-9 was 3500 U/mL. Urine cytology provided no signs of abnormality. Intravenous urography visualized right-sided pyelon and ureter duplex with the defect in contrast shade of the pyelon, caused by a stag horn calculus. Contrast added computerized axial tomography of the abdomen and pelvis visualized the pyelon casted concretion spreading throughout the right pyelon, with ureterohydronephrosis with the distal block for passage of the contrast to the distal part of the ureter. Conclusions: There is no doubt that CA 19-9 level is occasionally elevated in patients with obstructive urolithiasis as it was in our case. In the routine medical praxis, urolithiasis should not be neglected in the differential diagnosis of elevated concentrations of CA 19-9 marker. PMID:27287959

  9. Elevated serum polybrominated diphenyl ethers and alteration of thyroid hormones in children from Guiyu, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xijin; Liu, Junxiao; Zeng, Xiang; Lu, Fangfang; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling results in serious environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals. This study explored whether there is an association between PBDEs, heavy metal and key growth- and development-related hormones in children from Guiyu, an e-waste area in southern China. We quantified eight PBDE congeners using gas chromatographic mass spectrometry, lead and cadmium utilizing graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, three thyroids with radioimmunoassay and two types of growth hormones by an enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) in 162 children, 4 to 6 years old, from Guiyu. In blood, median total PBDE was 189.99 ng/g lipid. Lead and cadmium concentrations in blood averaged 14.53±4.85 µg dL-1 and 0.77±0.35 µg L-1, respectively. Spearman partial correlation analysis illustrated that lead was positively correlated with BDE153 and BDE183. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was positively correlated with almost all PBDE congeners and negatively correlated with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), whereas free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) were negatively correlated with BDE154. However, no correlation between the hormones and blood lead or cadmium levels was found in this study. Adjusted multiple linear regression analysis showed that total PBDEs was negatively associated with FT3 and positively associated with TSH. Notably, FT4 was positively correlated with FT3, house functions as a workshop, and father's work involved in e-waste recycling and negatively correlated with vitamin consumptions. TSH was negatively related with FT4, paternal residence time in Guiyu, working hours of mother, and child bean products intake. IGFBP-3 was positively correlated with IGF-1 and house close to an e-waste dump. These results suggest that elevated PBDEs and heavy metals related to e-waste in Guiyu may be important risk factors for hormone alterations in children.

  10. Reference values of serum calcitonin with calcium stimulation tests by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay before/after total thyroidectomy in Japanese patients with thyroid diseases other than medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Minoru; Miyauchi, Akira; Kudo, Takumi; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Miya, Akihiro

    2016-07-30

    Calcitonin is a very sensitive tumor marker of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). MTC patients usually have very high values of serum calcitonin that can be used to diagnose the disease. To improve the diagnostic sensitivity in family members with small MTCs and to evaluate the postoperative biochemical cure status, a calcium stimulation test is widely used. Serum calcitonin has been measured using several methods, but in Japan, only an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) is currently performed to determine serum calcitonin. Reference values for the calcium stimulation test using an ECLIA have not been reported. Here we conducted a calcium stimulation tests in 26 patients without MTC before and after total thyroidectomy. Preoperatively, the basal calcitonin values of all patients were within normal limits and increased to a mean of 14.4 pg/mL after calcium stimulation. We transformed the peak values before total thyroidectomy to a logarithmic distribution and calculated the normalized mean ± 1.96× standard deviation; the reference upper limit was thus expressed. In the female patients with non-MTC, the reference upper limit was 67.6 pg/mL. In all patients, the calcium stimulation test results after total thyroidectomy showed undetectable basal and stimulated calcitonin values (<0.5 pg/mL). This is the first study to determine reference values to be used for the calcium stimulation test along with an ECLIA in non-MTC patients. We propose that female patients are regarded as biochemically cured or normal when the stimulated calcitonin values by ECLIA are <67.6 pg/mL before surgery and <0.5 pg/mL after total thyroidectomy. PMID:27097651

  11. Elevated serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 may associate with the development of ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Ya; Xue, Bin; Wang, Yi; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Qiao; Kwang, Hou-Wen; Wu, Dong-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A meta-analysis was undertaken to examine the correlation between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) progression and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-17 (IL-17) in AS patients. Methods: PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane Library database, Ovid, Springer link, WANFANG, China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) and VIP databases(last updated search in October, 2014) were exhaustively searched for published case-control studies using keywords related to IL-6, IL-17 and AS. The search results were screened using stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the data from selected high-quality studies was analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 software. Results: Thirteen case-control studies were selected for this meta-analysis and contained a pooled total of 514 AS patients and 358 healthy controls. Our main result revealed strikingly higher serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 in AS patients, compared to healthy controls (IL-6: SMD = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.33~3.70, P = 0.01; IL-17: SMD = 3.05, 95% CI = 2.09~4.02, P < 0.001). Ethnicity-based subgroup analysis showed a statistically correlation of high IL-6 and IL-17 serum levels with AS both in Asian (IL-6: SMD = 3.15, 95% CI = 0.75~5.55, P < 0.001; IL-17: SMD = 3.30, 95% CI = 1.93~4.66, P < 0.001) and Caucasian populations (IL-6: SMD = 1.34, 95% CI = 0.33~2.35, P = 0.009; IL-17: SMD = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.06~3.98, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Meta-analysis of pooled data from thirteen high-quality studies revealed a strong correlation between elevated IL-6 and IL-17 serum levels and the development of AS. Therefore, IL-6 and IL-17 could be used as markers for diagnosis and assessment of treatment outcomes in AS patients. PMID:26770328

  12. The entrapment of corrosion products from CoCr implant alloys in the deposits of calcium phosphate: a comparison of serum, synovial fluid, albumin, EDTA, and water.

    PubMed

    Lewis, A C; Kilburn, M R; Heard, P J; Scott, T B; Hallam, K R; Allen, G C; Learmonth, I D

    2006-08-01

    Physical wear of orthopedic implants is inevitable. CoCr alloy samples, typically used in joint reconstruction, corrode rapidly after removal of the protective oxide layer. The behavior of CoCr pellets immersed in human serum, foetal bovine serum (FBS), synovial fluid, albumin in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), EDTA in PBS, and water were studied using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS). The difference in the corrosive nature of human serum, water, albumin in PBS and synovial fluid after 5 days of immersion was highlighted by the oxide layer, which was respectively 15, 3.5, 1.5, and 1.5 nm thick. The thickness of an additional calcium phosphate deposit from human serum and synovial fluid was 40 and 2 nm, respectively. Co and Cr ions migrated from the bulk metal surface and were trapped in this deposit by the phosphate anion. This may account for the composition of wear debris from CoCr orthopedic implants, which is known to consist predominantly of hydroxy-phosphate compounds. Known components of synovial fluid including proteoglycans, pyrophosphates, phospholipids, lubricin, and superficial zone protein (SZP), have been identified as possible causes for the lack of significant calcium phosphate deposition in this environment. Circulation of these compounds around the whole implant may inhibit calcium phosphate deposition.

  13. DETERMINATION OF MATERNAL SERUM ZINC, IRON, CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM DURING PREGNANCY IN PREGNANT WOMEN AND UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Khoushabi, Fahimeh; Shadan, Mohammad Reza; Miri, Ali; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trace elements and specially minerals are critical for the development of fetus. Many minerals are transferred to the fetus for fetal stores in the latter part of the pregnancy. It has been shown that various trace elements such as Zinc, Iron, Calcium and Magnesium are metabolically interrelated and there is alteration in their concentration during pregnancy. Beyond pregnancy is associated with increased demand of all the nutrients and deficiency of any of these could affect pregnancy, delivery and outcome of pregnancy. Aim: To study the levels of trace elements namely zinc, iron, magnesium and calcium in maternal and umbilical cord blood and their association with pregnancy outcome. Methods: Sixty pregnant women in Zabol, Iran were selected from those who had registered their names for the prenatal care and who had followed up till the 3rd trimester of pregnancy ending in child birth. Biochemical parameters analyzed with help of the biochemical laboratory. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: The mean biochemical profile such, serum calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron in the pregnant women were as follow: in the 1st trimester 8.3, 1.9, 74.9 and 74.4 µg/dl respectively; in the 2nd trimester 8.5, 1.9, 73.1 and 79.3 µg/dl, respectively; in the 3rd trimester 8.6, 1.9, 68.4, and 82.2 µg/dl, respectively. In the umbilical cord blood, the mean serum calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron were 8.5, 1.9, 84.1, and 89.8 µg/dl, respectively. The mean serum calcium and magnesium during the three trimesters of pregnancy were not significantly different from that in the umbilical cord blood, while the mean serum zinc and iron in the umbilical cord blood were significantly different (p<0.05) in the three trimester of pregnancy. The mean birth weight of neonates was 3.1 kg and 12% of neonates showed low birth weight. Our findings showed that, except magnesium, the profile of other biochemical variables, namely, calcium, zinc and iron in the umbilical cord blood

  14. Elevated Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Alteration of Thyroid Hormones in Children from Guiyu, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xijin; Liu, Junxiao; Zeng, Xiang; Lu, Fangfang; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling results in serious environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals. This study explored whether there is an association between PBDEs, heavy metal and key growth- and development-related hormones in children from Guiyu, an e-waste area in southern China. We quantified eight PBDE congeners using gas chromatographic mass spectrometry, lead and cadmium utilizing graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, three thyroids with radioimmunoassay and two types of growth hormones by an enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) in 162 children, 4 to 6 years old, from Guiyu. In blood, median total PBDE was 189.99 ng/g lipid. Lead and cadmium concentrations in blood averaged 14.53±4.85 µg dL−1 and 0.77±0.35 µg L−1, respectively. Spearman partial correlation analysis illustrated that lead was positively correlated with BDE153 and BDE183. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was positively correlated with almost all PBDE congeners and negatively correlated with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), whereas free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) were negatively correlated with BDE154. However, no correlation between the hormones and blood lead or cadmium levels was found in this study. Adjusted multiple linear regression analysis showed that total PBDEs was negatively associated with FT3 and positively associated with TSH. Notably, FT4 was positively correlated with FT3, house functions as a workshop, and father's work involved in e-waste recycling and negatively correlated with vitamin consumptions. TSH was negatively related with FT4, paternal residence time in Guiyu, working hours of mother, and child bean products intake. IGFBP-3 was positively correlated with IGF-1 and house close to an e-waste dump. These results suggest that elevated PBDEs and heavy metals related to e-waste in Guiyu may be important risk factors for hormone alterations in children

  15. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  16. Elevated Serum Leptin Levels are Associated With an Increased Risk of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Cutaneous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Oba, Junna; Wei, Wei; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Johnson, Marcella M.; Wyatt, Cynthia M.; Ellerhorst, Julie A.; Grimm, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The metabolic hormone leptin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various malignancies and may contribute to the high rate of cancer in obese individuals. We reported that leptin and its receptor are expressed by melanoma tumors and cell lines, and that leptin stimulates proliferation of cultured melanoma cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis that leptin contributes to early melanoma progression by assessing its association with sentinel node positivity in cutaneous melanoma patients. The study enrolled 72 patients who were scheduled to undergo lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy. Fasting blood was obtained before surgery, and serum leptin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a “raw” (assay value) and an “adjusted” value (raw value divided by body mass index). Leptin levels and other clinicopathologic parameters were compared between sentinel node positive and negative groups. Logistic regression models were used to predict sentinel node status using leptin and other relevant clinical parameters. The raw and adjusted leptin levels were significantly higher in the 15 patients with positive sentinel nodes. These findings could not be attributed to differences in body mass indices. Univariate models revealed raw leptin, adjusted leptin, Breslow thickness, and mitotic rate as significant predictors of sentinel node status. Leptin levels and Breslow thickness remained significant in multivariate models. Survival and follow-up analysis revealed more aggressive disease in diabetic patients. Elevated serum leptin levels predict sentinel node metastasis in melanoma. Validation of this finding in larger cohorts should enable better stratification of early stage melanoma patients. PMID:26986135

  17. Brain and Serum Androsterone Is Elevated in Response to Stress in Rats with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Servatius, Richard J; Marx, Christine E; Sinha, Swamini; Avcu, Pelin; Kilts, Jason D; Naylor, Jennifer C; Pang, Kevin C H

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury consistent with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) persistently attenuates acoustic startle responses (ASRs) in rats. Here, we examined whether the experience of head trauma affects stress reactivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for ASRs and randomly assigned to receive mTBI through LFP or experience a sham surgery (SHAM). ASRs were measured post injury days (PIDs) 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. To assess neurosteroids, rats received a single 2.0 mA, 0.5 s foot shock on PID 34 (S34), PID 35 (S35), on both days (2S), or the experimental context (CON). Levels of the neurosteroids pregnenolone (PREG), allopregnanolone (ALLO), and androsterone (ANDRO) were determined for the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. For 2S rats, repeated blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, and 60 min post-stressor for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels after stress or context on PID 34. Similar to earlier work, ASRs were severely attenuated in mTBI rats without remission for 28 days after injury. No differences were observed between mTBI and SHAM rats in basal CORT, peak CORT levels or its recovery. In serum and brain, ANDRO levels were the most stress-sensitive. Stress-induced ANDRO elevations were greater than those in mTBI rats. As a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, increased brain ANDRO levels are expected to be anxiolytic. The impact of brain ANDRO elevations in the aftermath of mTBI on coping warrants further elaboration. PMID:27616978

  18. Brain and Serum Androsterone Is Elevated in Response to Stress in Rats with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Servatius, Richard J.; Marx, Christine E.; Sinha, Swamini; Avcu, Pelin; Kilts, Jason D.; Naylor, Jennifer C.; Pang, Kevin C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury consistent with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) persistently attenuates acoustic startle responses (ASRs) in rats. Here, we examined whether the experience of head trauma affects stress reactivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for ASRs and randomly assigned to receive mTBI through LFP or experience a sham surgery (SHAM). ASRs were measured post injury days (PIDs) 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. To assess neurosteroids, rats received a single 2.0 mA, 0.5 s foot shock on PID 34 (S34), PID 35 (S35), on both days (2S), or the experimental context (CON). Levels of the neurosteroids pregnenolone (PREG), allopregnanolone (ALLO), and androsterone (ANDRO) were determined for the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. For 2S rats, repeated blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, and 60 min post-stressor for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels after stress or context on PID 34. Similar to earlier work, ASRs were severely attenuated in mTBI rats without remission for 28 days after injury. No differences were observed between mTBI and SHAM rats in basal CORT, peak CORT levels or its recovery. In serum and brain, ANDRO levels were the most stress-sensitive. Stress-induced ANDRO elevations were greater than those in mTBI rats. As a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, increased brain ANDRO levels are expected to be anxiolytic. The impact of brain ANDRO elevations in the aftermath of mTBI on coping warrants further elaboration. PMID:27616978

  19. The prognostic significance and treatment modality for elevated pre- and postoperative serum CEA in colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kwan Mo; Park, In Ja; Kim, Chan Wook; Roh, Seon Ae; Cho, Dong-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of serum CEA (s-CEA) changes in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with sustained elevated postoperative s-CEA levels. Methods Between January 1999 and December 2008, 9,380 CRC patients underwent surgery. Curative resection was performed in 1,242 CRC patients with high preoperative s-CEA levels (>6 ng/mL). High s-CEA levels were normalized in 924 patients (74.4%) within 2 weeks from surgery, whereas high s-CEA levels were persistent in 318 patients (25.6%). Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their postoperative s-CEA levels: group 1 (37 patients with a 1-year postoperative s-CEA>6 ng/mL) and group 2 (281 patients with a 1-year postoperative s-CEA≤6 ng/mL). Results A postoperative recurrence was identified in 24 patients (64.9%) in group 1 and 65 patients (23.1%) in group 2 (P < 0.001). A curative resection after recurrence was performed in 22 patients (33.8%) from group 2, but no patients from group 1 (P = 0.001). The 5-year overall survival and time to recurrence were significantly lower in patients with recurrent cancer in group 1 (P < 0.001). Conclusion Patients with persistent elevated postoperative s-CEA levels are at high risk for recurrence and a low survival rate. More intensive surveillance of patients with high postoperative s-CEA levels should be mandatory. PMID:27757393

  20. Elevated Serum Levels of the Antiapoptotic Protein Decoy-Receptor 3 Are Associated with Advanced Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Bamias, Giorgos; Gizis, Michalis; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Laoudi, Eyfrosyni; Siakavellas, Spyros I; Koutsounas, Ioannis; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Vlachogiannakos, John; Vafiadis-Zouboulis, Irene; Daikos, George L; Papatheodoridis, George V; Ladas, Spiros D

    2016-01-01

    Background. Decoy-receptor 3 (DcR3) exerts antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory function and is overexpressed in neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Serum DcR3 (sDcR3) levels during the chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) sequence have not been explored. Objective. To assess the levels and significance of sDcR3 protein in various stages of chronic liver disease. Methods. We compared sDcR3 levels between healthy controls and patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH), decompensated cirrhosis (DC), and HCC. Correlations between sDcR3 levels and various patient- and disease-related factors were analyzed. Results. sDcR3 levels were significantly higher in patients with CVH than in controls (P < 0.01). sDcR3 levels were elevated in DC and HCC, being significantly higher compared not only to controls (P < 0.001 for both) but to CVH patients as well (P < 0.001 for both). In addition, DcR3 protein was detected in large quantities in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotics. In patients with CVH, sDcR3 significantly correlated to fibrosis severity, as estimated by Ishak score (P = 0.019) or by liver stiffness measured with elastography (Spearman r = 0.698, P < 0.001). In cirrhotic patients, significant positive correlations were observed between sDcR3 levels and markers of severity of hepatic impairment, including MELD score (r = 0.653, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Circulating levels of DcR3 are elevated during chronic liver disease and correlate with severity of liver damage. sDcR3 may serve as marker for liver fibrosis severity and progression to end-stage liver disease. PMID:27595094

  1. Assessment and diagnostic relevance of novel serum biomarkers for early decision of ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Yoon-Seok; Seo, Suk Min; Park, Won Sang; Lee, Jung Young; Chang, Kiyuk; Seung, Ki Bae; Kim, Pum-Joon; Nam, Suk Woo

    2015-01-01

    Blood transcriptome reflects the status of diseases, and characteristic molecular signature provides a novel window on gene expression preceding acute coronary events. We aim to determine blood transcriptome-based molecular signature of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and to identify novel serum biomarkers for early stage ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We obtained peripheral blood from the patients with ACS who visited emergency department within 4 hours after the onset of chest pain: STEMI (n = 10), Non-ST-segment-elevation MI (NSTEMI, n = 10) and unstable angina (UA, n = 11). Blood transcriptome scans revealed that a characteristic gene expression change exists in STEMI, resulting in 531 outlier genes as STEMI molecular signature (Welch's t test, P < 0.05). Another analysis with a set of blood samples of patients with STEMI (n = 7) before and 7 days after the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 7) and normal control (n = 10) evidenced that STEMI molecular signature directly reflects the onset of STEMI pathogenesis. From the two sets of transcriptome-based STEMI signatures, we identified 10 genes encoding transmembrane or secretory proteins that are highly expressed in STEMI. We validated blood protein expression levels of these 10 putative biomarkers in 40 STEMI and 32 healthy subjects by ELISA. Data suggested that PGLYRP1, IRAK3 and VNN3 are more specific and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers for STEMI than traditional CK-MB or troponin. Blood transcriptome scans of ACS evidenced early stage molecular markers for STEMI. Here, we report novel biomarkers to diagnose STEMI at emergency department in hospitals by a simple ELISA method. PMID:26025919

  2. Brain and Serum Androsterone Is Elevated in Response to Stress in Rats with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Servatius, Richard J.; Marx, Christine E.; Sinha, Swamini; Avcu, Pelin; Kilts, Jason D.; Naylor, Jennifer C.; Pang, Kevin C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury consistent with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) persistently attenuates acoustic startle responses (ASRs) in rats. Here, we examined whether the experience of head trauma affects stress reactivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for ASRs and randomly assigned to receive mTBI through LFP or experience a sham surgery (SHAM). ASRs were measured post injury days (PIDs) 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. To assess neurosteroids, rats received a single 2.0 mA, 0.5 s foot shock on PID 34 (S34), PID 35 (S35), on both days (2S), or the experimental context (CON). Levels of the neurosteroids pregnenolone (PREG), allopregnanolone (ALLO), and androsterone (ANDRO) were determined for the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. For 2S rats, repeated blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, and 60 min post-stressor for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels after stress or context on PID 34. Similar to earlier work, ASRs were severely attenuated in mTBI rats without remission for 28 days after injury. No differences were observed between mTBI and SHAM rats in basal CORT, peak CORT levels or its recovery. In serum and brain, ANDRO levels were the most stress-sensitive. Stress-induced ANDRO elevations were greater than those in mTBI rats. As a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, increased brain ANDRO levels are expected to be anxiolytic. The impact of brain ANDRO elevations in the aftermath of mTBI on coping warrants further elaboration.

  3. Elevated Serum Levels of the Antiapoptotic Protein Decoy-Receptor 3 Are Associated with Advanced Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gizis, Michalis; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Laoudi, Eyfrosyni; Siakavellas, Spyros I.; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Vlachogiannakos, John; Vafiadis-Zouboulis, Irene; Daikos, George L.; Papatheodoridis, George V.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Decoy-receptor 3 (DcR3) exerts antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory function and is overexpressed in neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Serum DcR3 (sDcR3) levels during the chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) sequence have not been explored. Objective. To assess the levels and significance of sDcR3 protein in various stages of chronic liver disease. Methods. We compared sDcR3 levels between healthy controls and patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH), decompensated cirrhosis (DC), and HCC. Correlations between sDcR3 levels and various patient- and disease-related factors were analyzed. Results. sDcR3 levels were significantly higher in patients with CVH than in controls (P < 0.01). sDcR3 levels were elevated in DC and HCC, being significantly higher compared not only to controls (P < 0.001 for both) but to CVH patients as well (P < 0.001 for both). In addition, DcR3 protein was detected in large quantities in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotics. In patients with CVH, sDcR3 significantly correlated to fibrosis severity, as estimated by Ishak score (P = 0.019) or by liver stiffness measured with elastography (Spearman r = 0.698, P < 0.001). In cirrhotic patients, significant positive correlations were observed between sDcR3 levels and markers of severity of hepatic impairment, including MELD score (r = 0.653, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Circulating levels of DcR3 are elevated during chronic liver disease and correlate with severity of liver damage. sDcR3 may serve as marker for liver fibrosis severity and progression to end-stage liver disease. PMID:27595094

  4. Repeated intoxication presenting with azotemia, elevated serum osmolal gap, and metabolic acidosis with high anion gap: differential diagnosis, management, and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Prevost, Merideth; Sun, Yijuan; Servilla, Karen S; Massie, Larry; Glew, Robert H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2012-02-01

    A man with a history of alcoholism presented on two different occasions with mental changes, clinical signs of volume depletion, elevated serum osmolal gap, metabolic acidosis with high anion gap, metabolic alkalosis, hyponatremia, and azotemia after binge drinking of only ethanol. In both episodes, the serum contained ethanol, acetone, and 2-propanol (isopropanol), but no methanol or ethylene glycol. In the first episode, the rates of excretion of acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate in the urine were greatly increased. Volume repletion was the only treatment. In both episodes, azotemia and metabolic acidosis were rapidly reversed, while modest metabolic alkalosis was noted after treatment. The triad of azotemia, elevated osmolal gap, and high anion gap metabolic acidosis, which characterizes intoxication with methanol or ethylene glycol, can also develop in alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA), an entity with substantially different management and outcome. Finding 2-propanol in the serum of patients with AKA indicates either concomitant 2-propanol ingestion or formation of 2-propanol from acetone.

  5. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets.

    PubMed

    Thacher, Tom D; Abrams, Steven A

    2010-11-01

    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH)D concentrations, and serum 1,25(OH)(2) D values are markedly elevated. Studies of Nigerian children with rickets demonstrated they have high fractional calcium absorption. A high-phytate diet was demonstrated to increase calcium absorption compared with the fasting state, and enzymatic dephytinization did not significantly improve calcium absorption. When given vitamin D, children with rickets have a marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2) D concentrations without any change in fractional calcium absorption. No positive relationship was found between fractional calcium absorption and serum 25(OH)D concentrations in children on low-calcium diets. More research is needed to understand the interaction between calcium and vitamin D and the role of vitamin D in calcium absorption.

  6. Calcium and magnesium content of the uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazle; Tahmasebian, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    To investigate uterine fluid and serum calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) variations during the estrus cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures. 18 animals were pro-estrous, 15 estrous, 16 met-estrous and 22 diestrous. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean ± SEM total serum and uterine fluid Ca in cyclic buffaloes were 8.68 ± 0.28 mg dL(-1) and 8.10 ± 0.2 mg dL(-1) vs. 6.76 ± 0.65 mg dL(-1) and 7.90 ± 0.15 mg dL(-1) in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum Mg was not different in cyclic and pre-pubertal animals but the uterine fluid Mg in cyclic cows was higher than those in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Ca in pro-estrus and estrus were higher than those in other stages and also higher than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest Mg content of serum was recorded in diestrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle except for estrus the uterine fluid Mg content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Ca was passively secreted in uterine lumen and mostly dependent on blood serum Ca concentrations but Mg was secreted independently. The values (except for serum total Mg) also increased after puberty.

  7. Elevation of serum interleukins 8, 4, and 1β levels in patients with gastrointestinal low-grade B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Toji, Tomohiro; Goto, Naoe; Kasahara, Senji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Tari, Akira; Noujima-Harada, Mai; Miyata, Takafumi; Sato, Yasuharu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines that are produced by helper T cells (Th) regulate immune reactions, facilitate class switching of B cells, and prolong the lifespan of B and T cells. Eradication therapy using antibiotics is sometimes effective against gastrointestinal (GI) malignant lymphoma, suggesting that the tumor development or progression is affected by the inflammatory microenvironment. In the present study, serum samples from 148 patients with various subtypes of malignant lymphoma were tested for 11 proinflammatory Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the comparison by subtype or GI lesions, serum interleukin (IL)-8 (P = 6.7E-05), IL-4 (P = 7.5E-05), and IL-1β (P = 0.0043) levels showed significant differences among subtypes, being particularly elevated in follicular lymphomas (FL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Serum IL-8 levels were elevated in GI-FL and MALT lymphomas, and serum IL-4 and IL-1 β levels were elevated in MALT lymphomas. These findings show that GI low-grade B-cell lymphoma could develop against the background of an inflammatory microenvironment. Thus, these cytokines may be useful as diagnostic markers and could provide new insights into tumor development. PMID:26674732

  8. Zinc deficiency and supplementation in ovariectomized rats: their effect on serum estrogen and progesterone levels and their relation to calcium and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Sunar, Fusun; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Ergene, Neyhan; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study is to examine how zinc deficiency or supplementation affects estrogen and progesterone and calcium and phosphorus levels in the serum. The study was carried out on 40 adult female rats of Sprague-Dawley species. The rats were allocated to four groups: Group 1: Control, Group 2: Ovariectomized (OVX) control. Group 3: OVX-Zinc-supplemented. Group 4: OVX-Zinc-deficient. Blood samples were taken from the experimental animals by decapitation method and analyzed in terms of estrogen, progesterone, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc levels. Group 1 had the highest estrogen levels (p<0.05). Estrogen levels in group 3 were higher than those in groups 2 and 4 (p<0.05). The lowest estrogen levels were found in group 4 (p<0.05). Progesterone levels were higher in group 1 than in groups 2, 3 and 4 and the same parameter in group 3 was higher than those in groups 2 and 4. The highest calcium and phosphorus levels were obtained in groups 1 and 3 (p<0.05). Calcium and phosphorus levels in group 2 were higher than those in group 4 (p<0.05). There was no difference among groups with regard to magnesium levels. Group 3 had the highest serum zinc levels (p<0.05). Zinc levels in group 1 were higher than those in groups 2 and 4 and the levels in group 2 were higher than those in group 4. Findings of the study show that zinc deficiency causes a significant decrease in calcium and phosphorus levels and that zinc supplementation prevents these adversities in ovariectomized rats.

  9. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels in the regulation of basal and agonist-elevated tones in isolated conduit arteries. Short communication.

    PubMed

    Pataricza, J; Márton, Z; Hegedus, Z; Krassói, Irén; Kun, A; Varró, A; Papp, J Gy

    2004-01-01

    Functional role of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels on the basal and agonist-elevated arterial tones was investigated in isolated rabbit aorta, porcine and canine coronary arteries as well as in human internal mammary artery. The vascular tones enhanced by contractile agents were increased further by preincubation of these conduit blood vessels with selective (charybdotoxin or iberiotoxin) or nonselective (tetraethylammonium) inhibitors of KCa channels. The basal tone (without an agonist) was increased only in the canine coronary artery. The results indicate a feed-back regulatory role of KCa channels counteracting the vasospasm of conduit arteries. PMID:16438119

  10. Elevated Expression of Pentraxin 3 in Anti-neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-associated Glomerulonephritis with Normal Serum C-reactive Protein.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Risa; Nakai, Kentaro; Fujii, Hideki; Goto, Shunsuke; Hara, Shigeo; Imai, Naofumi; Nishi, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    A 20-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with an elevated serum creatinine level of 1.61 mg/dL and a normal C-reactive protein level of less than 0.1 mg/dL. Her myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) titer was slightly increased at 9.2 U/mL; a kidney biopsy revealed that 23 of 32 glomeruli had crescents. The expression of pentraxin 3 was detected in her kidney and her plasma pentraxin 3 level was elevated at 63.53 ng/mL. Plasma pentraxin 3 levels may be an activity marker for ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis, particularly when serum C-reactive protein levels are within the normal limits.

  11. Relation of serum uric acid to severity and progression of coronary artery calcium in postmenopausal White and Filipino women (from the Rancho Bernardo study).

    PubMed

    Calvo, Richard Y; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Laughlin, Gail A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Elevated serum uric acid (UA) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) but its association with coronary artery calcium (CAC) is inconsistent. This study examined ethnic differences in the association of UA levels with CAC severity and progression. Participants included 202 white and 166 Filipino postmenopausal women without known CVD. White women originated from the Rancho Bernardo cohort study, whereas Filipino women were convenience sampled from comparable localities. Baseline UA levels and CVD risk factors were measured in 1995 to 1999. CAC was assessed by electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) in 2000 to 2002 (EBCT1) and repeated in 2005 to 2007 (EBCT2). EBCT1 CAC density scores were categorized by severity: minimal 0 to 10, mild 11 to 100, moderate 101 to 399, and severe ≥400. Progression was defined as CAC volume score increases of ≥2.5 mm3 between scans. White women were older at baseline than Filipinas (64.6 vs 59.3 years, p<0.001). Filipinas had increased UA levels (235.8 vs 294.2 μmol/L, p<0.001), diabetes (35.5% vs 5.2%, p<0.001), hypertension (69.6% vs 45.2%, p<0.001), and statin use (32.8% vs 18.7%, p=0.002). CAC severity did not vary by ethnicity (p=0.502), but Filipinas experienced more CAC progression than whites (53.0% vs 39.1%, p=0.016). Adjustment for CVD risk factors identified a positive association between UA levels and increasing CAC severity at EBCT1 in Filipinas (odds ratio [OR] 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 1.71) but not whites (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.25). Higher UA levels predicted CAC progression in both cohorts (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.56). In conclusion, these results support use of UA as an ethnicity-specific marker of CAC severity and as a marker of CAC progression among postmenopausal women. PMID:24513465

  12. Effects of a high-calcium diet on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in magnesium-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Kajita, Yasutaka; Miwa, Misao

    2012-01-01

    In order to clarify the effects of a high-calcium (Ca) diet on bone formation in magnesium (Mg)-deficient rats, this study focused on the effects of a high-Ca diet on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels. Male rats were randomized by weight into four groups, and fed one of four experimental diets containing two different Mg concentrations (0.05% (normal-Mg) or Mg-free (Mg-deficient)), and two different Ca concentrations (0.5% (normal-Ca) or 1.0% (high-Ca)) for 14 days. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin and IGF-1 were significantly lower in rats fed the Mg-deficient diet than in rats fed the normal-Mg diet. On the other hand, dietary Ca concentration had no significant influence on serum concentrations of osteocalcin and IGF-1. This study suggested that: 1) a high-Ca diet has no preventive effects on the decreased bone formation seen in Mg-deficient rats; and 2) a high-Ca diet does not enhance serum IGF-1 levels in Mg-deficient rats. Moreover, unchanged serum IGF-1 concentrations may contribute to the decreased bone formation seen in Mg-deficient rats receiving a high-Ca diet.

  13. THE EFFECT OF UVB RADIATION ON SERUM VITAMIN D AND IONIZED CALCIUM IN THE AFRICAN SPOONBILL (PLATALEA ALBA).

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Sarah J; Rick, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic bone disease (MBD) was diagnosed in two chicks produced by a captive breeding colony of African spoonbills (Platalea alba). The birds were housed indoor during the winter breeding season and had no access to natural sunlight. When the index cases occurred, the nesting birds and chicks had a mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration of 9.9 ± 2.7 nmol/L and a mean ionized calcium (iCa) concentration of 0.98 ± 0.12 mmol/L (winter pretreatment). For comparison purposes, serum was collected the following summer; mean 25-OHD was 20.8 ± 3.9 nmol/L and mean iCa was 1.32 ± 0.05 mmol/L (summer). During the following breeding season, ultraviolet B (UVB) lighting was provided to the flock, resulting in a mean 25-OHD of 19.0 ± 5.6 nmol/L and mean iCa of 1.23 ± 0.06 mmol/L (winter treatment 1). Both 25-OHD and iCa were significantly higher compared with winter pretreatment, and 25-OHD was not significantly different from summer, indicating that treatment during the winter months succeeded in increasing 25-OHD levels to summer levels. However, winter treatment 1 and summer iCa were significantly different. During the next breeding season (winter treatment 2), the birds were exposed to a light with higher UVB output. The mean 25-OHD of the flock was 16.5 ± 7.2 nmol/L, and the mean iCa increased to 1.34 ± 0.04 mmol/L. Both were comparable to summer values. Healthy chicks were hatched during both breeding seasons, and no further cases of MBD occurred during the course of the study. Provision of a UVB light source to captive African spoonbills maintained indoors during the winter months can increase 25-OHD and iCa to levels equivalent to those seen in the summer months, when birds have unrestricted access to natural sunlight. UVB lighting is recommended for all breeding spoonbills that do not have access to natural sunlight. PMID:27468015

  14. Circadian rhythm of serum 25 (OH) vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus levels in the treatment and management of type-2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Masood, Tariq; Kushwaha, Rajeev S; Singh, Ranjana; Sailwal, Shivani; Pandey, Himanshu; Varma, Amit; Singh, Raj K; Cornelissen, Germaine

    2015-02-01

    The circadian time structure of serum 25 (OH) vitamin D (25-OHD), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) may prove to be helpful in prevention, efficacy and management of diabetes mellitus. Ten newly diagnosed patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (6 men and 4 women), 30-65 years of age, and 10 age-matched clinically healthy volunteers (7 men and 3 women) were synchronized for one week with diurnal activity from about 06:00 to about 22:00 and nocturnal rest. Breakfast was served around 08:00, lunch around 13:30 and dinner around 20:00. Drugs/nutraceuticals known to affect the vitamin D-calcium metabolism and status were not taken. Blood samples were collected at 6-h intervals for 24 h under standardized, 24-h synchronized conditions. Serum 25-OHD, Ca, P, Ca-P product and Ca-P ratio were determined. A marked circadian variation was demonstrated for 25-OHD in healthy volunteers (p = 0.030) and of borderline statistical significance in the diabetic patients (p = 0.083) by population-mean cosinor analysis. Similarly, healthy volunteers showed borderline significance for serum Ca, P and Ca-P ratio. The circadian acrophase of Ca occurred later in the patients as compared to healthy controls. Mapping the circadian rhythm (an important component of the broader time structure or chronome, which includes a.o., trends with age and extra-circadian components) of vitamin D and calcium is needed for exploring their role as markers in the treatment and management of diabetic patients. PMID:25788054

  15. The serum levels of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis during attack, remission and in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Spacek, Jiri; Jilek, Petr; Buchta, Vladimir; Forstl, Miroslav; Hronek, Miloslav; Holeckova, Magdalena

    2005-11-01

    The real cause of recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis (RVVC) is concealed and the etiopathogenesis of this disease remains to be determined. In a cohort study, concentrations of metals in 44 patients with RVVC and 30 healthy age-matched women were measured and compared. The concentrations of serum calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) were measured photometrically, the zinc (Zn) levels were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. For statistical analysis were used the Student's t-tests (paired analysis for attack vs. remission; non-paired analysis for patient vs. control). Although all measured metals were within normal ranges the patients with RVVC had in contrast to the healthy controls significantly lower levels of serum Ca, Mg and Zn and insignificantly higher levels of Fe. These relative changes may contribute to the development of attacks in patients with RVVC. PMID:16262875

  16. Elevated Serum ADA Activity as a Marker for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Indian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vijayamahantesh; Amit, Ajay; Dikhit, Manas R.; Pandey, Raj K.; Singh, Kuljit; Mishra, Ritesh; Das, V. N. R; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2016-01-01

    Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34).Our in-vitro result revealed that monocytes secrete significant ADA level in response to Leishmania donovani (L.donovani) stimulation. The serum ADA activity in active VL and PKDL subjects were found to be significantly higher than that of respective treated cases and healthy controls. We also observed a marginal number (17.6%) of endemic asymptomatic subjects showed elevated serum ADA activity. Further, the ADA activity in PKDL was found to be decreased gradually during the different phases of treatment. Interestingly, 2 out of 32 treated VL cases found to have high serum ADA activity during follow up period were relapsed within few days. These results suggest the possibility of ADA as a marker of clinical pathogenesis and can be used as a surrogate marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of VL and PKDL. PMID:27186641

  17. Do Negative 124I Pretherapy Positron Emission Tomography Scans in Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels Predict Negative 131I Posttherapy Scans?

    PubMed Central

    Khorjekar, Gauri R.; Garcia, Carlos; O'Neil, Jeffrey; Moreau, Shari; Atkins, Francis B.; Mete, Mihriye; Orquiza, Michael H.; Burman, Kenneth; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Background: The management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) who have elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels and negative 131I or 123I scans is problematic, and the decision regarding whether or not to administer 131I therapy (a “blind” therapy) is also problematic. While 124I positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been shown to detect more foci of residual thyroid tissue and/or metastases secondary to DTC than planar 131I images, the utility of a negative 124I PET scan in deciding whether or not to consider performing blind 131I therapy is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether a negative 124I pretherapy PET scan in patients with elevated serum Tg levels and negative 131I or 123I scans predicts a negative 131I posttherapy scan. Methods: Several prospective studies have been performed to compare the radiopharmacokinetics of 124I PET versus 131I planar imaging in patients who 1) had histologically proven DTC, 2) were suspected to have metastatic DTC (e.g., elevated Tg, positive recent fine-needle aspiration cytology, suspicious enlarging mass), and 3) had 131I planar and 124I PET imaging performed. Using these criteria, we retrospectively identified patients who had an elevated Tg, a negative diagnostic 131I/123I scan, a negative diagnostic 124I PET scan, therapy with 131I, a post-therapy 131I scan, and a prior 131I therapy with a subsequent positive post-131I therapy scan. For each scan, two readers categorized every focus of 131I and 124I uptake as positive for thyroid tissue/metastases or physiological. Results: Twelve patients met the above criteria. Ten of these 12 patients (83%) had positive foci on 131I posttherapy scan. Conclusion: In our selected patient population, 131I posttherapy scans are frequently positive in patients with elevated serum Tg levels, a negative diagnostic 131I or 123I scan, and a negative 124I PET scan. Thus, for a patient with elevated serum Tg level, negative diagnostic 131I

  18. Elevated serum microRNA-122/222 levels are potential diagnostic biomarkers in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C but not hepatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Motawi, Tarek M K; Sadik, Nermin A H; Shaker, Olfat G; Ghaleb, Maggy H

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Because of their size, specificity, and relative stability in plasma, miRNAs can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to monitor liver injury, such as that caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and liver cancer. In this study, we investigated miRNA expression patterns from the serum of Egyptian patients with HCV and liver cancer compared with matched healthy controls. Using microarray-based expression profiling followed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction validation, we compared the levels of circulating miRNA-122 and miRNA-222 in serum from patients with hepatitis C virus (n = 40) and liver cancer (n = 60) to matched healthy controls (n = 30). MiRNA SNORD68 was the housekeeping endogenous control. We found that the serum levels of miR-122 and miR-222 were significantly elevated in HCV patients, but not in liver cancer patients, compared with controls. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that miR-122 and miR-222 have a high diagnostic potential in discriminating patients with HCV from controls. Serum miR-222 was significantly higher in HCV patients compared to liver cancer patients. Our results indicate that serum miR-122 and miR-222 are elevated in Egyptian patients with chronic HCV, and these miRNAs have a strong potential to serve as novel biomarkers for liver injury but not specifically for liver cancer.

  19. The Effects of Serum from Prostate Cancer Patients with Elevated Body Mass Index on Prostate Cancer Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Benjamin C; Fleshner, Neil E; Klotz, Laurence H; Venkateswaran, Vasundara

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether serum from obese, compared to non-obese, PCa (prostate cancer) patients creates a growth-enhancing tumor micro-environment in vitro. Serum from 80 subjects was divided into four groups: normal weight men with and without PCa and overweight/obese men with and without PCa. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were measured in LNCaP, and PC3 cells treated with patient serum were obtained from the above groups. The results reveal that proliferation of LNCaP cells was significantly (P = 0.05) greater with serum from non-obese (mean = 1.26 ± 0.20) compared to that from obese patients (mean = 1.16 ± 0.19). Serum from obese PCa patients compared to non-obese PCa patients induced significantly greater amounts of cell migration (P < 0.01) in PC3 cells. Serum from obese patients induced significantly (P < 0.01) lower amounts of cell invasion (mean = 8.2 ± 4.5) compared to non-obese patients (mean = 18.1 ± 5.0) when treated on PC3 cells. Serum TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha) levels correlated with LNCaP cell proliferation in vitro in non-obese PCa (P < 0.01) and non-obese control groups (P = 0.05). All statistical calculations controlled for age, since the PCa patient groups were significantly older than the control groups (P < 0.01). In conclusion, serum from obese PCa patients induced greater PCa cell migration and lower cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. PMID:25987846

  20. Vascular endothelial dysfunction associated with elevated serum homocysteine levels in rat adjuvant arthritis: effect of vitamin E administration.

    PubMed

    Can, Cenk; Cinar, Mehtap G; Koşay, Sezen; Evinç, Akgün

    2002-06-14

    We aimed to study the alterations in serum homocysteine levels and endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular relaxant responses in adjuvant-induced arthritis of the rat and to determine the effects of vitamin E administration on these changes. Arthritis was induced by a single intradermal injection of Freund's complete adjuvant into the paw. 26 days after the induction of arthritis, serum homocysteine levels and relaxant responses to acetylcholine and sodiumnitroprusside in thoracic aortas were evaluated. The relaxant responses to acetylcholine were decreased in aortas from arthritic rats, whereas the responses to sodiumnitroprusside were not significantly different when compared to the aortas from control rats. A significant increase was observed in serum homocysteine levels of the arthritic rats in comparison to those of controls. Vitamin E administration (100 mg/kg/day, i.m. for 26 days) to arthritic rats resulted in a significant increase in endothelium-dependent aortic responses to acetylcholine and a significant decrease in serum homocysteine levels with respect to the non-treated arthritic rats. However, in healthy rats, vitamin E treatment significantly decreased the acetylcholine-induced relaxant responses. We conclude that adjuvant-induced arthritis in the rat is associated with increased serum homocysteine levels and this is accompanied by a reduction in endothelium-dependent vascular responses in the thoracic aortas. Vitamin E treatment leads to normalization of the increased serum homocysteine levels and improves the endothelium-dependent relaxant responses in this experimental model. PMID:12044840

  1. Influence of pre-, post-, and simultaneous perfusion of elevated calcium on the effect of ascending concentrations of lead on digoxin-induced cardiac arrest in isolated frog heart

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, M.S.; Muthu, P.; Parthiban, N.

    1995-10-01

    Cardiotoxicity of lead, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has already been documented as a potentially lethal, although rarely recognized, complication of lead intoxication. Further, it has already been reported from this laboratory that lead acetate (LA) preperfusion potentiated cardiotoxicity of digoxin (DGN) in isolated frog heart preparation and that exposure to elevated calcium (elev. Ca{sup 2+}) prior to, and simultaneously with LA at 10{sup {minus}7} M concentration, attenuated this potentiation. As an extension of this work, it was considered of interest to study the effect of perfusion of elev. Ca{sup 2+} (6.5 mM) prior to, after and simultaneously with ascending concentrations of lead (10{sup {minus}9}, 10{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}5}M) on DGN induced cardiac arrest (CA) in isolated frog heart, since Pb{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions are known to compete with each other for the same target sites at the cellular level, an instance of competitive mass action effect. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. In Situ 13C NMR at Elevated-Pressures and -Temperatures Investigating the Conversion of CO2 to Magnesium and Calcium Carbonate Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surface, J. A.; Conradi, M. S.; Skemer, P. A.; Hayes, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    We have constructed specialized NMR hardware to conduct in situ elevated-pressure, elevated-temperature 13C NMR studies of unmixed heterogeneous mixtures of solids, liquids, gases, and supercritical fluids. Specifically, our aim is to monitor CO2 uptake in both ultramafic rocks and in more porous geological materials to understand the mechanisms of chemisorption as a function of temperature, pressure and pH. In this in situ NMR probe, we are able to simulate processes at geologically relevant fluid pressures and temperatures, monitoring the kinetics of CO2 conversion to carbonates. The in situ NMR experiments consist of heterogeneous mixtures of rock, salty brine solution, and moderate pressure CO2 gas at elevated temperatures. The purpose of studying these reactions is to determine efficacy of carbonate formation in various geological reservoirs. Via 13C NMR, we have spectroscopically characterized and quantified the conversion of CO2 to magnesium carbonate and calcium carbonate minerals. When CO2 reacts with the calcium or magnesium in a mineral or rock sample, the 13C chemical shift, linewidth, lineshape, and relaxation times change dramatically. This change can be monitored in situ and provide instantaneous and continuous characterization that maps the chemistry that is taking place. For example, on the pathway to MgCO3 formation, there are a number of phases of Mg(OH)x(H2O)y(CO3)z that are apparent via NMR spectroscopy. We will demonstrate that NMR can be used for quantitative characterization of multiple metastable mineral phases in pure forms and in mixtures. Results are confirmed via powder XRD and Raman spectroscopy of aquo- hydro- carbonato- magnesium species and calcium carbonate species. We also have monitored the 13C spectroscopy to analyze the phase of CO2 (liquid, supercritical, or gas) and its conversion into other forms, such as bicarbonate and carbonate species, providing a "window" into the in situ pH of the reacting system. Reference: 'In Situ

  3. Peripheral Blood Cells from Patients with Autoimmune Addison's Disease Poorly Respond to Interferons In Vitro, Despite Elevated Serum Levels of Interferon-Inducible Chemokines.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Kine; Bjånesøy, Trine; Hellesen, Alexander; Breivik, Lars; Bakke, Marit; Husebye, Eystein S; Bratland, Eirik

    2015-10-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is a disorder caused by an immunological attack on the adrenal cortex. The interferon (IFN)-inducible chemokine CXCL10 is elevated in serum of AAD patients, suggesting a peripheral IFN signature. However, CXCL10 can also be induced in adrenocortical cells stimulated with IFNs, cytokines, or microbial components. We therefore investigated whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from AAD patients display an enhanced propensity to produce CXCL10 and the related chemokine CXCL9, after stimulation with type I or II IFNs or the IFN inducer poly (I:C). Although serum levels of CXCL10 and CXCL9 were significantly elevated in patients compared with controls, IFN stimulated patient PBMC produced significantly less CXCL10/CXCL9 than control PBMC. Low CXCL10 production was not significantly associated with medication, disease duration, or comorbidities, but the low production of poly (I:C)-induced CXCL10 among patients was associated with an AAD risk allele in the phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene. PBMC levels of total STAT1 and -2, and IFN-induced phosphorylated STAT1 and -2, were not significantly different between patients and controls. We conclude that PBMC from patients with AAD are deficient in their response to IFNs, and that the adrenal cortex itself may be responsible for the increased serum levels of CXCL10.

  4. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p < .05). The highest cortisol elevations were found in 2 bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety. PMID:26847149

  5. Peripheral Blood Cells from Patients with Autoimmune Addison's Disease Poorly Respond to Interferons In Vitro, Despite Elevated Serum Levels of Interferon-Inducible Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Bjånesøy, Trine; Hellesen, Alexander; Breivik, Lars; Bakke, Marit; Husebye, Eystein S.; Bratland, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is a disorder caused by an immunological attack on the adrenal cortex. The interferon (IFN)-inducible chemokine CXCL10 is elevated in serum of AAD patients, suggesting a peripheral IFN signature. However, CXCL10 can also be induced in adrenocortical cells stimulated with IFNs, cytokines, or microbial components. We therefore investigated whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from AAD patients display an enhanced propensity to produce CXCL10 and the related chemokine CXCL9, after stimulation with type I or II IFNs or the IFN inducer poly (I:C). Although serum levels of CXCL10 and CXCL9 were significantly elevated in patients compared with controls, IFN stimulated patient PBMC produced significantly less CXCL10/CXCL9 than control PBMC. Low CXCL10 production was not significantly associated with medication, disease duration, or comorbidities, but the low production of poly (I:C)-induced CXCL10 among patients was associated with an AAD risk allele in the phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene. PBMC levels of total STAT1 and -2, and IFN-induced phosphorylated STAT1 and -2, were not significantly different between patients and controls. We conclude that PBMC from patients with AAD are deficient in their response to IFNs, and that the adrenal cortex itself may be responsible for the increased serum levels of CXCL10. PMID:25978633

  6. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p < .05). The highest cortisol elevations were found in 2 bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety.

  7. Elevated extracellular calcium increases expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene via a calcium channel and ERK pathway in human dental pulp cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Eiji; Kanaya, Sousuke; Hamaji, Nozomu; Sato, Hisae; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2010-04-16

    Dental pulp cells, which have been shown to share phenotypical features with osteoblasts, are capable of differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and generating a dentin-like mineral structure. Elevated extracellular Ca{sup 2+}Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} has been implicated in osteogenesis by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts; however, the role of Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} signaling in odontogenesis remains unclear. We found that elevated Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} increases bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 gene expression in human dental pulp cells. The increase was modulated not only at a transcriptional level but also at a post-transcriptional level, because treatment with Ca{sup 2+} increased the stability of BMP-2 mRNA in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. A similar increase in BMP-2 mRNA level was observed in other human mesenchymal cells from oral tissue; periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts. However, the latter cells exhibited considerably lower expression of BMP-2 mRNA compared with dental pulp cells and periodontal ligament cells. The BMP-2 increase was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, PD98059, and partially inhibited by the L-type Ca{sup 2+} channels inhibitor, nifedipine. However, pretreatment with nifedipine had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation triggered by Ca{sup 2+}, suggesting that the Ca{sup 2+} influx from Ca{sup 2+} channels may operate independently of ERK signaling. Dental pulp cells do not express the transcript of Ca{sup 2+}-sensing receptors (CaSR) and only respond slightly to other cations such as Sr{sup 2+} and spermine, suggesting that dental pulp cells respond to Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} to increase BMP-2 mRNA expression in a manner different from CaSR and rather specific for Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} among cations.

  8. Effect of calcium soap of fatty acids supplementation on serum biochemical parameters and ovarian activity during out-of-the-breeding season in crossbred ewes.

    PubMed

    El-Nour, Hayat H M; Nasr, Soad M; Hassan, Walid R

    2012-01-01

    This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of calcium soap of fatty acid (CSFA) supplementation on serum biochemical and hormones and ovarian activity during out-of-the-breeding season in ewes. Twelve crossbred ewes, 2-3 years of age and weighting 45-55 kg, were allocated into two equal groups. The first group was control and the other was treated with 50 g/head of CSFA. All ewes were fed basal diet and treated with 60 mg of medroxy progesterone acetate intravaginal sponge for 12 day. At the third day of sponge removal, the CSFA-treated group was given 50 g/head of CSFA daily for two estrous cycles. During the estrus phase, ovarian activity was detected using ultrasonography in both groups. All ewes were then subjected to natural breeding and conception rate. Blood samples were collected from all ewes during treatment period. Results revealed significant (P < 0.05) increases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and progesterone levels with decrease in calcium and phosphorous levels in treated group. In treated group, normal-size ovaries and more than one follicle on the ovaries were detected and pregnancy rate increased. In conclusion, CSFA supplementation was effective to maintain the reproductive performance when ewes were out of the breeding season.

  9. Effects of maintenance lithium treatment on serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels: a retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Umberto; De Cori, David; Aguglia, Andrea; Barbaro, Francesca; Lanfranco, Fabio; Bogetto, Filippo; Maina, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study was to evaluate the effects of maintenance lithium treatment on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels. Methods A retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study design was used. Data were collected from the database of a tertiary psychiatric center covering the years 2010–2014. Included were bipolar patients who had never been exposed to lithium and had lithium started, and who had PTH, and total and ionized calcium levels available before and during lithium treatment. Paired t-tests were used to analyze changes in PTH and calcium levels. Linear regressions were performed, with mean lithium level and duration of lithium exposure as independent variables and change in PTH levels as dependent variable. Results A total 31 patients were included. The mean duration of lithium treatment was 18.6±11.4 months. PTH levels significantly increased during lithium treatment (+13.55±14.20 pg/mL); the rate of hyperparathyroidism was 12.9%. Neither total nor ionized calcium increased from baseline to follow-up; none of our patients developed hypercalcemia. Linear regressions analyses did not show an effect of duration of lithium exposure or mean lithium level on PTH levels. Conclusion Lithium-associated stimulation of parathyroid function is more common than assumed to date. Among parameters to be evaluated prior to lithium implementation, calcium and PTH should be added. PMID:26229473

  10. Effectiveness of different corticosterone administration methods to elevate corticosterone serum levels, induce depressive-like behavior, and affect neurogenesis levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kott, J M; Mooney-Leber, S M; Shoubah, F A; Brummelte, S

    2016-01-15

    High levels of chronic stress or stress hormones are associated with depressive-like behavior in animal models. However, slight elevations in corticosterone (CORT) - the major stress hormone in rodents - have also been associated with improved performances, albeit in a sex-dependent manner. Some of the discrepancies in the literature regarding the effects of high CORT levels may be due to different administrations methods. The current study aims to compare the effects of ∼40mg/kg given either via subcutaneous injection, through an implanted pellet, or in the drinking water, for ∼21days on CORT serum levels, depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST), and neurogenesis levels in the dentate gyrus (DG) in adult female rats. We found that animals exposed to the daily injections showed elevated CORT levels throughout the administration period, while the pellet animals showed only a transient increase, and drinking water animals revealed no elevation in CORT in serum. In addition, only the injection group exhibited higher levels of immobility in the FST. Interestingly, animals receiving CORT via injection or drinking water had lower numbers of doublecortin-positive cells in the ventral DG one week after the last CORT administration compared to animals implanted with a CORT pellet. These results will contribute to the growing literature on the effects of chronic CORT exposure and may help to clarify some of the discrepancies among previous studies, particularly in females.

  11. Fetuin-A/Albumin-Mineral Complexes Resembling Serum Calcium Granules and Putative Nanobacteria: Demonstration of a Dual Inhibition-Seeding Concept

    PubMed Central

    Young, David; Young, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Serum-derived granulations and purported nanobacteria (NB) are pleomorphic apatite structures shown to resemble calcium granules widely distributed in nature. They appear to be assembled through a dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism involving proteinaceous factors, as determined by protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin) and heat inactivation studies. When inoculated into cell culture medium, the purified proteins fetuin-A and albumin fail to induce mineralization, but they will readily combine with exogenously added calcium and phosphate, even in submillimolar amounts, to form complexes that will undergo morphological transitions from nanoparticles to spindles, films, and aggregates. As a mineralization inhibitor, fetuin-A is much more potent than albumin, and it will only seed particles at higher mineral-to-protein concentrations. Both proteins display a bell-shaped, dose-dependent relationship, indicative of the same dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism seen with whole serum. As ascertained by both seeding experiments and gel electrophoresis, fetuin-A is not only more dominant but it appears to compete avidly for nanoparticle binding at the expense of albumin. The nanoparticles formed in the presence of fetuin-A are smaller than their albumin counterparts, and they have a greater tendency to display a multi-layered ring morphology. In comparison, the particles seeded by albumin appear mostly incomplete, with single walls. Chemically, spectroscopically, and morphologically, the protein-mineral particles resemble closely serum granules and NB. These particles are thus seen to undergo an amorphous to crystalline transformation, the kinetics and completeness of which depend on the protein-to-mineral ratios, with low ratios favoring faster conversion to crystals. Our results point to a dual inhibitory-seeding, de-repression model for the assembly of particles in supersaturated solutions like serum. The presence of proteins and other inhibitory factors tend to block apatite

  12. Fetuin-A/albumin-mineral complexes resembling serum calcium granules and putative nanobacteria: demonstration of a dual inhibition-seeding concept.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Young, David; Young, John D

    2009-01-01

    Serum-derived granulations and purported nanobacteria (NB) are pleomorphic apatite structures shown to resemble calcium granules widely distributed in nature. They appear to be assembled through a dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism involving proteinaceous factors, as determined by protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin) and heat inactivation studies. When inoculated into cell culture medium, the purified proteins fetuin-A and albumin fail to induce mineralization, but they will readily combine with exogenously added calcium and phosphate, even in submillimolar amounts, to form complexes that will undergo morphological transitions from nanoparticles to spindles, films, and aggregates. As a mineralization inhibitor, fetuin-A is much more potent than albumin, and it will only seed particles at higher mineral-to-protein concentrations. Both proteins display a bell-shaped, dose-dependent relationship, indicative of the same dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism seen with whole serum. As ascertained by both seeding experiments and gel electrophoresis, fetuin-A is not only more dominant but it appears to compete avidly for nanoparticle binding at the expense of albumin. The nanoparticles formed in the presence of fetuin-A are smaller than their albumin counterparts, and they have a greater tendency to display a multi-layered ring morphology. In comparison, the particles seeded by albumin appear mostly incomplete, with single walls. Chemically, spectroscopically, and morphologically, the protein-mineral particles resemble closely serum granules and NB. These particles are thus seen to undergo an amorphous to crystalline transformation, the kinetics and completeness of which depend on the protein-to-mineral ratios, with low ratios favoring faster conversion to crystals. Our results point to a dual inhibitory-seeding, de-repression model for the assembly of particles in supersaturated solutions like serum. The presence of proteins and other inhibitory factors tend to block apatite

  13. Changes of Serum Calcium Concentration, Frequency of Ruminal Contraction and Feed Intake Soon after Parturition of Dairy Cows Fed Difructose Anhydride III

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, S.; Teramura, M.; Sato, T.; Hanada, M.

    2015-01-01

    Requirements to control the large decrease in serum calcium (Ca) due to parturition and to increase the feed intake soon after parturition have been well accepted in dairy cows. This study was aimed to investigate the feed intake affected by serum Ca concentration with difructose anhydride (DFA) III supplement in dairy cows soon after parturition. Fourteen transition Holstein cows were divided into DFA and control (CONT) groups within 1 to 5 parity variations in each group. Measurement schedule for an individual cow was from 14 d before parturition to 7 d following parturition. The cows in DFA group were supplied 0.2 kg/head/d of DFA III feed containing 40 g of pure DFA III while the cows in CONT group received no DFA III. Other feeding procedures were the same for all cows in both groups. At parturition (d 0), serum Ca concentration sharply declined in both groups (p<0.05). Time interval for recovery from decreased serum Ca to its normal range (>9.0 mg/dL) tended to be faster in DFA group (12 h) than in the CONT group (48 h), but the differences were not significant. Active ruminal contraction was observed in DFA group at following parturition of d 1 (p<0.05), d 3 (p<0.05), and d 5 (p<0.01). Dry matter (DM) intake did not differ between the groups. However, positive correlations were observed between serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction (p<0.001), and between ruminal contraction and DM intake (p<0.001) during following parturition. According to multiple regression analysis (R2 = 0.824, p<0.001), the DM intake was positively affected by serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction. These results suggest that feed intake soon after parturition in dairy cows can be increased by improvement of serum Ca concentration and active ruminal contraction, but DFA III supplementation in this study did not improve the lower serum Ca concentration due to parturition. PMID:25557676

  14. Changes of Serum Calcium Concentration, Frequency of Ruminal Contraction and Feed Intake Soon after Parturition of Dairy Cows Fed Difructose Anhydride III.

    PubMed

    Wynn, S; Teramura, M; Sato, T; Hanada, M

    2015-01-01

    Requirements to control the large decrease in serum calcium (Ca) due to parturition and to increase the feed intake soon after parturition have been well accepted in dairy cows. This study was aimed to investigate the feed intake affected by serum Ca concentration with difructose anhydride (DFA) III supplement in dairy cows soon after parturition. Fourteen transition Holstein cows were divided into DFA and control (CONT) groups within 1 to 5 parity variations in each group. Measurement schedule for an individual cow was from 14 d before parturition to 7 d following parturition. The cows in DFA group were supplied 0.2 kg/head/d of DFA III feed containing 40 g of pure DFA III while the cows in CONT group received no DFA III. Other feeding procedures were the same for all cows in both groups. At parturition (d 0), serum Ca concentration sharply declined in both groups (p<0.05). Time interval for recovery from decreased serum Ca to its normal range (>9.0 mg/dL) tended to be faster in DFA group (12 h) than in the CONT group (48 h), but the differences were not significant. Active ruminal contraction was observed in DFA group at following parturition of d 1 (p<0.05), d 3 (p<0.05), and d 5 (p<0.01). Dry matter (DM) intake did not differ between the groups. However, positive correlations were observed between serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction (p<0.001), and between ruminal contraction and DM intake (p<0.001) during following parturition. According to multiple regression analysis (R(2) = 0.824, p<0.001), the DM intake was positively affected by serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction. These results suggest that feed intake soon after parturition in dairy cows can be increased by improvement of serum Ca concentration and active ruminal contraction, but DFA III supplementation in this study did not improve the lower serum Ca concentration due to parturition.

  15. BRAIN HYPOTHERMIA THERAPY FOR NEONATAL HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY WITH A SEVERELY ELEVATED SERUM CREATINE KINASE LEVEL.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Hidetoshi; Imamura, Takashi; Maeda, Hajime; Shibukawa, Yasuko; Fukuda, Yutaka; Kin, Shogo; Ariga, Hiromichi; Nagasawa, Katsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that brain hypothermia therapy (BHT) after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) can improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, there have been no reports of the neurodevelopmental outcomes for the infant with a serum creatine kinase (CK) level above 20,000 IU/L in association with neonatal HIE. We report a female infant with a very high serum CK level (26,428 IU/L) associated with neonatal asphyxia. We diagnosed this infant with moderate HIE, and BHT was achieved by head cooling within 6 hours after birth to an esophageal temperature of 34.5°C. There were no significant adverse events during BHT, and the CK level spontaneously decreased. Although we report only the short-term outcomes for this case, she presents neurodevelopmental delays at the age of 18 months. It may be correlated between high serum CK level and long-term neurodevelopmental delays. PMID:25946908

  16. The frequency of marcroamylasemia and the diagnostic value of the amylase to creatinine clearance ratio in patients with elevated serum amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Dürr, H K; Bindrich, D; Bode, J C

    1977-01-01

    190 patients with elevated serum amylase levels were tested for macroamylasemia and the amylase to creatinine clearance ratio. Macroamylasemia was found in 3 patients. In these patients macroamylasemia persisted after the total activity of serum amylase had fallen to nearly normal levels. The Cam/Ccr-ratios were determined 14 times in the 3 macroamylasemic patients. Only one of the 14 values was clearly less than 1%. Cam/Ccr-ratios above 4% were found in 83 patients. In 56 of them the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis could not be confirmed. 19 out of 46 patients with the established diagnosis of acute pancreatitis had Cam/Ccr-ratios below 4%. Cam/Ccr-ratios below 1% were also found in patients without macroamylasemia. It is concluded that high and low Cam/Ccr-ratios are not specific for acute pancreatitis and macroamylasemia, respectively, and--moreover--that a normal Cam/Ccr-ratio excludes neither acute pancreatitis nor macroamylesemia.

  17. Elevated Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Levels in Patients with Neurological Remission after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Arash; Sperl, André; Heller, Raban; Kunzmann, Kevin; Graeser, Viola; Akbar, Michael; Gerner, Hans Jürgen; Biglari, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    After traumatic spinal cord injury, an acute phase triggered by trauma is followed by a subacute phase involving inflammatory processes. We previously demonstrated that peripheral serum cytokine expression changes depend on neurological outcome after spinal cord injury. In a subsequent intermediate phase, repair and remodeling takes place under the mediation of growth factors such as Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1). IGF-1 is a promising growth factor which is thought to act as a neuroprotective agent. Since previous findings were taken from animal studies, our aim was to investigate this hypothesis in humans based on peripheral blood serum. Forty-five patients after traumatic spinal cord injury were investigated over a period of three months after trauma. Blood samples were taken according to a fixed schema and IGF-1 levels were determined. Clinical data including AIS scores at admission to the hospital and at discharge were collected and compared with IGF-1 levels. In our study, we could observe distinct patterns in the expression of IGF-1 in peripheral blood serum after traumatic spinal cord injury regardless of the degree of plegia. All patients showed a marked increase of levels seven days after injury. IGF-1 serum levels were significantly different from initial measurements at four and nine hours and seven and 14 days after injury, as well as one, two and three months after injury. We did not detect a significant correlation between fracture and the IGF-1 serum level nor between the quantity of operations performed after trauma and the IGF-1 serum level. Patients with clinically documented neurological remission showed consistently higher IGF-1 levels than patients without neurological remission. This data could be the base for the establishment of animal models for further and much needed research in the field of spinal cord injury. PMID:27447486

  18. Elevated Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Levels in Patients with Neurological Remission after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Arash; Sperl, André; Heller, Raban; Kunzmann, Kevin; Graeser, Viola; Akbar, Michael; Gerner, Hans Jürgen; Biglari, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    After traumatic spinal cord injury, an acute phase triggered by trauma is followed by a subacute phase involving inflammatory processes. We previously demonstrated that peripheral serum cytokine expression changes depend on neurological outcome after spinal cord injury. In a subsequent intermediate phase, repair and remodeling takes place under the mediation of growth factors such as Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1). IGF-1 is a promising growth factor which is thought to act as a neuroprotective agent. Since previous findings were taken from animal studies, our aim was to investigate this hypothesis in humans based on peripheral blood serum. Forty-five patients after traumatic spinal cord injury were investigated over a period of three months after trauma. Blood samples were taken according to a fixed schema and IGF-1 levels were determined. Clinical data including AIS scores at admission to the hospital and at discharge were collected and compared with IGF-1 levels. In our study, we could observe distinct patterns in the expression of IGF-1 in peripheral blood serum after traumatic spinal cord injury regardless of the degree of plegia. All patients showed a marked increase of levels seven days after injury. IGF-1 serum levels were significantly different from initial measurements at four and nine hours and seven and 14 days after injury, as well as one, two and three months after injury. We did not detect a significant correlation between fracture and the IGF-1 serum level nor between the quantity of operations performed after trauma and the IGF-1 serum level. Patients with clinically documented neurological remission showed consistently higher IGF-1 levels than patients without neurological remission. This data could be the base for the establishment of animal models for further and much needed research in the field of spinal cord injury. PMID:27447486

  19. Profound regulation of Na/K pump activity by transient elevations of cytoplasmic calcium in murine cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fang-Min; Deisl, Christine; Hilgemann, Donald W

    2016-01-01

    Small changes of Na/K pump activity regulate internal Ca release in cardiac myocytes via Na/Ca exchange. We now show conversely that transient elevations of cytoplasmic Ca strongly regulate cardiac Na/K pumps. When cytoplasmic Na is submaximal, Na/K pump currents decay rapidly during extracellular K application and multiple results suggest that an inactivation mechanism is involved. Brief activation of Ca influx by reverse Na/Ca exchange enhances pump currents and attenuates current decay, while repeated Ca elevations suppress pump currents. Pump current enhancement reverses over 3 min, and results are similar in myocytes lacking the regulatory protein, phospholemman. Classical signaling mechanisms, including Ca-activated protein kinases and reactive oxygen, are evidently not involved. Electrogenic signals mediated by intramembrane movement of hydrophobic ions, such as hexyltriphenylphosphonium (C6TPP), increase and decrease in parallel with pump currents. Thus, transient Ca elevation and Na/K pump inactivation cause opposing sarcolemma changes that may affect diverse membrane processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19267.001 PMID:27627745

  20. Fever of unknown origin caused by adult juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: the diagnostic significance of double quotidian fevers and elevated serum ferritin levels.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A

    2004-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) in adults is a commonly encountered clinical problem. Treatable causes of FUO in the adult should be the primary focus of the diagnostic workup. Neoplasms have replaced infectious diseases as being the most common cause of FUO in adults, and collagen vascular diseases are now relatively rare. The most important collagen vascular diseases presenting as an FUO include Takayasu's arteritis, Kikuchi's disease, polymyalgia rheumatica, and adult juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) (adult Still's disease). There are no specific diagnostic tests for these disorders, which commonly present as prolonged fevers that are not easily diagnosed (i.e., FUO). Adult JRA is a rare but important cause of FUO in adults. Typically, patients with adult Still's disease present with liver/spleen involvement, posi-articular arthritis, ocular involvement, and evanescent salmon-colored truncal rash. An important diagnostic finding in adult JRA is the presence of a double quotidian fever, which occurs in few other disorders. Only visceral leishmaniasis and adult JRA are causes of FUO in adults associated with double quotidian fevers. Highly elevated serum ferritin levels are the most important nonspecific diagnostic finding associated with adult JRA. We present a case of FUO caused by adult JRA presenting with diffuse polyarticular migrating arthritis, evanescent rash, and splenomegaly. The diagnosis of adult JRA was suggested by these findings in association with a double quotidian fever and a highly elevated serum ferritin level. Clinicians should appreciate the diagnostic significance of fever patterns and the diagnostic significance of elevated serum ferritin levels in patients with FUO.

  1. Elevated Serum Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) Concentrations in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Are Associated with Markers of Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Bruchfeld, Annette; Carrero, Juan J; Qureshi, Abdul R; Lindholm, Bengt; Barany, Peter; Heimburger, Olof; Hu, Maowen; Lin, Xinchun; Stenvinkel, Peter; Miller, Edmund J

    2009-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) carries an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Macrophage migration inhibiting factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis, autoimmune disease, atherogenesis, and plaque instability, and is a known cardiac depressant. This post-hoc, cross-sectional study examined whether MIF serum concentrations are elevated in CKD patients. Our study included CKD 3–5 patients with moderate to severe renal dysfunction (n = 257) (mean age SD; 55 ± 12 years) and 53 controls (60 ± 12 years). Serum MIF concentrations, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), were studied in relation to glomerular filtration rate (GFR), presence of CVD, outcome and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. MIF was significantly elevated in CKD patients compared with controls (CKD: median 676 [range 118–8275 pg/mL] controls: 433 [142–4707] pg/mL; P = 0.008). MIF was also associated with 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) levels (rho = 0.26; P = 0.001), a marker of oxidative stress, and ICAM-1 levels (rho = 0.14; P = 0.02), a marker of endothelial activation. However, the elevated MIF concentrations were neither correlated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) nor inflammatory markers such as CRP, IL-6, and TNF. When combining MIF and IL-6 as a marker of inflammation, a significant increase in risk for CVD was found, but when analyzing all-cause mortality, this did not differ significantly with regard to mortality from inflamed patients with low MIF levels. The data suggest that increased serum MIF levels found in CKD is not caused primarily by poor renal function, but is associated with markers of oxidative stress and endothelial activation and may play a role in vascular disease associated with CKD. PMID:19081768

  2. A phase II, randomized, controlled trial of S-adenosylmethionine in reducing serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis and elevated AFP

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Timothy R.; Osann, Kathryn; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Pimstone, Neville; Hoefs, John C.; Hu, Ke-Qin; Hassanein, Tarek; Boyer, Thomas D.; Kong, Lorene; Chen, Wen-Pin; Richmond, Ellen; Gonzalez, Rachel; Rodriguez, Luz M.; Meyskens, Frank L.

    2015-01-01

    In animal models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), deficiency of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) increased the risk of HCC while administration of SAMe reduced HCC. The aim of this trial was to determine whether oral SAMe administration to patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis would decrease serum AFP level, a biomarker of HCC risk in hepatitis C. This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of SAMe, up to 2.4 grams/day, for 24 weeks as compared with placebo among subjects with hepatitis C cirrhosis and a mildly elevated serum AFP. Primary outcome was change in AFP between baseline and week 24. Secondary outcomes included changes in routine tests of liver function and injury, other biomarkers of HCC risk, SAMe metabolites, markers of oxidative stress, and quality of life. 110 subjects were randomized and 87 (44 SAMe and 43 placebo) completed treatment. There was no difference in the change in AFP during 24 weeks among subjects receiving SAMe as compared with placebo. Changes in markers of liver function, liver injury, and hepatitis C viral level were not significantly different between groups. Similarly, SAMe did not change markers of oxidative stress or serum glutathione level. SAMe blood level increased significantly among subjects receiving SAMe. Changes in quality of life did not differ between groups. Overall, this trial did not find that SAMe treatment improved serum AFP in subjects with advanced hepatitis C cirrhosis and a mildly elevated AFP. SAMe did not improve tests of liver function or injury, or markers of oxidative stress or antioxidant potential. PMID:26130251

  3. Influence of diet transition on serum calcium and phosphorus and fatty acids in zoo giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Koutsos, E A; Armstrong, D; Ball, R; Dikeman, C; Hetherington, J; Simmons, L; Valdes, E V; Griffin, M

    2011-01-01

    In response to new recommendations for feeding giraffe in zoos, giraffe (n = 6) were transitioned from a typical hoofstock diet to diets containing reduced starch, protein, Ca and P and added n3 fatty acids. This diet was fed as a 50:50 mix with alfalfa and grass hay. Over the next 4 years, serum Ca, P, and fatty acids were measured every 6 months (summer and winter). Serum Ca was not affected by season (P = 0.67) or by diet (P = 0.12). Serum P was not affected season (P = 0.14), but was reduced by diet (P<0.01), and serum Ca:P was also increased by diet (P<0.01). The ratio of serum Ca:P tended to be affected by season (P = 0.07), in which animals tended to have greater Ca:P during the summer vs. the winter. The diet transition resulted in reduced serum saturated fatty acids (including lauric, myristic, palmitic, arachidic, and behenic acids), and increases in n6 fatty acids (including linolenic and arachidonic acids) and n3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid) (P<0.05 for each). Overall, this diet transition resulted in blood nutrient profiles that more closely match that of values found in free-ranging giraffe. PMID:20954252

  4. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle in the bovine.

    PubMed

    Alavi-Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri-Rezaie, Siamak; Abedizadeh, Roya; Khaki, Amir; Pak, Mozhgan; Alizadeh, Sajad

    2012-01-01

    To investigate uterine and serum Ca(++) and Mg(++) variations during the estrous cycle in the bovine, 66 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir, Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examination of the structures present on ovaries and uterine tonicity. Of the collected samples, 17 were pro-estrus, 12 estrus, 14 metestrus and 23 diestrus. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. The mean ± SEM concentration of serum Ca(++) in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 5.77 ± 0.69, 8.87 ± 1.83, 10.95 ± 1.52, 11.09 ± 1.08 mg dL(-1), and the mean concentration of uterine fluid Ca(++) was 4.40 ± 0.72, 3.15 ± 0.67, 5.89 ± 0.88, 8.63 ± 0.97 mg dL(-1), respectively. The mean concentration of serum Mg(++) in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 3.53 ± 0.30, 4.20 ± 0.52, 3.49 ± 0.38, 3.39 ± 0.29 mg dL(-1), and mean concentration of uterine fluid Mg(++) was 5.27 ± 0.42, 4.92 ± 0.60, 5.56 ± 0.30, 5.88 ± 0.36 mg dL(-1), respectively. The serum and uterine fluid Ca(++) in pro-estrus were significantly different from those of the metestrus and diestrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the mean concentration of serum Ca(++) was higher than that in the uterine fluid. The difference between serum and uterine fluid Ca(++) in estrus, metestrus and diestrus was significant. There was no significant difference between serum Mg(++) content nor was it different from uterine fluid Mg(++) content at any stages of estrous cycle. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Mg(++) was higher than that of the serum. These results suggest that during the estrous cycle in the cow, Ca(++) is passively secreted in uterine fluids and is mostly dependent on blood serum Ca(++) variations but Mg(++) is secreted independently and does not follow variations in the serum concentrations. PMID:25653760

  5. Immobilization of electroporated cells for fabrication of cellular biosensors: physiological effects of the shape of calcium alginate matrices and foetal calf serum.

    PubMed

    Katsanakis, Nikos; Katsivelis, Andreas; Kintzios, Spiridon

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effect of transfected cell immobilization in calcium alginate gels, we immobilized electroporated Vero cells in gels shaped either as spherical beads or as thin membrane layers. In addition, we investigated whether serum addition had a positive effect on cell proliferation and viability in either gel configuration. The gels were stored for four weeks in a medium supplemented or not with 20% (v/v) foetal calf serum. Throughout a culture period of four weeks, cell proliferation and cell viability were assayed by optical microscopy after provision of Trypan Blue. Non-elaborate culture conditions (room temperature, non-CO(2) enriched culture atmosphere) were applied throughout the experimental period in order to evaluate cell viability under less than optimal storage conditions. Immobilization of electroporated cells was associated with an initially reduced cell viability, which was gradually increased. Immobilization was associated with maintenance of cell growth for the duration of the experimental period, whereas electroporated cells essentially died after a week in suspension culture. Considerable proliferation of immobilized cells was observed in spherical alginate beads. In both gel configurations, addition of serum was associated with increased cell proliferation. The results of the present study could contribute to an improvement of the storability of biosensors based on electroporated, genetically or membrane-engineered cells.

  6. The possible relationship between allergic manifestations and elevated serum levels of brain specific auto-antibodies in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Gehan Ahmed; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Yousef

    2013-08-15

    Etiology of autism has become an area of a significant controversy. Allergy induced autism is an area of research wherein immune responses to some allergens may play a pathogenic role in autism. Allergy may induce the production of brain specific auto-antibodies in a subgroup of autistic children. We are the first to investigate the possible link between allergic manifestations and serum levels of both anti-myelin basic protein (anti-MBP) and anti-myelin associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG) brain-specific auto-antibodies, which were measured by ELISA method, in 42 autistic children in comparison to 42 healthy-matched children. Allergic manifestations (bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and/or allergic rhinitis) were found in 47.6% of autistic patients. Increased serum levels of anti-MBP and anti-MAG auto-antibodies were found in 57.1% and 66.7%, respectively of autistic children. In addition, 78.5% of autistic children had increased serum levels of both anti-MBP and/or anti-MAG auto-antibodies. Autistic patients with allergic manifestations had significantly higher serum levels of anti-MBP and anti-MAG auto-antibodies than those without these manifestations (P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively). In conclusion, allergy may be a contributing factor to the increased serum levels of anti-MBP and anti-MAG auto-antibodies in some autistic children. Indeed, we need to know more about the links between allergy, immune system and brain in autism for finding new therapeutic modalities in autism.

  7. A novel dietary supplement containing multiple phytochemicals and vitamins elevates hepatorenal and cardiac antioxidant enzymes in the absence of significant serum chemistry and genomic changes

    PubMed Central

    Bulku, Elida; Zinkovsky, Daniel; Patel, Payal; Javia, Vishal; Lahoti, Tejas; Khodos, Inna; Stohs, Sidney J

    2010-01-01

    A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage) extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea) extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana) extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin) was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S, sage; T, tea; G, guarana) and assessed changes in target organ antioxidant enzymes (liver, kidneys and heart), serum chemistry profiles and organ histopathology in Fisher 344 rats. Adult male and female Fisher 344 rats were fed control (no STG) or STG containing (1X and 7X, 1X = daily human dose) diets and sacrificed after 2 and 4 months. Serum chemistry analysis and histopathological examination of three vital target organs disclosed no adverse influence on protein, lipid and carbohydrate profiles, genomic integrity of the liver and/or the tissue architecture. However, analysis of the most important antioxidant components in the liver, kidney and heart homogenates revealed a dramatic increase in total glutathione concentrations, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. Concomitantly, oxidative stress levels (malondialdehyde accumulation) in these three organs were less than control. Organ specific serum markers (ALT/AST for the liver; CPK/AST/LDH for the heart; BUN/creatinine for kidneys) and the genomic integrity disclosed no STG-induced alteration. Some of the serum components (lipid and protein) showed insignificant changes. Overall, STG-exposed rats were more active, and the results suggest that STG exposure produces normal serum chemistry coupled with elevated antioxidant capacity in rats fed up to seven times the normal human dose and does not adversely influence any of the vital target organs. Additionally, this study reiterates the potential benefits of exposure to a pharmacologically relevant combination of

  8. A novel dietary supplement containing multiple phytochemicals and vitamins elevates hepatorenal and cardiac antioxidant enzymes in the absence of significant serum chemistry and genomic changes.

    PubMed

    Bulku, Elida; Zinkovsky, Daniel; Patel, Payal; Javia, Vishal; Lahoti, Tejas; Khodos, Inna; Stohs, Sidney J; Ray, Sidhartha D

    2010-01-01

    A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage) extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea) extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana) extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin) was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S=sage; T=tea; G=guarana) and assessed changes in target organ antioxidant enzymes (liver, kidneys and heart), serum chemistry profiles and organ histopathology in Fisher 344 rats. Adult male and female Fisher 344 rats were fed control (no STG) or STG containing (1X and 7X, 1X=daily human dose) diets and sacrificed after 2 and 4 months. Serum chemistry analysis and histopathological examination of three vital target organs disclosed no adverse influence on protein, lipid and carbohydrate profiles, genomic integrity of the liver and/or the tissue architecture. However, analysis of the most important antioxidant components in the liver, kidney and heart homogenates revealed a dramatic increase in total glutathione concentrations, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. Concomitantly, oxidative stress levels (malondialdehyde accumulation) in these three organs were less than control. Organ specific serum markers (ALT/AST for the liver; CPK/AST for the heart; BUN/creatinine for kidneys) and the genomic integrity disclosed no STG-induced alteration. Some of the serum components (lipid and protein) showed insignificant changes. Overall, STG-exposed rats were more active, and the results suggest that STG exposure produces normal serum chemistry coupled with elevated antioxidant capacity in rats fed up to seven times the normal human dose and does not adversely influence any of the vital target organs. Additionally, this study reiterates the potential benefits of exposure to a pharmacologically relevant combination of

  9. Calcium metabolism in adult outpatients with epilepsy receiving long-term anticonvulsant therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pylypchuk, G.; Oreopoulos, D.G.; Wilson, D.R.; Harrison, J.E.; McNeill, K.G.; Meema, H.E.; Ogilvie, R.; Sturtridge, W.C.; Murray, T.M.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term anticonvulsant drug therapy may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism resulting in osteomalacia. The prevalence and severity of altered calcium metabolism was studied in an adult outpatient population of persons with epilepsy receiving anticonvulsant therapy for a minimum of 2 years. Assessment of calcium metabolism was based on serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and of plasma parathyroid hormone, intestinal absorption of isotopic calcium and skeletal bone mineral mass as determined by in vivo neutron activation or x-ray photodensitometry. Thirty-nine patients who had been receiving anticonvulsant therapy for an average of 20 years were studied; none had clinical evidence of metabolic bone disease. Decreased serum calcium concentration was noted in 10%, decreased serum phosphorus concentration in 10% and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase concentration in 44%. The mean serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration was significantly lower (P < 0.001) than in a control group (11.6 v. 19.6 mg/mL). None of 18 patients studied had an increased plasma concentration of parathyroid hormone, and only 1 of 17 patients had decreased intestinal absorption of isotopic calcium. Bone mineral mass was decreased in 44% of 32 patients studied. It was concluded that long-term treatment with anticonvulsant drugs leads to mild abnormalities of calcium metabolism and decreased bone mineral mass in a substantial percentage of adult outpatients with epilepsy. These abnormalities probably predispose the patients to the development of clinically significant metabolic bone disease. PMID:418865

  10. Cellular Hypertrophy and Increased Susceptibility to Spontaneous Calcium-Release of Rat Left Atrial Myocytes Due to Elevated Afterload.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifei; Cannell, Mark B; Kim, Shang Jin; Watson, Judy J; Norman, Ruth; Calaghan, Sarah C; Orchard, Clive H; James, Andrew F

    2015-01-01

    Atrial remodeling due to elevated arterial pressure predisposes the heart to atrial fibrillation (AF). Although abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function has been associated with AF, there is little information on the effects of elevated afterload on atrial Ca2+-handling. We investigated the effects of ascending aortic banding (AoB) on Ca2+-handling in rat isolated atrial myocytes in comparison to age-matched sham-operated animals (Sham). Myocytes were either labelled for ryanodine receptor (RyR) or loaded with fluo-3-AM and imaged by confocal microscopy. AoB myocytes were hypertrophied in comparison to Sham controls (P<0.0001). RyR labeling was localized to the z-lines and to the cell edge. There were no differences between AoB and Sham in the intensity or pattern of RyR-staining. In both AoB and Sham, electrical stimulation evoked robust SR Ca2+-release at the cell edge whereas Ca2+ transients at the cell center were much smaller. Western blotting showed a decreased L-type Ca channel expression but no significant changes in RyR or RyR phosphorylation or in expression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, SR Ca2+ ATPase or phospholamban. Mathematical modeling indicated that [Ca2+]i transients at the cell center were accounted for by simple centripetal diffusion of Ca2+ released at the cell edge. In contrast, caffeine (10 mM) induced Ca2+ release was uniform across the cell. The caffeine-induced transient was smaller in AoB than in Sham, suggesting a reduced SR Ca2+-load in hypertrophied cells. There were no significant differences between AoB and Sham cells in the rate of Ca2+ extrusion during recovery of electrically-stimulated or caffeine-induced transients. The incidence and frequency of spontaneous Ca2+-transients following rapid-pacing (4 Hz) was greater in AoB than in Sham myocytes. In conclusion, elevated afterload causes cellular hypertrophy and remodeling of atrial SR Ca2+-release. PMID:26713852

  11. Normal results of post-race thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging in marathon runners with elevated serum MB creatine kinase levels

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, A.J.; Silverman, L.M.; Holman, B.L.

    1985-10-01

    Elevated cardiac enzyme values in asymptomatic marathon runners after competition can arise from skeletal muscle through exertional rhabdomyolysis, silent injury to the myocardium, or a combined tissue source. Peak post-race levels of the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase are similar to values in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Previously reported normal results of infarct-avid myocardial scintigraphy with technetium 99m pyrophosphate in runners after competition suggest a non-cardiac source but cannot exclude silent injury to the myocardium. Therefore, thallium 201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in runners immediately after competition together with determination of sequential cardiac enzyme levels. Among 15 runners tested, the average peak in serum MB creatine kinase 24 hours after the race was 128 IU/liter with a cumulative MB creatine kinase release of 117 IU/liter; these values are comparable to those in patients with acute transmural myocardial infarction. Thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphic results were normal in five runners randomly selected from those who volunteered for determination of sequential blood levels. It is concluded that elevations of serum MB creatine kinase in marathon runners arise from a skeletal muscle source and that thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy is useful to assess runners for myocardial injury when clinical questions arise.

  12. Evaluation of the potency of telaprevir and its metabolites as inhibitors of renal organic cation transporters, a potential mechanism for the elevation of serum creatinine.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Tomohisa; Kito, Tomoko; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Masuda, Satohiro; Inui, Ken-ichi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Hisanaga, Noriko; Adachi, Yasuhisa; Suzuki, Masayuki; Yamada, Ichimaro; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Telaprevir-based triple therapy is a highly effective treatment for chronic hepatitis C. However, adverse reactions include reversible and dose-dependent elevation of serum creatinine levels. We speculated that this effect reflects inhibition of the renal organic cation transporters hOCT2, hMATE1, and hMATE2-K by telaprevir or its metabolites (VRT-127394 and VRT-0922061). Telaprevir, VRT-127394, and VRT-0922061 showed negligible or weak effects on hOCT2 at concentrations of ≥20 µM, but inhibited hMATE1 by 35, 38, and 53% and hMATE2-K by 47, 45, and 61% at 100 µM, respectively. Telaprevir or its metabolites (10 µM) did not affect basal-to-apical transport of MPP(+) across monolayers of hOCT2-hMATE1 double-transfected MDCKII cells, whereas pyrimethamine, a potent inhibitor of hMATE1, markedly inhibited MPP(+) transport. Taken together, inhibition of hOCT2, hMATE1, and hMATE2-K is unlikely to be clinically relevant because unbound plasma concentrations of telaprevir and its metabolites reach only 2 µM following oral administration of a dose of 750 mg telaprevir. Hence, elevated serum creatinine during telaprevir therapy may not be related to direct inhibition of renal organic cation transporters.

  13. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma with associated elevation in serum and tissue IgG4 occurring in a patient with a history of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Erin M; Gown, Allen; Mazziotta, Robert; Churg, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Pulmonary hyalinizing granulomas (PHGs) are unusual fibrosclerotic inflammatory lung lesions. The organ-based manifestations of the recently defined IgG4-related sclerosing disease typically show dense fibrosis and heavy lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates. IgG4-related sclerosing disease is also defined by increased serum IgG4 levels and increased tissue levels of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The morphologic features of PHG overlap with those seen in IgG4-related sclerosing disease, and this suggests that PHG may be a form of IgG4-related sclerosing disease. We present a case of a 51-year-old man with a history of sarcoidosis who presented with slowly enlarging pulmonary nodules. Histologic evaluation of one of the nodules yielded a diagnosis of PHG. Further investigation demonstrated both elevated serum IgG4 and elevated tissue IgG4-positive plasma cells in the PHG. In previous reports, lesions that are now considered part of IgG4-related sclerosing disease were documented in patients also diagnosed with PHG, although these reports date from before the description of IgG4 sclerosing disease. This case provides the first definitive evidence that PHG is part of the spectrum of IgG4-related sclerosing disease. PMID:22498827

  14. A cell wall extract from the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica promotes growth of Arabidopsis seedlings and induces intracellular calcium elevation in roots.

    PubMed

    Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Ranf, Stefanie; Drzewiecki, Corinna; Mithöfer, Axel; Mazars, Christian; Scheel, Dierk; Lee, Justin; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2009-07-01

    Calcium (Ca2+), as a second messenger, is crucial for signal transduction processes during many biotic interactions. We demonstrate that cellular [Ca2+] elevations are early events in the interaction between the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis thaliana. A cell wall extract (CWE) from the fungus promotes the growth of wild-type seedlings but not of seedlings from P. indica-insensitive mutants. The extract and the fungus also induce a similar set of genes in Arabidopsis roots, among them genes with Ca2+ signalling-related functions. The CWE induces a transient cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+](cyt)) elevation in the roots of Arabidopsis and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, as well as in BY-2 suspension cultures expressing the Ca2+ bioluminescent indicator aequorin. Nuclear Ca2+ transients were also observed in tobacco BY-2 cells. The Ca2+ response was more pronounced in roots than in shoots and involved Ca2+ uptake from the extracellular space as revealed by inhibitor studies. Inhibition of the Ca2+ response by staurosporine and the refractory nature of the Ca2+ elevation suggest that a receptor may be involved. The CWE does not stimulate H2O2 production and the activation of defence gene expression, although it led to phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The involvement of MAPK6 in the mutualistic interaction was shown for an mpk6 line, which did not respond to P. indica. Thus, Ca2+ is likely to be an early signalling component in the mutualistic interaction between P. indica and Arabidopsis or tobacco.

  15. Elevated intracellular calcium concentration increases secretory processing of the amyloid precursor protein by a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Petryniak, M A; Wurtman, R J; Slack, B E

    1996-01-01

    Secretory cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), a process that releases soluble APP derivatives (APPs) into the extracellular space, is stimulated by the activation of muscarinic receptors coupled to phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The signalling pathways involved in the release process exhibit both protein kinase C- and protein tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent components [Slack, Breu, Petryniak, Srivastava and Wurtman (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 8337-8344]. The possibility that elevations in intracellular Ca2+ concentration initiate the tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent release of APPs was examined in human embryonic kidney cells expressing muscarinic m3 receptors. Inhibition of protein kinase C with the bisindolylmaleimide GF 109203X decreased the carbachol-evoked release of APPs by approx. 30%, as shown previously. The residual response was further decreased, in an additive manner, by the Ca2+ chelator EGTA, or by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostin A25. The Ca2+ ionophore, ionomycin, like carbachol, stimulated both the release of APPs and the tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, one of which was identified as paxillin, a component of focal adhesions. The effects of ionomycin on APPs release and on protein tyrosine phosphorylation were concentration-dependent, and occurred over similar concentration ranges; both effects were inhibited only partly by GF 109203X, but were abolished by EGTA or by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The results demonstrate for the first time that ionophore-induced elevations in intracellular Ca2+ levels elicit APPs release via increased tyrosine phosphorylation. Part of the increase in APPs release evoked by muscarinic receptor activation might be attributable to a similar mechanism. PMID:9003386

  16. Development of status epilepticus, sustained calcium elevations and neuronal injury in a rat survival model of lethal paraoxon intoxication.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Laxmikant S; Carter, Dawn S; Phillips, Kristin F; Blair, Robert E; DeLorenzo, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    Paraoxon (POX) is an active metabolite of organophosphate (OP) pesticide parathion that has been weaponized and used against civilian populations. Exposure to POX produces high mortality. OP poisoning is often associated with chronic neurological disorders. In this study, we optimize a rat survival model of lethal POX exposures in order to mimic both acute and long-term effects of POX intoxication. Male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with POX (4mg/kg, ice-cold PBS, s.c.) produced a rapid cholinergic crisis that evolved into status epilepticus (SE) and death within 6-8min. The EEG profile for POX induced SE was characterized and showed clinical and electrographic seizures with 7-10Hz spike activity. Treatment of 100% lethal POX intoxication with an optimized three drug regimen (atropine, 2mg/kg, i.p., 2-PAM, 25mg/kg, i.m. and diazepam, 5mg/kg, i.p.) promptly stopped SE and reduced acute mortality to 12% and chronic mortality to 18%. This model is ideally suited to test effective countermeasures against lethal POX exposure. Animals that survived the POX SE manifested prolonged elevations in hippocampal [Ca(2+)]i (Ca(2+) plateau) and significant multifocal neuronal injury. POX SE induced Ca(2+) plateau had its origin in Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores since inhibition of ryanodine/IP3 receptor lowered elevated Ca(2+) levels post SE. POX SE induced neuronal injury and alterations in Ca(2+) dynamics may underlie some of the long term morbidity associated with OP toxicity.

  17. Elevated calcium acutely regulates dynamic interactions of NHERF2 and NHE3 proteins in opossum kidney (OK) cell microvilli.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinjun; Cha, Boyoung; Zachos, Nicholas C; Sarker, Rafiquel; Chakraborty, Molee; Chen, Tian-E; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark

    2011-10-01

    The brush border (BB) Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE3 is rapidly activated or inhibited by changes in trafficking, which mimics renal and intestinal physiology. However, there is a paradox in that NHE3 has limited mobility in the BB due to its binding to the multi-PDZ domain containing the NHERF family. To allow increased endocytosis, as occurs with elevated intracellular Ca(2+), we hypothesized that NHE3 had to be, at least transiently, released from the BB cytoskeleton. Because NHERF1 and -2 are localized at the BB, where they bind NHE3 as well as the cytoskeleton, we tested whether either or both might dynamically interact with NHE3 as part of Ca(2+) signaling. We employed FRET to study close association of NHE3 and these NHERFs and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching to monitor NHE3 mobility in the apical domain in polarized opossum kidney cells. Under basal conditions, NHERF2 and NHE3 exhibited robust FRET signaling. Within 1 min of A23187 (0.5 μm) exposure, the NHERF2-NHE3 FRET signal was abolished, and BB NHE3 mobility was transiently increased. The dynamics in FRET signal and NHE3 mobility correlated well with a change in co-precipitation of NHE3 and NHERF2 but not NHERF1. We conclude the following. 1) Under basal conditions, NHE3 closely associates with NHERF2 in opossum kidney cell microvilli. 2) Within 1 min of elevated Ca(2+), the close association of NHE3-NHERF2 is abolished but is re-established in ∼60 min. 3) The change in NHE3-NHERF2 association is accompanied by an increased BB mobile fraction of NHE3, which contributes to inhibition of NHE3 transport activity via increased endocytosis.

  18. Relationship between nutritional habits and hair calcium levels in young women.

    PubMed

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were assayed by ELISA. The women were divided into four groups according to their total vitamin D and calcium intakes and hair calcium levels. At adequate calcium intake and comparable serum bone biomarker levels, supplemental vitamin D increased the hair calcium levels. On the other hand, at lower than estimated adequate requirement of vitamin D intake the hair calcium levels were comparable in women with low calcium intakes but consuming high amounts of meat products or those whose diets were rich in dairy products, possibly due to homeostatic mechanisms. Elevated hair calcium was seen in 25% of subjects and could not be related to nutritional or life-style factors. The results show that the hair calcium levels were weakly related to the quality of diet, with some synergistic interactions between nutrients, especially vitamin D and magnesium.

  19. Elevated serum 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D levels are associated with risk of TB progression in Gambian adults

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Olumuyiwa; Agbla, Schadrac; Owiafe, Patrick; Donkor, Simon; Togun, Toyin; Sillah, Abdou K.; Ota, Martin O.C.; Sutherland, Jayne S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Vitamin D is essential in the host defence against tuberculosis (TB) as an immune modulator. The aim of this study was to determine the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) from adult TB index cases before and after treatment and their exposed household contacts (HHC) in The Gambia. Methods Serum from adult index TB cases and their TB-exposed household contacts (HHC) was analysed for 25(OH) D and Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) concentrations. Tuberculin skin test (TST) status was used as a measure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infectivity in the HHC. In addition, HHC who later progressed to active TB (incident cases) were assessed alongside non-progressors to determine the influence of 25 (OH) D levels on TB risk. Results Eighty-three TB cases, 46 TST+ and 52 TST− HHC were analysed. Generally levels of 25(OH) D were considered insufficient in all subjects. However, median levels of 25(OH) D and VDBP were significantly higher in TB cases compared to both TST+ and TST− HHC at recruitment and were significantly reduced after TB therapy (p < 0.0001 for all). In addition, levels of serum 25(OH) D at recruitment were significantly higher in TB progressors compared to non-progressors (median (IQR): 25.0(20.8–29.2) in progressors and 20.3 (16.3–24.6) ng/ml in non-progressors; p = 0.007). Conclusion In The Gambia, an equatorial country, 25(OH) D levels are higher in serum of TB progressors and those with active disease compared to latently infected and uninfected subjects. These results contrast to findings in non-equatorial countries. PMID:27156622

  20. Serum creatinine elevation after switch to dolutegravir in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H; Malat, G E; Bias, T E; Harhay, M N; Ranganna, K; Doyle, A M

    2016-08-01

    Dolutegravir is a preferred antiretroviral drug for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following solid organ transplantation. It has potent antiretroviral activity and does not interact with calcineurin inhibitors. We describe a case of an HIV-infected kidney transplant patient, who was noted to have a rising serum creatinine following initiation of dolutegravir. At first, an acute rejection episode was suspected, but this finding was later attributed to inhibition of creatinine secretion by dolutegravir. We suggest that an awareness of this potential effect of dolutegravir is important for providers who take care of HIV-positive kidney transplant recipients, in order to prevent potentially unnecessary testing. PMID:27159656

  1. A possible association between elevated serum levels of brain-specific auto-antibodies and reduced plasma levels of docosahexaenoic acid in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Gehan A; El-Khashab, Heba Y; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

    2015-03-15

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are not only essential for energy production, but they also exhibit a range of immunomodulatory properties that progress through T cell mediated events. Autoimmunity may have a pathogenic role in a subgroup of autistic children. This study is the first to investigate the relationship between serum levels of anti-myelin basic protein (anti-MBP) brain-specific auto-antibodies and reduced plasma levels of PUFAs in autistic children. Plasma levels of PUFAs (including linoleic, alphalinolenic, arachidonic "AA" and docosahexaenoic "DHA" acids) and serum anti-MBP were measured in 80 autistic children, aged between 4 and 12 years, and 80 healthy-matched children. Autistic patients had significantly lower plasma levels of PUFAs than healthy children. On the other hand, ω6/ω3 ratio (AA/DHA) was significantly higher in autistic patients than healthy children. Low plasma DHA, AA, linolenic and linoleic acids were found in 67.5%, 50%, 40% and 35%, respectively of autistic children. On the other hand, 70% of autistic patients had elevated ω6/ω3 ratio. Autistic patients with increased serum levels of anti-MBP auto-antibodies (75%) had significantly lower plasma DHA (P<0.5) and significantly higher ω6/ω3 ratio (P<0.5) than patients who were seronegative for these antibodies. In conclusions, some autistic children have a significant positive association between reduced levels of plasma DHA and increased serum levels of anti-MBP brain-specific auto-antibodies. However, replication studies of larger samples are recommended to validate whether reduced levels of plasma PUFAs are a mere association or have a role in the induction of the production of anti-MBP in some autistic children.

  2. Elevated Serum Uric Acid Is Associated with Greater Bone Mineral Density and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    He, Juan; Wang, Chen; Qiu, Rui; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Previous studies have suggested a positive link between serum uric acid (UA) and bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, we re-examined the association between UA and BMD and further explored whether this was mediated by skeletal muscle mass in a general Chinese population. Method This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 3079 (963 men and 2116 women) Chinese adults aged 40–75 years. Face-to-face interviews and laboratory analyses were performed to determine serum UA and various covariates. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess the BMD and appendicular skeletal muscle mass. The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI = ASM/Height2, kg/m2) for the total limbs, arms, and legs was then calculated. Results The serum UA was graded and, in general, was significantly and positively associated with the BMD and muscle mass, after adjustment for multiple covariates in the total sample. Compared with participants in lowest quartile of UA, those participants in highest quartile showed a 2.3%(whole body), 4.1%(lumbar spine), 2.4%(total hip), and 2.0% (femoral neck) greater BMDs. The mean SMIs in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile increased by 2.7% (total), 2.5% (arm), 2.7% (leg) respectively. In addition, path analysis suggested that the favorable association between UA and BMD might be mediated by increasing SMI. Conclusion The elevated serum UA was associated with a higher BMD and a greater muscle mass in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population and the UA-BMD association was partly mediated by muscle mass. PMID:27144737

  3. Highly Elevated Serum Hepcidin in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia prior to and after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Does This Protect from Excessive Parenchymal Iron Loading?

    PubMed Central

    Eisfeld, Ann-Kathrin; Westerman, Mark; Krahl, Rainer; Leiblein, Sabine; Liebert, Uwe Gerd; Hehme, Marianne; Teupser, Daniel; Niederwieser, Dietger; Al-Ali, Haifa Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    Hepcidin is upregulated by inflammation and iron. Inherited (HFE genotype) and treatment-related factors (blood units (BU), Iron overload) affecting hepcidin (measured by C-ELISA) were studied in 42 consecutive patients with AML prior to and after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Results. Elevated serum ferritin pre- and post-HCT was present in all patients. Median hepcidin pre- and post-HCT of 358 and 398 ng/mL, respectively, were elevated compared to controls (median 52 ng/mL) (P < .0001). Liver and renal function, prior chemotherapies, and conditioning had no impact on hepcidin. Despite higher total BU after HCT compared to pretransplantation (P < .0005), pre- and posttransplant ferritin and hepcidin were similar. BU influenced ferritin (P = .001) and hepcidin (P = .001). No correlation of pre- or posttransplant hepcidin with pretransplant ferritin was found. HFE genotype did not influence hepcidin. Conclusions. Hepcidin is elevated in AML patients pre- and post-HCT due to transfusional iron-loading suggesting that hepcidin synthesis remains intact despite chemotherapy and HCT. PMID:21687645

  4. Simultaneous resection of liver cell adenomas and an intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt with elevation of serum PIVKA-II level.

    PubMed

    Seyama, Yasuji; Sano, Keiji; Tang, Wei; Kokudo, Norihiro; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Imamura, Hiroshi; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2006-09-01

    A 27-year-old woman with no history of liver disease or oral contraceptive use presented with sudden abdominal pain. Laboratory data showed mild liver dysfunction with jaundice. Computed tomography and angiography revealed centrally located large liver cell adenomas (LCAs) and an intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt (IHPSS) in the left lobe. The serum des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (known as "protein induced by a lack of vitamin K or antagonist II," PIVKA-II) level was extremely high (6,647 mAU/ml), indicating malignant transformation of the tumors. Under the diagnosis of LCAs and IHPSS, the patient underwent simultaneous resection of the four liver tumors and portovenous shunt, and the hepatic vascular abnormality was resolved. The pathological diagnosis was LCAs without hepatocellular carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis with an anti-PIVKA-II monoclonal antibody showed positive staining of the adenoma cells. This case shows that LCA without malignant transformation can produce PIVKA-II, leading to high serum levels of PIVKA-II. Simultaneous resection of multiple tumors and closure of the portosystemic shunt are strongly recommended in a patient with LCA associated with IHPSS.

  5. Elevated brain lesion volumes in older adults who use calcium supplements: a cross-sectional clinical observational study.

    PubMed

    Payne, Martha E; McQuoid, Douglas R; Steffens, David C; Anderson, John J B

    2014-07-28

    Recent studies have implicated Ca supplements in vascular risk elevation, and therefore these supplements may also be associated with the occurrence of brain lesions (or hyperintensities) in older adults. These lesions represent damage to brain tissue that is caused by ischaemia. In the present cross-sectional clinical observational study, the association between Ca-containing dietary supplement use and lesion volumes was investigated in a sample of 227 older adults (60 years and above). Food and supplemental Ca intakes were assessed with the Block 1998 FFQ; participants with supplemental Ca intake above zero were categorised as supplement users. Lesion volumes were determined from cranial MRI (1.5 tesla) scans using a semi-automated technique; volumes were log-transformed because they were non-normal. ANCOVA models revealed that supplement users had greater lesion volumes than non-users, even after controlling for food Ca intake, age, sex, race, years of education, energy intake, depression and hypertension (Ca supplement use: β = 0.34, SE 0.10, F(1,217)= 10.98, P= 0.0011). The influence of supplemental Ca use on lesion volume was of a magnitude similar to that of the influence of hypertension, a well-established risk factor for lesions. Among the supplement users, the amount of supplemental Ca was not associated with lesion volume (β = - 0.000035, SE 0.00 015, F(1,139)= 0.06, P= 0.81). The present study demonstrates that the use of Ca-containing dietary supplements, even low-dose supplements, by older adults may be associated with greater lesion volumes. Evaluation of randomised controlled trials is warranted to determine whether this relationship is a causal one.

  6. Repeated spurious elevation of serum prostate-specific antigen values solved by chemiluminescence analysis: A possible interference by heterophilic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bayó, Miquel; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Jesús; Bellido, Jose Antonio; Abascal-Junquera, Jose María; Hannaoui, Naim; Banús, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heterophilic antibodies are human immunoglobulins directed against various animal antigens. They can produce false-positive results in the analysis of different tumor markers, including prostate-specific antigen. This interference can lead to misdiagnosis, unnecessary tests, and overtreatment in some cases. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old man with repeated spurious elevation of prostate-specific antigen, reaching levels of 108.7 ng/mL, that were suspected to be caused by heterophilic antibodies. The interference was solved by changing the analysis technique. Real values of prostate-specific antigen were less than 1 ng/mL. PMID:26568798

  7. Characteristic changes in the concentrations of some peptide hormones, in particular those regulating serum calcium, in acute pancreatitis and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    de Boer, A C; Mulder, H; Fischer, H R; Schopman, W; Hackeng, W H; Silberbusch, J

    1981-01-01

    In order to further investigate hormonal changes and possible metabolic consequences in acute pancreatitis, 10 cases with a mild form of the disease was studied. The influence of tissue injury per se on the hormones in question was assessed from comparison with the hormone levels in the course of myocardial infarction (MI) in 9 cases. Insulin and glucose showed no consistent changes. Glucagon was suppressed on admission, 22 +/- 10 pg . ml-1, compared with the ultimate concentration, 40 +/- 20 pg . ml-1 (p less than 0.05), and with the initial value in MI, 74 +/- 32 pg . ml-1 (p less than 0.01). Serum calcitonin (CT) was strongly elevated initially, 348 +/- 313 pg . ml-1, compared with the ultimate level, 24 +/- 7 pg . ml-1 (p less than 0.001), and with the normal initial level in MI, 43 +/- 44 pg . ml-1 (p less than 0.01). Serum CT elevations were time-related to a slight reduction in corrected serum Ca, which might reflect a biological expression of this substance. In pancreatitis, parathyroid hormone (PTH) remained normal and unchanged throughout the study, whereas patients with MI had an increased level of this hormone on admission, 0.19 +/- 0.08 microgramEq . 1(-1), compared with the ultimate concentration, 0.09 +/- 0.03 microgram/q . 1(-1) (p less than 0.02) and with the initial concentration in pancreatitis, 0.11 +/- 0.06 microgramEq . 1(-1) (p less than 0.05). Supranormal PTH levels were found in more than half of the infarction patients on days 0 and 1. PMID:7013427

  8. [Early onset of torsades de Pointes and elevated levels of serum troponin I due to acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Ortega Carnicer, J; Ruiz Lorenzo, F; Mañas García, D; Ceres Alabau, F

    2006-03-01

    Most cases of acute arsenic poisoning occur through accidental or voluntary ingestion of pesticides or insecticides, and all body systems are affected. Arsenic can prolong the QT interval and lead to torsades of Pointes, a crucial type of arrhythmia characteristic of such QT interval prolongation. In our revision of the literature, there have been found only 5 cases of torsades of Pointes due to acute arsenic poisoning. Recently, there have been published four additional cases in patients with refractory or recurrent acute promyelocytic leukemia being treated with arsenic trioxide. In all nine cases, torsades of pointes appeared slowly after poisoning. Herein is described a case of acute arsenic poisoning which led to an early onset of torsades of Pointes, hypopotasemia and high levels of serum troponin I.

  9. Decreased clearance of serum retinol-binding protein and elevated levels of transthyretin in insulin-resistant ob/ob mice

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Nimesh; Graham, Timothy E.; Tsuji, Yuki; Yang, Qin; Kahn, Barbara B.

    2009-01-01

    Serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4) is secreted by liver and adipocytes and is implicated in systemic insulin resistance in rodents and humans. RBP4 normally binds to the larger transthyretin (TTR) homotetramer, forming a protein complex that reduces renal clearance of RBP4. To determine whether alterations in RBP4-TTR binding contribute to elevated plasma RBP4 levels in insulin-resistant states, we investigated RBP4-TTR interactions in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and high-fat-fed obese mice (HFD). Gel filtration chromatography of plasma showed that 88–94% of RBP4 is contained within the RBP4-TTR complex in ob/ob and lean mice. Coimmunoprecipitation with an RBP4 antibody brought down stoichiometrically equal amounts of TTR and RBP4, indicating that TTR was not more saturated with RBP4 in ob/ob mice than in controls. However, plasma TTR levels were elevated approximately fourfold in ob/ob mice vs. controls. RBP4 injected intravenously in lean mice cleared rapidly, whereas the t1/2 for disappearance was approximately twofold longer in ob/ob plasma. Urinary fractional excretion of RBP4 was reduced in ob/ob mice, consistent with increased retention. In HFD mice, plasma TTR levels and clearance of injected RBP4 were similar to chow-fed controls. Hepatic TTR mRNA levels were elevated approximately twofold in ob/ob but not in HFD mice. Since elevated circulating RBP4 causes insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in mice, these findings suggest that increased TTR or alterations in RBP4-TTR binding may contribute to insulin resistance by stabilizing RBP4 at higher steady-state concentrations in circulation. Lowering TTR levels or interfering with RBP4-TTR binding may enhance insulin sensitivity in obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:18285525

  10. Serum Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) Concentrations and Liver Function Biomarkers in a Population with Elevated PFOA Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Valentina; Leonardi, Giovanni; Genser, Bernd; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Karlsson, Lee; Ducatman, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) persist in the environment and are found in relatively high concentrations in animal livers. Studies in humans have reported inconsistent associations between PFOA and liver enzymes. Objectives: We examined the cross-sectional association between serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations with markers of liver function in adults. Methods: The C8 Health Project collected data on 69,030 persons; of these, a total of 47,092 adults were included in the present analysis. Linear regression models were fitted for natural log (ln)-transformed values of alanine transaminase (ALT), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and direct bilirubin on PFOA, PFOS, and potential confounders. Logistic regression models were fitted comparing deciles of PFOA or PFOS in relation to high biomarker levels. A multilevel analysis comparing the evidence for association of PFOA with liver function at the individual level within water districts to that at the population level between water districts was also performed. Results: ln-PFOA and ln-PFOS were associated with ln-ALT in linear regression models [PFOA: coefficient, 0.022; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.018, 0.025; PFOS: coefficient, 0.020; 95% CI: 0.014, 0.026] and with raised ALT in logistic regression models [with a steady increase in the odds ratio (OR) estimates across deciles of PFOA and PFOS; PFOA: OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.13; PFOS: OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.18]. There was less consistent evidence of an association of PFOA and GGT or bilirubin. The relationship with bilirubin appears to rise at low levels of PFOA and to fall again at higher levels. Conclusions: These results show a positive association between PFOA and PFOS concentrations and serum ALT level, a marker of hepatocellular damage. PMID:22289616

  11. Vitamin D–Binding Protein Levels Do Not Influence The Effect of Vitamin D Repletion on Serum PTH and Calcium: Data From a Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    McGee, David; Breslow, Jan L.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Vitamin D deficiency, defined by the total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level, is common and more prevalent among Blacks than whites. Vitamin D–binding protein (DBP) levels vary with race and may modulate “bioavailable” levels of 25(OH)D. Objective: To determine the effect of DBP levels on the functional response to vitamin D. Setting and Design: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D repletion for 2 mo, which took place at an outpatient research unit. Participants included 150 vitamin D–deficient (25(OH)D <20 ng/mL) adults. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 50,000 IU of vitamin D3 or placebo weekly for 8 weeks. This is a post-hoc analysis using DBP, 25(OH)D, PTH, and calcium levels. Results: Blacks had lower total 25(OH)D (12 vs 15 ng/mL, P < .001) and DBP levels (119 vs 234 μg/mL, P < .001) than non-Blacks. DBP levels were similar before and after vitamin D3 or placebo treatment (r = 0.98, P < .001). Baseline total 25(OH)D levels were a significant determinant of baseline PTH levels (P < .001). The change in total 25(OH)D was associated with the change in PTH (P < 0.001) and calcium levels (P < .05). In contrast, DBP levels were not a determinant of baseline PTH (P = .57) nor significantly related to changes in either PTH (P = .53) or calcium levels (P = .88). Conclusions: DBP levels are stable in Blacks and non-Blacks, and do not change with correction of vitamin D deficiency. Even for individuals with total 25(OH)D levels < 20 ng/mL, Blacks have significantly lower DBP levels than non-Blacks. However, within this range of total 25(OH)D, DBP levels do not influence the effect of vitamin D repletion on PTH or calcium levels. PMID:24712573

  12. Intra-uterine infection and cord immunoglobulin M II. Clinical analysis of infants with elevated cord serum immunoglobulin M *

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Annette; Dent, P. B.; Emrich, W. H.; Gent, M.; Rahim, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    Cord blood immunoglobulin M was measured in 3474 consecutive newborn infants. A group of 147 infants with elevated IgM values (≥19.0 mg./100 ml.) were compared with 92 unselected newborn infants with normal IgM values. One infant with clinically unsuspected congenital rubella was detected in the study group while no cases of intra-uterine infection were found among the controls. A greater proportion of mothers in the study group had a history of viral infection. The study group also contained a larger number of mothers who might be considered to be at greater risk of infection with agents known to cause intra-uterine disease. Follow-up studies at 6 months of age revealed no differences between the two groups aside from an increased incidence of minor motor abnormalities in the study group. While it is recognized that infants with cord blood IgM levels truly in excess of 30 mg./100 ml. may represent a high-risk group with respect to proved or subclinical intra-uterine infection, it is concluded that routine cord blood screening for elevated IgM values is not a high-yield procedure for the detection of intra-uterine infection in our population. PMID:4203457

  13. (Z)3,4,5,4‧-trans-tetramethoxystilbene, a new analogue of resveratrol, inhibits gefitinb-resistant non-small cell lung cancer via selectively elevating intracellular calcium level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xing-Xing; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Su Wei; Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; He, Jian-Xing; Ding, Jian; Xue, Wei-Wei; Mujtaba, Tahira; Michelangeli, Francesco; Huang, Min; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Da-Kai; Jiang, Ze-Bo; Zhou, Yan-Ling; Kin-Ting Kam, Richard; Liu, Liang; Lai-Han Leung, Elaine

    2015-11-01

    Calcium is a second messenger which is required for regulation of many cellular processes. However, excessive elevation or prolonged activation of calcium signaling would lead to cell death. As such, selectively regulating calcium signaling could be an alternative approach for anti-cancer therapy. Recently, we have identified an effective analogue of resveratrol, (Z)3,4,5,4‧-trans-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) which selectively elevated the intracellular calcium level in gefitinib-resistant (G-R) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. TMS exhibited significant inhibitory effect on G-R NSCLC cells, but not other NSCLC cells and normal lung epithelial cells. The phosphorylation and activation of EGFR were inhibited by TMS in G-R cells. TMS induced caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy by directly binding to SERCA and causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and AMPK activation. Proteomics analysis also further confirmed that mTOR pathway, which is the downstream of AMPK, was significantly suppressed by TMS. JNK, the cross-linker of ER stress and mTOR pathway was significantly activated by TMS. In addition, the inhibition of JNK activation can partially block the effect of TMS. Taken together, TMS showed promising anti-cancer activity by mediating calcium signaling pathway and inducing apoptosis as well as autophagy in G-R NSCLC cells, providing strategy in designing multi-targeting drug for treating G-R patients.

  14. (Z)3,4,5,4′-trans-tetramethoxystilbene, a new analogue of resveratrol, inhibits gefitinb-resistant non-small cell lung cancer via selectively elevating intracellular calcium level

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xing-Xing; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Su Wei; Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; He, Jian-Xing; Ding, Jian; Xue, Wei-Wei; Mujtaba, Tahira; Michelangeli, Francesco; Huang, Min; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Da-Kai; Jiang, Ze-Bo; Zhou, Yan-Ling; Kin-Ting Kam, Richard; Liu, Liang; Lai-Han Leung, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is a second messenger which is required for regulation of many cellular processes. However, excessive elevation or prolonged activation of calcium signaling would lead to cell death. As such, selectively regulating calcium signaling could be an alternative approach for anti-cancer therapy. Recently, we have identified an effective analogue of resveratrol, (Z)3,4,5,4′-trans-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) which selectively elevated the intracellular calcium level in gefitinib-resistant (G-R) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. TMS exhibited significant inhibitory effect on G-R NSCLC cells, but not other NSCLC cells and normal lung epithelial cells. The phosphorylation and activation of EGFR were inhibited by TMS in G-R cells. TMS induced caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy by directly binding to SERCA and causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and AMPK activation. Proteomics analysis also further confirmed that mTOR pathway, which is the downstream of AMPK, was significantly suppressed by TMS. JNK, the cross-linker of ER stress and mTOR pathway was significantly activated by TMS. In addition, the inhibition of JNK activation can partially block the effect of TMS. Taken together, TMS showed promising anti-cancer activity by mediating calcium signaling pathway and inducing apoptosis as well as autophagy in G-R NSCLC cells, providing strategy in designing multi-targeting drug for treating G-R patients. PMID:26542098

  15. Association of decreased variation of R-R interval and elevated serum C-reactive protein level in a general population in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kon, Hisashi; Nagano, Masahide; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Satoh, Kenyu; Segawa, Toshie; Nakamura, Motoyuki

    2006-11-01

    Several studies have suggested that an increased high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level is a strong independent predictor of increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) has also been reported to predict cardiovascular events such as sudden death and myocardial infarction in apparently healthy subjects. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to test the possible correlation between variation of the R-R interval as one of the markers of HRV and serum hsCRP levels in a general population in Japan. Resting, supine, 2-minute, beat-to-beat heart rate data were collected in 823 randomly selected participants enrolled in our cohort study. The coefficient of variation of the R-R interval (CVrr) was obtained as a parameter of HRV. To determine which factors predict the presence of low CVrr (below the 5 percentile) in this group, we performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis using cardiovascular risk factors and an elevated hsCRP level as independent variables. The lowest CVrr group showed significantly higher hsCRP levels compared to those of other quartiles (P < 0.01). After adjustment for confounding factors such as age, heart rate, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension by multivariate logistic analysis, an elevated hsCRP level (OR = 3.11, 95%CI; 1.27-7.60: P < 0.02) was a significant independent predictor of low CVrr. The results of the present study indicate that an increased serum hsCRP level is significantly associated with reduced CVrr in this general population. It is conceivable that the parasympathetic nerve withdrawal and inflammation could interact with each other, resulting in the progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:17268121

  16. Association of serum cystatin C levels with myocardial perfusion and cardiac functional recovery in patients with anterior wall ST elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Fang, Zhen-Fei; Zhou, Sheng-Hua; Tai, Shi; Ahmed, Salah; Huang, Feng; Shen, Xiang-Qian; Zhao, Yan-Shu; Hu, Xin-Qun

    2016-09-01

    This study sought to investigate the association of baseline serum cystatin C levels with myocardial perfusion and cardiac functional recovery in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). 108 patients with a first anterior STEMI who underwent PPCI were enrolled. Serum cystatin C was measured by immunoturbidimetric method. Patients were divided into two groups according to the median cystatin C levels on admission: group 1 (≥median, n = 54) and group 2 (Elevated cystatin C levels at admission were independently associated with impaired myocardial perfusion, poor cardiac functional recovery and development of CHF in patients with anterior STEMI undergoing PPCI.

  17. The liver is the major source of elevated serum lipocalin-2 levels after bacterial infection or partial hepatectomy: a critical role for IL-6/STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming-Jiang; Feng, Dechun; Wu, Hailong; Wang, Hua; Chan, Yvonne; Kolls, Jay; Borregaard, Niels; Porse, Bo; Berger, Thorsten; Mak, Tak W.; Cowland, Jack B.; Kong, Xiaoni; Gao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) was originally isolated from neutrophils and termed neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). However, the functions of LCN2 and the cell types that are primarily responsible for LCN2 production remain unclear. To address these issues, hepatocyte-specific Lcn2 knockout (Lcn2Hep−/−) mice were generated and subjected to bacterial infection (with Klesbsiella pneumoniae or Escherichia coli) or partial hepatectomy (PHx). Studies of Lcn2Hep−/− mice revealed that hepatocytes contributed to 25% of the low basal serum level of LCN2 protein (~62 ng/ml) but were responsible for more than 90% of the highly elevated serum LCN2 protein level (~6,000 ng/ml) post-infection and more than 60% post-PHx (~700 ng/ml). Interestingly, both Lcn2Hep−/− and global Lcn2 knockout (Lcn2−/−) mice demonstrated comparable increases in susceptibility to infection with K. pneumoniae or E. coli. These mice also had increased enteric bacterial translocation from the gut to the mesenteric lymph nodes and exhibited reduced liver regeneration after PHx. Treatment with IL-6 stimulated hepatocytes to produce LCN2 in vitro and in vivo. Hepatocyte-specific ablation of the IL-6 receptor or Stat3, a major downstream effector of IL-6, markedly abrogated LCN2 elevation in vivo. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that STAT3 was recruited to the promoter region of the Lcn2 gene upon STAT3 activation by IL-6. In conclusion, hepatocytes are the major cell type responsible for LCN2 production after bacterial infection or PHx, and this response is dependent on IL-6 activation of the STAT3 signaling pathway. Thus, hepatocyte-derived LCN2 plays an important role in inhibiting bacterial infection and promoting liver regeneration. PMID:25234944

  18. Ovarian acyclicity in zoo African elephants (Loxodonta africana) is associated with high body condition scores and elevated serum insulin and leptin.

    PubMed

    Morfeld, Kari A; Brown, Janine L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether excessive body fat and altered metabolic hormone concentrations in the circulation were associated with ovarian acyclicity in the world's largest land mammal, the African elephant. We compared body condition, glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations and the glucose-to-insulin ratio (G:I) between cycling (n=23; normal 14-16 week cycles based on serum progestagens for at least 2 years) and non-cycling (n=23; consistent baseline progestagen concentrations for at least 2 years) females. A validated body condition score (BCS) index (five-point scale; 1=thinnest, 5=fattest) was used to assess the degree of fatness of the study elephants. The mean BCS of non-cycling elephants was higher than that of their cycling counterparts. There were differences in concentrations of serum metabolic biomarkers, with non-cycling elephants in the BCS 5 category having higher leptin and insulin concentrations and a lower G:I ratio than cycling BCS 5 females. Using 'non-cycling' as the outcome variable in regression models, high BCS was a strong predictor of a non-cycling status. This study provides the first evidence that ovarian acyclicity in zoo African elephants is associated with body condition indicative of obesity, as well as elevated, perturbed biomarkers of metabolic status.

  19. Osteopontin and Integrin αvβ3 Expression during the Implantation Window in IVF Patients with Elevated Serum Progesterone and Oestradiol Level

    PubMed Central

    He, Z.; Ma, Y.; Li, L.; Liu, J.; Yang, H.; Chen, C.; Lin, N.; Bai, Y.; Ma, R.; Li, R.; Wu, Z.; Qiao, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To explore whether endometrial receptivity is determined by osteopontin (OPN) and integrin αvβ3 expression in women with elevated serum progesterone (P) and/or oestradiol (E2) who are undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Methods: According to serum hormone levels on the day of HCG administration, 33 infertile women were divided into 3 groups: the high E2, high P, and high E2 and P groups. The control group included 11 fertile, healthy women. Endometrial biopsy was performed on ovulation day + 7 to + 8 for all study participants, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of OPN and integrin αvβ3 were analyzed. Result: No statistically significant differences regarding OPN and integrin αvβ3 expression were found between infertile patients in the high P, high E2, high E2 and P and control groups. There was no significant correlation between OPN and integrin αvβ3 staining intensity during the implantation window biopsy in any of the groups studied. Conclusion: Endometrial OPN and integrant αvβ3 expression/co-expression is not impaired during the window of implantation in patients with high P, high E2, or high E2 and P levels. The clinical value of assessing endometrial receptivity with OPN and integrin αvβ3 seems to be uncertain. PMID:27365542

  20. Elevated serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi programs.

    PubMed

    Glaser, J L; Brind, J L; Vogelman, J H; Eisner, M J; Dillbeck, M C; Wallace, R K; Chopra, D; Orentreich, N

    1992-08-01

    Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels were measured in 270 men and 153 women who were experienced practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi programs, mental techniques practiced twice daily, sitting quietly with the eyes closed. These were compared according to sex and 5-year age grouping to 799 male and 453 female nonmeditators. The mean DHEA-S levels in the TM group were higher in all 11 of the age groups measured in women and in 6 of 7 5-year age groups over 40 in men. There were no systematic differences in younger men. Simple regression using TM-group data revealed that this effect was independent of diet, body mass index, and exercise. The mean TM-group levels measured in all women and in the older men were generally comparable to those of nonmeditator groups 5 to 10 years younger. These findings suggest that some characteristics of TM practitioners are modifying the age-related deterioration in DHEA-S secretion by the adrenal cortex.

  1. Relation of exploratory behavior of rats in elevated plus-maze to brain receptor binding properties and serum growth hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Kõks, S; Vasar, E; Soosaar, A; Lang, A; Volke, V; Võikar, V; Bourin, M; Männistö, P T

    1997-11-01

    Forty-five male Wistar rats were selected according to their behavior in the elevated plus-maze. They were separated as follows: animals with low exploratory activity ('anxious'), an 'intermediate' group and animals having high exploratory activity ('non-anxious'). Various receptor binding studies and hormonal assays were also performed in these selected rats. The affinity of 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT2A receptors in the frontal cortex was lower in the 'anxious' rats compared to home-cage controls and 'non-anxious' animals. Moreover, the number of cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors in the hippocampus was significantly elevated in the 'anxious' group compared to home-cage control animals. The blood levels of growth hormone (GH) were significantly lower in the 'non-anxious' rats compared to 'anxious' counterparts. In conclusion, it seems likely that the decreased exploratory activity of rats is related to the increased 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and CCK mediated neurotransmission in the brain. The different serum levels of GH in the selected rats probably reflect alterations in the activity of 5-HT and CCK.

  2. miR-181b Promotes hepatic stellate cells proliferation by targeting p27 and is elevated in the serum of cirrhosis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Baocan; Li, Wenxi; Guo, Kun; Xiao, Yongtao; Wang, Yuqin; Fan, Jiangao

    2012-04-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181a and miR-181b, especially, miR-181b could be induced by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) in hepatic stellate cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181b could promote HSC-T6 cell proliferation by directly targeting the negative cell regulator-p27 in HSC-T6 cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181b was identified as potential serum diagnostic marker for liver cirrhosis patients. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs, as a kind of negative gene regulators, were demonstrated to be involved in many types of diseases. In this study, we found that transforming growth factor-beta 1 could induce the expression of miR-181a and miR-181b, and miR-181b increased in the much higher folds than miR-181a. Because of the important role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in HSC activation and liver cirrhosis, we investigate the effect of miR-181a and miR-181b on HSC proliferation. The results showed that miR-181b could promote HSC-T6 cell proliferation by regulating cell cycle. Further study showed p27, the cell cycle regulator, was the direct target of miR-181b in HSC-T6 cell. But miR-181a had no effects on HSC-T6 cell proliferation and cell cycle, and did not target p27. Interestingly, miR-181b is elevated significantly in serum of liver cirrhosis cases comparing to that of normal persons, whereas miR-181a expression was in the similar level with that of normal persons. These results suggested that miR-181b could be induced by TGF-{beta}1 and promote the growth of HSCs by directly targeting p27. The elevation of miR-181b in serum suggested that it may be potential diagnostic biomarkers for cirrhosis. As for miR-181a, it may work in TGF-{beta}1 pathway by a currently unknown mechanism.

  3. The Severity of Visceral Leishmaniasis Correlates with Elevated Levels of Serum IL-6, IL-27 and sCD14

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Priscila L.; de Oliveira, Fabrícia A.; Santos, Micheli Luize B.; Cunha, Luana Celina S.; Lino, Michelle T. B.; de Oliveira, Michelle F. S.; Bomfim, Manuela O. M.; Silva, Angela Maria; de Moura, Tatiana R.; de Jesus, Amélia R.; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Reed, Steven G.; de Almeida, Roque P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe disease caused by infection with protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Classic VL is characterized by a systemic infection of phagocytic cells and an intense activation of the inflammatory response. It is unclear why 90% of infected individuals do not develop the disease while a minority develop the classical form. Furthermore, among those that develop disease, a small group progresses to more severe form that is unresponsive to treatment. The presence of inflammatory mediators in serum could theoretically help to control the infection. However, there is also a release of anti-inflammatory mediators that could interfere with the control of parasite multiplication. In this study, we took advantage of the spectrum of outcomes to test the hypothesis that the immune profile of individuals infected with Leishmania (L.) infantum is associated with the development and severity of disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Sera from patients with confirmed diagnosis of VL were evaluated for the presence of numerous molecules, and levels compared with healthy control and asymptomatic infected individuals. Conclusions/Principal Findings Although differences were not observed in LPS levels, higher levels of sCD14 were detected in VL patients. Our data suggest that L. infantum may activate the inflammatory response via CD14, stimulating a generalized inflammatory response with production of several cytokines and soluble molecules, including IFN-γ, IL-27, IL-10, IL-6 and sCD14. These molecules were strongly associated with hepatosplenomegaly, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. We also observed that IL-6 levels greater than 200 pg/ml were strongly associated with death. Together our data reinforce the close relationship of IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-27 in the immune dynamics of VL and suggest the direct participation of sCD14 in the activation of the immune response against L. infantum. PMID:26814478

  4. Biomimetic synthesis of hollow calcium carbonate with the existence of the agar matrix and bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianhua; Wu, Gang; Qing, Chengsong

    2016-01-01

    Proteins play important roles in the process of biomineralization. Vaterite and calcite have been synthesized by the reaction of Na2CO3 and CaCl2 in the bovine serum albumin (BSA) and agar system. The samples have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The shape of CaCO3 crystal has been analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results show that calcite is a single product in the absence of BSA, but the product is a mixture of calcite and vaterite in the presence of BSA. The spheral shell of CaCO3 crystal was obtained when the concentration of BSA increased to 9.0mg/mL.

  5. Low serum LDL cholesterol levels are associated with elevated mortality from liver cancer in Japan: the Ibaraki Prefectural health study.

    PubMed

    Saito, Nobue; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Irie, Fujiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Iimura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Muto, Takashi; Ota, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Liver cancer a global public health concern and well known for poor prognosis. The association between low total cholesterol level and liver cancer has been reported. However, the association between low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and liver cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between LDL cholesterol level and liver cancer mortality. A total of 16,217 persons (5,551 men and 10,666 women) aged 40-79 years in 1993 were followed until 2008. LDL cholesterol levels were divided into four categories (<80 mg/dl, 80-99 mg/dl, 100-119 mg/dl, and ≥120 mg/dl). Hazard ratio of LDL cholesterol level for liver cancer mortality was calculated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Covariates were age, sex, alanine transaminase, body mass index, alcohol intake and smoking status, all of which were correlated with LDL cholesterol levels. There were 51 deaths (32 men and 19 women) from liver cancer. Multivariable hazard ratios of liver cancer deaths for LDL cholesterol levels of <80 mg/dl was 4.33 (95% confident interval [CI]: 1.94, 9.68), for LDL cholesterol levels of 80-99 mg/dl was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.42, 2.53), and for LDL cholesterol levels of ≥120 mg/dl was 0.43 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.92) compared with LDL cholesterol levels of 100-199 mg/dl (p for trend<0.01). Therefore, low LDL cholesterol levels are associated with elevated risk of liver cancer mortality. Low LDL cholesterol may be a predictive marker for death due to liver cancer.

  6. Stability and gelation behavior of bovine serum albumin pre-aggregates in the presence of calcium chloride.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hua; Arosio, Paolo; Podolskaya, Olga Gennadievna; Wei, Dan; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2012-04-14

    We study, using wide-angle and small-angle light scattering techniques, the stability and aggregation/gelation behaviors of denatured filamentous bovine serum albumin pre-aggregates (BSA-PAs), induced by CaCl(2). It is observed that transparent filamentous gels can be formed not only at low CaCl(2) concentrations but also at high CaCl(2) concentrations, while turbid gels are obtained at intermediate CaCl(2) concentrations. Although the filamentous gels at low CaCl(2) concentrations and the turbid gels at intermediate CaCl(2) concentrations are consistent with the literature observations, the filamentous gels at high CaCl(2) concentrations have to be explained by different mechanisms. The latter is attributed to the repulsive hydration interactions originating from increased surface dipoles generated by counterion binding. Since such surface dipole-induced hydration is very short-range and occurs mainly on charged or polar patches of proteins (thus protected from aggregation), the aggregation of the filamentous BSA-PAs at hydrophobic patches at the two ends is still possible, leading to formation of the filamentous gels.

  7. Modulation and action of the calcium-sensing receptor.

    PubMed

    Drüeke, Tilman B

    2004-08-01

    The discovery and cloning of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) in 1993 has led to a better understanding of the regulation of calcium homoeostasis. Following activation by extracellular calcium ions, the CaR triggers a cascade of intracellular events. These events result in the release of secondary messengers, which have a number of biological effects, the most important of which is a reduction in parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. The way in which calcium acts on the CaR varies depending on the cell type. In the parathyroid gland cell, activation of the CaR by elevated serum levels of calcium leads to a decrease in PTH secretion. In the kidney, CaR activation is thought to have several different actions, leading to enhanced reabsorption of sodium chloride and increased calcium and magnesium excretion in the renal tubules. CaRs are also found in other tissues in the body that are not involved in calcium homoeostasis, suggesting that the CaR has actions that are not associated with calcium homoeostasis. In patients with end-stage renal disease, parathyroid gland hyperplasia is associated with downregulation of the CaR. Discovery of the CaR has allowed the development of a group of drugs called calcimimetics, which mimic or potentiate the actions of extracellular calcium on the CaR. These compounds have considerable potential for the treatment of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:15284356

  8. Utility of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Shinto, Ajit S.; Kamaleshwaran, K. K.; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, 99mTc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. 18F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. 18F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. PMID:26097420

  9. Utility of (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels.

    PubMed

    Shinto, Ajit S; Kamaleshwaran, K K; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. (18)F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. (18)F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease.

  10. Should HFE p.C282Y homozygotes with moderately elevated serum ferritin be treated? A randomised controlled trial comparing iron reduction with sham treatment (Mi-iron)

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Sim Yee; Dolling, Lara; Dixon, Jeannette L; Nicoll, Amanda J; Gurrin, Lyle C; Wolthuizen, Michelle; Wood, Erica M; Anderson, Greg J; Ramm, Grant A; Allen, Katrina J; Olynyk, John K; Crawford, Darrell; Kava, Jennifer; Ramm, Louise E; Gow, Paul; Durrant, Simon; Powell, Lawrie W; Delatycki, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HFE p.C282Y homozygosity is the most common cause of hereditary haemochromatosis. There is currently insufficient evidence to assess whether non-specific symptoms or hepatic injury in homozygotes with moderately elevated iron defined as a serum ferritin (SF) of 300–1000 µg/L are related to iron overload. As such the evidence for intervention in this group is lacking. We present here methods for a study that aims to evaluate whether non-specific symptoms and hepatic fibrosis markers improve with short-term normalisation of SF in p.C282Y homozygotes with moderate elevation of SF. Methods and analysis Mi-iron is a prospective, multicentre, randomised patient-blinded trial conducted in three centres in Victoria and Queensland, Australia. Participants who are HFE p.C282Y homozygotes with SF levels between 300 and 1000 μg/L are recruited and randomised to either the treatment group or to the sham treatment group. Those in the treatment group have normalisation of SF by 3-weekly erythrocytapheresis while those in the sham treatment group have 3-weekly plasmapheresis and thus do not have normalisation of SF. Patients are blinded to all procedures. All outcome measures are administered prior to and following the course of treatment/sham treatment. Patient reported outcome measures are the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS-primary outcome), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form V.2 (SF36v2) and Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale 2 short form (AIMS2-SF). Liver injury and hepatic fibrosis are assessed with transient elastography (TE), Fibrometer and Hepascore, while oxidative stress is assessed by measurement of urine and serum F2-isoprostanes. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees of Austin Health, Royal Melbourne Hospital and Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference

  11. SETX mutations are a frequent genetic cause of juvenile and adult onset cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/background Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia defines a group of genetically distinct recessive ataxias including ataxia-telangectasia (A-T, ATM gene), ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1, APTX gene) and type 2 (AOA2, SETX gene). Although, a few unique clinical features differentiate each of these forms, the patients also share common clinical signs, such as the presence of cerebellar atrophy, sensorimotor axonal neuropathy, and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum level. Materials and methods We selected 22 Italian patients from 21 families, presenting progressive cerebellar ataxia, axonal neuropathy, and elevated serum AFP. We screened the coding regions of ATM, APTX and SETX genes for point mutations by direct sequencing or DHPLC, and searched genomic rearrangements in SETX by MLPA analysis. In selected cases, quantification of ATM and senataxin proteins was performed by Western blot. Clinical, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging data were collected. Results Thirteen patients (12 families) carried SETX mutations (AOA2, 57%), two were mutated in ATM (A-T), and three in APTX (AOA1). In three remaining patients, we could not find pathogenic mutations, and in one case we found, in homozygosis, the SETX p.K992R polymorphism (population frequency 1-2%). In AOA2 cases, we identified 14 novel and three reported SETX mutations. Signs at onset were gait ataxia and facial dyskinesia, and the age ranged between 11 and 18 years. None had obvious oculomotor apraxia at the latest examination (age 14–45 years). The patient carrying the p.K992R SETX polymorphism had a phenotype similar to that of the diagnosed AOA2 patients, while the other three undiagnosed subjects had a very late onset and a few distinguishing clinical features. Discussion and conclusions We describe a large series of 13 AOA2 Italian patients. The phenotype was consistent with previous descriptions of AOA2, except for a higher frequency of strabism, and for the absence of oculomotor

  12. What toxicity may result from the xenobiotic responsible for the finding on this plain film? Answer: reduced iron, found in heating pads and instant hand warmers, may result in elevated serum iron concentrations and subsequent iron toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jon B; Stellpflug, Samuel J; Lintner, Christian P

    2011-12-01

    Disposable heating pads are commonly used products, with reduced iron as their active ingredient. Reduced iron is not expected to cause significant toxicity when ingested orally. We report a case of accidental heating pad ingestion seen on abdominal plain films that resulted in significantly elevated serum iron concentrations. PMID:21818692

  13. Elevated on-treatment levels of serum IFN-gamma is associated with treatment failure of peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Ying; Huang, Ching-I; Dai, Chia-Yen; Wang, Shu-Chi; Hsieh, Ming-Yen; Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Liang, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Hung; Hou, Nai-Jen; Yeh, Ming-Lun; Huang, Chung-Feng; Lin, Zu-Yau; Chen, Shinn-Cherng; Huang, Jee-Fu; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection had been associated with cytokine imbalance. Cytokine dynamics in response to peginterferon/ribavirin therapy have an impact on the treatment efficacy for HCV patients. Ninety-two treatment-naive chronic hepatitis C patients were treated with 24 or 48 weeks of peginterferon/ribavirin therapy according to their viral genotypes. Sustained virologic response (SVR) is defined as undetectable HCV RNA throughout a 24-week post-treatment follow-up period. Dynamic serum levels of the following cytokines: (1) Th1-mediated cytokines: IFN-γ, interleukin-2, and TNF-alpha; (2)Th2-mediated cytokines: interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 and (3)immuno-modulatory cytokines: interleukin-1β, interleukin-8, and interleukin-12 were determined by Fluorescent Bead immunoassay. Serial dynamic cytokine expression demonstrated that not only elevated IFN-γ concentrations at specific time points but also the total IFN-γ amount was strongly linked to non-response in peginterferon/ribavirin therapy. IFN-γ levels could serve as an independent predictor for SVR analyzed by multivariate logistic regression test. The accuracy of discriminating responders from non-responders was acceptable when IFN-γ cut-off levels were set at 180, 120, and 40 pg/ml at the 4th week, 12th week, and end-of-treatment of therapy, respectively. Elevated on-treatment IFN-γ concentration was significantly associated with treatment failure among interleukin-28B rs8099917TT carriers and those patients failed to achieve rapid virologic response. PMID:26965318

  14. Elevated levels of endothelial-derived microparticles, and serum CXCL9 and SCGF-β are associated with unstable asymptomatic carotid plaques.

    PubMed Central

    Schiro, Andrew; Wilkinson, Fiona L.; Weston, Ria; Smyth, J. Vincent; Serracino-Inglott, Ferdinand; Alexander, M. Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are released from dysfunctional endothelial cells. We hypothesised that patients with unstable carotid plaque have higher levels of circulating microparticles compared to patients with stable plaques, and may correlate with serum markers of plaque instability and inflammation. Circulating EMPs, platelet MPs (PMPs) and inflammatory markers were measured in healthy controls and patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. EMP/PMPs were quantified using flow cytometry. Bioplex assays profiled systemic inflammatory and bone-related proteins. Immunohistological analysis detailed the contribution of differentially-regulated systemic markers to plaque pathology. Alizarin red staining showed calcification. EMPs and PMPs were significantly higher in patients with carotid stenosis (≥70%) compared to controls, with no differences between asymptomatic vs symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients with unstable plaques exhibited higher levels of EMPs, CXCL9 and SCGF-β compared to those with stable plaques. CXCL9, and SCGF-β were detected within all plaques, suggesting a contribution to both localised and systemic inflammation. Osteopontin and osteoprotegerin were significantly elevated in the symptomatic vs asymptomatic group, while osteocalcin was higher in asymptomatic patients with stable plaque. All plaques exhibited calcification, which was significantly greater in asymptomatic patients. This may impact on plaque stability. These data could be important in identifying patients at most benefit from intervention. PMID:26564003

  15. Elevated levels of endothelial-derived microparticles, and serum CXCL9 and SCGF-β are associated with unstable asymptomatic carotid plaques.

    PubMed

    Schiro, Andrew; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Weston, Ria; Smyth, J Vincent; Serracino-Inglott, Ferdinand; Alexander, M Yvonne

    2015-11-13

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are released from dysfunctional endothelial cells. We hypothesised that patients with unstable carotid plaque have higher levels of circulating microparticles compared to patients with stable plaques, and may correlate with serum markers of plaque instability and inflammation. Circulating EMPs, platelet MPs (PMPs) and inflammatory markers were measured in healthy controls and patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. EMP/PMPs were quantified using flow cytometry. Bioplex assays profiled systemic inflammatory and bone-related proteins. Immunohistological analysis detailed the contribution of differentially-regulated systemic markers to plaque pathology. Alizarin red staining showed calcification. EMPs and PMPs were significantly higher in patients with carotid stenosis (≥ 70%) compared to controls, with no differences between asymptomatic vs symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients with unstable plaques exhibited higher levels of EMPs, CXCL9 and SCGF-β compared to those with stable plaques. CXCL9, and SCGF-β were detected within all plaques, suggesting a contribution to both localised and systemic inflammation. Osteopontin and osteoprotegerin were significantly elevated in the symptomatic vs asymptomatic group, while osteocalcin was higher in asymptomatic patients with stable plaque. All plaques exhibited calcification, which was significantly greater in asymptomatic patients. This may impact on plaque stability. These data could be important in identifying patients at most benefit from intervention.

  16. Microdeletions of 3p21.31 characterized by developmental delay, distinctive features, elevated serum creatine kinase levels, and white matter involvement.

    PubMed

    Eto, Kaoru; Sakai, Norio; Shimada, Shino; Shioda, Mutsuki; Ishigaki, Keiko; Hamada, Yusuke; Shinpo, Michiko; Azuma, Junji; Tominaga, Koji; Shimojima, Keiko; Ozono, Keiichi; Osawa, Makiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2013-12-01

    Interstitial deletions of chromosome 3 are rare, and only one patient with a microdeletion of 3p21.31 has been reported to date. We identified two additional cases of patients with microdeletions of 3p21.31. The characteristic clinical features of developmental delay and distinctive facial features (including arched eyebrows, hypertelorism, epicanthus, and micrognathia) were seen both in the previously reported patient and in the two newly identified patients. In these two new cases, additional features, including elevated serum creatine kinase levels and characteristic neuroradiological features with white matter involvement, were seen. These features had not been described in the previous case in which the patient was examined during infancy, suggesting an age-dependent mechanism. The shortest region of overlap among the three deletions narrowed down the candidate genes that may be responsible for the common neurological features to the bassoon (presynaptic cytomatrix protein) gene (BSN), which has an important function in neuronal synapses. In this study, we confirmed common phenotypic features in the patients with microdeletions of 3p21.31 and identified additional features that have not been reported previously. Because the constellation of such characteristic features is quite unique, clinical manifestations of the patients with microdeletions of 3p21.31 would be clinically recognizable as a contiguous gene deletion syndrome.

  17. Association of Elevated Serum Lipoprotein(a), Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Chronic Kidney Disease with Hypertension in Non-diabetes Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Tangvarasittichai, Surapon; Pingmuanglaew, Patcharin; Tangvarasittichai, Orathai

    2016-10-01

    Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular risk factor. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], inflammation, oxidative stress and chronic kidney disease (CKD) exacerbate the response to tissue injury and acts as markers of the vascular disease, especially in glomerulosclerosis. We compared the clinical characteristics of 138 non-diabetes hypertensive women (ndHT) patients with 417 non-diabetes normotensive subjects and tested the association of hypertension with Lp(a), inflammation, CKD and oxidative stress by using multiple logistic regression. BP, BMI, waist circumference, creatinine, Lp(a), inflammation and malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher and CKD state in the ndHT patients (p < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression showed hypertension associated with increased Lp(a), inflammation, ORs and 95 % CIs were 2.52 (1.33, 4.80), 2.75 (1.44, 5.27) after adjusting for their covariates. Elevated serum Lp(a) and inflammation levels concomitants with increased oxidative stress and CKD were the major risk factors associated with hypertension and implications for the increased risk of HT and vascular disease. PMID:27605742

  18. Elevated levels of endothelial-derived microparticles, and serum CXCL9 and SCGF-β are associated with unstable asymptomatic carotid plaques.

    PubMed

    Schiro, Andrew; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Weston, Ria; Smyth, J Vincent; Serracino-Inglott, Ferdinand; Alexander, M Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are released from dysfunctional endothelial cells. We hypothesised that patients with unstable carotid plaque have higher levels of circulating microparticles compared to patients with stable plaques, and may correlate with serum markers of plaque instability and inflammation. Circulating EMPs, platelet MPs (PMPs) and inflammatory markers were measured in healthy controls and patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. EMP/PMPs were quantified using flow cytometry. Bioplex assays profiled systemic inflammatory and bone-related proteins. Immunohistological analysis detailed the contribution of differentially-regulated systemic markers to plaque pathology. Alizarin red staining showed calcification. EMPs and PMPs were significantly higher in patients with carotid stenosis (≥ 70%) compared to controls, with no differences between asymptomatic vs symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients with unstable plaques exhibited higher levels of EMPs, CXCL9 and SCGF-β compared to those with stable plaques. CXCL9, and SCGF-β were detected within all plaques, suggesting a contribution to both localised and systemic inflammation. Osteopontin and osteoprotegerin were significantly elevated in the symptomatic vs asymptomatic group, while osteocalcin was higher in asymptomatic patients with stable plaque. All plaques exhibited calcification, which was significantly greater in asymptomatic patients. This may impact on plaque stability. These data could be important in identifying patients at most benefit from intervention. PMID:26564003

  19. Effect Modifying Role of Serum Calcium on Mortality-Predictability of PTH and Alkaline Phosphatase in Hemodialysis Patients: An Investigation Using Data from the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System from 2005 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-Chung; Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Chiao-Ying; Kao, Chih-Chin; Chang, Fan-Chi; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Hsu, Chi-Cheng; Wu, Mai-Szu

    2015-01-01

    Predicting mortality in dialysis patients based on low intact parathyroid hormone levels is difficult, because aluminum intoxication, malnutrition, older age, race, diabetes, or peritoneal dialysis may influence these levels. We investigated the clinical implications of low parathyroid hormone levels in relation to the mortality of dialysis patients using sensitive, stratified, and adjusted models and a nationwide dialysis database. We analyzed data from 2005 to 2012 that were held on the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System, and 94,983 hemodialysis patients with valid data regarding their intact parathyroid levels were included in this study. The patient cohort was subdivided based on the intact parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase levels. The mean hemodialysis duration within this cohort was 3.5 years. The mean (standard deviation) age was 62 (14) years. After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, the hemodialysis duration, serum albumin levels, hematocrit levels, calcium levels, phosphate levels, and the hemodialysis treatment adequacy score, the single-pool Kt/V, the crude and adjusted all-cause mortality rates increased when alkaline phosphatase levels were higher or intact parathyroid hormone levels were lower. In general, at any given level of serum calcium or phosphate, patients with low intact parathyroid hormone levels had higher mortality rates than those with normal or high iPTH levels. At a given alkaline phosphatase level, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 1.33 (p < 0.01, 95% confidence interval 1.27–1.39) in the group with intact parathyroid hormone levels < 150 pg/mL and serum calcium levels > 9.5 mg/dL, but in the group with intact parathyroid hormone levels > 300 pg/mL and serum calcium levels > 9.5 mg/dL, the hazard ratio was 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.01). Hence, maintaining albumin-corrected high serum calcium levels at > 9.5 mg/dL may correlate with poor prognoses for patients with low intact parathyroid hormone

  20. The Effects of Dietary Supplements of Calcium, Vitamin D and Estrogen Hormone on Serum Levels of OPG and RANKL Cytokines and their Relationship with Increased Bone Density in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Piri, Fatemeh; Moayeri, Ardeshir; Moradipour, Ayat; Derakhshan, Siamak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Osteoprotegerin (OPG)-Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) pathway is one of the contributing factors in the regulation of osteogenesis and bone resorption routes. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various dietary supplements on this pathway. Materials and Methods The samples for this study (24 newborn rats) were divided in three groups according to the experiment applied for each group. Rats were given special diet according to their group plan for six weeks. Blood samples were collected to measure their serum levels of OPG and RANKL and all organs of rats were used to measure their bone density too. The results were analysed using appropriate statistical analysing tests. Results Levels of whole-body bone mineral density in calcium plus vitamin D plus Estrogen (Ca + D + E) group and calcium plus vitamin D (Ca + D) group were significantly increased compared to control group. Mineral density was highest in calcium plus vitamin D plus Estrogen group and was about 0.1357 g/cm2. RANKL had a significant decrease in calcium plus vitamin D plus Estrogen group compared to control and calcium plus vitamin D groups. There was a significant increase in the mean calcium and OPG in both experimental groups rather than control. Also, significant increase in estrogen was observed in Ca + D group than the control group. Conclusion The results showed that intake of calcium and vitamin D and estrogen at determined dose led to an increase in OPG and RANKL cytokines reduction which ultimately led to an increase in bone mineral density. But Ca, D and E synergies were more effective in increasing bone mineral density compared to only the use of Ca and D. PMID:27790417

  1. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  2. Immunological studies of IgA nephropathy in blacks reveal elevations of serum IgA2 as well as IgA1.

    PubMed

    Crowley-Nowick, P A; Bull, R; van den Wall Bake, A W; Kulhavy, L; Julian, B A; Jackson, S

    1994-01-01

    Although IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is recognized worldwide as the most common primary glomerulonephritis, the prevalence of this disease among American blacks is strikingly low despite the frequency of other renal disorders. We have previously described the clinical features of 27 black patients enrolled in a multicentre IgAN database; in this paper we report several immunological parameters of the disease in this population. Quantification of serum immunoglobulins revealed significantly higher concentrations of total IgA, IgA1 and IgA2 (P = 0.0001, 0.002 and 0.005 respectively) in the patients, but no significant increases in IgG or IgM. Examination of immunoglobulin synthesis by peripheral blood lymphocytes indicated relatively few differences in the secretion of immunoglobulins by patients compared to healthy American blacks. The spontaneous production of total IgA, IgA1, and IgA2 in patients was depressed compared to the control subjects (P = 0.02, 0.04, 0.03,), yet the ratio of IgA1:IgA2 was normal. Stimulation with pokeweed mitogen enhanced secretion of immunoglobulin in both subject groups. However, a significantly greater IgA1:IgA2 ratio was noted in the patients (P = 0.002). Circulating immune complexes containing C3 and IgA as well as C3 and IgM were elevated in the patients (P = 0.0006, 0.0003 and 0.02, respectively). These immunological aberrancies did not correlate with clinical manifestations of disease. These data suggest the immune abnormalities of black IgAN patients are similar to, but not identical with, those of white patients.

  3. Effects of calcium supplements on the risk of renal stone formation in a population with low oxalate intake.

    PubMed

    Stitchantrakul, Wasana; Sopassathit, Wichai; Prapaipanich, Surasing; Domrongkitchaiporn, Somnuek

    2004-12-01

    It has been speculated that calcium supplement in subjects with low oxalate intake might increase the risk of calcium stone formation due to an increase in calcium absorption without a significant reduction in oxalate absorption. There have been no human studies addressing specifically the effects of taking calcium supplements in populations whose dietary oxalate is low. This study was conducted to determine the effects of calcium supplements on the risk of calcium stone formation in a population with low oxalate intake. Thirty-two healthy male navy privates, 22.7 +/- 1.9 (mean +/- SD) years old, who had oxalate intake of less than 1 mmol/day, a serum creatinine of less than 150 micromol/l, and no history of renal stones, participated in the study. Dietary oxalate was controlled to be under 1 mmol/day throughout the study. Twenty-four hour urine collections for the determination of urinary constituents were obtained at baseline and after taking calcium supplements. Detection of calcium oxalate was performed to assess the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation. The urinary excretion of calcium was significantly elevated above baseline values while taking the calcium supplements (3.48 +/- 2.13 vs 5.17 +/- 2.61 mmol/d, p < 0.05) and urinary oxalate was significantly decreased when the subjects took calcium supplements compared to the corresponding baseline value (0.13 +/- 0.05 vs 0.17 +/- 0.07 mmol/d, p = 0.01). Urinary citrate was significantly elevated when the subjects took calcium supplements compared to the baseline (0.83 +/- 0.57 vs 0.64 +/- 0.39 mmol/d, p = 0.03). There was no significant alteration in the activity products of calcium oxalate while taking the calcium supplements (0.54 +/- 0.25 vs 0.57 +/- 0.22, p = 0.54). The effect of calcium supplements with meals, for the reduction of the risk of calcium stone formation, was unchanged, even in a population whose oxalate intake is rather low. Taking calcium supplements resulted in a reduction in urinary

  4. Elevated granulocyte strontium in inflammatory arthritides is related to the inflammatory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Haellgren, R.; Svensson, K.; Johansson, E.; Lindh, U.

    1984-12-01

    Total cellular strontium and calcium were measured by the nuclear microprobe technique. Increased mass fraction of both elements was found in granulocytes isolated from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and other kinds of inflammatory arthritides. Increased granulocyte calcium but only marginally elevated granulocyte strontium was demonstrated in patients with scleroderma. The granulocyte accumulation of strontium and calcium seems to be linked to the degree of inflammatory activity, because the granulocyte content of both elements was positively correlated to the plasma concentration of acute-phase proteins. Corticosteroid therapy induced a marked reduction of granulocyte strontium but a more modest decrease of granulocyte calcium. The serum levels of strontium and calcium were within the normal ranges in all patients and were not significantly altered by corticosteroids. 21 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Exposure to lithium through drinking water and calcium homeostasis during pregnancy: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Harari, Florencia; Åkesson, Agneta; Casimiro, Esperanza; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing evidence of adverse health effects due to elevated lithium exposure through drinking water but the impact on calcium homeostasis is unknown. This study aimed at elucidating if lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the maternal calcium homeostasis. In a population-based mother-child cohort in the Argentinean Andes (n=178), with elevated lithium concentrations in the drinking water (5-1660μg/L), blood lithium concentrations (correlating significantly with lithium in water, urine and plasma) were measured repeatedly during pregnancy by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and used as exposure biomarker. Markers of calcium homeostasis included: plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in serum and urine. The median maternal blood lithium concentration was 25μg/L (range 1.9-145). In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models, blood lithium was inversely associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (-6.1nmol/L [95%CI -9.5; -2.6] for a 25μg/L increment in blood lithium). The estimate increased markedly with increasing percentiles of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models, the odds ratio of having 25-hydroxyvitamin D3<30nmol/L (19% of the women) was 4.6 (95%CI 1.1; 19.3) for a 25μg/L increment in blood lithium. Blood lithium was also positively associated with serum magnesium, but not with serum calcium and PTH, and inversely associated with urinary calcium and magnesium. In conclusion, our study suggests that lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the calcium homeostasis, particularly vitamin D. The results reinforce the need for better control of lithium in drinking water, including bottled water.

  6. Exposure to lithium through drinking water and calcium homeostasis during pregnancy: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Harari, Florencia; Åkesson, Agneta; Casimiro, Esperanza; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing evidence of adverse health effects due to elevated lithium exposure through drinking water but the impact on calcium homeostasis is unknown. This study aimed at elucidating if lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the maternal calcium homeostasis. In a population-based mother-child cohort in the Argentinean Andes (n=178), with elevated lithium concentrations in the drinking water (5-1660μg/L), blood lithium concentrations (correlating significantly with lithium in water, urine and plasma) were measured repeatedly during pregnancy by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and used as exposure biomarker. Markers of calcium homeostasis included: plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in serum and urine. The median maternal blood lithium concentration was 25μg/L (range 1.9-145). In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models, blood lithium was inversely associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (-6.1nmol/L [95%CI -9.5; -2.6] for a 25μg/L increment in blood lithium). The estimate increased markedly with increasing percentiles of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models, the odds ratio of having 25-hydroxyvitamin D3<30nmol/L (19% of the women) was 4.6 (95%CI 1.1; 19.3) for a 25μg/L increment in blood lithium. Blood lithium was also positively associated with serum magnesium, but not with serum calcium and PTH, and inversely associated with urinary calcium and magnesium. In conclusion, our study suggests that lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the calcium homeostasis, particularly vitamin D. The results reinforce the need for better control of lithium in drinking water, including bottled water. PMID:26828622

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) induced changes in femur morphometry calcium metabolism and nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) on calcium metabolism, femur morphometry, and nephrotoxicity. Fischer 344 rats were dosed daily IG for 5, 10, or 15 weeks with 0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 25 mg PCB/kg body weight. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, liver weight and liver-to-body weight ratio were increased at the two higher dose levels. Overt toxicity was observed at the highest dose level after 10 and 15 weeks as evidenced by significantly smaller body weight. Urinary alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were elevated at 5, 10 and 15 weeks of PCB exposure and the kidney-to-body weight ratios were elevated at the 10 and 25 mg/kg dose levels after 10 and 15 weeks of exposure indicating nephrotoxicity. Hypercalcemia was present at the highest dose level after 5 and 10 weeks of exposure but serum calcium concentration was normal at 15 weeks. Serum triglycerides were significantly elevated after 5 weeks of exposure but were significantly decreased after 10 and 15 weeks of PCB exposure. Serum cholesterol was significantly elevated at the two higher dose levels at all three periods. The results demonstrate that PCB exposure effects calcium metabolism and bone morphometry and is nephrotoxic.

  8. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; Orwoll, Shiela; McCarron, David A.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P < 0.001), elevated parathyroid hormone levels (P < 0.001), reduced calcitonin levels (P < 0.05), unchanged 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, and elevated skull (P < 0.01) and reduced femur bone mineral density. Basal and thrombin-stimulated platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P < 0.05). There was a tendency for indirect systolic BP to be reduced in conscious flight animals (P = 0.057). However, mean arterial pressure was elevated (P < 0.001) after anesthesia. Dietary calcium altered all aspects of calcium metabolism (P < 0.001), as well as BP (P < 0.001), but the only interaction with flight was a relatively greater increase in ionized calcium in flight animals fed low- compared with high-calcium diets (P < 0.05). The results indicate that 1) flight-induced disruptions of calcium metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  9. Effect of galactooligosaccharides on calcium absorption and preventing bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Chonan, O; Matsumoto, K; Watanuki, M

    1995-02-01

    The effects of galactooligosaccharides (GOS), a mixture of galactosyl oligosaccharides formed from lactose by the transgalactosyl reaction of beta-D-galactosidase derived from Bacillus circulans, on calcium absorption and prevention of bone loss were examined in ovariectomized (OVX) Wistar rats. Rats fed on a diet containing GOS absorbed calcium more efficiently than those on the control diet after 8-10 days and 18-20 days, and the bone (femur and tibia) ash weight and tibia calcium content of OVX rats fed on the GOS diet were significantly higher than those of the control animals. Although the serum total cholesterol of the ovariectomized rats was significantly elevated, GOS produced a significant hypocholesterolemic effect in the OVX rats. GOS, which is fermented by bacteria in the lower part of the intestine, enhanced volatile fatty acid production, and thus prevented bone loss and lower serum total cholesterol concentration in the ovariectomized rats.

  10. Calcium metabolism in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Munro

    2010-01-01

    This brief review focuses on calcium balance and homeostasis and their relationship to dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation in healthy subjects and patients with chronic kidney disease and mineral bone disorders (CKD-MBD). Calcium balance refers to the state of the calcium body stores, primarily in bone, which are largely a function of dietary intake, intestinal absorption, renal excretion, and bone remodeling. Bone calcium balance can be positive, neutral, or negative, depending on a number of factors, including growth, aging, and acquired or inherited disorders. Calcium homeostasis refers to the hormonal regulation of serum ionized calcium by parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and serum ionized calcium itself, which together regulate calcium transport at the gut, kidney, and bone. Hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia indicate serious disruption of calcium homeostasis but do not reflect calcium balance on their own. Calcium balance studies have determined the dietary and supplemental calcium requirements needed to optimize bone mass in healthy subjects. However, similar studies are needed in CKD-MBD, which disrupts both calcium balance and homeostasis, because these data in healthy subjects may not be generalizable to this patient group. Importantly, increasing evidence suggests that calcium supplementation may enhance soft tissue calcification and cardiovascular disease in CKD-MBD. Further research is needed to elucidate the risks and mechanisms of soft tissue calcification with calcium supplementation in both healthy subjects and CKD-MBD patients.

  11. Subcutis calcinosis caused by injection of calcium-containing heparin in a chronic kidney injury patient.

    PubMed

    Fatma, Lilia Ben; El Ati, Zohra; Azzouz, Haifa; Rais, Lamia; Krid, Madiha; Smaoui, Wided; Maiz, Hédi Ben; Béji, Soumaya; Zouaghi, Karim; Zitouna, Moncef; Moussa, Fatma Ben

    2014-09-01

    Subcutis calcinosis, characterized by abnormal calcium deposits in the skin, is a rare complication of using calcium-containing heparin occurring in patients with advanced renal failure. We report the case of an 83-year-old female, a known case of chronic kidney disease (CKD) for four years with recent worsening of renal failure requiring hospitalization and hemodialysis. She developed subcutis calcinosis following injection of calcium-containing heparin. Biochemical tests showed serum parathormone level at 400 pg/dL, hypercalcemia, elevated calcium-phosphate product and monoclonal gammopathy related to multiple myeloma. She developed firm subcutaneous nodules in the abdomen and the thighs, the injection sites of Calciparin ® (calcium nadroparin) that was given as a preventive measure against deep vein thrombosis. The diagnosis of subcutis calcinosis was confirmed by the histological examination showing calcium deposit in the dermis and hypodermis. These lesions completely disappeared after discontinuing calcium nadroparin injections. Subcutis calcinosis caused by injections of calcium-containing heparin is rare, and, to the best our knowledge, not more than 12 cases have been reported in the literature. Pathogenesis is not well established but is attributed to the calcium disorders usually seen in advanced renal failure. Diagnosis is confirmed by histological tests. Outcome is mostly favorable. The main differential diagnosis is calciphylaxis, which has a poor prognosis. Even though rarely reported, we should be aware that CKD patients with elevated calcium-phosphorus product can develop subcutis calcinosis induced by calcium-containing heparin. When it occurs, fortunately and unlike calciphylaxis, outcome is favorable. PMID:25193911

  12. Subcutis calcinosis caused by injection of calcium-containing heparin in a chronic kidney injury patient.

    PubMed

    Fatma, Lilia Ben; El Ati, Zohra; Azzouz, Haifa; Rais, Lamia; Krid, Madiha; Smaoui, Wided; Maiz, Hédi Ben; Béji, Soumaya; Zouaghi, Karim; Zitouna, Moncef; Moussa, Fatma Ben

    2014-09-01

    Subcutis calcinosis, characterized by abnormal calcium deposits in the skin, is a rare complication of using calcium-containing heparin occurring in patients with advanced renal failure. We report the case of an 83-year-old female, a known case of chronic kidney disease (CKD) for four years with recent worsening of renal failure requiring hospitalization and hemodialysis. She developed subcutis calcinosis following injection of calcium-containing heparin. Biochemical tests showed serum parathormone level at 400 pg/dL, hypercalcemia, elevated calcium-phosphate product and monoclonal gammopathy related to multiple myeloma. She developed firm subcutaneous nodules in the abdomen and the thighs, the injection sites of Calciparin ® (calcium nadroparin) that was given as a preventive measure against deep vein thrombosis. The diagnosis of subcutis calcinosis was confirmed by the histological examination showing calcium deposit in the dermis and hypodermis. These lesions completely disappeared after discontinuing calcium nadroparin injections. Subcutis calcinosis caused by injections of calcium-containing heparin is rare, and, to the best our knowledge, not more than 12 cases have been reported in the literature. Pathogenesis is not well established but is attributed to the calcium disorders usually seen in advanced renal failure. Diagnosis is confirmed by histological tests. Outcome is mostly favorable. The main differential diagnosis is calciphylaxis, which has a poor prognosis. Even though rarely reported, we should be aware that CKD patients with elevated calcium-phosphorus product can develop subcutis calcinosis induced by calcium-containing heparin. When it occurs, fortunately and unlike calciphylaxis, outcome is favorable.

  13. Elevated Serum Retinol and Low Beta-Carotene but not Alpha-Tocopherol Concentrations Are Associated with Dyslipidemia in Brazilian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Mellina Neyla de Lima; Diniz, Alcides da Silva; Arruda, Ilma Kruze Grande de

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of retinol, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol serum concentrations in adolescents with dyslipidemia. A case series dyslipidemia study was conducted, with an attached control group, including 104 adolescents of public schools in Recife during the months of March/April 2013. Retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol serum concentrations were analysed by high efficiency liquid chromatography. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical and biochemical variables were analysed. Dyslipidemic adolescents had high serum concentrations of both retinol (p=0.007) and beta-carotene/apolipoprotein A-I ratio (p=0.034); they also had low concentrations of beta-carotene/total cholesterol (p<0.0001) and beta-carotene/apolipoprotein B ratios (p=0.033) when compared to the controls. The alpha-tocopherol serum status was not associated with dyslipidemia. Overweight, abdominal obesity, lipid profile markers, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were more prevalent in dyslipidemic adolescents. The findings show an association between vitamin A and dyslipidemia in adolescents. However, additional investigations of this risk group are necessary to clarify the mechanisms of action of this nutrient in the pathogenesis of this syndrome, aiming at reducing cardiometabolic risks as of earlier ages. PMID:27264090

  14. Elevated hepcidin serum level in response to inflammatory and iron signals in exercising athletes is independent of moderate supplementation with vitamin C and E.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Víctor; Peinado, Ana B; Barba-Moreno, Laura; Altamura, Sandro; Butragueño, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Alteheld, Birgit; Stehle, Peter; Zapico, Augusto G; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Gassmann, Max

    2015-08-01

    Iron deficiency among endurance athletes is of major concern for coaches, physicians, and nutritionists. Recently, it has been observed that hepcidin, the master regulator of iron metabolism, was upregulated after exercise and was found to be related to interleukin-6 (IL-6) elevation. In this study performed on noniron deficient and well-trained runners, we observed that hepcidin concentrations remain elevated in response to inflammatory and iron signals despite a 28-days supplementation period with vitamins C (500 mg/day) and E (400 IU/day).

  15. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  16. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    High levels of urine calcium (above 300 mg/day) may be due to: Chronic kidney disease High vitamin D levels Leaking of calcium from the kidneys into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking ...

  17. Elevated serum miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 are noninvasive biomarkers for the presence and progression of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Song, Jiaxi; Bu, Xiaomin; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Jia; Cai, Jialu; Wan, Shujun; Fan, Chunli; Zhang, Chunni; Wang, Junjun

    2016-04-01

    The levels of miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 have been reported to be up-regulated in the tissues of experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) rat models. However, the clinical diagnostic and prognostic values of the serum signatures of these 3 miRNAs in TBI remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression levels of these 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in the sera of TBI patients and to evaluate their relationships with the severity and clinical outcome of TBI. The serum levels of these miRNAs were assessed in TBI patients (n = 76) and healthy controls (n = 38) by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. The severities and clinical outcomes of the TBI patients were evaluated with the Glasgow coma scale and the Glasgow outcome scale. The serum miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 levels were significantly increased in the TBI patients compared with the controls at all examined time points, and these levels were significantly higher in the patients with severe TBI than in those with moderate or mild TBI (p < 0.05). The serum miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 levels were significantly higher in the patients with a poor outcome than in those with a good outcome (p < 0.05). The AUCs of miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 for distinguishing the TBI patients from the healthy controls were 1.000 (p < 0.001), 0.727 (p < 0.001) and 0.801 (p < 0.001), respectively. Interestingly, the AUCs of miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 for distinguishing the mild TBI patients from the healthy controls were 1.000 (p < 0.001), 0.742 (p < 0.001) and 0.819 (p < 0.001), respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 are potentially valuable indicators of the diagnosis, severity, and prognosis of TBI. Our study showed that the serum levels of miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 are all increased in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. Their serum levels are associated with TBI severity and outcome, which suggest that these miRNAs play important roles in the pathogenesis

  18. Elevated serum IL-35 and increased expression of IL-35-p35 or -EBI3 in CD4+CD25+ T cells in patients with active tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Bin; Liu, Gan-Bin; Zhang, Jun-Ai; Fu, Xiao-Xia; Xiang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yu-Chi; Lu, Yuan-Bin; Wu, Xian-Jing; Qiu, Feng; Wang, Wan-Dang; Yi, Lai-Long; Zhong, Ji-Xin; Chen, Zheng W; Xu, Jun-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent appreciation of interleukin 35 (IL-35) function in inflammatory diseases, little is known for IL-35 response in patients with active tuberculosis (ATB). In the current study, we demonstrated that ATB patients exhibited increases in serum IL-35 and in mRNA expression of both subunits of IL-35 (p35 and EBI3) in white blood cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Consistently, anti-TB drug treatment led to reduction in serum IL-35 level and p35 or EBI3 expression. TB infection was associated with expression of p35 or EBI3 protein in CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells. Most p35+CD4+ T cells and EBI3+CD4+ T cells expressed Treg-associated marker CD25. Our findings may be important in understanding immune pathogenesis of TB. IL-35 in the blood may potentially serve as a biomarker for immune status and prognosis in TB. PMID:27158354

  19. Elevated serum IL-35 and increased expression of IL-35-p35 or -EBI3 in CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells in patients with active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Bin; Liu, Gan-Bin; Zhang, Jun-Ai; Fu, Xiao-Xia; Xiang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yu-Chi; Lu, Yuan-Bin; Wu, Xian-Jing; Qiu, Feng; Wang, Wan-Dang; Yi, Lai-Long; Zhong, Ji-Xin; Chen, Zheng W; Xu, Jun-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent appreciation of interleukin 35 (IL-35) function in inflammatory diseases, little is known for IL-35 response in patients with active tuberculosis (ATB). In the current study, we demonstrated that ATB patients exhibited increases in serum IL-35 and in mRNA expression of both subunits of IL-35 (p35 and EBI3) in white blood cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Consistently, anti-TB drug treatment led to reduction in serum IL-35 level and p35 or EBI3 expression. TB infection was associated with expression of p35 or EBI3 protein in CD4(+) but not CD8(+) T cells. Most p35(+)CD4(+) T cells and EBI3(+)CD4(+) T cells expressed Treg-associated marker CD25. Our findings may be important in understanding immune pathogenesis of TB. IL-35 in the blood may potentially serve as a biomarker for immune status and prognosis in TB.

  20. Elevated serum levels of high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and its association with disease activity and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Oktayoglu, Pelin; Em, Serda; Tahtasiz, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Mehtap; Ucar, Demet; Yazmalar, Levent; Nas, Kemal; Yardımeden, Ibrahim; Cevik, Figen; Celik, Yusuf; Mete, Nuriye

    2013-05-01

    This study was carried out to determine the serum levels of high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to evaluate its correlation with disease activity and quality of life. According to our knowledge, it is the first trial evaluating HMGB1 levels in AS. Serum samples of 30 patients (18 males and 12 females) with AS and 29 healthy controls (HC) (15 females and 14 males) were collected. HMGB1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, activity of disease was assessed according to the Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), and functional status of patients was evaluated with Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI). Modified Schober, chest expansion values and AS Quality of Life Questionnaire (ASQoL) scores were noted. The serum levels of HMGB1 were obtained significantly increased in AS patients compared to HC (p < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between HMGB1 levels and ESR (p > 0.05), and CRP (p > 0.05) values. BASDAI, BASFI and ASQoL scores were also not correlated with serum levels of HMGB1 (p > 0.05). Our results suggest that HMGB1 might play an important role in the pathogenesis of AS; however, it seems not to be a good candidate for reflecting disease activity, functional abilities and the quality of life in patients with AS; on the other hand, the increased levels of HMGB1 in patients may open a new dimension for targeting this cytokine as a new therapy option in AS.

  1. Contribution of calcium-activated chloride channel to elevated pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Chuansi; Ma, Jianfa; Lao, Jinquan; Pang, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the possible role and effects of CaCC in this disease. Sixty rats were randomly assigned to normal, sham, and shunt groups. Rats in the shunt group underwent abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt surgery. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by catheterization. Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI), arterial wall area/vessel area (W/V), and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter (T/D) were analyzed by optical microscopy. Electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were investigated using patch clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH and pulmonary vascular structural remodeling (PVSR) developed, accompanied by increased pulmonary pressure and pathological interstitial pulmonary changes. Compared with normal and sham groups, pulmonary artery pressure, RVHI, W/V, and T/D of the shunt group rats increased significantly. Electrophysiological results showed primary CaCC characteristics. Compared with normal and sham groups, membrane capacitance and current density of PASMCs in the shunt group increased significantly, which were subsequently attenuated following chloride channel blocker niflumic acid (NFA) treatment. To conclude, CaCC contributed to PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow and may represent a potential target for treatment of PAH. PMID:25755701

  2. Contribution of calcium-activated chloride channel to elevated pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Chuansi; Ma, Jianfa; Lao, Jinquan; Pang, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the possible role and effects of CaCC in this disease. Sixty rats were randomly assigned to normal, sham, and shunt groups. Rats in the shunt group underwent abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt surgery. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by catheterization. Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI), arterial wall area/vessel area (W/V), and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter (T/D) were analyzed by optical microscopy. Electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were investigated using patch clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH and pulmonary vascular structural remodeling (PVSR) developed, accompanied by increased pulmonary pressure and pathological interstitial pulmonary changes. Compared with normal and sham groups, pulmonary artery pressure, RVHI, W/V, and T/D of the shunt group rats increased significantly. Electrophysiological results showed primary CaCC characteristics. Compared with normal and sham groups, membrane capacitance and current density of PASMCs in the shunt group increased significantly, which were subsequently attenuated following chloride channel blocker niflumic acid (NFA) treatment. To conclude, CaCC contributed to PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow and may represent a potential target for treatment of PAH.

  3. T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 deficient mice show elevated anxiety, impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Laffray, Sophie; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The fine-tuning of neuronal excitability relies on a tight control of Ca2+ homeostasis. The low voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 isoforms) play a critical role in regulating these processes. Despite their wide expression throughout the central nervous system, the implication of T-type Cav3.2 isoform in brain functions is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigate the effect of genetic ablation of this isoform in affective disorders, including anxiety, cognitive functions as well as sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Using a wide range of behavioral assays we show that genetic ablation of the cacna1h gene results in an anxiety-like phenotype, whereas novelty-induced locomotor activity is unaffected. Deletion of the T-type channel Cav3.2 also triggers impairment of hippocampus-dependent recognition memories. Acute and sensitized hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and cocaine are dramatically reduced in T-type Cav3.2 deficient mice. In addition, the administration of the T-type blocker TTA-A2 prevented the expression of locomotor sensitization observed in wildtype mice. In conclusion, our data reveal that physiological activity of this specific Ca2+ channel is required for affective and cognitive behaviors. Moreover, our work highlights the interest of T-type channel blockers as therapeutic strategies to reverse drug-associated alterations. PMID:24672455

  4. Non-Specific Inhibition of Ischemia- and Acidosis-Induced Intracellular Calcium Elevations and Membrane Currents by α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, Butylated Hydroxytoluene and Trolox

    PubMed Central

    Katnik, Christopher; Cuevas, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia, and subsequent acidosis, induces neuronal death following brain injury. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key component of this neuronal degeneration. Acute chemical ischemia (azide in the absence of external glucose) and acidosis (external media buffered to pH 6.0) produce increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and inward membrane currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. Two α-tocopherol analogues, trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and the spin trapping molecule α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) were used to determine the role of free radicals in these responses. PBN and BHT inhibited the initial transient increases in [Ca2+]i, produced by ischemia, acidosis and acidic ischemia and increased steady state levels in response to acidosis and the acidic ischemia. BHT and PBN also potentiated the rate at which [Ca2+]i increased after the initial transients during acidic ischemia. Trolox inhibited peak and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i during ischemia. BHT inhibited ischemia induced initial inward currents and trolox inhibited initial inward currents activated by acidosis and acidic ischemia. Given the inconsistent results obtained using these antioxidants, it is unlikely their effects were due to elimination of free radicals. Instead, it appears these compounds have non-specific effects on the ion channels and exchangers responsible for these responses. PMID:24583849

  5. Non-specific inhibition of ischemia- and acidosis-induced intracellular calcium elevations and membrane currents by α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, butylated hydroxytoluene and trolox.

    PubMed

    Katnik, Christopher; Cuevas, Javier

    2014-02-27

    Ischemia, and subsequent acidosis, induces neuronal death following brain injury. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key component of this neuronal degeneration. Acute chemical ischemia (azide in the absence of external glucose) and acidosis (external media buffered to pH 6.0) produce increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and inward membrane currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. Two α-tocopherol analogues, trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and the spin trapping molecule α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) were used to determine the role of free radicals in these responses. PBN and BHT inhibited the initial transient increases in [Ca2+]i, produced by ischemia, acidosis and acidic ischemia and increased steady state levels in response to acidosis and the acidic ischemia. BHT and PBN also potentiated the rate at which [Ca2+]i increased after the initial transients during acidic ischemia. Trolox inhibited peak and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i during ischemia. BHT inhibited ischemia induced initial inward currents and trolox inhibited initial inward currents activated by acidosis and acidic ischemia. Given the inconsistent results obtained using these antioxidants, it is unlikely their effects were due to elimination of free radicals. Instead, it appears these compounds have non-specific effects on the ion channels and exchangers responsible for these responses.

  6. Comparisons of serum sclerostin levels among patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, primary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia.

    PubMed

    Kaji, H; Imanishi, Y; Sugimoto, T; Seino, S

    2011-07-01

    Wnt-β-catenin signaling is important for bone formation. Sclerostin inhibits bone formation mainly by suppressing this signal, and several studies suggest that the suppression of sclerostin expression contributes to the bone anabolic action of parathyroid hormone (PTH). We therefore examined serum sclerostin levels using enzyme-linked immunosolvent assay in 18 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, 9 postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) and 7 patients with osteomalacia. Serum levels of sclerostin were significantly lower in the group with pHPT, compared with those with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Moreover, serum sclerostin levels were significantly lower in the group with tumor-induced osteomalacia, but not in the group with osteomalacia without tumor, compared with those with postmenopausal osteoporosis. In patients with pHPT, serum sclerostin levels were significantly and negatively correlated to serum calcium and PTH levels. In patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, serum levels of sclerostin levels were significantly and positively related to serum calcium and creatinine levels. In conclusion, we showed that serum sclerostin levels are decreased presumably through endogenous PTH elevation in postmenopausal women with pHPT, compared with the patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  7. Low Serum Testosterone Levels Are Associated with Elevated Urinary Mandelic Acid, and Strontium Levels in Adult Men According to the US 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Héroux, Paul; Zhang, Qunwei; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Gu, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the effects of environmental exposure of chemicals on androgenic system in the general population. We studied 5,107 subjects included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011–2012). Methods Urinary, serum, and blood levels of 15 subclasses comprising 110 individual chemicals were analyzed for their association with serum testosterone levels. The subjects were divided into high and low testosterone groups according to the median testosterone concentration (374.51 ng/dL). Odds ratios (ORs) of individual chemicals in association with testosterone were estimated using logistic regression after adjusting for age, ethnicity, cotinine, body mass index, creatinine, alcohol, and the poverty income ratio. Results Adjusted ORs for the highest versus lowest quartiles of exposure were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.07, 4.21; Ptrend = 0.044), 1.84 (95% CI: 1.02, 3.34; Ptrend = 0.018) for the association between urinary mandelic acid, and strontium quartiles with low testosterone concentrations in adult men, respectively. However, no association was observed for the remaining chemicals with testosterone. Conclusions The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data suggest that elevations in urinary mandelic acid, and strontium levels are negatively related to low serum testosterone levels in adult men. PMID:25996772

  8. Parathyroid and Calcium Status in Patients with Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Meenu; Abrol, Pankaj

    2010-01-01

    Thirty patients with thalassemia major receiving repeated blood transfusion were studied to see their serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium status. Serum PTH, serum and 24 h urinary calcium, and serum alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, and albumin-corrected calcium levels were determined. Half of these patients, in addition to transfusion, were also supplemented with vitamin D (60,000 IU for 10d) and calcium (1500 mg/day for 3 months). Serum PTH, and serum and 24 h urinary calcium concentrations of the patients receiving transfusions were found to be significantly reduced while their serum alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, and albumin-corrected calcium levels were not significantly altered when compared to the respective mean values for the control group. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation significantly increased their serum PTH and calcium levels. Supplementations also increased urinary excretion of calcium. The results thus suggest that patients with thalassemia have hypoparathyroidism and reduced serum calcium concentrations that in turn were improved with vitamin D and calcium supplementation. PMID:21966110

  9. IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with only lymphadenopathy and without elevated serum IgG4 or renal imaging abnormalities: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Xi; Wang, Lihua; Wang, Chen; Gao, Lifang; Yao, Shulei; Wu, Liran; Zhang, Xiaoqin

    2015-01-01

    IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN) is the most common renal manifestation of IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD) and may cause acute or chronic renal dysfunction. Imaging often shows heterogeneous densities in the kidneys, such as a mass or multiple nodules. Serology usually demonstrates high levels of serum IgG4 and total IgG. Most patients have other organs involvement by IgG4 related disease. Although lymphadenopathy is frequently observed in patients with IgG4-TIN, it is rarely presented as the only extrarenal lesion. Herein, we present a rare case of IgG4-TIN associated with only lymphadenopathy and without elevated serum IgG4 or renal imaging abnormalities. A 61-year-old Chinese man was admitted to our hospital with seven months history of generalized lymphadenopathy and five months history of renal dysfunction. His renal imaging was normal. He had no current or previous clinical, radiographic, and/or histologic evidence of other organ involvement except for the lymphadenopathy. Renal biopsy indicated plasma cell-rich TIN with an increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells and storiform fibrosis. Repeated lymph nodes biopsy revealed IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. However, he did not have elevated serum IgG4 or total IgG levels. Oral prednisone therapy improved his renal function and lymphadenopathy. These findings supported our final diagnosis of IgG4-TIN. Clinicians should be aware of this condition and steroid therapy should be considered for such patients. An early diagnosis and appropriate therapy can induce remission and preserve renal function. PMID:26770608

  10. Lifelong challenge of calcium homeostasis in male mice lacking TRPV5 leads to changes in bone and calcium metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Roschger, Paul; Zillikens, M. Carola; Waarsing, Jan H.; van der Kemp, Annemiete; Schreuders-Koedam, Marijke; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Leenen, Pieter J.M.; Hoenderop, Joost G.J.; Klaushofer, Klaus; Bindels, René J.M.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Trpv5 plays an important role in calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, among others by mediating renal calcium reabsorption. Accordingly, Trpv5 deficiency strongly stresses Ca2+ homeostasis in order to maintain stable serum Ca2+. We addressed the impact of lifelong challenge of calcium homeostasis on the bone phenotype of these mice. Aging significantly increased serum 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTH levels in both genotypes but they were more elevated in Trpv5−/− mice, whereas serum Ca2+ was not affected by age or genotype. Age-related changes in trabecular and cortical bone mass were accelerated in Trpv5−/− mice, including reduced trabecular and cortical bone thickness as well as reduced bone mineralization. No effect of Trpv5 deficiency on bone strength was observed. In 78-week-old mice no differences were observed between the genotypes regarding urinary deoxypyridinoline, osteoclast number, differentiation and activity as well as osteoclast precursor numbers, as assessed by flow cytometry. In conclusion, life-long challenge of Ca2+ homeostasis present in Trpv5−/− mice causes accelerated bone aging and a low cortical and trabecular bone mass phenotype. The phenotype of the Trpv5−/− mice suggests that maintenance of adequate circulatory Ca2+ levels in patients with disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis should be a priority in order to prevent bone loss at older age. PMID:27102152

  11. Boron Induces Early Matrix Mineralization via Calcium Deposition and Elevation of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Differentiated Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Movahedi Najafabadi, Bent-al-hoda; Abnosi, Mohammad Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Objective Boron (B) is essential for plant development and might be an essential micronutrient for animals and humans. This study was conducted to characterize the impact of boric acid (BA) on the cellular and molecular nature of differentiated rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, BMSCs were extracted and expanded to the 3rdpassage, then cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) complemented with osteogenic media as well as 6 ng/ml and 6 µg/ml of BA. After 5, 10, 15 and 21 days the viability and the level of mineralization was determined using MTT assay and alizarin red respectively. In addition, the morphology, nuclear diameter and cytoplasmic area of the cells were studied with the help of fluorescent dye. The concentration of calcium, activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as sodium and potassium levels were also evaluated using commercial kits and a flame photometer respectively. Results Although 6 µg/ml of BA was found to be toxic, a concentration of 6 ng/ml increased the osteogenic ability of the cell significantly throughout the treatment. In addition it was observed that B treatment caused the early induction of matrix mineralization compared to controls. Conclusion Although more investigation is required, we suggest the prescription of a very low concentration of B in the form of BA or foods containing BA, in groups at high risk of osteoporosis or in the case of bone fracture. PMID:27054120

  12. High Epstein-Barr virus serum load and elevated titers of anti-ZEBRA antibodies in patients with EBV-harboring tumor cells of Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Drouet, E; Brousset, P; Fares, F; Icart, J; Verniol, C; Meggetto, F; Schlaifer, D; Desmorat-Coat, H; Rigal-Huguet, F; Niveleau, A; Delsol, G

    1999-04-01

    Hodgkin's disease is commonly associated with EBV latent infection. The incidence of EBV reactivation (active infection or EBV infection with replicative cycle) was evaluated in a series of 30 patients with untreated Hodgkin's disease (except for one case with chronic lymphocytic leukemia) by quantitation of EBV DNA and titration of anti-ZEBRA antibodies in serum samples. DNA was detected in serum (>2.5 x 10(2) genomes/ml) in 15 of 30 patients and was more frequent in Hodgkin's disease with EBV-positive Reed-Sternberg cells (10/12) than in EBV-negative cases (5/18), (P< 0.01). Of interest was the demonstration that viremia correlated well with increased titers of anti-ZEBRA IgG and/or standard serological profiles of EBV reactivation (12/15), (P < 0.05). However the lack of EBV replicative cycle in Reed-Sternberg cells (negative for ZEBRA antigen and early antigen BHLF1) suggests that the viral replication occurs in a nonneoplastic cell compartment rather than in tumor cells. The measurement of EBV DNA loads and the titration of anti-ZEBRA antibodies shed new lights on the link between activation of EBV replication and Hodgkin's disease: these serological markers together with the determination of the EBV status of the tumor suggest that replication of the viral genome occurs with a decreased efficiency of the immune system, thus allowing progression of the tumor.

  13. An approach for manganese biomonitoring using a manganese carrier switch in serum from transferrin to citrate at slightly elevated manganese concentration.

    PubMed

    Michalke, B; Aslanoglou, L; Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou, M; Bergström, B; Berthele, A; Vinceti, M; Lucio, M; Lidén, G

    2015-10-01

    After high-dose-short-term exposure (usually from occupational exposure) and even more under low-dose long term exposure (mainly environmental) manganese (Mn) biomonitoring is still problematic since these exposure scenarios are not necessarily reflected by a significant increase of total Mn in blood or serum. Usually, Mn concentrations of exposed and unexposed persons overlap and individual differentiation is often not possible. In this paper Mn speciation on a large sample size (n=180) was used in order to be able to differentiate between highly Mn-exposed or low or unexposed individuals at low total Mn concentration in serum (Mn(S)). The whole sample set consisted of three subsets from Munich, Emilia Romagna region in Italy and from Sweden. It turned out that also at low total Mn(S) concentrations a change in major Mn carriers in serum takes place from Mn-transferrin (Mn-Tf(S)) towards Mn-citrate (Mn-Cit(S)) with high statistical significance (p<0.000002). This carrier switch from Mn-Tf(S) to Mn-Cit(S) was observed between Mn(S) concentrations of 1.5μg/L to ca. 1.7μg/L. Parallel to this carrier change, for sample donors from Munich where serum and cerebrospinal fluid were available, the concentration of Mn beyond neural barriers - analysed as Mn in cerebrospinal fluid (Mn(C)) - positively correlates to Mn-Cit(S) when Mn(S) concentration was above 1.7μg/L. The correlation between Mn-Cit(S) and Mn(C) reflects the facilitated Mn transport through neural barrier by means of Mn-citrate. Regional differences in switch points from Mn-Tf(S) to Mn-Cit(S) were observed for the three sample subsets. It is currently unknown whether these differences are due to differences in location, occupation, health status or other aspects. Based on our results, Mn-Cit(S) determination was considered as a potential means for estimating the Mn load in brain and CSF, i.e., it could be used as a biomarker for Mn beyond neural barrier. For a simpler Mn-Cit(S) determination than size

  14. An approach for manganese biomonitoring using a manganese carrier switch in serum from transferrin to citrate at slightly elevated manganese concentration.

    PubMed

    Michalke, B; Aslanoglou, L; Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou, M; Bergström, B; Berthele, A; Vinceti, M; Lucio, M; Lidén, G

    2015-10-01

    After high-dose-short-term exposure (usually from occupational exposure) and even more under low-dose long term exposure (mainly environmental) manganese (Mn) biomonitoring is still problematic since these exposure scenarios are not necessarily reflected by a significant increase of total Mn in blood or serum. Usually, Mn concentrations of exposed and unexposed persons overlap and individual differentiation is often not possible. In this paper Mn speciation on a large sample size (n=180) was used in order to be able to differentiate between highly Mn-exposed or low or unexposed individuals at low total Mn concentration in serum (Mn(S)). The whole sample set consisted of three subsets from Munich, Emilia Romagna region in Italy and from Sweden. It turned out that also at low total Mn(S) concentrations a change in major Mn carriers in serum takes place from Mn-transferrin (Mn-Tf(S)) towards Mn-citrate (Mn-Cit(S)) with high statistical significance (p<0.000002). This carrier switch from Mn-Tf(S) to Mn-Cit(S) was observed between Mn(S) concentrations of 1.5μg/L to ca. 1.7μg/L. Parallel to this carrier change, for sample donors from Munich where serum and cerebrospinal fluid were available, the concentration of Mn beyond neural barriers - analysed as Mn in cerebrospinal fluid (Mn(C)) - positively correlates to Mn-Cit(S) when Mn(S) concentration was above 1.7μg/L. The correlation between Mn-Cit(S) and Mn(C) reflects the facilitated Mn transport through neural barrier by means of Mn-citrate. Regional differences in switch points from Mn-Tf(S) to Mn-Cit(S) were observed for the three sample subsets. It is currently unknown whether these differences are due to differences in location, occupation, health status or other aspects. Based on our results, Mn-Cit(S) determination was considered as a potential means for estimating the Mn load in brain and CSF, i.e., it could be used as a biomarker for Mn beyond neural barrier. For a simpler Mn-Cit(S) determination than size

  15. A Splenic Epithelial Cyst: Increased Size, Exacerbation of Symptoms, and Elevated Levels of Serum Carcinogenic Antigen 19-9 after 6-year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Toru; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Sugiura, Teichi; Sasaki, Keiko; Ito, Hiroaki; Hotta, Kinichi; Imai, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Masaki; Kakushima, Naomi; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A 58-year-old man, who had presented with a large cyst between the pancreatic tail and splenic hilum 6 years previously, was referred to our hospital with exacerbation of abdominal distention. Computed tomography revealed a well-demarcated, unilocular cyst, with a beak sign for the pancreas, without wall thickening or nodules suggestive of a non-neoplastic cyst. Compared with 6 years previously, the cyst had increased in size from 14.7 cm to 19.5 cm, and the serum carcinogenic antigen 19-9 level had increased from 635 U/mL to 1,918 U/mL. To prevent spontaneous rupture, laparotomy was performed, and the cyst was pathologically diagnosed as a splenic epithelial cyst. PMID:27629958

  16. Serum copper, ceruloplasmin, protein thiols and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance status in liver cancer associated with elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Shivananda B; Yashwanth, S; Pinto, Sneha M; Bhat, Vinutha R; Mayya, Srimathi S

    2005-01-01

    Serum copper, ceruloplasmin, protein thiols and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TEARS) were estimated in 25 patients of liver cancer. The copper to ceruloplasmin ratio was moderately increased (P<0.05) but the copper (P<0.001) and ceruloplasmin (P<0.001) levels were significantly increased in liver cancer patients when compared to controls. Protein thiols levels were found to be highly significant (P<0.001). Where as the TEARS levels were not found to be significant. Trace elements and free radicals have been implicated in the etiology of cancer. Hence the estimation of ceruloplasmin and protein thiols along with the copper may be of high value in the early diagnosis of cancer.

  17. Elevated serum levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and stem cell growth factor β in patients with idiopathic and systemic sclerosis associated pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Stefanantoni, K; Sciarra, I; Vasile, M; Badagliacca, R; Poscia, R; Pendolino, M; Alessandri, C; Vizza, C D; Valesini, G; Riccieri, V

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can be idiopathic or secondary to autoimmune diseases, and it represents one of the most threatening complications of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine with proinflammatory functions that appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced PH. In SSc patients, high serum levels of MIF have been associated with the development of ulcers and PAH. Stem cell growth factor β (SCGF β) is a human growth factor that, together with MIF, is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic spinal cord injury. The aim of our study was to measure serum levels of MIF in patients with idiopathic and SSc-associated PAH. We enrolled 13 patients with idiopathic PAH and 15 with SSc-associated PAH. We also selected 14 SSc patients without PAH and 12 normal healthy controls, matched for sex and age. PAH was confirmed by right hearth catheterism (mPAP>25 mmHg). MIF and SCGF β levels were measured by ELISA. We found significantly higher circulating levels of MIF and of SCGF β in patients with idiopathic PAH (P=0.03 and P=0.004) and with PAH secondary to SSc (P=0.018 and P=0.023) compared to SSc patients without PAH. Higher levels of MIF were found in those patients with an higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) class (P=0.03). We can hypothesize that MIF and SCGF β are able to play a role in PAH, both idiopathic or secondary, and in the future they may be evaluated as useful biomarkers and prognostic factors for this serious vascular disease.

  18. The mildly elevated serum bilirubin level is negatively associated with the incidence of end stage renal disease in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Chin, Ho Jun; Cho, Hyun Jin; Lee, Tae Woo; Na, Ki Young; Oh, Kook Hwan; Joo, Kwon Wook; Yoon, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yon-Su; Ahn, Curie; Han, Jin Suk; Kim, Suhnggwon; Jeon, En Sil; Jin, Dong Chan; Kim, Yong-Lim; Park, Sun-Hee; Kim, Chan-Duck; Song, Young Rim; Kim, Seong Gyun; Kim, Yoon Goo; Lee, Jung Eun; Oh, Yoon Kyu; Lim, Chun Soo; Lee, Sang Koo; Chae, Dong-Wan; Cho, Won Yong; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Jo, Sang-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays various roles in the development and progression of IgA nephropathy, while bilirubin is known as a potent antioxidant. We therefore hypothesized that serum bilirubin would be associated with renal prognosis in IgA nephropathy. The study subjects comprised 1,458 adult patients with primary IgA nephropathy in Korea. We grouped patients according to the following quartile levels of bilirubin: <0.4 mg/dL (Q1), 0.4-0.5 mg/dL (Q2), 0.6-0.7 mg/dL (Q3), and >0.8 mg/dL (Q4). The outcome data were obtained from the Korean Registry of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Eighty patients (5.5%) contracted ESRD during a mean follow-up period of 44.9 months. The ESRD incidences were 10.7% in Q1, 8.2% in Q2, 2.8% in Q3, and 2.8% in Q4 (p<0.001). The relative risk of ESRD compared to that in Q1 was 0.307 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.126-0.751) in Q3 and 0.315 (95% CI, 0.130-0.765) in Q4. The differences of ESRD incidence were greater in subgroups of males and of patients aged 35 yr or more, with serum albumin 4.0 g/dL or more, with normotension, with eGFR 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or more, and with proteinuria less then 3+ by dipstick test. In conclusion, higher bilirubin level was negatively associated with ESRD incidence in IgA nephropathy.

  19. Increased calcium absorption in prehypertensive spontaneously hypertensive rat. Role of serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels and intestinal brush border membrane fluidity.

    PubMed Central

    Lau, K; Langman, C B; Gafter, U; Dudeja, P K; Brasitus, T A

    1986-01-01

    Changes in Ca absorption have been described in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) compared with Wistar-Kyoto (WKy) rats. In 3.5-wk-old SHR and age-matched WKy controls, we measured direct arterial blood pressure, Ca absorption, and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] levels and small intestine brush border membrane (BBM) fluidity and lipid composition. The two objectives were (a) to define the nature of the absorptive changes before detectable hypertension and (b) to evaluate the potential mechanism(s). We found that even at this normotensive stage (106 +/- 4 vs. 107 +/- 2 torr for the female and 109 +/- 3 vs. 104 +/- 3 torr for the male), the SHR (a) absorbed more Ca (1.46 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.14 +/- 0.08 mmol/d and 1.53 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.28 +/- 0.06 mmol/d, respectively) and retained more Ca, (b) had higher serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels (340 +/- 36 vs. 160 +/- 18 pg/ml and 230 +/- 25 vs. 150 +/- 16 pg/ml, respectively), and (c) possessed BBM with increased fluidity and with reduced fatty acyl saturation index owing to decreased stearic (32.2 +/- 2.6% vs. 38.2 +/- 0.9%) but increased linoleic acids (12.2 +/- 2.0% vs. 7.6 +/- 1.6%). These results demonstrate increased Ca absorption in prehypertensive SHR associated with increased serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels, increased intestinal BBM fluidity, and reduced saturation index, which singly or in combination could produce the changes in intestinal Ca transport. PMID:3760184

  20. Circadian Models of Serum Potassium, Sodium, and Calcium Concentrations in Healthy Individuals and Their Application to Cardiac Electrophysiology Simulations at Individual Level

    PubMed Central

    Fijorek, Kamil; Puskulluoglu, Miroslawa

    2013-01-01

    In the article a brief description of the biological basis of the regulation of human biological clocks was presented in order to introduce the role of circadian rhythms in physiology and specifically in the pharmacological translational tools based on the computational physiology models to motivate the need to provide models of circadian fluctuation in plasma cations. The main aim of the study was to develop statistical models of the circadian rhythm of potassium, sodium, and calcium concentrations in plasma. The developed ion models were further tested by assessing their influence on QT duration (cardiac endpoint) as simulated by the biophysically detailed models of human left ventricular cardiomyocyte. The main results are model equations along with an electronic supplement to the article that contains a fully functional implementation of all models. PMID:24078832

  1. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Wastney, Meryl E.; OBrien, Kimberly O.; Lane, Helen W.

    1999-01-01

    Bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight, threatening to limit the duration of human space missions. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after extended-duration missions. The hypotheses to be tested in this project are that space flight alters calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism, and that calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism will return to baseline within days to weeks of return to Earth. These hypotheses will be evidenced by elevated rates of bone mineral resorption and decreased bone mineral deposition, decreased absorption of dietary calcium, altered calcitropic endocrine profiles, elevated excretion of calcium in urine and feces, and elevated excretion of markers of bone resorption. The second hypothesis will be evidenced by return of indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism to preflight levels within days to weeks of return to Earth. Studies will be conducted on International Space Station astronauts before, during, and after extended-duration flights. Measurements of calcium kinetics, bone mass, and endocrine/biochemical markers of bone and calcium homeostasis will be conducted. Kinetic studies utilizing dual isotope tracer kinetic studies and mathematical modeling techniques will allow for determination of bone calcium deposition, bone calcium resorption, dietary calcium absorption and calcium excretion (both urinary and endogenous fecal excretion). These studies will build upon preliminary work conducted on the Russian Mir space station. The results from this project will be critical for clarifying how microgravity affects bone and calcium homeostasis, and will provide an important control point for assessment of countermeasure efficacy. These results are expected to aid in developing countermeasures for bone loss, both for space crews and for individuals on Earth who have metabolic bone diseases.

  2. Retrospective Study of Serum Sclerostin Measurements in Bed Rest Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spatz, J. M.; Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Divieti, Pajevic P.; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, M. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton s response to mechanical unloading at the cellular level in part by an increase in sclerostin, an inhibitor of the anabolic Wnt pathway. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Thus, we determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men who participated in a controlled bed rest study. Seven healthy adult men (31 +/- 3 yrs old) underwent 90-day six-degree head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston's Institute for Translational Sciences - Clinical Research Center (ITS-CRC). Serum sclerostin, PTH, serum markers of bone turnover (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, RANKL/OPG, and osteocalcin), urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24 hour pooled urinary markers of bone resorption (NTX, DPD, PYD) were evaluated pre-bed rest (BL), bed rest day 28 (BR-28), bed rest day 60 (BR-60), and bed rest day 90 (BR-90). In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at BL, BR-60, and post bed rest day 5 (BR+5). Data are reported as mean +/- standard deviation. We used repeated measures ANOVA to compare baseline values to BR-28, BR-60, and BR-90. RESULTS Consistent with prior reports, BMD declined significantly (1-2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites (spine, hip, femur neck, and calcaneus). Serum sclerostin levels were elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29% +/- 20%, p = 0.003), BR-60 (+42% +/- 31%, p < 0.001), and BR-90 (22% +/- 21%, p = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (-17% +/- 16%, p = 0.02), BR-60 (-24% +/- 14%, p = 0.03), and returned to baseline at BR-90 (-21% +/- 21%, p = 0.14). Serum bone turnover markers did not change, however urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated following bed rest (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION We observed an increase of serum sclerostin

  3. Effect of vitamin D3, other drugs altering serum calcium or phosphorus concentrations, and desoxycorticosterone on the distribution of Tc-99m pyrophosphate between target and nontarget tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.

    1981-06-01

    Radioactive imaging agents are chemically designed for selective distribution. Another approach to selectivity is to find stable compounds that favorably influence this distribution. Using a rat model of myocardial necrosis, we studied effects of various stable compounds (as a single, large dose or fractionated into short series) on the ratio, uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PPi) by the target lesion/uptake by the principal nontarget, bone (L/B). Vitamin D3s ability to increase L/B was mediated by the hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia that it caused. The hypercalcemia was accompanied by increased (Ca) in the lesion. In contrast, pulse doses of desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) at 7 and 6 hr before killing increased uptake by lesion, increasing L/B from 0.19 +/- 0.03 to 0.45 +/- 0.08 (p less than 0.01), with no change in serum (Ca) and minimal changes in serum (P), (Na), and (K). DOCA also increased the lesion-to-blood ratio from 6.5 +/- 0.07 to 15.4 +/- 3.9 (p less than 0.05). These results encourage further study of DOCA's effect and investigation of other stable drugs that may influence distribution of other imaging agents.

  4. Serum Sclerostin Increases in Healthy Adult Men during Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Pajevic, P. Divieti; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, J. D.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton's response to mechanical unloading in part by an increase in sclerostin. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Objective: We determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men undergoing controlled bed rest. Design, Setting, and Participants: Seven healthy adult men (31 ± 3 yr old) underwent 90 d of 6° head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch Institute for Translational Sciences-Clinical Research Center. Outcomes: Serum sclerostin, PTH, vitamin D, bone resorption and formation markers, urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24-h pooled urinary markers of bone resorption were evaluated before bed rest [baseline (BL)] and at bed rest d 28 (BR-28), d 60 (BR-60), and d 90 (BR-90). Bone mineral density was measured at BL, BR-60, and 5 d after the end of the study (BR+5). Data are reported as mean ± sd. Results: Consistent with prior reports, bone mineral density declined significantly (1–2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites. Serum sclerostin was elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29 ± 20%; P = 0.003) and BR-60 (+42 ± 31%; P < 0.001), with a lesser increase at BR-90 (+22 ± 21%; P = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (−17 ± 16%; P = 0.02) and BR-60 (−24 ± 14%; P = 0.03) and remained lower than BL at BR-90 (−21 ± 21%; P = 0.14), but did not reach statistical significance. Serum bone turnover markers were unchanged; however, urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated at all time points after bed rest (P < 0.01). Conclusions: In healthy men subjected to controlled bed rest for 90 d, serum sclerostin increased, with a peak at 60, whereas serum PTH declined, and urinary calcium and bone resorption markers increased. PMID:22767636

  5. [Elevation of 7-dehydrocholesterol concentrations in serum and liver and pericentral peroxisome proliferation in hepatocytes of rats after inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by BM 15,766].

    PubMed

    Weiss, M C; Baumgart, E; Fahimi, H D; Pill, H; Rebel, W; Hartig, F

    1995-02-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were treated for three months with BM 15,766, an inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis in conjunction with standard or high-fat and high-cholesterol diets. In serum and livers of all drug-treated rats lowered cholesterol concentration associated with an increase of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) was found. Electron microscopy of the liver showed a distinct proliferation of peroxisomes and an increase of dumb-bell shaped mitochondria in the pericentral zone 3. Abnormal-shaped peroxisomes with DAB-negative loops attached to their membranes were found in the intermediate zone 2. These alterations were more accentuated in drug-treated rats fed standard diet, then in treated rats receiving a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet. The observations demonstrate, that the increase of 7-DHC is due to the inhibition of 7-DHC-delta 7-reductase by BM 15.766 and emphasize the zonal heterogeneity of hepatocytes. The relevance of these observations for the investigation of the human Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, in which also decreased plasma-cholesterol levels and an increase of 7-DHC were reported, is discussed.

  6. Elevated serum CA 19-9 level associated with a splenic cyst: which is the actual clinical management? Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bresadola, Vittorio; Pravisani, Riccardo; Terrosu, Giovanni; Risaliti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Splenic cysts are relatively rare entities. The differential diagnosis for these lesions includes parasite infections, results of previous trauma or infarction, congenital forms, primitive splenic neoplasm or cystic metastasis. They can be either symptomatic, causing mainly abdominal pain, or asymptomatic, thus being diagnosed as in incidental finding during radiological examination for other clinical reasons: among these a raised serum level of CA 19-9 can be a case. It has been demonstrated that epidermoid and mesothelial congenital cyst can be associated with a pathological level of this tumor marker which is usually correlated to biliopancreatic and colonic carcinomas. The aim of the present study is to present the case of an asymptomatic epidermoid splenic cyst associated with a continuous increase of CA 19-9 and to describe the applied clinical workup and surgical management by laparoscopic total splenectomy. Moreover, to analyze the demographics, clinical and pathological features of these infrequent lesions and to confront our therapeutic management with that of the other reported cases, we conducted a systematic review of the literature.

  7. Adequate Intake levels of choline are sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in Mexican American men but are not optimal for minimizing plasma total homocysteine increases after a methionine load2

    PubMed Central

    Veenema, Kristin; Solis, Claudia; Li, Rui; Wang, Wei; Maletz, Charles V; Abratte, Christian M; Caudill, Marie A

    2009-01-01

    Background An adequate intake of 550 mg choline/d was established for the prevention of liver dysfunction in men, as assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations. Objective This controlled feeding study investigated the influence of choline intakes ranging from 300 to 2200 mg/d on biomarkers of choline status. The effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype on choline status was also examined. Design Mexican American men (n = 60) with different MTHFR C677T genotypes (29 677TT, 31 677CC) consumed a diet providing 300 mg choline/d plus supplemental choline intakes of 0, 250, 800, or 1900 mg/d for total choline intakes of 300, 550, 1100, or 2200 mg/d, respectively, for 12 wk; 400 μg/d as dietary folate equivalents and 173 mg betaine/d were consumed throughout the study. Results Choline intake affected the response of plasma free choline and betaine (time × choline, P < 0.001); the highest concentrations were observed in the 2200 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine (P = 0.026) and total cholesterol (P = 0.002) were also influenced by choline intake; diminished concentrations were observed in the 300 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine was modified by MTHFR genotype (P = 0.035; 677TT < 677CC). After a methionine load (100 mg/kg body wt), choline intakes of 1100 and 2200 mg/d attenuated (P = 0.016) the rise in plasma homocysteine, as did the MTHFR 677TT genotype (P < 0.001). Serum alanine aminotransferase was not influenced by the choline intakes administered in this study. Conclusions These data suggest that 550 mg choline/d is sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in this population under the conditions of this study; higher intakes may be needed to optimize other endpoints. PMID:18779284

  8. Serum sickness

    MedlinePlus

    Drug allergy - serum sickness; Allergic reaction - serum sickness; Allergy - serum sickness ... penicillin, cefaclor, and sulfa) can cause a similar reaction. Injected proteins such as antithymocyte globulin (used to ...

  9. Preeclampsia serum-induced collagen I expression and intracellular calcium levels in arterial smooth muscle cells are mediated by the PLC-γ1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rongzhen; Teng, Yincheng; Huang, Yajuan; Gu, Jinghong; Ma, Li; Li, Ming; Zhou, Yuedi

    2014-09-26

    In women with preeclampsia (PE), endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction can lead to altered secretion of paracrine factors that induce peripheral vasoconstriction and proteinuria. This study examined the hypothesis that PE sera may directly or indirectly, through human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), stimulate phospholipase C-γ1-1,4,5-trisphosphate (PLC-γ1-IP3) signaling, thereby increasing protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) activity, collagen I expression and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs). HUASMCs and HUVECs were cocultured with normal or PE sera before PLC-γ1 silencing. Increased PLC-γ1 and IP3 receptor (IP3R) phosphorylation was observed in cocultured HUASMCs stimulated with PE sera (P<0.05). In addition, PE serum significantly increased HUASMC viability and reduced their apoptosis (P<0.05); these effects were abrogated with PLC-γ1 silencing. Compared with normal sera, PE sera increased [Ca(2+)]i in cocultured HUASMCs (P<0.05), which was inhibited by PLC-γ1 and IP3R silencing. Finally, PE sera-induced PKC-α activity and collagen I expression was inhibited by PLC-γ1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) (P<0.05). These results suggest that vasoactive substances in the PE serum may induce deposition in the extracellular matrix through the activation of PLC-γ1, which may in turn result in thickening and hardening of the placental vascular wall, placental blood supply shortage, fetal hypoxia-ischemia and intrauterine growth retardation or intrauterine fetal death. PE sera increased [Ca(2+)]i and induced PKC-α activation and collagen I expression in cocultured HUASMCs via the PLC-γ1 pathway.

  10. Elevated Preoperative Serum Alanine Aminotransferase/Aspartate Aminotransferase (ALT/AST) Ratio Is Associated with Better Prognosis in Patients Undergoing Curative Treatment for Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shu-Lin; Li, Jian-Pei; Li, Lin-Fang; Zeng, Tao; He, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The level of anine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio in the serum was often used to assess liver injury. Whether the ALT/AST ratio (LSR) was associated with prognosis for gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) has not been reported in the literature. Our aim was to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative LSR in patients with GA. A retrospective study was performed in 231 patients with GA undergoing curative resection. The medical records collected include clinical information and laboratory results. We investigated the correlations between the preoperative LSR and overall survival (OS). Survival analysis was conducted with the Kaplan–Meier method, and Cox regression analysis was used to determine significant independent prognostic factors for predicting survival. A p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 231 patients were finally enrolled. The median overall survival was 47 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that preoperative LSR was an independent prognostic factor in GA. Patients with LSR ≤ 0.80 had a greater risk of death than those with LSR > 0.80. The LSR was independently associated with OS in patients with GA (hazard ratio: 0.610; 95% confidence interval: 0.388–0.958; p = 0.032), along with tumor stages (hazard ratio: 3.118; 95% confidence interval: 2.044–4.756; p < 0.001) and distant metastases (hazard ratio: 1.957; 95% confidence interval: 1.119–3.422; p = 0.019). Our study first established a connection between the preoperative LSR and patients undergoing curative resection for GA, suggesting that LSR was a simple, inexpensive, and easily measurable marker as a prognostic factor, and may help to identify high-risk patients for treatment decisions. PMID:27294917

  11. [Characteristics of calcium-phosphorus metabolism and vitamin D allowance in the Far North].

    PubMed

    Blazheevich, N V; Spirichev, V B; Pereverzeva, O G; Tenditnaia, L V; Fanchenko, N D

    1983-01-01

    Examination of children aged 3 to 17 years and adult population including parturients living in Naryan-Mar and northern settlements of the Nenets national district revealed the reduced calcium and elevated phosphorus concentrations in the blood serum of the examinees as compared with respective parameters in analogous population groups living in the middle zone of Russia (Moscow and Kazan). These changes, particularly marked in winter and spring, are determined by national and local features of the diet poor in calcium and containing excess amount of phosphorus. The concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the blood serum of the population living in the Extreme North was 2 times lower than that in the population of the middle zone, constituting 15-20 and 30-40 ng/ml, respectively. The reason for a lower vitamin D supply in the North is insufficient insulation.

  12. Effect of a combined therapeutic approach of intensive lipid management, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, and increased serum 25 (OH) vitamin D on coronary calcium scores in asymptomatic adults.

    PubMed

    Davis, William; Rockway, Susie; Kwasny, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The impact of intensive lipid management, omega-3 fatty acid, and vitamin D3 supplementation on atherosclerotic plaque was assessed through serial computed tomography coronary calcium scoring (CCS). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction with statin therapy has not been shown to reduce or slow progression of serial CCS in several recent studies, casting doubt on the usefulness of this approach for tracking atherosclerotic progression. In an open-label study, 45 male and female subjects with CCS of > or = 50 without symptoms of heart disease were treated with statin therapy, niacin, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides < or = 60 mg/dL; high-density lipoprotein > or = 60 mg/dL; and vitamin D3 supplementation to achieve serum levels of > or = 50 ng/mL 25(OH) vitamin D, in addition to diet advice. Lipid profiles of subjects were significantly changed as follows: total cholesterol -24%, low-density lipoprotein -41%; triglycerides -42%, high-density lipoprotein +19%, and mean serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels +83%. After a mean of 18 months, 20 subjects experienced decrease in CCS with mean change of -14.5% (range 0% to -64%); 22 subjects experienced no change or slow annual rate of CCS increase of +12% (range 1%-29%). Only 3 subjects experienced annual CCS progression exceeding 29% (44%-71%). Despite wide variation in response, substantial reduction of CCS was achieved in 44% of subjects and slowed plaque growth in 49% of the subjects applying a broad treatment program. PMID:19092644

  13. Calcium regulates FGF-23 expression in bone.

    PubMed

    David, Valentin; Dai, Bing; Martin, Aline; Huang, Jinsong; Han, Xiaobin; Quarles, L Darryl

    2013-12-01

    Calcium has recently been shown to regulate fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), a bone-derived phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone. To better understand the regulation of FGF-23 by calcium, phosphorus, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D], and PTH, we examined FGF-23 expression under basal conditions and in response to PTH, doxercalciferol, or high-calcium diet treatment in Gcm2(-/-) and Cyp27b1(-/-) mutant mice. Gcm2(-/-) mice exhibited low serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia, whereas Cyp27b1(-/-) mice had high PTH, undetectable 1,25(OH)2D, hypocalcemia, and hypophosphatemia. Serum FGF-23 levels were decreased in both mutant models. Doxercalciferol administration increased serum FGF-23 levels in both mutant models. PTH administration to Gcm2(-/-) mice also increased serum FGF-23 levels, in association with an increase in both 1,25(OH)2D and calcium concentrations. Multiple regression analysis of pooled data indicated that changes in FGF-23 were positively correlated with serum calcium and 1,25(OH)2D but not related to changes in serum phosphate concentrations. A high-calcium diet also increased serum FGF-23 concentrations in Cyp27b1(-/-) mice in the absence of 1,25(OH)2D and in Gcm2(-/-) mice with low PTH. The addition of calcium to the culture media also stimulated FGF-23 message expression in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. In addition, FGF-23 promoter activity in cultured osteoblasts was inhibited by the L-calcium-channel inhibitor nifedipine and stimulated by calcium ionophores. The effects of chronic low calcium to prevent 1,25(OH)2D and PTH stimulation of FGF-23 in these mutant mouse models suggest that suppression of FGF-23 plays an important physiological adaptive response to hypocalcemia.

  14. Intracellular free calcium and mitosis in mammalian cells: anaphase onset is calcium modulated, but is not triggered by a brief transient

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts and LLC-PK epithelial cells in prometaphase or metaphase were either injected with fura-2 or loaded with the acetoxymethyl ester derivative of fura-2 (fura-2 AM) and monitored by microspectrofluorimetry. With both methods of loading, we observed two aspects of intracellular free calcium (Cai) metabolism. (a) Most fibroblasts and epithelial cells exhibited a gradual rise from 75 nM in metaphase to 185 nM during cleavage, returning to baseline by early G1. (b) Mitotic Swiss 3T3 cells exhibited rapid transient Cai changes, similar to those previously reported [Poenie, M., J. Alderton, R. Y. Tsien, R. A. Steinhardt. 1985. Nature (Lond.). 315:147-149; Poenie, M., J. Alderton, R. Steinhardt, and R. Tsien. 1986. Science (Wash. DC). 233:886-889; Ratan, R., and M. L. Shelanski. 1988. J. Cell Biol. 107:993]. These Cai transients occurred repetitively, often beginning in metaphase and continuing long after daughter cell formation. Eliminating serum or calcium from the medium abolished the transients, but delayed neither the gradual Cai elevation nor anaphase onset. Co- injection of EGTA or 1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'- tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) with fura-2 in calcium-free medium, but not in calcium containing medium, blocked both anaphase and the sustained Cai elevation in almost all cases. Blocked cells were rescued by returning calcium to the medium, whereupon Cai slowly but steadily rose as the cell entered anaphase. Spindle microtubules persisted through the EGTA block. Depolymerization of spindle microtubules by nocodazole also reversibly blocked anaphase onset and the sustained Cai elevation, but did not block transients. This study has revealed the following: (a) anaphase in mammalian fibroblasts and epithelial cells is not triggered by brief calcium transients; (b) anaphase is a calcium-modulated event, usually accompanied by a sustained elevation of Cai above 50 nM; (c) the elevation of Cai is dependent upon an intact spindle; and (d

  15. Effects of supplementation with a calcium-rich marine-derived multi-mineral supplement and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides on serum lipids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Barbara E; Allsopp, Philip J; Slevin, Mary M; Magee, Pamela J; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Strain, J J; McSorley, Emeir M

    2016-02-28

    Recent literature suggests that Ca supplements have adverse effects on cardiovascular health. The effects of a Ca-rich supplement administered alone or in combination with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) on serum lipids in postmenopausal women were examined using secondary data from a 24-month double-blind randomised controlled study. A total of 300 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to daily supplements of 800 mg of Ca (2·4 g Aquamin) (Ca), 800 mg of Ca with 3 g of scFOS (CaFOS) or control (maltodextrin) (MD). A full lipid profile, body composition, blood pressure and a range of cytokines were measured at baseline and after 24 months. Intention-to-treat ANCOVA assessed treatment effects between the groups. A significant time-by-treatment effect was observed for LDL and total cholesterol for the Ca and CaFOS groups, with both groups having lower LDL and total cholesterol concentrations compared with MD after 24 months. The control group had mean (5·2 mmol/l) total cholesterol concentrations above the normal range (≤ 5 mmol/l) at 24 months, whereas values remained within the normal range in the treatment groups. There was no significant treatment effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, body composition, blood pressure or cytokine concentrations at 24 months, with the exception of IL-4, where there was a significant increase in the CaFOS group compared with the placebo. This study demonstrates a lipid-lowering effect of both the Ca-rich supplement alone and the supplement with scFOS. At the 4-year follow-up, there was no significant difference between the groups for reported diagnosed cardiovascular conditions.

  16. Effects of supplementation with a calcium-rich marine-derived multi-mineral supplement and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides on serum lipids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Barbara E; Allsopp, Philip J; Slevin, Mary M; Magee, Pamela J; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Strain, J J; McSorley, Emeir M

    2016-02-28

    Recent literature suggests that Ca supplements have adverse effects on cardiovascular health. The effects of a Ca-rich supplement administered alone or in combination with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) on serum lipids in postmenopausal women were examined using secondary data from a 24-month double-blind randomised controlled study. A total of 300 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to daily supplements of 800 mg of Ca (2·4 g Aquamin) (Ca), 800 mg of Ca with 3 g of scFOS (CaFOS) or control (maltodextrin) (MD). A full lipid profile, body composition, blood pressure and a range of cytokines were measured at baseline and after 24 months. Intention-to-treat ANCOVA assessed treatment effects between the groups. A significant time-by-treatment effect was observed for LDL and total cholesterol for the Ca and CaFOS groups, with both groups having lower LDL and total cholesterol concentrations compared with MD after 24 months. The control group had mean (5·2 mmol/l) total cholesterol concentrations above the normal range (≤ 5 mmol/l) at 24 months, whereas values remained within the normal range in the treatment groups. There was no significant treatment effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, body composition, blood pressure or cytokine concentrations at 24 months, with the exception of IL-4, where there was a significant increase in the CaFOS group compared with the placebo. This study demonstrates a lipid-lowering effect of both the Ca-rich supplement alone and the supplement with scFOS. At the 4-year follow-up, there was no significant difference between the groups for reported diagnosed cardiovascular conditions. PMID:26669430

  17. Improvement of calcium balance by Fructus Ligustri Lucidi extract in mature female rats was associated with the induction of serum parathyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Ming; Wong, Kwun-Kit; Che, Chun-Tao; Wong, Man-Sau

    2012-07-14

    Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) is a commonly prescribed herb in many kidney-tonifying Traditional Chinese Medicinal formulae for the treatment of osteoporosis. The present study aimed to identify the active fractions in FLL and to characterise its effects on Ca balance, calciotropic hormone levels as well as bone properties in mature female rats fed diets containing different levels of Ca. In the present study, 4-month-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were treated with either FLL ethanol extract (EE), ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of EE (EAF), water-soluble fraction of EE (WF) or their vehicle for 12 weeks on a medium-Ca diet (MCD, 0·6 % Ca, 0·65 % P). Then, the Sprague-Dawley female rats treated with WF or its vehicle for 12 weeks were fed diets containing different levels of dietary Ca (low-Ca diet (LCD), 0·1 % Ca, 0·65 % P; MCD; high-Ca diet (HCD), 1·2 % Ca, 0·65 % P). The results demonstrated that WF from EE but not EAF exerted a prominent effect on Ca balance by inhibiting urinary and faecal Ca excretion. WF significantly increased Ca balance in rats fed MCD or HCD with an associated increase in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. WF did not alter bone mineral density or bone mineral content of the tibia in all the rats fed with different levels of dietary Ca. In conclusion, WF was responsible for the positive actions of FLL on Ca absorption and balance. The regulation of Ca balance by WF might involve its action in stimulating PTH production in the mature female rats. PMID:22018100

  18. Traumatic brain injury causes a long-lasting calcium (Ca2+)-plateau of elevated intracellular Ca levels and altered Ca2+ homeostatic mechanisms in hippocampal neurons surviving brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Sun, David A.; Deshpande, Laxmikant S.; Sombati, Sompong; Baranova, Anya; Wilson, Margaret S.; Hamm, Robert J.; DeLorenzo, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors often suffer chronically from significant morbidity associated with cognitive deficits, behavioral difficulties and a post-traumatic syndrome and thus it is important to understand the pathophysiology of these long-term plasticity changes after TBI. Calcium (Ca2+) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of TBI-induced neuronal death and other forms of brain injury including stroke and status epilepticus. However, the potential role of long-term changes in neuronal Ca2+ dynamics after TBI has not been evaluated. In the present study, we measured basal free intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in acutely isolated CA3 hippocampal neurons from Sprague–Dawley rats at 1, 7 and 30 days after moderate central fluid percussion injury. Basal [Ca2+]i was significantly elevated when measured 1 and 7 days post-TBI without evidence of neuronal death. Basal [Ca2+]i returned to normal when measured 30 days post-TBI. In contrast, abnormalities in Ca2+ homeostasis were found for as long as 30 days after TBI. Studies evaluating the mechanisms underlying the altered Ca2+ homeostasis in TBI neurons indicated that necrotic or apoptotic cell death and abnormalities in Ca2+ influx and efflux mechanisms could not account for these changes and suggested that long-term changes in Ca2+ buffering or Ca2+ sequestration/release mechanisms underlie these changes in Ca2+ homeostasis after TBI. Further elucidation of the mechanisms of altered Ca2+ homeostasis in traumatized, surviving neurons in TBI may offer novel therapeutic interventions that may contribute to the treatment and relief of some of the morbidity associated with TBI. PMID:18371074

  19. Decalcification of calcium polycarbophil in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Saito, T; Takahara, E; Nagata, O; Tamai, I; Tsuji, A

    1997-03-01

    The in vivo decalcification of calcium polycarbophil was examined. The decalcification ratio of [45Ca]calcium polycarbophil in the stomach after oral dosing to rats was more than 70% at each designated time and quite closely followed in the in vitro decalcification curve, indicating that the greater part of the calcium ion is released from calcium polycarbophil under normal gastric acidic conditions. The residual radioactivity in rat gastrointestine was nearly equal to that after oral administration of either [45Ca]calcium chloride + polycarbophil. The serum level of radioactivity was nearly equal to that after oral dosing of [45Ca]calcium lactate. These results indicate that the greater part of orally administered calcium polycarbophil released calcium ions to produce polycarbophil in vivo.

  20. Gastrodin Pretreatment Impact on Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Transport ATPase (SERCA) and Calcium Phosphate (PLB) Expression in Rats with Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yufen; Wang, Xiaomei; Lou, Changli

    2016-01-01

    Background Calcium overload, inflammation, and apoptosis play important roles in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI). Gastrodin pretreatment can alleviate MIRI. This study observed sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase (Ca2+-ATPase, SERCA) and calcium phosphate (PLB) protein expression in the ventricular remodeling process after myocardial infarction to explore the effect of gastrodin pretreatment on MIRI. Material/Methods Healthy 7-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into a sham group (A), a model group (B), and gastrodin pretreatment groups C, D, and E (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, respectively) with 20 in each group. Anterior descending coronary artery ligation method was used to establish a rat MIRI model with 30-min ischemia and 120-min reperfusion. Cardiac electrophysiological activity was recorded. Serum IL-6 and IL10 levels were determined by ELISA. SERCA activity was tested by colorimetric phosphorus method. SERCA, PLB, and pSer-PLB protein expression were detected by Western blot. Results Compared with the sham group, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were elevated, SERCA2a expression was downregulated, and PLB protein was elevated in the model group (P<0.05). pSer16-PLB showed no significant difference among groups, and the ratio of pSer16-PLB/PLB obviously decreased (P<0.05). IL-6 level gradually declined and IL-10 increased in the gastrodin group following concentration elevation. SERCA 2a expression rose in the gastrodin group in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Elevated PLB protein expression showed no significant difference, while pSer16-PLB protein increased (P<0.05), leading to elevated pSer16 PLB/PLB ratio (P<0.05). Conclusions Gastrodin pretreatment alleviates MIRI and inflammation injury by regulating SERCA and PLB expression to decrease calcium overload. PMID:27641420

  1. Gastrodin Pretreatment Impact on Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Transport ATPase (SERCA) and Calcium Phosphate (PLB) Expression in Rats with Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Li, Yufen; Wang, Xiaomei; Lou, Changli

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Calcium overload, inflammation, and apoptosis play important roles in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI). Gastrodin pretreatment can alleviate MIRI. This study observed sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase (Ca2+-ATPase, SERCA) and calcium phosphate (PLB) protein expression in the ventricular remodeling process after myocardial infarction to explore the effect of gastrodin pretreatment on MIRI. MATERIAL AND METHODS Healthy 7-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into a sham group (A), a model group (B), and gastrodin pretreatment groups C, D, and E (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, respectively) with 20 in each group. Anterior descending coronary artery ligation method was used to establish a rat MIRI model with 30-min ischemia and 120-min reperfusion. Cardiac electrophysiological activity was recorded. Serum IL-6 and IL10 levels were determined by ELISA. SERCA activity was tested by colorimetric phosphorus method. SERCA, PLB, and pSer-PLB protein expression were detected by Western blot. RESULTS Compared with the sham group, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were elevated, SERCA2a expression was downregulated, and PLB protein was elevated in the model group (P<0.05). pSer16-PLB showed no significant difference among groups, and the ratio of pSer16-PLB/PLB obviously decreased (P<0.05). IL-6 level gradually declined and IL-10 increased in the gastrodin group following concentration elevation. SERCA 2a expression rose in the gastrodin group in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Elevated PLB protein expression showed no significant difference, while pSer16-PLB protein increased (P<0.05), leading to elevated pSer16 PLB/PLB ratio (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Gastrodin pretreatment alleviates MIRI and inflammation injury by regulating SERCA and PLB expression to decrease calcium overload. PMID:27641420

  2. Dietary cholecalciferol and calcium levels in a Western-style defined rodent diet alter energy metabolism and inflammatory responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Bastie, Claire C; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Lee, Ting-Wen A; Dhima, Elena; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Augenlicht, Leonard H

    2012-05-01

    Male and female C57Bl6 mice were fed a control AIN76A diet, a new Western-style diet (NWD1) reflecting dietary patterns linked to elevated colon cancer incidence (higher fat, lower cholecalciferol, calcium, methyl donors, fiber), or NWD1 with elevated cholecalciferol and calcium (NWD2) from weaning. After 24 wk, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] decreased by >80% in the NWD1 group compared with controls, but with no alteration in serum calcium or bone mineral density. The decreased serum 25(OH)D was prevented in the NWD2 group. After 32 wk, the NWD1 group compared with controls reduced overall energy expenditure by 15% without altering food consumption or physical activity and induced glucose intolerance, phenotypes associated with metabolic syndrome. These responses were unexpectedly exacerbated in the NWD2 group, further shifting mice toward greater fatty acid storage rather than oxidation compared with both control and NWD1 groups, but there was no change in physical activity, causing significant weight gain due to increased fat mass. The NWD1 group also exhibited inflammatory responses compared with controls, including macrophage-associated crown-like structures in epididymal adipose tissue and increased serum concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β, and of its targets, MCP-1 and Rantes, which were prevented or greatly mitigated in the NWD2 group. However, there was also elevated lipid storage in the liver and steatosis not seen in the control and NWD1 groups. Thus, elevating cholecalciferol and calcium in a Western-style diet can reduce inflammation associated with risk for colon tumor development, but interaction of nutrients in this diet can compromise liver function when fed long term.

  3. Serum-free culture conditions for serial subculture of undifferentiated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Ohnuma, Kiyoshi; Hayashi, Yohei; Furue, Miho; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Asashima, Makoto

    2006-03-15

    PC12 cells, a widely used model neuronal cell line, are usually cultured in serum-supplemented medium. This report describes a serum-free medium for the culture of PC12 cells. PC12 cells grown in the two media types had similar growth rates and released dopamine in response to high potassium-induced calcium elevation. However, the levels of dopamine and of dopamine release in cells cultured in the serum-free medium were less than 10% of that in cells cultured in serum-supplemented medium. Dopamine levels recovered within 10 days if cells were returned to serum-supplemented medium, but dopamine release could not be recovered. Nerve growth factor (NGF) induced similar responses in PC12 cells cultured in both media, including phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases and neurite extension. Transferrin was necessary for survival of neurite-bearing PC12 cells subcultured in serum-free medium and insulin promoted the cells proliferation. Ten days culture with NGF produced a similar increase in neurofilament expression and acetylcholinesterase activity in both media. These results suggest that PC12 in the hormonally defined serum-free media are qualitatively the same as those cultured in serum-supplemented media, and therefore this new culture protocol should enable more precise studies of PC12 cells culture in the absence of confounding unknown factors.

  4. Nephrocalcinosis and hyperlipidemia in rats fed a cholesterol- and fat-rich diet: association with hyperoxaluria, altered kidney and bone minerals, and renal tissue phospholipid-calcium interaction.

    PubMed

    Schmiedl, A; Schwille, P O; Bonucci, E; Erben, R G; Grayczyk, A; Sharma, V

    2000-12-01

    To determine whether an "atherogenic" diet (excess of cholesterol and neutral fat) induces pathological calcification in various organs, including the kidney, and abnormal oxalate metabolism, 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either normal lab chow (controls, n = 12) or the cholesterol- and fat-rich experimental diet (CH-F, n = 12) for 111 +/- 3 days. CH-F rats developed dyslipidemia [high blood levels of triglycerides, total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound cholesterol, total phospholipids], elevated serum total alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, in the absence of changes in overall renal function, extracellular mineral homeostasis [serum protein-corrected total calcium, magnesium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D)], plasma glycolate and oxalate levels. There was a redistribution of bone calcium and enhanced exchange of this within the extraosseous space, which was accompanied by significant bone calcium loss, but normal bone histomorphometry. Liver oxalate levels, if expressed per unit of defatted (DF) dry liver, were three times higher than in the controls. Urinary glycolate, oxalate, calcium and total protein excretion levels were elevated, the latter showing an excess of proteins > 100 kD and a deficit of proteins > 30-50 kD. Urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation was increased, and calcium phosphate supersaturation was unchanged. There were dramatically increased (by number, circumference, and area) renal calcium phosphate calcifications in the cortico-medullary region, but calcium oxalate deposits were not detectable. Electron microscopy (EM) and elemental analysis revealed intratubular calcium phosphate, apparently needle-like hydroxyapatite. Immunohistochemistry of renal tissue calcifications revealed co-localization of phospholipids and calcium phosphate. It is concluded that rats fed the CH-F diet exhibited: (1) a

  5. Intracellular calcium puffs in osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Radding, W; Jordan, S E; Hester, R B; Blair, H C

    1999-12-15

    We studied intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in acid-secreting bone-attached osteoclasts, which produce a high-calcium acidic extracellular compartment. Acid secretion and [Ca(2+)](i) were followed using H(+)-restricted dyes and fura-2 or fluo-3. Whole cell calcium of acid-secreting osteoclasts was approximately 100 nM, similar to cells on inert substrate that do not secrete acid. However, measurements in restricted areas of the cell showed [Ca(2+)](i) transients to 500-1000 nM consistent with calcium puffs, transient (millisecond) localized calcium elevations reported in other cells. Spot measurements at 50-ms intervals indicated that puffs were typically less than 400 ms. Transients did not propagate in waves across the cell in scanning confocal measurements. Calcium puffs occurred mainly over regions of acid secretion as determined using lysotracker red DND99 and occurred at irregular periods averaging 5-15 s in acid secreting cells, but were rare in lysotracker-negative nonsecretory cells. The calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine, cell-surface calcium transport inhibitors lanthanum or barium, and the endoplasmic reticulum ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin had variable acute effects on the mean [Ca(2+)](i) and puff frequency. However, none of these agents prevented calcium puff activity, suggesting that the mechanism producing the puffs is independent of these processes. We conclude that [Ca(2+)](i) transients in osteoclasts are increased in acid-secreting osteoclasts, and that the puffs occur mainly near the acid-transporting membrane. Cell membrane acid transport requires calcium, suggesting that calcium puffs function to maintain acid secretion. However, membrane H(+)-ATPase activity was insensitive to calcium in the 100 nM-1 microM range. Thus, any effects of calcium puffs on osteoclastic acid transport must be indirect.

  6. The role of calcium in human aging.

    PubMed

    Beto, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is necessary for many functions in human health. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with 99% found in teeth and bone. Only 1% is found in serum. The serum calcium level is tightly monitored to remain within normal range by a complex metabolic process. Calcium metabolism involves other nutrients including protein, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Bone formation and maintenance is a lifelong process. Early attention to strong bones in childhood and adulthood will provide more stable bone mass during the aging years. Research has shown that adequate calcium intake can reduce the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, and diabetes in some populations. The dietary requirements of calcium and other collaborative nutrients vary slightly around the world. Lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency is a common cause of low calcium intake. Strategies will be discussed for addressing this potential barrier to adequate intake. The purpose of this narrative review is a) to examine the role of calcium in human health, b) to compare nutrient requirements for calcium across lifecycle groups and global populations, c) to review relationships between calcium intake, chronic disease risk, and fractures, and d) to discuss strategies to address diet deficiencies and lactose intolerance. PMID:25713787

  7. Angiotensin II reduces calcium uptake into bone.

    PubMed

    Schurman, Scott J; Bergstrom, William H; Shoemaker, Lawrence R; Welch, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    Children with neonatal Bartter syndrome (NBS) have hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and osteopenia. A complex of basic-fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) and a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan has been identified in the serum and urine of NBS patients. This complex increases bone resorption in a bone disc bioassay system. Angiotensin II (AT II), which is increased in Bartter syndrome, increases the synthesis of b-FGF by cultured endothelial cells. Addition of 10(-8) M AT II to the bioassay, a concentration reported in Bartter syndrome patients, significantly decreased calcium uptake into bone discs [E/C 0.60 (0.04), P < 0.001 compared with buffer, normal E/C >0.90]. Adding b-FGF monoclonal antibody at 10 microg/ml [E/C 0.90 (0.06), P=NS] or indomethacin [E/C 1.00 (0.03), P=NS] to 10(-8 )M AT II neutralized this effect. In separate experiments, newborn rats were given intraperitoneal injections of AT II. Bone discs from these animals were used in the bioassay system and calcium uptake was markedly reduced compared with discs from rats injected with phosphate-buffered saline [AT II 6.6 x 10(-9), E/C 0.10 (0.04), P<0.001, AT II 3.3 x 10(-8), E/C 0.10 (0.05), P<0.001]. AT II decreases calcium uptake in the bone disc bioassay system. This effect can be abrogated by antibody to b-FGF or prostaglandin synthetase inhibition. These results support the hypothesis that in children with NBS, elevated levels of AT II stimulate local skeletal b-FGF synthesis, with a resultant increase in bone resorption via a prostaglandin-dependent pathway. PMID:14648327

  8. ELEVATING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Frederick, H.S.; Kinsella, M.A.

    1959-02-24

    An elevator is described, which is arranged for movement both in a horizontal and in a vertical direction so that the elevating mechanism may be employed for servicing equipment at separated points in a plant. In accordance with the present invention, the main elevator chassis is suspended from a monorail. The chassis, in turn supports a vertically moveable carriage, a sub- carriage vertically moveable on the carriage, and a turntable carried by the sub- carriage and moveable through an arc of 90 with the equipment attached thereto. In addition, the chassis supports all the means required to elevate or rotate the equipment.

  9. Calcium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... of calcium dietary supplements include calcium citrate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate is the more expensive form of ... the body on a full or empty stomach. Calcium carbonate is less expensive. It is absorbed better by ...

  10. Effect of regular and decaffeinated coffee on serum gastrin levels.

    PubMed

    Acquaviva, F; DeFrancesco, A; Andriulli, A; Piantino, P; Arrigoni, A; Massarenti, P; Balzola, F

    1986-04-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that the noncaffeine gastric acid stimulant effect of coffee might be by way of serum gastrin release. After 10 healthy volunteers drank 50 ml of coffee solution corresponding to one cup of home-made regular coffee containing 10 g of sugar and 240 mg/100 ml of caffeine, serum total gastrin levels peaked at 10 min and returned to basal values within 30 min; the response was of little significance (1.24 times the median basal value). Drinking 100 ml of sugared water (as control) resulted in occasional random elevations of serum gastrin which were not statistically significant. Drinking 100 ml of regular or decaffeinated coffee resulted in a prompt and lasting elevation of total gastrin; mean integrated outputs after regular or decaffeinated coffee were, respectively, 2.3 and 1.7 times the values in the control test. Regular and decaffeinated coffees share a strong gastrin-releasing property. Neither distension, osmolarity, calcium, nor amino acid content of the coffee solution can account for this property, which should be ascribed to some other unidentified ingredient. This property is at least partially lost during the process of caffeine removal. PMID:3745848

  11. Calcium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... as thyroid disease , parathyroid disorder , malabsorption , cancer, or malnutrition An ionized calcium test may be ordered when ... albumin , which can result from liver disease or malnutrition , both of which may result from alcoholism or ...

  12. Calcium Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Sarcopenia Skeletal Rare Disorders Data & Publications Facts and Statistics Vitamin D map Fracture Risk Map Hip Fracture ... Training Courses Working Groups Regional Audits Reports Facts and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What ...

  13. Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, M M H; Rashid, I S; Qinna, N A; Jaber, A M; Badwan, A A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3 formed by three main elements: carbon, oxygen, and calcium. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world (most notably as limestone), and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. CaCO3 exists in different polymorphs, each with specific stability that depends on a diversity of variables.

  14. Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, M M H; Rashid, I S; Qinna, N A; Jaber, A M; Badwan, A A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3 formed by three main elements: carbon, oxygen, and calcium. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world (most notably as limestone), and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. CaCO3 exists in different polymorphs, each with specific stability that depends on a diversity of variables. PMID:26940168

  15. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-11-27

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC.

  16. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  17. Calcium-sensing receptor and calcium kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Terranegra, Annalisa; Rainone, Francesco; Arcidiacono, Teresa; Cozzolino, Mario; Aloia, Andrea; Dogliotti, Elena; Cusi, Daniele; Soldati, Laura

    2011-11-22

    Calcium nephrolithiasis may be considered as a complex disease having multiple pathogenetic mechanisms and characterized by various clinical manifestations. Both genetic and environmental factors may increase susceptibility to calcium stones; therefore, it is crucial to characterize the patient phenotype to distinguish homogeneous groups of stone formers. Family and twin studies have shown that the stone transmission pattern is not mendelian, but complex and polygenic. In these studies, heritability of calcium stones was calculated around 50%Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is mostly expressed in the parathyroid glands and in renal tubules. It regulates the PTH secretion according to the serum calcium concentration. In the kidney, it modulates electrolyte and water excretion regulating the function of different tubular segments. In particular, CaSR reduces passive and active calcium reabsorption in distal tubules, increases phosphate reabsorption in proximal tubules and stimulates proton and water excretion in collecting ducts. Therefore, it is a candidate gene for calcium nephrolithiasis.In a case-control study we found an association between the normocitraturic stone formers and two SNPs of CaSR, located near the promoters region (rs7652589 and rs1501899). This result was replicated in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, comparing patients with or without kidney stones. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that the minor alleles at these polymorphisms were able to modify the binding sites of specific transcription factors and, consequently, CaSR expression.Our studies suggest that CaSR is one of the candidate genes explaining individual predisposition to calcium nephrolithiasis. Stone formation may be favored by an altered CaSR expression in kidney medulla involving the normal balance among calcium, phosphate, protons and water excretion.

  18. Testing of serum atherogenicity in cell cultures: questionable data published

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, Sergei V.

    2012-01-01

    In a large series of studies was reported that culturing of smooth muscle cells with serum from atherosclerosis patients caused intracellular lipid accumulation, while serum from healthy controls had no such effect. Cultures were used for evaluation of antiatherogenic drugs. Numerous substances were reported to lower serum atherogenicity: statins, trapidil, calcium antagonists, garlic derivatives etc. On the contrary, beta-blockers, phenothiazines and oral hypoglycemics were reported to be pro-atherogenic. Known antiatherogenic agents can influence lipid metabolism and cholesterol synthesis, intestinal absorption or endothelium-related mechanisms. All these targets are absent in cell monocultures. Inflammatory factors, addressed by some antiatherogenic drugs, are also not reproduced. In vivo, relationship between cholesterol uptake by cells and atherogenesis must be inverse rather than direct: in familial hypercholesterolemia, inefficient clearance of LDL-cholesterol by cells predisposes to atherosclerosis. Accordingly, if a pharmacological agent reduces cholesterol uptake by cells in vitro, it should be expected to elevate cholesterol in vivo. Validity of clinical recommendations, based on serum atherogenicity testing in cell monocultures, is therefore questionable. These considerations pertain also to the drugs developed on the basis of the cell culture experiments. PMID:22355278

  19. Effect of dietary calcium: Phosphorus ratio on bone mineralization and intestinal calcium absorption in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Koshihara, Moyuru; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effect of dietary calcium:phosphorus (Ca:P) ratio on bone mineralization and intestinal Ca absorption in ovariectomized (OVX) rat models of osteoporosis and sham-operated rats. Thirty 12-wk-old female Wistar rats were divided into three groups of OVX rats and three groups of sham rats. Thirty days after the adaptation period, OVX rats and sham rats were fed a diet formulated Ca:P, 1:0.5, 1:1 or 1:2 (each diet containing 0.5% Ca), respectively for 42 d. In both sham and OVX rats, serum osteocalcin, a marker of bone turnover, was increased by decreasing Ca:P ratio (1:2). In contrast, rats fed the Ca:P = 1:0.5 diet (dietary P restriction) suppressed the increased serum parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline, and increased Ca absorption in both sham and OVX rats compared to the Ca:P = 1:1 and 1:2 diets. Especially, in OVX rats, the decreased bone mineral density of the fifth lumbar was also suppressed when rats were fed the Ca:P = 1:0.5 diet. These results indicated that the elevation of dietary Ca:P ratio may inhibit bone loss and increase intestinal Ca absorption in OVX rats.

  20. ELEVATED SERUM URIC ACID LEVELS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE INDEPENDENTLY OF METABOLIC SYNDROME FEATURES IN THE UNITED STATES: LIVER ULTRASOUND DATA FROM THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY

    PubMed Central

    Sirota, Jeffrey C.; McFann, Kim; Targher, Giovanni; Johnson, Richard J.; Chonchol, Michel; Jalal, Diana I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Experimental and observational studies suggest a role for uric acid in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We examined the association between serum uric acid levels and NAFLD in a large population-based study from the United States. Materials/Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 10,732 nondiabetic adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988–1994. Sex specific uric acid quartiles were defined: ≤5.2, 5.3–6.0, 6.1–6.9, and >6.9 mg/dL for men and ≤3.7, 3.8–4.5, 4.6–5.3, and >5.3 mg/dL for women. NAFLD presence and severity were defined by ultrasonographic detection of steatosis in the absence of other liver diseases. We modeled the probability that more severe NAFLD would be associated with the highest quartiles of uric acid. Results Compared to the 1st quartile, the odds ratio for NAFLD was 1.79 (95% C.I. 1.49–2.15, p < 0.001) and 3.14 (95% C.I. 2.63–3.75, p < 0.001) for the 3rd and 4th quartiles, respectively. After adjusting for demographics, hypertension, waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and aspartate aminotransferase, uric acid (4th quartile) was significantly associated with NAFLD (odds ratio 1.43; 95% C.I. 1.16–1.76, p < 0.001). Positive parameter estimates suggest increasing uric acid is associated with greater severity of NAFLD. Conclusions Elevated uric acid level is independently associated with ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD in a nationally representative sample of United States nondiabetic adults. Increasing uric acid is associated with increasing severity of NAFLD on ultrasonography. These findings warrant further studies on the role of uric acid in NAFLD. PMID:23036645

  1. Effects of calcium gluconate on the utilization of magnesium and the nephrocalcinosis in rats fed excess dietary phosphorus and calcium.

    PubMed

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Kado, S; Nagata, Y; Kimura, H; Uchida, K; Watanuki, M

    1996-08-01

    The effects of calcium gluconate on the utilization of magnesium and nephrocalcinosis in male Wistar rats made magnesium-deficient by adding excess dietary phosphorus (1.195 g of phosphorus/100 g of diet) and calcium (1.04 g of calcium/100 g of diet) were compared with the effects of calcium carbonate. The effects of dietary magnesium concentration on the magnesium status and nephrocalcinosis were also examined. Adding excess dietary phosphorus and calcium decreased the apparent magnesium absorption ratios and the concentrations of magnesium in the serum and femur and increased the deposition of calcium in the kidney, and the low magnesium condition (0.024 g of magnesium/100 g of diet) aggravated the deposition of calcium and the low magnesium status. The apparent magnesium absorption ratios and femur magnesium concentration in the rats fed a calcium gluconate diet (an equimolar mixture of calcium gluconate and calcium carbonate was used as a source of calcium) were significantly higher than in the rats fed a calcium carbonate diet (only calcium carbonate was used as a source of calcium), irrespective of dietary magnesium concentration. Dietary calcium gluconate lessened the accumulation of calcium in the kidney and increased the serum magnesium concentration compared with dietary calcium carbonate, when the rats were fed the normal magnesium diet (0.049 g of magnesium/100 g of diet) but not the low magnesium diet. We speculate that the increased utilization of magnesium by feeding the calcium gluconate diet to a limited extent prevented the low magnesium status and the severity of nephrocalcinosis caused by adding excess dietary phosphorus and calcium.

  2. The acidosis of cholera. Contributions of hyperproteinemia, lactic acidemia, and hyperphosphatemia to an increased serum anion gap.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Butler, T; Rabbani, G H; Jones, P K

    1986-12-18

    To study the metabolic acidosis that occurs during the diarrhea of cholera, we examined the serum anion gap in 21 patients with hypovolemic shock due to Vibrio cholerae infection. Measurements of serum electrolytes, as well as divalent cations and the anionic contributions of serum proteins, lactate, phosphate, and serum creatinine, were made at the time of admission, after rehydration, and during convalescence. At the time of admission, the mean serum concentration of sodium was 134.8 mmol (meq) per liter, that of chloride was 103.2 mmol per liter, and that of bicarbonate was 11.4 mmol per liter; the mean anion gap was 20.2 mmol per liter. The mean serum creatinine concentration was 2.48 mg per deciliter. The low serum bicarbonate level and the high serum anion gap were corrected by rehydration. The increased serum anion gap was caused by hyperproteinemia, lactic acidemia, and hyperphosphatemia, with anionic contributions to the rise in anion gap estimated as protein, 5.5 meq per liter; lactate, 2.5 meq per liter; and phosphate, 2.5 meq per liter. The hyperproteinemia was attributed to dehydration, the lactic acidemia to shock, and the hyperphosphatemia to acidosis and transient renal failure. The mean concentrations of serum calcium and magnesium were slightly elevated but did not affect the increased anion gap. These results indicate that severe cholera causes acidosis with relatively little change in serum chloride but an increased serum anion gap. The acidosis is more profound than would be expected on the basis of stool losses of bicarbonate, because of superimposed lactic acidemia and renal failure.

  3. The importance of urinary calcium in postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Miguel Angel Ochoa-Hortal; Cano-García, María del Carmen; Arrabal-Martín, Miguel; Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Calcium stones are associated with osteoporosis and manifested mainly by elevated fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the presence of abnormal metabolism of calcium and calciuria in women with osteoporotic fracture with no previously known renal lithiasis compared to women without osteoporosis and without renal lithiasis. Methods: In total, 87 women were included in the study. They were divided into two groups: Group 1 with 55 postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture and without renal lithiasis; and Group 2 with 32 postmenopausal women without osteoporosis and without history of renal lithiasis. The following parameters of phospho-calcium metabolism were analyzed: calciuria 24-hour, oxaluria 24-hour, uricosuria 24-hour, and citraturia 24-hour. The presence of hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, and hypocitraturia was compared between groups. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: The mean age was 70.1 ± 13.8 in Group 1 and 56.7 ± 6.4 in Group 2 (p = 0.0001). Women in Group 1 had higher levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.05) and fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (p < 0.05). The percentage of patients with hypercalciuria in Group 1 (40%) was higher compared to Group 2 (18.8%) and statistically significant (p = 0.04). There were no statistically significant differences in the percentage of hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, and hypocitraturia between groups. This study has its limitations including its cross-sectional nature at a unique centre and its low number of patients. Conclusion: The determination of urinary calcium and fasting calcium/creatinine ratio in postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture without renal lithiasis may facilitate individualization of medical therapy and decreasing lithogenic risk. PMID:26085877

  4. Get Enough Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  5. Calcium carbonate overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  6. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  7. Calcitonin control of calcium metabolism during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, Karam F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this proposal is to elucidate calcitonin role in calcium homeostasis during weightlessness. In this investigation our objectives are to study: the effect of weightlessness on thyroid and serum calcitonin, the effect of weightlessness on the circadian variation of calcitonin in serum and the thyroid gland, the role of light as zeitgeber for calcitonin circadian rhythm, the circadian pattern of thyroid sensitivity to release calcitonin in response to calcium load, and the role of serotonin and norepinephrine in the control of calcitonin release. The main objective of this research/proposal is to establish the role of calcitonin in calcium metabolism during weightlessness condition. Understanding the mechanism of these abnormalities will help in developing therapeutic means to counter calcium imbalance in spaceflights.

  8. Defective female reproductive function in 1,25(OH)2D-deficient mice results from indirect effect mediated by extracellular calcium and/or phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weiwei; Xie, Hui; Ji, Ji; Zhou, Xiaojie; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2010-12-01

    We used mice with targeted deletion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase [1α(OH)ase(-/-)] to investigate the effects of calcium and phosphorus on defects in the reproductive system of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D]-deficient female mice. The 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice and their wild-type littermates were fed either a normal diet or a rescue diet (high calcium, phosphate, and lactose) starting from weaning until 3 mo of age. We then determined serum calcium and phosphorus levels, assessed gonadotropin and gonadal hormone production, and evaluated folliculogenesis, corpus luteum formation, ovarian angiogenesis, uterus development, and fertility. Results showed that hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic female 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice developed infertility accompanied by decreased estrogen and progestogen levels, elevated follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels, defects in follicular development and corpus luteum formation, uterine hypoplasia, and decreased ovarian expression of angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 and -2, and Tie-2. When serum calcium and phosphorus were normalized by the rescue diet, the defective reproductive phenotype in the female 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice, including the dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and ovarian angiogenesis were reversed. These results indicate that the infertility seen in 1,25(OH)(2)D-deficient mice is not a direct effect of active vitamin D deficiency on the reproductive system but is an indirect effect mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus.

  9. Calcium metabolism and vitamin D in the extreme longevity

    PubMed Central

    Passeri, Giovanni; Vescovini, Rosanna; Sansoni, Paolo; Galli, Carlo; Franceschi, Claudio; Passeri, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal remodelling is a continuous process during life and is still active also in extreme senescence. In the elderly, bone resorption often prevails over bone formation, causing bone loss and fragility. Elderly subjects are exposed to the risk of fractures, and loss of self-sufficiency, if considering that the proximal femur is the most frequently involved site. Bone remodelling can maintain circulating calcium within physiological ranges, at the expense of a substantial loss of this ion from the skeleton, particularly during senescence. Calcium metabolism is regulated at cellular/molecular level by a network of cytokines, growth factors, systemic hormones that act on bone in paracrine/autocrine/systemic fashion. Among the molecules involved in bone metabolism, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D present some peculiar aspects during senescence. The osteometabolic features in a consistent group of centenarians have been evaluated. It results that a severe hypovitaminosis D was present in 99 out of 104 centenarians (25-OH vitamin D below 5 nmol/L), and that it plays an important role as a factor inducing a vicious circle involving hypocalcemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, together with biochemical features indicating a consistent bone loss. Serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide, a specific marker of bone resorption was elevated in 92% of these subjects. Moreover, it has been found that several femoral fractures had occurred after 90 years of age. These data offer a rational for the possible prevention of elevated bone turnover, bone loss and consequently the reduction of osteoporotic fractures and fractures-induced disability, in the oldest olds, through the simple supplementation with calcium and vitamin D. PMID:17698310

  10. [Dynamics of calcium metabolism and calcium-regulating hormones in pregnancy-induced hypertension].

    PubMed

    Ohara, N; Yamasaki, M; Morikawa, H; Ueda, Y; Mochizuki, M

    1986-08-20

    Serum concentrations of total calcium, ionized calcium and inorganic phosphorus in severe PIH were significantly lower than those in normal pregnancy during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and continued to be low even at puerperium. On the other hand, serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone in severe PIH were significantly higher during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and decreased at puerperium. Any remarkable differences in serum calcitonin levels were not found between severe PIH and normal pregnancy through the last trimester of pregnancy and puerperium. Serum concentrations of 1 alpha, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 increased significantly in the 3rd trimester of normal pregnancy, but in severe PIH, their increase was not observed, remaining at the normal levels of non-pregnant women. The kidney functions in the both groups were within the normal limits of non-pregnant women, but placental dysfunction was observed in severe PIH. These results suggest that the decrease in serum calcium and phosphorus levels might have occurred as a result of the decrease in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestine due to the decrease in serum 1 alpha, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 levels and that low serum 1 alpha, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 concentrations might be caused by the disturbance of the synthesis in the placenta rather than in the kidney. PMID:3781066

  11. Calcium, iron and neuronal function.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Cecilia; Núñez, Marco T

    2007-01-01

    Calcium and iron play dual roles in neuronal function: they are both essential but when present in excess they cause neuronal damage and may even induce neuronal death. Calcium signals are required for synaptic plasticity, a neuronal process that entails gene expression and which is presumably the cellular counterpart of cognitive brain functions such as learning and memory. Neuronal activity generates cytoplasmic and nuclear calcium signals that in turn stimulate pathways that promote the transcription of genes known to participate in synaptic plasticity. In addition, evidence discussed in this article shows that iron deficiency causes learning and memory impairments that persist following iron repletion, indicating that iron is necessary for normal development of cognitive functions. Recent results from our group indicate that iron is required for long-term potentiation in hippocampal CA1 neurons and that iron stimulates ryanodine receptor-mediated calcium release through ROS produced via the Fenton reaction leading to stimulation of the ERK signaling pathway. These combined results support a coordinated action between iron and calcium in synaptic plasticity and raise the possibility that elevated iron levels may contribute to neuronal degeneration through excessive intracellular calcium increase caused by iron-induced oxidative stress. PMID:17505966

  12. Serum osteocalcin is associated with dietary vitamin D, body weight and serum magnesium in postmenopausal women with and without significant coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Alissa, Eman M; Alnahdi, Wafa A; Alama, Nabeel; Ferns, Gordon A

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis and atherosclerosis often present atypically in postmenopausal women, making clinical recognition difficult. Prospective studies suggest independent associations between bone mass and vascular calcification through vitamin D deficiency as an established predictor of both conditions. We aimed to examine the relationship between serum osteocalcin and vitamin D status in postmenopausal women with and without angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease (CAD). One hundred and eighty postmenopausal women undergoing coronary angiography were selected sequentially from the Catheterization unit of King Abdulaziz University Hospital. Socio-demographic, anthropometric parameters and dietary habits were measured. Biochemical variables were estimated in blood samples. Half of the postmenopausal women did not have significant CAD, 24% had significant CAD in a single and/or double coronary vessels, 26% had significant CAD in three coronary vessels. Mean serum vitamin D concentrations showed that vitamin D deficiency was a common finding in the whole population. Vitamin D and calcium intakes were uniformly low in the study cohort. Serum osteocalcin was significantly correlated with dietary vitamin D in all subgroups (r=-0.172, p<0.05) and positively correlated among the patients (r=0.269, p=0.01). Serum magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, dietary vitamin D, and body weight were independent variables of serum osteocalcin level. In conclusion, elevated levels of serum C reactive protein and vitamin D were associated with low serum osteocalcin levels. Therefore, osteocalcin may be a potential cardiovascular risk marker. However, further studies are needed to clarify the pathophysiological processes underlying the relationship between serum osteocalcin level and atherosclerosis parameters.

  13. Hematologic and serum biochemical values of gravid freshwater Australian Chelonians.

    PubMed

    Scheelings, T Franciscus; Rafferty, Anthony R

    2012-04-01

    Hematologic and serum biochemical analyses were performed on 30 wild-caught, gravid, Australian freshwater chelonians. Species sampled were western long-necked turtles (Chelodina oblonga; n = 13), common long-necked turtles (Chelodina longicollis; n = 8), and Murray River turtles (Emydura macquarii; n = 9). Turtles were obtained from Lake Goolellal in Perth, Western Australia (C. oblonga), and Lake Coranderrk in Healesville, Victoria (C. longicollis and E. macquarii). All turtles were considered healthy at the time of sample collection. Blood results were similar to those reported in other freshwater chelonians, with the exception of elevated calcium levels in all species. Hypercalcemia was attributed to egg development and maturation. A hemoparasite morphologically resembling Haemogregarina clelandi was found in all C. oblonga samples and in four C. longicollis samples. Infection with H. clelandi appeared to have no physiological effects on blood parameters or morphometrics of infected turtles. Blood parameters were also considered poor indicators of female chelonian morphometrics and fecundity. PMID:22493107

  14. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? ...

  15. Regulation of calcium metabolism during prolonged antiorthostatic hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigoryev, A. I.; Morukov, B. V.; Dorokhova, B. R.; Rustamyan, L. A.

    1988-01-01

    Characteristics of the regulation of calcium exchange in healthy persons exposed to 182 days of antiorthostatic hypokinesia are investigated. Total calcium concentrations, ionized calcium activities and parathyroid hormone concentrations in blood serum were determined, before, during, and up to 15 days after a 182-day period of strict bed rest at a head down tilt of 4 deg; and tests of blood urine responses to a calcium lactate stress were performed to study the role of the kidneys. An increase in calcium ion activity is observed during the period of hypokinesia, while total calcium concentrations changed to a lesser degree. Plasma parathyroid hormone levels are found to significantly exceed background levels during hypokinesia and in the recovery period immediately following. Finally, the increase in calcium excretion in the urine during prolonged limitations of muscular activity is found to be connected with both an enhancement of calcium filtration and a decrease in its reabsorption in the kidneys, possibly due to changes in hormonal regulation.

  16. Calcium Fructoborate for Bone and Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Mogoşanu, George Dan; Biţă, Andrei; Bejenaru, Ludovic Everard; Bejenaru, Cornelia; Croitoru, Octavian; Rău, Gabriela; Rogoveanu, Otilia-Constantina; Florescu, Dan Nicolae; Neamţu, Johny; Scorei, Iulia Daria; Scorei, Romulus Ion

    2016-08-01

    Calcium fructoborate (CF), a natural sugar-borate ester found in fresh fruits and vegetables, is a source of soluble boron. CF contains three forms of borate (diester, monoester, and boric acid) and all are biologically active, both at the intracellular (as free boric acid) and extracellular level (as fructose-borate diester and monoester). At the cellular and molecular level, CF is superior to the boric acid/borate, exhibiting a complex "protective" effect against inflammatory response. CF is commercially available in the USA as a "nature-identical" complex, an active compound for dietary supplements. It provides effective and safe support against the discomfort and lack of flexibility associated with osteoarticular conditions (arthritis and joint degeneration), and improves Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) and McGill indexes. In addition, orally administered CF is effective in ameliorating symptoms of physiological response to stress, including inflammation of the mucous membranes, discomfort associated with osteoarthritis disorders, and bone loss, and also for supporting cardiovascular health. Clinical studies have exhibited the ability of CF to significantly modulate molecular markers associated with inflammatory mechanisms, mainly on the elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). PMID:26686846

  17. Cytosolic free calcium in platelets: relationships to blood pressure and indices of systemic calcium metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hvarfner, A; Larsson, R; Mörlin, C; Rastad, J; Wide, L; Akerström, G; Ljunghall, S

    1988-01-01

    Relationships between cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i) in platelets, indices of systemic calcium metabolism and blood pressure were examined in 86 subjects; 29 patients with untreated and 29 patients with treated essential hypertension, six patients with borderline hypertension and 22 healthy reference subjects. In order to analyse interactions between the variables, multivariate statistical analyses were employed. The patients with untreated hypertension had higher [Ca2+]i values in non-activated platelets (P = 0.04) and lower levels of plasma ionized calcium (P = 0.02) than the reference subjects. In multivariate models analysing platelet [Ca2+]i mean blood pressure (MBP), plasma ionized calcium, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and body mass index (BMI), the relationship between platelet [Ca2+]i and blood pressure was attenuated (P = 0.13), whereas the inverse relationships between plasma ionized calcium and MBP (P = 0.01) and between platelet [Ca2+]i and serum PTH (P = 0.06) seen in univariate analyses persisted. According to the multivariate models the [Ca2+]i value explained only 5% of the MBP variability. Thus, the data from this investigation do not support a close relationship between basal platelet [Ca2+]i and blood pressure. The inverse relationship between plasma ionized calcium and blood pressure, independent of platelet [Ca2+]i and serum PTH, suggests a direct interaction between plasma ionized calcium and blood pressure regulation.

  18. The salutary effect of dietary calcium on bone mass in a rat model of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1985-01-01

    Whether supplementation of dietary calcium reduces the differences in bone mass of unweighed limbs and normally weighted limbs, and whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) respond differently to dietary calcium in unweighted animals in comparison with pair-fed controls was studied. The hind limbs of rats were unweighted by a tail suspension method and diets containing 0.1% to 2.4% calcium. After 2 weeks serum calcium, phosphorus, PTH and 1,25(OH)2D intestinal calcium transport were determined and bone mass, ash weight, and calcium in the tibia, L-1 vertebra, and humerus were measured. No significant differences in body weights were observed among the various groups. Suspended rats maintained constant levels of serum calcium and phosphate over the wide range of dietary calcium. Serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D and intestinal calcium transport fell as dietary calcium was increased. Bone calcium in the tibia and vertebra from suspended rats remained less than that from pair-fed control. It is suggested that although no striking difference between suspended and control animals was observed in response to dieteary calcium, increasing dietary calcium may reduce the negative impact of unloading on the calcium content of the unweighted bones. The salutary effect of high dietary calcium appears to be due to inhibition of bone resorption rather than to stimulation of bone formation.

  19. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles are associated with inorganic phosphate-induced osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-rong; Bai, Jing; Yuan, Shuai-jun; Yu, Cai-xia; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Tian-lan; Wang, Kui

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we demonstrated that calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles formed in cell culture media were implicated in the process of high inorganic phosphate (Pi) mediated osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Exposure of BMSCs in vitro to high Pi-containing media reduced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expressions of osteoblast-specific genes. The sediments of CaP nanoparticles were observed at the cell surface and some of them were concomitantly found inside cells at high Pi concentration. In addition, treatment the cells with pyrophosphate (PPi), an inhibitor of calcium crystal formation, abrogated the ALP activity induced by high Pi, suggesting the contribution of CaP nanoparticles. Moreover, for isolated CaP nanoparticles, there was a trend of conversion from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite with elevated Pi. The particle size of CaP increased and the surface morphology changed from spherical to irregular due to increased concentrations of serum proteins incorporated into CaP nanoparticles. The study demonstrated that those physicochemical properties of CaP nanoparticles played an important role in modulating BMSCs differentiation. Furthermore, the addition of Pi in the osteogenic media resulted in a dose-dependent increase in matrix mineralization, while treatment of the cells with PPi suppressed Pi-induced calcium deposition. The findings indicated that calcium deposition in the matrix partly came from the spontaneous precipitation of CaP nanoparticles. PMID:26111760

  20. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles are associated with inorganic phosphate-induced osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-rong; Bai, Jing; Yuan, Shuai-jun; Yu, Cai-xia; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Tian-lan; Wang, Kui

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we demonstrated that calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles formed in cell culture media were implicated in the process of high inorganic phosphate (Pi) mediated osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Exposure of BMSCs in vitro to high Pi-containing media reduced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expressions of osteoblast-specific genes. The sediments of CaP nanoparticles were observed at the cell surface and some of them were concomitantly found inside cells at high Pi concentration. In addition, treatment the cells with pyrophosphate (PPi), an inhibitor of calcium crystal formation, abrogated the ALP activity induced by high Pi, suggesting the contribution of CaP nanoparticles. Moreover, for isolated CaP nanoparticles, there was a trend of conversion from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite with elevated Pi. The particle size of CaP increased and the surface morphology changed from spherical to irregular due to increased concentrations of serum proteins incorporated into CaP nanoparticles. The study demonstrated that those physicochemical properties of CaP nanoparticles played an important role in modulating BMSCs differentiation. Furthermore, the addition of Pi in the osteogenic media resulted in a dose-dependent increase in matrix mineralization, while treatment of the cells with PPi suppressed Pi-induced calcium deposition. The findings indicated that calcium deposition in the matrix partly came from the spontaneous precipitation of CaP nanoparticles.

  1. Biomarkers for the activation of calcium metabolism in dairy cows: elevation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity by lowering dietary cation-anion difference is associated with the prevention of milk fever.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Naotoshi; Yamato, Osamu; Sato, Jun; Naito, Yoshihisa; Mori, Fuminobu; Imoto, Seiichi; Maede, Yoshimitsu

    2007-03-01

    In our previous study, it was demonstrated that the administration of anion salts, which slightly lower the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD), in the prepartum period is safe and effective for preventing milk fever in multiparous cows. In the present study, several biomarkers, which might show activation of Ca metabolism, were analyzed using stored samples in the previous study to investigate the mechanism of the preventive effect on milk fever by lowering DCAD. Changes in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin and insulin-like growth factor I concentrations in serum were almost the same among the three groups of multiparous cows with or without the oral administration of anion salts, while the levels of these serum biomarkers in the group of primiparous cows (heifer group) were much higher compared with those in the three multiparous groups throughout the experimental period. Urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was not a useful biomarker for dairy cows because it hardly changed during the peripartum period in all groups. However, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, which is known as a biomarker of osteoclast activity, was well associated with the administration of anion salts lowering DCAD because among the three multiparous groups, only the group of multiparous cows fed the anion salts (anion group) showed an increased level, which rose to the level in the heifer group, and was markedly higher than those in the other control groups of multiparous cows. The increased activity of serum TRAP in the anion group suggested that Ca in the plasma pool was mobilized smoothly from bone-bound Ca via mature osteoclasts at parturition, which might be due to prior activation under mild acidosis induced by slightly lowering DCAD. Therefore, TRAP was the best biomarker to monitor the activation of Ca metabolism in dairy cows fed anion salts.

  2. Osteoblasts detect pericellular calcium concentration increase via neomycin-sensitive voltage gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuanhao; Kishore, Vipuil; Fites, Kateri; Akkus, Ozan

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying the detection of critically loaded or micro-damaged regions of bone by bone cells are still a matter of debate. Our previous studies showed that calcium efflux originates from pre-failure regions of bone matrix and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts respond to such efflux by an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration. The mechanisms by which the intracellular calcium concentration increases in response to an increase in the pericellular calcium concentration are unknown. Elevation of the intracellular calcium may occur via release from the internal calcium stores of the cell and/or via the membrane bound channels. The current study applied a wide range of pharmaceutical inhibitors to identify the calcium entry pathways involved in the process: internal calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER, inhibited by thapsigargin and TMB-8), calcium receptor (CaSR, inhibited by calhex), stretch-activated calcium channel (SACC, inhibited by gadolinium), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC, inhibited by nifedipine, verapamil, neomycin, and ω-conotoxin), and calcium-induced-calcium-release channel (CICRC, inhibited by ryanodine and dantrolene). These inhibitors were screened for their effectiveness to block intracellular calcium increase by using a concentration gradient induced calcium efflux model which mimics calcium diffusion from the basal aspect of cells. The inhibitor(s) which reduced the intracellular calcium response was further tested on osteoblasts seeded on mechanically loaded notched cortical bone wafers undergoing damage. The results showed that only neomycin reduced the intracellular calcium response in osteoblasts, by 27%, upon extracellular calcium stimulus induced by concentration gradient. The inhibitory effect of neomycin was more pronounced (75% reduction in maximum fluorescence) for osteoblasts seeded on notched cortical bone wafers loaded mechanically to damaging load levels. These results imply that the increase in

  3. How to manage an isolated elevated PTH?

    PubMed

    Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Cavalier, Etienne; Cormier, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the diagnostic approach of an increased serum PTH concentration in a normocalcemic, normophosphatemic patient. Detection of this biological presentation is frequent in routine practice all the more that PTH reference values established in vitamin D replete subjects with a normal renal function are used by the clinical laboratories. The first step in this diagnostic approach will be to rule out a cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Among these, the most frequent are vitamin D deficiency, very low calcium intake, impaired renal function, malabsorptions, drugs interfering with calcium/bone metabolism, such as lithium salts and antiresorptive osteoporosis therapies, hypercalciuria due to a renal calcium leak. If no cause of SHPT are evidenced, the diagnosis of normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) should be considered. A calcium load test is a very useful tool for this diagnosis if it shows that serum PTH is not sufficiently decreased when calcemia rises frankly above the upper normal limit. In a normocalcemic patient with hypercalciuria and a high serum PTH concentration, a thiazide challenge test may help to differentiate SHPT due to a renal calcium leak from normocalcemic PHPT. Beyond the discussion of this diagnostic flowchart, we also discuss some points about the merits and the difficulties of measuring and interpreting ionized calcemia and 24-h calciuria. PMID:25882890

  4. [Serum sclerostin levels and metabolic bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2013-06-01

    Serum sclerostin levels are being investigated in various metabolic bone diseases. Since serum sclerostin levels are decreased in primary hyperparathyroidism and elevated in hypoparathyroidism, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is thought to be a regulatory factor for sclerostin. Serum sclerostin levels exhibit a significant positive correlation with bone mineral density. On the other hand, a couple of studies on postmenopausal women have shown that high serum sclerostin levels are a risk factor for fracture. Although glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis and diabetes are both diseases that reduce bone formation, serum sclerostin levels have been reported to be decreased in the former and elevated in the latter, suggesting differences in the effects of sclerostin in the two diseases. Serum sclerostin levels are correlated with renal function, and increase with reduction in renal function. Serum sclerostin level may be a new index of bone assessment that differs from bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers.

  5. [Calcium metabolism characteristics in microgravity].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, A I; Larina, I M; Morukov, B V

    1999-06-01

    The results of research of calcium exchange parameters at cosmonauts taken part in long space flights (SF) onboard of orbital stations "SALUT" and "MIR" within 1978-1998 were generalized. The analysis of data received during observation of 44 cosmonauts (18 of them have taken part in long SF twice) was done. The observation was carried out before and after SF by duration 30-438 days. The content of a total calcium in blood serum was increased basically by the increase of its ionized fraction after flights of moderate (3-6 months) and large duration (6-14 months) along with the significant increase of PTH and decrease of calcitonin levels. The content of osteocalcin after SF was increased. Three cosmonauts participated in research of calcium kinetics using stable isotopes before, in time and after a 115-day SF. Reduction of intestinal absorption, excretion through a gastrointestinal tract, and increase of calcium excretion with urine were marked in time of SF. In early postflight period a level of intestinal absorption, on the average, was much lower than in SF, and the calcium removal through intestine was increased. Both renal and intestinal excretion of calcium were not normalized in 3.5-4.5 months after end of SF. Increase of resorbtive processes in bone tissues which induced negative bone balance during flight was observed in all test subjects, proceeding from estimations of speed of the basic calcium flows made on the basis of mathematical modeling. The conclusion about decrease in speed of bone tissue remodeling and strengthening of its resorption proves to be true by data of research of biochemical and endocrine markers.

  6. Is ionized calcium a reliable predictor of hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy? A before and after study

    PubMed Central

    TARTAGLIA, F.; GIULIANI, A.; SGUEGLIA, M.; PATRIZI, G.; DI ROCCO, G.; BLASI, S.; RUSSO, G.; TORTORELLI, G.; GIANNOTTI, D.; REDLER, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Wanting to find a way of identifying patients suitable for early discharge after thyroidectomy, we set out to establish whether ionized calcium concentration is a better predictor of post-surgical hypocalcemia than total serum calcium. Data were analyzed to establish whether serum ionized calcium concentrations are correlated with total serum calcium levels and symptomatic hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy. Sixty-two patients undergoing total thyroidectomy at the Department of Surgical Sciences of the “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy, in 2010. Ionized calcium was measured before (day 0) and after surgery (days 1, 2 and 60) in all the patients. These measurements were compared with preoperative (day 0) and postoperative total serum calcium levels (days 1, 2 and 60). The preoperative ionized calcium levels differed from the ionized calcium levels recorded on days 1 and 2; this pattern was not observed for the total calcium concentrations. Conversely, total calcium on days I and II correlated significantly with the various ionized calcium measurements. The presence of parathyroid glands in the surgical specimen did not seem to affect suitability for discharge. The statistical analysis showed that ionized calcium measurements are more reliable than total calcium measurements in the immediate and long-term follow-up of total thyroidectomy patients. Applying a 95% confidence interval we established reference values for both total serum calcium and ionized calcium, below which all patients develop postoperative symptomatic hypocalcemia. In conclusion, measurement of ionized calcium, as opposed to total calcium, should be strongly recommended in the immediate and long-term follow-up of total thyroidectomy patients. PMID:24690338

  7. Is ionized calcium a reliable predictor of hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy? A before and after study.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, F; Giuliani, A; Sgueglia, M; Patrizi, G; Di Rocco, G; Blasi, S; Russo, G; Tortorelli, G; Giannotti, D; Redler, A

    2014-01-01

    Wanting to find a way of identifying patients suitable for early discharge after thyroidectomy, we set out to establish whether ionized calcium concentration is a better predictor of post-surgical hypocalcemia than total serum calcium. Data were analyzed to establish whether serum ionized calcium concentrations are correlated with total serum calcium levels and symptomatic hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy. Sixty-two patients undergoing total thyroidectomy at the Department of Surgical Sciences of the "Sapienza" University of Rome, Italy, in 2010. Ionized calcium was measured before (day 0) and after surgery (days 1, 2 and 60) in all the patients. These measurements were compared with preoperative (day 0) and postoperative total serum calcium levels (days 1, 2 and 60). The preoperative ionized calcium levels differed from the ionized calcium levels recorded on days 1 and 2; this pattern was not observed for the total calcium concentrations. Conversely, total calcium on days I and II correlated significantly with the various ionized calcium measurements. The presence of parathyroid glands in the surgical specimen did not seem to affect suitability for discharge. The statistical analysis showed that ionized calcium measurements are more reliable than total calcium measurements in the immediate and long-term follow-up of total thyroidectomy patients. Applying a 95% confidence interval we established reference values for both total serum calcium and ionized calcium, below which all patients develop postoperative symptomatic hypocalcemia. In conclusion, measurement of ionized calcium, as opposed to total calcium, should be strongly recommended in the immediate and longterm follow-up of total thyroidectomy patients. PMID:24690338

  8. Elevated Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Serum Levels and Altered Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression, Nitric Oxide, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Denise Maciel; Garcia, Fernanda Gonçalves; Terra, Ana Paula Sarreta; Lopes Tosta, Ana Cristina; Silva, Luciana de Almeida; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto; Silva Teixeira, David Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Background. During dengue virus (DV) infection, monocytes produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) which might be critical to immunopathogenesis. Since intensity of DV replication may determine clinical outcomes, it is important to know the effects of viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) on innate immune parameters of infected patients. The present study investigates the relationships between dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) serum levels and innate immune response (TLR4 expression and TNF-α/NO production) of DV infected patients presenting different clinical outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings. We evaluated NO, NS1 serum levels (ELISA), TNF-α production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and TLR4 expression on CD14+ cells from 37 dengue patients and 20 healthy controls. Early in infection, increased expression of TLR4 in monocytes of patients with dengue fever (DF) was detected compared to patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Moreover, PBMCs of DHF patients showed higher NS1 and lower NO serum levels during the acute febrile phase and a reduced response to TLR4 stimulation by LPS (with a reduced TNF-α production) when compared to DF patients. Conclusions/Significance. During DV infection in humans, some innate immune parameters change, depending on the NS1 serum levels, and phase and severity of the disease which may contribute to development of different clinical outcomes. PMID:25580138

  9. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

  10. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  11. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  12. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  13. Calcium source (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  14. Elevation changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A. S.; Marshall, G.A.; Carver, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Elevation changes, as well as horizontal displacements of the Earth's surface, are an expected consequence of dip-slip displacement on earthquake faults. the rock surrounding and overlying the fault is forced to stretch and bend to accommodate fault slip. Slip in the case of the April 25 mainshock is thought to have occurred on a gently inclined plane dipping to the northeast at a small angle (see article on preliminary seismological results in this issue).The associated fault-plane solution implies that rock overlying the fault plane (the hanging-wall block west and south of the epicenter) rose and shifted to the northeast. The map on the next page shows the location of the epicenter and approximate extent of uplift and subsidence derived from estimates of the geometry, location. and slip on the buried fault plane. 

  15. [Calcium intake and glucose and lipids concetrations in overweight and obese patients].

    PubMed

    Pachocka, Lucyna M; Nowak, Agnieszka; Targosz, Urszula; Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Longina; Stolarska, Irena

    2007-01-01

    Well-balanced diet is one of the determinants of the health and wellbeing. Inadequate nutrients' intake can promote disease development. The purpose of this study was to assess the intake of calcium, phosphorus and protein and relation between calcium intake and lipids and glucose serum concentration in patients with obesity. The studied group consisted of 57 subjects, aged 21-63 years. Dietary assessment was based on 3-d dietary record. Serum lipids concentrations were assessed by enzymatic methods, serum calcium concentrations were assessed by Vitros 250. The mean calcium intake in men was 588.8 mg/d, in women 549.3 mg/d. Calcium intake was statistically significant correlated with glucose concentration in women and men, but not with lipids concentrations. Dietary calcium intake in studied group was below the RDA. Calcium intake could be one of determinants of glucose concentration in obese persons.

  16. Dietary calcium. A method of lowering blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Bierenbaum, M L; Wolf, E; Bisgeier, G; Maginnis, W P

    1988-07-01

    Previous work in this laboratory has shown that supplemental dietary calcium using milk as the source can lower blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels. Attempting to circumvent lactose intolerance, a 6-month crossover study of blood pressure and serum lipids in 50 free-living volunteers was done comparing 1,150 mg/day of supplemental calcium via yogurt, cottage cheese, and milk to 32 oz/day of orange juice. Systolic blood pressure responded dramatically initially to calcium supplementation and continued lower than on orange juice at 6 months, 120 +/- 1.5 to 115 +/- 1.5 mm Hg, P less than 0.2, vs. 118 +/- 1.7 to 117 +/- 1.6 mm Hg. Diastolic blood pressure and serum lipid changes were not significant. Dietary calcium supplementation may prove beneficial in lowering systolic blood pressure in the long term.

  17. Correlation between maternal milk and infant serum levels of chlorinated pesticides (CP) and the impact of elevated CP on bleeding tendency and immune status in some infants in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Schaalan, Mona F; Abdelraouf, Sahar M; Mohamed, Waleed A; Hassanein, Fetouh S

    2012-01-01

    Chlorinated pesticides (CP) are environmentally persistent pollutants that (prenatally through the placenta and post-natally via breastfeeding) are transferred from mother to child. Considering the significant bleeding tendency noted in infants of CP-intoxicated mothers in Egypt, this study aimed to investigate any correlation between levels of these xenobiotics in mothers' milk and bleeding tendencies of their infants, as well as a possible role of any related immunosuppression in this phenomenon. This study examined 180 newborns presenting with altered bleeding tendencies and their mothers, and 180 normal newborns and their mothers (serving as a controls), selected from the Breastfeeding Unit, Center for Social and Preventive Medicine at the Cairo University Pediatric Hospital. Chlorinated pesticides (e.g., hexachlorocyclohexane, DDT, hepta-chloroepoxide, α- and β-endosulfan, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin) levels and their derivatives were measured in mothers' milk as well as in serum of neonates using gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. To link bleeding tendency with lactational intoxication of neonates by CP, newborns' blood was assessed for: platelet count, bleeding and prothrombin time, liver enzymes, Vitamin K, TNFα, and IL-10. Breast milk CP levels were associated with a higher incidence of bleeding in infants. Interference with the coagulation cascade was supported by changes in prothrombin time (prolonged), platelet counts (decreased), liver enzymes (increased), and serum vitamin K concentrations (decreased). Moreover, the significant decrease in WBC count and lymphocytes added to depressed cytokine secretion, i.e., TNFα and IL-10, suggested an organochlorine-induced immunotoxicity in infants developmentally exposed to the agents. We conclude that maternal transfer of CP, via breastfeeding or across the placenta, was sufficient to achieve similar CP levels in the serum of their infants; this correlated with a manifesting of altered

  18. Successive Administration of Streptococcus Type 5 Group A Antigens and S. typhimurium Antigenic Complex Corrects Elevation of Serum Cytokine Concentration and Number of Bone Marrow Stromal Pluripotent Cells in CBA Mice Induced by Each Antigen Separately.

    PubMed

    Gorskaya, Yu F; Danilova, T A; Grabko, V I; Nesterenko, V G

    2015-12-01

    Administration of bacterial antigens to CBA mice induced an increase in serum concentration of virtually all cytokines with a peak in 4 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens and in 7 h after administration of streptococcus antigens. In 20 h, cytokine concentrations returned to the control level or were slightly below it. In 4 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens preceded 3 h before by administration of streptococcus antigens, we observed a significant decrease in serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-10, GM-CSF, IL-12, and TNF-α, in comparison with injection S. typhimurium antigens alone and IL-5, IL-10, GM-CSF, and TNF-α in comparison with injection of streptococcus antigens alone; the concentrations of IL-2 and IFN-γ, in contrast, increased by 1.5 times in this case. In 20 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens, the number of multipotential stromal cells (MSC) in the bone marrow and their cloning efficiency (ECF-MSC) increased by 4.8 and 4.4 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, while after administration of streptococcus antigens by 2.6 and 2.4 times, respectively. In 20 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens preceded 3 h before by administration of streptococcus antigens, these parameters increased by 3.2 and 2.9 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, i.e. the observed increase in the level of MSC count and ECF-MSC is more consistent with the response of the stromal tissue to streptococcus antigens. Thus, successive administration of two bacterial antigens corrected both serum cytokine profiles and MSC response to administration of each antigen separately, which indicates changeability of the stromal tissue in response to changes in the immune response.

  19. Insufficient filling of vacuum tubes as a cause of microhemolysis and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. Use of a data-mining technique in evaluation of questionable laboratory test results.

    PubMed

    Tamechika, Yoshie; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Tohyama, Kaoru; Ichihara, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Experienced physicians noted unexpectedly elevated concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase in some patient samples, but quality control specimens showed no bias. To evaluate this problem, we used a "latent reference individual extraction method", designed to obtain reference intervals from a laboratory database by excluding individuals who have abnormal results for basic analytes other than the analyte in question, in this case lactate dehydrogenase. The reference interval derived for the suspected year was 264-530 U/L, while that of the previous year was 248-495 U/L. The only change we found was the introduction of an order entry system, which requests precise sampling volumes rather than complete filling of vacuum tubes. The effect of vacuum persistence was tested using ten freshly drawn blood samples. Compared with complete filling, 1/5 filling resulted in average elevations of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartic aminotransferase, and potassium levels of 8.0%, 3.8%, and 3.4%, respectively (all p<0.01). Microhemolysis was confirmed using a urine stick method. The length of time before centrifugation determined the degree of hemolysis, while vacuum during centrifugation did not affect it. Microhemolysis is the probable cause of the suspected pseudo-elevation noted by the physicians. Data-mining methodology represents a valuable tool for monitoring long-term bias in laboratory results.

  20. Evaluation of Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Behçet's Disease by Using Noninvasive Radiological Methods such as Intima-Media Thickness of the Carotid, Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index, Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring, and Their Relation to Serum Fetuin-A Levels: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Solak, Aynur; Genç, Berhan; Akyıldız, Muhittin; Şahin, Neslin; Uyar, İhsan Sami; Saklamaz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory systemic vasculitis. Evidence for increased atherosclerosis in BD has been observed. The relation between cardiovascular risk factors and increased atherosclerosis in patients with BD is still controversial. Objective We performed this study to evaluate arterial stiffness in patients with BD by using noninvasive radiological methods such as carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI), coronary artery calcium score (CACaS), and their relation to serum fetuin-A levels, which was recently found to be important in vascular calcification. Methods This prospective study included 26 patients with BD and 25 control subjects. In all patients, the CIMT, ABPI, CACaS, and serum fetuin-A levels were examined. Results The CIMT and CACaS were statistically higher and the ABPI was statistically lower in BD patients than in the control group. All p-values were <0.001. Positive correlations were found between the CACaS and CIMT, and negative correlations were found between the CACaS and ABPI. Although the values of fetuin-A were higher in BD, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.064). However, the correlations found between fetuin-A levels and CIMT and between fetuin-A levels and CACaS were significant. Conclusion The CIMT, CACaS, and ABPI are all useful in detecting structural and functional vascular damage in BD. PMID:26719639

  1. Calcium balance in normal individuals and in patients with chronic kidney disease on low- and high-calcium diets.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David M; Brady, Kate

    2012-06-01

    Calcium balance in chronic kidney disease is poorly understood as calcium deficiency is a stimulus for secondary hyperparathyroidism and consequent bone loss while calcium excess promotes extraosseous calcifications. To help resolve this, we evaluated calcium balance in normal individuals and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on daily diets containing 800 and 2000 mg elemental calcium. Both normal individuals and patients with late stage 3 and stage 4 CKD were in slightly negative to neutral calcium balance on the 800-mg calcium diet. Normal individuals were in modest positive calcium balance on the 2000-mg diet, while patients with CKD on the same diet were in marked positive calcium balance at least over the 9 days of study; and significantly greater than the normal individuals. Increased calcium intake significantly decreased 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels but did not alter the serum calcium concentration. Thus, our findings have important implications for both preventing calcium deficiency and loading in individuals with late stage 3 and stage 4 CKD.

  2. Vitamin D does not increase calcium absorption in young women: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J Christopher; Jindal, Prachi S; Smith, Lynette M

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly said that vitamin D should be used to increase calcium absorption. We tested this statement in a dose-response study of vitamin D on calcium absorption. A total of 198 white and African American women, aged 25 to 45 years, with vitamin D insufficiency, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) <20 ng/mL, were randomized in a double-blind study to vitamin D3 400, 800, 1600, 2400 IU, or placebo. A calcium supplement was given to increase mean calcium intake at baseline from 706 mg/d to 1031 mg/d. Calcium absorption was measured at baseline and after 12 months using a single isotope method with radiocalcium45 and 100 mg of calcium. Mean baseline serum 25OHD was 13.4 ng/mL (33.5 nmol/L) and increased to 40 ng/mL (100 nmol/L) on the highest dose of 2400 IU. Using a multivariate regression analysis with significant predictors, baseline absorption, calcium intake, and weight, there was no increase in 12-month calcium absorption compared with baseline on any dose of vitamin D in either whites or African Americans. There was no significant relationship between 12-month calcium absorption and final serum 25OHD. In an analysis of calcium absorption and serum 25OHD at baseline, serum 25OHD levels were divided into groups: 0 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 15, or 16 to 20 ng/mL. There was no evidence of a threshold decrease in calcium absorption or serum 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D) amongst the lowest groups. Vitamin D doses up to 2400 IU daily did not increase calcium absorption. No threshold level of serum 25OHD for calcium absorption was found at baseline or in the longitudinal study, suggesting that active transport of calcium is saturated at very low serum 25OHD levels <5 ng/mL. There is no need to recommend vitamin D for increasing calcium absorption in normal subjects. Very efficient calcium absorption at very low levels of serum 25OHD explains why people do not develop osteomalacia provided that dietary intakes of calcium and phosphorus are adequate.

  3. Calcium signals and oocyte maturation in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Ryusaku; Takeda, Noriyo; Stricker, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    In various oocytes and eggs of animals, transient elevations in cytoplasmic calcium ion concentrations are known to regulate key processes during fertilization and the completion of meiosis. However, whether or not calcium transients also help to reinitiate meiotic progression at the onset of oocyte maturation remains controversial. This article summarizes reports of calcium signals playing essential roles during maturation onset (=germinal vesicle breakdown, GVBD) in several kinds of marine invertebrate oocytes. Conversely, other data from the literature, as well as previously unpublished findings for jellyfish oocytes, fail to support the view that calcium signals are required for GVBD. In addition to assessing the effects of calcium transients on GVBD in marine invertebrate oocytes, the ability of maturing oocytes to enhance their calcium-releasing capabilities after GVBD is also reviewed. Furthermore, possible explanations are proposed for the contradictory results that have been obtained regarding calcium signals during oocyte maturation in marine invertebrates. PMID:26679945

  4. Calcium signals and oocyte maturation in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Ryusaku; Takeda, Noriyo; Stricker, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    In various oocytes and eggs of animals, transient elevations in cytoplasmic calcium ion concentrations are known to regulate key processes during fertilization and the completion of meiosis. However, whether or not calcium transients also help to reinitiate meiotic progression at the onset of oocyte maturation remains controversial. This article summarizes reports of calcium signals playing essential roles during maturation onset (=germinal vesicle breakdown, GVBD) in several kinds of marine invertebrate oocytes. Conversely, other data from the literature, as well as previously unpublished findings for jellyfish oocytes, fail to support the view that calcium signals are required for GVBD. In addition to assessing the effects of calcium transients on GVBD in marine invertebrate oocytes, the ability of maturing oocytes to enhance their calcium-releasing capabilities after GVBD is also reviewed. Furthermore, possible explanations are proposed for the contradictory results that have been obtained regarding calcium signals during oocyte maturation in marine invertebrates.

  5. The effect of the calcium-antagonist nitrendipine on intracellular calcium concentration in endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, A.; Schomecker, G.; Breitkopf, K.; Dhein, S.; Klaus, W.

    1996-01-01

    1. Nitrendipine induces NO-release from coronary vascular endothelium presumably by activating endothelial NO-synthase. We have investigated whether this effect may be mediated by an influence on the intracellular calcium in endothelial cells. 2. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were incubated with Fura-2/AM (1 microM) for 30 min and Fura-2 fluorescence was measured at 510 nm in response to chopped excitation with both 340 and 380 nm. The ratio 340/380 nm (known to reflect changes in intracellular calcium) was calculated from these data. 3. Nitrendipine (0.1 to 100 microM) led to a significant, concentration-dependent, monophasic increase in [Ca2+]i in suspended BAEC by 11 +/- 2 nM (0.1 microM), 23 +/- 3 nM (1 microM), 34 +/- 4 nM (10 microM) and by 47 +/- 5 nM (100 microM) from a control levels of 118 +/- 10 nM. 4. This elevation of intracellular calcium was prevented by pretreatment of BAECs with gadolinium (100 microM) or by incubation with calcium free saline solution. In contrast, the application of 0.3 microM thapsigargin did not abolish the nitrendipine-induced calcium signal. In additional experiments it was shown that the nitrendipine-induced NO-release (as measured with the oxy-haemoglobin-method could also be inhibited by gadolinium and was absent in calcium-free solution. 5. Thus, nitrendipine elevates intracellular calcium in suspended BAECs in a concentration-dependent manner. This elevation is mainly due to a gadolinium-sensitive calcium influx from the extracellular space rather than a calcium release from intracellular stores. Images Figure 5 PMID:8864521

  6. Calcium Requirements and Metabolism in Chinese-American Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lu; Martin, Berdine R; Braun, Michelle M; Wastney, Meryl E; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda D; DiMeglio, Linda A; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M

    2010-01-01

    Calcium requirements of North American adolescents were set at 1300 mg/day based on data from white girls. Calcium requirements for Asian-American adolescents have not been studied. Using metabolic balance protocols and a range in calcium intakes, skeletal calcium retention was determined in Chinese-American adolescents. A sample of 29 adolescents, 15 boys aged 12 to 15 years and 14 girls aged 11 to 15 years, was studied twice on paired calcium intakes ranging between 629 to 1835 mg/day using a randomized-order crossover design. Calcium absorption and bone turnover rates using double-stable calcium isotope kinetic analysis on two calcium intakes per subject were measured and compared in boys and girls. Girls and boys had low habitual mean calcium intakes of 648 and 666 mg/day, respectively, and low mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of 19.1 and 22.2 ng/mL, respectively. True fractional calcium absorption varied inversely with calcium load. Boys had significantly higher bone turnover rate than girls at the same calcium intake. Calcium retention increased with calcium intake; calcium intakes to achieve maximal calcium retention were 1100 mg/day in boys and 970 mg/day in girls. Recommendations for calcium requirements should be lowered for Chinese-American adolescents. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20205166

  7. EFFECT OF LITHIUM ON SERUM ELECTROLYTES

    PubMed Central

    Geetha, P.R.; Channabasavanna, S.M.; Rama Rao, B.S. Sridhara

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY 26 patients diagnosed as manic depressive psychosis were treated with lithium for three months and serum levels of calcium, magnesium, phosphates and proteins were estimated repeatedly. There were no significant changes in the levels of these electrolytes and proteins during the three months of study period. PMID:21847255

  8. Unique form of rickets with low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in two normally nourished children.

    PubMed

    Asami, T; Kawasaki, T; Uchiyama, M

    1995-04-01

    We present an unusual type of rickets involving two children: a 2 year old boy and a 15 month old boy, who presented with marked bowing of the lower extremities and bulging of costochondral junctions. Both children had normal growth, with their height and body weight greater than the 50th and 97th percentile for age. Roentgenograms of their extremities showed the typical changes of vitamin D refractory rickets. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels were elevated and serum levels of calcium and phosphate were both within the normal range. No primary cause for the rickets, including nutritional deficiencies, was found in the two patients. Characteristic findings were persistently low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) and normal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2-D). Improvements in clinical and X-ray findings were observed after either oral administration of 1 alpha-(OH)-D3 (9-15 micrograms per day) or massive vitamin D2 therapy (600,000 IU single injection). The low serum levels of 25-OH-D did not increase unless massive vitamin D2 therapy was also given. These two cases represent a unique form of rickets that does not meet the criteria for any type of previously known rickets. PMID:7793252

  9. Utility Towers, Insulator Detail, Front Elevation, Side Elevation, Elevation, Double ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Utility Towers, Insulator Detail, Front Elevation, Side Elevation, Elevation, Double Pole Tower, Single Pole Tower - La Bajada Historic Trails and Roads, Approximately 1 mile East/Northeast of intersection of State Highway 16 and Indian Service Road 841, La Bajada, Santa Fe County, NM

  10. Astrocyte calcium signaling: the third wave.

    PubMed

    Bazargani, Narges; Attwell, David

    2016-02-01

    The discovery that transient elevations of calcium concentration occur in astrocytes, and release 'gliotransmitters' which act on neurons and vascular smooth muscle, led to the idea that astrocytes are powerful regulators of neuronal spiking, synaptic plasticity and brain blood flow. These findings were challenged by a second wave of reports that astrocyte calcium transients did not mediate functions attributed to gliotransmitters and were too slow to generate blood flow increases. Remarkably, the tide has now turned again: the most important calcium transients occur in fine astrocyte processes not resolved in earlier studies, and new mechanisms have been discovered by which astrocyte [Ca(2+)]i is raised and exerts its effects. Here we review how this third wave of discoveries has changed our understanding of astrocyte calcium signaling and its consequences for neuronal function.

  11. Cyclosporine increases calcium in kidney medulla

    SciTech Connect

    Borowitz, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of rats with 20, 50, or 100 mg/kg of cyclosporine p.o. markedly increased /sup 45/Ca accumulation in kidney slices especially in medulla. The effect was related to dose and duration of treatment, and was also observed in slices of kidney medulla from cyclosporine-treated mice. Total calcium was elevated in kidney medulla of cyclosporine-treated rats so that the effect is not merely an increased exchange but a build-up of calcium in the tissue. No histopathologic evidence of cyclosporine-related cell necrosis was present in mouse kidney, showing that calcium accumulation is not dystrophic in character. Accumulation of /sup 45/Ca in slices of rat heart, liver, or brain was not affected by cyclosporine pretreatment of the animals. It is suggested that cyclosporine-induced changes in calcium metabolism in kidney medulla may influence kidney function.

  12. Dietary calcium requirements do not differ between Mexican-American boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Cristina; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M

    2014-08-01

    Mexican Americans are an understudied ethnic group for determinants of bone health, although the risk of age-related osteoporosis is high in this rapidly growing sector of the U.S. population. Thus, the objective of the present study was to establish the dietary calcium requirements for bone health in Mexican-American adolescents by measuring calcium r