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Sample records for elevated temperature aluminum

  1. Aluminum nanocomposites for elevated temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgonovo, C.; Apelian, D.; Makhlouf, M. M.

    2011-02-01

    Aluminum casting alloys conventionally used in the automotive and aerospace industries (i.e., Al-Zn-Mg, and Al-Cu-Mg systems) are able to achieve excellent tensile strength at room temperature. At high temperatures, such alloys lose dimensional stability and their mechanical properties rapidly degrade. Aluminum-based nanocomposites show the potential for enhanced performance at high temperatures. The manufacturing process, however, is difficult; a viable and effective method for large-scale applications has not been developed. In the current study, an innovative and cost-effective approach has been adopted to manufacture Al/AlN composites. A nitrogen-bearing gas is injected into the melt and AlN particles synthesize in-situ via chemical reaction. In a preliminary stage, a model able to predict the amount of reinforcement formed has been developed. AlN dispersoids have been succesfully synthesized in the matrix and the model has been experimentally validated.

  2. Elevated temperature crack growth in advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porr, William C., Jr.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    Rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si powder metallurgy alloy FVS0812 is among the most promising of the elevated temperature aluminum alloys developed in recent years. The ultra fine grain size and high volume fraction of thermally stable dispersoids enable the alloy to maintain tensile properties at elevated temperatures. In contrast, this alloy displays complex and potentially deleterious damage tolerant and time dependent fracture behavior that varies with temperature. J-Integral fracture mechanics were used to determine fracture toughness (K sub IC) and crack growth resistance (tearing modulus, T) of extruded FVS0812 as a function of temperature. The alloy exhibits high fracture properties at room temperature when tested in the LT orientation, due to extensive delamination of prior ribbon particle boundaries perpendicular to the crack front. Delamination results in a loss of through thickness constraint along the crack front, raising the critical stress intensity necessary for precrack initiation. The fracture toughness and tensile ductility of this alloy decrease with increasing temperature, with minima observed at 200 C. This behavior results from minima in the intrinsic toughness of the material, due to dynamic strain aging, and in the extent of prior particle boundary delaminations. At 200 C FVS0812 fails at K levels that are insufficient to cause through thickness delamination. As temperature increases beyond the minimum, strain aging is reduced and delamination returns. For the TL orientation, K (sub IC) decreased and T increased slightly with increasing temperature from 25 to 316 C. Fracture in the TL orientation is governed by prior particle boundary toughness; increased strain localization at these boundaries may result in lower toughness with increasing temperature. Preliminary results demonstrate a complex effect of loading rate on K (sub IC) and T at 175 C, and indicate that the combined effects of time dependent deformation, environment, and strain aging

  3. Elevated temperature crack growth in aluminum alloys: Tensile deformation of 2618 and FVS0812 aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leng, Yang; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    Understanding the damage tolerance of aluminum alloys at elevated temperatures is essential for safe applications of advanced materials. The objective of this project is to investigate the time dependent subcritical cracking behavior of powder metallurgy FVS0812 and ingot metallurgy 2618 aluminum alloys at elevated temperatures. The fracture mechanics approach was applied. Sidegrooved compact tension specimens were tested at 175, 250, and 316 C under constant load. Subcritical crack growth occurred in each alloy at applied stress intensity levels (K) of between about 14 and 25 MPa/m, well below K (sub IC). Measured load, crack opening displacement and displacement rate, and crack length and growth rate (da/dt) were analyzed with several continuum fracture parameters including, the C-integral, C (sub t), and K. Elevated temperature growth rate data suggest that K is a controlling parameter during time dependent cracking. For FVS0812, da/dt is highest at 175 C when rates are expressed as a function of K. While crack growth rate is not controlled by C (sub t) at 175 C, da/dt appears to better correlate with C (sub t) at higher temperatures. Creep brittle cracking at intermediate temperatures, and perhaps related to strain aging, is augmented by time dependent transient creep plasticity at higher temperatures. The C (sub t) analysis is, however, complicated by the necessity to measure small differences in the elastic crack growth and creep contributions to the crack opening displacement rate. A microstructural study indicates that 2618 and FVS0812 are likely to be creep brittle materials, consistent with the results obtained from the fracture mechanics study. Time dependent crack growth of 2618 at 175 C is characterized by mixed transgranular and intergranular fracture. Delamination along the ribbon powder particle boundaries occurs in FVS0812 at all temperatures. The fracture mode of FVS0812 changes with temperature. At 175 C, it is characterized as dimpled rupture

  4. Shell structures in aluminum nanocontacts at elevated temperatures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum nanocontact conductance histograms are studied experimentally from room temperature up to near the bulk melting point. The dominant stable configurations for this metal show a very early crossover from shell structures at low wire diameters to ionic subshell structures at larger diameters. At these larger radii, the favorable structures are temperature-independent and consistent with those expected for ionic subshell (faceted) formations in face-centered cubic geometries. When approaching the bulk melting temperature, these local stability structures become less pronounced as shown by the vanishing conductance histogram peak structure. PMID:22325572

  5. Shell structures in aluminum nanocontacts at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Costa-Krämer, José Luis; León, Natalia; Guerrero, Carlo; Díaz, Marisel

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum nanocontact conductance histograms are studied experimentally from room temperature up to near the bulk melting point. The dominant stable configurations for this metal show a very early crossover from shell structures at low wire diameters to ionic subshell structures at larger diameters. At these larger radii, the favorable structures are temperature-independent and consistent with those expected for ionic subshell (faceted) formations in face-centered cubic geometries. When approaching the bulk melting temperature, these local stability structures become less pronounced as shown by the vanishing conductance histogram peak structure.

  6. Plastic Deformation of Aluminum Single Crystals at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R D; Young, A P; Schwope, A D

    1956-01-01

    This report describes the results of a comprehensive study of plastic deformation of aluminum single crystals over a wide range of temperatures. The results of constant-stress creep tests have been reported for the temperature range from 400 degrees to 900 degrees F. For these tests, a new capacitance-type extensometer was designed. This unit has a range of 0.30 inch over which the sensitivity is very nearly linear and can be varied from as low a sensitivity as is desired to a maximum of 20 microinches per millivolt with good stability. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of small amounts of prestraining, by two different methods, on the creep and tensile properties of these aluminum single crystals. From observations it has been concluded that plastic deformation takes place predominantly by slip which is accompanied by the mechanisms of kinking and polygonization.

  7. Elevated temperature properties of boron/aluminum composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, P. G.

    1978-01-01

    The high temperature properties of boron/aluminum composites, fabricated by an air diffusion bonding technique utilizing vacuum-bonded monolayer tape are reported. Seventeen different combinations of matrix alloy, reinforcement diameter, reinforcement volume percent, angle-ply and matrix enhancement (i.e. titanium cladding and interleaves) were fabricated, inspected, and tested. It is shown that good to excellent mechanical properties could be obtained for air-bonded boron/aluminum composites and that these properties did not decrease significantly up to a test temperature of at least 260 C. Composites made with 8 mil B/W fiber show a much greater longitudinal strength dependence on volume percent fiber than composites made with 5.6 mil fiber. The addition of titanium caused difficulties in composite bonding and yielded composites with reduced strength.

  8. Aluminum-Silicon Alloy Having Improved Properties at Elevated Temperatures and Articles Cast Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An aluminum alloy suitable for high temperature applications, such as heavy duty pistons and other internal combustion applications. having the following composition, by weight percent (wt %): Silicon: 11.0-14.0; Copper: 5.6-8.0; Iron: 0-0.8; Magnesium: 0.5-1.5; Nickel: 0.05-0.9; Manganese: 0.5-1.5; Titanium: 0.05-1.2; Zirconium: 0.12-1.2; Vanadium: 0.05-1.2; Zinc: 0.005-0.9; Strontium: 0.001-0.1; Aluminum: balance. In this alloy the ratio of silicon:magnesium is 10-25, and the ratio of copper:magnesium is 4-15. After an article is cast from this alloy, the article is treated in a solutionizing step which dissolves unwanted precipitates and reduces any segregation present in the original alloy. After this solutionizing step, the article is quenched, and is then aged at an elevated temperature for maximum strength.

  9. Low cycle fatigue behavior of a SiCp reinforced aluminum matrix composite at ambient and elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Han, N.L.; Wang, Z.G.; Sun, L.Z.

    1995-06-01

    Based on an investigation of low cycle fatigue life and cyclic stress response characteristics of SiC particulates reinforced pure aluminum and unreinforced matrix aluminum at 298 K and 441 K, the following observations were made. (1) Cyclic stress response of the unreinforced matrix aluminum, in the as-extruded condition, revealed initial cyclic hardening, cyclic stability and second hardening at ambient temperature. With a contrast, the unreinforced aluminum at elevated temperature showed progressively cyclic softening behavior without initial hardening. (2) The cyclic stress response characteristics of the composite were different from that of its unreinforced matrix at room temperature. In spite of the initial hardening, the composite showed progressive softening in most of the fatigue life. At elevated temperature the composite also displayed continuous cyclic softening behavior. The reason for the softening behavior probably was that the dislocation tangles in the composite specimen with a likely work-hardened status was not stable and could be changed under a cyclic loading. (3) The SiCp/Al composite and the unreinforced matrix followed the Coffin-Manson law. The low cycle fatigue resistance of the composite at room temperature was lower than that of the unreinforced matrix. A decrease in the fatigue endurance due to a rise in test temperature was observed for the composite and the unreinforced matrix especially at low cyclic plastic strain ranges. The induction of fatigue life of the unreinforced aluminum was faster than that of the composite, so the fatigue resistance of the composite was stronger than that of the unreinforced aluminum under lower cyclic strain ranges at elevated temperature.

  10. Oxalate complexation with aluminum(III) and iron(III) at moderately elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, C.D.; Janecky, D.R.; Clark, D.L.; Bennett, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    To add to our understanding of the weathering of rocks in organic rich environments such as sedimentary brines and oil field waters, we have examined the temperature dependent complexation of aluminum with oxalate. Raman vibrational studies show that even the association constant for the highly charged Al(ox){sub 3}{sup 3{minus}} unexpectedly increases with moderate temperature increases to 80{degrees}C. To evaluate the potential importance of these Al-oxalate species in complex natural systems, temperature dependent competition experiments Fe(III) and Al(III) for oxalate have been initiated. Similar to aluminum, ferric oxalates show increases in association constants at higher temperatures. In competition experiments, the first association constant for Fe(ox){sup +} increases faster than that for Al(ox){sup +} to 90{degrees}C.

  11. A New Thermo-Elasto-Viscoplastic Crystal Plasticity Framework to Predict the Formability of Aluminum Alloys at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inal, Kaan; Cyr, Edward; Mishra, Raja K.

    2016-08-01

    A new thermo-elasto-viscoplastic (TEV) crystal plasticity constitutive formulation is developed and implemented in the well-known Marciniak-Kuczynski analysis to predict the formability of aluminum alloys (AA) 5754 and 3003 at elevated temperatures. The model takes into account the temperature dependence of the single crystal elastic coefficients, single slip hardening parameters, thermal softening and slip rate sensitivity. Temperature dependent single slip hardening parameters are determined from uniaxial tension simulations at room and elevated temperatures. The new model is able to accurately predict the experimental forming limit diagrams (FLDs) without the need for further curve fitting. The effects of elastic constants and thermal softening on FLD predictions are discussed, and a new expression to represent the temperature dependence of the initial imperfection (for the M-K analysis) is developed to enable the model to successfully predict the FLDs for any temperature in the warm forming regime prior to recrystallization.

  12. Investigation of the Compressive Strength and Creep Lifetime of 2024-T3 Aluminum-Alloy Plates at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathauser, Eldon E; Deveikis, William D

    1957-01-01

    The results of elevated-temperature compressive strength and creep tests of 2024-t3 (formerly 24s-t3) aluminum alloy plates supported in v-grooves are presented. The strength-test results indicate that a relation previously developed for predicting plate compressive strength for plates of all materials at room temperature is also satisfactory for determining elevated-temperature strength. Creep-lifetime results are presented for plates in the form of master creep-lifetime curves by using a time-temperature parameter that is convenient for summarizing tensile creep-rupture data. A comparison is made between tensile and compressive creep lifetime for the plates and a method that made use of isochronous stress-strain curves for predicting plate-creep failure stresses is investigated.

  13. Hot deformation behavior of 7150 aluminum alloy during compression at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Nengping; Zhang Hui; Han Yi; Wu Wenxiang; Chen Jianghua

    2009-06-15

    Hot compression tests of 7150 aluminum alloy were preformed on Gleeble-1500 system in the temperature range from 300 deg. C to 450 deg. C and at strain rate range from 0.01 s{sup -1} to 10 s{sup -1}, and the associated structural changes were studied by observations of metallographic and transmission electron microscope. The results show that the true stress-true strain curves exhibit a peak stress at a critical strain, after which the flow stresses decrease monotonically until high strains, showing a dynamic flow softening. The peak stress level decreases with increasing deformation temperature and decreasing strain rate, which can be represented by a Zener-Hollomon parameter in the hyperbolic-sine equation with the hot deformation activation energy of 229.75 kJ/mol. In the deformed structures appear the elongated grains with serrations developed in the grain boundaries, decreasing of Z value leads to more adequate proceeding of dynamic recrystallization and coarser recrystallized grains. The subgrains exhibit high-angle sub-boundaries with a certain amount of dislocations and large numbers of dynamic precipitates in subgrain interiors as increasing Z value. The dynamic recovery and recrystallization are the main reasons for the flow softening at low Z value, but the dynamic precipitates and successive dynamic particles coarsening have been assumed to be responsible for the flow softening at high Z value.

  14. Tensile deformation of 2618 and Al-Fe-Si-V aluminum alloys at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leng, Y.; Porr, W. C., Jr.; Gangloff, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    The present study experimentally characterizes the effects of elevated temperature on the uniaxial tensile behavior of ingot metallurgy 2618 Al alloy and the rapidly solidified FVS 0812 P/M alloy by means of two constitutive formulations: the Ramberg/Osgood equation and the Bodner-Partom (1975) incremental formulation for uniaxial tensile loading. The elastoplastic strain-hardening behavior of the ingot metallurgy alloy is equally well represented by either formulation. Both alloys deform similarly under decreasing load after only 1-5 percent uniform tensile strain, a response which is not described by either constitutive relation.

  15. Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened aluminum alloys for elevated temperature structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, E. Y.; Kennedy, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Rapidly solidified alloys, based upon the Al-Fe-V-Si system and designed for elevated temperature applications, were evaluated for superplasticity and diffusion bonding behavior. Alloys with 8, 16, 27, and 36 volume percent silicide dispersoids were produced; dispersoid condition was varied by rolling at 300, 400, and 500 C (572, 752, and 932 F). Superplastic behavior was evaluated at strain rates from 1 x 10(exp -6)/s to 8.5/s at elevated temperatures. The results indicate that there was a significant increase in elongation at higher strain rates and at temperatures above 600 C (1112 F). However, the exposure of the alloys to temperatures greater than 600 C (1112 F) resulted in the coarsening of the strengthening dispersoid and the degradation of mechanical properties. Diffusion bonding was possible using low gas pressure at temperatures greater than 600 C (1112 F) which also resulted in degraded properties. The bonding of Al-Fe-V-Si alloys to 7475 aluminum alloy was performed at 516 C (960 F) without significant degradation in microstructure. Bond strengths equal to 90 percent that of the base metal shear strength were achieved. The mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of the alloys were investigated.

  16. Effect of Thermal Exposure on the Tensile Properties of Aluminum Alloys for Elevated Temperature Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edahl, Robert A., Jr.; Domack, Marcia

    2004-01-01

    Tensile properties were evaluated for four aluminum alloys that are candidates for airframe applications on high speed transport aircraft. These alloys included the Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys C415 and C416 and the Al-Cu-Li-Mg-Ag alloys RX818 and ML377. The Al-Cu-Mg alloys CM001, which was used on the Concorde SST, and 1143, which was modified from the alloy used on the TU144 Russian supersonic aircraft, were tested for comparison. The alloys were subjected to thermal exposure at 200 F, 225 F and 275 F for times up to 30,000 hours. Tensile tests were performed on thermally-exposed and as-received material at -65 F, room temperature, 200 F, 225 F and 275 F. All four candidate alloys showed significant tensile property improvements over CM001 and 1143. Room temperature yield strengths of the candidate alloys were at least 20% greater than for CM001 and 1143, for both the as-received and thermally-exposed conditions. The strength levels of alloy RX818 were the highest of all materials investigated, and were 5-10% higher than for ML377, C415 and C416 for the as-received condition and after 5,000 hours thermal exposure. RX818 was removed from this study after 5,000 hours exposure due to poor fracture toughness performance observed in a parallel study. After 30,000 hours exposure at 200 F and 225 F, the alloys C415, C416 and ML377 showed minor decreases in yield strength, tensile strength and elongation when compared to the as-received properties. Reductions in tensile strength from the as-received values were up to 25% for alloys C415, C416 and ML377 after 15,000 hours exposure at 275 F.

  17. Interparticle movement and the mechanical behavior of extruded powder aluminum at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, H.B.

    1996-09-01

    This paper proposes a model and mechanism, based on relative motion of the extruded aluminum particles, to explain these effects. Quantitative stereology is used to support the concept. Stress-strain relations are derived for the uniaxial and biaxial behavior of powder aluminum and they are seen to fit the data from a number of uniaxial and tension-torsion test specimens. Implications of the model for forming of extruded powder metal products are discussed

  18. Nucleation and growth of cracks in vitreous-bonded aluminum oxide at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Jakus, K.; Wiederhorn, S.M.; Hockey, B.J.

    1986-10-01

    The nucleation and growth of cracks was studied at elevated temperatures on a grade of vitreous-bonded aluminium oxide that contained approx. =8 vol% glass at the grain boundaries. Cracks were observed to nucleate within the vitreous phase, close to the tensile surface of the flexural test specimens used in these experiments. Crack nucleation occurred at a strain of approx. =0.08% to 0.12% which corresponded to a crack nucleation time of approx. =35% of the time to failure by creep rupture. Once nucleated, cracks propagated along grain boundaries, as long as the stress for crack propagation was maintained. The crack velocity for cracks that were nucleated by the creep process was found to be linearly proportional to the apparent stress intensity factor, whereas for cracks that were nucleated by indentation, the crack velocity was proportional to the fourth power of the apparent stress intensity factor.

  19. Formability analysis of aluminum alloy sheets at elevated temperatures with numerical simulation based on the M-K method

    SciTech Connect

    Bagheriasl, Reza; Ghavam, Kamyar; Worswick, Michael

    2011-05-04

    The effect of temperature on formability of aluminum alloy sheet is studied by developing the Forming Limit Diagrams, FLD, for aluminum alloy 3000-series using the Marciniak and Kuczynski technique by numerical simulation. The numerical model is conducted in LS-DYNA and incorporates the Barlat's YLD2000 anisotropic yield function and the temperature dependant Bergstrom hardening law. Three different temperatures; room temperature, 250 deg. C and 300 deg. C, are studied. For each temperature case, various loading conditions are applied to the M-K defect model. The effect of the material anisotropy is considered by varying the defect angle. A simplified failure criterion is used to predict the onset of necking. Minor and major strains are obtained from the simulations and plotted for each temperature level. It is demonstrated that temperature improves the forming limit of aluminum 3000-series alloy sheet.

  20. Tensile deformation behavior of spray-deposited FVS0812 heat-resistant aluminum alloy sheet at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Qiqi; Fu Dingfa . E-mail: Fudingfa69@163.com; Deng Xuefeng; Zhang Hui; Chen Zhenhua

    2007-06-15

    The tensile deformation behavior of spray deposited FVS0812 heat-resistant aluminum alloy sheet was studied by uniaxial tension tests at temperatures ranging from 250 deg. C to 450 deg. C and strain rates from 0.001 to 0.1 s{sup -1}. The associated fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the degree of work-hardening increases with decreasing temperature, and exhibits a small decrease with increasing strain rate; the strain rate sensitivity exponent increases with increasing temperature. The flow stress increases with increasing strain rate but decreases with increasing temperature. The total elongations to fracture increase not only with increasing temperature, but also with increasing strain rate, which is in marked contrast with the normal inverse dependence of elongation on the strain rate exhibited by conventional aluminum alloy sheets. The SEM fracture analysis indicates that the dependence of elongation on the strain rate may be due to the presence of a transition from plastic instability at lower strain rates to stable deformation at higher strain rates for fine-grained materials produced by spray deposition.

  1. Aluminum-Silicon Alloy Having Improved Properties At Elevated Temperatures and Process for Producing Cast Articles Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A process for making a cast article from an aluminum alloy includes first casting an article from an alloy having the following composition, in weight percent: Silicon 11.0-14.0, Copper 5.6-8.0, Iron 0-0.8, Magnesium 0.5-1.5, Nickel 0.05-0.9, Manganese 0-1.0, Titanium 0.05-1.2, Zirconium 0.12-1.2, Vanadium 0.05-1.2, Zinc 0.05-0.9, Strontium 0.001-0.1, Aluminum balance . In this alloy the ratio of silicon to magnesium is 10 to 25, and the ratio of copper to magnesium is 4 to 15. After an article is cast from the alloy, the cast article is aged at a temperature within the range of 400F to 500F for a time period within the range of four to 16 hours. It has been found especially advantageous if the cast article is first exposed to a solutionizing step prior to the aging step. This solutionizing step is carried out by exposing the cast article to a temperature within the range of 900F to 1000F for a time period of fifteen minutes to four hours. It has also been found to be especially advantageous if the solutionizing step is followed directly with a quenching step, wherein the cast article is quenched in a quenching medium such as water at a temperature within the range of 120F to 300F. The resulting cast article is suitable in a number of high temperature applications, such as heavy-duty pistons for internal combustion engines.

  2. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Elevated Temperature Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) Alloy and Its Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, David C.; Gegal, Gerald A.

    2014-04-15

    The objective of this project was to provide a production capable cast aluminum metal matrix composite (MMC) alloy with an operating temperature capability of 250-300°C. Important industrial sectors as well as the military now seek lightweight aluminum alloy castings that can operate in temperature ranges of 250-300°C. Current needs in this temperature range are being satisfied by the use of titanium alloy castings. These have the desired strength properties but the end components are heavier and significantly more costly. Also, the energy requirements for production of titanium alloy castings are significantly higher than those required for production of aluminum alloys and aluminum alloy castings.

  3. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, J. F.; Malik, S. N.; Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Laflen, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Project is to evaluate proposed nonlinear fracture mechanics methods for application to combustor liners of aircraft gas turbine engines. During the first year of this program, proposed path-independent (P-I) integrals were reviewed for such applications. Several P-I integrals were implemented into a finite-element postprocessor which was developed and verified as part of the work. Alloy 718 was selected as the analog material for use in the forthcoming experimental work. A buttonhead, single-edge notch specimen was designed and verified for use in elevated-temperature strain control testing with significant inelastic strains. A crack mouth opening displacement measurement device was developed for further use.

  4. 1. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATION OF ILLINOIS PURE ALUMINUM (IPA) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATION OF ILLINOIS PURE ALUMINUM (IPA) COMPANY FACTORY; SOUTH ELEVATION FACING ILLINOIS CENTRAL GULF RAILROAD TRACKS AND MAIN STREET. THE ONE-STORY BRICK BUILDING TO THE LEFT IS AN ABANDONED COMMONWEALTH EDISON COMPANY ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  5. Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    A three year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for non-proportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved undertanding were through several critical non-proportional loading experiments. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C.

  6. Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    A 3 year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for nonproportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved understanding were through several critical nonproportional loading experiments. The direction of cracking observed on failed specimens was also recorded and used to guide the development of the theory. Cyclic deformation responses were permanently recorded digitally during each test. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C. In contrast to some other metals, loading path in nonproportional loading had little effect on fatigue lives. Strain rate had a small effect on fatigue lives at 649 C. Of the various correlating parameters the modified plastic work and octahedral shear stress were the most successful.

  7. Tensile deformation and fracture behavior of spray-deposition 7075/15SiC{sub p} aluminum matrix composite sheet at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Hui He Yusong; Li Luoxing

    2008-08-15

    The tensile deformation and fracture behavior of spray-deposition 7075/15SiC{sub p} (15 vol.% SiC particle) aluminum matrix composite sheet were studied by uniaxial tension tests at temperatures ranging from 300 deg. C to 450 deg. C and strain rates of 0.001-0.1 s{sup -1}, and the fracture surfaces were examined by using a scanning electron microscopy. The results show that strain softening is present up to the point of failure and the flow stress level increases with increasing strain rate but decreases with increasing temperature. The total elongation to fracture increases with increasing temperature and with decreasing strain rate. The maximum strain rate sensitivity exponent is 0.24 which is much lower than that of typical superplastic materials. The apparent activation energy is calculated to be approximately 379 kJ/mol which is much higher than its unreinforced counterpart. The fracture surface morphology shows a large amount of localized plastic deformation in the aluminum matrix and numerous large cavities around the reinforcement. The absence of strain accommodation by interface sliding might have caused premature failure at the reinforcement/matrix interface.

  8. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  9. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Malik, S. N.; Laflen, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    A study was performed to examine the applicability of path-independent (P-I) integrals to crack growth problems in hot section components of gas turbine aircraft engines. Alloy 718 was used and the experimental parameters included combined temperature and strain cycling, thermal gradients, elastic-plastic strain levels, and mean strains. A literature review was conducted of proposed P-I integrals, and those capable of analyzing hot section component problems were selected and programmed into the postprocessor of a finite element code. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analyses were conducted to simulate crack growth and crack closure of the test specimen, and to evaluate the P-I integrals. It was shown that the selected P-I integrals are very effective for predicting crack growth for isothermal conditions.

  10. Ion implantation at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, N.Q.; Leaf, G.K.

    1985-11-01

    A kinetic model has been developed to investigate the synergistic effects of radiation-enhanced diffusion, radiation-induced segregation and preferential sputtering on the spatial redistribution of implanted solutes during implantation at elevated temperatures. Sample calculations were performed for Al and Si ions implanted into Ni. With the present model, the influence of various implantation parameters on the evolution of implant concentration profiles could be examined in detail.

  11. Determination of Plate Compressive Strengths at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimerl, George J; Roberts, William M

    1950-01-01

    The results of local-instability tests of h-section plate assemblies and compressive stress-strain tests of extruded 75s-t6 aluminum alloy, obtained to determine flat-plate compressive strength under stabilized elevated temperature conditions, are given for temperatures up to 600 degrees F. The results show that methods available for calculating the critical compressive stress at room temperature can also be used at elevated temperatures if the applicable compressive stress-strain curve for the material is given.

  12. High Strength Aluminum Alloy For High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A cast article from an aluminum alloy has improved mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The cast article has the following composition in weight percent: Silicon 6.0-25.0, Copper 5.0-8.0, Iron 0.05-1.2, Magnesium 0.5-1.5, Nickel 0.05-0.9, Manganese 0.05-1.2, Titanium 0.05-1.2, Zirconium 0.05-1.2, Vanadium 0.05-1.2, Zinc 0.05-0.9, Strontium 0.001-0.1, Phosphorus 0.001-0.1, and the balance is Aluminum, wherein the silicon-to-magnesium ratio is 10-25, and the copper-to-magnesium ratio is 4-15. The aluminum alloy contains a simultaneous dispersion of three types of Al3X compound particles (X=Ti, V, Zr) having a LI2 crystal structure, and their lattice parameters are coherent to the aluminum matrix lattice. A process for producing this cast article is also disclosed, as well as a metal matrix composite, which includes the aluminum alloy serving as a matrix containing up to about 60% by volume of a secondary filler material.

  13. Post-Shock Temperature Measurements of Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Seifter, A.; Furlanetto, M. R.; Payton, J. R.; Obst, A. W.; Stewart, S. T.; Kennedy, G. B.

    2006-07-28

    Post-shock temperature is an important quantity in shock physics experiments for constraining the dynamic equations of state of materials. A high-speed, infrared, multi-wavelength pyrometer has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for measurements in the temperature range from 400 to 1200 K. With customized front end optics, permitting concurrent VISAR measurements in the same optical path, validation experiments on aluminum have been conducted at the new Shock Compression Laboratory at Harvard University. Under <1 millitorr vacuum, a post-shock temperature of 495 K {+-} 30 K was recorded from a polished free surface of aluminum 2024-T4 subject to a peak shock pressure of 34.8{+-}0.8 GPa, in excellent agreement with the equation of state and previous experiments.

  14. Corrosion resistant coatings suitable for elevated temperature application

    DOEpatents

    Chan, Kwai S.; Cheruvu, Narayana Sastry; Liang, Wuwei

    2012-07-31

    The present invention relates to corrosion resistance coatings suitable for elevated temperature applications, which employ compositions of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and/or aluminum (Al). The compositions may be configured to regulate the diffusion of metals between a coating and a substrate, which may then influence coating performance, via the formation of an inter-diffusion barrier layer. The inter-diffusion barrier layer may comprise a face-centered cubic phase.

  15. Properties of aluminum alloys: Tensile, creep, and fatigue data at high and low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Based on work by Alcoa Laboratories over several years, this book compiles more than 300 tables listing typical average properties of a wide range of aluminum alloys. Contents include: Typical Mechanical Properties of Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys at Various Temperatures--tensile properties at subzero temperatures at temperature after various holding times at the test temperature, and at room temperature after exposure at various temperatures for various holding times; creep rupture strengths for various times at various temperatures; stresses required to generate various amounts of creep in various lengths of time; rotating-beam fatigue strengths; modulus of elasticity as a function of temperature; Fatigue Data--fatigue strength of wrought aluminum alloys, axial stress fatigue strength of wrought aluminum alloys (at various stress ratios, smooth and notched specimens), average fatigue strength for aluminum and aluminum alloy flat sheet specimens (under complete reversed flexure), cantilever-beam fatigue test results of aluminum alloys at elevated temperatures and following stabilization at the test temperature. The properties in this book are typical values--expected average values for representative lots produced using commercial processes and that meet industry standards, whose room temperature properties correspond to published typical values for the alloys.

  16. The fabrication of rapidly solidified high temperature aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilman, P. S.; Rateick, R. G.; Testa, A.

    The application of rapid solidification/powder metallurgy processing to metallic materials has led to a series of rapidly solidified aluminum-iron-vanadium-silicon alloys which combine a balanced set of elevated temperature strengths and ambient temperature properties critical for aerospace use. The rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si alloys are finding widespread interest throughout the aerospace community. However, to be fully utilized the high temperature Al-Fe-V-Si alloys must be amendable to traditional metalworking, machining and finishing operations. Powder metallurgy derived high performance alloys at times have proven difficult to fabricate. Recent progress in the fabrication of the high temperature Al-Fe-V-Si alloys into desirable product forms will be discussed, for example the production of thin foils and spun metal components. The effects of various fabrication sequences on material properties will be described.

  17. Geochemistry of Aluminum in High Temperature Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    1999-05-18

    The objective ofthis research is to provide quantitative data on the equilibrium and thermodynamic properties of aluminum minerals required to model changes in permeability and brine chemistry associated with fluid/rock interactions in the recharge, reservoir, and discharge zones of active geothermal systems. This requires a precise knowledge of the thermodynamics and speciation of aluminum in aqueous brines, spanning the temperature and fluid composition rangesencountered in active systems. The empirical and semi-empirical treatments of the solubility/hydrolysis experimental results on single aluminum mineral phases form the basis for the ultimate investigation of the behavior of complex aluminosilicate minerals. The principal objective in FY 1998 was to complete the solubility measurements on boehmite (AIOOH) inNaC1 media( 1 .O and 5.0 molal ionic strength, IOO-250°C). However, additional measurements were also made on boehmite solubility in pure NaOH solutions in order to bolster the database for fitting in-house isopiestic data on this system. Preliminary kinetic Measurements of the dissolution/precipitation of boehmite was also carried out, although these were also not planned in the earlier objective. The 1999 objectives are to incorporate these treatments into existing codes used by the geothermal industry to predict the chemistry ofthe reservoirs; these calculations will be tested for reliability against our laboratory results and field observations. Moreover, based on the success of the experimental methods developed in this program, we intend to use our unique high temperature pH easurement capabilities to make kinetic and equilibrium studies of pH-dependent aluminosilicate transformation reactions and other pH-dependent heterogeneous reactions.

  18. Aluminum anodization in a basic ambient temperature molten salt

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, R.T.; Osteryoung, R.A. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-05-01

    The authors describe aluminum anodization studied in the basic AlCl/sub 3/:1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (ImCl) ambient temperature molten salt (AlCl/sub 3/:ImCl molar ratio ..e..1.0). The anodization process was studied as a function of chloride anion concentration. Two different anodization processes are observed with onset potentials of approximately -1.1 and 0V. The more cathodic anodization involves formation of the tetrachloroaluminate anion and exhibits a limiting current controlled by diffusion of chloride to the electrode surface. The number of chlorides required for each Al anodized was determined to be 4.6 +- 0.4. The more anodic anodization shows no diffusion control. A value for the diffusion coefficient of chloride was obtained which is lower than previously reported; the difference involves using an n value of 1, rather than 2/3. No reduction of the tetrachloroaluminate anion was observed even at elevated temperatures.

  19. An elevated temperature titration calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Zanonato, P.L.; Choppin, G.R. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-06-01

    A variable-temperature (313 K to 353 K) titration calorimeter of high sensitivity has been constructed. The purpose of the calorimeter is to study temperature effects on the enthalpies of complex formation and of other reactions of metal cations such as hydrolysis and precipitation. Operation of the calorimetric system, including that final calculation of the heat released during titration, is automatic via computer control. Calibration tests of the calorimeter using 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol gave -(46.0 {plus minus} 0.3) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} and -(46.2 {plus minus} 0.2) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} for the enthalpy of protonation, at 318 K and at 343 K, respectively. For titrations of 2-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol, enthalpy of protonation values of -(28.4 {plus minus} 0.3) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} and -(29.3 {plus minus} 0.2) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} were obtained at 318 K and at 343 K, respectively. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Theoretical Determination of Lifetime of Compressed Plates at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, George; Chu, Hu-Nan

    1959-01-01

    A method for the theoretical determination of the lifetime of com- pressed plates at elevated temperatures is presented. In this approach, linearized equations are used throughout with the assumption that the plate material is a standard linear solid. The critical time (lifetime) is determined by reducing the time-dependent behavior to the time- independent response of purely elastic buckling. Theoretically predicted lifetimes of 2024-T3 (formerly 24S-T3) aluminum-alloy plates at 450 F are compared with experimental values obtained in previous work.

  1. Aircraft structures research at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duberg, John E

    1955-01-01

    A review is made of the test techniques that have been developed and used by the NACA for experimental research in aircraft structures at elevated temperatures. Some experimental results are presented. Remarks are included on the problem of model scaling for testing of structures at high temperatures. (author)

  2. Elevated temperature deformation of TD-nickel.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrovic, J. J.; Ebert, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Sensitivity of the elevated temperature (above 0.5 Tm) deformation of TD-nickel to grain size and shape was examined in both tension and creep. Elevated temperature strength increased with increasing grain diameter and increasing L/D ratio. Temperature sensitivity of the yield stress, as well as high (compared to self diffusion) apparent tensile activation enthalpies were the result of the internal stress not being proportional to the shear modulus. Creep activation enthalpies increased with increasing L/D ratio and, to a lesser extent, increasing grain diameter, reaching high values which may be apparent values. The thoria particle dispersion may have been altered by elevated temperature tensile and creep deformation.

  3. Aluminum low temperature smelting cell metal collection

    DOEpatents

    Beck, Theodore R.; Brown, Craig W.

    2002-07-16

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte in an electrolytic cell having an anodic liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having an anodic bottom and walls including at least one end wall extending upwardly from the anodic bottom, the anodic liner being substantially inert with respect to the molten electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes is provided and disposed vertically in the electrolyte. A plurality of cathodes is disposed vertically in the electrolyte in alternating relationship with the anodes. The anodes are electrically connected to the anodic liner. An electric current is passed through the anodic liner to the anodes, through the electrolyte to the cathodes, and aluminum is deposited on said cathodes. Oxygen bubbles are generated at the anodes and the anodic liner, the bubbles stirring the electrolyte. Molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes into a tubular member positioned underneath the cathodes. The tubular member is in liquid communication with each cathode to collect the molten aluminum therefrom while excluding electrolyte. Molten aluminum is delivered through the tubular member to a molten aluminum reservoir located substantially opposite the anodes and cathodes. The molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes and delivered to the reservoir while avoiding contact of the molten aluminum with the anodic bottom.

  4. Elevated serum aluminum levels in hemodialysis patients associated with use of electric pumps--Wyoming, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-06-27

    Aluminum toxicity can cause osteomalacia, anemia, and dementia in hemodialysis patients and has historically been associated with exposure to contaminated water or dialysate preparations or ingestion of aluminum-containing phosphate binders. Since 2002, improvements in water treatment methods and use of non-aluminum-containing phosphate binders have resulted in low prevalence (<1%) of aluminum toxicity among hemodialysis patients. In the United States, reported cases of aluminum toxicosis are rare, and no outbreak has been reported since 1992. This report describes 10 patients treated at a hemodialysis unit in a Wyoming hospital (hospital A) in 2007 who had elevated serum aluminum levels that were detected through routine serum aluminum screening. An investigation was conducted by the Wyoming Department of Health, which determined that the source of exposure was dialysate acid concentrate that became contaminated with aluminum as it passed through two electric drum pumps. The drum pumps had been used to transfer dialysate acid concentrate from 55-gallon storage drums to 1-gallon jugs for use on individual hemodialysis machines. Removal of the pumps from service resulted in a rapid reduction in patient serum aluminum levels. The findings suggest that regular assessment of machine compatibility with dialysate fluid is needed.

  5. System integration and demonstration of adhesive bonded high temperature aluminum alloys for aerospace structure, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falcone, Anthony; Laakso, John H.

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive bonding materials and processes were evaluated for assembly of future high-temperature aluminum alloy structural components such as may be used in high-speed civil transport aircraft and space launch vehicles. A number of candidate high-temperature adhesives were selected and screening tests were conducted using single lap shear specimens. The selected adhesives were then used to bond sandwich (titanium core) test specimens, adhesive toughness test specimens, and isothermally aged lap shear specimens. Moderate-to-high lap shear strengths were obtained from bonded high-temperature aluminum and silicon carbide particulate-reinforced (SiC(sub p)) aluminum specimens. Shear strengths typically exceeded 3500 to 4000 lb/in(sup 2) and flatwise tensile strengths exceeded 750 lb/in(sup 2) even at elevated temperatures (300 F) using a bismaleimide adhesive. All faceskin-to-core bonds displayed excellent tear strength. The existing production phosphoric acid anodize surface preparation process developed at Boeing was used, and gave good performance with all of the aluminum and silicon carbide particulate-reinforced aluminum alloys investigated. The results of this program support using bonded assemblies of high-temperature aluminum components in applications where bonding is often used (e.g., secondary structures and tear stoppers).

  6. Elevated-Temperature Tribology of Metallic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2010-01-01

    The wear of metals and alloys takes place in many forms, and the type of wear that dominates in each instance is influenced by the mechanics of contact, material properties, the interfacial temperature, and the surrounding environment. The control of elevated-temperature friction and wear is important for applications like internal combustion engines, aerospace propulsion systems, and metalworking equipment. The progression of interacting, often synergistic processes produces surface deformation, subsurface damage accumulation, the formation of tribolayers, and the creation of free particles. Reaction products, particularly oxides, play a primary role in debris formation and microstructural evolution. Chemical reactions are known to be influenced by the energetic state of the exposed surfaces, and that surface energy is in turn affected by localized deformation and fracture. At relatively low temperatures, work-hardening can occur beneath tribo-contacts, but exposure to high temperatures can modify the resultant defect density and grain structure to affect the mechanisms of re-oxidation. As research by others has shown, the rate of wear at elevated temperatures can either be enhanced or reduced, depending on contact conditions and nature of oxide layer formation. Furthermore, the thermodynamic driving force for certain chemical reactions is moderated by kinetics and microstructure. The role of deformation, oxidation, and tribo-corrosion in the elevated temperature tribology of metallic alloys will be exemplified by three examples involving sliding wear, single-point abrasion, and repetitive impact plus slip.

  7. Methods for structural design at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, A. M.; Jones, W. E., Jr.; Leimbach, K. R.

    1973-01-01

    A procedure which can be used to design elevated temperature structures is discussed. The desired goal is to have the same confidence in the structural integrity at elevated temperature as the factor of safety gives on mechanical loads at room temperature. Methods of design and analysis for creep, creep rupture, and creep buckling are presented. Example problems are included to illustrate the analytical methods. Creep data for some common structural materials are presented. Appendix B is description, user's manual, and listing for the creep analysis program. The program predicts time to a given creep or to creep rupture for a material subjected to a specified stress-temperature-time spectrum. Fatigue at elevated temperature is discussed. Methods of analysis for high stress-low cycle fatigue, fatigue below the creep range, and fatigue in the creep range are included. The interaction of thermal fatigue and mechanical loads is considered, and a detailed approach to fatigue analysis is given for structures operating below the creep range.

  8. Buffer strips in composites at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The composite material 'buffer strip' concept is presently investigated at elevated temperatures for the case of graphite/polyimide buffer strip panels using a (45/0/45/90)2S layup, where the buffer strip material was 0-deg S-glass/polyimide. Each panel was loaded in tension until it failed, and radiographs and crack opening displacements were recorded during the tests to determine fracture onset, fracture arrest, and the extent of damage in the buffer strip after crack arrest. At 177 + or - 3 C, the buffer strips increased the panel strength by at least 40 percent in comparison with panels without buffer strips. Compared to similar panels tested at room temperature, those tested at elevated temperature had lower residual strengths, but higher failure strains.

  9. Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    Originally developed by NASA as high performance piston alloys to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low exhaust emission, the novel NASA alloys now offer dramatic increase in tensile strength for many other applications at elevated temperatures from 450 F (232 C) to about 750 F (400 C). It is an ideal low cost material for cast automotive components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. It can be very economically produced from conventional permanent mold, sand casting or investment casting, with silicon content ranging from 6% to 18%. At high silicon levels, the alloy exhibits excellent dimensional stability, surface hardness and wear resistant properties.

  10. Void evolution in polycarbonate at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. H.; Feng Chou, Kuo; Li, C. L.; Lee, Sanboh

    2011-08-01

    The void evolution in polycarbonate (PC) at elevated temperatures was investigated. Internal cylindrical cracks and voids were induced in PC by Nd-YAG laser irradiation. During the annealing at temperatures of 177-197 °C, the spherical void grows to a maximum size, which then decreases, and is finally leveling off. A model of void evolution based on the evaporation and condensation mechanisms for growth and shrinkage is proposed. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data. The activation energies of evaporation and condensation processes are determined to be 477.31 and 611.49 kJ/mol, respectively.

  11. Void evolution in polycarbonate at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y. H.; Li, C. L.; Lee, Sanboh; Kuo Feng Chou

    2011-08-15

    The void evolution in polycarbonate (PC) at elevated temperatures was investigated. Internal cylindrical cracks and voids were induced in PC by Nd-YAG laser irradiation. During the annealing at temperatures of 177-197 deg. C, the spherical void grows to a maximum size, which then decreases, and is finally leveling off. A model of void evolution based on the evaporation and condensation mechanisms for growth and shrinkage is proposed. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data. The activation energies of evaporation and condensation processes are determined to be 477.31 and 611.49 kJ/mol, respectively.

  12. Elevated temperature forming method and preheater apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Krajewski, Paul E; Hammar, Richard Harry; Singh, Jugraj; Cedar, Dennis; Friedman, Peter A; Luo, Yingbing

    2013-06-11

    An elevated temperature forming system in which a sheet metal workpiece is provided in a first stage position of a multi-stage pre-heater, is heated to a first stage temperature lower than a desired pre-heat temperature, is moved to a final stage position where it is heated to a desired final stage temperature, is transferred to a forming press, and is formed by the forming press. The preheater includes upper and lower platens that transfer heat into workpieces disposed between the platens. A shim spaces the upper platen from the lower platen by a distance greater than a thickness of the workpieces to be heated by the platens and less than a distance at which the upper platen would require an undesirably high input of energy to effectively heat the workpiece without being pressed into contact with the workpiece.

  13. Commercialization of NASA's High Strength Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the commercialization of a new high strength cast aluminum alloy, invented by NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, for high temperature applications will be presented. Originally developed to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low- exhaust emission, the novel NASA aluminum alloy offers dramatic improvement in tensile and fatigue strengths at elevated temperatures (450 F-750 F), which can lead to reducing part weight and cost as well as improving performance for automotive engine applications. It is an ideal low cost material for cast components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. NASA alloy also offers greater wear resistance, dimensional stability, and lower thermal expansion compared to conventional aluminum alloys, and the new alloy can be produced economically from sand, permanent mold and investment casting. Since 2001, this technology was licensed to several companies for automotive and marine internal combustion engines applications.

  14. Crushed salt reconsolidation at elevated temperatures.

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Joseph; Clayton, Daniel James; Lee, Moo Yul; Bronowski, David R.

    2010-06-01

    There is a long history of testing crushed salt as backfill for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant program, but testing was typically done at 100 C or less. Future applications may involve backfilling crushed salt around heat-generating waste packages, where near-field temperatures could reach 250 C or hotter. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of hydrostatic stress on run-of-mine salt at temperatures up to 250 C and pressures to 20 MPa. The results of these tests were compared with analogous modeling results. By comparing the modeling results at elevated temperatures to the experimental results, the adequacy of the current crushed salt reconsolidation model was evaluated. The model and experimental results both show an increase in the reconsolidation rate with temperature. The current crushed salt model predicts the experimental results well at a temperature of 100 C and matches the overall trends, but over-predicts the temperature dependence of the reconsolidation. Further development of the deformation mechanism activation energies would lead to a better prediction of the temperature dependence by the crushed salt reconsolidation model.

  15. Luminescence in crosslinked polyethylene at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamji, S. S.; Bulinski, A. T.; Suzuki, H.; Matsuki, M.; Iwata, Z.

    1993-10-01

    Electrical treeing is often responsible for the breakdown of insulating materials used in power apparatus such as high-voltage transformers, cables, and capacitors. Insulation, such as crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), used in underground high-voltage cables usually operates at temperatures above ambient. This paper describes the characteristics of luminescence, emitted prior to electrical tree inception, at a crosslinked polyethylene-semiconducting material (XLPE-semicon) interface held above room temperature. Use of a sensitive light detection system showed that XLPE subjected to elevated temperatures emits luminescence even without voltage application. This light was attributed to thermoluminescence which decreased with the decrease in the concentration of the crosslinking by-products present in the polymer. The spectra of thermoluminescence were only in the visible range. On the other hand, electroluminescence occurred when the XLPE-semicon interface was held above room temperature and subjected to high electric stress. This light did not depend on the concentration of the crosslinking by-products and the spectra of electroluminescence were in the visible and the ultraviolet ranges. It is proposed that XLPE-semicon interface held at elevated temperature and subjected to long-term voltage application initially emits both thermoluminescence and electroluminescence. As the crosslinking by-products exude out of the polymer, thermoluminescence decreases with time and ultimately ceases, but electroluminescence occurs as long as the voltage is applied to the polymer. Although the intensity of electroluminescence emitted at high temperature was lower than that emitted at ambient, sufficient ultraviolet radiation was emitted. The ultraviolet radiation could photodegrade the polymer and lead to electrical tree inception.

  16. Gas-Alloy Interactions at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Arroyave, Raymundo; Gao, Michael

    2012-11-07

    The understanding of the stability of metals and alloys against oxidation and other detrimental reactions, to the catalysis of important chemical reactions and the minimization of defects associated with processing and synthesis have one thing in common: At the most fundamental level, all these scientific/engineering problems involve interactions between metals and alloys (in the solid or liquid state) and gaseous atmospheres at elevated temperatures. In this special issue, we have collected a series of articles that illustrate the application of different theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques to investigate gas-alloy interactions.

  17. Molten Composition B Viscosity at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerkle, David K.; Núñez, Marcel P.; Zucker, Jonathan M.

    2016-10-01

    A shear-thinning viscosity model is developed for molten Composition B at elevated temperature from analysis of falling ball viscometer data. Results are reported with the system held at 85, 110, and 135°C. Balls of densities of 2.7, 8.0, and 15.6 g/cm3 are dropped to generate a range of strain rates in the material. Analysis of video recordings gives the speed at which the balls fall. Computer simulation of the viscometer is used to determine parameters for a non-Newtonian model calibrated to measured speeds. For the first time, viscosity is shown to be a function of temperature and strain rate-dependent maximum RDX (cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine) particle volume fraction.

  18. Effect of Strain Rate and Temperature Gradient on Warm Formability of Aluminum Alloy Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheriasl, R.; Ghavam, K.; Worswick, M. J.

    2011-08-01

    The effect of temperature gradient and forming speed on warm formability of aluminum alloy sheet has been studied using a coupled thermal mechanical finite element model of cup deep drawing. A user-defined material model was developed using the Bergstrom temperature and strain-rate dependant hardening model and Barlat YLD2000 anisotropic yield surface, which was implemented within LS-DYNA. The stress-strain curves for AA3003 at elevated temperatures and different strain rates were used to fit the Bergstrom hardening parameters. The anisotropy parameters were considered to be non-temperature dependant. The numerical model was validated against experiments from previous work and was found to accurately predict punch force for warm deep drawing. Increases in forming speed are shown to have a negative effect on formability. It is concluded that non-isothermal warm forming can be used to improve the formability of aluminum alloy sheet.

  19. Carbothermic Aluminum Production Using Scrap Aluminum As A Coolant

    DOEpatents

    LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2002-11-05

    A process for producing aluminum metal by carbothermic reduction of alumina ore. Alumina ore is heated in the presence of carbon at an elevated temperature to produce an aluminum metal body contaminated with about 10-30% by wt. aluminum carbide. Aluminum metal or aluminum alloy scrap then is added to bring the temperature to about 900-1000.degree. C. and precipitate out aluminum carbide. The precipitated aluminum carbide is filtered, decanted, or fluxed with salt to form a molten body having reduced aluminum carbide content.

  20. Optimization Of Nakazima Test At Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Turetta, A.; Ghiotti, A.; Bruschi, S.

    2007-04-07

    Nowadays hot forming of High Strength Steel is gaining the strict requirements of automotive producer: in fact deformation performed simultaneously with quenching assures a fully martensitic microstructure at room temperature and thus high strength properties that allow the thickness reduction of the body-in-white components. Basic aspects of hot stamping are still under investigation and supplementary achievements are expected for a successful application of sheet metal forming technologies at elevated temperatures. Among data needed to settle a numerical model of the process, information about material formability may help in better designing and optimizing hot stamping operations. In the first part of the work, a new experimental apparatus based on Nakazima concept is presented; process parameters are optimized in order to accurately replicate the thermo-mechanical conditions typical of the industrial process, paying particular attention to the thermal and microstructural evolution. On the other hand, as commercial FE codes require the implementation of Forming Limit Diagrams at constant temperature, numerical investigations have been performed in order to determine the proper testing conditions to obtain FLD at nearly constant temperature.

  1. Strengths of serpentinite gouges at elevated temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.; Ma, S.; Summers, R.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Serpentinite has been proposed as a cause of both low strength and aseismic creep of fault zones. To test these hypotheses, we have measured the strength of chrysotile-, lizardite-, and antigorite-rich serpentinite gouges under hydrothermal conditions, with emphasis on chrysotile, which has thus far received little attention. At 25??C, the coefficient of friction, ??, of chrysotile gouge is roughly 0.2, whereas the lizardite- and antigorite-rich gouges are at least twice as strong. The very low room temperature strength of chrysotile is a consequence of its unusually high adsorbed water content. When the adsorbed water is removed, chrysotile is as strong as pure antigorite gouge at room temperature. Heating to ???200??C causes the frictional strengths of all three gouges to increase. Limited data suggest that different polytypes of a given serpentine mineral have similar strengths; thus deformation-induced changes in polytype should not affect fault strength. At 25??C, the chrysotile gouge has a transition from velocity strengthening at low velocities to velocity weakening at high velocities, consistent with previous studies. At temperatures up to ???200??C, however, chrysotile strength is essentially independent of velocity at low velocities. Overall, chrysotile has a restricted range of velocity-strengthening behavior that migrates to higher velocities with increasing temperature. Less information on velocity dependence is available for the lizardite and antigorite gouges, but their behavior is consistent with that outlined for chrysotile. The marked changes in velocity dependence and strength of chrysotile with heating underscore the hazards of using room temperature data to predict fault behavior at depth. The velocity behavior at elevated temperatures does not rule out serpentinite as a cause of aseismic slip, but in the presence of a hydrostatic fluid pressure gradient, all varieties of serpentine are too strong to explain the apparent weakness of faults such

  2. Low-Temperature Bonding of Silver to Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Yusuke; Terada, Shohei; Morita, Toshiaki; Kawaji, Hitoshi

    2012-02-01

    Direct bonding of silver to aluminum was achieved using silver-oxide particles with silver acetate (CH3COOAg) as a bonding material. When silver acetate was used, it reduced the silver oxide, and the resulting silver powder was sintered at 190 °C. In contrast, when silver oxide alone was used, the reduction and sintering required a temperature of 400 °C. The shear strength of the bonds formed with the silver-oxide/silver-acetate joining medium increased with increasing bonding temperature; for example, 2.5 min holding at 400 °C in air under a bonding pressure of 2.5 MPa yielded an average shear strength of 9 MPa. As confirmed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy equipped with electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (TEM-EELS), the bonding of sintered silver to aluminum was achieved through an aluminum-oxide layer formed on the aluminum. This bonding of sintered silver to aluminum oxide at a temperature of 400 °C or less is thought to be due to the large amount of heat (680 J/g) generated by the combustion of CH3 radicals in silver acetate during sintering.

  3. 49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for an Elevated temperature material, liquid, n.o.s.: ER29DE94.000 ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided...

  4. 49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for an Elevated temperature material, liquid, n.o.s.: ER29DE94.000 ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided...

  5. 49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for an Elevated temperature material, liquid, n.o.s.: ER29DE94.000 ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided...

  6. 49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for an Elevated temperature material, liquid, n.o.s.: ER29DE94.000 ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided...

  7. 49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a bulk packaging containing an elevated temperature material must be...

  8. Electromigration in Sintered Nanoscale Silver Films at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calata, Jesus N.; Lu, Guo-Quan; Ngo, Khai; Nguyen, Luu

    2014-01-01

    Sintered nanoscale silver is a promising interconnection material for semiconductor devices because it provides improved joint properties compared with solder and wire bonds. It has higher electrical and thermal conductivity and is capable of higher operating temperature. Joints with die shear strength above 20 MPa can be formed at around 250°C even without applied pressure. Sintered silver joints were also found to be an order of magnitude more reliable than solder joints and wire bonds. In this work, the electromigration behavior of sintered nanosilver material under conditions of high applied current density and elevated temperature was investigated. Thin strips of sintered nanosilver formed on ceramic substrates were tested under current densities exceeding 150 kA/cm2 at temperatures of 150°C and above. Results based on the percentage change in sample resistance showed that the sintered silver lasted at least ten times longer than aluminum wire bonds. Examination of failed strips revealed that hairline cracks formed during sintering were the main cause of failure. Otherwise, defect-free samples exhibited a 10-fold increase in lifetime over wire bonds under similar conditions.

  9. Occurrence of aluminum in chloride cells of Perla marginata (Plecoptera) after exposure to low pH and elevated aluminum concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Guerold, F.; Giamberini, L.; Pihan, J.C.; Tourmann, J.L.; Kaufmann, R.

    1995-04-01

    As a consequence of acid depositions on poorly buffered catchments underlain by hard rocks, aluminum is mobilized and transported from terrestrial systems to the aquatic environment. Loss of fishes has been related to low pH and elevated aluminum concentrations in surface waters which present a low ionic content especially during acid stress such as snowmelt and heavy rainfalls. Among the causes of fish population decline in acid waters, aluminum is considered a toxic cofactor. Different studies have clearly shown that aluminum is accumulated in different organs such as kidneys, liver and gills. Research on fish has demonstrated that aluminum may be toxic, but the toxicity is markedly influenced by the pH, organic compounds and calcium content of the water. Field surveys have shown clearly that macroinvertebrates are also affected by surface-water acidification. However, little is know about the possible effects of aluminum on aquatic invertebrates and, particularly, on aquatic insects exposed to acidic conditions. Hall et al. have shown that the whole-body concentration of aluminum decreases in blackflies and mayflies transplated from neutral water to acid water. Similar results have been reported for Daphnia and chironomid. On the contrary, Ormerod et al. demonstrated the absence of relationship between water pH and insect aluminum concentrations. When aluminum occurs in aquatic insects, it has been shown that it is primarily adsorbed on the external surface and/or accumulates in gut contents. To our knowledge, the subcellular location as well as the toxicity of aluminum to acid-sensitive aquatic insects remains unclear and existing hypotheses are often based on research on fish. In this content the purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of aluminum at a subcellular level in the acid-sensitive species of stonefly, Perla marginata, after exposure to low pH and elevated aluminum concentrations. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Temperature and concentration transients in the aluminum-air battery

    SciTech Connect

    Homsy, R.V.

    1981-08-26

    Coupled conservation equations of heat and mass transfer are solved, that predict temperature and concentration of the electrolyte of an aluminum-air battery system upon start-up and shutdown. Results of recent laboratory studies investigating the crystallization kinetics and solubility of the caustic-aluminate electrolyte system are used in the predictions. Temperature and concentration start-up transients are short, while during standby conditions, temperature increases to a maximum and decreases slowly.

  11. Strontium sorption on hematite at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Karasyova, O.N.; Ivanova, L.I.; Lakshtanov, L.Z.; Loevgren, L.

    1999-12-15

    Acid-base reactions and surface complexation of Sr(II) at the hematite/water interface have been studied by means of potentiometric titrations at three different temperatures: 25, 50, and 75 C. Equilibrium measurements were performed in 0.1 M NaCl. In the evaluation of equilibrium models for the acid-base reactions and complexation reactions in the three-component system H{sup +} -({triple{underscore}bond}FeOH)-Sr{sup 2+}, the constant capacitance model was applied. During the titrations with Sr, aliquots of the suspension were sampled at in several points. The aqueous concentrations of Sr were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Treatment of data included tests for formation of both inner-sphere and outer-sphere complexes of different stoichiometric composition. The proposed equilibrium model consists of the following surface complexes of inner sphere type: {triple{underscore}bond}FeOHSr{sup 2+} and {triple{underscore}bond}FeOSrOH. Besides the stability constants for the surface complexes, the thermodynamic parameters {Delta}H and {Delta}S were evaluated. The combined effect of a decrease in pH{sub pzc} with increasing temperature and positive enthalpies of surface complex formation favors adsorption of Sr at elevated temperatures.

  12. Intensity and temperature-dependent photoluminescence of tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum films

    SciTech Connect

    Ajward, A. M.; Wang, X.; Wagner, H. P.

    2013-12-04

    We investigate the recombination of excitons in tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum films by intensity and temperature dependent time-resolved photoluminescence (PL). At low temperature (15 K) and elevated excitation intensity the radiative emission is quenched by singlet-singlet annihilation processes. With rising temperature the PL quenching is strongly reduced resulting in a PL efficiency maximum at ∼170 K. The reduced exciton annihilation is attributed to thermally activated occupation of non-quenchable trapped exciton states. Above 170 K the PL efficiency decreases due to thermal de-trapping of radiative states and subsequent migration to non-radiative centers.

  13. Temperature Controlled Laser Joining of Aluminum to Galvanized Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Daniel; Simon, Jörg; Stritt, Peter; Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas; Bezençon, Cyrille; Bassi, Corrado

    Reliable joining of 6000 series aluminum alloy to galvanized steel is a challenge for current manufacturing technologies. To control and limit the formation of brittle intermetallic phases, mixing of both metals in liquid state has to be avoided. It has been shown that laser weld-brazing is a possible process. Thereby the aluminum and zinc layer of the galvanized steel are molten and the steel remains solid during the process. In addition, to avoid zinc degassing, the aluminum melt bath temperature has to be below zinc boiling temperature of 907°C. To meet these requirements a temperature controlled laser process was developed, allowing to join the two materials without flux and filler material. The thickness of the intermetallic layer shows a dependency on the set temperature used to control the process. At optimum set temperature the thickness of intermetallic phases can be limited to about 5 μm. Tensile strengths of the joints of up to 75% of the aluminum base material were achieved.

  14. Use of aluminum nitride to obtain temperature measurements in a high temperature and high radiation environment

    DOEpatents

    Wernsman, Bernard R.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Tittman, Bernhard R.; Parks, David A.

    2016-04-26

    An aluminum nitride piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer successfully operates at temperatures of up to 1000.degree. C. and fast (>1 MeV) neutron fluencies of more than 10.sup.18 n/cm.sup.2. The transducer comprises a transparent, nitrogen rich aluminum nitride (AlN) crystal wafer that is coupled to an aluminum cylinder for pulse-echo measurements. The transducer has the capability to measure in situ gamma heating within the core of a nuclear reactor.

  15. Iron-aluminum alloys having high room-temperature and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, V.K.; McKamey, C.G.

    1993-08-24

    A wrought and annealed iron-aluminum alloy is described consisting essentially of 8 to 9.5% aluminum, an effective amount of chromium sufficient to promote resistance to aqueous corrosion of the alloy, and an alloying constituent selected from the group of elements consisting of an effective amount of molybdenum sufficient to promote solution hardening of the alloy and resistance of the alloy to pitting when exposed to solutions containing chloride, up to about 0.05% carbon with up to about 0.5% of a carbide former which combines with the carbon to form carbides for controlling grain growth at elevated temperatures, and mixtures thereof, and the balance iron, wherein said alloy has a single disordered [alpha] phase crystal structure, is substantially non-susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, and has a room-temperature ductility of greater than 20%.

  16. EVALUATION OF LOW TEMPERATURE ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION IN TANK 51

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, J

    2008-09-04

    Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days, which became the baseline aluminum dissolution process. LWO initiated a project to modify a waste tank to meet these requirements. Subsequent to an alternative evaluation, LWO management identified an opportunity to perform aluminum dissolution on sludge destined for Sludge Batch 5, but within a limited window that would not allow time for any modifications for tank heating. A variation of the baseline process, dubbed Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution (LTAD), was developed based on the constraint of available energy input in Tank 51 and the window of opportunity, but was not constrained to a minimum extent of dissolution, i.e. dissolve as much aluminum as possible within the time available. This process was intended to operate between 55 and 70 C, but for a significantly longer time than the baseline process. LTAD proceeded in parallel with the baseline project. The preliminary evaluation at the completion of LTAD focused on the material balance and extent of the aluminum dissolved. The range of values of extent of dissolution, 56% to 64%, resulted from the variation in liquid phase sample data available at the time. Additional solid phase data is available from a sample taken after LTAD to refine this range. This report provides additional detailed evaluation of the LTAD process based on analytical and field data and includes: a summary of the process chronology; a determination of an acceptable blending strategy for the aluminum-laden supernate stored in Tank 11; an update to the determination of aluminum dissolved using more complete sample results; a determination of the effect of LTAD on uranium, plutonium, and other metals; a determination of the rate of heat

  17. High-energy electron-induced damage production at room temperature in aluminum-doped silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbett, J. W.; Cheng, L. J.; Jaworowski, A.; Karins, J. P.; Lee, Y. H.; Lindstroem, L.; Mooney, P. M.; Oehrlen, G.; Wang, K. L.

    1979-01-01

    DLTS and EPR measurements are reported on aluminum-doped silicon that was irradiated at room temperature with high-energy electrons. Comparisons are made to comparable experiments on boron-doped silicon. Many of the same defects observed in boron-doped silicon are also observed in aluminum-doped silicon, but several others were not observed, including the aluminum interstitial and aluminum-associated defects. Damage production modeling, including the dependence on aluminum concentration, is presented.

  18. Integrated research in constitutive modelling at elevated temperatures, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisler, W. E.; Allen, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Topics covered include: numerical integration techniques; thermodynamics and internal state variables; experimental lab development; comparison of models at room temperature; comparison of models at elevated temperature; and integrated software development.

  19. Final Report: Wetted Cathodes for Low-Temperature Aluminum Smelting

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Craig W

    2002-09-30

    A low-temperature aluminum smelting process being developed differs from the Hall-Heroult process in several significant ways. The low-temperature process employs a more acidic electrolyte than cryolite, an alumina slurry, oxygen-generating metal anodes, and vertically suspended electrodes. Wetted and drained vertical cathodes are crucial to the new process. Such cathodes represent a significant portion of the capital costs projected for the new technology. Although studies exist of wetted cathode technology with Hall-Heoult cells, the differences make such a study desirable with the new process.

  20. Cast Aluminum Alloys for High Temperature Applications Using Nanoparticles Al2O3 and Al3-X Compounds (X = Ti, V, Zr)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of nanoparticles Al2O3 and Al3-X compounds (X = Ti, V, Zr) on the improvement of mechanical properties of aluminum alloys for elevated temperature applications is presented. These nanoparticles were selected based on their low cost, chemical stability and low diffusions rates in aluminum at high temperatures. The strengthening mechanism at high temperature for aluminum alloy is based on the mechanical blocking of dislocation movements by these nanoparticles. For Al2O3 nanoparticles, the test samples were prepared from special Al2O3 preforms, which were produced using ceramic injection molding process and then pressure infiltrated by molten aluminum. In another method, Al2O3 nanoparticles can also be homogeneously mixed with fine aluminum powder and consolidated into test samples through hot pressing and sintering. With the Al3-X nanoparticles, the test samples are produced as precipitates from in-situ reactions with molten aluminum using conventional permanent mold or die casting techniques. It is found that cast aluminum alloy using nanoparticles Al3-X is the most cost effective method to produce high strength aluminum alloys for high temperature applications in comparison to nanoparticles Al2O3. Furthermore, significant mechanical properties retention in high temperature environment could be achieved with Al3-X nanoparticles, resulting in tensile strength of nearly 3 times higher than most 300- series conventional cast aluminum alloys tested at 600 F.

  1. Decomposition reactions in RDX at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweigert, Igor

    2015-03-01

    Mechanisms and rates of elementary reactions controlling condensed-phase decomposition of RDX under elevated temperatures (up to 2000 K) and pressures (up to a few GPa) are not known. Global decomposition kinetics in RDX below 700 K has been measured; however, the observed global pathways result from complex manifolds of elementary reactions and are likely to be altered by elevated temperatures. Elevated pressures can further affect the condensed-phase kinetics and compete with elevated temperatures in promoting some elementary reactions and suppressing others. This presentation will describe density functional theory (DFT) based molecular dynamics simulations of crystalline and molten RDX aimed to delineate the effects of elevated temperatures and pressures on the mechanism of initial dissociation and the resulting secondary reactions. This work was supported by the Naval Research Laboratory, by the Office of Naval Research, and by the DOD High Performance Computing Modernization Program Software Application Institute for Multiscale Reactive Modeling of Insensitive Munitions.

  2. [Effects of temperature and pH on the distribution of aluminum species in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-dong; Yang, Hong-wei; Jiang, Jing; Zhu, Wan-peng; Jiang, Zhan-peng

    2009-08-15

    The effects of aluminum on water distribution system and human health are mainly attributable to their presence in drinking water. Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the influence of temperature and pH on the distribution of aluminum species applying alum synthetic water. Aluminum species studied in the experiments included monomeric aluminum, soluble aluminum, suspended aluminum, and polymeric aluminum, which were determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry method. Results indicated that suspended aluminum was the major species at pH 6.5, occupied about 62.2% in the total aluminum mass concentration. While at pH above 7.0, monomeric aluminum was the major species; and varied little as reaction time increased. Polymeric aluminum mass concentration was low at studied water quality condition and also varied little as reaction time increased. The influence of temperature on aluminum species distribution was similar to solution pH; and both could be explained by pOH. Aluminum species in drinking water could be controlled by adjusting the pOH value, which provided theoretical guidance for the operation of the water distribution system and aluminum toxicity control.

  3. Impact Response of Single Crystal Potassium Chloride at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkov, R.; Kleiman, D.; Zaretsky, E.

    2004-07-01

    Two types of planar impact experiments were performed with [100]-oriented single crystals of potassium chloride (KCl) having initial temperatures ranged from 293 to 523 K. In the experiments of the first type the maximum impact strength did not exceed the pressure Ptr of B1-B2 transformation in KCl. In these experiments the aluminum buffers were placed between the impactor and the sample and the velocity of aluminum-KCl interface was measured by VISAR. The impact strength in the experiments of the second type (with copper buffers) was higher than Ptr and the VISAR was used for monitoring the free surface velocity of the KCl samples. Temperature dependencies of the longitudinal and the bulk sound velocities obtained in the experiments of the first type were used for the treatment of the results of the second-type experiments. The results show clearly the deceleration of the B1-B2 transformation kinetics and the increase of the KCl yield strength with temperature. Similar temperature-induced strengthening was observed recently in aluminum single crystals [G.I. Kanelet et al, J. Appl. Phys. 90, (2001) 136]. The value of the transformation entropy determined from the temperature dependence of Ptr is found to be close to zero.

  4. Elevated temperature deformation of TD-nickel base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrovic, J. J.; Kane, R. D.; Ebert, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    Sensitivity of the elevated temperature deformation of TD-nickel to grain size and shape was examined in both tension and creep. Elevated temperature strength increased with increasing grain diameter and increasing L/D ratio. Measured activation enthalpies in tension and creep were not the same. In tension, the internal stress was not proportional to the shear modulus. Creep activation enthalpies increased with increasing L/D ratio and increasing grain diameter, to high values compared with that of the self diffusion enthalpy. It has been postulated that two concurrent processes contribute to the elevated temperature deformation of polycrystalline TD-nickel: (1) diffusion controlled grain boundary sliding, and (2) dislocation motion.

  5. Ferromagnetic vortex core switching at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebecki, Kristof M.; Nowak, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    An approach for the investigation of vortex core switching is presented. Thermal effects up to the Curie point are included in a micromagnetic framework based on the recently developed Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation. In this approach it is easier to avoid numerical discretization artifacts, commonly present when a Bloch point is mediating the switching process. Switching in thin circular permalloy disks caused by the application of a slowly increasing magnetic field oriented orthogonally to the disk is considered. An energy barrier which can be overcome by thermal fluctuations is taken into account, leading to a strong influence of the temperature on the switching field. In particular, the switching field goes to zero at a significantly smaller temperature than the Curie temperature. The deduced nucleation volume is smaller than the typical grain size in permalloy.

  6. Rhenium/Oxygen Interactions at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Myers, Dwight; Zhu, Dong-Ming; Humphrey, Donald

    2000-01-01

    The oxidation of pure rhenium is examined from 600-1400 C in oxygen/argon mixtures. Linear weight loss kinetics are observed. Gas pressures, flow rates, and temperatures are methodically varied to determine the rate controlling steps. The reaction at 600 and 800 C appears to be controlled by a chemical reaction step at the surface; whereas the higher temperature reactions appear to be controlled by gas phase diffusion of oxygen to the rhenium surface. Attack of the rhenium appears to be along grain boundaries and crystallographic planes.

  7. Influence of exchange-correlation temperature effects on electric conductivity of aluminum in WDM regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasiev, Valentin; Calderín, Lázaro; Trickey, Sam

    Calculation of transport properties in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime and comparison with experiment is an important development challenge. Computationally affordable, reliable theoretical methods are required. Current best practice is Kohn-Sham molecular dynamics (KS-MD) to sample ionic configurations and Kubo-Greenwood (KG) conductivity calculations at selected configurations. Relevant aspects are (i) the very high computational cost and unfavorable cost-scaling of the KS-MD at WDM temperatures, and (ii) neglect of explicit temperature effects in the ground state exchange-correlation (XC) functionals often used to approximate the XC free energy. We address both issues. We sample configurations of aluminum ions in the WDM regime with drastically lowered MD cost via finite-temperature orbital-free MD, including explicitly T-dependent XC. Then we delineate the XC T-effects by comparing KG conductivities calculated with and without explicit XC T-dependence. The result is that explicitly T-dependent XC gives an unequivocal improvement with respect to experiment for aluminum at low material density and elevated temperatures. Supported by U.S. Dept. of Energy, Grant DE-SC0002139.

  8. Tantalum alloys resist creep deformation at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckman, R. W., Jr.

    1966-01-01

    Dispersion-strengthened tantalum-base alloys possess high strength and good resistance to creep deformation at elevated temperatures in high vacuum environments. They also have ease of fabrication, good weldability, and corrosion resistance to molten alkali metals.

  9. Effect of temperature elevation on rabbit cochlear function as measured by distortion-product otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Noyes, W S; McCaffrey, T V; Fabry, D A; Robinette, M S; Suman, V J

    1996-12-01

    Low-intensity laser stapedotomy has been shown to produce temperature elevations of 3 degrees to 4 degrees C within the cochlea. This study investigates the effect of temperature elevations in this range on cochlear outer hair cell function by use of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions in rabbits. Using esophageal temperature monitoring, we compared 2f1-f2 distortion-product otoacoustic emissions over a range of frequencies (1806 to 8691 Hz) at rabbit normothermia, normothermia plus 3 degrees C, and normothermia after passive cooling. Cochlear temperature was found to exceed changes in esophageal temperature by as much as 1.2 degrees C. We found that a maximum of 3 degrees C elevation in esophageal temperature did not permanently impair outer hair cell function in the rabbit cochlea. Results of this study suggest that moderate changes in cochlear temperature, such as those produced by low-intensity CO2 and holmium-yttrium aluminum garnet lasers, may not produce irreversible thermal damage to the cochlear outer hair cells.

  10. Plastic responses to elevated temperature in low and high elevation populations of three grassland species.

    PubMed

    Frei, Esther R; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Pluess, Andrea R

    2014-01-01

    Local persistence of plant species in the face of climate change is largely mediated by genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. In species with a wide altitudinal range, population responses to global warming are likely to differ at contrasting elevations. In controlled climate chambers, we investigated the responses of low and high elevation populations (1200 and 1800 m a.s.l.) of three nutrient-poor grassland species, Trifolium montanum, Ranunculus bulbosus, and Briza media, to ambient and elevated temperature. We measured growth-related, reproductive and phenological traits, evaluated differences in trait plasticity and examined whether trait values or plasticities were positively related to approximate fitness and thus under selection. Elevated temperature induced plastic responses in several growth-related traits of all three species. Although flowering phenology was advanced in T. montanum and R. bulbosus, number of flowers and reproductive allocation were not increased under elevated temperature. Plasticity differed between low and high elevation populations only in leaf traits of T. montanum and B. media. Some growth-related and phenological traits were under selection. Moreover, plasticities were not correlated with approximate fitness indicating selectively neutral plastic responses to elevated temperature. The observed plasticity in growth-related and phenological traits, albeit variable among species, suggests that plasticity is an important mechanism in mediating plant responses to elevated temperature. However, the capacity of species to respond to climate change through phenotypic plasticity is limited suggesting that the species additionally need evolutionary adaptation to adjust to climate change. The observed selection on several growth-related and phenological traits indicates that the study species have the potential for future evolution in the context of a warming climate.

  11. Gas Generation Testing of Neptunium Oxide at Elevated Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, JM

    2004-01-30

    Elevated temperature gas generation tests have been conducted using neptunium dioxide produced on a laboratory scale using the HB-Line Phase II flowsheet. These tests were performed to determine what effect elevated temperatures would have on the neptunium dioxide in comparison to neptunium dioxide tested at ambient temperature. The headspace gas compositions following storage at elevated temperatures associated with normal conditions of transport (NCT) have been measured. These test results show an increase in hydrogen generation rate at elevated temperature and significant removal of oxygen from the headspace gas. The elevated temperature gas generation tests described in this report involved heating small test vessels containing neptunium dioxide and measuring the headspace gas pressure and composition at the end of the test period. Four samples were used in these tests to evaluate the impact of process variables on the gas generation rate. Two samples were calcined to 600 degrees Celsius and two were calcined to 650 degrees Celsius. Each test vessel contained approximately 9.5 g of neptunium dioxide. Following exposure to 75 per cent relative humidity (RH) for five days, these samples were loaded in air and then heated to between 105 and 115 degrees Celsius for about one month. At the conclusion of the test period, the headspace gas of each container was analyzed using a micro-gas chromatograph installed in the glovebox where the experiments were conducted. The pressure, volume, and composition data for the headspace gas samples were used to calculate average H2 generation rates.

  12. Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Hafnium-Based Bulk Metallic Glass at Room and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshri, Anup Kumar; Behl, Lovish; Lahiri, Debrupa; Dulikravich, George S.; Agarwal, Arvind

    2016-09-01

    Dry sliding wear behavior of hafnium-based bulk metallic glass was studied at two loads (5 and 15 N) and two temperatures (298 and 673 K) using aluminum oxide (Al2O3) ball as a wear counterpart. At 5 N load, wear reduced by ~71% on increasing the temperature from 298 to 673 K. At a higher load of 15 N, the weight loss reduction was much lower (45%) on increasing the temperature from 298 to 673 K. Decreased wear weight loss on increasing the temperature was attributed to the increased hardness of the Hf-based metallic glass at high temperatures. Micro-hardness of the alloy at 293 K was found to be 636 Hv, which gradually increased to 655 Hv on annealing at 673 K. Improvement in the hardness at elevated temperature is attributed to: (1) free volume annihilation, (2) surface oxide formation and (3) nano-crystallites precipitation. Reduced wear at elevated temperature resulted in smaller volume of debris generation that restricted three-body wear to obtain lower coefficient of friction (COF) (0.25-0.35) compared to COF (0.65-0.75) at room temperature.

  13. Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Hafnium-Based Bulk Metallic Glass at Room and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshri, Anup Kumar; Behl, Lovish; Lahiri, Debrupa; Dulikravich, George S.; Agarwal, Arvind

    2016-07-01

    Dry sliding wear behavior of hafnium-based bulk metallic glass was studied at two loads (5 and 15 N) and two temperatures (298 and 673 K) using aluminum oxide (Al2O3) ball as a wear counterpart. At 5 N load, wear reduced by ~71% on increasing the temperature from 298 to 673 K. At a higher load of 15 N, the weight loss reduction was much lower (45%) on increasing the temperature from 298 to 673 K. Decreased wear weight loss on increasing the temperature was attributed to the increased hardness of the Hf-based metallic glass at high temperatures. Micro-hardness of the alloy at 293 K was found to be 636 Hv, which gradually increased to 655 Hv on annealing at 673 K. Improvement in the hardness at elevated temperature is attributed to: (1) free volume annihilation, (2) surface oxide formation and (3) nano-crystallites precipitation. Reduced wear at elevated temperature resulted in smaller volume of debris generation that restricted three-body wear to obtain lower coefficient of friction (COF) (0.25-0.35) compared to COF (0.65-0.75) at room temperature.

  14. Performance of MOV Stem Lubricants at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    DeWall, Kevin George; Nitzel, Michael Everett; Watkins, John Clifford

    2001-07-01

    This paper documents the results of recent tests sponsored by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These tests address the effectiveness of the lubricant used on the threaded portion of the valve stem, where the stem nut turns on the stem. Recent testing indicates that an elevated temperature environment can lead to significant increases in the friction coefficient at the stem/stem-nut interface. Most valve actuator qualification tests are performed at room temperature. Similarly, in-service tests are run at ambient plant temperatures, usually 70 to 100°F. Since design conditions can lead to valve operating temperatures in the 200 to 300°F range, it is important to know whether a temperature-induced increase in friction at the stem/stem-nut interface will prevent the required operation of critical valves. Lubricant aging is another phenomenon that might have deleterious effects on the thrust output of a valve actuator. Laboratory experience and field experience both indicate that after long periods in elevated temperature environments, the lubricants may lose their lubrication qualities. The scope of the current test program includes testing of five different lubricants on four different valve stems. Pending completion of the testing, results of the tests conducted using two of the four stems are discussed. The test series included collection of baseline data at room temperature, single step temperature tests where the temperature of the test setup was elevated directly to 250°F, and step testing where the temperature was elevated in steps to 130, 190, and 250°F, then returned to 70°F. All greases tested showed evidence of physical change after elevated temperature tests. Except for one particular lubricant, all of the greases tested showed increased coefficients of friction at elevated temperatures. Numerous other preliminary conclusions are presented

  15. ELEVATED TEMPERATURE SENSORS FOR ON-LINE CRITICAL EQUIPMENT HEALTH MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    James Sebastian

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this research program is to improve high temperature piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) sensor technology to make it useful for instrumentation and health monitoring of current and future electrical power generation equipment. The program will extend the temperature range of the sensor from approximately 700 C to above 1000 C, and ultrasonic coupling to objects at these temperatures will be investigated and tailored for use with the sensor. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) AlN deposition process was successfully transferred from film production on tungsten carbide substrates to titanium alloy and silicon carbide (SiC) substrates in the first year of the program, and additional substrates were evaluated. In the second year of the program, additional substrate research was performed with the goal of improving the performance of using SiC substrates. While greatly improved bandwidth was achieved, sensor survival at elevated temperature remains problematic. The elevated temperature coupling work continued with significant experimentation. Molten glasses were found to work within a limited temperature range, but metal foils applied with heat and pressure were found to have superior performance overall. The final year of the program will be dedicated to making further advances in AlN/ substrate behavior, and the design and implementation of a sensor demonstration experiment at very high temperature in a simulated industrial application.

  16. The elevated temperature behavior of particle reinforced Al matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    The elevated temperature modulus, strength and creep of SiC particle reinforced composites produced by the DURALCAN{trademark} are discussed. It is shown that the reinforcing particles provide an increased modulus over the complete temperature range studied, and the temperature dependence of the composite modulus is controlled by the temperature dependence of the matrix modulus. The composite strength decreases with increasing temperature, reflecting softening of the matrix due to over aging, and as a result, is dependent on the thermal stability of the matrix. The particles provide increased creep resistance, and there are differences between the creep of melt processed composites and those produced by powder metallurgy.

  17. Help-seeking behavior during elevated temperature in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chan, Emily Ying Yang; Goggins, William B; Kim, Jacqueline Jakyoung; Griffiths, Sian; Ma, Timothy K W

    2011-08-01

    The negative impact of extreme temperatures on health is well-established. Individual help-seeking behavior, however, may mitigate the extent of morbidity and mortality during elevated temperatures. This study examines individual help-seeking behavior during periods of elevated temperatures among a Chinese population. Help-seeking patterns and factors that influence behavior will be identified so that vulnerable subgroups may be targeted for health protection during heat crises. A retrospective time-series Poisson generalized additive model analysis, using meteorological data of Hong Kong Observatory and routine emergency help call data from The Hong Kong Senior Citizen Home Safety Association during warm seasons (June-September) 1998-2007, was conducted. A "U"-shaped association was found between daily emergency calls and daily temperature. About 49% of calls were for explicit health-related reasons including dizziness, shortness of breath, and general pain. The associate with maximum temperature was statistically significant (p = 0.034) with the threshold temperature at which the frequency of health-related calls started to increase being around 30-32°C. Mean daily relative humidity (RH) also had a significant U-shaped association with daily emergency health-related calls with call frequency beginning to increase with RH greater than 70-74% (10-25% of the RH distribution). Call frequency among females appeared to be more sensitive to high temperatures, with a threshold between 28.5°C and 30.5°C while calls among males were more sensitive to cold temperatures (threshold 31.5-33.5°C). Results indicate differences in community help-seeking behavior at elevated temperatures. Potential programs or community outreach services might be developed to protect vulnerable subgroups from the adverse impact of elevated temperatures.

  18. Sintering characteristics of FeCuAl green compacts formed at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. M.; Zabri, N. H. M.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the sintering characteristics of FeCuAl green compacts formed at elevated temperature and sintered at different temperature. Iron ASC 100.29, copper, and aluminum powders were blended mechanically in a low speed mixer. The blended powder mass was subsequently compacted at 150°C. The defect-free green compacts were then sintered at argon gas fired furnace at a heating/cooling rate of 10°C/minute by varying the sintering temperature. The alloyability of the sintered products were examined through XRD whereas the sintered samples were also characterized for their physical and mechanical properties and their microstructures were evaluated. The results revealed that all elements in the samples appeared and single face fcc Cu and bcc Fe (Al) solid solution were found. SEM micrographs revealed that high sintering temperature caused the reduction of pores and loss of grain boundaries in the sample. The metal elements also distributed uniformly. The combination of the iron, copper and aluminum green compacts sintered at 700°C for 90 minutes produced the best mechanical and physical properties.

  19. Friction Tests in Magnesium Tube Hydroforming at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yeong-Maw; Wang, Kuo-Hsing; Kuo, Tsung-Yu

    2011-05-04

    In metal forming, lubricants have a variety of functions. The top priority is usually reduction of friction in order to increase the formability of the materials and reduce tool wear. Because magnesium alloys have very poor formability at room temperature, it is essential to manufacture a part from Magnesium alloys at elevated temperatures. The aim of this paper is to present a friction test method to evaluate the performance of different kinds of lubricants and determine their coefficients of friction at elevated temperatures in tube hydroforming of magnesium alloys. A self-designed experimental apparatus is used to carry out the experiments of friction tests. The coefficient of friction between the tube and die at guiding zone is determined. The effects of the internal pressure, the axial feeding velocity and temperatures on the friction forces and coefficients of friction for different lubricants are discussed.

  20. Solution hardening and strain hardening at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kocks, U.F.

    1982-10-01

    Solutes can significantly increase the rate of strain hardening; as a consequence, the saturation stress, at which strain hardening tends to cease for a given temperature and strain rate, is increased more than the yield stress: this is the major effect of solutes on strength at elevated temperatures, especially in the regime where dynamic strain-aging occurs. It is shown that local solute mobility can affect both the rate of dynamic recovery and the dislocation/dislocation interaction strength. The latter effect leads to multiplicative solution strengthening. It is explained by a new model based on repeated dislocation unlocking, in a high-temperature limit, which also rationalizes the stress dependence of static and dynamic strain-aging, and may help explain the plateau of the yield stress at elevated temperatures. 15 figures.

  1. Modeling Saturn Ring Temperature Variations as Solar Elevation Decreases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, L.; Flandes, A.; Altobelli, N.; Leyrat, C.; Pilorz, S.; Ferrari, C.

    2008-12-01

    After more than four years in orbit around Saturn, the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has acquired a wide-ranging set of thermal measurements of Saturn's main rings (A, B, C and Cassini Division). Temperatures were retrieved for the lit and unlit rings over a variety of ring geometries that include solar phase angle, spacecraft elevation, solar elevation and local hour angle. To first order, the largest temperature changes on the lit face of the rings are driven by variations in phase angle while differences in temperature with changing spacecraft elevation and local time are a secondary effect. Decreasing ring temperature with decreasing solar elevation are observed for both the lit and unlit faces of the rings after phase angle and local time effects are taken into account. For the lit rings, decreases of 2- 4 K are observed in the C ring and larger decreases, 7-10 and 10 - 13 K, are observed in the A and B rings respectively. Our thermal data cover a range of solar elevations from -21 to -8 degrees (south side of the rings). We test two simple models and evaluate how well they fit the observed decreases in temperature. The first model assumes that the particles are so widely spaced that they do not cast shadows on one another while the second model assumes that the particles are so close together they essentially form a slab. The optically thinnest and optically thickest regions of the rings show the best fits to these two end member models. We also extrapolate to the expected minimum ring temperatures at equinox. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA and at CEA Saclay supported by the "Programme National de Planetologie". Copyright 2008 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  2. Low temperature aluminum nitride thin films for sensory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarar, E.; Hrkac, V.; Zamponi, C.; Piorra, A.; Kienle, L.; Quandt, E.

    2016-07-01

    A low-temperature sputter deposition process for the synthesis of aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films that is attractive for applications with a limited temperature budget is presented. Influence of the reactive gas concentration, plasma treatment of the nucleation surface and film thickness on the microstructural, piezoelectric and dielectric properties of AlN is investigated. An improved crystal quality with respect to the increased film thickness was observed; where full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the AlN films decreased from 2.88 ± 0.16° down to 1.25 ± 0.07° and the effective longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33,f) increased from 2.30 ± 0.32 pm/V up to 5.57 ± 0.34 pm/V for film thicknesses in the range of 30 nm to 2 μm. Dielectric loss angle (tan δ) decreased from 0.626% ± 0.005% to 0.025% ± 0.011% for the same thickness range. The average relative permittivity (ɛr) was calculated as 10.4 ± 0.05. An almost constant transversal piezoelectric coefficient (|e31,f|) of 1.39 ± 0.01 C/m2 was measured for samples in the range of 0.5 μm to 2 μm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations performed on thin (100 nm) and thick (1.6 μm) films revealed an (002) oriented AlN nucleation and growth starting directly from the AlN-Pt interface independent of the film thickness and exhibit comparable quality with the state-of-the-art AlN thin films sputtered at much higher substrate temperatures.

  3. Effects of microwaves on cell survival at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.E.; Harrison, G.H.; McCulloch, D.; McCready, W.A.

    1981-12-01

    Since microwaves are used in human cancer therapy, information on specific biological effects of microwaves at elevated temperatures is important. To help supply this information, we exposed mammalian cells (CHO) and bacteria (Serratia marcescens) to hyperthermal temperatures (43, 44, and 45/sup o/C for CHO and 48, 49, and 50/sup o/C for the bacteria) with and without microwave irradiation. Temperature control was maintained by a refrigeration-reheat system and high-velocity water recirculation. The 2450-MHz microwave source was operated in a pulsed mode with power density up to 500 mW/cm/sup 2/. As expected, the survival curve slopes for both cell types increased rapidly with temperature, doubling for each degree Celsius. Microwave irradiation produced no significant change in extrapolation number for either cell type. However, survival curves of CHO cells which received microwaves were steeper by a factor of 1.25 than their sham-irradiated controls. No significant effect on slope was seen with the bacteria. Liquid crystal thermometry revealed a microwave-induced temperature elevation of 0.3/sup o/C in the glass microcapillary exposure tubes. This temperature elevation closely corresponded to the observed difference in survival curve slopes for the CHO cells and suggests a simple thermal origin for that difference.

  4. Room temperature aluminum antimonide radiation detector and methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Lordi, Vincenzo; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Aberg, Daniel; Erhart, Paul; Coombs, III, Arthur W; Sturm, Benjamin W

    2015-03-03

    In one embodiment, a method for producing a high-purity single crystal of aluminum antimonide (AlSb) includes providing a growing environment with which to grow a crystal, growing a single crystal of AlSb in the growing environment which comprises hydrogen (H.sub.2) gas to reduce oxide formation and subsequent incorporation of oxygen impurities in the crystal, and adding a controlled amount of at least one impurity to the growing environment to effectively incorporate at least one dopant into the crystal. In another embodiment, a high energy radiation detector includes a single high-purity crystal of AlSb, a supporting structure for the crystal, and logic for interpreting signals obtained from the crystal which is operable as a radiation detector at a temperature of about 25.degree. C. In one embodiment, a high-purity single crystal of AlSb includes AlSb and at least one dopant selected from a group consisting of selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and tin (Sn).

  5. Analysis of wear track and debris of stir cast LM13/Zr composite at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Panwar, Ranvir Singh Pandey, O.P.

    2013-01-15

    Particulate reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite is in high demand in automobile industry where the operational conditions vary from low to high temperature. In order to understand the wear mode at elevated temperature, this study was planned. For this purpose we developed a metal matrix composite containing aluminum alloy (LM13) as matrix and zircon sand as particulate reinforcement by stir casting process. Different amounts of zircon sand (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.%) were incorporated in the matrix to study the effect of reinforcement on the wear resistance. Dispersion of zircon sand particles in the matrix was confirmed by using optical microscopy. Sliding wear tests were done to study the durability of the composite with respect to the base alloy. The effects of load and temperature on wear behavior from room temperature to 300 Degree-Sign C were studied to understand the wear mechanism deeply. Surface morphology of the worn surfaces after the wear tests as well as wear debris was observed under scanning electron microscope. Mild to severe wear transition was noticed in tests at high temperature and high load. However, there is interesting change in wear behavior of the composite near the critical temperature of the composite. All the observed behavior has been explained with reference to the observed microstructure of the wear track and debris. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good interfacial bonding between zircon sand particles and Al matrix was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of temperature on the wear behavior of LM13/Zr composites was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wear resistance of the composite was improved with addition of zircon sand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transition temperature from mild to severe wear also improved in composite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM analysis of the tracks and debris was done to establish wear mechanism.

  6. Corrosion reduction of aluminum alloys in flowing high-temperature water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draley, J. E.; Ruther, W. E.

    1969-01-01

    Report describes a technique for reducing the corrosion rate of aluminum by adding colloidal substances in a closed-loop system. Experimental work shows that the addition of graphite and colloidal hydrated aluminum oxide significantly reduces the corrosion rate in flowing high-temperature water.

  7. Upsettability and forming limit of magnesium alloys at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Heung Sik; Kim, Si Pom; Park, Young Chul; Park, Joon Hong; Baek, Seung Gul

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have become a center of special interest in the automotive industry. Due to their high specific mechanical properties, they offer a significant weight saving potential in modern vehicle constructions. Most Mg alloys show very good machinability and processability, and even the most complicated die casting parts can be easily produced. In this study, Microstructure, Vickers hardness and tensile tests were examined and performed for each specimen to verify effects of forming conditions. Also to verify upsettability and forming limit of the specimen at room temperature and elevated temperature, upsetting experiments were performed. For comparison, experiments at elevated temperature were performed for various Mg alloy, such as AZ31, AZ91, and AM50. The experimental results were compared with those of CAE analysis to propose forming limit of Magnesium alloys.

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality.

    PubMed

    Hampton, J G; Boelt, B; Rolston, M P; Chastain, T G

    2013-04-01

    Successful crop production depends initially on the availability of high-quality seed. By 2050 global climate change will have influenced crop yields, but will these changes affect seed quality? The present review examines the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature during seed production on three seed quality components: seed mass, germination and seed vigour. In response to elevated CO2, seed mass has been reported to both increase and decrease in C3 plants, but not change in C4 plants. Increases are greater in legumes than non-legumes, and there is considerable variation among species. Seed mass increases may result in a decrease of seed nitrogen (N) concentration in non-legumes. Increasing temperature may decrease seed mass because of an accelerated growth rate and reduced seed filling duration, but lower seed mass does not necessarily reduce seed germination or vigour. Like seed mass, reported seed germination responses to elevated CO2 have been variable. The reported changes in seed C/N ratio can decrease seed protein content which may eventually lead to reduced viability. Conversely, increased ethylene production may stimulate germination in some species. High-temperature stress before developing seeds reach physiological maturity (PM) can reduce germination by inhibiting the ability of the plant to supply the assimilates necessary to synthesize the storage compounds required for germination. Nothing is known concerning the effects of elevated CO2 on seed vigour. However, seed vigour can be reduced by high-temperature stress both before and after PM. High temperatures induce or increase the physiological deterioration of seeds. Limited evidence suggests that only short periods of high-temperature stress at critical seed development stages are required to reduce seed vigour, but further research is required. The predicted environmental changes will lead to losses of seed quality, particularly for seed vigour and possibly germination. The seed

  9. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality.

    PubMed

    Hampton, J G; Boelt, B; Rolston, M P; Chastain, T G

    2013-04-01

    Successful crop production depends initially on the availability of high-quality seed. By 2050 global climate change will have influenced crop yields, but will these changes affect seed quality? The present review examines the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature during seed production on three seed quality components: seed mass, germination and seed vigour. In response to elevated CO2, seed mass has been reported to both increase and decrease in C3 plants, but not change in C4 plants. Increases are greater in legumes than non-legumes, and there is considerable variation among species. Seed mass increases may result in a decrease of seed nitrogen (N) concentration in non-legumes. Increasing temperature may decrease seed mass because of an accelerated growth rate and reduced seed filling duration, but lower seed mass does not necessarily reduce seed germination or vigour. Like seed mass, reported seed germination responses to elevated CO2 have been variable. The reported changes in seed C/N ratio can decrease seed protein content which may eventually lead to reduced viability. Conversely, increased ethylene production may stimulate germination in some species. High-temperature stress before developing seeds reach physiological maturity (PM) can reduce germination by inhibiting the ability of the plant to supply the assimilates necessary to synthesize the storage compounds required for germination. Nothing is known concerning the effects of elevated CO2 on seed vigour. However, seed vigour can be reduced by high-temperature stress both before and after PM. High temperatures induce or increase the physiological deterioration of seeds. Limited evidence suggests that only short periods of high-temperature stress at critical seed development stages are required to reduce seed vigour, but further research is required. The predicted environmental changes will lead to losses of seed quality, particularly for seed vigour and possibly germination. The seed

  10. Impact of annealing temperature on the mechanical and electrical properties of sputtered aluminum nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Gillinger, M.; Schneider, M.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.; Nicolay, P.

    2015-02-14

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a promising material for challenging sensor applications such as process monitoring in harsh environments (e.g., turbine exhaust), due to its piezoelectric properties, its high temperature stability and good thermal match to silicon. Basically, the operational temperature of piezoelectric materials is limited by the increase of the leakage current as well as by enhanced diffusion effects in the material at elevated temperatures. This work focuses on the characterization of aluminum nitride thin films after post deposition annealings up to temperatures of 1000 °C in harsh environments. For this purpose, thin film samples were temperature loaded for 2 h in pure nitrogen and oxygen gas atmospheres and characterized with respect to the film stress and the leakage current behaviour. The X-ray diffraction results show that AlN thin films are chemically stable in oxygen atmospheres for 2 h at annealing temperatures of up to 900 °C. At 1000 °C, a 100 nm thick AlN layer oxidizes completely. For nitrogen, the layer is stable up to 1000 °C. The activation energy of the samples was determined from leakage current measurements at different sample temperatures, in the range between 25 and 300 °C. Up to an annealing temperature of 700 °C, the leakage current in the thin film is dominated by Poole-Frenkel behavior, while at higher annealing temperatures, a mixture of different leakage current mechanisms is observed.

  11. Elevated temperature mechanical properties of line pipe steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Taylor Roth

    The effects of test temperature on the tensile properties of four line pipe steels were evaluated. The four materials include a ferrite-pearlite line pipe steel with a yield strength specification of 359 MPa (52 ksi) and three 485 MPa (70 ksi) yield strength acicular ferrite line pipe steels. Deformation behavior, ductility, strength, strain hardening rate, strain rate sensitivity, and fracture behavior were characterized at room temperature and in the temperature range of 200--350 °C, the potential operating range for steels used in oil production by the steam assisted gravity drainage process. Elevated temperature tensile testing was conducted on commercially produced as-received plates at engineering strain rates of 1.67 x 10 -4, 8.33 x 10-4, and 1.67 x 10-3 s-1. The acicular ferrite (X70) line pipe steels were also tested at elevated temperatures after aging at 200, 275, and 350 °C for 100 h under a tensile load of 419 MPa. The presence of serrated yielding depended on temperature and strain rate, and the upper bound of the temperature range where serrated yielding was observed was independent of microstructure between the ferrite-pearlite (X52) steel and the X70 steels. Serrated yielding was observed at intermediate temperatures and continuous plastic deformation was observed at room temperature and high temperatures. All steels exhibited a minimum in ductility as a function of temperature at testing conditions where serrated yielding was observed. At the higher temperatures (>275 °C) the X52 steel exhibited an increase in ductility with an increase in temperature and the X70 steels exhibited a maximum in ductility as a function of temperature. All steels exhibited a maximum in flow strength and average strain hardening rate as a function of temperature. The X52 steel exhibited maxima in flow strength and average strain hardening rate at lower temperatures than observed for the X70 steels. For all steels, the temperature where the maximum in both flow

  12. Modelling of aluminium sheet forming at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Boogaard, A. H.; Huétink, J.

    2004-06-01

    The formability of Al-Mg sheet can be improved considerably, by increasing the temperature. By heating the sheet in areas with large shear strains, but cooling it on places where the risk of necking is high, the limiting drawing ratio can be increased to values above 2.5. At elevated temperatures, the mechanical response of the material becomes strain rate dependent. To accurately simulate warm forming of aluminium sheet, a material model is required that incorporates the temperature and strain-rate dependency. In this paper simulations are presented of the deep drawing of a cylindrical cup, using shell elements. It is demonstrated that the familiar quadratic Hill yield function is not capable of describing the plastic deformation of aluminium. Hardening can be described successfully with a physically based material model for temperatures up to 200 °C. At higher temperatures and very low strain rates, the flow curve deviates significantly from the model.

  13. Thermal Behavior of Cylindrical Buckling Restrained Braces at Elevated Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Elnaz; Tahir, Mahmood Md.; Yasreen, Airil

    2014-01-01

    The primary focus of this investigation was to analyze sequentially coupled nonlinear thermal stress, using a three-dimensional model. It was meant to shed light on the behavior of Buckling Restraint Brace (BRB) elements with circular cross section, at elevated temperature. Such bracing systems were comprised of a cylindrical steel core encased in a strong concrete-filled steel hollow casing. A debonding agent was rubbed on the core's surface to avoid shear stress transition to the restraining system. The numerical model was verified by the analytical solutions developed by the other researchers. Performance of BRB system under seismic loading at ambient temperature has been well documented. However, its performance in case of fire has yet to be explored. This study showed that the failure of brace may be attributed to material strength reduction and high compressive forces, both due to temperature rise. Furthermore, limiting temperatures in the linear behavior of steel casing and concrete in BRB element for both numerical and analytical simulations were about 196°C and 225°C, respectively. Finally it is concluded that the performance of BRB at elevated temperatures was the same as that seen at room temperature; that is, the steel core yields prior to the restraining system. PMID:24526915

  14. Soft x-ray spectral measurements for temperature determination of laser produced aluminum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, K.B.; Abdallah, J. Jr.; Peek, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Time and space resolved measurements were made on plasmas produced by the SPRITE laser focused on aluminum targets. The experimental spectra are compared to theory in order to determine a characteristic plasma temperature. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Iron-niobium-aluminum alloy having high-temperature corrosion resistance

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Huey S.

    1988-04-14

    An alloy for use in high temperature sulfur and oxygen containing environments, having aluminum for oxygen resistance, niobium for sulfur resistance and the balance iron, is discussed. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Hydrogen absorption in solid aluminum during high-temperature steam oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, L. A.; Gelman, B. G.; Zhukhovitskiy, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen is emitted by aluminum heated in a vacuum after high-temperature steam treatment. Wire samples are tested for this effect, showing dependence on surface area. Two different mechanisms of absorption are inferred, and reactions deduced.

  17. Promoted Metals Combustion at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Carl D.; Herald, Stephen D.; Davis, S. Eddie

    2005-01-01

    Promoted combustion testing of materials, Test 17 of NASA STD-6001, has been used to assess metal propensity to burn in oxygen rich environments. An igniter is used at the bottom end of a rod to promote ignition, and if combustion is sustained, the burning progresses from the bottom to the top of the rod. The physical mechanisms are very similar to the upward flammability test, Test 1 of NASA STD-6001. The differences are in the normal environmental range of pressures, oxygen content, and sample geometry. Upward flammability testing of organic materials can exhibit a significant transitional region between no burning to complete quasi-state burning. In this transitional region, the burn process exhibits a probabilistic nature. This transitional region has been identified for metals using the promoted combustion testing method at ambient initial temperatures. The work given here is focused on examining the transitional region and the quasi-steady burning region both at conventional ambient testing conditions and at elevated temperatures. A new heated promoted combustion facility and equipment at Marshall Space Flight Center have just been completed to provide the basic data regarding the metals operating temperature limits in contact with oxygen rich atmospheres at high pressures. Initial data have been obtained for Stainless Steel 304L, Stainless Steel 321, Haynes 214, and Inconel 718 at elevated temperatures in 100-percent oxygen atmospheres. These data along with an extended data set at ambient initial temperature test conditions are examined. The pressure boundaries of acceptable, non-burning usage is found to be lowered at elevated temperature.

  18. Temperature variation of Saturn's Rings with Solar Elevation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandes, A.; Spilker, L.; Altobelli, N.; Leyrat, C.; Pilorz, S.; Edgington, S. G.

    2008-12-01

    In its four-year orbit around Saturn, the spacecraft Cassini has achieved a large number of infrared observations of Saturn's main rings through the CIRS experiment (Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer). We analyze the change of temperature in the main rings (A, B and C) as function of the solar elevation with respect to the plane of the rings at very low (<6°) and high (>120°) phase angles. Specific regions of every ring were chosen in every case to rule out other effects that may produce variations in temperature as well and to account only effects due to the solar latitudinal variations. For solar elevations that cover a range from -10.1° to -23.5°, in average, the temperature variations of the A, B and C rings are around ~{8 K}, near ~{12 K} and barely ~{3 K} respectively. Simple analytical functions which depend on the solar elevation angle and the heliocentric distance are used to fit the trends observed in the data assuming either a continuous slab or idependent particle models. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA and at CEA Saclay supported by the "Programme National de Planetologie". Copyright 2008 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  19. Applications of high-temperature powder metal aluminum alloys to small gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millan, P. P., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A program aimed at the development of advanced powder-metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys for high-temperature applications up to 650 F using the concepts of rapid solidification and mechanical alloying is discussed. In particular, application of rapidly solidified PM aluminum alloys to centrifugal compressor impellers, currently used in auxiliary power units for both military and commercial aircraft and potentially for advanced automotive gas turbine engines, is examined. It is shown that substitution of high-temperature aluminum for titanium alloy impellers operating in the 360-650 F range provides significant savings in material and machining costs and results in reduced component weight, and consequently, reduced rotating group inertia requirements.

  20. Elevated temperature strength of Cr-W alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Omer N.; Schrems, Karol K.

    2004-09-01

    Cr alloys containing 0-30 weight percent W were investigated for their strength and ductility. These experimental alloys are intended for use in elevated temperature applications. Alloys were melted in a water-cooled, copper-hearth arc furnace. Microstructure of the alloys was studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and light microscopy. A hot hardness tester was used to study the strength of these materials up to 1200ºC. Compression tests at the same temperature range were also conducted.

  1. High strain rate behavior of pure metals at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Gabriel; Bonora, Nicola; Ruggiero, Andrew; Iannitti, Gianluca; Domenico, Gentile

    2013-06-01

    In many applications and technology processes, such as stamping, forging, hot working etc., metals and alloys are subjected to elevated temperature and high strain rate deformation process. Characterization tests, such as quasistatic and dynamic tension or compression test, and validation tests, such as Taylor impact and DTE - dynamic tensile extrusion -, provide the experimental base of data for constitutive model validation and material parameters identification. Testing material at high strain rate and temperature requires dedicated equipment. In this work, both tensile Hopkinson bar and light gas gun where modified in order to allow material testing under sample controlled temperature conditions. Dynamic tension tests and Taylor impact tests, at different temperatures, on high purity copper (99.98%), tungsten (99.95%) and 316L stainless steel were performed. The accuracy of several constitutive models (Johnson and Cook, Zerilli-Armstrong, etc.) in predicting the observed material response was verified by means of extensive finite element analysis (FEA).

  2. Complexation of Neptunium(V) with Fluoride at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Xia, Yuanxian; Friese, Judah I.

    2008-06-16

    Complexation of neptunium(V) with fluoride at elevated temperatures was studied by spectrophotometry and microcalorimetry. Two successive complexes, NpO{sub 2}F(aq) and NpO{sub 2}F{sub 2}{sup -}, were identified by spectrophotometry in the temperature range of 10-70 C. Thermodynamic parameters, including the equilibrium constants and enthalpy of complexation between Np(V) and fluoride at 10-70 C were determined. Results show that the complexation of Np(V) with fluoride is endothermic and that the complexation is enhanced by the increase in temperature - a two-fold increase in the stability constants of NpO{sub 2}F(aq) and more than five-fold increase in the stability constants of NpO{sub 2}F{sub 2}{sup -} as the temperature is increased from 10 to 70 C.

  3. Tolerance of LSS Plant Component to Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, S. A.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

    2002-06-01

    Stability of LSS based on biological regeneration of water, air and food subject to damaging factors is largely dependent on the behavior of the photosynthesizing component represented, mainly, by higher plants. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tolerance of uneven-aged wheat and radish cenoses to temperature effects different in time and value. Estimation of thermal tolerance of plants demonstrated that exposure for 20 h to the temperature increasing to 45°C brought about irreversible damage both in photosynthetic processes (up to 80% of initial value) and the processes of growth and development. Kinetics of visible photosynthesis during exposure to elevated temperatures can be used to evaluate critical exposure time within the range of which the damage of metabolic processes is reversible. With varying light intensity and air temperature it is possible to find a time period admissible for the plants to stay under adverse conditions without considerable damage of metabolic processes.

  4. Cardiac responses to elevated seawater temperature in Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Atlantic salmon aquaculture operations in the Northern hemisphere experience large seasonal fluctuations in seawater temperature. With summer temperatures often peaking around 18-20°C there is growing concern about the effects on fish health and performance. Since the heart has a major role in the physiological plasticity and acclimation to different thermal conditions in fish, we wanted to investigate how three and eight weeks exposure of adult Atlantic salmon to 19°C, previously shown to significantly reduce growth performance, affected expression of relevant genes and proteins in cardiac tissues under experimental conditions. Results Transcriptional responses in cardiac tissues after three and eight weeks exposure to 19°C (compared to thermal preference, 14°C) were analyzed with cDNA microarrays and validated by expression analysis of selected genes and proteins using real-time qPCR and immunofluorescence microscopy. Up-regulation of heat shock proteins and cell signaling genes may indicate involvement of the unfolded protein response in long-term acclimation to elevated temperature. Increased immunofluorescence staining of inducible nitric oxide synthase in spongy and compact myocardium as well as increased staining of vascular endothelial growth factor in epicardium could reflect induced vascularization and vasodilation, possibly related to increased oxygen demand. Increased staining of collagen I in the compact myocardium of 19°C fish may be indicative of a remodeling of connective tissue with long-term warm acclimation. Finally, higher abundance of transcripts for genes involved in innate cellular immunity and lower abundance of transcripts for humoral immune components implied altered immune competence in response to elevated temperature. Conclusions Long-term exposure of Atlantic salmon to 19°C resulted in cardiac gene and protein expression changes indicating that the unfolded protein response, vascularization, remodeling of connective

  5. In Situ Microstructural Control and Mechanical Testing Inside the Transmission Electron Microscope at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baoming; Haque, M. A.

    2015-08-01

    With atomic-scale imaging and analytical capabilities such as electron diffraction and energy-loss spectroscopy, the transmission electron microscope has allowed access to the internal microstructure of materials like no other microscopy. It has been mostly a passive or post-mortem analysis tool, but that trend is changing with in situ straining, heating and electrical biasing. In this study, we design and demonstrate a multi-functional microchip that integrates actuators, sensors, heaters and electrodes with freestanding electron transparent specimens. In addition to mechanical testing at elevated temperatures, the chip can actively control microstructures (grain growth and phase change) of the specimen material. Using nano-crystalline aluminum, nickel and zirconium as specimen materials, we demonstrate these novel capabilities inside the microscope. Our approach of active microstructural control and quantitative testing with real-time visualization can influence mechanistic modeling by providing direct and accurate evidence of the fundamental mechanisms behind materials behavior.

  6. Low temperature aluminum reduction cell using hollow cathode

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W.; Frizzle, Patrick B.

    2002-08-20

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes are disposed substantially vertically in the electrolyte along with a plurality of monolithic hollow cathodes. Each cathode has a top and bottom and the cathodes are disposed vertically in the electrolyte and the anodes and the cathodes are arranged in alternating relationship. Each of the cathodes is comprised of a first side facing a first opposing anode and a second side facing a second opposing anode. The first and second sides are joined by ends to form a reservoir in the hollow cathode for collecting aluminum therein deposited at the cathode.

  7. Elevated temperature deformation of thoria dispersed nickel-chromium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, R. D.; Ebert, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    The deformation behavior of thoria nickel-chromium (TD-NiCr) was examined over the temperature range 593 C (1100 F) to 1260 C (2300 F) in tension and compression and at 1093 C (2000 F) in creep. Major emphasis was placed on: (1) the effects of the material and test related variables (grain size, temperature, stress and strain rate) on the deformation process; and (2) the evaluation of single crystal TD-NiCr material produced by a directional recrystallization process. Elevated temperature yield strength levels and creep activation enthalpies were found to increase with increasing grain size reaching maximum values for the single crystal TD-NiCr. Stress exponent of the steady state creep rate was also significantly higher for the single crystal TD-NiCr as compared to that determined for the polycrystalline materials. The elevated temperature deformation of TD-NiCr was analyzed in terms of two concurrent, parallel processes: diffusion controlled grain boundary sliding, and dislocation motion.

  8. Void nucleation at elevated temperatures under cascade-damage irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, A. A.; Woo, C. H.

    2002-07-01

    The effects on void nucleation of fluctuations respectively due to the randomness of point-defect migratory jumps, the random generation of free point defects in discrete packages, and the fluctuating rate of vacancy emission from voids are considered. It was found that effects of the cascade-induced fluctuations are significant only at sufficiently high total sink strength. At lower sink strengths and elevated temperatures, the fluctuation in the rate of vacancy emission is the dominant factor. Application of the present theory to the void nucleation in annealed pure copper neutron-irradiated at elevated temperatures with doses of 10-4-10-2 NRT dpa showed reasonable agreement between theory and experiment. This application also predicts correctly the temporal development of large-scale spatial heterogeneous microstructure during the void nucleation stage. Comparison between calculated and experimental void nucleation rates in neutron-irradiated molybdenum at temperatures where vacancy emission from voids is negligible showed reasonable agreement as well. It was clearly demonstrated that the athermal shrinkage of relatively large voids experimentally observable in molybdenum at such temperatures may be easily explained in the framework of the present theory.

  9. Literature survey on oxidations and fatigue lives at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. W.; Oshida, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-base superalloys are the most complex and the most widely used for high temperature applications such as aircraft engine components. The desirable properties of nickel-base superalloys at high temperatures are tensile strength, thermomechanical fatigue resistance, low thermal expansion, as well as oxidation resistance. At elevated temperature, fatigue cracks are often initiated by grain boundary oxidation, and fatigue cracks often propagate along grain boundaries, where the oxidation rate is higher. Oxidation takes place at the interface between metal and gas. Properties of the metal substrate, the gaseous environment, as well as the oxides formed all interact to make the oxidation behavior of nickel-base superalloys extremely complicated. The important topics include general oxidation, selective oxidation, internal oxidation, grain boundary oxidation, multilayer oxide structure, accelerated oxidation under stress, stress-generation during oxidation, composition and substrate microstructural changes due to prolonged oxidation, fatigue crack initiation at oxidized grain boundaries and the oxidation accelerated fatigue crack propagation along grain boundaries.

  10. Compressive Strength of Stainless-Steel Sandwiches at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathauser, Eldon E.; Pride, Richard A.

    1959-01-01

    Experimental results are presented from crippling tests of stainless-steel sandwich specimens in the temperature range from 80 F to 1,200 F. The specimens included resistance-welded 17-7 PH stainless-steel sandwiches with single-corrugated cores, type 301 stainless-steel sandwiches with double-corrugated cores, and brazed 17-7 PH stainless-steel sandwiches with honeycomb cores. The experimental strengths are compared with predicted buckling and crippling strengths. The crippling strengths were predicted from the calculated maximum strength of the individual plate elements of the sandwiches and from a correlation procedure which gives the elevated-temperature crippling strength when the experimental room-temperature crippling strengths are known. Photographs of some of the tested specimens are included to show the modes of failure.

  11. Strengthening Aluminum Alloys for High Temperature Applications Using Nanoparticles of Al203 and Al3-X Compounds (X= Ti, V, Zr)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the effect of nanoparticles A12O3 and A13-X compounds (X= Ti, V, Zr) on the improvement of mechanical properties of aluminum alloys for elevated temperature applications is presented. These nanoparticles were selected based on their chemical stability and low diffusions rates in aluminum matrix at high temperatures. The strengthening mechanism for aluminum alloy is based on the mechanical blocking of dislocation movements by these nanoparticles. Samples were prepared from A12O3 nanoparticle preforms, which were produced using ceramic injection molding process and pressure infiltrated by molten aluminum. A12O3 nanoparticles can also be homogeneously mixed with aluminum powder and consolidated into samples through hot pressing and sintering. On the other hand, the Al3-X nanoparticles are produced as precipitates via in situ reactions with molten aluminum alloys using conventional casting techniques. The degree of alloy strengthening using nanoparticles will depend on the materials, particle size, shape, volume fraction, and mean inter-particle spacing.

  12. Emerging disease of amphibians cured by elevated body temperature.

    PubMed

    Woodhams, Douglas C; Alford, Ross A; Marantelli, Gerry

    2003-06-20

    The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis is thought to have contributed to many of the recent alarming declines in amphibian populations. Mortalities associated with these declines have often occurred during cooler seasons and at high elevations, suggesting that environmental temperature may be an important factor in disease emergence. We found that thermal environment affects the progress of the disease, and that housing frogs Litoria chloris at an environmental temperature of 37 degrees C for less than 16 h can clear them of the chytrid pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Our experiment demonstrated that elevated body temperatures similar to those experienced in behavioral fever and during normal thermoregulation can clear frogs of chytrid infection; therefore, variation in thermoregulatory opportunities and behaviors are likely to contribute to the differences in disease incidence observed among host species, populations, and regions. Although further refinement of the technique is needed to encompass various host species, appropriately applied thermal manipulations of amphibians and their enclosures may prove to be a safe and effective way of eliminating the fungal pathogen from captive amphibian populations and: preventing accidental spread of the pathogen when animals are translocated or released from captivity. PMID:12887256

  13. Description of a system for interlocking elevated temperature mechanical tests

    SciTech Connect

    Schmale, D.T.; Poulter, G.A.

    1995-07-01

    Long term mechanical creep and fatigue testing at elevated temperatures requires reliable systems with safeguards to prevent destruction of equipment, loss of data and negative environmental impacts. Toward this goal, a computer controlled system has been developed and built for interlocking tests run on elevated temperature mechanical test facilities. Sensors for water flow, water pressure, water leakage, temperature, power and hydraulic status are monitored to control specimen heating equipment through solid state relays and water solenoid valves. The system is designed to work with the default interlocks present in the RF generators and mechanical tests systems. Digital hardware consists of two National Instruments 1/0 boards mounted in a Macintosh IIci computer. Software is written in National Instruments LabVIEW. Systems interlocked include two MTS closed loop servo controlled hydraulic test frames, one with an RF generator and one with both an RF generator and a quartz lamp furnace. Control for individual test systems is modularized making the addition of more systems simple. If any of the supporting utilities fail during tests, heating systems, chill water and hydraulics are powered down, minimizing specimen damage and eliminating equipment damage. The interlock control is powered by an uninterruptible power supply. Upon failure the cause is documented in an ASCII file.

  14. Description of a system for interlocking elevated temperature mechanical tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmale, D. T.; Poulter, G. A.

    1995-07-01

    Long term mechanical creep and fatigue testing at elevated temperatures requires reliable systems with safeguards to prevent destruction of equipment, loss of data, and negative environmental impacts. Toward this goal, a computer controlled system has been developed and built for interlocking tests run on elevated temperature mechanical test facilities. Sensors for water flow, water pressure, water leakage, temperature, power, and hydraulic status are monitored to control specimen heating equipment through solid state relays and water solenoid valves. The system is designed to work with the default interlocks present in the RF generators and mechanical tests systems. Digital hardware consists of two National Instruments I/O boards mounted in a Macintosh IIci computer. Software is written in National Instruments LabVIEW. Systems interlocked include two MTS closed loop servo controlled hydraulic test frames, one with an RF generator and one with both an RF generator and a quartz lamp furnace. Control for individual test systems is modularized making the addition of more systems simple. If any of the supporting utilities fail during tests, heating systems, chill water, and hydraulics are powered down, minimizing specimen damage and eliminating equipment damage. The interlock control is powered by an uninterruptible power supply. Upon failure the cause is documented in an ASCII file.

  15. Development of an aluminum nitride-silicon carbide material set for high-temperature sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Benjamin A.; Habermehl, Scott D.; Clews, Peggy J.

    2014-06-01

    A number of important energy and defense-related applications would benefit from sensors capable of withstanding extreme temperatures (>300°C). Examples include sensors for automobile engines, gas turbines, nuclear and coal power plants, and petroleum and geothermal well drilling. Military applications, such as hypersonic flight research, would also benefit from sensors capable of 1000°C. Silicon carbide (SiC) has long been recognized as a promising material for harsh environment sensors and electronics because it has the highest mechanical strength of semiconductors with the exception of diamond and its upper temperature limit exceeds 2500°C, where it sublimates rather than melts. Yet today, many advanced SiC MEMS are limited to lower temperatures because they are made from SiC films deposited on silicon wafers. Other limitations arise from sensor transduction by measuring changes in capacitance or resistance, which require biasing or modulation schemes that can with- stand elevated temperatures. We are circumventing these issues by developing sensing structures directly on SiC wafers using SiC and piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films. SiC and AlN are a promising material combination due to their high thermal, electrical, and mechanical strength and closely matched coefficients of thermal expansion. AlN is also a non-ferroelectric piezoelectric material, enabling piezoelectric transduction at temperatures exceeding 1000°C. In this paper, the challenges of incorporating these two materials into a compatible MEMS fabrication process are presented. The current progress and initial measurements of the fabrication process are shown. The future direction and the need for further investigation of the material set are addressed.

  16. Method to increase the toughness of aluminum-lithium alloys at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankaran, Krishnan K. (Inventor); Sova, Brian J. (Inventor); Babel, Henry W. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method to increase the toughness of the aluminum-lithium alloy C458 and similar alloys at cryogenic temperatures above their room temperature toughness is provided. Increasing the cryogenic toughness of the aluminum-lithium alloy C458 allows the use of alloy C458 for cryogenic tanks, for example for launch vehicles in the aerospace industry. A two-step aging treatment for alloy C458 is provided. A specific set of times and temperatures to age the aluminum-lithium alloy C458 to T8 temper is disclosed that results in a higher toughness at cryogenic temperatures compared to room temperature. The disclosed two-step aging treatment for alloy 458 can be easily practiced in the manufacturing process, does not involve impractical heating rates or durations, and does not degrade other material properties.

  17. Effects of elevated temperature and elevated CO{sub 2} on foliar senescence of Acer seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, J.S.; Norby, R.J. |

    1995-06-01

    An important response mechanism of trees to a warmer, CO{sub 2}-enriched atmosphere could be an alteration of phenological relationships. Autumn leaf senescence and abscission were tracked in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and red maple (A. rubrum) seedlings growing in open-top chambers in ambient or elevated CO{sub 2} in combination with ambient or elevated temperature. Chlorophyll concentration was estimated weekly with a portable reflectance meter calibrated against conventional analysis of chlorophyll in leaf extracts. Abscission was quantified as the percentage of total plant leaf area that had abscised by certain dates. In both species chlorophyll loss from mid-October to mid-November was retarded in plants grown since May at a constant temperature offset 4{degrees}C higher than ambient. Likewise, leaf abscission began later and progressed more slowly in the warmer chambers. These plants still had 80% of their leaf area attached, and the leaves were still green, at the end of the growing season. Carbon dioxide concentration had little effect on leaf senescence or abscission. The results demonstrate the potential for climate warming to extend the growing season, which could enhance plant productivity. However, delayed senescence could also cause nutrient loss by disrupting retranslocation from leaves prior to the end of the growing season.

  18. Lattice dynamics and phase diagram of aluminum at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kudasov, Yu. B. Surdin, O. M.; Korshunov, A. S.; Pavlov, V. N.; Frolova, N. V.; Kuzin, R. S.

    2013-10-15

    The dispersion of phonons in the fcc, hcp, and bcc phases of aluminum is calculated at ultrahigh pressures by the method of small displacements in a supercell. The stability of the phonon subsystem is studied. The thermodynamic characteristics are calculated in the quasi-harmonic approximation, and a phase diagram of aluminum is plotted. As compared to the Debye model, the use of a phonon spectrum calculated in the quasi-harmonic approximation significantly broadens the hcp phase field and strongly shifts the phase boundary between the fcc and bcc phases. The normal isentrope is calculated at megabar pressures. It is shown to intersect the fcc-hcp and hcp-bcc phase boundaries. The sound velocity along the normal isentrope is calculated. It is shown to have a nonmonotonic character.

  19. Hydrologic property alterations due to elevated temperatures at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, A.L.; Nash, M.H.; Nash, M.S.

    1994-12-31

    Yucca Mountain is currently being evaluated as a potential site for a high level nuclear waste repository. The pre-emplacement hydrologic properties of the rock are important in determining the suitability of the site; however, post emplacement thermal loads and associated drying may permanently alter the character of the rock. A preliminary study was undertaken to determine the effects of elevated temperatures on hydrologic properties of the welded Topopah Spring member of the Paintbrush Tuff and a zeolitic, nonwelded tuff from the Tuffaceous Beds of Calico Hills. Rock outcrop samples were collected and dried in the laboratory at different temperatures (up to 400 degrees C). Hydrologic and physical properties -were tested before and after each of the drying cycles.

  20. Thermodynamics of Neptunium (V) Complexes with Phosphate at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Y.; Friese, Judah I.; Bachelor, Paula P.; Moore, Dean A.; Rao, Linfeng

    2009-06-01

    Abstract – The complexation of Np(V) with phosphate at elevated temperatures was studied by a synergistic extraction method. A mixed buffer solution of TRIS and MES was used to maintain an appropriate pH value during the distribution experiments. The distribution ratio of Np(V) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of phosphate were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Np(V)-HPO42- complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase under the experimental conditions, were calculated from the effect of [HPO42-] on the distribution ratio. The thermodynamic parameters including enthalpy and entropy of complexation between Np(V) and HPO42- at 25o C – 55o C were calculated by the temperature coefficient method.

  1. Microwave sensor design for noncontact process monitoring at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadam, Yugandhara Rao; Arunachalam, Kavitha

    2016-02-01

    In this work we present a microwave sensor for noncontact monitoring of liquid level at high temperatures. The sensor is a high gain, directional conical lensed horn antenna with narrow beam width (BW) designed for operation over 10 GHz - 15 GHz. Sensor design and optimization was carried out using 3D finite element method based electromagnetic (EM) simulation software HFSS®. A rectangular to circular waveguide feed was designed to convert TE10 to TE11 mode for wave propagation in the conical horn. Swept frequency simulations were carried out to optimize antenna flare angle and length to achieve better than -10 dB return loss (S11), standing wave ratio (SWR) less than 2.0, 20° half power BW (HPBW) and 15 dB gain over 10 GHz - 15 GHz. The sensor was fabricated using Aluminum and was characterized in an anechoic test box using a vector network analyzer (E5071C, Agilent Technologies, USA). Experimental results of noncontact level detection are presented for boiling water in a metal canister.

  2. Fretting of Nickel-Chromium-Aluminum Alloys at Temperatures to 816 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A series of four nickel-based alloys containing 10 percent and 20 percent chromium in combination with 2 percent and 5 percent aluminum were fretted in dry air at temperatures to 816 C. At all temperatures, the alloys showed far less fretting wear than did high-purity nickel. This was attributed to the formation of protective oxide films on the alloys, the result of the selective oxidation of the alloy constituents. Increasing the aluminum concentration reduced fretting wear at all temperatures. Increasing the chromium concentration from 10 percent to 20 percent resulted in decreased fretting wear at 23 and 540 C, but increased fretting wear at 650 and 816 C.

  3. Characterization of low-temperature microwave loss of thin aluminum oxide formed by plasma oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Chunqing Otto, M.; Lupascu, A.

    2014-01-27

    We report on the characterization of microwave loss of thin aluminum oxide films at low temperatures using superconducting lumped resonators. The oxide films are fabricated using plasma oxidation of aluminum and have a thickness of 5 nm. We measure the dielectric loss versus microwave power for resonators with frequencies in the GHz range at temperatures from 54 to 303 mK. The power and temperature dependence of the loss are consistent with the tunneling two-level system theory. These results are relevant to understanding decoherence in superconducting quantum devices. The obtained oxide films are thin and robust, making them suitable for capacitors in compact microwave resonators.

  4. Do fluctuating temperature environments elevate coral thermal tolerance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, T. A.; Palumbi, S. R.

    2011-06-01

    In reef corals, much research has focused on the capacity of corals to acclimatize and/or adapt to different thermal environments, but the majority of work has focused on distinctions in mean temperature. Across small spatial scales, distinctions in daily temperature variation are common, but the role of such environmental variation in setting coral thermal tolerances has received little attention. Here, we take advantage of back-reef pools in American Samoa that differ in thermal variation to investigate the effects of thermally fluctuating environments on coral thermal tolerance. We experimentally heat-stressed Acropora hyacinthus from a thermally moderate lagoon pool (temp range 26.5-33.3°C) and from a more thermally variable pool that naturally experiences 2-3 h high temperature events during summer low tides (temp range 25.0-35°C). We compared mortality and photosystem II photochemical efficiency of colony fragments exposed to ambient temperatures (median: 28.0°C) or elevated temperatures (median: 31.5°C). In the heated treatment, moderate pool corals showed nearly 50% mortality whether they hosted heat-sensitive (49.2 ± 6.5% SE; C2) or heat-resistant (47.0 ± 11.2% SE; D) symbionts. However, variable pool corals, all of which hosted heat-resistant symbionts, survived well, showing low mortalities (16.6 ± 8.8% SE) statistically indistinguishable from controls held at ambient temperatures (5.1-8.3 ± 3.3-8.3% SE). Similarly, moderate pool corals hosting heat-sensitive algae showed rapid rates of decline in algal photosystem II photochemical efficiency in the elevated temperature treatment (slope = -0.04 day-1 ± 0.007 SE); moderate pool corals hosting heat-resistant algae showed intermediate levels of decline (slope = -0.039 day-1 ± 0.007 SE); and variable pool corals hosting heat-resistant algae showed the least decline (slope = -0.028 day-1 ± 0.004 SE). High gene flow among pools suggests that these differences probably reflect coral acclimatization

  5. Ethanol production at elevated temperatures using encapsulation of yeast.

    PubMed

    Ylitervo, Päivi; Franzén, Carl Johan; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2011-10-20

    The ability of macroencapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 8066 to produce ethanol at elevated temperatures was investigated in consecutive batch and continuous cultures. Prior to cultivation yeast was confined inside alginate-chitosan capsules composed of an outer semi-permeable membrane and an inner liquid core. The encapsulated yeast could successfully ferment 30 g/L glucose and produce ethanol at a high yield in five consecutive batches of 12 h duration at 42°C, while freely suspended yeast was completely inactive already in the third batch. A high ethanol production was observed also through the first 48 h at 40°C during continuous cultivation at D=0.2 h(-1) when using encapsulated cells. The ethanol production slowly decreased in the following days at 40°C. The ethanol production was also measured in a continuous cultivation in which the temperature was periodically increased to 42-45°C and lowered to 37°C again in periods of 12h. Our investigation shows that a non-thermotolerant yeast strain improved its heat tolerance upon encapsulation, and could produce ethanol at temperatures as high as 45°C for a short time. The possibility of performing fermentations at higher temperatures would greatly improve the enzymatic hydrolysis in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes and thereby make the bioethanol production process more economically feasible.

  6. Rotating disk electrode system for elevated pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Fleige, M. J.; Wiberg, G. K. H.; Arenz, M.

    2015-06-15

    We describe the development and test of an elevated pressure and temperature rotating disk electrode (RDE) system that allows measurements under well-defined mass transport conditions. As demonstrated for the oxygen reduction reaction on polycrystalline platinum (Pt) in 0.5M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the setup can easily be operated in a pressure range of 1–101 bar oxygen, and temperature of 140 °C. Under such conditions, diffusion limited current densities increase by almost two orders of magnitude as compared to conventional RDE setups allowing, for example, fuel cell catalyst studies under more realistic conditions. Levich plots demonstrate that the mass transport is indeed well-defined, i.e., at low electrode potentials, the measured current densities are fully diffusion controlled, while at higher potentials, a mixed kinetic-diffusion controlled regime is observed. Therefore, the setup opens up a new field for RDE investigations under temperature and current density conditions relevant for low and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  7. Binder/HMX interaction in PBX9501 at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    K., S C; M., T C

    2003-10-02

    Plastic bonded explosives (PBX) generally consist of 85 - 95 % by weight energetic material, such as HMX, and 5 - 15 % polymeric binder. Understanding of the structure and morphology at elevated temperatures and pressures is important for predicting of PBX behavior in accident scenarios. The crystallographic behavior of pure HMX has been measured as functions of temperature and grain size. The investigation is extended to the high temperature behavior of PBX 9501 (95% HMX, 2.5 % Estane, 2.5 % BDNPA/F). The results show that the HMX {beta}-phase to {delta}-phase transition in PBX 9501 is similar to that in neat HMX. However, in the presence of the PBX 9501 binder, {delta}-phase HMX readily converts back to {beta}-phase during cooling. Using the same temperature profile, the conversion rate decreases for each subsequent heating and cooling cycle. As observed in earlier experiments, no reverse conversion is observed without the polymer binder. It is proposed that the reversion of {delta}-phase to {beta}-phase is due to changes in the surface molecular potential caused by the influence of the polymer binder on the surface molecules of the {delta}-phase. Upon thermal cycling, the polymer binder segregates from the HMX particles and thus reduces the influence of the binder on the surface molecules. This segregation increases the resistance for the {delta}-phase to {beta}-phase transition, as demonstrated in an aged PBX 9501 material for which the reversion is not observed.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Fiber Bragg Gratings at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juergens, Jeffrey; Adamovsky, Grigory; Floyd, Bertram

    2004-01-01

    The development of integrated fiber optic sensors for smart propulsion systems demands that the sensors be able to perform in extreme environments. In order to use fiber optic sensors effectively in an extreme environment one must have a thorough understanding of the sensor s limits and how it responds under various environmental conditions. The sensor evaluation currently involves examining the performance of fiber Bragg gratings at elevated temperatures. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) are periodic variations of the refractive index of an optical fiber. These periodic variations allow the FBG to act as an embedded optical filter passing the majority of light propagating through a fiber while reflecting back a narrow band of the incident light. The peak reflected wavelength of the FBG is known as the Bragg wavelength. Since the period and width of the refractive index variation in the fiber determines the wavelengths that are transmitted and reflected by the grating, any force acting on the fiber that alters the physical structure of the grating will change what wavelengths are transmitted and what wavelengths are reflected by the grating. Both thermal and mechanical forces acting on the grating will alter its physical characteristics allowing the FBG sensor to detect both temperature variations and physical stresses, strain, placed upon it. This ability to sense multiple physical forces makes the FBG a versatile sensor. This paper reports on test results of the performance of FBGs at elevated temperatures. The gratings looked at thus far have been either embedded in polymer matrix materials or freestanding with the primary focus of this paper being on the freestanding FBGs. Throughout the evaluation process, various parameters of the FBGs performance were monitored and recorded. These parameters include the peak Bragg wavelength, the power of the Bragg wavelength, and total power returned by the FBG. Several test samples were subjected to identical test conditions to

  9. Stability of CdTe solar cells at elevated temperatures: Bias, temperature, and Cu dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltner, Jason F.; Sites, James R.

    1999-03-01

    A systematic study of the stability of CdTe solar cells fabricated by SCI and NREL has been made. Cells were stressed at elevated temperatures under various bias conditions, both with illumination (˜2 suns) and in the dark. An activation energy of approximately 1 eV is implied from cells stressed at various elevated temperatures. The stability of CdTe solar cells was found to be bias dependent and device-specific. Cells made with thick CdTe and no back-contact copper as well as by at least one SCI recipe were very stable. Extrapolation of effects assuming Arrhenius behavior yields estimated lifetime expectations for the cells stressed at elevated temperatures.

  10. Isobutanol production at elevated temperatures in thermophilic Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius.

    PubMed

    Lin, Paul P; Rabe, Kersten S; Takasumi, Jennifer L; Kadisch, Marvin; Arnold, Frances H; Liao, James C

    2014-07-01

    The potential advantages of biological production of chemicals or fuels from biomass at high temperatures include reduced enzyme loading for cellulose degradation, decreased chance of contamination, and lower product separation cost. In general, high temperature production of compounds that are not native to the thermophilic hosts is limited by enzyme stability and the lack of suitable expression systems. Further complications can arise when the pathway includes a volatile intermediate. Here we report the engineering of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius to produce isobutanol at 50°C. We prospected various enzymes in the isobutanol synthesis pathway and characterized their thermostabilities. We also constructed an expression system based on the lactate dehydrogenase promoter from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans. With the best enzyme combination and the expression system, 3.3g/l of isobutanol was produced from glucose and 0.6g/l of isobutanol from cellobiose in G. thermoglucosidasius within 48h at 50°C. This is the first demonstration of isobutanol production in recombinant bacteria at an elevated temperature.

  11. Microfaunal evidences for elevated pliocene temperatures in the arctic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; Whatley, Robin; Wood, Adrian; Tsukagoshi, Akira; Ikeya, Noriyuki; Brouwers, E. M.; Briggs, W. M.

    1993-04-01

    The migration of thermophilic marine Ostracoda into the Arctic Ocean during the Pliocene indicates that winter and summer ocean temperatures around Arctic margins were ≥ 0 °C and > 3 °C, respectively, and that ice-free conditions existed for most or all of the Arctic. By at least 3.5-3.0 Ma, probably earlier, the opening of the Bering Strait allowed marine organisms to migrate through the Arctic Ocean, mostly from the Pacific Ocean. Migrant taxa such as Cythere, Hemicythere, and Neomonoceratina are known from Pliocene deposits of Alaska and Canada as well as Neogene deposits of the North Pacific and Atlantic oceans. On the basis of ecological and Zoogeographic information on ostracode species from more than 800 modern "core top" samples for the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Arctic Oceans, we determined winter and summer temperature tolerances for migrant taxa to be at or above about 0 °C and 3 °C. This suggests ice-free summers, and probably, a perennially ice-free Arctic Ocean in some regions. Elevated water temperatures in the Arctic Ocean between 3.5 and 2.0 Ma is supported by evidence for late Pliocene increased meridional heat transport in the North Atlantic Ocean.

  12. Elevated Temperature Testing and Modeling of Advanced Toughened Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a final report for the period of 12/1/03 through 11/30/04 for NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC3-776, entitled "Elevated Temperature Testing and Modeling of Advanced Toughened Ceramic Materials." During this final period, major efforts were focused on both the determination of mechanical properties of advanced ceramic materials and the development of mechanical test methodologies under several different programs of the NASA-Glenn. The important research activities made during this period are: 1. Mechanical properties evaluation of two gas-turbine grade silicon nitrides. 2) Mechanical testing for fuel-cell seal materials. 3) Mechanical properties evaluation of thermal barrier coatings and CFCCs and 4) Foreign object damage (FOD) testing.

  13. ELEVATED CO2 AND ELEVATED TEMPERATURE AFFECT CARBON AND NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS BUT NOT ACCUMULATION IN PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII SEEDLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the impact of climate change on concentrations and accumulation of C and N in trees, we grew Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (Douglas-fir) seedlings treated with ambient or elevated (+180 mol mol-1) CO2, and with ambient or elevated (+3.5 C) temperature for f...

  14. High-Strength Aluminum Casting Alloy for High-Temperature Applications (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Project No. 97-10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    A new aluminum-silicon alloy has been successfully developed at Marshall Space Flight Center that has a significant improvement in tensile strength at elevated temperatures (550 to 700 F). For instance, the new alloy shows in average tensile strength of at least 90 percent higher than the current 390 aluminum piston alloy tested at 500 F. Compared to conventional aluminum alloys, automotive engines using the new piston alloy will have improved gas mileage, and may produce less air pollution in order to meet the future U.S. automotive legislative requirements for low hydrocarbon emissions. The projected cost for this alloy is less than $0.95/lb, and it readily allows the automotive components to be cast at a high production volume with a low, fully accounted cost. It is economically produced by pouring molten metal directly into conventional permanent steel molds or die casting.

  15. Infrared spectroscopic studies of the effect of elevated temperature on the association of pyroglutamic acid with clay and other minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macklin, J. W.; White, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Fourier transform i.r. measurements of L-pyroglutamic acid dispersed in a matrix of a clay, silica or alumina have been obtained at various temperatures between 25 and 220 degrees C. The i.r. spectrum of L-pyroglutamic acid varies in a manner dependent upon the matrix material and shows considerable change as the temperature of the mixtures is increased. The differences in the spectrum at elevated temperatures are explained in terms of a chemical reaction between hydroxyl groups in the matrix and the carboxylic acid. The i.r. spectra of trimethylsilyl derivatives of L-pyroglutamic acid and aluminum pyroglutamate were also measured to assist the understanding of spectra and interpretation of the spectral changes dependent upon increasing temperature.

  16. Characterization of Tensile Properties, Limiting Strains, and Deep Drawing Behavior of AA5754-H22 Sheet at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panicker, Sudhy S.; Singh, Har Govind; Panda, Sushanta Kumar; Dashwood, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Automotive industries are very much interested in characterization of formability improvement of aluminum alloys at elevated temperatures before designing tools, heating systems, and processing sequences for fabrication of auto-body panels by warm forming technology. In this study, tensile tests of AA5754-H22 aluminum alloy were carried out at five different temperatures and three different strain rates to investigate the deformation behavior correlating with Cowper-Symonds constitutive equation. Laboratory scale warm forming facilities were designed and fabricated to perform limiting dome height and deep drawing tests to evaluate forming limit strains and drawability of sheet metal at different tool temperatures. The forming limit strain and dome height improved significantly when both the die and punch were heated to 200 °C. Remarkable improvement in deep drawn cup depth was observed when die and punch temperatures were maintained at 200 and 30 °C, respectively, producing a non-isothermal temperature gradient of approximately 93 °C across the blank from flange to center. The forming behavior at different isothermal and non-isothermal conditions were predicted successfully using a thermo-mechanical FE model incorporating temperature-dependent properties in Barlat-89 yield criterion coupled with Cowper-Symonds hardening model, and the thinning/failure location in deformed cups were validated implementing the experimental limiting strains as damage model.

  17. Dissociation energies of some high temperature molecules containing aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Knudsen cell mass spectrometric method has been used to investigate the gaseous molecules Al2, AlSi,AlSiO, AlC2, Al2C2, and AlAuC2. Special attention was given to the experimental considerations and techniques needed to identify and to measure ion intensities for very low abundance molecular species. Second- and third-law procedures were used to obtain reaction enthalpies for pressure calibration independent and isomolecular exchange reactions. Dissociation energies for the molecules were derived from the measured ion intensities, free-energy functions obtained from estimated molecular constants, and auxiliary thermodynamic data. The bonding and stability of these aluminum containing molecules are compared with other similar species.

  18. Plastic Deformation Characteristics Of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets At Elevated Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jingee; Lee, Jongshin; You, Bongsun; Choi, Seogou; Kim, Youngsuk

    2007-05-17

    Using lightweight materials is the emerging need in order to reduce the vehicle's energy consumption and pollutant emissions. Being a lightweight material, magnesium alloys are increasingly employed in the fabrication of automotive and electronic parts. Presently, magnesium alloys used in automotive and electronic parts are mainly processed by die casting. The die casting technology allows the manufacturing of parts with complex geometry. However, the mechanical properties of these parts often do not meet the requirements concerning the mechanical properties (e.g. endurance strength and ductility). A promising alternative can be forming process. The parts manufactured by forming could have fine-grained structure without porosity and improved mechanical properties such as endurance strength and ductility. Because magnesium alloy has low formability resulted form its small slip system at room temperature it is usually formed at elevated temperature. Due to a rapid increase of usage of magnesium sheets in automotive and electronic industry it is necessary to assure database for sheet metal formability and plastic yielding properties in order to optimize its usage. Especially, plastic yielding criterion is a critical property to predict plastic deformation of sheet metal parts in optimizing process using CAE simulation. Von-Mises yield criterion generally well predicts plastic deformation of steel sheets and Hill'1979 yield criterion predicts plastic deformation of aluminum sheets. In this study, using biaxial tensile test machine yield loci of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet were obtained at elevated temperature. The yield loci ensured experimentally were compared with the theoretical predictions based on the Von-Mises, Hill, Logan-Hosford, and Barlat model.

  19. Elevated Temperature, In Situ Micromechanical Characterization of a High Temperature Ternary Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J. M.; Niederberger, C.; Raghavan, R.; Thompson, G.; Weaver, M.; Michler, J.

    2015-12-01

    The microthermomechanical behavior of a precipitation-hardenable Ni-48Ti-25Pd (at.%) shape memory alloy has been investigated as a function of temperature. Micropillars were fabricated within a large <145>-oriented grain and compressed in situ in the SEM at elevated temperatures corresponding to the martensite and austenite phase transformation temperatures. The precipitation-strengthened alloys exhibited stable pseudoelastic behavior with little or no residual strains when near the transformation temperatures. In the plastic regime, slip was observed to occur via pencil glide, circumventing the fine scale precipitates along multiple slip planes.

  20. High Strain-Rate Response of High Purity Aluminum at Temperatures Approaching Melt

    SciTech Connect

    Grunschel, S E; Clifton, R J; Jiao, T

    2010-01-28

    High-temperature, pressure-shear plate impact experiments were conducted to investigate the rate-controlling mechanisms of the plastic response of high-purity aluminum at high strain rates (10{sup 6} s{sup -1}) and at temperatures approaching melt. Since the melting temperature of aluminum is pressure dependent, and a typical pressure-shear plate impact experiment subjects the sample to large pressures (2 GPa-7 GPa), a pressure-release type experiment was used to reduce the pressure in order to measure the shearing resistance at temperatures up to 95% of the current melting temperature. The measured shearing resistance was remarkably large (50 MPa at a shear strain of 2.5) for temperatures this near melt. Numerical simulations conducted using a version of the Nemat-Nasser/Isaacs constitutive equation, modified to model the mechanism of geometric softening, appear to capture adequately the hardening/softening behavior observed experimentally.

  1. Durability of polymeric composites after elevated temperature aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Eric Luther

    The Compression After Impact (CAI) strength of polymeric composites after long term elevated temperature aging is studied. Aging temperatures range from 149sp°C to 204sp°C (300sp°F to 400sp°F). Two types of matrix material are studied, a thermoset bismaleimide (5260) and a thermoplastic polyimide (K3B). Glass transition temperature (Tsb{g}) and fracture toughness are measured after aging. Microscopy and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) are used to evaluate the aged composites. Out-of-plane bending of the CAI specimens during compression is measured by shadow moire. Moire interferometry is used to determine in-plane displacement and strain fields around the impact damage. Results show that the CAI strength degrades with aging for both K3B and 5260. The 5260 matrix suffers from thermo-oxidative degradation at higher temperatures. Surface decomposition causes weight loss and reduces mechanical properties. The CAI strength of the K3B matrix composite also decreases after aging. Evidence of an oxidation reaction is found in the K3B polymer by SIMS, but no weight loss is associated with this chemical reaction. Measured changes in fracture toughness and Tsb{g} do not correlate with CAI strength degradation. Stiffness changes due to aging are insignificant in this study. The degradation region is measured by microscopy near the surface of composites after long aging times. The depth of the degradation zone is dependent on aging time. Degradation growth is modeled with finite elements using diffusion/reaction governing equations. Finite element results agree well with the experimental data.

  2. Elevated Temperature Compressive Properties of Zr-Modified Nial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Noebe, R. D.

    1996-01-01

    Small Zr additions are known to substantially affect the deformation behavior and strength of polycrystalline NiAl, yet little information is currently available regarding the high-temperature properties of such alloys. Utilizing prealloyed powder technology, a series of four NiAl alloys have been produced containing from 0.05 to 0.7 at. pct Zr. The creep behavior of these alloys was characterized in compression between 1000 and 1400 K at strain rates ranging from approx. O.1 to 10(exp -9)/ sec. All the Zr-modified alloys were significantly stronger than binary NiAl under lower temperature and faster strain-rate conditions; however, the single-phase materials (Zr less than or equal to 0.1 at. pct) and binary NiAl had similar strengths at high temperatures and slow strain rates. The two-phase NiAl-Ni, AlZr alloys containing 0.3 and 0.7 at. pct Zr had nearly identical strengths. While the two-phase alloys were stronger than the single-phase materials at all test conditions, the degree of microstructural damage in the two-phase alloys due to internal oxidation during testing appeared to increase with Zr level. Balancing the poor oxidation behavior with the consistent strength advantage of the two-phase alloys, it is concluded that optimum elevated-temperature properties could be obtained in Heusler-strengthened NiAl containing between 0.1 and 0.3 at. pct Zr.

  3. Elevation of arginine decarboxylase-dependent putrescine production enhances aluminum tolerance by decreasing aluminum retention in root cell walls of wheat.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Sun, Chengliang; Wang, Jinghong; Ye, Yiquan; Lu, Lingli; Lin, Xianyong

    2015-12-15

    Aluminum (Al) stress induces putrescine (Put) accumulation in several plants and this response is proposed to alleviate Al toxicity. However, the mechanisms underlying this alleviation remain largely unknown. Here, we show that exposure to Al clearly increases Put accumulation in the roots of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. 'Xi Aimai-1') and that this was accompanied by significant increase in the activity of arginine decarboxylase (ADC), a Put producing enzyme. Application of an ADC inhibitor (d-arginine) terminated the Al-induced Put accumulation, indicating that increased ADC activity may be responsible for the increase in Put accumulation in response to Al. The d-arginine treatment also increased the Al-induced accumulation of cell wall polysaccharides and the degree of pectin demethylation in wheat roots. Thus, it elevated Al retention in cell walls and exacerbated Al accumulation in roots, both of which aggravate Al toxicity in wheat plants. The opposite effects were true for exogenous Put application. These results suggest that ADC-dependent Put accumulation plays important roles in providing protection against Al toxicity in wheat plants through decreasing cell wall polysaccharides and increasing the degree of pectin methylation, thus decreasing Al retention in the cell walls.

  4. Evolution of Intermetallics, Dispersoids, and Elevated Temperature Properties at Various Fe Contents in Al-Mn-Mg 3004 Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Chen, X.-G.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, great interests are rising on aluminum alloys for the applications at elevated temperature, driven by the automotive and aerospace industries requiring high strength, light weight, and low-cost engineering materials. As one of the most promising candidates, Al-Mn-Mg 3004 alloys have been found to possess considerably high mechanical properties and creep resistance at elevated temperature resulted from the precipitation of a large number of thermally stable dispersoids during heat treatment. In present work, the effect of Fe contents on the evolution of microstructure as well as high-temperature properties of 3004 alloys has been investigated. Results show that the dominant intermetallic changes from α-Al(MnFe)Si at 0.1 wt pct Fe to Al6(MnFe) at both 0.3 and 0.6 wt pct Fe. In the Fe range of 0.1-0.6 wt pct studied, a significant improvement on mechanical properties at elevated temperature has been observed due to the precipitation of dispersoids, and the best combination of yield strength and creep resistance at 573 K (300 °C) is obtained in the 0.3 wt pct Fe alloy with the finest size and highest volume fraction of dispersoids. The superior properties obtained at 573 K (300 °C) make 3004 alloys more promising for high-temperature applications. The relationship between the Fe content and the dispersoid precipitation as well as the materials properties has been discussed.

  5. Factors Controlling Elevated Temperature Strength Degradation of Silicon Carbide Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    For 5 years, the cooperative agreement NCC3-763 has focused on the development and understanding of Sic-based composites. Most of the work was performed in the area of SiC fiber-reinforced composites for UEET and NGLT and in collaboration with Goodrich Corporation under a partially reimbursable Space Act Agreement. A smaller amount of work was performed on C fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composites for NGLT. Major accomplishments during this agreement included: Improvements to the interphase used in melt-infiltrated (MI) SiC/SiC composites which increases the life under stressed-oxidation at intermediate temperatures referred to as "outside-debonding". This concept is currently in the patent process and received a Space Act Award. Mechanistic-based models of intermediate temperature degradation for MI SiC/SiC Quantification and relatively robust relationships for matrix crack evolution under stress in SiC/SiC composites which serve as the basis for stress-strain and elevated temperature life models The furthering of acoustic emission as a useful tool in composite damage evolution and the extension of the technique to other composite systems Development of hybrid C-SiC fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composites Numerous presentations at conferences, industry partners, and government centers and publications in recognized proceedings and journals. Other recognition of the author's accomplishments by NASA with a TGIR award (2004), NASA's Medal for Public Service (2004), and The American Ceramic Society s Richard M. Fulrath Award (2005). The following will briefly describe the work of the past five years in the three areas of interest: SiC/SiC composite development, mechanistic understanding and modeling of SiC/SiC composites, and environmental durability of C/SiC composites. More detail can be found in the publications cited at the end of this report.

  6. Hypervelocity impact damage response and characterization of thin plate targets at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Brooke Myers

    The performance of a typical International Space Station (ISS) shield against the meteoroid and orbital debris (M/OD) impact threat is generally modeled by damage equations for the outer shield and the rear pressure wall. In their current forms, these damage equations neglect the on-orbit temperature extremes witnessed by the ISS. To address IF and HOW temperature extremes affect the performance of the ISS' typical M/OD shield, a comprehensive study was undertaken that investigated hole diameters in .063" thick 6061-T6 aluminum targets impacted at velocities from ˜2-7 km/s at 20°C, 110°C, and 210°C. Robust graphical and analytical analyses confirmed the existence of a statistically significant temperature effect, i.e., hole diameters in heated targets were larger than those in room temperature targets. A new temperature-dependent model was found via multivariable regression analysis that incorporates a linear velocity term and a temperature term based on a form of the cumulative distribution function. Numerical modeling of hypervelocity impacts (HVI) into elevated temperature targets was also performed to determine whether or not currently available material and failure models can adequately simulate the differences observed between room and elevated temperature target hole diameters. Statistical analyses showed that AUTODYN simulated the heated data almost as well as the room temperature data. However, the slightly worse Goodness of Fit (GOF) values between the heated empirical vs. simulated comparisons suggest that the simulations do not completely account for the observed temperature effect. A series of materials tests and observations were carried out on the post-impacted target plates to help explain the empirical data results with respect to material variability and deformation features. Rockwell B and K macro-hardness tests revealed that the hardness values for the targets impacted at 110°C were statistically significantly higher compared to those

  7. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.247 Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials. When... constructed of carbon steel which is in elevated temperature material service is excepted from § 178.345-7(d... of the packaging material at any temperature within the design temperature range. Stress...

  8. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.247 Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials. When... constructed of carbon steel which is in elevated temperature material service is excepted from § 178.345-7(d... of the packaging material at any temperature within the design temperature range. Stress...

  9. Reduced temperature aluminum production in an electrolytic cell having an inert anode

    SciTech Connect

    Dawless, R.K.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.; Kozarek, R.L.; LaCamera, A.F.

    2000-02-29

    Aluminum is produced by electrolytic reduction of alumina in a cell having a cathode, an inert anode and a molten salt bath containing metal fluorides and alumina. The inert anode preferably contains copper, silver and oxides of iron and nickel. Reducing the molten salt bath temperature to about 900--950 C lowers corrosion on the inert anode constituents.

  10. Reduced temperature aluminum production in an electrolytic cell having an inert anode

    SciTech Connect

    Dawless, Robert K.; Ray, Siba P.; Hosler, Robert B.; Kozarek, Robert L.; LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2000-01-01

    Aluminum is produced by electrolytic reduction of alumina in a cell having a cathode, an inert anode and a molten salt bath containing metal fluorides and alumina. The inert anode preferably contains copper, silver and oxides of iron and nickel. Reducing the molten salt bath temperature to about 900-950.degree. C. lowers corrosion on the inert anode constituents.

  11. Low-Temperature Friction-Stir Welding of 2024 Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benavides, S.; Li, Y.; Murr, L. E.; Brown, D.; McClure, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    Solid state friction-stir welding (FSW) has been demonstrated to involve dynamic recrystallization producing ultra-fine, equiaxed grain structures to facilitate superplastic deformation as the welding or joining mechanism. However, the average residual, equiaxed, grain size in the weld zone has ranged from roughly 0.5 micron to slightly more than 10 micron, and the larger weld zone grain sizes have been characterized as residual or static grain growth as a consequence of the temperatures in the weld zone (where center-line temperatures in the FSW of 6061 Al have been shown to be as high as 480C or -0.8 T(sub M) where T(sub M) is the absolute melting temperature)). In addition, the average residual weld zone grain size has been observed to increase near the top of the weld, and to decrease with distance on either side of the weld-zone centerline, an d this corresponds roughly to temperature variations within the weld zone. The residual grain size also generally decreases with decreasing FSW tool rotation speed. These observations are consistent with the general rules for recrystallization where the recrystallized grain size decreases with increasing strain (or deformation) at constant strain rate, or with increasing strain-rate, or with increasing strain rate at constant strain; especially at lower ambient temperatures, (or annealing temperatures). Since the recrystallization temperature also decreases with increasing strain rate, the FSW process is somewhat complicated because the ambient temperature, the frictional heating fraction, and the adiabatic heating fraction )proportional to the product of strain and strain-rate) will all influence both the recrystallization and growth within the FSW zone. Significantly reducing the ambient temperature of the base metal or work pieces to be welded would be expected to reduce the residual weld-zone grain size. The practical consequences of this temperature reduction would be the achievement of low temperature welding. This

  12. Moisture Retention Curves of Topopah Spring Tuff at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.; Roberts, J.; Carlberg, E.; Ruddle, D.; Pletcher, R.

    2001-11-30

    Knowledge of unsaturated flow and transport in porous media is critical for understanding the movement of water and solute through the unsaturated zone. The suction potential of rock determines the imbibition of water and, therefore, the moisture retention in the matrix. That, in turn, affects the relative importance of matrix flow and fracture flow, and their interaction, because greater suction potential moves more water from fractures into the matrix and therefore retards fracture flow. The moisture content as a function of the suction potential is called a moisture retention curve or a characteristic curve. Moisture-retention data are important input for numerical models of water movement in unsaturated porous media. Also important are the effect of sample history on the moisture-retention curves and whether there is significant hysteresis between wetting and drying measurements. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) of the U.S. Department of Energy is studying the suitability of the tuffaceous rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The potential repository horizon will be in the unsaturated zone of the Topopah Spring member (densely welded) of the Paintbrush Tuff unit at Yucca Mountain. This unit is highly fractured. Therefore, transport of water within the near field of the nuclear waste package in the repository is strongly influenced by the suction potential of the repository host rocks at elevated temperatures. In a high-level nuclear waste repository, the rock mass around the waste packages will become dry because of the thermal load of the waste but will then re-wet during the cool-down period as the thermal output of the waste packages declines. Much of this process will occur at temperatures above ambient temperature. The goal of our work is to determine the importance of temperature and the wetting-drying hysteresis on the measured moisture retention curves of the densely welded tuff. For

  13. Trihalomethane hydrolysis in drinking water at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Lu; Yang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Karanfil, Tanju; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2015-07-01

    Hydrolysis could contribute to the loss of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the drinking water at elevated temperatures. This study was aimed at investigating THM hydrolysis pertaining to the storage of hot boiled water in enclosed containers. The water pH value was in the range of 6.1-8.2 and the water temperature was varied from 65 to 95 °C. The effects of halide ions, natural organic matter, and drinking water matrix were investigated. Results showed that the hydrolysis rates declined in the order following CHBrCl2 > CHBr2Cl > CHBr3 > CHCl3. THM hydrolysis was primarily through the alkaline pathway, except for CHCl3 in water at relatively low pH value. The activation energies for the alkaline hydrolysis of CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 were 109, 113, 115 and 116 kJ/mol, respectively. No hydrolysis intermediates could accumulate in the water. The natural organic matter, and probably other constituents, in drinking water could substantially decrease THM hydrolysis rates by more than 50%. When a drinking water was at 90 °C or above, the first order rate constants for THM hydrolysis were in the magnitude of 10(-2)‒10(-1) 1/h. When the boiled real tap water was stored in an enclosed container, THMs continued increasing during the first few hours and then kept decreasing later on due to the competition between hydrolysis and further formation. The removal of THMs, especially brominated THMs, by hydrolysis would greatly reduce one's exposure to disinfection by-products by consuming the boiled water stored in enclosed containers.

  14. Niobium-aluminum base alloys having improved, high temperature oxidation resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G. (Inventor); Stephens, Joseph R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A niobium-aluminum base alloy having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures and consisting essentially of 48%-52% niobium, 36%-42% aluminum, 4%-10% chromium, 0%-2%, more preferably 1%-2%, silicon and/or tungsten with tungsten being preferred, and 0.1%-2.0% of a rare earth selected from the group consisting of yttrium, ytterbium and erbium. Parabolic oxidation rates, k.sub.p, at 1200.degree. C. range from about 0.006 to 0.032 (mg/cm.sup.2).sup.2 /hr. The new alloys also exhibit excellent cyclic oxidation resistance.

  15. Mechanisms of time-dependent crack growth at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, A.; Stock, S.R.

    1990-04-15

    Objective of this 3-y study was to conduct creep and creep-fatigue crack growth experiments and to characterize the crack tip damage mechanisms in a model material (Cu-1wt%Sb), which is known to cavitate at grain boundaries under creep deformation. Results were: In presence of large scale cavitation damage and crack branching, time rate of creep crack growth da/dt does not correlate with C[sub t] or C[sup *]. When cavitation damage is constrained, da/dt is characterized by C[sub t]. Area fraction of grain boundary cavitated is the single damage parameter for the extent of cavitation damage ahead of crack tips. C[sub t] is used for the creep-fatigue crack growth behavior. In materials prone to rapid cavity nucleation, creep cracks grow faster initially and then reach a steady state whose growth rate is determined by C[sub t]. Percent creep life exhausted correlates with average cavity diameter and fraction of grain boundary area occupied by cavities. Synchrotron x-ray tomographic microscopy was used to image individual cavities in Cu-1wt% Sb. A methodology was developed for predicting the remaining life of elevated temperature power plant components; (C[sub t])[sub avg] was used to correlate creep-fatigue crack growth in Cr-Mo and Cr-Mo-V steel and weldments.

  16. Palladium based cermet composite for hydrogen separation at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yen-Chang; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Lin, Wei-Lin; Wang, Jeng-Han; Chen, San-Yuan; Lin, Pang; Wu, Pu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    A cermet composite consisting of palladium and BaCe0.4Zr0.4Gd0.1Dy0.1O3-x (BCZGD) is fabricated by mixing palladium and BCZGD powders in a ball mill, followed by pressing and sintering at 1450 °C for 24 h in air. The Pd-BCZGD cermet demonstrates impressive hydrogen permeation flux in a mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide at elevated temperature, in which the palladium plays the predominant role of facile transport in the hydrogen atoms whereas the BCZGD provides channels for proton conduction. Material characterization including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) are performed. XRD patterns indicate pure phases of fcc palladium and perovskite BCZGD. SEM images and element mapping suggest a homogeneous mixture of cermet without noticeable defect and phase segregation. TGA results confirm stability of the cermet against carbon dioxide without chemical decomposition. The hydrogen permeation flux is determined via a gas chromatography from 400 to 700 °C at various hydrogen concentration gradients. We record a hydrogen flux of 1.25 cm3 min-1 cm-2 in 50% hydrogen and 50% carbon dioxide at 700 °C, with a selectivity of H2/CO2 approaching infinity.

  17. RHYTHMIC RESPONSE OF SERRATIA MARCESCENS TO ELEVATED TEMPERATURE.

    PubMed

    DIMMICK, R L

    1965-03-01

    Dimmick, Robert L. (University of California, Berkeley). Rhythmic response of Serratia marcescens to elevated temperature. J. Bacteriol. 89:791-798. 1965.-Populations of Serratia marcescens of varied ages and pretreatments, which had been grown in a chemically defined medium, were subjected to thermal stress at 50 to 56 C. The numbers of survivors were plotted vs. time to form survivor curves, and the curves were assembled to form three-dimensional models. The manner in which survivors varied as a function of age and time of heating was variable and often rhythmic. Different three-dimensional patterns were found when different inoculum for the test culture was used. Apparently some "dead" cells again produced colonies after extended heating periods (recuperation); this tendency varied with the age of the culture. Diminutive colony forms, which produced normal colonies upon transfer, appeared and disappeared during heating; this tendency fluctuated with age. It is suggested that survivor curves represent a distribution of resistant forms within the population, and that this distribution varies in a manner best described in terms of servomechanistic response within each cell and within a given culture. Difficulties of attempting to relate changes in specific molecular species to subsequent whole-cell responses are discussed.

  18. Correlation between porosity and space holder content at different sintering temperatures of aluminum foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushdi, N. M. F. M.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Mazlee, M. N.; Jamal, Z. A. Z.

    2016-07-01

    Aluminum foam is the most popular metal foam that can be used as energy absorbers, heat exchangers, air-oil separators and structure core of fuel cells. Melt-foaming agent, melt-gas injection, investment casting and powder-foaming agent techniques can be used to manufacture aluminum foam, but these techniques are too expensive. In this study, the aluminum foam was manufactured via a sintering dissolution process (SDP). Powders of aluminum and sodium chloride as space holder (25, 40, 50 wt. %) were mixed together to produce a homogeneous mixture. The mixture was compacted at 200 MPa followed by sintering at 500, 550 and 600˚C for 2 hours. A warm running water stream was used to dissolve the space holder that was embedded in the aluminum. The result showed that, the space holder content performed a significant role to control the total porosity to a value between 18 and 40%, and the porosity increased with increasing content of space holder and sintering temperature.

  19. Temperature-dependent tensile and shear response of graphite/aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.; Pindera, M. J.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1987-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical response of unidirectional P100 graphite fiber/6061 aluminum matrix composites was investigated at four temperatures:-150, +75, +250, and +500 F. Two types of tests, off-axis tension and losipescu shear, were used to obtain the desired properties. Good experimental-theoretical correlation was obtained for Exx, vxy, and G12. It is shown that E11 is temperature independent, but E22, v12, and G12 generally decrease with increasing temperature. Compared with rather high longitudinal strength, very low transverse strength was obtained for the graphite/aluminum. The poor transverse strength is believed to be due to the low interfacial bond strength in this material. The strength decrease significantly with increasing temperature. The tensile response at various temperatures is greatly affected by the residual stresses caused by the mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion of fibers and matrix. The degradation of the aluminum matrix properties at higher temperatures has a deleterious effect on composite properties. The composite has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion in the fiber direction.

  20. Neutron Reflectometry at Elevated Pressures and Temperatures - Novel P-T Cell and Preliminary Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickmott, D.; Lerner, A. H.; Wang, P.; Majewski, J.; Taylor, M.

    2011-12-01

    Processes at mineral-fluid interfaces control a wide-range of phenomena of crucial importance in energy and environmental applications, including fluid flow, mineral precipitation and dissolution, and corrosion and scaling. In geological systems, geothermal energy production, CO2 sequestration, oil and gas production, and nuclear reactors and waste repositories, these critical mineral-fluid interactions occur at high pressures (P) and temperatures (T). Unfortunately the details of these phenomena are poorly understood because of the technical difficulties with conducting in-situ investigations of mineral/fluid interfaces at relevant geological conditions. Neutron reflectometry offers the possibility of studying fluid/solid processes in-situ at elevated Ps and Ts. In neutron reflectometry an unpolarized neutron beam (wavelength 1.5 to 16 Å) is directed at a solid/fluid (or other) interface at a glancing angle and a range of momentum transfer vectors (Q) are measured elucidating changes in material layering and fluid density within a few dozen Å of the solid/liquid interface. Neutron reflectometry is an ideal technique for investigating such processes at elevated P/T because neutrons are strongly penetrating and able to pass through robust, high P/T aluminum cells with minimal neutron attenuation. Additionally, neutrons are highly sensitive to deuterium due to its large neutron scattering cross section, allowing heavy water to be detected. Thus, neutron scattering has advantages over x-ray techniques, which cannot detect water and which cannot penetrate large-volume P cells. A new LANL neutron cell allows neutron reflectometry studies at conditions up to 200°C and 200 MPa, corresponding to a crustal depth of 6 km. The 5 in. diameter cell is constructed of anodized AA7075 aluminum with a 2 in. diameter sample chamber. The neutron cell and P system can accommodate fluid environments varying in pH and mineral and CO2 saturations. Neutron reflectometry studies will

  1. Temperature-strain rate deformation conditions of aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaeva, D. A.; Pazylov, Sh. T.; Rudaev, Ya. I.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the deformation and structural parameters of 1561 anisotropic alloy. It has been found that the lowest anisotropy factor corresponds to the formation of an ultrafine-grained equiaxed structure under temperature-strain rate conditions of superplasticity.

  2. Elevated Temperature, Residual Compressive Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Structure Manufactured Out-of-Autoclave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Sutter, James K.; Burke, Eric R.; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Gyekenyesi, Thomas G.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.

    2012-01-01

    Several 1/16th-scale curved sandwich composite panel sections of a 10 m diameter barrel were fabricated to demonstrate the manufacturability of large-scale curved sections using minimum gauge, [+60/-60/0]s, toughened epoxy composite facesheets co-cured with low density (50 kilograms per cubic meters) aluminum honeycomb core. One of these panels was fabricated out of autoclave (OoA) by the vacuum bag oven (VBO) process using Cycom(Registered Trademark) T40-800b/5320-1 prepreg system while another panel with the same lay-up and dimensions was fabricated using the autoclave-cure, toughened epoxy prepreg system Cycom(Registered Trademark) IM7/977-3. The resulting 2.44 m x 2 m curved panels were investigated by non-destructive evaluation (NDE) at NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) to determine initial fabrication quality and then cut into smaller coupons for elevated temperature wet (ETW) mechanical property characterization. Mechanical property characterization of the sandwich coupons was conducted including edge-wise compression (EWC), and compression-after-impact (CAI) at conditions ranging from 25 C/dry to 150 C/wet. The details and results of this characterization effort are presented in this paper.

  3. Method of winning aluminum metal from aluminous ore

    DOEpatents

    Loutfy, R.O.; Keller, R.; Yao, N.P.

    Aluminous ore such as bauxite containing alumina is blended with coke or other suitable form of carbon and reacted with sulfur gas at an elevated temperature. For handling, the ore and coke can be extruded into conveniently sized pellets. The reaction with sulfur gas produces molten aluminum sulfide which is separated from residual solid reactants and impurities. The aluminum sulfide is further increased in temperature to cause its decomposition or sublimation, yielding aluminum subsulfide liquid (A1S) and sulfur gas that is recycled. The aluminum monosulfide is then cooled to below its disproportionation temperature to again form molten aluminum sulfide and aluminum metal. A liquid-liquid or liquid-solid separation, depending on the separation temperature, provides product aluminum and aluminum sulfide for recycle to the disproportionation step.

  4. Method of winning aluminum metal from aluminous ore

    DOEpatents

    Loutfy, Raouf O.; Keller, Rudolf; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1981-01-01

    Aluminous ore such as bauxite containing alumina is blended with coke or other suitable form of carbon and reacted with sulfur gas at an elevated temperature. For handling, the ore and coke can be extruded into conveniently sized pellets. The reaction with sulfur gas produces molten aluminum sulfide which is separated from residual solid reactants and impurities. The aluminum sulfide is further increased in temperature to cause its decomposition or sublimation, yielding aluminum subsulfide liquid (AlS) and sulfur gas that is recycled. The aluminum monosulfide is then cooled to below its disproportionation temperature to again form molten aluminum sulfide and aluminum metal. A liquid-liquid or liquid-solid separation, depending on the separation temperature, provides product aluminum and aluminum sulfide for recycle to the disproportionation step.

  5. The Effect of Elevated Temperature on Concrete Materials and Structures - a Literature Review.

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this limited study was to provide an overview of the effects of elevated temperature on the behavior of concrete materials and structures. In meeting this objective the effects of elevated temperatures on the properties of ordinary Portland cement concrete constituent materials and concretes are summarized. The effects of elevated temperature on high-strength concrete materials are noted and their performance compared to normal strength concretes. A review of concrete materials for elevated-temperature service is presented. Nuclear power plant and general civil engineering design codes are described. Design considerations and analytical techniques for evaluating the response of reinforced concrete structures to elevated-temperature conditions are presented. Pertinent studies in which reinforced concrete structural elements were subjected to elevated temperatures are described.

  6. Estimation of surface temperature variations due to changes in sky and solar flux with elevation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hummer-Miller, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sky and solar radiance are of major importance in determining the ground temperature. Knowledge of their behavior is a fundamental part of surface temperature models. These 2 fluxes vary with elevation and this variation produces temperature changes. Therefore, when using thermal-property differences to discriminate geologic materials, these flux variations with elevation need to be considered. -from Author

  7. Iron-aluminum alloys having high room-temperature and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.; McKamey, Claudette G.

    1993-01-01

    Iron-aluminum alloys having selectable room-temperature ductilities of greater than 20%, high resistance to oxidation and sulfidation, resistant pitting and corrosion in aqueous solutions, and possessing relatively high yield and ultimate tensile strengths are described. These alloys comprise 8 to 9.5% aluminum, up to 7% chromium, up to 4% molybdenum, up to 0.05% carbon, up to 0.5% of a carbide former such as zirconium, up to 0.1 yttrium, and the balance iron. These alloys in wrought form are annealed at a selected temperature in the range of 700.degree. C. to about 1100.degree. C. for providing the alloys with selected room-temperature ductilities in the range of 20 to about 29%.

  8. Low Temperature Reactive Sputtering of Thin Aluminum Nitride Films on Metallic Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Khaled Sayed Elbadawi; Evoy, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric aluminum nitride thin films were deposited on aluminum-molybdenum (AlMo) metallic nanocomposites using reactive DC sputtering at room temperature. The effect of sputtering parameters on film properties was assessed. A comparative study between AlN grown on AlMo and pure aluminum showed an equivalent (002) crystallographic texture. The piezoelectric coefficients were measured to be 0.5±0.1 C m(-2) and 0.9±0.1 C m(-2), for AlN deposited on Al/0.32Mo and pure Al, respectively. Films grown onto Al/0.32Mo however featured improved surface roughness. Roughness values were measured to be 1.3nm and 5.4 nm for AlN films grown on AlMo and on Al, respectively. In turn, the dielectric constant was measured to be 8.9±0.7 for AlN deposited on Al/0.32Mo seed layer, and 8.7±0.7 for AlN deposited on aluminum; thus, equivalent within experimental error. Compatibility of this room temperature process with the lift-off patterning of the deposited AlN is also reported.

  9. Porous aluminum room temperature anodizing process in a fluorinated-oxalic acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhahri, S.; Fazio, E.; Barreca, F.; Neri, F.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2016-08-01

    Anodizing of aluminum is used for producing porous insulating films suitable for different applications in electronics and microelectronics. Porous-type aluminum films are most simply realized by galvanostatic anodizing in aqueous acidic solutions. The improvement in application of anodizing technique is associated with a substantial reduction of the anodizing voltage at appropriate current densities as well as to the possibility to carry out the synthesis process at room temperature in order to obtain a self-planarizing dielectric material incorporated in array of super-narrow metal lines. In this work, the anodizing of aluminum to obtain porous oxide was carried out, at room temperature, on three different substrates (glass, stainless steel and aluminum), using an oxalic acid-based electrolyte with the addition of a relatively low amount of 0.4 % of HF. Different surface morphologies, from nearly spherical to larger porous nanostructures with smooth edges, were observed by means of scanning electron microscopy. These evidences are explained by considering the formation, transport and adsorption of the fluorine species which react with the Al3+ ions. The behavior is also influenced by the nature of the original substrate.

  10. Low Temperature Reactive Sputtering of Thin Aluminum Nitride Films on Metallic Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Khaled Sayed Elbadawi; Evoy, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric aluminum nitride thin films were deposited on aluminum-molybdenum (AlMo) metallic nanocomposites using reactive DC sputtering at room temperature. The effect of sputtering parameters on film properties was assessed. A comparative study between AlN grown on AlMo and pure aluminum showed an equivalent (002) crystallographic texture. The piezoelectric coefficients were measured to be 0.5±0.1 C m-2 and 0.9±0.1 C m-2, for AlN deposited on Al/0.32Mo and pure Al, respectively. Films grown onto Al/0.32Mo however featured improved surface roughness. Roughness values were measured to be 1.3nm and 5.4 nm for AlN films grown on AlMo and on Al, respectively. In turn, the dielectric constant was measured to be 8.9±0.7 for AlN deposited on Al/0.32Mo seed layer, and 8.7±0.7 for AlN deposited on aluminum; thus, equivalent within experimental error. Compatibility of this room temperature process with the lift-off patterning of the deposited AlN is also reported. PMID:26193701

  11. Low Temperature Reactive Sputtering of Thin Aluminum Nitride Films on Metallic Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Khaled Sayed Elbadawi; Evoy, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric aluminum nitride thin films were deposited on aluminum-molybdenum (AlMo) metallic nanocomposites using reactive DC sputtering at room temperature. The effect of sputtering parameters on film properties was assessed. A comparative study between AlN grown on AlMo and pure aluminum showed an equivalent (002) crystallographic texture. The piezoelectric coefficients were measured to be 0.5±0.1 C m(-2) and 0.9±0.1 C m(-2), for AlN deposited on Al/0.32Mo and pure Al, respectively. Films grown onto Al/0.32Mo however featured improved surface roughness. Roughness values were measured to be 1.3nm and 5.4 nm for AlN films grown on AlMo and on Al, respectively. In turn, the dielectric constant was measured to be 8.9±0.7 for AlN deposited on Al/0.32Mo seed layer, and 8.7±0.7 for AlN deposited on aluminum; thus, equivalent within experimental error. Compatibility of this room temperature process with the lift-off patterning of the deposited AlN is also reported. PMID:26193701

  12. The aqueous chemistry of aluminum: A new approach to high temperature solubility measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Benezeth, P.

    1996-01-01

    The solubility of boehmite, AlO(OH), has been measured as a function of pH (2-10, depending on ionic strength) temperature (100- 250{degrees}C) and ionic strength (0.03-1 molal, NaCl) in a hydrogen- electrode concentration cell, HECC, which provided in situ measurement of hydrogen ion molality. Samples of the solution were withdrawn after the pH reading stabilized for analysis of total aluminum content by ion chromatography. Acidic or basic titrant could then be metered into the cell to affect a change in the pH of the solution. The direction of approach to the equilibrium saturated state could be readily varied to ensure that the system was reversible thermodynamically. This represents our second application of direct pH measurement to high temperature solubility studies. The results as low ionic strength are compared with those from two recently-reported high-temperature studies of boehmite solubility, which relied on the conventional batch technique. Comparisons are also made with the low temperature (<90{degrees}C) hydrolysis constants for aluminum garnered from solubility measurements with gibbsite as the stable phase. Based on these preliminary results, it is possible to draw some general conclusions concerning the relative importance of the aluminum species in solution and to reduce significantly the number of experiments needed to define this complex system in a thermodynamic sense.

  13. The aqueous chemistry of aluminum: A new approach to high temperature solubility measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Donald A.; Wesolowski, David J.; Benezeth, Pascale

    1996-01-24

    The solubility of boehmite, AlO(OH), has been measured as a function of pH (2 - 10, depending on ionic strength), temperature (100 - 250°C) and ionic strength (0.03 - 1 molal, NaCl) in a hydrogen-electrode concentration cell, HECC, which provided in situ measurement of hydrogen ion molality. Samples of the solution were withdrawn after the pH reading stabilized for analysis of total aluminum content by ion chromatography. Acidic or basic titrant could then be metered into the cell to affect a change in the pH of the solution. The direction of approach to the equilibrium saturated state could be readily varied to ensure that the system was reversible thermodynamically. This represents our second application of direct pH measurement to high temperature solubility studies. The results at low ionic strength are compared with those from two recently-reported high-temperature studies of boehmite solubility, which relied on the conventional batch technique. Comparisons are also made with the low temperature (<90°C) hydrolysis constants for aluminum garnered from solubility measurements with gibbsite as the stable phase. Based on these preliminary results, it is possible to draw some general conclusions concerning the relative importance of the aluminum species in solution and to reduce significantly the number of experiments needed to define this complex system in a thermodynamic sense.

  14. Thermal analysis of the mixtures of paraffin with aluminum in wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubin, S. A.; Maklashova, I. V.; Levitskaya, I. S.

    2016-09-01

    The mixtures and composites of wax, paraffin and metals are widely used as energy efficient formulations and phase change materials for heat storage. Aluminum is frequently employed in the formulations of many composite explosives or propellants. Metal fuel additives are used in advanced explosive formulations to achieve higher combustion temperatures and longer pressure pulses. In this project, Al-paraffin wax composite materials were prepared and characterized. The thermal stability of the prepared powders was determined by differential scanning calorimeter, simultaneous thermogravimetry analysis- differential thermal analysis in the temperature range 30-1300°C at atmospheric pressure. The results of differential scanning calorimeter showed that the thermal performance and structure of the composite materials are stable up to 200°C.The paraffindecompositionwith an energy release is possible at temperatures over 200°C and the oxidation of aluminum may be at a temperature above its melting point.It is shown that the maximum total amount of heat generated by the thermal decomposition of the composition was at the mass fraction of aluminum of 16% - 18%.

  15. Developing scandium and zirconium containing aluminum boron carbide metal matrix composites for high temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Jing

    The study presented in this thesis focuses on developing castable, precipitation-strengthened Al--B4C metal matrix composites (MMCs) for high temperature applications. In the first part, B4C plates were immersed in liquid aluminum alloyed with Sc, Zr and Ti to investigate the interfacial reactions between B4C and liquid aluminum The influences of Sc, Zr and Ti on the interfacial microstructure in terms of individual and combined additions were examined. Results reveal that all three elements reacted with B4C and formed interfacial layers that acted as a diffusion barrier to limit the decomposition of B4C in liquid aluminum. The interfacial reactions and the reaction products in each system were identified. With the combined addition of Sc, Zr and Ti, most of the Ti was found to enrich at the interface, which not only offered appropriate protection of the B4C but also reduced the consumption of Sc and Zr at the interface. In the second part, Sc and Zr were introduced into Al-15vol.% B 4C composites presaturated by Ti, and eight experimental composites with different Sc and Zr levels were prepared via a conventional casting technique. It was found that Sc was involved in the interfacial reactions with B 4C that partially consume Sc. The Sc addition yielded considerable precipitation strengthening in the as-cast and peak aged conditions. To achieve an equivalent strengthening effect of Sc in binary Al-Sc alloys, approximately double the amount of Sc is required in Al-B4C composites. On the contrary, no major Zr reaction products were found at the interfaces and the major part of Zr remained in the matrix for the precipitation strengthening. The combination of Sc and Zr enhanced sthe precipitation strengthening. Two kinds of nanoscale precipitates, Al3Sc and Al3(Sc, Zr), were found in the as-cast microstructure and contributed to the increase in the matrix hardness. In the third part, all the experimental composites were isothermally aged at 300, 350, 400 and 450

  16. Evaluation of Aluminum Alloy 2050-T84 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties at Ambient and Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafley, Robert A.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hales, Stephen J.; Shenoy, Ravi N.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum alloy 2050 is being considered for the fabrication of cryogenic propellant tanks to reduce the mass of future heavy-lift launch vehicles. The alloy is available in section thicknesses greater than that of the incumbent aluminum alloy, 2195, which will enable designs with greater structural efficiency. While ambient temperature design allowable properties are available for alloy 2050, cryogenic properties are not available. To determine its suitability for use in cryogenic propellant tanks, tensile, compression and fracture tests were conducted on 4 inch thick 2050-T84 plate at ambient temperature and at -320degF. Various metallurgical analyses were also performed in order to provide an understanding of the compositional homogeneity and microstructure of 2050.

  17. Evaluation of Aluminum Alloy 2050-T84 Microstructure Mechanical Properties at Ambient and Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafley, Robert A.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hales, Stephen J.; Shenoy, Ravi N.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum alloy 2050 is being considered for the fabrication of cryogenic propellant tanks to reduce the mass of future heavy-lift launch vehicles. The alloy is available in section thicknesses greater than that of the incumbent aluminum alloy, 2195, which will enable the designs with greater structural efficiency. While ambient temperature design allowable properties are available for alloy 2050, cryogenic properties are not available. To determine its suitability for use in cryogenic propellant tanks, tensile, compression and fracture tests were conducted on 4 inch thick 2050-T84 plate at ambient temperature and at -320 F. Various metallurgical analyses were also performed in order to provide an understanding of the compositional homogeneity and microstructure of 2050.

  18. Sub-surface oxide features at the aluminum-sapphire interface after low temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Sreya

    This work focuses on the formation of sub-surface oxide features that form at the aluminum-sapphire interface during a low temperature heat-treatment. The features consist of two parts, stable alpha-alumina ridges on the substrate, and faceted pyramidal structures composed of thin, low-temperature oxide shells that are bounded by the ridges. It is surprising to observe the formation of thermodynamically stable alpha-alumina at a low temperature. The ridges are epitaxial with the (0001) sapphire substrate and the overlying metal. The pyramidal features resemble closely the Wulff shape in aluminum. Experiments show that these features are underlying the annealing hillocks. This work is a detailed study of such oxide interfacial features associated with hollow hillocks. At the annealing temperatures (below the melting point of aluminum), the aluminum thin film is subjected to compressive stresses arising from the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch and this is aided by dewetting at the aluminum-sapphire interface. Creep cavitation and grain boundary sliding are postulated to help in the cavity formation. Annealing holes are also observed in the thin films. Two different types of holes are seen: dendritic branched holes and hexagonal faceted holes (drums). At lower temperature and thickness, dendritic holes are seen to be formed at the grain boundaries. The drums form within the grains at higher temperatures and in thicker films. The drums have a surface oxide layer suspended on the top. It is postulated that clustering of vacancies due to the presence of irregularities, defects, and dislocations at the interface as well as dewetting causes the nucleation of the drums at the interface. Numerous hillock-hole couples were seen. Thinning of the metal in areas near the hillocks could possibly aid in the hole formation process. It is speculated that the hole growth occurred during the cooling stage when the film was subjected to tensile stresses. Another interesting

  19. Nitrogen assimilation and transpiration: key processes conditioning responsiveness of wheat to elevated [CO2] and temperature.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Iván; Aroca, Ricardo; Garnica, María; Zamarreño, Ángel M; García-Mina, José M; Serret, Maria D; Parry, Martin; Irigoyen, Juan J; Aranjuelo, Iker

    2015-11-01

    Although climate scenarios have predicted an increase in [CO(2)] and temperature conditions, to date few experiments have focused on the interaction of [CO(2)] and temperature effects in wheat development. Recent evidence suggests that photosynthetic acclimation is linked to the photorespiration and N assimilation inhibition of plants exposed to elevated CO(2). The main goal of this study was to analyze the effect of interacting [CO(2)] and temperature on leaf photorespiration, C/N metabolism and N transport in wheat plants exposed to elevated [CO(2)] and temperature conditions. For this purpose, wheat plants were exposed to elevated [CO(2)] (400 vs 700 µmol mol(-1)) and temperature (ambient vs ambient + 4°C) in CO(2) gradient greenhouses during the entire life cycle. Although at the agronomic level, elevated temperature had no effect on plant biomass, physiological analyses revealed that combined elevated [CO(2)] and temperature negatively affected photosynthetic performance. The limited energy levels resulting from the reduced respiratory and photorespiration rates of such plants were apparently inadequate to sustain nitrate reductase activity. Inhibited N assimilation was associated with a strong reduction in amino acid content, conditioned leaf soluble protein content and constrained leaf N status. Therefore, the plant response to elevated [CO(2)] and elevated temperature resulted in photosynthetic acclimation. The reduction in transpiration rates induced limitations in nutrient transport in leaves of plants exposed to elevated [CO(2)] and temperature, led to mineral depletion and therefore contributed to the inhibition of photosynthetic activity.

  20. Nitrogen assimilation and transpiration: key processes conditioning responsiveness of wheat to elevated [CO2] and temperature.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Iván; Aroca, Ricardo; Garnica, María; Zamarreño, Ángel M; García-Mina, José M; Serret, Maria D; Parry, Martin; Irigoyen, Juan J; Aranjuelo, Iker

    2015-11-01

    Although climate scenarios have predicted an increase in [CO(2)] and temperature conditions, to date few experiments have focused on the interaction of [CO(2)] and temperature effects in wheat development. Recent evidence suggests that photosynthetic acclimation is linked to the photorespiration and N assimilation inhibition of plants exposed to elevated CO(2). The main goal of this study was to analyze the effect of interacting [CO(2)] and temperature on leaf photorespiration, C/N metabolism and N transport in wheat plants exposed to elevated [CO(2)] and temperature conditions. For this purpose, wheat plants were exposed to elevated [CO(2)] (400 vs 700 µmol mol(-1)) and temperature (ambient vs ambient + 4°C) in CO(2) gradient greenhouses during the entire life cycle. Although at the agronomic level, elevated temperature had no effect on plant biomass, physiological analyses revealed that combined elevated [CO(2)] and temperature negatively affected photosynthetic performance. The limited energy levels resulting from the reduced respiratory and photorespiration rates of such plants were apparently inadequate to sustain nitrate reductase activity. Inhibited N assimilation was associated with a strong reduction in amino acid content, conditioned leaf soluble protein content and constrained leaf N status. Therefore, the plant response to elevated [CO(2)] and elevated temperature resulted in photosynthetic acclimation. The reduction in transpiration rates induced limitations in nutrient transport in leaves of plants exposed to elevated [CO(2)] and temperature, led to mineral depletion and therefore contributed to the inhibition of photosynthetic activity. PMID:25958969

  1. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  2. High-Temperature and Pressure Aluminum Reactions in Carbon Dioxide Rich Post-Detonation Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappan, Bryce; Manner, Virginia; Pemberton, Steven; Lieber, Mark; Johnson, Carl; Sanders, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Powdered aluminum is a common additive to energetic materials, but little is understood regarding its reaction rate at very high temperatures and pressures in specific oxidizing gases such as carbon dioxide. Aluminum reaction kinetics in carbon dioxide have been studied in various reaction conditions, but difficulties arise in the more specific study of Al oxidation at the high pressures and temperatures in detonation reactions. To study these reactions, small particle size Al or the inert surrogate, LiF, was added to the energetic material benzotrifuroxan (BTF). BTF is a hydrogen-free material that selectively forms CO2 as the major oxidizing species for post-detonation Al oxidation. High-fidelity PDV measurements were utilized for early wall velocity expansion measurements in 12.7 mm copper cylinders. The JWL equation of state was solved to determine temperature, pressure and energies at specific time periods. A genetic algorithm was used in conjunction with a numerical simulation hydrocode, ALE3D, which enables the elucidation of aluminum reaction extent. By comparison of the Al oxidation with LiF, data indicate that Al oxidation occurs on an extremely fast time scale, beginning and completing between 1 and 25 microseconds. Unconfined, 6.4 mm diameter rate-sticks were also utilized to determine the effect of Al compared to LiF on detonation velocity.

  3. High-temperature and pressure aluminum reactions in carbon dioxide rich post-detonation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappan, B. C.; Hill, L. G.; Manner, V. W.; Pemberton, S. J.; Lieber, M. A.; Johnson, C. E.; Sanders, V. E.

    2014-05-01

    Powdered aluminum is a common additive to energetic materials, but little is understood regarding its reaction rate at very high temperatures and pressures in specific oxidizing gases such as carbon dioxide. Aluminum reaction kinetics in carbon dioxide have been studied in various reaction conditions, but difficulties arise in the more specific study of Al oxidation at the high pressures and temperatures in detonation reactions. To study these reactions, small particle size Al or the inert surrogate, LiF, was added to the energetic material benzotrifuroxan (BTF). BTF is a hydrogen-free material that selectively forms CO2 as the major oxidizing species for post-detonation Al oxidation. High-fidelity PDV measurements were utilized for early wall velocity expansion measurements in 12.7 mm copper cylinders. The JWL equation of state was solved to determine temperature, pressure and energies at specific time periods. A genetic algorithm was used in conjunction with a numerical simulation hydrocode, ALE3D, which enables the elucidation of aluminum reaction extent. By comparison of the Al oxidation with LiF, data indicate that Al oxidation occurs on an extremely fast time scale, beginning and completing between 1 and 25 microseconds. Unconfined, 6.4 mm diameter rate-sticks were also utilized to determine the effect of Al compared to LiF on detonation velocity.

  4. Analysis of Temperature and Stress in Differential Temperature Reverse Deep Drawing of 5A06 Aluminum Cup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhichao; Xu, Yongchao; Yuan, S. J.

    2016-09-01

    The warm reverse deep drawing process is proposed to form cylindrical cups with greater drawing depths. Experimental and numerical investigations were conducted to analyze the effect of the temperature field on the drawing depth limit and the stress distribution during the warm reverse deep drawing process of a 5A06 aluminum plate. The effects of the punch temperature and initial flange temperature on the temperature gradient in the blank are discussed. The drawing depth limits for the different temperature gradients in the blank were determined. In addition, the effect of the temperature field on the radial stress distribution was analyzed. A 180°C temperature gradient occurs when the punch temperature is room temperature. When the temperature field generated in the blank is uniform, a fracture occurs, and the drawing depth limit (72 mm) is only 20% of the desired depth. When the temperature gradient is 100°C, the drawing depth limit increases by 400%. Fracture occurs for a uniform temperature field because the radial stresses at the inside corner are larger than those at the punch corner. As the temperature gradient increases, the radial stress at the inside corner is lower than that at the punch corner, which prevents fracture. A deep cup with a 375-mm drawing depth was produced when the temperature gradient exceeded 100°C.

  5. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 101 and IM 102 portable tanks; UN portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.247 Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials....

  6. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 101 and IM 102 portable tanks; UN portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.247 Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials....

  7. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 101 and IM 102 portable tanks; UN portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.247 Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials....

  8. Zeta potential in intact natural sandstones at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Jan; Jackson, Matthew D.

    2015-08-01

    We report measurements of the zeta potential of natural sandstones saturated with NaCl electrolytes of varying ionic strengths at temperatures up to 150°C. The zeta potential is always negative but decreases in magnitude with increasing temperature at low ionic strength (0.01 M) and is independent of temperature at high ionic strength (0.5 M). The pH also decreases with increasing temperature at low ionic strength but remains constant at high ionic strength. The temperature dependence of the zeta potential can be explained by the temperature dependence of the pH. Our findings are consistent with published models of the zeta potential, so long as the temperature dependence of the pH at low ionic strength is accounted for and can explain the hitherto contradictory results reported in previous studies.

  9. Thermal conductance of pressed aluminum and stainless steel contacts at liquid helium temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, L. J.; Kittel, P.; Scherkenbach, F. E.; Spivak, A. L.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal conductance of aluminum and stainless steel 304 sample pairs with surface finishes ranging from 0.1 to 1.6 microns rms roughness was investigated over a temperature range from 1.6 to 6.0 K. The thermal conductance follows a simple power law function of temperature, with the exponent ranging from 0.5 to 2.25, increases asymptotically with increasing applied force, and exhibits an anomaly for surface finishes in the 0.4 micron region.

  10. Thermal conductance of pressed aluminum and stainless steel contacts at liquid helium temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, L. J.; Kittel, P.; Scherkenbach, F. E.; Spivak, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal conductance of aluminum and stainless steel 304 sample pairs with surface finishes ranging from 0.1 to 1.6 microns rms roughness was investigated over a temperature range from 1.6 to 6.0 k. The thermal conductance follows a simple power law function of temperature, with the exponent ranging from 0.5 to 2.25, increases asymptotically with increasing applied force, and exhibits an anomaly for surface finishes in the 0.4 micron region.

  11. Static tensile and tensile creep testing of four boron nitride coated ceramic fibers at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coguill, Scott L.; Adams, Donald F.; Zimmerman, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    Six types of uncoated ceramic fibers were static tensile and tensile creep tested at various elevated temperatures. Three types of boron nitride coated fibers were also tested. Room temperature static tensile tests were initially performed on all fibers, at gage lengths of 1, 2, and 4 inches, to determine the magnitude of end effects from the gripping system used. Tests at one elevated temperature, at gage lengths of 8 and 10 inches, were also conducted, to determine end effects at elevated temperatures. Fiber cross sectional shapes and areas were determined using scanning electron microscopy. Creep testing was typically performed for 4 hours, in an air atmosphere.

  12. Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid

    DOEpatents

    Christian, Jerry D.; Anderson, Philip A.

    1994-01-01

    A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed.

  13. Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid

    DOEpatents

    Christian, J.D.; Anderson, P.A.

    1994-11-15

    A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed. 5 figs.

  14. Interactive effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on coral physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grottoli, A. G.; Cai, W.; Warner, M.; Melman, T.; Schoepf, V.; Baumann, J.; Matsui, Y.; Pettay, D. T.; Hoadley, K.; Xu, H.; Wang, Y.; Li, Q.; Hu, X.

    2011-12-01

    Increases in ocean acidification and temperature threaten coral reefs globally. However, the interactive effect of both lower pH and higher temperature on coral physiology and growth are poorly understood. Here, we present preliminary findings from a replicated controlled experiment where four species of corals (Acorpora millepora, Pocillopora damicornis, Montipora monasteriata, Turbinaria reniformis) were reared under the following six treatments for three weeks: 1) 400ppm CO2 and ambient temperature, 2) 400ppm CO2 and elevated temperature, 3) 650ppm CO2 and ambient temperature, 4) 650ppm CO2 and elevated temperature, 5) 800ppm CO2 and ambient temperature, 6) 800ppm CO2 and elevated temperature. Initial findings of photophysiological health (Fv/Fm), calcification rates (as measured by both buoyant weight and the total alkalinity methods), and energy reserves will be presented.

  15. The effect of elevated temperature on the toxicity of the laboratory cultured dinoflagellate Ostreopsis lenticularis (Dinophyceae).

    PubMed

    Ashton, Mayra; Tosteson, Thomas; Tosteson, Carmen

    2003-06-01

    Ostreopsis lenticularis Fukuyo 1981, is the major benthic dinoflagellate vector implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in finfish on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. Clonal laboratory cultures of O. lenticularis (clone 301) exposed to elevated temperatures (30-31 degrees C) for 33 and 54 days showed significant increases in the quantity of extractable toxin they produced as compared to their toxicities versus cells grown at temperatures of 25-26 degrees C. O lenticularis samples collected directly from the field following exposure to elevated temperatures for comparable periods of time also showed significant increases in extractable toxin. The increased toxicity of both field sampled and laboratory grown O. lenticularis exposed to elevated temperatures may result from the effects of elevated temperatures on their metabolism and/or the bacterial symbionts found associated with these microalgae. The number of bacteria associated with cultured O. lenticularis exposed to elevated temperatures was significantly reduced. Increased toxin recovery from O. lenticularis exposed to elevated temperatures may have resulted from the direct effect of temperature on toxin production and/or the reduction of Ostreopsis associated bacterial flora that consume toxin in the process of their growth. This reduction in the quantity of associated bacterial flora in temperature treated cultures may result in increased toxin recovery from O. lenticularis due to a reduction in the consumption of toxin by these symbiont bacteria. PMID:15264548

  16. Elevated Temperature Ballistic Impact Testing of PBO and Kevlar Fabrics for Application in Supersonic Jet Engine Fan Containment Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Roberts Gary D.; Revilock, Duane M., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Ballistic impact tests were conducted on fabric made from both Poly(phenylene benzobizoxazole) (PBO) and Kevlar 29 which were selected to be similar in weave pattern, areal density, and fiber denier. The projectiles were 2.54-cm- (1-in.-) long aluminum cylinders with a diameter of 1.27 cm (0.5 in.). The fabric specimens were clamped on four sides in a 30.5-cm- (12-in.-) square frame. Tests on PBO were conducted at room temperature and at 260 C (500 F). A number of PBO specimens were aged in air at 204 and 260 C (400 and 500 F) before impact testing. Kevlar specimens were tested only at room temperature and with no aging. The PBO absorbed significantly more energy than the Kevlar at both room and elevated temperatures. However, after aging at temperatures of 204 C (400 F) and above, the PBO fabric lost almost all of its energy absorbing ability. It was concluded that PBO fabric is not a feasible candidate for fan containment system applications in supersonic jet engines where operating temperatures exceed this level.

  17. High-Temperature Fatigue of a Hybrid Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. T.; Sanders, P. G.

    2014-01-01

    An aluminum metal matrix composite (MMC) brake drum was tested in fatigue at room temperature and extreme service temperatures. At room temperature, the hybrid composite did not fail and exceeded estimated vehicle service times. At higher temperatures (62 and 73 pct of the matrix eutectic), fatigue of a hybrid particle/fiber MMC exhibited failure consistent with matrix overloading. Overaging of the A356 matrix coupled with progressive fracture of the SiC particles combined to create the matrix overload condition. No evidence of macro-fatigue crack initiation or growth was observed, and the matrix-particle interface appeared strong with no debonding, visible matrix phases, or porosity. An effective medium model was constructed to test the hypothesis that matrix overloading was the probable failure mode. The measured particle fracture rate was fit using realistic values of the SiC Weibull strength and modulus, which in turn predicted cycles to failure within the range observed in fatigue testing.

  18. Undercoat prevents blistering of silver plating at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuster, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    Gold undercoat prevents blistering in the silver plating of Inconel 718 seals from steam at high temperatures. The undercoat is diffused into the surface of the parent metal by baking prior to silver plating.

  19. Investigating the Stability of eLiposomes at Elevated Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Husseini, Ghaleb A; Pitt, William G; Javadi, Marjan

    2015-08-01

    eLiposomes encapsulate a perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion droplet inside a liposome. Ultrasound is then used as a trigger mechanism to vaporize the perfluorocarbon, break the liposome, and release the desired drug to the tumor tissue. The purpose of this research is to show that eLiposomes synthesized using perfluoropentane are stable above the normal boiling point of the perfluoropentane and at body temperature and thus has potential for use in vivo. Experiments involving the release of fluorescent calcein molecules were performed on eLiposomes to measure the release of calcein at various temperatures in the absence of ultrasound. Results showed that eLiposomes are stable at body temperatures and that as the temperature increases above 40°C, calcein release from these novel nanocarriers increases.

  20. Deflagration Behavior of PBX 9501 at Elevated Temperature and Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J L; Koerner, J G

    2008-04-15

    We report the deflagration behavior of PBX 9501 at pressures up to 300 MPa and temperatures of 150-180 C where the sample has been held at the test temperature for several hours before ignition. The purpose is to determine the effect on the deflagration behavior of material damage caused by prolonged exposure to high temperature. This conditioning is similar to that experienced by an explosive while it being heated to eventual explosion. The results are made more complicated by the presence of a significant thermal gradient along the sample during the temperature ramp and soak. Three major conclusions are: the presence of nitroplasticizer makes PBX 9501 more thermally sensitive than LX-04 with an inert Viton binder; the deflagration behavior of PBX 9501 is more extreme and more inconsistent than that of LX-04; and something in PBX 9501 causes thermal damage to 'heal' as the deflagration proceeds, resulting in a decelerating deflagration front as it travels along the sample.

  1. Temperature-Dependent Halogen-Exchange Activity Studies of Zeolite-Derived Aluminum Trifluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Hajime,E.; Delattre, J.; Stacy, A.

    2007-01-01

    A high-surface-area (190 m{sup 2}/g) amorphous aluminum trifluoride material ('plasma-AlF{sub 3}') was synthesized by plasma decomposition of zeolite, and its structural and reactivity properties were investigated. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy of plasma-AlF{sub 3} indicates morphological features on the nanometer-scale, whereas temperature-programmed X-ray diffraction is used to determine the phase-transition temperatures of plasma-AlF{sub 3} to {beta}- and {alpha}-AlF{sub 3}. Halogen-exchange reactivity is studied by temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) techniques using the dismutation of CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} as a model reaction. Plasma-AlF{sub 3} is found to possess an unexpected low-temperature (>315 C) activity not observed with the well-known halogen-exchange catalyst {beta}-AlF{sub 3}. Supporting TPR studies on aluminum trifluoride hydrates are performed to correlate this new activity with an amorphous AlF{sub 3} structure, and a simple Lewis acid model is presented to explain the reactivity data.

  2. Elevated temperature mechanical behavior of new low CTE superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cowen, C.J.; Jablonski, P.D.

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents the high temperature mechanical properties of several experimental low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) alloys. The use of such alloys facilitate the extension of advanced ferritic stainless steels to higher use temperature in advanced power generation systems. We find that one of these alloys, J5 appears to be favorable for bridging ferritic alloys (operating up to ~600°C) to traditional nickel based superalloys (operating at 750°C).

  3. Fluorescence spectroscopy of anisole at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, K. H.; Morin, C.; Kühni, M.; Guibert, P.

    2014-06-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence of anisole as tracer of isooctane at an excitation wavelength of 266 nm was investigated for conditions relevant to rapid compression machine studies and for more general application of internal combustion engines regarding temperature, pressure, and ambient gas composition. An optically accessible high pressure and high temperature chamber was operated by using different ambient gases (Ar, N2, CO2, air, and gas mixtures). Fluorescence experiments were investigated at a large range of pressure and temperature (0.2-4 MPa and 473-823 K). Anisole fluorescence quantum yield decreases strongly with temperature for every considered ambient gas, due to efficient radiative mechanisms of intersystem crossing. Concerning the pressure effect, the fluorescence signal decreases with increasing pressure, because increasing the collisional rate leads to more important non-radiative collisional relaxation. The quenching effect is strongly efficient in oxygen, with a fluorescence evolution described by Stern-Volmer relation. The dependence of anisole fluorescence versus thermodynamic parameters suggests the use of this tracer for temperature imaging in specific conditions detailed in this paper. The calibration procedure for temperature measurements is established for the single-excitation wavelength and two-color detection technique.

  4. Ignitability of DMSO vapors at elevated temperature and reduced pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W; Ural, E A; Weisgerber, W

    1999-03-08

    Ignitability of DMSO vapors have been evaluated at 664 mm Hg pressure. The minimum temperature at which the DMSO vapors that are in equilibrium with liquid DMSO has been determined using two types of strong ignition sources. This temperature is 172 F for chemical igniters, and 178 F for spark ignition. Numerous tests have been conducted using controlled intensity sparks to define the shape of the minimum ignition energy curve as a function of temperature. The ignition energies spanned four orders of magnitude (approximately from 20,000 to 2 mJ) while the DMSO vapor mixture temperature varied from 185 to 207 F. The Sandia Generator was used to simulate worst case electrostatic sparks that can be produced by the human body. Although it was not designed for air discharges, this device had been used by LLNL for 1 mm spark gap and the resultant spark energy had been measured to fall within the range from 3.2 to 8.8 mJ. CRC tests using this device showed that the minimum ignition temperature strongly depends on the spark gap. The minimum ignition temperature was 207 F at 1 mm spark gap, 203 F at 3 mm spark gap, and 197 F at 6 mm spark gap. This strong dependence on the spark gap is believed to be partly due to the changes in the spark energy as the spark gap changes.

  5. The effects of low temperature fatigue on the RRR and strength of pure aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwig, K.T.; Lehmann, P.; Yuan, G.S.

    1985-03-01

    Low temperature fatigue effects on residual resistivity ratio (RRR = /rho/ /sub 273K/ //rho/ /sub 4.2K/ ) and strength of 30 and 1000 RRR aluminum are reported. The objective of this investigation is to select the best initial purity for the stabilizer aluminum used in energy storage magnets. Monolythic centimeter diameter specimens were fatigued at 4.2 K to strains (epsilon) reaching 0.3 percent. The resistivity ratio rapidly decreases during the first 100 cycles and approaches saturation (RRR/sub f/) after about 1000 cycles for all strains tested. The RRR/sub f/ values are different for different initial resistivity ratio (RRR/sub i/) values, but all tend to come together at 0.3% strain independent of RRR/sub i/. The maximum specimen stress (sigma/sub max/) is reached after about 1000 cycles also, and approaches a common value (sigma/sub max/ = epsilonE/2, where epsilon is the strain range and E the elastic modulus) independent of RRR/sub i/. Thus high purity aluminum becomes ''fully hard'' at equilibrium and behaves elastically. The impact of fatigue damage on conductor design and choice of stabilizer purity is considered.

  6. Caustic consumption by a sandstone at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghani, K.; Handy, L.L.

    1984-04-01

    The effect of temperature on caustic loss due to its reaction with a representative sandstone was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Consumption was measured for sodium hydroxide concentrations from 0.01 to 0.1 N at temperatures from 80/sup 0/ to 180/sup 0/C in fired and unfired Berea sandstone. Three types of experiment were performed. One of these was a static, batch experiment with disaggregated sandstone for different contact times. The others were flow experiments in consolidated cores at various flow rates. In one case caustic was injected and effluent concentration were measured, and, in the other case, the produced fluids were recycled through the core. The results show that caustic concentration is caused by a fast reversible Langmuir-type ion exchange and an irreversible reaction of dissolution of silica. An increase in temperature results in a higher amount of ion exchange for the same initial concentration and a higher rate of dissolution. The heat of the ion exchange reaction is constant in the range of temperature studied and as a result the equilibrium constant of ion exchange can be found for other temperatures. Dissolution for the lowest caustic initial concentration (0.01 N) can be represented by first order reaction but not for the higher injection concentration. Batch experimental results show that equilibrium is established in the caustic-silica reaction with stabilization of pH.

  7. Elevated temperature stress strain behavior of beryllium powder product

    SciTech Connect

    Abeln, S.P.; Field, R.; Mataya, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    Several grades of beryllium powder product were tested under isothermal conditions in compression over a temperature range of room temperature to 1000 C and a strain rate range from 0.001 s{sup {minus}1} to 1 s{sup {minus}1}. Samples were compressed to a total strain of 1 (64% reduction in height). It is shown that all the grades are strain rate sensitive and that strain rate sensitivity increases with temperature. Yield points were exhibited by some grades up to a temperature of 500 C, and appeared to be primarily dependent on prior thermal history which determined the availability of mobile dislocations. Serrated flow in the form of stress drops was seen in all the materials tested and was most pronounced at 500 C. The appearance and magnitude of the stress drops were dependent on accumulated strain, strain rate, sample orientation, and composition. The flow stress and shape of the flow curves differed significantly from grade to grade due to variations in alloy content, the size and distribution of BeO particles, aging precipitates, and grain size. The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was determined for each grade of material and shown to be dependent on composition and thermal treatment. Structure/property relationships are discussed using processing history, microscopy (light and transmission), and property data.

  8. Reduction of permeability in granite at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Moore, D E; Lockner, D A; Byerlee, J D

    1994-09-01

    The addition of hydrothermal fluids to heated, intact granite leads to permeability reductions in the temperature range of 300 degrees to 500 degrees C, with the rate of change generally increasing with increasing temperature. The addition of gouge enhances the rate of permeability reduction because of the greater reactivity of the fine material. Flow rate is initially high in a throughgoing fracture but eventually drops to the level of intact granite. These results support the fault-valve model for the development of mesothermal ore deposits, in which seals are formed at the base of the seismogenic zone of high-angle thrust faults. The lower temperature results yield varying estimates of mineral-sealing rates at shallower depths in fault zones, although they generally support the hypothesis that such seals develop in less time than the recurrence interval for moderate to large earthquakes on the San Andreas fault.

  9. Reduction of permeability in granite at elevated temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The addition of hydrothermal fluids to heated, intact granite leads to permeability reductions in the temperature range of 300?? to 500??C, with the rate of change generally increasing with increasing temperature. The addition of gouge enhances the rate of permeability reduction because of the greater reactivity of the fine material. Flow rate is initially high in a throughgoing fracture but eventually drops to the level of intact granite. These results support the fault-valve model for the development of mesothermal ore deposits, in which seals are formed at the base of the seismogenic zone of high-angle thrust faults. The lower temperature results yield varying estimates of mineral-sealing rates at shallower depths in fault zones, although they generally support the hypothesis that such seals develop in less time than the recurrence interval for moderate to large earthquakes on the San Andreas fault.

  10. Technology for Elevated Temperature Tests of Structural Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    A technique for full-field measurement of surface temperature and in-plane strain using a single grid imaging technique was demonstrated on a sample subjected to thermally-induced strain. The technique is based on digital imaging of a sample marked by an alternating line array of La2O2S:Eu(+3) thermographic phosphor and chromium illuminated by a UV lamp. Digital images of this array in unstrained and strained states were processed using a modified spin filter. Normal strain distribution was determined by combining unstrained and strained grid images using a single grid digital moire technique. Temperature distribution was determined by ratioing images of phosphor intensity at two wavelengths. Combined strain and temperature measurements demonstrated on the thermally heated sample were DELTA-epsilon = +/- 250 microepsilon and DELTA-T = +/- 5 K respectively with a spatial resolution of 0.8 mm.

  11. Behavior of reinforcement SCC beams under elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, Hamoon; Farhang, Kianoosh

    2015-09-01

    This experimental study focuses on the behavior of heated reinforced concrete beams. Four types of concrete mixtures were used for the tested self-compacting concrete beams. A total of 72 reinforced concrete beams and 72 standard cylindrical specimens were tested. The compressive strength under uniaxial loading at 23 °C ranged from 30 to 45 MPa. The specimens were exposed to different temperatures. The test parameters of interest were the compressive strength and the temperature of the specimens. The effect of changes in the parameters was examined so as to control the behavior of the tested concrete and that of the reinforced concrete beam. The results indicated that flexibility and compressive strength of the reinforced concrete beams decreased at higher temperatures. Furthermore, heating beyond 400 °C produced greater variations in the structural behavior of the materials in both the cylindrical samples and the reinforced concrete beams.

  12. Response of microalgae to elevated CO2 and temperature: impact of climate change on freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Xu, Xiaoguang; Fujibayashi, Megumu; Niu, Qigui; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    To estimate the combined effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on microalgae, three typical and worldwide freshwater species, the green alga Scenedesmus acuminatus, the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana, and the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, as well as mixes of these three species were continuously cultured in controlled environment chambers with CO2 at 390 and 1000 ppm and temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C. CO2 and temperature significantly affected the production of microalgae. The cell productivity increased under elevated CO2 and temperature. Although the green alga dominated in the mixed culture within all CO2 and temperature conditions, rising temperature and CO2 intensified the competition of the cyanobacterium with other microalgae. CO2 affected the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) characteristics of the green alga and the cyanobacterium. Elevated CO2 induced the generation of humic substances in the EPS fractions of the green alga, the cyanobacterium, and the mixed culture. The extracellular carbohydrates of the diatom and the extracellular proteins of the cyanobacterium increased with elevated CO2 and temperature, while the extracellular carbohydrates and proteins of the green alga and the mixes increased under elevated CO2 and temperature. There were synergistic effects of CO2 and temperature on the productivity and the EPS of microalgae. Climate change related CO2 and temperature increases will promote autochthonous organic carbon production in aquatic ecosystems and facilitate the proliferation of cyanobacteria, which potentially changes the carbon cycling and undermines the functioning of ecosystems. PMID:27421856

  13. Response of microalgae to elevated CO2 and temperature: impact of climate change on freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Xu, Xiaoguang; Fujibayashi, Megumu; Niu, Qigui; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    To estimate the combined effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on microalgae, three typical and worldwide freshwater species, the green alga Scenedesmus acuminatus, the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana, and the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, as well as mixes of these three species were continuously cultured in controlled environment chambers with CO2 at 390 and 1000 ppm and temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C. CO2 and temperature significantly affected the production of microalgae. The cell productivity increased under elevated CO2 and temperature. Although the green alga dominated in the mixed culture within all CO2 and temperature conditions, rising temperature and CO2 intensified the competition of the cyanobacterium with other microalgae. CO2 affected the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) characteristics of the green alga and the cyanobacterium. Elevated CO2 induced the generation of humic substances in the EPS fractions of the green alga, the cyanobacterium, and the mixed culture. The extracellular carbohydrates of the diatom and the extracellular proteins of the cyanobacterium increased with elevated CO2 and temperature, while the extracellular carbohydrates and proteins of the green alga and the mixes increased under elevated CO2 and temperature. There were synergistic effects of CO2 and temperature on the productivity and the EPS of microalgae. Climate change related CO2 and temperature increases will promote autochthonous organic carbon production in aquatic ecosystems and facilitate the proliferation of cyanobacteria, which potentially changes the carbon cycling and undermines the functioning of ecosystems.

  14. Wear Potential Due to Low EHD Films During Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leville, Alan; Ward, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An earlier study showed that EHD films could be accurately measured in a running bearing and that the EHD film eventually runs-in to a steady state value [1]. In the present paper, we report on additional tests conducted on bearings with more lubricants, wider speeds, and higher temperatures. The new results consistently show that all lubricants tested, including MAC-based lubricants have EHD film levels that are lower than model predictions in some situations. In addition, the MAC lubricants studied have lower film thickness than traditional hydrocarbons. Figure 1 is taken from [1] and shows room temperature data of MAC oil and Corey 100 oil, illustrating the smaller EHD film results when using this MAC oil. Since higher temperatures produce lower films by changing the viscosity, the concern we have is that the EHD films may be too small to prevent ball/race metal contact and resulting wear at lower speeds. Best bearing practices would have the EHD film thickness be at least three (3) times the composite surface roughness. In this paper, we will present measured EHD thicknesses of lubricant films at speeds up to several thousand RPM for bearing bore sizes from as low as 6 mm (0.2 in) to as large as 35 mm (1.4 in) using MAC, Corey and KG-80. Ambient temperatures from room temperature to 52C (125F) are used. Testing was done with the base oils as well as formulated greases. Greases eventually ran in to the same EHD values as the base oil but took longer times to get there. The results clearly indicate that wear is very possible in all steel bearings when using MAC lubricants and that this condition worsens with higher temperatures and smaller bearing size.

  15. Whey protein concentrate storage at elevated temperature and humidity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy processors are finding new export markets for whey protein concentrate (WPC), a byproduct of cheesemaking, but they need to know if full-sized bags of this powder will withstand high temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels during unrefrigerated storage under tropical conditions. To answ...

  16. Effects of Elevated Temperature on Concrete with Recycled Coarse Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salau, M. A.; Oseafiana, O. J.; Oyegoke, T. O.

    2015-11-01

    This paper discusses the effects of heating temperatures of 200°C, 400°C and 600°C each for 2 hours at a heating rate of 2.5°C/min on concrete with the content of Natural Coarse Aggregates (NCA) partially replaced with Recycled Coarse Aggregates (RCA), obtained from demolished building in the ratio of 0%, 15% and 30%.There was an initial drop in strength from 100°C to 200°C which is suspected to be due to the relatively weak interfacial bond between the RCA and the hardened paste within the concrete matrix;a gradual increase in strength continued from 200°C to 450°C and steady drop occurred again as it approached 600°C.With replacement proportion of 0%, 15% and 30% of NCA and exposure to peak temperature of 600°C, a relative concrete strength of 23.6MPa, 25.3MPa and 22.2MPa respectively can be achieved for 28 days curing age. Furthermore, RAC with 15% NCA replacement when exposed to optimum temperature of 450°C yielded high compressive strength comparable to that of control specimen (normal concrete). In addition, for all concrete samples only slight surface hairline cracks were noticed as the temperature approached 400°C. Thus, the RAC demonstrated behavior just like normal concrete and may be considered fit for structural use.

  17. Elevated temperature axial and torsional fatigue behavior of Haynes 188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh

    1992-06-01

    The results of high-temperature axial and torsional low-cycle fatigue experiments performed on Haynes 188, a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, are reported. Fatigue tests were performed at 760 C in air on thin-walled tubular specimens at various ranges under strain control. Data are also presented for coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, and shear modulus at various temperatures from room to 1000 C, and monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves in tension and in shear at 760 C. The data set is used to evaluate several multiaxial fatigue life models (most were originally developed for room temperature multiaxial life prediction) including von Mises equivalent strain range (ASME boiler and pressure vessel code), Manson-Halford, Modified Multiaxiality Factor (proposed here), Modified Smith-Watson-Topper, and Fatemi-Socie-Kurath. At von Mises equivalent strain ranges (the torsional strain range divided by the square root of 3, taking the Poisson's ratio to be 0.5), torsionally strained specimens lasted, on average, factors of 2 to 3 times longer than axially strained specimens. The Modified Multiaxiality Factor approach shows promise as a useful method of estimating torsional fatigue life from axial fatigue data at high temperatures. Several difficulties arose with the specimen geometry and extensometry used in these experiments. Cracking at extensometer probe indentations was a problem at smaller strain ranges. Also, as the largest axial and torsional strain range fatigue tests neared completion, a small amount of specimen buckling was observed.

  18. Elevated and Low Temperature Deformation of Cast Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Sven C.

    2015-02-20

    Goals: Understand crystal structure and micro-structure changes during high and low temperature deformation of uranium, in particular texture, and develop constitutive micro-structure based model for uranium deformation. Deliverables achieved: Completed texture measures for 11 pre- and post-dU compression samples, quantified texture pre- and post-deformation, and provided data to constrain deformation models.

  19. Measurements of the CO first overtone bandstrength at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caledonia, G. E.; Krech, R. H.; Wilkerson, T.

    1985-08-01

    The spectrally resolved emission from the CO first overtone vibration-rotation band has been studied over the temperature range of 1100-2600 K in a shock-tube experiment. First overtone bandstrengths have been deduced from the data. These compare favorably with theoretical expectations.

  20. Elevated temperature axial and torsional fatigue behavior of Haynes 188

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh

    1995-01-01

    The results are reported for high-temperature axial and torsional low-cycle fatigue experiments performed at 760 C in air on thin-walled tubular specimens of Haynes 188, a wrought cobalt-based superalloy. Data are also presented for mean coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, and shear modulus at various temperatures from room to 1000 C, and monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves in tension and in shear at 760 C. This data set is used to evaluate several multiaxial fatigue life models (most were originally developed for room temperature multiaxial life prediction) including von Mises equivalent strain range (ASME Boiler and Pressure Code), Manson-Halford, modified multiaxiality factor (proposed in this paper), modified Smith-Watson-Topper, and Fatemi-Socie-Kurath. At von Mises equivalent strain ranges (the torsional strain range divided by the square root of 3, taking the Poisson's ratio to be 0.5), torsionally strained specimens lasted, on average, factors of 2 to 3 times longer than axially strained specimens. The modified multiaxiality factor approach shows promise as a useful method of estimating torsional fatigue life from axial fatigue data at high temperatures. Several difficulties arose with the specimen geometry and extensometry used in these experiments. Cracking at extensometer probe indentations was a problem at smaller strain ranges. Also, as the largest axial and torsional strain range fatigue tests neared completion, a small amount of specimen buckling was observed.

  1. Elevated temperature axial and torsional fatigue behavior of Haynes 188

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh

    1992-01-01

    The results of high-temperature axial and torsional low-cycle fatigue experiments performed on Haynes 188, a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, are reported. Fatigue tests were performed at 760 C in air on thin-walled tubular specimens at various ranges under strain control. Data are also presented for coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, and shear modulus at various temperatures from room to 1000 C, and monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves in tension and in shear at 760 C. The data set is used to evaluate several multiaxial fatigue life models (most were originally developed for room temperature multiaxial life prediction) including von Mises equivalent strain range (ASME boiler and pressure vessel code), Manson-Halford, Modified Multiaxiality Factor (proposed here), Modified Smith-Watson-Topper, and Fatemi-Socie-Kurath. At von Mises equivalent strain ranges (the torsional strain range divided by the square root of 3, taking the Poisson's ratio to be 0.5), torsionally strained specimens lasted, on average, factors of 2 to 3 times longer than axially strained specimens. The Modified Multiaxiality Factor approach shows promise as a useful method of estimating torsional fatigue life from axial fatigue data at high temperatures. Several difficulties arose with the specimen geometry and extensometry used in these experiments. Cracking at extensometer probe indentations was a problem at smaller strain ranges. Also, as the largest axial and torsional strain range fatigue tests neared completion, a small amount of specimen buckling was observed.

  2. Response of sugarcane to carbon dioxide enrichment and elevated air temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four sugarcane cultivars (CP 72-2086, CP 73-1547, CP 88-1508, and CP 80-1827) were grown in elongated temperature-gradient greenhouses (TGG) at ambient or elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) of 360 or 720 µmol CO2 mol-1 air (ppm, mole fraction basis), respectively. Elevated CO2 was maintained by injection...

  3. MONOTERPENE LEVELS IN NEEDLES OF DOUGLAS-FIR EXPOSED TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of monoterpenes in current year needles of douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were measured at the conclusion of four years of exposure to ambient or elevated CO2 (+ 179 mmol.mol-1), and ambient or elevated temperature (+ 3.5 C). Eleven monoterpen...

  4. Carbon fluxes acclimate more strongly to elevated growth temperatures than to elevated CO2 concentrations in a northern conifer.

    PubMed

    Kroner, Yulia; Way, Danielle A

    2016-08-01

    Increasing temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations will affect tree carbon fluxes, generating potential feedbacks between forests and the global climate system. We studied how elevated temperatures and CO2 impacted leaf carbon dynamics in Norway spruce (Picea abies), a dominant northern forest species, to improve predictions of future photosynthetic and respiratory fluxes from high-latitude conifers. Seedlings were grown under ambient (AC, c. 435 μmol mol(-1) ) or elevated (EC, 750 μmol mol(-1) ) CO2 concentrations at ambient, +4 °C, or +8 °C growing temperatures. Photosynthetic rates (Asat ) were high in +4 °C/EC seedlings and lowest in +8 °C spruce, implying that moderate, but not extreme, climate change may stimulate carbon uptake. Asat , dark respiration (Rdark ), and light respiration (Rlight ) rates acclimated to temperature, but not CO2 : the thermal optimum of Asat increased, and Rdark and Rlight were suppressed under warming. In all treatments, the Q10 of Rlight (the relative increase in respiration for a 10 °C increase in leaf temperature) was 35% higher than the Q10 of Rdark , so the ratio of Rlight to Rdark increased with rising leaf temperature. However, across all treatments and a range of 10-40 °C leaf temperatures, a consistent relationship between Rlight and Rdark was found, which could be used to model Rlight in future climates. Acclimation reduced daily modeled respiratory losses from warm-grown seedlings by 22-56%. When Rlight was modeled as a constant fraction of Rdark , modeled daily respiratory losses were 11-65% greater than when using measured values of Rlight . Our findings highlight the impact of acclimation to future climates on predictions of carbon uptake and losses in northern trees, in particular the need to model daytime respiratory losses from direct measurements of Rlight or appropriate relationships with Rdark .

  5. The Total Hemispheric Emissivity of Painted Aluminum Honeycomb at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, J.; Canavan, E.; DiPirro, M.; Li, X.; Knollenberg, K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA uses high-emissivity surfaces on deep-space radiators or thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Aluminum honeycomb core material, when coated with a high-emissivity paint, provides a lightweight, mechanically robust, and relatively inexpensive black surface that retains its high emissivity down to low temperatures. At temperatures below about 100 Kelvin, this material performs much better than the paint itself. We measured the total hemispheric emissivity of various painted honeycomb configurations using an adaptation of an innovative technique developed for characterizing thin black coatings. These measurements were performed from room temperature down to 30 Kelvin. We describe the measurement technique and compare the results with predictions from a detailed thermal model of each honeycomb configuration.

  6. Simulation of Aluminum Micro-mirrors for Space Applications at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, J. L.; Dutta, S. B.; Greenhouse, M. A.; Mott, D. B.

    2000-01-01

    Closed form and finite element models are developed to predict the device response of aluminum electrostatic torsion micro-mirrors fabricated on silicon substrate for space applications at operating temperatures of 30K. Initially, closed form expressions for electrostatic pressure arid mechanical restoring torque are used to predict the pull-in and release voltages at room temperature. Subsequently, a detailed mechanical finite element model is developed to predict stresses and vertical beam deflection induced by the electrostatic and thermal loads. An incremental and iterative solution method is used in conjunction with the nonlinear finite element model and closed form electrostatic equations to solve. the coupled electro-thermo-mechanical problem. The simulation results are compared with experimental measurements at room temperature of fabricated micro-mirror devices.

  7. Composite aluminum-fiberglass epoxy pressure vessels for transportation of LNG at intermediate temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ladkany, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    The design of large, 6-m diameter, composite aluminum-fiber-glass epoxy pressure vessels for the transportation of liquified natural gas at intermediate temperatures is presented. The pressure vessels are designed to have an operating pressure range of up to 6.21 MPa and pressure-to-burst ratio close to two. The cylindrical pressure vessels are circumferentially reinforced with layers of high-strength fiberglass epoxy or pultruded glass polyester overwrap. The vessels are prestressed at ambient temperature with the sizing technique of autofrettage. They are designed for temperature and pressure conditions between the critical conditions of 191 K and 4.69 MPa and atmospheric conditions of 106 K and 0.1 MPa. The ultimate failure modes are leak-before-burst and are designed in the circumferential direction to prevent the possibility of an axial separation of the vessel at failure.

  8. Temperature and density dependence of XANES spectra in warm dense aluminum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recoules, V.; Mazevet, S.

    2009-08-01

    Using ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations combined with linear-response theory, we calculate the density and temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) of a dense aluminum plasma. At solid density and for temperatures increasing up to 6 eV, we see that the XANES spectrum loses its well-known room-temperature structure, first due to melting and second due to loss of correlation in the liquid. Similarly, as the density decreases and the system evolves from a liquid to a plasma, the XANES spectrum becomes less structured. As the density is further lowered and the system turns into an atomic fluid, a pre-edge forms as the 3p state becomes bound. We suggest that direct measurements of the XANES spectra in this density region is a unique opportunity to validate pressure ionization models routinely used in plasma physics modeling.

  9. The oxidation of aluminum at high temperature studied by Thermogravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, Eric Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    The oxidation in air of high-purity Al foil was studied as a function of temperature using Thermogravimetric Analysis with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA/DSC). The rate and/or extent of oxidation was found to be a non-linear function of the temperature. Between 650 and 750 ÀC very little oxidation took place; at 850 ÀC oxidation occurred after an induction period, while at 950 ÀC oxidation occurred without an induction period. At oxidation temperatures between 1050 and 1150 ÀC rapid passivation of the surface of the aluminum foil occurred, while at 1250 ÀC and above, an initial rapid mass increase was observed, followed by a more gradual increase in mass. The initial rapid increase was accompanied by a significant exotherm. Cross-sections of oxidized specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); the observed alumina skin thicknesses correlated qualitatively with the observed mass increases.

  10. The total hemispheric emissivity of painted aluminum honeycomb at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, J.; Canavan, E.; DiPirro, M.; Li, X.; Knollenberg, P.

    2014-01-01

    NASA uses high-emissivity surfaces on deep-space radiators and thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Aluminum honeycomb core material, when coated with a high-emissivity paint, provides a lightweight, mechanically robust, and relatively inexpensive black surface that retains its high emissivity down to low temperatures. At temperatures below about 100 Kelvin, this material performs much better than the paint itself. We measured the total hemispheric emissivity of various painted honeycomb configurations using an adaptation of an innovative technique developed for characterizing thin black coatings. These measurements were performed from room temperature down to 30 Kelvin. We describe the measurement technique and compare the results with predictions from a detailed thermal model of each honeycomb configuration.

  11. Characterization of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane with Variation of Crystallizing Temperature for pH Sensor.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jin-Ho; Lee, Sung-Gap; Jo, Ye-Won; Jung, Hye-Rin

    2015-11-01

    We fabricated electrolyte-dielectric-metal (EDM) device incorporating a high-k Al2O3 sensing membrane from a porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) using a two step anodizing process for pH sensors. In order to change the properties of the AAO template, the crystallizing temperature was varied from 400 degrees C to 700 degrees C over 2 hours. The structural properties were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The pH sensitivity increased with an increase in the crystallizing temperature from 400 degrees C to 600 degrees C. However at 700 degrees C, deformation occurred. The porous AAO sensor with a crystallizing temperature of 600 degrees C displayed the good sensitivity and long-term stability and the values were 55.7 mV/pH and 0.16 mV/h, respectively. PMID:26726567

  12. The total hemispheric emissivity of painted aluminum honeycomb at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, J.; Canavan, E.; DiPirro, M.; Li, X.; Knollenberg, P.

    2014-01-29

    NASA uses high-emissivity surfaces on deep-space radiators and thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Aluminum honeycomb core material, when coated with a high-emissivity paint, provides a lightweight, mechanically robust, and relatively inexpensive black surface that retains its high emissivity down to low temperatures. At temperatures below about 100 Kelvin, this material performs much better than the paint itself. We measured the total hemispheric emissivity of various painted honeycomb configurations using an adaptation of an innovative technique developed for characterizing thin black coatings. These measurements were performed from room temperature down to 30 Kelvin. We describe the measurement technique and compare the results with predictions from a detailed thermal model of each honeycomb configuration.

  13. Low temperature deformation behavior of an electromagnetically bulged 5052 aluminum alloy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zu; Li, Ning; Wang, Duzhen; Ouyang, Di; Liu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental understanding of the deformation behavior of electromagnetically formed metallic components under extreme conditions is important. Here, the effect of low temperature on the deformation behavior of an electromagnetically-bulged 5052 aluminum alloy was investigated through uniaxial tension. We found that the Portevin-Le Chatelier Effect, designated by the serrated characteristic in stress-strain curves, continuously decays until completely disappears with decreasing temperature. The physical origin of the phenomenon is rationalized on the basis of the theoretical analysis and the Monte Carlo simulation, which reveal an increasing resistance to dislocation motion imposed by lowering temperature. The dislocations are captured completely by solute atoms at −50 °C, which results in the extinction of Portevin-Le Chatelier. The detailed mechanism responsible for this process is further examined through Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:27426919

  14. Low temperature deformation behavior of an electromagnetically bulged 5052 aluminum alloy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zu; Li, Ning; Wang, Duzhen; Ouyang, Di; Liu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental understanding of the deformation behavior of electromagnetically formed metallic components under extreme conditions is important. Here, the effect of low temperature on the deformation behavior of an electromagnetically-bulged 5052 aluminum alloy was investigated through uniaxial tension. We found that the Portevin-Le Chatelier Effect, designated by the serrated characteristic in stress-strain curves, continuously decays until completely disappears with decreasing temperature. The physical origin of the phenomenon is rationalized on the basis of the theoretical analysis and the Monte Carlo simulation, which reveal an increasing resistance to dislocation motion imposed by lowering temperature. The dislocations are captured completely by solute atoms at -50 °C, which results in the extinction of Portevin-Le Chatelier. The detailed mechanism responsible for this process is further examined through Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:27426919

  15. Low temperature deformation behavior of an electromagnetically bulged 5052 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zu; Li, Ning; Wang, Duzhen; Ouyang, Di; Liu, Lin

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental understanding of the deformation behavior of electromagnetically formed metallic components under extreme conditions is important. Here, the effect of low temperature on the deformation behavior of an electromagnetically-bulged 5052 aluminum alloy was investigated through uniaxial tension. We found that the Portevin-Le Chatelier Effect, designated by the serrated characteristic in stress-strain curves, continuously decays until completely disappears with decreasing temperature. The physical origin of the phenomenon is rationalized on the basis of the theoretical analysis and the Monte Carlo simulation, which reveal an increasing resistance to dislocation motion imposed by lowering temperature. The dislocations are captured completely by solute atoms at ‑50 °C, which results in the extinction of Portevin-Le Chatelier. The detailed mechanism responsible for this process is further examined through Monte Carlo simulation.

  16. Comparison of MODIS Satellite Land Surface Temperature with Air Temperature along a 5000-metre Elevation Transect on Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, N. C.; Williams, R.; Maeda, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    There is concern that high elevations may be warming more rapidly than lower elevations, but there is a lack of observational data from weather stations in the high mountains. One alternative data source is satellite LST (Land Surface Temperature) which has extensive spatial coverage. This study compares instantaneous values of LST (1030 and 2230 local solar time) as measured by the MODIS MOD11A2 product at 1 km resolution with equivalent screen level air temperatures (in the same pixel) measured from a transect of 22 in situ weather stations across Kilimanjaro ranging in elevation from 990 to 5803 m. Data consists of 11 years on the SW slope and 3 years on the NE slope, equating to >500 and ~140 octtads (8-day periods) respectively. Results show substantial differences between LST and local air temperature, sometimes up to 20C. During the day the LST tends to be higher than air temperature and the reverse is true at night. The differences show large variance, particularly during the daytime, and tend to increase with elevation, particularly on the NE slope of the mountain which faces the sun when the daytime observations are taken (1030 LST). Differences between LST and air temperature are larger in the dry seasons (JF and JJAS), and reduce when conditions are more cloudy. Systematic relationships with cloud cover and vegetation characteristics (as measured by NDVI and MAIAC for the same pixel) are displayed. More vegetation reduces daytime surface heating above the air temperature, but this relationship weakens with elevation. Nighttime differences are more stable and show no relationship with vegetation indices. Therefore the predictability of the LST/air temperature differences reduces at high elevations and it is therefore much more challenging to use satellite data at high elevations to complement in situ air temperature measurements for climate change assessments, especially for daytime maximum temperatures.

  17. Effects of elevated water temperature on physiological responses in adult freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganser, Alissa M.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    These data suggest that elevated temperatures can alter metabolic rates in native mussels and may decrease the amount of energy that is available for key biological processes, such as survival, growth and reproduction.

  18. Production of recalcitrant organic matter under the influence of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature.

    PubMed

    Ki, Bomin; Park, Suyoung; Choi, Jung Hyun

    2014-09-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on the quantity and quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of wetland sediments were investigated by measuring organic matter decomposition rates and phenolic compounds as target recalcitrant organic matter. Mean rates of anaerobic microbial metabolism were consistently higher both in vegetated sediments and in elevated CO2 and temperature, although the differences were not statistically significant (P < 0.05). Concentrations of phenolic compounds in sediments with vegetation are significantly different (P < 0.05) from those in sediments without vegetation. Regarding the biodegradability of the phenolic compounds, vegetated sediments showed higher concentrations of 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dimethylphenol under elevated CO2 and temperature conditions, which means that more refractory material can be produced through enhanced organic matter degradation by elevated CO2 and temperature. The produced phenolic compounds can be transported to the freshwater ecosystem and influence the recalcitrance of DOC.

  19. Alumina Volatility in Water Vapor at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Myers, Dwight L.

    2003-01-01

    The volatility of alumina in high temperature water vapor was determined by a weight loss technique. Sapphire coupons were exposed at temperatures between 1250 and 1500 C, water partial pressures between 0.15 and 0.68 atm in oxygen, total pressure of 1 atm, and flowing gas velocities of 4.4 cm/s. The pressure dependence of sapphire volatility was consistent with AI(OH)3(g) formation. The enthalpy of reaction to form Al(OH)3(g) from sapphire and water vapor was determined to be 210 +/- 20 kJ/mol, comparing favorably to other studies. Microstructural examination of tested sapphire coupons revealed surface etching features consistent with a volatilization process.

  20. Microscopic structure of water at elevated pressures and temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Sahle, Christoph J.; Sternemann, Christian; Schmidt, Christian; Lehtola, Susi; Jahn, Sandro; Simonelli, Laura; Huotari, Simo; Hakala, Mikko; Pylkkänen, Tuomas; Nyrow, Alexander; Mende, Kolja; Tolan, Metin; Hämäläinen, Keijo; Wilke, Max

    2013-01-01

    We report on the microscopic structure of water at sub- and supercritical conditions studied using X-ray Raman spectroscopy, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and density functional theory. Systematic changes in the X-ray Raman spectra with increasing pressure and temperature are observed. Throughout the studied thermodynamic range, the experimental spectra can be interpreted with a structural model obtained from the molecular dynamics simulations. A spatial statistical analysis using Ripley’s K-function shows that this model is homogeneous on the nanometer length scale. According to the simulations, distortions of the hydrogen-bond network increase dramatically when temperature and pressure increase to the supercritical regime. In particular, the average number of hydrogen bonds per molecule decreases to ≈0.6 at 600 °C and p = 134 MPa. PMID:23479639

  1. Failure mechanisms of thermal barrier coatings exposed to elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.; Lowell, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The failure of a ZrO2-8%Y2O3/Ni-14% Al-0.1% Zr coating system on Rene 41 in Mach 0.3 burner rig tests was characterized. High flame and metal temperatures were employed in order to accelerate coating failure. Failure by delamination was shown to precede surface cracking or spalling. This type of failure could be duplicated by cooling down the specimen after a single long duration isothermal high temperature cycle in a burner rig or a furnace, but only if the atmosphere was oxidizing. Stresses due to thermal expansion mismatch on cooling coupled with the effects of plastic deformation of the bond coat and oxidation of the irregular bond coat are the probable life limiting factors. Heat up stresses alone could not fail the coating in the burner rig tests. Spalling eventually occurs on heat up but only after the coating has already failed through delamination.

  2. Shock sensitivity of LX 04 at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Urtiew, P.A.; Tarver, C.M.; Gorbes, J.W.; Garcia, G.

    1997-07-01

    Hazard scenarios can involve multiple stimuli, such as heating followed by fragment impact (shock). The shock response of LX-04 (85 weight % HMX and 15 weight % Viton binder) preheated to temperatures hear 170C is studied in a 10.2 cm bore diameter gas gun using embedded manganin pressure gauges. The pressure histories at various depths in the LX-04 targets and the run distances to detonation at several input shock pressures are measured and compared to those obtained in ambient temperature LX-04. The hot LX-04 is significantly more shock sensitive than ambient LX-04. Ignition and Growth reactive flow models are developed for ambient and hot LX-04 to allow predictions of impact scenarios that a can not be tested directly.

  3. Potent Induction of Arabidopsis thaliana Flowering by Elevated Growth Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Sureshkumar; Sureshkumar, Sridevi; Lempe, Janne; Weigel, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    The transition to flowering is an important event in the plant life cycle and is modulated by several environmental factors including photoperiod, light quality, vernalization, and growth temperature, as well as biotic and abiotic stresses. In contrast to light and vernalization, little is known about the pathways that mediate the responses to other environmental variables. A mild increase in growth temperature, from 23 °C to 27 °C, is equally efficient in inducing flowering of Arabidopsis plants grown in 8-h short days as is transfer to 16-h long days. There is extensive natural variation in this response, and we identify strains with contrasting thermal reaction norms. Exploiting this natural variation, we show that FLOWERING LOCUS C potently suppresses thermal induction, and that the closely related floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS M is a major-effect quantitative trait locus modulating thermosensitivity. Thermal induction does not require the photoperiod effector CONSTANS, acts upstream of the floral integrator FLOWERING LOCUS T, and depends on the hormone gibberellin. Analysis of mutants defective in salicylic acid biosynthesis suggests that thermal induction is independent of previously identified stress-signaling pathways. Microarray analyses confirm that the genomic responses to floral induction by photoperiod and temperature differ. Furthermore, we report that gene products that participate in RNA splicing are specifically affected by thermal induction. Above a critical threshold, even small changes in temperature can act as cues for the induction of flowering. This response has a genetic basis that is distinct from the known genetic pathways of floral transition, and appears to correlate with changes in RNA processing. PMID:16839183

  4. A complex permittivity and permeability measurement system for elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friederich, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The three goals of this research include: (1) to fully develop a method to measure the permittivity and permeability of special materials as a function of frequency in the range of 2.6 to 18 GHz, and of temperatures in the range of 25 to 1100 C; (2) to assist LeRC in setting up an in-house system for the measurement of high-temperature permittivity and permeability; and (3) to measure the complex permittivity and permeability of special materials as a function of frequency and temperature to demonstrate the capability of the method. The method chosen for characterizing the materials relies on perturbation of a resonant cavity with a small volume of sample material. Different field configurations in the cavity can be used to separate electric and magnetic effects. The cavity consists of a section of rectangular waveguide terminated at each end of a vertical slot iris. The center of one wall is a small hole through which the sample is introduced.

  5. A complex permittivity and permeability measurement system for elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friederich, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The three goals of this research include: (1) to fully develop a method to measure the permittivity and permeability of special materials as a function of frequency in the range of 2.6 to 18 GHz, and of temperature in the range of 25 to 1100 C; (2) to assist LeRC in setting up an in-house system for the measurement of high-temperature permittivity and permeability; and (3) to measure the complex permittivity and permeability of special materials as a function of frequency and temperature to demonstrate the capability of the method. The method chosen for characterizing the materials relies on perturbation of a resonant cavity with a small volume of sample material. Different field configurations in the cavity can be used to separate electric and magnetic effects. The cavity consists of a section of rectangular waveguide terminated at each end of a vertical slot iris. In the center of one wall is a small hole through which the sample is introduced.

  6. Influence of Elevated Temperatures on Pet-Concrete Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, C.; Camacho, N.; Hernández, M.; Matheus, A.; Gutiérrez, A.

    2008-08-01

    Lightweight aggregate is an important material in reducing the unit weight of concrete complying with special concrete structures of large high-rise buildings. Besides, the use of recycled PET bottles as lightweight aggregate in concrete is an effective contribution for environment preservation. So, the objective of the present work was to study experimentally the flexural strength of the PET -concrete blends and the thermal degradation of the PET in the concrete, when the blends with 10 and 20% in volume of PET were exposed to different temperatures (200, 400, 600 °C). The flexural strength of concrete-PET exposed to a heat source is strongly dependent on the temperature, water/cement ratio, as well as the content and particle size of PET. However, the activation energy is affected by the temperature, location of the PET particles on the slabs and the water/cement ratio. Higher water content originates thermal and hydrolytic degradation on the PET, while on the concrete, a higher vapor pressure which causes an increase in crack formation. The values of the activation energy are higher on the center of the slabs than on the surface, since concrete is a poor heat conductor.

  7. High temperature performance of sputter-deposited piezoelectric aluminum nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillinger, M.; Schneider, M.; Bittner, A.; Nicolay, P.; Schmid, U.

    2015-05-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a promising material for sensor applications in harsh environments such as turbine exhausts or thermal power plants due to its piezoelectric properties, good thermal match to silicon and high temperature stability. Typically, the usage of piezoelectric materials in high temperature is limited by the Curie-temperature, the increase of the leakage current as well as by enhanced diffusion effects in the materials. In order to exploit the high temperature potential of AlN thin films, post deposition annealing experiments up to 1000°C in both oxygen and nitrogen gas atmospheres for 2 h were performed. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the thin films are chemically stable in a pure oxygen atmosphere for 2 h at annealing temperatures of up to 900°C. After a 2 h annealing step at 1000°C in pure oxygen. However, a 100 nm thin AlN film is completely oxidized. In contrast, the layer is stable up to 1000°C in pure nitrogen atmosphere. The surface topology changes significantly at annealing temperatures above 800°C independent of annealing atmosphere. The surface roughness is increased by about one order of magnitude compared to the "as deposited" state. This is predominantly attributed to recrystallization processes occurring during high temperature loading. Up to an annealing temperature of 700°C, a Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism dominates the leakage current characteristics. Above, a mixture of different leakage current mechanisms is observed.

  8. Effect of Preloading on Fatigue Strength in Dynamic Fatigue Testing of Ceramic Materials at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1995-01-01

    Previously derived solutions of fatigue strength as a function of preloading were verified by applying preloads to elevated temperature dynamic fatigue tests of 96 wt% alumina at 1000 C and NC 132 silicon nitride at 1100 C. The technique was found very useful in identification and control of the governing failure mechanism when multiple failure mechanisms, such as slow crack growth, creep and oxidation occurred simultaneously at elevated temperatures.

  9. Elevated temperature tribology of cobalt and tantalum-based alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Scharf, T. W.; Prasad, S. V.; Kotula, P. G.; Michael, J. R.; Robino, C. V.

    2014-12-31

    This paper describes the friction and wear behavior of a Co–Cr alloy sliding on a Ta–W alloy. Measurements were performed in a pin-on-flat configuration with a hemispherically tipped Co-base alloy pin sliding on a Ta–W alloy flat from ambient to 430°C. Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to identify the friction-induced changes to the chemistry and crystal structure in the subsurface regions of wear tracks. During sliding contact, transfer of material varied as a function of the test temperature, either from pin-to-flat, flat-to-pin, or both, resulting in either wear loss and/or volumemore » gain. Friction coefficients (μ) and wear rates also varied as a function of test temperature. The lowest friction coefficient (μ=0.25) and wear rate (1×10–4 mm3/N•m) were observed at 430°C in argon atmosphere. This was attributed to the formation of a Co-base metal oxide layer (glaze), predominantly (Co, Cr)O with Rocksalt crystal structure, on the pin surface. Part of this oxide film transferred to the wear track on Ta–W, providing a self-mated oxide-on-oxide contact. Once the oxide glaze is formed, it is able to provide friction reduction for the entire temperature range of this study, ambient to 430°C. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that glazing the surfaces of Haynes alloys with continuous layers of cobalt chrome oxide prior to wear could protect the cladded surfaces from damage.« less

  10. Elevated temperature tribology of cobalt and tantalum-based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, T. W.; Prasad, S. V.; Kotula, P. G.; Michael, J. R.; Robino, C. V.

    2014-12-31

    This paper describes the friction and wear behavior of a Co–Cr alloy sliding on a Ta–W alloy. Measurements were performed in a pin-on-flat configuration with a hemispherically tipped Co-base alloy pin sliding on a Ta–W alloy flat from ambient to 430°C. Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to identify the friction-induced changes to the chemistry and crystal structure in the subsurface regions of wear tracks. During sliding contact, transfer of material varied as a function of the test temperature, either from pin-to-flat, flat-to-pin, or both, resulting in either wear loss and/or volume gain. Friction coefficients (μ) and wear rates also varied as a function of test temperature. The lowest friction coefficient (μ=0.25) and wear rate (1×10–4 mm3/N•m) were observed at 430°C in argon atmosphere. This was attributed to the formation of a Co-base metal oxide layer (glaze), predominantly (Co, Cr)O with Rocksalt crystal structure, on the pin surface. Part of this oxide film transferred to the wear track on Ta–W, providing a self-mated oxide-on-oxide contact. Once the oxide glaze is formed, it is able to provide friction reduction for the entire temperature range of this study, ambient to 430°C. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that glazing the surfaces of Haynes alloys with continuous layers of cobalt chrome oxide prior to wear could protect the cladded surfaces from damage.

  11. Solid/liquid lubrication of ceramics at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.; Erck, R.A.; Fenske, G.R.; Hong, H.

    1996-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of solid and liquid lubrication on friction and wear performance of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and cast iron. The solid lubricant was a thin silver film ({approx}2 {mu}m thick) produced on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} by ion-beam-assisted deposition. A high-temperature polyol-ester-base synthetic oil served as the liquid lubricant. Friction and wear tests were performed with pin-on-disk and oscillating-slider wear test machines at temperatures up to 300{degrees}C. Without the silver films, the friction coefficients of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} test pairs were 0.05 to 0.14, and the average wear rates of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} pins were {approx}5 x 10{sup -8} mm{sup 3} N{sup -1}. The friction coefficients of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/cast iron test pairs ranged from 0.08 to 0.11, depending on test temperature. The average specific wear rates of cast iron pins were {approx}3 x 10{sup -7} mm{sup 3} N{sup -1} m{sup -1}. However, simultaneous use of the solid-lubricant silver and synthetic oil on the sliding surfaces reduced friction coefficients to 0.02 to 0.08. Moreover, the wear of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} pins and silver-coated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} disks was so low that it was difficult to assess by a surface profilometer. The wear rates of cast iron pins were {approx}7 x 10{sup -9} mm{sup 3} N{sup -1} m{sup -1} up to 250{degrees}C, but showed a tendency to increase slightly at much higher temperatures. In general, the test results demonstrated that the solid/liquid lubrication of ceramic and/or metallic components is both feasible and effective in controlling friction and wear.

  12. Interactions of Water Vapor with Oxides at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Opila, Elizabeth; Copland, Evan; Myers, Dwight

    2003-01-01

    Many volatile metal hydroxides form by reaction of the corresponding metal oxide with water vapor. These reactions are important in a number of high temperature corrosion processes. Experimental methods for studying the thermodynamics of metal hydroxides include: gas leak Knudsen cell mass spectrometry, free jet sampling mass spectrometry, transpiration and hydrogen-oxygen flame studies. The available experimental information is reviewed and the most stable metal hydroxide species are correlated with position in the periodic table. Current studies in our laboratory on the Si-O-H system are discussed.

  13. Bacterial adaptation to extremes of low temperature and elevated pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Douglas

    The largest portion of Earth's biosphere is represented by low temperature, high pressure deepsea environments which are exposed to reduced and recalcitrant forms of organic carbon and which are far removed from sun light. Progress that has been made in recent years examining the biodiversity, genomics and genetics of microbial life at great ocean depths will be described. Particular focus will be given to the comparative genomics of members of Colwellia, Photobacterium, Moritella, Shewanella, Psychromonas and Carnobacterium genera. The genomes of piezophiles (high pressure adapted microbes) are characterized by possessing large intergenic regions, large numbers of rRNA operons, rRNA of a modified secondary structure, a reliance on unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids in their membrane lipids, a diversity of transport and physiological capabilities, and large numbers of transposable elements. Genetic studies in Photobacterium profundum have highlighted roles for extracellular polysaccharide production and DNA replication and protein synthesis in low temperature and high pressure growth. Recent advances in the cultivation of novel piezophiles from a deep-trench environment will also be described.

  14. Thermal diffusivity of igneous rocks at elevated pressure and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, W.B.; Mirkovich, V.V.; Heard, H.C.

    1987-10-10

    Thermal diffusivity measurements of seven igneous rocks were made to temperatures of 400 /sup 0/C and pressures of 200 MPa. The measuring method was based on the concept of cylindrical symmetry and periodic heat pulses. The seven rocks measured were Westerly (Rhode Island) granite, Climax Stock (Nevada) quartz monzonite, Pomona (Washington) basalt, Atikokan (Ontario, Canada) granite, Creighton (Ontario, Canada) gabbro, East Bull Lake (Ontario, Canada) gabbro, and Stripa (Sweden) granite. The diffusivity of all the rocks showed a positive linear dependence on inverse temperature and, excluding the East Bull Lake gabbro, showed a linear dependence on quartz content. (Quartz content varied from 0 to 31% by volume.) Diffusivity in all cases rose or remained steady with increasing confining pressure. The pressure effect was strongest at lowest pressures and vanished by levels between 10 and 100 MPa, depending on rock type. The pressure effect (measured as a percentage change in diffusivity) is stronger in the four rocks of granite composition than in the three of basaltic composition. Our results agree well with existing thermal diffusivity measurements at atmospheric pressure.

  15. HINDERED DIFFUSION OF ASPHALTENES AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Guin; Ganesh Ramakrishnan

    1999-10-07

    During this time period, experiments were performed to study the diffusion controlled uptake of quinoline and a coal asphaltene into porous carbon catalyst pellets. Cyclohexane and toluene were used as solvents for quinoline and the coal asphaltene respectively. The experiments were performed at 27 C and 75 C, at a pressure of 250 psi (inert gas) for the quinoline/cyclohexane system. For the coal asphaltene/toluene system, experiments were performed at 27 C, also at a pressure of 250 psi. These experiments were performed in a 20 cm{sup 3} microautoclave, the use of which is advantageous since it is economical from both a chemical procurement and waste disposal standpoint due to the small quantities of solvents and catalysts used. A C++ program was written to simulate data using a mathematical model which incorporated both diffusional and adsorption mechanisms. The simulation results showed that the mathematical model satisfactorily fitted the adsorptive diffusion of quinoline and the coal asphaltene onto a porous activated carbon. For the quinoline/cyclohexane system, the adsorption constant decreased with an increase in temperature. The adsorption constant for the coal asphaltene/toluene system at 27 C was found to be much higher than that of the quinoline/cyclohexane system at the same temperature. Apparently the coal asphaltenes have a much greater affinity for the surface of the carbon catalyst than is evidenced by the quinoline molecule.

  16. High temperature reactive ion etching of iridium thin films with aluminum mask in CF4/O2/Ar plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chia-Pin; Lisker, Marco; Kalkofen, Bodo; Burte, Edmund P.

    2016-08-01

    Reactive ion etching (RIE) technology for iridium with CF4/O2/Ar gas mixtures and aluminum mask at high temperatures up to 350 °C was developed. The influence of various process parameters such as gas mixing ratio and substrate temperature on the etch rate was studied in order to find optimal process conditions. The surface of the samples after etching was found to be clean under SEM inspection. It was also shown that the etch rate of iridium could be enhanced at higher process temperature and, at the same time, very high etching selectivity between aluminum etching mask and iridium could be achieved.

  17. High-Temperature Dielectric Properties of Aluminum Nitride Ceramic for Wireless Passive Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Yuan, Yukun; Ren, Zhong; Tan, Qiulin; Xiong, Jijun

    2015-01-01

    The accurate characterization of the temperature-dependent permittivity of aluminum nitride (AlN) ceramic is quite critical to the application of wireless passive sensors for harsh environments. Since the change of the temperature-dependent permittivity will vary the ceramic-based capacitance, which can be converted into the change of the resonant frequency, an LC resonator, based on AlN ceramic, is prepared by the thick film technology. The dielectric properties of AlN ceramic are measured by the wireless coupling method, and discussed within the temperature range of 12 °C (room temperature) to 600 °C. The results show that the extracted relative permittivity of ceramic at room temperature is 2.3% higher than the nominal value of 9, and increases from 9.21 to 10.79, and the quality factor Q is decreased from 29.77 at room temperature to 3.61 at 600 °C within the temperature range. PMID:26370999

  18. High-Temperature Dielectric Properties of Aluminum Nitride Ceramic for Wireless Passive Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Yuan, Yukun; Ren, Zhong; Tan, Qiulin; Xiong, Jijun

    2015-09-08

    The accurate characterization of the temperature-dependent permittivity of aluminum nitride (AlN) ceramic is quite critical to the application of wireless passive sensors for harsh environments. Since the change of the temperature-dependent permittivity will vary the ceramic-based capacitance, which can be converted into the change of the resonant frequency, an LC resonator, based on AlN ceramic, is prepared by the thick film technology. The dielectric properties of AlN ceramic are measured by the wireless coupling method, and discussed within the temperature range of 12 °C (room temperature) to 600 °C. The results show that the extracted relative permittivity of ceramic at room temperature is 2.3% higher than the nominal value of 9, and increases from 9.21 to 10.79, and the quality factor Q is decreased from 29.77 at room temperature to 3.61 at 600 °C within the temperature range.

  19. Multi-stage pulsed laser deposition of aluminum nitride at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duta, L.; Stan, G. E.; Stroescu, H.; Gartner, M.; Anastasescu, M.; Fogarassy, Zs.; Mihailescu, N.; Szekeres, A.; Bakalova, S.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2016-06-01

    We report on multi-stage pulsed laser deposition of aluminum nitride (AlN) on Si (1 0 0) wafers, at different temperatures. The first stage of deposition was carried out at 800 °C, the optimum temperature for AlN crystallization. In the second stage, the deposition was conducted at lower temperatures (room temperature, 350 °C or 450 °C), in ambient Nitrogen, at 0.1 Pa. The synthesized structures were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). GIXRD measurements indicated that the two-stage deposited AlN samples exhibited a randomly oriented wurtzite structure with nanosized crystallites. The peaks were shifted to larger angles, indicative for smaller inter-planar distances. Remarkably, TEM images demonstrated that the high-temperature AlN "seed" layers (800 °C) promoted the growth of poly-crystalline AlN structures at lower deposition temperatures. When increasing the deposition temperature, the surface roughness of the samples exhibited values in the range of 0.4-2.3 nm. SE analyses showed structures which yield band gap values within the range of 4.0-5.7 eV. A correlation between the results of single- and multi-stage AlN depositions was observed.

  20. Elevated temperature enhances normal early embryonic development in the coral Platygyra acuta under low salinity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, Apple Pui Yi; Ang, Put

    2015-06-01

    To better understand the possible consequences of climate change on reef building scleractinian corals in a marginal environment, laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the interactive effects of changes in salinity and temperature on percent fertilization success and early embryonic development of the coral Platygyra acuta. In the present study, a salinity of 24 psu (ambient 32 psu) reduced fertilization success by 60 %. Normal embryonic development was reduced by >80 % at 26 psu (ambient 33 psu) with 100 % abnormal development at 22 psu under ambient temperature. Elevated temperature (+3 °C) above the ambient spawning temperature did not show any negative effects on fertilization success. However, there was a trend for more abnormal embryos to develop at elevated temperature in the 2 d of the spawning event. The interactive effects between salinity and temperature are statistically significant only on normal embryonic development of P. acuta, but not on its fertilization success. Salinity was revealed to be the main factor affecting both fertilization success and normal embryonic development. Interestingly, the much lower fertilization success (76 %) observed in the second day of spawning (Trial 2) under ambient temperature recovered to 99 % success under elevated (+3 °C) temperature conditions. Moreover, elevated temperature enhanced normal early embryonic development under lowered salinity (26 psu). This antagonistic interactive effect was consistently observed in two successive nights of spawning. Overall, our results indicate that, in terms of its fertilization success and embryonic development, P. acuta is the most tolerant coral species to reduced salinity thus far reported in the literature. Elevated temperature, at least that within the tolerable range of the corals, could apparently alleviate the potential negative effects from salinity stresses. This mitigating role of elevated temperature appears not to have been reported on corals before.

  1. Reaction of cobalt in SO2 atmospheric at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Worrell, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    The reaction rate of cobalt in SO2 argon environments was measured at 650 C, 700 C, 750 C and 800 C. Product scales consist primarily of an interconnected sulfide phase in an oxide matrix. At 700 C to 800 C a thin sulfide layer adjacent to the metal is also observed. At all temperatures, the rapid diffusion of cobalt outward through the interconnected sulfide appears to be important. At 650 C, the reaction rate slows dramatically after five minutes due to a change in the distribution of these sulfides. At 700 C and 750 C the reaction is primarily diffusion controlled values of diffusivity of cobalt (CoS) calculated from this work show favorable agreement with values of diffusivity of cobalt (CoS) calculated from previous sulfidation work. At 800 C, a surface step becomes rate limiting.

  2. Constitutive equations for meeting elevated-temperature-design needs

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, C.E.; Robinson, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Constitutive equations for representing the inelastic behavior of structural alloys at temperatures in the creep regime are discussed from the viewpoint of advances made over the past decade. An emphasis is placed on the progress that has been made in meeting the needs of the program whose design process is based in part on a design-by-inelastic-analysis approach. In particular, the constitutive equations that have been put into place for current use in design analyses are discussed along with some material behavior background information. Equations representing short-term plastic and long-term creep behaviors are considered. Trends towards establishing improved equations for use in the future are also described. Progress relating to fundamentals of continuum mechanics, physical modeling, phenomenological modeling, and implementation is addressed.

  3. Permittivity measurement of thermoplastic composites at elevated temperature.

    PubMed

    Ku, H S; Horsfield, B; Ball, J A; Siores, E

    2001-01-01

    The material properties of greatest importance in microwave processing of a dielectric are the complex relative permittivity epsilon = epsilon'-jepsilon", and the loss tangent, tan delta = epsilon"/epsilon'. This paper describes two convenient laboratory based methods to obtain epsilon', epsilon" and hence tan delta of fibre-reinforced thermoplastic (FRTP) composites. One method employs a microwave network analyzer in conjunction with a waveguide transmission technique, chosen because it provides the widest possible frequency range with high accuracy. The values of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of glass fibre reinforced (33%) low density polyethylene, LDPE/GF (33%), polystyrene, PS/GF (33%), and Nylon 66/GF (33%), were obtained. Results are compared with those obtained by another method using a high-temperature dielectric probe. PMID:15040528

  4. Permittivity measurement of thermoplastic composites at elevated temperature.

    PubMed

    Ku, H S; Horsfield, B; Ball, J A; Siores, E

    2001-01-01

    The material properties of greatest importance in microwave processing of a dielectric are the complex relative permittivity epsilon = epsilon'-jepsilon", and the loss tangent, tan delta = epsilon"/epsilon'. This paper describes two convenient laboratory based methods to obtain epsilon', epsilon" and hence tan delta of fibre-reinforced thermoplastic (FRTP) composites. One method employs a microwave network analyzer in conjunction with a waveguide transmission technique, chosen because it provides the widest possible frequency range with high accuracy. The values of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of glass fibre reinforced (33%) low density polyethylene, LDPE/GF (33%), polystyrene, PS/GF (33%), and Nylon 66/GF (33%), were obtained. Results are compared with those obtained by another method using a high-temperature dielectric probe.

  5. Reaction of cobalt in SO2 atmospheres at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Worrell, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    The reaction rate of cobalt in SO2 argon environments was measured at 650 C, 700 C, 750 C and 800 C. Product scales consist primarily of an interconnected sulfide phase in an oxide matrix. At 700 C to 800 C, a thin sulfide layer adjacent to the metal is also observed. At all temperatures, the rapid diffusion of cobalt outward through the interconnected sulfide appears to be important. At 650 C, the reaction rate slows dramatically after five minutes due to a change in the distribution of these sulfides. At 700 C and 750 C, the reaction is primarily diffusion controlled; values of diffusivity of cobalt (CoS) calculated from this work show favorable agreement with values of diffusivity of cobalt (CoS) calculated from previous sulfidation work. At 800 C, a surface step becomes rate limiting. Previously announced in STAR as N83-35104

  6. A Flow Stress Formulation of Magnesium Alloy at Elevated Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Juan; Cui Zhenshan; Ruan Liqun

    2007-05-17

    Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) is the main softening mechanism of magnesium alloy AZ31B in hot deformation. Theoretically, in the flow rule the atomic diffusibility and the driving force of dislocation migration are dependent on the temperature, and the dislocation density and the cumulation of grain boundary energy are dependent on the strain rate. The peak stress will appear when the flow driving force and resistance force reach a balance, after which the stress descending will take place due to recrystallization fraction. Since the DRX is a thermally activated process, the recrystallized volume fraction can be regarded as the function of strain through Avrami equation. Based on this idea, the paper proposes a new constitutive model characterizing dynamic recrystallization for magnesium alloy AZ31B. The model is described by a peak stress and a strain softening rate, in which the peak stress depends only on Zener-Hollomon parameter and is determined through creep equation, and the strain softening rate is mainly dominated by the recrystallized volume fraction. As a result, the formulation of flow stress takes into account of temperature, strain and strain rate, and is characterized by DRX. The thermomechanical simulation tests of magnesium alloy AZ31B by using Gleeble-1500 were conducted, through which the parameters in flow stress model can be easily determined. Comparison shows that the maximum difference of flow stress between the model predictions and test values is approximately 2.32%. This indicates that the proposed constitutive model can be employed to represent the DRX behaviour of AZ31B.

  7. Temperature elevation in the fetus from electromagnetic exposure during magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi

    2010-04-21

    This study computationally assessed the temperature elevations due to electromagnetic wave energy deposition during magnetic resonance imaging in non-pregnant and pregnant woman models. We used a thermal model with thermoregulatory response of the human body for our calculations. We also considered the effect of blood temperature variation on body core temperature. In a thermal equilibrium state, the temperature elevations in the intrinsic tissues of the woman and fetal tissues were 0.85 and 0.61 degrees C, respectively, at a whole-body averaged specific absorption rate of 2.0 W kg(-1), which is the restriction value of the International Electrotechnical Commission for the normal operating mode. As predicted, these values are below the temperature elevation of 1.5 degrees C that is expected to be teratogenic. However, these values exceeded the recommended temperature elevation limit of 0.5 degrees C by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. We also assessed the irradiation time required for a temperature elevation of 0.5 degrees C at the aforementioned specific absorption rate. As a result, the calculated irradiation time was 40 min.

  8. Temperature elevation in the fetus from electromagnetic exposure during magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi

    2010-04-01

    This study computationally assessed the temperature elevations due to electromagnetic wave energy deposition during magnetic resonance imaging in non-pregnant and pregnant woman models. We used a thermal model with thermoregulatory response of the human body for our calculations. We also considered the effect of blood temperature variation on body core temperature. In a thermal equilibrium state, the temperature elevations in the intrinsic tissues of the woman and fetal tissues were 0.85 and 0.61 °C, respectively, at a whole-body averaged specific absorption rate of 2.0 W kg-1, which is the restriction value of the International Electrotechnical Commission for the normal operating mode. As predicted, these values are below the temperature elevation of 1.5 °C that is expected to be teratogenic. However, these values exceeded the recommended temperature elevation limit of 0.5 °C by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. We also assessed the irradiation time required for a temperature elevation of 0.5 °C at the aforementioned specific absorption rate. As a result, the calculated irradiation time was 40 min.

  9. Elevated temperature fretting fatigue of nickel based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gean, Matthew C.

    This document details the high temperature fretting fatigue of high temperature nickel based alloys common to turbine disk and blade applications. The research consists of three area of focus: Experiments are conducted to determine quantitatively the fretting fatigue lives of advanced nickel based alloys; Analytical tools are developed and used to investigate the fretting fatigue response of the material; Fractographic analysis of the experimental results is used to improve the analytical models employed in the analysis of the experiments. Sixty three fretting fatigue experiments were conducted at 649 °C using a polycrystalline Nickel specimen in contact with directionally solidified and single crystal Nickel pads. Various influences on the fretting fatigue life are investigated. Shot peened Rene' 95 had better fretting fatigue life compared to shot peened Rene' 88. Shot peening produced a 2x increase in life for Rene' 95, but only a marginal improvement in the fretting fatigue life for Rene' 88. Minor cycles in variable amplitude loading produces significant damage to the specimen. Addition of occasional overpeaks in load produces improvements in fretting fatigue life. Contact tractions and stresses are obtained through a variety of available tools. The contact tractions can be efficiently obtained for limited geometries, while FEM can provide the contact tractions for a broader class of problems, but with the cost of increased CPU requirements. Similarly, the subsurface contact stresses can be obtained using the contact tractions as a boundary condition with either a semi-analytical FFT method or FEM. It is found that to calculate contact stresses the FFT was only marginally faster than FEM. The experimental results are combined with the analysis to produce tools that are used to design against fretting fatigue. Fractographic analysis of the fracture surface indicates the nature of the fretting fatigue crack behavior. Interrupted tests were performed to analyze

  10. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on Gynostemma pentaphyllum physiology and bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jia-Dong; Mantri, Nitin; Sun, Bin; Jiang, Li; Chen, Ping; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Zhengdong; Zhang, Jialei; Shen, Jiahao; Lu, Hongfei; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-06-01

    Recently, an important topic of research has been how climate change is seriously threatening the sustainability of agricultural production. However, there is surprisingly little experimental data regarding how elevated temperature and CO2 will affect the growth of medicinal plants and production of bioactive compounds. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on the photosynthetic process, biomass, total sugars, antioxidant compounds, antioxidant capacity, and bioactive compounds of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Two different CO2 concentrations [360 and 720μmolmol(-1)] were imposed on plants grown at two different temperature regimes of 23/18 and 28/23°C (day/night) for 60days. Results show that elevated CO2 and temperature significantly increase the biomass, particularly in proportion to inflorescence total dry weight. The chlorophyll content in leaves increased under the elevated temperature and CO2. Further, electron transport rate (ETR), photochemical quenching (qP), actual photochemical quantum yield (Yield), instantaneous photosynthetic rate (Photo), transpiration rate (Trmmol) and stomatal conductance (Cond) also increased to different degrees under elevated CO2 and temperature. Moreover, elevated CO2 increased the level of total sugars and gypenoside A, but decreased the total antioxidant capacity and main antioxidant compounds in different organs of G. pentaphyllum. Accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids also decreased in leaves, stems, and inflorescences under elevated CO2 and temperature. Overall, our data indicate that the predicted increase in atmospheric temperature and CO2 could improve the biomass of G. pentaphyllum, but they would reduce its health-promoting properties. PMID:27054772

  11. Grain boundary sliding in aluminum nano-bi-crystals deformed at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Zachary H; Jang, Dongchan; Weinberger, Christopher R; Greer, Julia R

    2014-01-15

    Room-temperature uniaxial compressions of 900-nm-diameter aluminum bi-crystals, each containing a high-angle grain boundary with a plane normal inclined at 24° to the loading direction, revealed frictional sliding along the boundary plane to be the dominant deformation mechanism. The top crystallite sheared off as a single unit in the course of compression instead of crystallographic slip and extensive dislocation activity, as would be expected. Compressive stress strain data of deforming nano bicrystals was continuous, in contrast to single crystalline nano structures that show a stochastic stress strain signature, and displayed a peak in stress at the elastic limit of ~ 176 MPa followed by gradual softening and a plateau centered around ~ 125 MPa. An energetics-based physical model, which may explain observed room-temperature grain boundary sliding, in presented, and observations are discussed within the framework of crystalline nano-plasticity and defect microstructure evolution.

  12. Analysis of Aluminum-Nitride SOI for High-Temperature Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegel, Bryan A.; Osman, Mohamed A.; Yu, Zhiping

    2000-01-01

    We use numerical simulation to investigate the high-temperature (up to 500K) operation of SOI MOSFETs with Aluminum-Nitride (AIN) buried insulators, rather than the conventional silicon-dioxide (SiO2). Because the thermal conductivity of AIN is about 100 times that of SiO2, AIN SOI should greatly reduce the often severe self-heating problem of conventional SOI, making SOI potentially suitable for high-temperature applications. A detailed electrothermal transport model is used in the simulations, and solved with a PDE solver called PROPHET In this work, we compare the performance of AIN-based SOI with that of SiO2-based SOI and conventional MOSFETs. We find that AIN SOI does indeed remove the self-heating penalty of SOL However, several device design trade-offs remain, which our simulations highlight.

  13. Grain boundary sliding in aluminum nano-bi-crystals deformed at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Zachary H; Jang, Dongchan; Weinberger, Christopher R; Greer, Julia R

    2014-01-15

    Room-temperature uniaxial compressions of 900-nm-diameter aluminum bi-crystals, each containing a high-angle grain boundary with a plane normal inclined at 24° to the loading direction, revealed frictional sliding along the boundary plane to be the dominant deformation mechanism. The top crystallite sheared off as a single unit in the course of compression instead of crystallographic slip and extensive dislocation activity, as would be expected. Compressive stress strain data of deforming nano bicrystals was continuous, in contrast to single crystalline nano structures that show a stochastic stress strain signature, and displayed a peak in stress at the elastic limit of ~ 176 MPa followed by gradual softening and a plateau centered around ~ 125 MPa. An energetics-based physical model, which may explain observed room-temperature grain boundary sliding, in presented, and observations are discussed within the framework of crystalline nano-plasticity and defect microstructure evolution. PMID:23873787

  14. Microstructure and tensile properties of tungsten at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tielong; Dai, Yong; Lee, Yongjoong

    2016-01-01

    In order to support the development of the 5 MW spallation target for the European Spallation Source, the effect of fabrication process on microstructure, ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), tensile and fracture behaviour of powder-metallurgy pure tungsten materials has been investigated. A hot-rolled (HR) tungsten piece of 12 mm thickness and a hot-forged (HF) piece of about 80 mm thickness were used to simulate the thin and thick blocks in the target. The two tungsten pieces were characterized with metallography analysis, hardness measurement and tensile testing. The HR piece exhibits an anisotropic grain structure with an average size of about 330 × 140 × 40 μm in rolling, long transverse and short transverse (thickness) directions. The HF piece possesses a bimodal grain structure with about 310 × 170 × 70 μm grain size in deformed part and about 25 μm sized grains remained from sintering process. Hardness (HV0.2) of the HR piece is slightly greater than that of the HF one. The ductility of the HR tungsten specimens is greater than that of the HF tungsten. For the HF tungsten piece, specimens with small grains in gauge section manifest lower ductility but higher strength. The DBTT evaluated from the tensile results is 250-300 °C for the HR tungsten and about 350 °C for the HF tungsten.

  15. Elevated Temperature Deformation of Cr3Si Alloyed with Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Zeumer, B.; Sauthoff, G.

    1998-01-01

    Four-point bend, constant load compressive creep and constant engineering strain rate tests were conducted on arc-melted and powder-metallurgy (PM) processed Cr40Mo30Si30 specimens in the temperature range 1400 and 1700 K. This is a two phase alloy consisting of (CrMo)3Si and (Cr,Mo)5Si3 phases. The PM specimens, which were substantially weaker than the arc-melted materials, exhibited a stress exponent n, of about 2 and an apparent activation energy for creep, Q(sub 3), of 485 kJ/mol. The mechanism in these specimens appeared to be controlled by creep of a glassy phase. In the case of arc-melted specimens for which nis approximately 3 and Q(sub 3) is approximately 430 kJ/mol, the rate-controlling creep mechanism appeared to be that dominant in the (Cr,Mo)5Si3 phase. In this case, it is suggested that the Nabarro creep mechanism, where dislocation climb is controlled by Bardeen-Herring vacancy sources, is the dominant creep mechanism. Finally, an analysis of the present and literature data on Cr3Si alloyed with Mo appeared to suggest that the creep rate decreases sharply with an increase in the Mo/Si ratio.

  16. Kinetics of Death of Bacterial Spores at Elevated Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Daniel I-C.; Scharer, Jeno; Humphrey, Arthur E.

    1964-01-01

    The kinetics of death of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores (FS 7954) suspended in phosphate buffer (pH 7) were studied over a temperature range of 127.2 to 143.8 C and exposure times of 0.203 to 4.150 sec. These short exposure were achieved by use of a tubular flow reactor in which a suspension of spores was injected into a hot flowing stream at the entrance of the reactor. Thermal equilibria of the suspension with the hot stream was achieved within 0.0006 sec. After flow through a fixed length of reactor, the stream containing the spores was cooled by flash vaporization and then assayed for viable count. The death rate data were fitted by a logarithmic expression. However, logarithmic death rate was only approximated in the tail or high-kill regions of exposure. Death rate constants obtained from this portion of the data were found to correlate by Arrhenius as well as Absolute Reaction Rate Theory relationships. Thermal-death time curves were found to correlate the data rather poorly. The activation energy and frequency constant for an Arrhenius relationship fit of the data were found to be 83.6 kcal/gmole and 1047.2 min-1, respectively. The standard enthalpy and entropy changes for an Absolute Reaction Rate Theory relationship fit of the data were found to be 84.4 kcal/gmole and 157 cal/gmole-K, respectively. PMID:14215978

  17. Thermorecovery of cyanobacterial fatty acids at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyao; Curtiss, Roy

    2012-11-15

    We have developed a genetic system we call "thermorecovery" that allows us to lyse cyanobacterial cultures and hydrolyze membrane lipids to release free fatty acids (FFAs), a biofuel precursor. The system uses thermostable lipases encoded by genes from thermophilic organisms that have been transferred into the cyanobacterial genome and can be synthesized by turning off CO(2) availability and subsequently activated by increasing the concentrated culture temperature. When synthesized in FFA-producing strains, the lipase Fnl from Fervidobacterium nodosum Rt17-B1 released the most FFA. Of the seven candidate lipases investigated, Fnl-synthesizing strains yielded 42.7±1.5 mg/l FFA at 47°C. We also determined that the optimal production conditions for SD338, the Synechocystis strain synthesizing Fnl, was to keep the cell concentrates at 46°C for two days after a one-day CO(2) limitation pretreatment of the culture. A 4-l continuous semi-batch production experiment with SD338 showed that daily harvested cultures (1l) released an average of 43.9±6.6 mg fatty acid and this productivity lasted for at least 20 days without significant decline. This improved thermorecovery process can be used in conjunction with other means to genetically engineer cyanobacteria to produce biofuels or biofuel precursors as the final step in recovery of membrane lipids. PMID:22944207

  18. Aluminum speciation in aqueous fluids at deep crustal pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookherjee, Mainak; Keppler, Hans; Manning, Craig E.

    2014-05-01

    We investigated aluminum speciation in aqueous fluids in equilibrium with corundum using in situ Raman spectroscopy in hydrothermal diamond anvil cells to 20 kbar and 1000 °C. We have studied aluminum species in (a) pure H2O, (b) 5.3 m KOH solution, and (c) 1 m KOH solution. In order to better understand the spectral features of the aqueous fluids, we used ab initio simulations based on density functional theory to calculate and predict the energetics and vibrational spectra for various aluminum species that are likely to be present in aqueous solutions. The Raman spectra of pure water in equilibrium with Al2O3 are devoid of any characteristic spectral features. In contrast, aqueous fluids with 5.3 m and 1 m KOH solution in equilibrium with Al2O3 show a sharp band at ˜620 cm-1 which could be attributed to the [ species. The band grows in intensity with temperature along an isochore. A shoulder on the high-frequency side of this band may be due to a hydrated, charge neutral Al(OH)3·H2O species. In the limited pressure, temperature and density explored in the present study, we do not find any evidence for the polymerization of the [ species to dimers [(OH)2-Al-(OH)2-Al(OH)2] or [(OH)3-Al-O-Al(OH)3]2-. This is likely due to the relatively low concentration of Al in the solutions and does not rule out significant polymerization at higher pressures and temperatures. Upon cooling of Al-bearing solutions to room temperatures, Raman bands indicating the precipitation of diaspore (AlOOH) were observed in some experiments. The Raman spectra of the KOH solutions (with or without dissolved alumina) showed a sharp OH stretching band at ˜3614 cm-1 and an in-plane OH bending vibration at ˜1068 cm-1, likely related to an OH- ion with the oxygen atom attached to a water molecule by hydrogen bonding. A weak feature at ˜935 cm-1 may be related to the out-of-plane bending vibration of the same species or to an OH species with a different environment.

  19. The Environmental Cost of Misinformation: Why the Recommendation to Use Elevated Temperatures for Handwashing is Problematic

    PubMed Central

    Carrico, Amanda R.; Spoden, Micajah; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Vandenbergh, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple government and health organizations recommend the use of warm or hot water in publications designed to educate the public on best practices for washing one’s hands. This is despite research suggesting that the use of an elevated water temperature does not improve handwashing efficacy, but can cause hand irritation. There is reason to believe that the perception that warm or hot water is more effective at cleaning one’s hands is pervasive, and may be one factor that is driving up unnecessary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. We examine handwashing practices and beliefs about water temperature using a survey of 510 adults in the United States. The survey included measures of handwashing frequency, duration, the proportion of time an elevated temperature was used, and beliefs about water temperature and handwashing efficacy. We also estimate the energy consumed and resultant carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (CO2eq) in the U.S. due to the use of elevated temperatures during handwashing. Participants used an elevated temperature 64% of the time, causing 6.3 million metric tons (MMt) of CO2eq which is 0.1% of total annual emissions and 0.3% of commercial and residential sector emissions. Roughly 69% of the sample believed that elevated temperatures improve handwashing efficacy. Updating these beliefs could prevent 1 MMt of CO2eq annually, exceeding the total emissions from many industrial sources in the U.S. including the Lead and Zinc industries. In addition to causing skin irritation, the recommendation to use an elevated temperature during handwashing contributes to another major threat to public health—climate change. Health and consumer protection organizations should consider advocating for the use of a “comfortable” temperature rather than warm or hot water. PMID:23814480

  20. The Environmental Cost of Misinformation: Why the Recommendation to Use Elevated Temperatures for Handwashing is Problematic.

    PubMed

    Carrico, Amanda R; Spoden, Micajah; Wallston, Kenneth A; Vandenbergh, Michael P

    2013-07-01

    Multiple government and health organizations recommend the use of warm or hot water in publications designed to educate the public on best practices for washing one's hands. This is despite research suggesting that the use of an elevated water temperature does not improve handwashing efficacy, but can cause hand irritation. There is reason to believe that the perception that warm or hot water is more effective at cleaning one's hands is pervasive, and may be one factor that is driving up unnecessary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. We examine handwashing practices and beliefs about water temperature using a survey of 510 adults in the United States. The survey included measures of handwashing frequency, duration, the proportion of time an elevated temperature was used, and beliefs about water temperature and handwashing efficacy. We also estimate the energy consumed and resultant carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (CO2eq) in the U.S. due to the use of elevated temperatures during handwashing. Participants used an elevated temperature 64% of the time, causing 6.3 million metric tons (MMt) of CO2eq which is 0.1% of total annual emissions and 0.3% of commercial and residential sector emissions. Roughly 69% of the sample believed that elevated temperatures improve handwashing efficacy. Updating these beliefs could prevent 1 MMt of CO2eq annually, exceeding the total emissions from many industrial sources in the U.S. including the Lead and Zinc industries. In addition to causing skin irritation, the recommendation to use an elevated temperature during handwashing contributes to another major threat to public health-climate change. Health and consumer protection organizations should consider advocating for the use of a "comfortable" temperature rather than warm or hot water. PMID:23814480

  1. Qualification of diesel generator exhaust carbon steel piping to intermitted elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ratiu, M.D.; Moisidis, N.T.

    1996-02-01

    The diesel generator exhaust piping, usually made up of carbon steel piping (e.g., ASME SA-106, SA-53), is subjected to successive short time exposures at elevated temperatures up to 1,000 F (538 C). A typical design of this piping, without consideration for creep-fatigue cumulative damage, is at least incomplete, if not inappropriate. Also, a design for creep-fatigue, usually employed for long-term exposure to elevated temperatures, would be too conservative and will impose replacement of the carbon steel piping with heat-resistant CrMo alloy piping. The existing ASME standard procedures do not explicitly provide acceptance criteria for the design qualification to withstand these intermittent exposures to elevated temperatures. The serviceability qualification proposed is based on the evaluation of equivalent full temperature cycles which are presumed/expected to be experienced by the exhaust piping during the design operating life of the diesel engine. The proposed serviceability analysis consists of: (a) determination of the permissible stress at elevated temperatures, and (b) estimation of creep-fatigue damage for the total expected cycles of elevated temperature exposures following the procedure provided in ASME Code Cases N-253-6 and N-47-28.

  2. Elevated CO2 and temperature increase soil C losses from a soy-maize ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warming temperatures and increasing CO2 are likely to have large effects on the amount of carbon stored in soil, but predictions of these effects are poorly constrained. We elevated temperature (canopy: +2.8 °C; soil growing season: +1.8 °C; soil fallow: +2.3 °C) for three years within the 9th-11th ...

  3. A unique elevated-temperature tension-torsion fatigue test rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, E. H.; Chan, C. T.

    1987-06-01

    A unique tension-torsion fatigue test set up is described that allows strain-controlled tests at temperatures exceeding 649 C. The machine uses a large die set as a load frame resulting in lower cost and superior parallel positioning of the crossheads. Disposable weld-on grips were found to be cost effective for elevated-temperature testing. A new extensometer using commercially available capacitance probes was developed which can operate at the elevated temperature without cooling. Capacitance ring probes were utilized in an attempt to measure through-thickness strains. The characteristic behavior of the ring probes is discussed. Design modifications needed to make a successful measurement of through-thickness strains at elevated temperatures are presented.

  4. Thermal Characteristics of an Aluminum Thin Film due to Temperature Disturbance at Film Edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Haider; Mansoor, Saad Bin; Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2015-01-01

    Phonon transport in an aluminum thin film is simulated due to a temperature disturbance across the film. The Boltzmann equation is introduced to formulate the radiative transport in the electron and lattice sub-systems. The transient and frequency dependence of the phonon transport is considered, and dispersion relations are accommodated to account for the group velocities in the analysis. Electron-phonon coupling is employed to couple the energy transport across the electron and lattice sub-systems. An equivalent equilibrium temperature is presented to assess the characteristics of the phonon intensity in the film. Temperature predictions are validated with data presented in a previous study. It is found that the equivalent equilibrium temperature differs significantly from that obtained from the two-equation model. The film thickness influences the transport characteristics of the film, in which case the time to reach an almost quasi-steady temperature is shorter for the thin film (, where is the film thickness) than that corresponding to the thick film (). In the diffusion limit (when the Knudsen number , where is the mean free path), it is demonstrated that the radiative transport equation reduces to the formulation of the two-equation model.

  5. Leaf physiological responses of mature Norway Spruce trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamba, Shubhangi; Uddling, Johan; Räntfors, Mats; Hall, Marianne; Wallin, Göran

    2014-05-01

    Leaf photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance exert strong control over the exchange of carbon, water and energy between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. As such, leaf physiological responses to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and temperature have important implications for the global carbon cycle and rate of ongoing global warming, as well as for local and regional hydrology and evaporative cooling. It is therefore critical to improve the understanding of plant physiological responses to elevated [CO2] and temperature, in particular for boreal and tropical ecosystems. In order to do so, we examined physiological responses of mature boreal Norway spruce trees (ca 40-years old) exposed to elevated [CO2] and temperature inside whole-tree chambers at Flakaliden research site, Northern Sweden. The trees were exposed to a factorial combination of two levels of [CO2] (ambient and doubled) and temperature (ambient and +2.8 degree C in summer and +5.6 degree C in winter). Three replicates in each of the four treatments were used. It was found that photosynthesis was increased considerably in elevated [CO2], but was not affected by the warming treatment. The maximum rate of photosynthetic carboxylation was reduced in the combined elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature treatment, but not in single factor treatments. Elevated [CO2] also strongly increased the base rate of respiration and to a lesser extent reduced the temperature sensitivity (Q10 value) of respiration; responses which may be important for the carbon balance of these trees which have a large proportion of shaded foliage. Stomatal conductance at a given VPD was reduced by elevated temperature treatment, to a degree that mostly offset the higher vapour pressure deficit in warmed air with respect to transpiration. Elevated [CO2] did not affect stomatal conductance, and thus increased the ratio of leaf internal to external [CO2]. These results indicate that the large elevated

  6. Shifting and extension of phenological periods with increasing temperature along elevational transects in southern Bavaria.

    PubMed

    Schuster, C; Estrella, N; Menzel, A

    2014-03-01

    The impact of global warming on phenology has been widely studied, and almost consistently advancing spring events have been reported. Especially in alpine regions, an extraordinary rapid warming has been observed in the last decades. However, little is known about phenological phases over the whole vegetation period at high elevations. We observed 12 phenological phases of seven tree species and measured air temperature at 42 sites along four transects of about 1000 m elevational range in the years 2010 and 2011 near Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. Site- and species-specific onset dates for the phenological phases were determined and related to elevation, temperature lapse rates and site-specific temperature sums. Increasing temperatures induced advanced spring and delayed autumn phases, in which both yielded similar magnitudes. Delayed leaf senescence could therefore have been underestimated until now in extending the vegetation period. Not only the vegetation period, but also phenological periods extended with increasing temperature. Moreover, sensitivity to elevation and temperature strongly depends on the specific phenological phase. Differences between species and groups of species (deciduous, evergreen, high elevation) were found in onset dates, phenological response rates and also in the effect of chilling and forcing temperatures. Increased chilling days highly reduced forcing temperature requirements for deciduous trees, but less for evergreen trees. The problem of shifted species associations and phenological mismatches due to species-specific responses to increasing temperature is a recent topic in ecological research. Therefore, we consider our findings from this novel, dense observation network in an alpine area of particular importance to deepen knowledge on phenological responses to climate change.

  7. Sessile droplet freezing and ice adhesion on aluminum with different surface wettability and surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, JunFei; Shi, QingWen; Wang, ZhiLe; Wang, FaJun; Xue, MingShan; Li, Wen; Yan, GuiLong

    2015-07-01

    This paper focused on the sessile droplet freezing and ice adhesion on aluminum with different wettability (hydrophilic, common hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic surfaces, coded as HIS, CHS, SHS, respectively) over a surface temperature range of -9°C to -19°C. It was found that SHS could retard the sessile droplet freezing and lower the ice adhesion probably due to the interfacial air pockets (IAPs) on water/SHS interface. However, as surface temperature decreasing, some IAPs were squeezed out and such freezing retarding and adhesion lowering effect for SHS was reduced greatly. For a surface temperature of -19°C, ice adhesion on SHS was even greater than that on CHS. To discover the reason for the squeezing out of IAPs, forces applied to the suspended water on IAPs were analyzed and it was found that the stability of IAPs was associated with surface micro-structures and surface temperature. These findings might be helpful to designing of SHS with good anti-icing properties.

  8. High Temperature Annealing Studies on the Piezoelectric Properties of Thin Aluminum Nitride Films

    SciTech Connect

    R. Farrell; V. R. Pagan; A. Kabulski; Sridhar Kuchibhatl; J. Harman; K. R. Kasarla; L. E. Rodak; P. Famouri; J. Peter Hensel; D. Korakakis

    2008-05-01

    A Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) system was used to anneal sputtered and MOVPE grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin films at temperatures up to 1000°C in ambient and controlled environments. According to Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX), the films annealed in an ambient environment rapidly oxidize after five minutes at 1000°C. Below 1000°C the films oxidized linearly as a function of annealing temperature which is consistent with what has been reported in literature [1]. Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) was used to measure the piezoelectric coefficient, d33, of these films. Films annealed in an ambient environment had a weak piezoelectric response indicating that oxidation on the surface of the film reduces the value of d33. A high temperature furnace has been built that is capable of taking in-situ measurements of the piezoelectric response of AlN films. In-situ d33 measurements are recorded up to 300°C for both sputtered and MOVPE-grown AlN thin films. The measured piezoelectric response appears to increase with temperature up to 300°C possibly due to stress in the film.

  9. High Temperature Annealing Studies on the Piezoelectric Properties of Thin Aluminum Nitride Films

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, R.; Pagan, V.R.; Kabulski, A.; Kuchibhatla, S.; Harman, J.; Kasarla, K.R.; Rodak, L.E.; Hensel, J.P.; Famouri, P.; Korakakis, D.

    2008-01-01

    A Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) system was used to anneal sputtered and MOVPE-grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin films at temperatures up to 1000°C in ambient and controlled environments. According to Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX), the films annealed in an ambient environment rapidly oxidize after five minutes at 1000°C. Below 1000°C the films oxidized linearly as a function of annealing temperature which is consistent with what has been reported in literature [1]. Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) was used to measure the piezoelectric coefficient, d33, of these films. Films annealed in an ambient environment had a weak piezoelectric response indicating that oxidation on the surface of the film reduces the value of d33. A high temperature furnace has been built that is capable of taking in-situ measurements of the piezoelectric response of AlN films. In-situ d33 measurements are recorded up to 300°C for both sputtered and MOVPE-grown AlN thin films. The measured piezoelectric response appears to increase with temperature up to 300°C possibly due to stress in the film.

  10. Anodization of nanoporous alumina on impurity-induced hemisphere curved surface of aluminum at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chen-Kuei; Liao, Ming-Wei; Lee, Chun-Te; Chang, Hao-Chin

    2011-11-01

    Nanoporous alumina which was produced by a conventional direct current anodization [DCA] process at low temperatures has received much attention in various applications such as nanomaterial synthesis, sensors, and photonics. In this article, we employed a newly developed hybrid pulse anodization [HPA] method to fabricate the nanoporous alumina on a flat and curved surface of an aluminum [Al] foil at room temperature [RT]. We fabricate the nanopores to grow on a hemisphere curved surface and characterize their behavior along the normal vectors of the hemisphere curve. In a conventional DCA approach, the structures of branched nanopores were grown on a photolithography-and-etched low-curvature curved surface with large interpore distances. However, a high-curvature hemisphere curved surface can be obtained by the HPA technique. Such a curved surface by HPA is intrinsically induced by the high-resistivity impurities in the aluminum foil and leads to branching and bending of nanopore growth via the electric field mechanism rather than the interpore distance in conventional approaches. It is noted that by the HPA technique, the Joule heat during the RT process has been significantly suppressed globally on the material, and nanopores have been grown along the normal vectors of a hemisphere curve. The curvature is much larger than that in other literatures due to different fabrication methods. In theory, the number of nanopores on the hemisphere surface is two times of the conventional flat plane, which is potentially useful for photocatalyst or other applications. PACS: 81.05.Rm; 81.07.-b; 82.45.Cc.

  11. A comparison of deflagration rates at elevated pressures and temperatures with thermal explosion results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glascoe, Elizabeth A.; Springer, Harry Keo; Tringe, Joseph; Maienschein, Jon L.

    2012-03-01

    The deflagration rate of HMX-based explosives has previously been correlated with the violence of thermal explosion experiments. In particular, HMX-based materials that experience deconsolidative burning at elevated pressures (i.e. P = 200 - 600 MPa) also produce significantly more violent thermal explosions. We now report deflagration rates at elevated temperatures (i.e. T = 150 - 180C) and moderate pressures (i.e. P = 10 - 100 MPa). These conditions more closely mimic the pressures and temperatures of an explosive shortly after ignition of a thermal explosion. Here, we discuss the deflagration rates of HMX-based explosives at elevated temperatures and their usefulness to predict the thermal explosion violence of the same materials.

  12. Temperature Variations with Changing Solar Elevation in Saturn's Main Rings as Seen by Cassini CIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Linda J.; Flandes, A.; Altobelli, N.; Leyrat, C.; Pilorz, S.; Ferrari, C.

    2008-09-01

    During four years in orbit around Saturn, the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has acquired an extensive set of thermal measurements of Saturn's main rings (A, B, C and Cassini Division). Temperatures were retrieved for the lit and unlit rings over a variety of ring geometries that include solar phase angle, spacecraft elevation, solar elevation and local hour angle. To first order, the largest temperature changes on the lit face of the rings are driven by variations in phase angle while differences in temperature with changing spacecraft elevation and local time are a secondary effect. Once phase angle and local time effects are taken into account, decreases in ring temperature with decreasing solar elevation are observed for both the lit and unlit faces of the rings. For the lit rings,decreases of 2- 4 K are observed in the C ring and larger decreases, 7-10 and 10 - 13 K, are observed in the A and B rings respectively. Our thermal data cover a range of solar elevations from -21 to -12 degrees (south side of the rings). We test two simple models to assess how well they fit the observed decreases in temperature. The first model assumes that the particles are so widely spaced that they do not cast shadows on one another while the second model assumes that the particles are so close together they essentially form a slab. The optically thinnest and optically thickest regions of the rings show the best fits to these two end member models. We present a preliminary report on ring temperature variations as a function of solar elevation in Saturn's rings. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2008 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  13. Additive pressures of elevated sea surface temperatures and herbicides on symbiont-bearing foraminifera.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Joost W; Negri, Andrew P; Mueller, Jochen F; Altenburger, Rolf; Uthicke, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Elevated ocean temperatures and agrochemical pollution individually threaten inshore coral reefs, but these pressures are likely to occur simultaneously. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the combined effects of elevated temperature and the photosystem II (PSII) inhibiting herbicide diuron on several types of symbiotic algae (diatom, dinoflagellate or rhodophyte) of benthic foraminifera in hospite. Diuron was shown to evoke a direct effect on photosynthetic efficiency (reduced effective PSII quantum yield ΔF/F'(m)), while elevated temperatures (>30 °C, only 2 °C above current average summer temperatures) were observed to impact photosynthesis more indirectly by causing reductions in maximum PSII quantum yield (F(v)/F(m)), interpreted as photodamage. Additionally, elevated temperatures were shown to cause bleaching through loss of chlorophyll a in foraminifera hosting either diatoms or dinoflagellates. A significant linear correlation was found between reduced F(v)/F(m) and loss of chlorophyll a. In most cases, symbionts within foraminifera proved more sensitive to thermal stress in the presence of diuron (≥ 1 µg L(-1)). The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action (IA) described the combined effects of temperature and diuron on the photosystem of species hosting diatoms or dinoflagellates convincingly and in agreement with probabilistic statistics, so a response additive joint action can be assumed. We thus demonstrate that improving water quality can improve resilience of symbiotic phototrophs to projected increases in ocean temperatures. As IA described the observed combined effects from elevated temperature and diuron stress it may therefore be employed for prediction of untested mixtures and for assessing the efficacy of management measures. PMID:22439012

  14. Additive Pressures of Elevated Sea Surface Temperatures and Herbicides on Symbiont-Bearing Foraminifera

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Joost W.; Negri, Andrew P.; Mueller, Jochen F.; Altenburger, Rolf; Uthicke, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Elevated ocean temperatures and agrochemical pollution individually threaten inshore coral reefs, but these pressures are likely to occur simultaneously. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the combined effects of elevated temperature and the photosystem II (PSII) inhibiting herbicide diuron on several types of symbiotic algae (diatom, dinoflagellate or rhodophyte) of benthic foraminifera in hospite. Diuron was shown to evoke a direct effect on photosynthetic efficiency (reduced effective PSII quantum yield ΔF/F′m), while elevated temperatures (>30°C, only 2°C above current average summer temperatures) were observed to impact photosynthesis more indirectly by causing reductions in maximum PSII quantum yield (Fv/Fm), interpreted as photodamage. Additionally, elevated temperatures were shown to cause bleaching through loss of chlorophyll a in foraminifera hosting either diatoms or dinoflagellates. A significant linear correlation was found between reduced Fv/Fm and loss of chlorophyll a. In most cases, symbionts within foraminifera proved more sensitive to thermal stress in the presence of diuron (≥1 µg L−1). The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action (IA) described the combined effects of temperature and diuron on the photosystem of species hosting diatoms or dinoflagellates convincingly and in agreement with probabilistic statistics, so a response additive joint action can be assumed. We thus demonstrate that improving water quality can improve resilience of symbiotic phototrophs to projected increases in ocean temperatures. As IA described the observed combined effects from elevated temperature and diuron stress it may therefore be employed for prediction of untested mixtures and for assessing the efficacy of management measures. PMID:22439012

  15. Additive pressures of elevated sea surface temperatures and herbicides on symbiont-bearing foraminifera.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Joost W; Negri, Andrew P; Mueller, Jochen F; Altenburger, Rolf; Uthicke, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Elevated ocean temperatures and agrochemical pollution individually threaten inshore coral reefs, but these pressures are likely to occur simultaneously. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the combined effects of elevated temperature and the photosystem II (PSII) inhibiting herbicide diuron on several types of symbiotic algae (diatom, dinoflagellate or rhodophyte) of benthic foraminifera in hospite. Diuron was shown to evoke a direct effect on photosynthetic efficiency (reduced effective PSII quantum yield ΔF/F'(m)), while elevated temperatures (>30 °C, only 2 °C above current average summer temperatures) were observed to impact photosynthesis more indirectly by causing reductions in maximum PSII quantum yield (F(v)/F(m)), interpreted as photodamage. Additionally, elevated temperatures were shown to cause bleaching through loss of chlorophyll a in foraminifera hosting either diatoms or dinoflagellates. A significant linear correlation was found between reduced F(v)/F(m) and loss of chlorophyll a. In most cases, symbionts within foraminifera proved more sensitive to thermal stress in the presence of diuron (≥ 1 µg L(-1)). The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action (IA) described the combined effects of temperature and diuron on the photosystem of species hosting diatoms or dinoflagellates convincingly and in agreement with probabilistic statistics, so a response additive joint action can be assumed. We thus demonstrate that improving water quality can improve resilience of symbiotic phototrophs to projected increases in ocean temperatures. As IA described the observed combined effects from elevated temperature and diuron stress it may therefore be employed for prediction of untested mixtures and for assessing the efficacy of management measures.

  16. Behaviour during elevated water temperatures: can physiology explain movement of juvenile Atlantic salmon to cool water?

    PubMed

    Breau, Cindy; Cunjak, Richard A; Peake, Stephan J

    2011-07-01

    1. Temperature governs most physiological processes in animals. Ectotherms behaviourally thermoregulate by selecting habitats with temperatures regulating their body temperature for optimal physiological functioning. However, ectotherms can experience temperature extremes forcing the organisms to seek temperature refuge. 2. Fish actively avoid potentially lethal temperatures by moving to cool-water sites created by inflowing tributaries and groundwater seeps. Juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) of different age classes exhibit different behavioural responses to elevated temperatures (>23 °C). Yearling (1+) and 2-year-old (2+) Atlantic salmon often cease feeding, abandon territorial behaviour and swim continuously in aggregations in cool-water sites; whereas young-of-the-year (0+) fish continue defending territories and foraging. 3. This study determined whether the behavioural shift in older individuals (2+) occurred when basal metabolic rate, driven by increasing water temperature, reached the maximum metabolic rate such that anaerobic pathways were recruited to provide energy to support vital processes. Behaviour (feeding and stress responses), oxygen consumption, muscle lactate and glycogen, and circulating blood lactate and glucose concentrations were measured in wild 0+ and 2+ Atlantic salmon acclimated to water temperatures between 16 and 28 °C. 4. Results indicate that oxygen consumption of the 2+ fish increased with temperature and reached a plateau at 24 °C, a temperature that corresponded to cessation of feeding and a significant increase in muscle and blood lactate levels. By contrast, oxygen consumption in 0+ fish did not reach a plateau, feeding continued and muscle lactate did not increase, even at the highest temperatures tested (28 °C). 5. To conclude, the experiment demonstrated that the 0+ and 2+ fish had different physiological responses to the elevated water temperatures. The results suggest that wild 2+ Atlantic salmon employ behavioural

  17. Apparatus for production, measurement and reaction studies of dissociated gases at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. D.; Gilbreath, W. P.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus is described which is used for the controlled production, characterization, and study of dissociated gases in a microwave discharge at elevated temperatures. A unique feature is the ability to produce and study a microwave discharge plasma in the heated zone. This allows elevated temperature reactions to be studied in high concentrations of dissociated gases. Further, the system permits weight change measurements of specimens in the plasma, thus facilitating reaction rate determinations. Included is a description of a cavity for use on a 50-mm diameter cylindrical reactor. The effects of flow rate, pressure, temperature, power, metal sample, and sampling position on dissociation percentage of oxygen in the apparatus are described as well as a technique for sample temperature measurements in the plasma which permits determination of high temperature recombination coefficients and reaction rates.

  18. High-resolution absorption cross sections of C2H6 at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, Robert J.; Buzan, Eric; Dulick, Michael; Bernath, Peter F.

    2015-11-01

    Infrared absorption cross sections near 3.3 μm have been obtained for ethane, C2H6. These were acquired at elevated temperatures (up to 773 K) using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and tube furnace with a resolution of 0.005 cm-1. The integrated absorption was calibrated using composite infrared spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These new measurements are the first high-resolution infrared C2H6 cross sections at elevated temperatures.

  19. Reliability and life prediction of ceramic composite structures at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Stephen F.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1994-01-01

    Methods are highlighted that ascertain the structural reliability of components fabricated of composites with ceramic matrices reinforced with ceramic fibers or whiskers and subject to quasi-static load conditions at elevated temperatures. Each method focuses on a particular composite microstructure: whisker-toughened ceramics, laminated ceramic matrix composites, and fabric reinforced ceramic matrix composites. In addition, since elevated service temperatures usually involve time-dependent effects, a section dealing with reliability degradation as a function of load history has been included. A recurring theme throughout this chapter is that even though component failure is controlled by a sequence of many microfailure events, failure of ceramic composites will be modeled using macrovariables.

  20. Thermal Output of WK-Type Strain Gauges on Various Materials at Cryogenic and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalkowski, Matthew K.; Rivers, H. Kevin; Smith, Russell W.

    1998-01-01

    Strain gage apparent strain (thermal output) is one of the largest sources of error associated with the measurement of strain when temperatures and mechanical loads are varied. In this paper, experimentally determined apparent strains of WK-type strain gages, installed on both metallic and composite-laminate materials of various lay-ups and resin systems for temperatures ranging from -450 F to 230 F are presented. For the composite materials apparent strain in both the 0 ply orientation angle and the 90 ply orientation angle were measured. Metal specimens tested included: aluminum-lithium alloy (Al-LI 2195-T87), aluminum alloy (Al 2219-T87), and titanium alloy. Composite materials tested include: graphite-toughened-epoxy (IM7/997- 2), graphite-bismaleimide (IM7/5260), and graphite-K3 (IM7/K3B). The experimentally determined apparent strain data are curve fit with a fourth-order polynomial for each of the materials studied. The apparent strain data and the polynomials that are fit to the data are compared with those produced by the strain gage manufacturer, and the results and comparisons are presented. Unacceptably high errors between the manufacture's data and the experimentally determined data were observed (especially at temperatures below - 270-F).

  1. Mechanisms of fatigue crack growth in Ti-48Al at ambient and elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Soboyejo, W.O.; Mercer, C.; Aswath, P.B.

    1995-10-01

    Gamma-based titanium aluminides are of practical interest due to their potential to replace nickel- and cobalt-based alloys in aeroengines. The results of a study of crack-tip deformation on the mechanisms of fatigue crack growth in a model powder metallurgy (P/M) gamma-based titanium aluminide intermetallic (Ti-48Al) are presented in this paper. Note that compositions are quoted in atomic % unless stated otherwise. Crack-tip deformation is shown to occur by a combination of deformation-induced twinning and conventional slip at room temperature, and conventional reversed plasticity/slip only at elevated temperature (700 C). Differences between crack-tip deformation mechanisms at room- and elevated-temperature are explained by crack-tip transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The potential effects of twin toughening are also quantified using optical interference measurements of twin process zones and micromechanical models. The implications of the different crack-tip deformation mechanisms for cyclic irreversibility are discussed for crack growth at room- and elevated-temperature. The results suggest that slower fatigue crack growth rates at elevated-temperature are due to differences in crack-tip deformation and closure mechanisms.

  2. Physiological, biochemical and molecular responses of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plant to moderately elevated temperature.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Robert D; Morris, Wayne L; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Jenny A; Usman, Muhammad; Verrall, Susan R; Fuller, John; Simpson, Craig G; Zhang, Runxuan; Hedley, Pete E; Taylor, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Although significant work has been undertaken regarding the response of model and crop plants to heat shock during the acclimatory phase, few studies have examined the steady-state response to the mild heat stress encountered in temperate agriculture. In the present work, we therefore exposed tuberizing potato plants to mildly elevated temperatures (30/20 °C, day/night) for up to 5 weeks and compared tuber yield, physiological and biochemical responses, and leaf and tuber metabolomes and transcriptomes with plants grown under optimal conditions (22/16 °C). Growth at elevated temperature reduced tuber yield despite an increase in net foliar photosynthesis. This was associated with major shifts in leaf and tuber metabolite profiles, a significant decrease in leaf glutathione redox state and decreased starch synthesis in tubers. Furthermore, growth at elevated temperature had a profound impact on leaf and tuber transcript expression with large numbers of transcripts displaying a rhythmic oscillation at the higher growth temperature. RT-PCR revealed perturbation in the expression of circadian clock transcripts including StSP6A, previously identified as a tuberization signal. Our data indicate that potato plants grown at moderately elevated temperatures do not exhibit classic symptoms of abiotic stress but that tuber development responds via a diversity of biochemical and molecular signals.

  3. Plasma hyperosmolality elevates the internal temperature threshold for active thermoregulatory vasodilation during heat stress in humans.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Manabu; Aoki, Ken; Morimoto, Keiko; Johnson, John M; Takamata, Akira

    2009-12-01

    Plasma hyperosmolality delays the response in skin blood flow to heat stress by elevating the internal temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation. This elevation could be because of a delayed onset of cutaneous active vasodilation and/or to persistent cutaneous active vasoconstriction. Seven healthy men were infused with either hypertonic (3% NaCl) or isotonic (0.9% NaCl) saline and passively heated by immersing their lower legs in 42 degrees C water for 60 min (room temperature, 28 degrees C; relative humidity, 40%). Skin blood flow was monitored via laser-Doppler flowmetry at sites pretreated with bretylium tosylate (BT) to block sympathetic vasoconstriction selectively and at adjacent control sites. Plasma osmolality was increased by approximately 13 mosmol/kgH(2)O following hypertonic saline infusion and was unchanged following isotonic saline infusion. The esophageal temperature (T(es)) threshold for cutaneous vasodilation at untreated sites was significantly elevated in the hyperosmotic state (37.73 +/- 0.11 degrees C) relative to the isosmotic state (36.63 +/- 0.12 degrees C, P < 0.001). A similar elevation of the T(es) threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was observed between osmotic conditions at the BT-treated sites (37.74 +/- 0.18 vs. 36.67 +/- 0.07 degrees C, P < 0.001) as well as sweating. These results suggest that the hyperosmotically induced elevation of the internal temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation is due primarily to an elevation in the internal temperature threshold for the onset of active vasodilation, and not to an enhancement of vasoconstrictor activity.

  4. Seawater acidification and elevated temperature affect gene expression patterns of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenguang; Huang, Xiande; Lin, Jianshi; He, Maoxian

    2012-01-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide results in decrease in seawater pH and increase in temperature. In this study, we demonstrated the synergistic effects of elevated seawater temperature and declined seawater pH on gene expression patterns of aspein, calmodulin, nacrein, she-7-F10 and hsp70 in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Under 'business-as-usual' scenarios, four treatments were examined: (1) ambient pH (8.10) and ambient temperature (27 °C) (control condition), (2) ambient pH and elevated temperature (+3 °C), (3) declined pH (7.70) and ambient temperature, (4) declined pH and elevated temperature. The results showed that under warming and acidic seawater conditions, expression of aspein and calmodulin showed no significant differences among different time point in condition 8.10 T. But the levels of aspein and calmodulin in conditions 8.10 T+3, 7.70 T and 7.70 T+3, and levels of nacrein, she-7-F10 in all the four treatments changed significantly. Low pH and pH × temperature interaction influenced the expression of aspein and calmodulin significantly after hours 48 and 96. Significant effects of low pH and pH × temperature interaction on the expression of nacrein were observed at hour 96. The expression level of she-7-F10 was affected significantly by pH after hours 48 and 96. The expression of hsp70 was significantly affected by temperature, pH, temperature × pH interaction at hour 6, and by temperature × pH interaction at hour 24. This study suggested that declined pH and pH × temperature interaction induced down regulation of calcification related genes, and the interaction between declined seawater pH and elevated temperature caused up regulation of hsp70 in P. facata. These results demonstrate that the declined seawater pH and elevated temperature will impact the physiological process, and potentially the adaptability of P. fucata to future warming and acidified ocean.

  5. The electrodeposition of cobalt, iron, antimony and their aluminum alloys from acidic aluminum chloride 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride room-temperature molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, John Anthony

    The electrodeposition of cobalt, iron, antimony, and their aluminum alloys was investigated in the room-temperature molten salt, aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (AlClsb3-MeEtimCl). Solutions of Co(II), Fe(II), and Sb(III) were prepared by controlled-potential coulometric anodization of the respective metal in Lewis acidic melt. The plating and stripping of these metals was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, rotating disk and rotating ring-disk electrode voltammetry, controlled potential coulometry, and potential step chronoamperometry. Bulk deposits of the pure and aluminum-alloyed metals were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction methods. The underpotential co-deposition of aluminum was observed during the electrodeposition of cobalt and iron; however, this phenomenon did not occur during the electrodeposition of antimony. The results of this investigation suggest that both a positive work function difference between the transition metal and aluminum and the mutual solubility of these components determine whether or not the co-deposition of aluminum takes place. Two electroanalytical techniques were developed for the analysis of co-deposited aluminum alloys: the first was based on anodic linear sweep voltammetry at a rotating-ring-disk electrode. The second was derived from the transition metal ion concentration changes observed during bulk deposition experiments. In the first technique, an alloy deposit was stripped from the disk electrode while the ring potential was held at a value where only one of the ions oxidized from the alloy could be reduced. In the second technique, the concentration of transition metal ions was monitored in an undivided cell with an anode made from the depositing metal. The co-deposition of aluminum was signalled by an increase in the transition metal ion concentration. The alloy composition data resulting from

  6. Compartment-specific transcriptomics in a reef-building coral exposed to elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Anderson B; Wang, Yu-Bin; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Lin, Chung-Yen; Chen, Shu-Hwa

    2014-12-01

    Although rising ocean temperatures threaten scleractinian corals and the reefs they construct, certain reef corals can acclimate to elevated temperatures to which they are rarely exposed in situ. Specimens of the model Indo-Pacific reef coral Pocillopora damicornis collected from upwelling reefs of Southern Taiwan were previously found to have survived a 36-week exposure to 30°C, a temperature they encounter infrequently and one that can elicit the breakdown of the coral-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbiosis in many corals of the Pacific Ocean. To gain insight into the subcellular pathways utilized by both the coral hosts and their mutualistic Symbiodinium populations to acclimate to this temperature, mRNAs from both control (27°C) and high (30°C)-temperature samples were sequenced on an Illumina platform and assembled into a 236 435-contig transcriptome. These P. damicornis specimens were found to be ~60% anthozoan and 40% microbe (Symbiodinium, other eukaryotic microbes, and bacteria), from an mRNA-perspective. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of genes from the Symbiodinium compartment were differentially expressed after two weeks of exposure. Specifically, at elevated temperatures, Symbiodinium populations residing within the coral gastrodermal tissues were more likely to up-regulate the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism than their coral hosts. Collectively, these transcriptome-scale data suggest that the two members of this endosymbiosis have distinct strategies for acclimating to elevated temperatures that are expected to characterize many of Earth's coral reefs in the coming decades.

  7. Effects of Aluminum Foil Packaging on Elemental Analysis of Bone.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lyniece; Christensen, Angi M

    2016-03-01

    Burned skeletal material is often very fragile and at high risk for fragmentation during packaging and transportation. One method that has been suggested to protect bones in these cases is to carefully wrap them in aluminum foil. Traces of aluminum, however, are known to transfer from foil packaging materials to food products. If such transfer occurs between aluminum foil and bones, it could interfere with subsequent chemical, elemental and isotopic analyses, which are becoming more common in forensic anthropological investigations. This study examined aluminum levels in bones prior to and following the use of aluminum foil packaging and storage for a 6-week period. Results indicate no significant change in the detected levels of aluminum (p > 0.05), even when packaged in compromised foil and exposed to elevated temperatures. Aluminum foil can therefore continue to be recommended as a packaging medium without affecting subsequent chemical examinations. PMID:27404616

  8. Effects of Aluminum Foil Packaging on Elemental Analysis of Bone.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lyniece; Christensen, Angi M

    2016-03-01

    Burned skeletal material is often very fragile and at high risk for fragmentation during packaging and transportation. One method that has been suggested to protect bones in these cases is to carefully wrap them in aluminum foil. Traces of aluminum, however, are known to transfer from foil packaging materials to food products. If such transfer occurs between aluminum foil and bones, it could interfere with subsequent chemical, elemental and isotopic analyses, which are becoming more common in forensic anthropological investigations. This study examined aluminum levels in bones prior to and following the use of aluminum foil packaging and storage for a 6-week period. Results indicate no significant change in the detected levels of aluminum (p > 0.05), even when packaged in compromised foil and exposed to elevated temperatures. Aluminum foil can therefore continue to be recommended as a packaging medium without affecting subsequent chemical examinations.

  9. Light, temperature and nutrients as factors in photosynthetic adjustment to elevated carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Bunce, J.; Lee, D. )

    1991-05-01

    It has been noted many times that the short-term stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated carbon dioxide usually observed in C3 plants may not persist in the long-term. Experiments were designed to test the hypotheses that photosynthetic adjustment to elevated carbon dioxide is due to (a) feedback inhibition resulting from excess photosynthate production relative to use, and (b) nutrient deficiency resulting from more rapid growth. Soybeans and sugarbeets were grown in controlled environment chambers at 350 and 700 ppm carbon dioxide, at two temperatures, two levels of photosynthetically active radiation, and with three nutrient regimes in a factorial design. Net carbon dioxide uptake rates of individual leaves from all growth conditions were measured at both 350 and 700 ppm carbon dioxide to assay photosynthetic adjustment to the elevated carbon dioxide. Growth at elevated carbon dioxide reduced rates of photosynthesis measured at standard carbon dioxide levels in both species. Photosynthetic rates measured at 350 ppm were lower on average by 33% in sugarbeet and 23% in soybean after growth at elevated carbon dioxide. Photosynthetic adjustment to elevated carbon dioxide was not greater after growth at 1.0 than 0.5 mmol m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} PPFD, was not greater at 20 than 25C growth temperature, and could not be overcome by high rates of nutrient application. These results do not support either the feedback inhibition nor nutrient deficiency hypotheses of photosynthetic adjustment to elevated carbon dioxide. In soybeans, complete photosynthetic adjustment could be induced by a single night at elevated carbon dioxide.

  10. Control of infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis virus disease by elevating the water temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.

    1970-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine if increasing water temperatures could control infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHN) disease in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Mortalities could be prevented if the water temperature was raised to at least 18 C within the first 24 hr after infection of the fish and if the fish were maintained at this temperature for 4–6 days. The disease did not recur after the elevated temperature treatment, but the fish would still contract the disease if they were reinfected. Reasons for the protecting action are discussed.

  11. Improved Mechanical Properties of Various Fabric-Reinforced Geocomposite at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samal, Sneha; Phan Thanh, Nhan; Petríková, Iva; Marvalová, Bohadana

    2015-07-01

    This article signifies the improved performance of the various types of fabric reinforcement of geopolymer as a function of physical, thermal, mechanical, and heat-resistant properties at elevated temperatures. Geopolymer mixed with designed Si:Al ratios of 15.6 were synthesized using three different types of fabric reinforcement such as carbon, E-glass, and basalt fibers. Heat testing was conducted on 3-mm-thick panels with 15 × 90 mm surface exposure region. The strength of carbon-based geocomposite increased toward a higher temperature. The basalt-reinforced geocomposite strength decreased due to the catastrophic failure in matrix region. The poor bridging effect and dissolution of fabric was observed in the E-glass-reinforced geocomposite. At an elevated temperature, fiber bridging was observed in carbon fabric-reinforced geopolymer matrix. Among all the fabrics, carbon proved to be suitable candidate for the high-temperature applications in thermal barrier coatings and fire-resistant panels.

  12. "Ultra"-Fast Fracture Strength of Advanced Structural Ceramic Materials Studied at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1999-01-01

    The accurate determination of inert strength is important in reliable life prediction of structural ceramic components. At ambient temperature, the inert strength of a brittle material is typically regarded as free of the effects of slow crack growth due to stress corrosion. Therefore, the inert strength can be determined either by eliminating active species, especially moisture, with an appropriate inert medium, or by using a very high test rate. However, at elevated temperatures, the concept or definition of the inert strength of brittle ceramic materials is not clear, since temperature itself is a degrading environment, resulting in strength degradation through slow crack growth and/or creep. Since the mechanism to control strength is rate-dependent viscous flow, the only conceivable way to determine the inert strength at elevated temperatures is to utilize a very fast test rate that either minimizes the time for or eliminates slow crack growth. Few experimental studies have measured the elevated-temperature, inert (or "ultra"-fast fracture) strength of advanced ceramics. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, an experimental study was initiated to better understand the "ultra"-fast fracture strength behavior of advanced ceramics at elevated temperatures. Fourteen advanced ceramics - one alumina, eleven silicon nitrides, and two silicon carbides - have been tested using constant stress-rate (dynamic fatigue) testing in flexure with a series of stress rates including the "ultra"-fast stress rate of 33 000 MPa/sec with digitally controlled test frames. The results for these 14 advanced ceramics indicate that, notwithstanding possible changes in flaw populations as well as flaw configurations because of elevated temperatures, the strength at 33 000 MPa/sec approached the room-temperature strength or reached a higher value than that determined at the conventional test rate of 30 MPa/sec. On the basis of the experimental data, it can be stated that the elevated-temperature

  13. Elucidating the Effect of Alloying Elements on the Behavior of Austenitic Stainless Steels at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghizadeh, Meysam; Mirzadeh, Hamed

    2016-09-01

    The effect of carbon and molybdenum on elevated temperature behavior of austenitic stainless steels was studied. It was revealed that carbon does not alter the overall grain coarsening behavior but molybdenum significantly retards the growth of grains toward higher temperatures and slower kinetics and effectively increases the grain growth activation energy due to an interaction energy between Mo and grain boundaries. These observations were based on especial activation energy plots, which facilitate the interpretation of results.

  14. Response of Hawaiian and other Indo-Pacific reef corals to elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokiel, P. L.; Coles, S. L.

    1990-04-01

    Loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae, or “bleaching” is one of the first visible signs of thermal stress. Critical threshold temperatures for coral bleaching vary geographically, but can be expressed universally as fixed increments relative to the historical mean local summer maximum. Bleaching can be induced by short-term exposure (i.e. 1 2 days) at temperature elevations of 3°C to 4°C above normal summer ambient or by long-term exposure (i.e. several weeks) at elevations of 1°C to 2°C. Corals in both tropical and subtropical locations live at temperatures close to their lethal limits during the summer months. Temperature elevations above summer ambient, but still below the bleaching threshold, can impair growth and reproduction. Temperature and light interact synergistically; high light accelerates bleaching caused by elevated temperature. Bleaching susceptibility is correlated with respiration rate. Any factor that increases respiration (such as high incident light) accelerates bleaching at higher temperatures. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a detrimental factor associated with solar radiation. Increased UV due to thinning of the earth's protective ozone layer may aggravate bleaching and mortality caused by global warming. A warming trend in Hawaiian waters has been observed over the past decade. In 1986, 1987 and 1988 Hawaiian corals were perilously close to their bleaching threshold during the summer months, and localized bleachings did occur. In some cases, local warming of surface water on shallow reef flats exceeded this threshold temperature and caused localized coral bleaching. In other cases, heating of large mesoscale eddies in the lee of the larger islands apparently caused wide-scale bleaching of the most sensitive coral species ( Pocillopora meandrina) to depths of 20 m. A continuation of the warming trend in Hawaii would lead to mass bleachings similar to those observed recently in other geographic locations.

  15. Feasibility demonstration of a hyperfiltration technique to reclaim shower wastewater at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hester, J. C.; Brandon, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    A feasibility demonstration of a hyperfiltration technique to determine its capability to reclaim shower wastewater at elevated temperature was conducted. Approximately twenty (20) gallons of typical shower water were processed through a dynamically formed membrane at a temperature of 167 F. Chemical and bacterial analyses of the product water are presented which show compliance with all potable water requirements established for extended manned space missions. In addition, subsystem characteristics and capabilities are discussed.

  16. Temperature and competition between bull trout and brook trout: A test of the elevation refuge hypothesis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the elevation refuge hypothesis that colder water temperatures impart a competitive advantage to bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and thus account for increased biotic resistance to invasion and displacement by brook trout S. fontinalis in headwater streams. Growth, survival, and behavio...

  17. The analysis of fatigue crack growth mechanism and oxidation and fatigue life at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    Two quantitative models based on experimentally observed fatigue damage processes have been made: (1) a model of low cycle fatigue life based on fatigue crack growth under general-yielding cyclic loading; and (2) a model of accelerated fatigue crack growth at elevated temperatures based on grain boundary oxidation. These two quantitative models agree very well with the experimental observations.

  18. CHARACTERISTICS OF MERCURY DESORPTION FROM SORBENTS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES. (R826694C697)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated the dynamic desorption characteristics of mercury during the thermal treatment of mercury-loaded sorbents at elevated temperatures under fixed-bed operations. Experiments were carried out in a 25.4 mm ID quartz bed enclosed in an electric furnace. ...

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF MERCURY DESORPTION FROM SORBENTS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES. (R822721C697)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated the dynamic desorption characteristics of mercury during the thermal treatment of mercury-loaded sorbents at elevated temperatures under fixed-bed operations. Experiments were carried out in a 25.4 mm ID quartz bed enclosed in an electric furnace. ...

  20. Physical and chemical changes in whey protein concentrate stored at elevated temperature and humidity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemistry of whey protein concentrate (WPC) under adverse storage conditions was monitored to provide information on shelf life in hot, humid areas. WPC34 (34.9 g protein/100 g) and WPC80 (76.8 g protein/100 g) were stored for up to 18 mo under ambient conditions and at elevated temperature and...

  1. ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ALTER NITROGEN ALLOCATION IN DOUGLAS-FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on principal carbon constituents (PCC) and C and N allocation between needle, woody (stem and branches) and root tissue of Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco seedlings were determined. The seedlings were grown in sun-lit controlled-envi...

  2. Carbohydrate concentrations and freezing stress resistance of silver birch buds grown under elevated temperature and ozone.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, Johanna; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Tuomainen, Marjo; Oksanen, Elina

    2013-03-01

    The effects of slightly elevated temperature (+0.8 °C), ozone (O3) concentration (1.3 × ambient O3 concentration) and their combination on over-wintering buds of Betula pendula Roth were studied after two growing seasons of exposure in the field. Carbohydrate concentrations, freezing stress resistance (FSR), bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio, and transcript levels of cytochrome oxidase (COX), alternative oxidase (AOX) and dehydrin (LTI36) genes were studied in two clones (clones 12 and 25) in December. Elevated temperature increased the bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio and the ratio of raffinose family oligosaccharides to sucrose and the transcript levels of the dehydrin (LTI36) gene (in clone 12 only), but did not alter the FSR of the buds. Genotype-specific alterations in carbohydrate metabolism were found in the buds grown under elevated O3. The treatments did not significantly affect the transcript level of the COX or AOX genes. No clear pattern of an interactive effect between elevated temperature and O3 concentration was found. According to these data, the increase in autumnal temperatures and slightly increasing O3 concentrations do not increase the risk for freeze-induced damage in winter in silver birch buds, although some alterations in bud physiology occur. PMID:23425688

  3. Immobilization of imidazole moieties in polymer electrolyte composite membrane for elevated temperature fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Zhou, Bei; Ye, Gongbo; Pan, Mu; Zhang, Haining

    2015-12-01

    Development of membrane electrolyte with reasonable proton conductivity at elevated temperature without external humidification is essential for practical applications of elevated temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Herein, a novel polymer electrolyte composite membrane using imidazole as anhydrous proton carriers for elevated temperature fuel cells is investigated. The imidazole moieties are immobilized inside the Nafion/poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) composite membrane through in situ formation of imidazole functionalized silica nanoparticles in Nafion dispersion. The thus-formed membrane exhibits strong Coulombic interaction between negatively charged sulfonic acid groups of Nafion and protonated imidazole moieties, leading to an anhydrous proton conductivity of 0.018 S cm-1 at 180 °C. With the introduction of PTFE matrix, the mechanical strength of the membrane is greatly improved. The peak power density of a single cell assembled from the hybrid membrane is observed to be 130 mW cm-2 under 350 mA cm-2 at 110 °C without external humidification and it remains stable for 20 h continuous operation. The obtained results demonstrate that the developed composite membranes could be utilized as promising membrane electrolytes for elevated temperature fuel cells.

  4. Carbohydrate concentrations and freezing stress resistance of silver birch buds grown under elevated temperature and ozone.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, Johanna; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Tuomainen, Marjo; Oksanen, Elina

    2013-03-01

    The effects of slightly elevated temperature (+0.8 °C), ozone (O3) concentration (1.3 × ambient O3 concentration) and their combination on over-wintering buds of Betula pendula Roth were studied after two growing seasons of exposure in the field. Carbohydrate concentrations, freezing stress resistance (FSR), bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio, and transcript levels of cytochrome oxidase (COX), alternative oxidase (AOX) and dehydrin (LTI36) genes were studied in two clones (clones 12 and 25) in December. Elevated temperature increased the bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio and the ratio of raffinose family oligosaccharides to sucrose and the transcript levels of the dehydrin (LTI36) gene (in clone 12 only), but did not alter the FSR of the buds. Genotype-specific alterations in carbohydrate metabolism were found in the buds grown under elevated O3. The treatments did not significantly affect the transcript level of the COX or AOX genes. No clear pattern of an interactive effect between elevated temperature and O3 concentration was found. According to these data, the increase in autumnal temperatures and slightly increasing O3 concentrations do not increase the risk for freeze-induced damage in winter in silver birch buds, although some alterations in bud physiology occur.

  5. Correlation between the energy level structure of cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet and luminescent behavior at varying temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhen; Liu, Xiaolang; He, Lizhu; Liu, Q. L.

    2016-05-01

    Luminescent spectra of cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet are measured at varying temperatures. It is found that the two excitation peaks demonstrate a reverse trend as the temperature rises, and the breadth of the high-energy emission peak experiences an abrupt widening. These effects could be directly linked to the energy level scheme of Ce3+ under the crystal field of local symmetry. Moreover, an alternative fitting function is provided which could effectively resolve the emission curve.

  6. Elevated-temperature fracture resistances of monolithic and composite ceramics using chevron-notched bend tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Asish; Jenkins, Michael G.; Ferber, Mattison K.; Peussa, Jouko; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1992-01-01

    The quasi-static fracture behaviors of monolithic ceramics (SiC, Si3N4, MgAl2O4), self-reinforced monoliths (acicular grained Si3N4, acicular grained mullite), and ceramic matrix composites (SiC whisker/Al2O3 matrix, TiB2 particulate/SiC matrix, SiC fiber/CVI SiC matrix, Al2O3 fiber/CVI SiC matrix) were measured over the temperature range of 20 to 1400 C. The chevron notched, bend bar test geometry was essential for characterizing the elevated temperature fracture resistances of this wide range of quasi-brittle materials during stable crack growth. Fractography revealed the differences in the fracture behavior of the different materials at the various temperatures. The fracture resistances of the self-reinforced monoliths were comparable to those of the composites and the fracture mechanisms were found to be similar at room temperature. However at elevated temperatures the differences of the fracture behavior became apparent where the superior fracture resistance of the self-reinforced monoliths were attributed to the minor amounts of glassy, intergranular phases which were often more abundant in the composites and affected the fracture behavior when softened by elevated temperatures.

  7. Static tensile and tensile creep testing of five ceramic fibers at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Richard S.; Adams, Donald F.

    1989-01-01

    Static tensile and tensile creep testing of five ceramic fibers at elevated temperature was performed. J.P. Stevens, Co., Astroquartz 9288 glass fiber; Nippon Carbon, Ltd., (Dow Corning) nicalon NLM-102 silicon carbide fiber; and 3M Company Nextel 312, 380, and 480 alumina/silica/boria fibers were supplied in unsized tows. Single fibers were separated from the tows and tested in static tension and tensile creep. Elevated test temperatures ranged from 400 C to 1300 C and varied for each fiber. Room temperature static tension was also performed. Computer software was written to reduce all single fiber test data into engineering constants using ASTM Standard Test Method D3379-75 as a reference. A high temperature furnace was designed and built to perform the single fiber elevated temperature testing up to 1300 C. A computerized single fiber creep apparatus was designed and constructed to perform four fiber creep tests simultaneously at temperatures up to 1300 C. Computer software was written to acquire and reduce all creep data.

  8. Static tensile and tensile creep testing of five ceramic fibers at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Richard S.; Adams, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    Static tensile and tensile creep testing of five ceramic fibers at elevated temperature was performed. J.P. Stevens, Co., Astroquartz 9288 glass fiber, Nippon Carbon, Ltd., (Dow Corning) Nicalon NLM-102 silicon carbide fiber, and 3M Company Nextel 312, 380, and 480 alumina/silica/boria fibers were supplied in unsized tows. Single fibers were separated from the tows and tested in static tension and tensile creep. Elevated test temperatures ranged from 400 to 1300 C and varied for each fiber. Room temperature static tension was also performed. Computer software was written to reduce all single fiber test data into engineering constants using ASTM Standard Test Method D3379-75 as a reference. A high temperature furnace was designed and built to perform the single fiber elevated temperature testing up to 1300 C. A computerized single fiber creep apparatus was designed and constructed to perform four fiber creep tests simultaneously at temperatures up to 1300 C. Computer software was written to acquire and reduce all creep data.

  9. Enhancement of photoheterotrophic biohydrogen production at elevated temperatures by the expression of a thermophilic clostridial hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shou-Chen; Shih, Shau-Hua; Chang, Jui-Jen; Wang, Chun-Ying; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2012-08-01

    The working temperature of a photobioreactor under sunlight can be elevated above the optimal growth temperature of a microorganism. To improve the biohydrogen productivity of photosynthetic bacteria at higher temperatures, a [FeFe]-hydrogenase gene from the thermophile Clostridium thermocellum was expressed in the mesophile Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 (strain CGA-CThydA) using a log-phase expression promoter P( pckA ) to drive the expression of heterogeneous hydrogenase gene. In contrast, a mesophilic Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase gene was also constructed and expressed in R. palustris (strain CGA-CAhydA). Both transgenic strains were tested for cell growth, in vivo hydrogen production rate, and in vitro hydrogenase activity at elevated temperatures. Although both CGA-CThydA and CGA-CAhydA strains demonstrated enhanced growth over the vector control at temperatures above 38 °C, CGA-CThydA produced more hydrogen than the other strains. The in vitro hydrogenase activity assay, measured at 40 °C, confirmed that the activity of the CGA-CThydA hydrogenase was higher than the CGA-CAhydA hydrogenase. These results showed that the expression of a thermophilic [FeFe]-hydrogenase in R. palustris increased the growth rate and biohydrogen production at elevated temperatures. This transgenic strategy can be applied to a broad range of purple photosynthetic bacteria used to produce biohydrogen under sunlight.

  10. Elevated Temperature Sensors for On-Line Critical Equipment Health Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    James Sebastian

    2006-03-31

    The objective of the program was to improve high temperature piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) sensor technology to make it useful for instrumentation and health monitoring of current and future electrical power generation equipment. Improvements were aimed primarily at extending the useful temperature range of the sensor from approximately 700 C to above 1000 C, and investigating ultrasonic coupling to objects at these temperatures and tailoring high temperature coupling for use with the sensor. During the project, the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) AlN deposition process was successfully transferred from film production on tungsten carbide substrates to titanium alloy and silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. Film adhesion under thermal cycling was found to be poor, and additional substrate materials and surface preparations were evaluated. A new, porous SiC substrate improved the performance but not to the point of making the films useful for sensors. Near the end of the program, a new family of high temperature piezoelectric materials came to the attention of the program. Samples of langasite, the most promising member of this family, were obtained and experimental data showed promise for use up to the 1000 C target temperature. In parallel, research successfully determined that metal foil under moderate pressure provided a practical method of coupling ultrasound at high temperature. A conceptual sensor was designed based upon these methods and was tested in the laboratory.

  11. Substrate-dependent thermal conductivity of aluminum nitride thin-films processed at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Belkerk, B. E.; Bensalem, S.; Soussou, A.; Carette, M.; Djouadi, M. A.; Scudeller, Y.; Al Brithen, H.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we report on investigation concerning the substrate-dependent thermal conductivity (k) of Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin-films processed at low temperature by reactive magnetron sputtering. The thermal conductivity of AlN films grown at low temperature (<200 °C) on single-crystal silicon (Si) and amorphous silicon nitride (SiN) with thicknesses ranging from 100 nm to 4000 nm was measured with the transient hot-strip technique. The k values for AlN films on SiN were found significantly lower than those on Silicon consistently with their microstructures revealed by X-ray diffraction, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The change in k was due to the thermal boundary resistance found to be equal to 10 × 10{sup −9} Km{sup 2}W{sup −1} on SiN against 3.5 × 10{sup −9} Km{sup 2}W{sup −1} on Si. However, the intrinsic thermal conductivity was determined with a value as high as 200 Wm{sup −1}K{sup −1} whatever the substrate.

  12. Effect of Temperature and Sheet Temper on Isothermal Solidification Kinetics in Clad Aluminum Brazing Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Michael J.; Whitney, Mark A.; Wells, Mary A.; Winkler, Sooky

    2016-09-01

    Isothermal solidification (IS) is a phenomenon observed in clad aluminum brazing sheets, wherein the amount of liquid clad metal is reduced by penetration of the liquid clad into the core. The objective of the current investigation is to quantify the rate of IS through the use of a previously derived parameter, the Interface Rate Constant (IRC). The effect of peak temperature and initial sheet temper on IS kinetics were investigated. The results demonstrated that IS is due to the diffusion of silicon (Si) from the liquid clad layer into the solid core. Reduced amounts of liquid clad at long liquid duration times, a roughened sheet surface, and differences in resolidified clad layer morphology between sheet tempers were observed. Increased IS kinetics were predicted at higher temperatures by an IRC model as well as by experimentally determined IRC values; however, the magnitudes of these values are not in good agreement due to deficiencies in the model when applied to alloys. IS kinetics were found to be higher for sheets in the fully annealed condition when compared with work-hardened sheets, due to the influence of core grain boundaries providing high diffusivity pathways for Si diffusion, resulting in more rapid liquid clad penetration.

  13. Mechanical Properties of P/m Materials of Rapidly Solidified Al-Co-Mg Alloys at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugamata, Makoto; Ohki

    With an aim of obtaining aluminum P/M materials strengthened by dispersion of transition metal compounds and solid solution of Mg, Al-2mass%Co and Al-5mass%Co alloys with varied Mg additions of 0, 1 and 5 mass% were prepared by rapid solidification techniques. Rapidly solidified flakes were produced by argon gas atomization and subsequent splat quenching on a water-cooled copper roll. The flakes were consolidated to the P/M (Powder metallurgy process is named as P/M) materials by hot extrusion after vacuum degassing. Cast ingots of these alloys were also hot-extruded under the same conditions to the I/M (Ingot metallurgy process is named as I/M) reference materials. Uniform dispersion of fine intermetallic compounds (Co2Al9) was observed in all the as-extruded P/M materials. Added Mg was present as the solute in the P/M and I/M materials alloy even after annealing at 773K. The P/M materials containing Mg exhibited higher hardness and strength than those without Mg at room temperature. Tensile strength increased with increasing amount of Mg in the I/M materials at elevated temperatures. However, strength of the P/M materials decreased with addition of Mg at 573K and 673K. According to the steady state creep rate and creep rapture time, the creep resistance of the P/M materials containing Mg was clearly inferior to that of Mg-free alloys. Thus the positive effects of Mg additions on mechanical properties of the P/M materials of Al-Co-Mg alloys disappeared at high temperature.

  14. Expression profiling of potato cultivars with contrasting tuberization at elevated temperature using microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anupama; Siddappa, Sunderasha; Bhardwaj, Vinay; Singh, Brajesh; Kumar, Devendra; Singh, Bir Pal

    2015-12-01

    Temperature is one of the most significant factors affecting potato yield. Night temperature beyond 18-22 °C drastically reduces tuber formation, constraining potato cultivation in tropics and subtropics. Identification of genes and pathways affected by high temperature is crucial for developing thermo tolerant cultivars for these regions. In the present study, two cultivars with contrasting tuberization behavior at night temperatures (24 °C) were selected for gene expression analysis using a customized microarray chip representing 39,031 potato genes. A total of 2500 genes were differentially expressed on 21 d and 4096 genes on 14 d after stress. Gene ontology and pathway analysis provided insights into the probable biological processes and pathways governing tuberization at elevated temperature. Pathway maps were constructed to graphically represent the gene expression patterns. Genes associated with photosynthesis, hormonal activity, sugar transporters and transcription factors were differentially expressed. The results are presented and discussed in terms of tuberization at high temperature. The effect of high temperature on expression of genes controlling tuberization was also analyzed. This study provided useful information on potato tuberization at elevated temperature and make available a framework for further investigations into heat stress in potato.

  15. Photosynthetic response to elevated temperature in the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium microadriaticum in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Prieto, R; Matta, J L; Robins, W A; Trench, R K

    1992-01-01

    Elevated temperature (28-34 degrees C) has been hypothesized as the primary cause of the loss of algal endosymbionts in coral reef-associated invertebrates, a phenomenon observed on a world-wide scale over the last decade. In past studies of this "bleaching" phenomenon, there has been an underlying assumption that temperature adversely affects the animal hosts, the algae thereby being relegated to a more passive role. Because photosynthesis is a sensitive indicator of thermal stress in plants and has a central role in the nutrition of symbiotic invertebrates, we have tested the hypothesis that elevated temperature adversely affects photosynthesis in the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium microadriaticum. The results, based on analyses of light-mediated O2 evolution and in vivo fluorescence, indicate that photosynthesis is impaired at temperatures above 30 degrees C and ceases completely at 34-36 degrees C. These observations are discussed in the context of possible mechanisms that may function in the disassociation of algal-invertebrate symbioses in response to elevated temperature. PMID:11607337

  16. Nanoparticle distribution and temperature elevations in prostatic tumours in mice during magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Attaluri, Anilchandra; Ma, Ronghui; Qiu, Yun; Li, Wei; Zhu, Liang

    2011-01-01

    Among a variety of hyperthermia methods, magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia is a highly promising approach for its confined heating within the tumour. In this study we perform in vivo animal experiments on implanted prostatic tumours in mice to measure temperature distribution in the tumour during magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia. Temperature elevations are induced by a commercially available ferrofluid injected via a single injection to the centre of the tumour, when the tumour is subject to an alternating magnetic field. Temperature mapping in the tumours during magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia has demonstrated the feasibility of elevating tumour temperatures higher than 50°C using only 0.1 cm(3) ferrofluid injected in the tumour under a relatively low magnetic field (3 kA/m). Detailed 3-D nanoparticle concentration distribution is quantified using a high-resolution microCT imaging system. The calculated nanoparticle distribution volume based on the microCT scans is useful to analyse nanoparticle deposition in the tumours. Slower ferrofluid infusion rates result in smaller nanoparticle distribution volumes in the tumours. Nanoparticles are more confined in the vicinity of the injection site with slower infusion rates, causing higher temperature elevations in the tumours. The increase in the nanoparticle distribution volume in the tumour group after the heating from that in the tumour group without heating suggests possible nanoparticle re-distribution in the tumours during the heating. PMID:21756046

  17. Viscoelastoplastic Deformation and Damage Response of Titanium Alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Saleeb, Atef F.; Kasemer, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Time-dependent deformation and damage behavior can significantly affect the life of aerospace propulsion components. Consequently, one needs an accurate constitutive model that can represent both reversible and irreversible behavior under multiaxial loading conditions. This paper details the characterization and utilization of a multi-mechanism constitutive model of the GVIPS class (Generalized Viscoplastic with Potential Structure) that has been extended to describe the viscoelastoplastic deformation and damage of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Associated material constants were characterized at five elevated temperatures where viscoelastoplastic behavior was observed, and at three elevated temperatures where damage (of both the stiffness reduction and strength reduction type) was incurred. Experimental data from a wide variety of uniaxial load cases were used to correlate and validate the proposed GVIPS model. Presented are the optimized material parameters, and the viscoelastoplastic deformation and damage responses at the various temperatures.

  18. Effects of elevated temperature postharvest on color aspect, physiochemical characteristics, and aroma components of pineapple fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanhe; Liu, Yan

    2014-12-01

    In this work, 2 separate experiments were performed to describe the influence of elevated temperature treatments postharvest on the color, physiochemical characteristics and aroma components of pineapple fruits during low-temperature seasons. The L* (lightness) values of the skin and pulp of pineapple fruits were decreased. The a* (greenness-redness) and b* (blueness-yellowness) values of the skin and pulp were all markedly increased. The elevated temperature significantly increased the contents of total soluble solids (TSS) and slightly affected contents of vitamin C (nonsignificant). Titratable acidity (TA) of pineapple fruits were notably decreased, whereas the values of TSS/TA of pineapple fruits were significantly increased. The firmness of the pineapple fruits decreased and more esters and alkenes were identified. The total relative contents of esters were increased, and the total relative contents of alkenes were decreased.

  19. Microstructural stability of wrought, laser and electron beam glazed NARloy-Z alloy at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J.; Jerman, G.; Bhat, B.; Poorman, R.

    1993-01-01

    Microstructure of wrought, laser, and electron-beam glazed NARloy-Z(Cu-3 wt.% Ag-0.5 wt.% Zr) was investigated for thermal stability at elevated temperatures (539 to 760 C (1,100 to 1,400 F)) up to 94 h. Optical and scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis were employed for studying microstructural evolution and kinetics of precipitation. Grain boundary precipitation and precipitate free zones (PFZ's) were observed in the wrought alloy after exposing to temperatures above 605 C (1,120 F). The fine-grained microstructure observed in the laser and electron-beam glazed NARloy-Z was much more stable at elevated temperatures. Microstructural changes correlated well with hardness measurements.

  20. Warming Amplification of Minimum and Maximum Temperatures over High-Elevation Regions across the Globe

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengben; Jiménez, Claudia Villarroel

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the annual mean temperature (TMEAN) (1961–2010) has revealed that warming amplification (altitudinal amplification and regional amplification) is a common feature of major high-elevation regions across the globe against the background of global warming since the mid-20th century. In this study, the authors further examine whether this holds for annual mean minimum temperature (TMIN) and annual mean maximum temperature (TMAX) (1961–2010) on a global scale. The extraction method of warming component of altitude, and the paired region comparison method were used in this study. Results show that a significant altitudinal amplification trend in TMIN (TMAX) is detected in all (four) of the six high-elevation regions tested, and the average magnitude of altitudinal amplification trend for TMIN (TMAX) [0.306±0.086 °C km-1(0.154±0.213 °C km-1)] is substantially larger (smaller) than TMEAN (0.230±0.073 °C km-1) during the period 1961–2010. For the five paired high- and low-elevation regions available, regional amplification is detected in the four high-elevation regions for TMIN and TMAX (respectively or as a whole). Qualitatively, highly (largely) consistent results are observed for TMIN (TMAX) compared with those for TMEAN. PMID:26461461

  1. Shape of isolated domains in lithium tantalate single crystals at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Shur, V. Ya. Akhmatkhanov, A. R.; Baturin, I. S.; Chezganov, D. S.; Lobov, A. I.; Smirnov, M. M.

    2013-12-09

    The shape of isolated domains has been investigated in congruent lithium tantalate (CLT) single crystals at elevated temperatures and analyzed in terms of kinetic approach. The obtained temperature dependence of the growing domain shape in CLT including circular shape at temperatures above 190 °C has been attributed to increase of relative input of isotropic ionic conductivity. The observed nonstop wall motion and independent domain growth after merging in CLT as opposed to stoichiometric lithium tantalate have been attributed to difference in wall orientation. The computer simulation has confirmed applicability of the kinetic approach to the domain shape explanation.

  2. [Effects of drought stress, high temperature and elevated CO2 concentration on the growth of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Si, Fu-Yan; Qiao, Yun-Zhou; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Dong, Bao-Di; Shi, Chang-Hai; Liu, Meng-Yu

    2014-09-01

    The impacts of climate change on the grain yield, photosynthesis, and water conditions of winter wheat were assessed based on an experiment, in which wheat plants were subjected to ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations, ambient and elevated temperatures, and low and high water conditions independently and in combination. The CO2 enrichment alone had no effect on the photosynthesis of winter wheat, whereas higher temperature and drought significantly decreased the photosynthetic rate. Water conditions in flag leaves were not significantly changed at the elevated CO2 concentration or elevated temperature. However, drought stress decreased the relative water content in flag leaves, and the combination of elevated temperature and drought reduced the water potential in flag leaves. The combination of elevated CO2 concentration, elevated temperature, and drought significantly reduced the photosynthetic rate and water conditions, and led to a 41.4% decrease in grain yield. The elevated CO2 concentration alone increased the grain yield by 21.2%, whereas the elevated temperature decreased the grain yield by 12.3%. The grain yield was not affected by the combination of elevated CO2 concentration and temperature, but the grain yield was significantly decreased by the drought stress if combined with any of the climate scenarios applied in this study. These findings suggested that maintaining high soil water content might be a vital means of reducing the potential harm caused by the climate change.

  3. Thermoelastic properties of iron- and aluminum-bearing bridgmanite at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Gaurav

    Thermoelastic properties of the Earth's forming minerals play an important role in deciphering the tomographic images of seismic observations. In spite of the considerable progress in the experimental measurements of the elastic properties of minerals at high pressures and temperatures, the available data is still quite limited to constrain the composition and thermal structure of the Earth's interior. The first-principles atomistic calculations have often complimented the experimental measurements in the study of minerals under high pressure and temperature conditions. In this work, we present the first-principles investigation of the effect of iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) on the thermoelastic properties of MgSiO3 perovksite (also known as bridgmanite), the most abundant mineral of the Earth's lower mantle. First, we investigate the pressure induced iron state changes in Fe-bearing MgSiO3 and MgGeO3 perovskite (a low-pressure analog of MgSiO3 ) within the local density (LDA+U) and the generalized gradient approximation augmented by the Hubbard-type correction (GGA+U). We showed that the iron state transitions occur at particular average Fe-O bond-length irrespective of mineral composition (MgSiO3 or MgGeO3 ) or the exchange and correlation functional used in the calculations (LDA+U or GGA+U). We further study the effect of disorder, iron concentration, and temperature on the spin crossover in Fe3+ -bearing bridgmanite using LDA+U calculations. Thermal effects have been addressed within the quasiharmonic approximation using density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). Then, we calculate the aggregate elastic moduli (bulk and shear modulus) and acoustic velocities for the Fe- and Al-bearing bridgmanite to investigate the effect of iron state changes and its possible consequences to the lower mantle composition.

  4. Materials data handbook: Aluminum alloy 2219

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraca, R. F.; Whittick, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the materials property information for aluminum 2219 alloy is presented. The scope of the information includes physical and mechanical properties at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Information on material procurement, metallurgy of the alloy, corrosion, environmental effects, fabrication, and joining techniques is developed.

  5. Materials data handbooks on aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraca, R. F.; Whittick, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    Five handbooks have been prepared which describe up-to-date properties of the following wrought-aluminum alloys: 2014, 2219, 5456, 6061, and 7075. Each handbook is divided into twelve chapters. Scope of information presented includes physical- and mechanical-property data at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures.

  6. The vegetative buds of Salix myrsinifolia are responsive to elevated UV-B and temperature.

    PubMed

    Sivadasan, Unnikrishnan; Randriamanana, Tendry R; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Nybakken, Line

    2015-08-01

    The predicted rise in temperature and variable changes in ultraviolet-B radiation will have marked effects on plant growth and metabolism. Different vegetative parts of trees have been studied to detect the impacts of enhanced temperature and UV-B, but the effects on buds have rarely been considered. In the present study, Salix myrsinifolia clones were subjected to enhanced UV-B and temperature over two growing seasons starting from 2009, and measured springtime bud development and concentrations of phenolic compounds. In 2010 and 2011 the buds under increased temperature were up to 30% longer than those in control plots. On the other hand, UV-B combined with elevated temperature significantly decreased bud length by 4-5% in 2010. This effect was stronger in males than in females. The vegetative buds contained high constitutive amounts of chlorogenic acid derivatives, which may explain the weak increase in hyperin and chlorogenic acid that are usual UV-B sheltering compounds. The elevated temperature treatment significantly increased salicin content (about 18% in males and 22% in females), while triandrin concentration decreased by only 50% in females. Our results indicate that vegetative bud size is highly affected by seasonal temperature, while UV-B induced a weaker and transient effect. PMID:25749271

  7. Physiological acclimation to elevated temperature in a reef-building coral from an upwelling environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayfield, A. B.; Fan, T.-Y.; Chen, C.-S.

    2013-12-01

    Recent work has found that pocilloporid corals from regions characterized by unstable temperatures, such as those exposed to periodic upwelling, display a remarkable degree of phenotypic plasticity. In order to understand whether important reef builders from these upwelling reefs remain physiologically uncompromised at temperatures they will experience in the coming decades as a result of global climate change, a long-term elevated temperature experiment was conducted with Pocillopora damicornis specimens collected from Houbihu, a small embayment within Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan that is characterized by 8-9 °C temperature changes during upwelling events. Upon nine months of exposure to nearly 30 °C, all colony (mortality and surface area), polyp ( Symbiodinium density and chlorophyll a content), tissue (total thickness), and molecular (gene expression and molecular composition)-level parameters were documented at similar levels between experimental corals and controls incubated at 26.5 °C, suggesting that this species can readily acclimate to elevated temperatures that cause significant degrees of stress, or even bleaching and mortality, in conspecifics of other regions of the Indo-Pacific. However, the gastrodermal tissue layer was relatively thicker in corals of the high temperature treatment sampled after nine months, possibly as an adaptive response to shade Symbiodinium from the higher photosynthetically active radiation levels that they were experiencing at that sampling time. Such shading may have prevented high light and high temperature-induced photoinhibition, and consequent bleaching, in these samples.

  8. Study on the Relationship between Delayed Fluorescence and Photosynthetic Capability at Elevated Temperature in Higher Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Xu, Wenhai; Wang, Junsheng; Xing, Da

    2011-01-01

    With the continuous elevation of the global temperature, high-temperature stress has been a major environmental factor that affects plant growth and productivity. Effects of short-term heat temperature stress on light-induced delayed fluorescence (DF) decay kinetic curve, intensity and emission spectrum have been investigated in C3 soybean (Jing Huang No.3) and C4 maize (Yun Xi No.5081) species. The temperature responses of DF decay kinetic curve from two different species show that decay rate characteristics are affected by high temperature. The spectroscopy measurements indicate that heat stress influence the shape of DF emission spectra of two species, especially the peak intensities at 685nm and 730nm. Moreover, our results clearly demonstrate that DF intensity of each plant positively correlated with F730/F685 of DF emission spectra at elevated temperatures. In addition, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of samples has the same temperature response with DF intensity and F730/F685. Based on these results, we can conclude that there is an excellent correlation between F730/F685 of DF emission spectra, DF intensity and Pn in both C3 and C4 plants. Therefore, we proposed that the F730/F685 of DF emission spectrum can be used to measure the photosynthetic capability of higher plants to heat stress.

  9. The vegetative buds of Salix myrsinifolia are responsive to elevated UV-B and temperature.

    PubMed

    Sivadasan, Unnikrishnan; Randriamanana, Tendry R; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Nybakken, Line

    2015-08-01

    The predicted rise in temperature and variable changes in ultraviolet-B radiation will have marked effects on plant growth and metabolism. Different vegetative parts of trees have been studied to detect the impacts of enhanced temperature and UV-B, but the effects on buds have rarely been considered. In the present study, Salix myrsinifolia clones were subjected to enhanced UV-B and temperature over two growing seasons starting from 2009, and measured springtime bud development and concentrations of phenolic compounds. In 2010 and 2011 the buds under increased temperature were up to 30% longer than those in control plots. On the other hand, UV-B combined with elevated temperature significantly decreased bud length by 4-5% in 2010. This effect was stronger in males than in females. The vegetative buds contained high constitutive amounts of chlorogenic acid derivatives, which may explain the weak increase in hyperin and chlorogenic acid that are usual UV-B sheltering compounds. The elevated temperature treatment significantly increased salicin content (about 18% in males and 22% in females), while triandrin concentration decreased by only 50% in females. Our results indicate that vegetative bud size is highly affected by seasonal temperature, while UV-B induced a weaker and transient effect.

  10. Implications of High Temperature and Elevated CO2 on Flowering Time in Plants.

    PubMed

    Jagadish, S V Krishna; Bahuguna, Rajeev N; Djanaguiraman, Maduraimuthu; Gamuyao, Rico; Prasad, P V Vara; Craufurd, Peter Q

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is a crucial determinant for plant reproductive success and seed-set. Increasing temperature and elevated carbon-dioxide (e[CO2]) are key climate change factors that could affect plant fitness and flowering related events. Addressing the effect of these environmental factors on flowering events such as time of day of anthesis (TOA) and flowering time (duration from germination till flowering) is critical to understand the adaptation of plants/crops to changing climate and is the major aim of this review. Increasing ambient temperature is the major climatic factor that advances flowering time in crops and other plants, with a modest effect of e[CO2].Integrated environmental stimuli such as photoperiod, temperature and e[CO2] regulating flowering time is discussed. The critical role of plant tissue temperature influencing TOA is highlighted and crop models need to substitute ambient air temperature with canopy or floral tissue temperature to improve predictions. A complex signaling network of flowering regulation with change in ambient temperature involving different transcription factors (PIF4, PIF5), flowering suppressors (HvODDSOC2, SVP, FLC) and autonomous pathway (FCA, FVE) genes, mainly from Arabidopsis, provides a promising avenue to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flowering time under changing climate. Elevated CO2 mediated changes in tissue sugar status and a direct [CO2]-driven regulatory pathway involving a key flowering gene, MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT), are emerging evidence for the role of e[CO2] in flowering time regulation.

  11. Performance analysis of ORC power generation system with low-temperature waste heat of aluminum reduction cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqi; Zhou, Naijun; Jing, Guo

    Performance of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system to recover low-temperature waste heat from aluminum reduction cell was analyzed. The temperature of waste heat is 80°C-200°C and the flow rate is 3×105m3/h. The pinch temperature difference between waste heat and working fluids is 10°C. The results show that there is optimal evaporating temperature for maximum net power under the same pinch point. For heat source temperature range of 80°C-140°C and 150°C-170°C, the working fluid given biggest net power is R227ea and R236fa, respectively. When the temperature is higher than 180°C, R236ea generates the biggest net power. The variation of heat source temperature has important effect on net power. When the temperature decreases 10%, the net power will deviate 30% from the maximum value.

  12. Spatiotemporal variability of increasing temperature impacts on grassland vegetation along an elevation transect in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedrist, Georg; Obojes, Nikolaus; Bertoldi, Giacomo; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Tasser, Erich; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    Different manipulative approaches have been developed to study and quantify impacts of temperature increase on grassland ecosystems. Many of them share the problem of unwanted effects on the surrounding microclimatic conditions. Transplantation of grassland mesocosms along elevation gradients can be a realistic alternative, although with some restrictions. Here we present 3 years of data from a double-transplant-experiment, were 70*70*20cm grassland turves were transplanted at two elevations from 2000m to 1500m a.s.l. and from 1500m to 1000m a.s.l. respectively, along an inner-alpine elevation gradient in the Vinschgau Valley (South Tyrol, I). All donor and receiving sites are comparable regarding land use (meadows), soil conditions or exposition and are located within a few km's distance ensuring comparable weather conditions apart from the intended air temperature (0.54°K/100m) and annual precipitation (20mm/100m) lapse rate. Phytodiversity and above ground net primary production (ANPP) of the transplanted mesocosms were assessed and compared with locally transplanted monoliths of the respective donor site. Furthermore, growth dynamics was continuously observed throughout the vegetation season with a non-destructive method based on measurement of light (photosynthetic active radiation) extinction within the canopy. After 3 years no significant changes in absolute species numbers has been detected at all, whereas slight variations have been observed regarding species composition. Those shifts could be differentiated both to transplantation artifacts and effects of the elevated temperature. Total aboveground phytomass, unsurprisingly, showed higher values on transplanted (lower) mesocosms, however: data from single cuts and growth rate analysis reveal differing effects between the two transplantation steps as well as over the course of the vegetation period. Transplanted plots from 2000m to 1500m showed continuously higher productivity from spring to autumn

  13. High Temperature Mechanical Behavior of Aluminum- Cu50Zr50Metallic Glass Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, P.; Yedla, N.

    2016-02-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to determine interface strength between aluminum (metal) and Cu50Zr50 (metallic glass) at temperature of 500 K and at strain rate of 108 s-1. Simulation box of size 100 Å (x) × 110 Å (y) × 50 Å (z) is used for the above studies. At first Al-Cu50Zr50 crystalline interface model is built with the base layer-Al of 50 A and the top layer-Cu50Zr50 of 55 Å along y-direction. Later Cu50Zr50 metallic glass is obtained by quenching at a cooling rate of 4 x 1012 Ks-1. NPT ensemble is used in metallic glass preparation simulation. The interface model is then equilibrated at 300 K for 500 ps to relieve the internal stresses. EAM (Embedded Atom Method) potential is used for modelling the interaction between Al-Cu-Zr atoms. The interface strength of Al-Cu50Zr50 model interface is determined by applying load in the directions normal (mode-I) and parallel (mode-II) to the interface. NVT ensemble is used for the deformation studies. In mode-I for perfect and cracked interface, the interface fractures in the Al-region via necking. Sticking of the Al-atoms to the metallic glass is observed in both the loading conditions. Also, multiple voids are nucleated at the interface.

  14. Electrically active centers formed in silicon during the high-temperature diffusion of boron and aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, N. A.; Loshachenko, A. S.; Poloskin, D. S.; Shek, E. I.

    2013-02-15

    The parameters of electrically active centers formed during the high-temperature diffusion of boron and aluminum into silicon in various media are studied by the Hall method and capacitance spectroscopy. It is found that the variation in the resistivity of the n base of the structures with p-n junctions fabricated in the study is controlled by the formation of three donor levels Q1, E4, and Q3 with the energies E{sub c} - 0.31, E{sub c} - 0.27, and E{sub c} - 0.16 eV. Diffusion in a chlorine-containing atmosphere introduces only a single level E4, but its concentration is 2.5 times lower, compared with diffusion in air. The values of the ionization energy of the Q3 level, measured under equilibrium (Hall effect) and nonequilibrium (capacitance spectroscopy) conditions, almost coincide. The deepest level E1 with an energy of E{sub c} - 0.54 eV, formed upon diffusion in both media, has no effect on the resistivity in the n base of the structures.

  15. High-Operation-Temperature Plasmonic Nanolasers on Single-Crystalline Aluminum.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yu-Hsun; Wu, Yen-Mo; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Chou, Bo-Tsun; Shih, Jheng-Hong; Chung, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Peng-Yu; Lin, Tzy-Rong; Lin, Chien-Chung; Lin, Sheng-Di; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2016-05-11

    The recent development of plasmonics has overcome the optical diffraction limit and fostered the development of several important components including nanolasers, low-operation-power modulators, and high-speed detectors. In particular, the advent of surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) nanolasers has enabled the development of coherent emitters approaching the nanoscale. SPP nanolasers widely adopted metal-insulator-semiconductor structures because the presence of an insulator can prevent large metal loss. However, the insulator is not necessary if permittivity combination of laser structures is properly designed. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a SPP nanolaser with a ZnO nanowire on the as-grown single-crystalline aluminum. The average lasing threshold of this simple structure is 20 MW/cm(2), which is four-times lower than that of structures with additional insulator layers. Furthermore, single-mode laser operation can be sustained at temperatures up to 353 K. Our study represents a major step toward the practical realization of SPP nanolasers. PMID:27089144

  16. Curie temperature and magnetic properties of aluminum doped barium ferrite particles prepared by ball mill method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daming; Harward, Ian; Baptist, Joshua; Goldman, Sara; Celinski, Zbigniew

    2015-12-01

    Barium ferrite has attracted considerable interest in the fields of permanent magnets and perpendicular magnetic recording due to its strong uniaxial anisotropy and high Curie temperature (Tc). We prepared aluminum doped barium ferrite ceramics (BaAlxFe12-xO19, 0≤x≤6) by the ball mill method. The powder was milled for 96 h, and after forming pellets, annealed for 48 h in air at 1000 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show that there are only single hexagonal phases in the samples without any impurity phase. The crystal lattice constants, a and c, were calculated by Cohen's method. Both a and c decrease with increasing x, ranging from 0.588 nm and 2.318 nm to 0.573 nm and 2.294 nm, respectively. A Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) were used to investigate Tc and magnetic properties of BaFe12-xAlxO19. It is found that Tc decreases with increasing x, from 425 °C to 298 °C. It is also found that the saturated magnetization (4πMs) decreases with increasing x, while the coercivity (Hc) increases with the increase in x. The anisotropy field was also determined from the SQUID measurement.

  17. High temperature dynamic modulus and damping of aluminum and titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, J. A.; Maisel, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Dynamic modulus and damping capacity property data were measured from 20 to over 500 C for unidirectional B/Al (1100), B/Al (6061), B/SiC/Al (6061), Al2O3/Al, SiC/Ti-6Al-4V, and SiC/Ti composites. The measurements were made under vacuum by the forced vibration of composite bars at free-free flexural resonance near 2000 Hz and at amplitudes below 0.000001. Whereas little variation was observed in the dynamic moduli of specimens with approximately the same fiber content (50 percent), the damping of B/Al composites was found at all temperatures to be significantly greater than the damping of the Al2O3/Al and SiC/Ti composites. For those few situations where slight deviations from theory were observed, the dynamic data were examined for information concerning microstructural changes induced by composite fabrication and thermal treatment. The 270 C damping peak observed in B/Al (6061) composites after heat treatment above 460 C appears to be the result of a change in the 6061 aluminum alloy microstructure induced by interaction with the boron fibers. The growth characteristics of the damping peak suggest its possible value for monitoring fiber strength degration caused by excess thermal treatment during B/Al (6061) fabrication and use.

  18. New low-temperature processing for boron carbide/aluminum-based composite armor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pyzik, A.J.; Williams, P.D.; McCombs, A.

    1990-06-01

    The developed Boron Carbide/Aluminum based materials are a promising alternative for the use in lightweight armor application. The advantage of B4C/A1 composite over the traditional metal armor is its ballistic limit of 80 to 90% of that for hot pressed B4C, thus similar to ceramics such as A1N or SiC. The advantage of B4C/A1 over monolithic ceramic armor is its higher toughness. The ballistic efficiency of B4C materials, relative to hot-pressed boron carbide, was found to be directly related to the initial boron carbide content, the B-C-A1 phases formed in situ, and their continuity. The highest improvement of ballistic efficiency was associated with increasing contents of B4C and A1B2 in the system. The Rapid Omnidirectional Compaction process is a suitable technique to produce nearly dense B4C/A1 cermet at the low temperature. Dense, but soft, cermets can be near-net shaped and then changed into hard, ceramic-like structure through heat-treatment. Mechanical properties of B4C/A1 cermet depend mostly on the concentration and continuity of the boron carbide phase. Colloidal processing and post densification heat-treatment can be used to further modify properties for the application at hand.

  19. Behavior and survival of Mytilus congeners following episodes of elevated body temperature in air and seawater.

    PubMed

    Dowd, W Wesley; Somero, George N

    2013-02-01

    Coping with environmental stress may involve combinations of behavioral and physiological responses. We examined potential interactions between adult mussels' simple behavioral repertoire - opening/closing of the shell valves - and thermal stress physiology in common-gardened individuals of three Mytilus congeners found on the West Coast of North America: two native species (M. californianus and M. trossulus) and one invasive species from the Mediterranean (M. galloprovincialis). We first continuously monitored valve behavior over three consecutive days on which body temperatures were gradually increased, either in air or in seawater. A temperature threshold effect was evident between 25 and 33°C in several behavioral measures. Mussels tended to spend much less time with the valves in a sealed position following exposure to 33°C body temperature, especially when exposed in air. This behavior could not be explained by decreases in adductor muscle glycogen (stores of this metabolic fuel actually increased in some scenarios), impacts of forced valve sealing on long-term survival (none observed in a second experiment), or loss of contractile function in the adductor muscles (individuals exhibited as many or more valve adduction movements following elevated body temperature compared with controls). We hypothesize that this reduced propensity to seal the valves following thermal extremes represents avoidance of hypoxia-reoxygenation cycles and concomitant oxidative stress. We further conjecture that prolonged valve gaping following episodes of elevated body temperature may have important ecological consequences by affecting species interactions. We then examined survival over a 90 day period following exposure to elevated body temperature and/or emersion, observing ongoing mortality throughout this monitoring period. Survival varied significantly among species (M. trossulus had the lowest survival) and among experimental contexts (survival was lowest after experiencing

  20. Transcriptome and biomineralization responses of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 and temperature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Zhang, Shuwen; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification and global warming have been shown to significantly affect the physiological performances of marine calcifiers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptome and biomineralization responses of Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 (pH 7.8 and pH 7.5) and temperature (25 °C and 31 °C) are investigated. Increases in CO2 and temperature induced significant changes in gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, net calcification rates and relative calcium content, whereas no changes are observed in the shell ultrastructure. “Ion and acid-base regulation” related genes and “amino acid metabolism” pathway respond to the elevated CO2 (pH 7.8), suggesting that P. fucata implements a compensatory acid-base mechanism to mitigate the effects of low pH. Additionally, “anti-oxidation”-related genes and “Toll-like receptor signaling”, “arachidonic acid metabolism”, “lysosome” and “other glycan degradation” pathways exhibited responses to elevated temperature (25 °C and 31 °C), suggesting that P. fucata utilizes anti-oxidative and lysosome strategies to alleviate the effects of temperature stress. These responses are energy-consuming processes, which can lead to a decrease in biomineralization capacity. This study therefore is important for understanding the mechanisms by which pearl oysters respond to changing environments and predicting the effects of global climate change on pearl aquaculture. PMID:26732540

  1. Electrospun melamine resin-based multifunctional nonwoven membrane for lithium ion batteries at the elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingfu; Yu, Yong; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei

    2016-09-01

    A flame retardant and thermally dimensional stable membrane with high permeability and electrolyte wettability can overcome the safety issues of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) at elevated temperatures. In this work, a multifunctional thermoset nonwoven membrane composed of melamine formaldehyde resin (MFR) nano-fibers was prepared by a electro-spinning method. The resultant porous nonwoven membrane possesses superior permeability, electrolyte wettability and thermally dimensional stability. Using the electrospun MFR membrane, the LiFePO4/Li battery exhibits high safety and stable cycling performance at the elevated temperature of 120 °C. Most importantly, the MFR membrane contains lone pair electron in the nitrogen element, which can chelate with Mn2+ ions and suppress their transfer across the separator. Therefore, the LiMn2O4/graphite cells with the electrospun MFR multifunctional membranes reveal an improved cycle performance even at high temperature. This work demonstrated that electrospun MFR is a promising candidate material for high-safety separator of LIBs with stable cycling performance at elevated temperatures.

  2. Transcriptome and biomineralization responses of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Zhang, Shuwen; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification and global warming have been shown to significantly affect the physiological performances of marine calcifiers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptome and biomineralization responses of Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 (pH 7.8 and pH 7.5) and temperature (25 °C and 31 °C) are investigated. Increases in CO2 and temperature induced significant changes in gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, net calcification rates and relative calcium content, whereas no changes are observed in the shell ultrastructure. “Ion and acid-base regulation” related genes and “amino acid metabolism” pathway respond to the elevated CO2 (pH 7.8), suggesting that P. fucata implements a compensatory acid-base mechanism to mitigate the effects of low pH. Additionally, “anti-oxidation”-related genes and “Toll-like receptor signaling”, “arachidonic acid metabolism”, “lysosome” and “other glycan degradation” pathways exhibited responses to elevated temperature (25 °C and 31 °C), suggesting that P. fucata utilizes anti-oxidative and lysosome strategies to alleviate the effects of temperature stress. These responses are energy-consuming processes, which can lead to a decrease in biomineralization capacity. This study therefore is important for understanding the mechanisms by which pearl oysters respond to changing environments and predicting the effects of global climate change on pearl aquaculture.

  3. Elevated temperature viscous remanent magnetization of natural and synthetic multidomain magnetite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelso, Paul R.; Banerjee, Subir K.

    1994-01-01

    The time-temperature relationship of magnetization is a subject of much interest and debate by paleomagnetists, rock magnetists, and magnetic anomaly modellers. We have investigated this relationship by studying the viscous remanent magnetization (VRM) of coarse-grained multidomain (MD) magnetite. Our experiments covered the temperature range from 22 to 400 C, times from minutes to months, and included both Australian granulite samples and multidomain magnetite samples synthesized by the glass ceramic method. VRM acquisition was found to generally increase with temperature but not always at the rate predicted from classical thermal fluctuation theories. Thermal cycling between room temperature (at which the measurements were made) and the VRM acquisition temperature sharply decreased the temperature dependence of the VRM. Room temperature VRM acquisition accelerates with time when plotted on a semilog plot, whereas at elevated temperature the curves are quasilinear against log(time) for both the natural and synthetic samples. This change in behavior may suggest a variation in the VRM acquisition mechanism as a function of temperature for MD magnetite. The granulites have a nearly linear increase in VRM acquisition rate with temperature whereas the glass ceramics display little change in the acquisition rate between 22 and 200 C, but increase by nearly a factor of 3 by 400 C. The increase in VRM of the glass ceramics between 200 and 400 C is in general qualitative agreement with thermal fluctuation theory. There was no systematic change in the rate of VRM acquisition with grain size for the multidomain magnetites used in this study. Elevated temperature (e.g., 400 C) VRM acquisition by the deep crustal granulites, if extrapolated over the Brunhes chron, would produce a magnetization of several A/m which, if true, is of the order required by models for the source of long-wavelength magnetic anomalies.

  4. The effect of elevated temperature on Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV in wheat.

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Narelle; Constable, Fiona E; Finlay, Kyla J; Freeman, Angela J; Rodoni, Brendan C; Trebicki, Piotr; Vassiliadis, Simone; Yen, Alan L; Luck, Jo E

    2014-06-24

    Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV) is associated with yellow dwarf disease, one of the most economically important diseases of cereals worldwide. In this study, the impact of current and future predicted temperatures for the Wimmera wheat growing district in Victoria, Australia on the titre of BYDV-PAV in wheat was investigated. Ten-day old wheat (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yitpi) seedlings were inoculated with BYDV-PAV and grown at ambient (5.0-16.1°C, night-day) or elevated (10.0-21.1°C, night-day) temperature treatments, simulating the current Wimmera average and future daily temperature cycles, respectively, during the wheat-growing season. Whole above-ground plant samples were collected from each temperature treatment at 0 (day of inoculation), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 days after inoculation and the titre of BYDV-PAV was measured in each sample using a specific one-step multiplex normalised reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay. Physical measurements, including plant height, dry weight and tiller number, were also taken at each sampling point. The titre of BYDV-PAV was significantly greater in plants grown in the elevated temperature treatment than in plants grown in the ambient treatment on days 6, 9 and 12. Plants grown at elevated temperature were significantly bigger and symptoms associated with BYDV-PAV were visible earlier than in plants grown at ambient temperature. These results may have important implications for the epidemiology of yellow dwarf disease under future climates in Australia.

  5. The effect of elevated temperature on Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV in wheat.

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Narelle; Constable, Fiona E; Finlay, Kyla J; Freeman, Angela J; Rodoni, Brendan C; Trebicki, Piotr; Vassiliadis, Simone; Yen, Alan L; Luck, Jo E

    2014-06-24

    Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV) is associated with yellow dwarf disease, one of the most economically important diseases of cereals worldwide. In this study, the impact of current and future predicted temperatures for the Wimmera wheat growing district in Victoria, Australia on the titre of BYDV-PAV in wheat was investigated. Ten-day old wheat (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yitpi) seedlings were inoculated with BYDV-PAV and grown at ambient (5.0-16.1°C, night-day) or elevated (10.0-21.1°C, night-day) temperature treatments, simulating the current Wimmera average and future daily temperature cycles, respectively, during the wheat-growing season. Whole above-ground plant samples were collected from each temperature treatment at 0 (day of inoculation), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 days after inoculation and the titre of BYDV-PAV was measured in each sample using a specific one-step multiplex normalised reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay. Physical measurements, including plant height, dry weight and tiller number, were also taken at each sampling point. The titre of BYDV-PAV was significantly greater in plants grown in the elevated temperature treatment than in plants grown in the ambient treatment on days 6, 9 and 12. Plants grown at elevated temperature were significantly bigger and symptoms associated with BYDV-PAV were visible earlier than in plants grown at ambient temperature. These results may have important implications for the epidemiology of yellow dwarf disease under future climates in Australia. PMID:24374266

  6. Influence of elevated temperature and acid mine drainage on mortality of the crayfish Cambarus bartonii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Hom, C.D.; Mazik, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of elevated temperature and acid mine drainage (AMD) on crayfish mortality were investigated in the Stony River, Grant County, West Virginia. During summers 2003 and 2004, four-week in situ bioassays were performed along a thermal and AMD gradient with the native crayfish Cambarus bartonii. Crayfish mortality was analyzed in conjunction with temperature and AMD related variables (pH, specific conductivity). Mortality was significantly higher (48-88%) at sites with high temperatures during 2003 (max = 33.0??C), but no significant differences were observed in 2004 (max = 32.0??C). Temperatures were higher in 2003 than 2004 due to increased discharge from a cooling reservoir flowing into the river. Additionally, duration of high temperature was approximately four days in 2003 as compared with only one day in 2004. No significant relationship between acid mine drainage variables and crayfish mortality was apparent.

  7. The elevated temperature tensile properties of S-200E commercially pure beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Henshall, G.A.; Torres, S.G.; Hanafee, J.E.

    1995-09-01

    The tensile properties of commercially pure beryllium are sensitive to temperature, impurity content, texture, grain size, and prior processing. Therefore, tensile tests have been conducted using the commercially pure S-200E Be commonly employed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 300 to 1100{degrees}C in the longitudinal and transverse orientations at the quasi-static strain rate of 5.5 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}. The results of these experiments reveal that the stress-strain curve is smooth, ie. without yield points or serrations, over the entire temperature range studied. The yield stress (YS) and ultimate tensile stress (UTS) decrease monotonically with increasing temperature. Similar strengths were measured for both the longitudinal and transverse orientations, with the latter exhibiting slightly lower YS and UTS values. The measured failure elongation (e{sub f}) vs. temperature curve is complex due to the competing effects of increasing basal-plane fracture stress with increasing temperature combined with the presence of hot shortness at intermediate temperatures. The latter is believed to be caused, at least partially, by the presence of free aluminum impurities at the grain boundaries. This hypothesis is supported by the measured increase in e{sub f} at 700{degrees}C following a 100-hr anneal at 750{degrees}C, which would remove free Al from the grain boundaries. Texture also was found to influence e{sub f}. The favorable orientation of the basal planes for initiation and propagation of cleavage cracks in longitudinal specimens results in a significantly decreased failure elongation compared with the transverse orientation. The effects of testing temperature and specimen orientation on the reduction in area were found to be similar to those described for e{sub f}.

  8. Increasing testicular temperature by exposure to elevated ambient temperatures restores spermatogenesis in adult Utp14b (jsd) mutant (jsd) mice.

    PubMed

    Comish, P B; Liang, L Y; Yamauchi, Y; Weng, C C; Shetty, G; Naff, K A; Ward, M A; Meistrich, M L

    2015-03-01

    Because mutations in the human UTP14C gene are associated with male infertility, we sought to develop a method for fertility restoration in azoospermic mice with a mutation in the orthologous Utp14b(jsd) (jsd) gene that have spermatogonial arrest. The method is based on our observation that elevation of testicular temperatures restores spermatogonial differentiation in jsd mutant mice. To non-surgically raise intrascrotal temperatures we placed these mice in incubators at different elevated ambient temperatures. Exposure of jsd/jsd mice to ambient temperatures of 34.5 °C or 35.5 °C for 24 days increased the proportion of tubules with spermatocytes from 0% in untreated controls to over 80%. As those higher temperatures interfere with spermatid differentiation, the mice were then transferred to incubators at 32-32.5 °C for the next 24 days. These environments allowed differentiation to progress, resulting in up to 42% of tubules having late spermatids and about half of the mutant mice having spermatozoa in testicular suspensions. When these spermatozoa were used in intracytoplasmic sperm injection, all gave rise to viable healthy offspring with normal weight gain and fertility. The successful restoration of fertility in Utp14b mutant mice suggests that transient testicular warming might also be useful for spermatogenesis recovery in infertile men with UTP14C gene mutations.

  9. Duration of Exposure to Elevated Temperature Affects Competitive Interactions in Juvenile Reef Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Donald T.; Donelson, Jennifer M.; McCormick, Mark I.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.; Munday, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change will affect key ecological processes that structure natural communities, but the outcome of interactions between individuals and species will depend on their thermal plasticity. We tested how short- and long-term exposure to projected future temperatures affects intraspecific and interspecific competitive interactions in two species of coral reef damselfishes. In conspecific contests, juvenile Ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, exhibited no change in aggressive interactions after 4d exposure to higher temperatures. However, after 90d of exposure, fish showed a nonadaptive reduction in aggression at elevated temperatures. Conversely, 4d exposure to higher temperature increased aggression towards conspecifics in the lemon damselfish, Pomacentrus moluccensis. 90d exposure began to reduce this pattern, but overall there was little effect of temperature. Aggression in interspecific contests increased with short-term exposure, but was significantly lower after long-term exposure indicative of acclimation. Our results show how the length of exposure to elevated temperature can affect the outcome of competitive interactions. Furthermore, we illustrate that results from intraspecific contests may not accurately predict interspecific interactions, which will challenge our ability to generalise the effects of warming on competitive interactions. PMID:27736924

  10. Elevated Ambient Temperature Differentially Affects Virus Resistance in Two Tobacco Species.

    PubMed

    Ma, L; Huang, X; Yu, R; Jing, X L; Xu, J; Wu, C A; Zhu, C X; Liu, H M

    2016-01-01

    Antiviral defense of plants is usually enhanced by an elevated temperature under natural conditions. In order to better understand this phenomenon, we carried out temperature shift experiments with Nicotiana glutinosa plants that were infected with Potato virus X (PVX) or the necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVY(N)). The virus titer of the plants was found to be much lower when they were maintained at 30°C compared with 22°C, particularly in the upper leaves. PVX resistance at 30°C persisted for a short period even when temperature was shifted back to 22°C. In contrast, N. benthamiana lost the virus resistance immediately after the temperature dropped to 22°C. Expression analysis of two RNA-dependent RNA polymerases in N. glutinosa (NgRDR) showed that a 12-day treatment at 30°C increased the expression of NgRDR1, while NgRDR6 was not affected. In addition, the NgRDR6 mRNA level correlated with the PVX titer but was unaffected by PVY(N) infection. These observations indicate that PVX and PVY(N), although they are both RNA viruses, might trigger different defense responses at elevated temperatures. Our study provides valuable data for a better understanding of the temperature-regulated host virus interaction. PMID:26474332

  11. Deformation and fracture characteristics of Inconel X-750 at room temperature and elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J.

    1980-06-01

    Electron fractographic and thin foil electron metallographic techniques were used to evaluate the deformation and fracture characteristics of Inconel X-750 at temperatures ranging from 24 to 816/sup 0/C. Operative dislocation mechanisms and fracture surface morphologies were related to the overall tensile response of this nickel-base superalloy. At room temperature, failure occurred primarily by an intergranular dimple rupture mechanism associated with microvoid coalescence along grain boundary denuded regions. A fairly high density of dislocations throughout the matrix resulted in relatively high ductility levels even though failure occurred by an intergranular mechanism. Under intermediate temperature conditions (316 to 427/sup 0/C), increased transgranular fracture coupled with extensive dislocation activity within the Inconel X-750 matrix caused a slight increase in ductility. At progressively higher temperatures, 538 to 704/sup 0/C, all dislocation activity was channeled through narrow slip bands which subsequently initiated localized separation and resulted in a very faceted fracture surface appearance. The absence of a homogeneous dislocation substructure in this temperature regime resulted in a severe degradation in ductility levels. At the highest test temperature (816/sup 0/C), a uniform dislocation network throughout the Inconel X-750 matrix coupled with intense dislocation activity in the grain boundary denuded zone resulted in a marked improvement in ductility. Furthermore, the extensive dislocation activity along grain boundary regions ultimately resulted in an intergranular fracture morphology.

  12. Fatigue crack growth at elevated temperature 316 stainless steel and H-13 steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W. C.; Liu, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    Crack growths were measured at elevated temperatures under four types of loading: pp, pc, cp, and cc. In H-13 steel, all these four types of loading gave nearly the same crack growth rates, and the length of hold time had negligible effects. In AISI 316 stainless steel, the hold time effects on crack growth rate were negligible if the loading was tension-tension type; however, these effects were significant in reversed bending load, and the crack growth rates under these four types of loading varied considerably. Both tensile and compressive hold times caused increased crack growth rate, but the compressive hold period was more deleterious than the tensile one. Metallographic examination showed that all the crack paths under different types of loading were largely transgranular for both CTS tension-tension specimens and SEN reversed cantilever bending specimens. In addition, an electric potential technique was used to monitor crack growth at elevated temperature.

  13. Comparative performance of geopolymers made with metakaolin and fly ash after exposure to elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Daniel L.Y.; Sanjayan, Jay G. Sagoe-Crentsil, Kwesi

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of elevated temperatures on geopolymers manufactured using metakaolin and fly ash of various mixture proportions. Both types of geopolymers (metakaolin and fly ash) were synthesized with sodium silicate and potassium hydroxide solutions. The strength of the fly ash-based geopolymer increased after exposure to elevated temperatures (800 deg. C). However, the strength of the corresponding metakaolin-based geopolymer decreased after similar exposure. Both types of geopolymers were subjected to thermogravimetric, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry tests. The paper concludes that the fly ash-based geopolymers have large numbers of small pores which facilitate the escape of moisture when heated, thus causing minimal damage to the geopolymer matrix. On the other hand, metakaolin geopolymers do not possess such pore distribution structures. The strength increase in fly ash geopolymers is also partly attributed to the sintering reactions of un-reacted fly ash particles.

  14. Constitutive Modeling and Testing of Polymer Matrix Composites Incorporating Physical Aging at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced polymer matrix composites (PMC's) are desirable for structural materials in diverse applications such as aircraft, civil infrastructure and biomedical implants because of their improved strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. For example, the next generation military and commercial aircraft requires applications for high strength, low weight structural components subjected to elevated temperatures. A possible disadvantage of polymer-based composites is that the physical and mechanical properties of the matrix often change significantly over time due to the exposure of elevated temperatures and environmental factors. For design, long term exposure (i.e. aging) of PMC's must be accounted for through constitutive models in order to accurately assess the effects of aging on performance, crack initiation and remaining life. One particular aspect of this aging process, physical aging, is considered in this research.

  15. Evaluation of weldment creep and fatigue strength-reduction factors for elevated-temperature design

    SciTech Connect

    Corum, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    New explicit weldment strength criteria in the form of creep and fatigue strength-reduction factors were recently introduced into the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code Case N-47, which governs the design of elevated-temperature nuclear plants components in the United States. This paper provides some of the background and logic for these factors and their use, and it describes the results of a series of long-term, confirmatory, creep-rupture and fatigue tests of simple welded structures. The structures (welded plates and tubes) were made of 316 stainless steel base metal and 16-8-2 weld filler metal. Overall, the results provide further substantiation of the validity of the strength-reduction factor approach for ensuring adequate life in elevated-temperature nuclear component weldments. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  16. An assessment of buffer strips for improving damage tolerance of composite laminates at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    Buffer strips greatly improve the damage tolerance of graphite/epoxy laminates loaded in tension. Graphite/polyimide buffer strip panels were made and tested to determine their residual strength at ambient and elevated (177 C) temperature. Each panel was cut in the center to represent damage. Panels were radiographed and crack-opening displacements were recorded to indicate fracture, fracture arrest, and the extent of damage in the buffer strip after arrest. All panels had the same buffer strip spacing and width. The buffer strip material was 0 deg S-glass/PMR-15. The buffer strips were made by replacing narrow strips of the 0 deg graphite plies with strips of the 0 deg S-glass on either a one-for-one or a two-for-one basis. Half of the panels were heated to 177 + or - 3 C before and during the testing. Elevated temperature did not alter the fracture behavior of the buffer configuration.

  17. FDTD computation of temperature elevation in the elderly for far-field RF exposures.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Tomoki; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2014-03-01

    Core temperature elevation and perspiration in younger and older adults is investigated for plane-wave exposure at whole-body averaged specific absorption rate of 0.4 W kg(-1). Numeric Japanese male model is considered together with a thermoregulatory response formula proposed in the authors' previous study. The frequencies considered were at 65 MHz and 2 GHz where the total power absorption in humans becomes maximal for the allowable power density prescribed in the international guidelines. From the computational results used here, the core temperature elevation in the older adult model was larger than that in the younger one at both frequencies. The reason for this difference is attributable to the difference of sweating, which is originated from the difference in the threshold activating the sweating and the decline in sweating in the legs.

  18. Growth response and acclimation of CO2 exchange characteristics to elevated temperatures in tropical tree seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Cheesman, Alexander W.; Winter, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Predictions of how tropical forests will respond to future climate change are constrained by the paucity of data on the performance of tropical species under elevated growth temperatures. In particular, little is known about the potential of tropical species to acclimate physiologically to future increases in temperature. Seedlings of 10 neo-tropical tree species from different functional groups were cultivated in controlled-environment chambers under four day/night temperature regimes between 30/22 °C and 39/31 °C. Under well-watered conditions, all species showed optimal growth at temperatures above those currently found in their native range. While non-pioneer species experienced catastrophic failure or a substantially reduced growth rate under the highest temperature regime employed (i.e. daily average of 35 °C), growth in three lowland pioneers showed only a marginal reduction. In a subsequent experiment, three species (Ficus insipida, Ormosia macrocalyx, and Ochroma pyramidale) were cultivated at two temperatures determined as sub- and superoptimal for growth, but which resulted in similar biomass accumulation despite a 6°C difference in growth temperature. Through reciprocal transfer and temperature adjustment, the role of thermal acclimation in photosynthesis and respiration was investigated. Acclimation potential varied among species, with two distinct patterns of respiration acclimation identified. The study highlights the role of both inherent temperature tolerance and thermal acclimation in determining the ability of tropical tree species to cope with enhanced temperatures. PMID:23873999

  19. Numerical Modeling of Magnesium Alloy Sheet Metal Forming at Elevated Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myeong-Han; Oh, Soo-Ik; Kim, Heon-Young; Kim, Hyung-Jong; Choi, Yi-Chun

    2007-05-17

    The development of light-weight vehicle is in great demand for enhancement of fuel efficiency and dynamic performance. The vehicle weight can be reduced effectively by using lightweight materials such as magnesium alloys. However, the use of magnesium alloys in sheet forming processes is still limited because of their low formability at room temperature and the lack of understanding of the forming process of magnesium alloys at elevated temperatures. In this study, uniaxial tensile tests of the magnesium alloy AZ31B-O at various temperatures were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of this alloy relevant for forming of magnesium sheets. To construct a FLD (forming limit diagram), a forming limit test were conducted at temperature of 100 and 200 deg. C. For the evaluation of the effects of the punch temperature on the formability of a rectangular cup drawing with AZ31B-O, numerical modelling was conducted. The experiment results indicate that the stresses and possible strains of AZ31B-O sheets largely depend on the temperature. The stress decreases with temperature increase. Also, the strain increase with temperature increase. The numerical modelling results indicate that formability increases with the decrease in the punch temperature at the constant temperature of the die and holder.

  20. Guidelines and procedures for design of Class 1 elevated temperature nuclear system components

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This standard provides guidelines and procedures which may be used by the manufacturer in satisfying the requirements given for design of class 1 elevated temperature nuclear system components. Guidance is given regarding planning and control of design analysis. A sequence for calculations is recommended. Methods of analysis, including procedures to account for environmental effects, are given which are acceptable in principle to the owner. A format is provided for use in documentation of design analyses.

  1. The optical functions of silicon at elevated temperatures and their application to pulsed laser annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison, G.E. Jr.; Lowndes, D.H.; Wood, R.F.

    1993-06-01

    The results of measurements of the optical functions of silicon at elevated temperatures are reviewed and the results applied to pulsed laser annealing of silicon. Several optical experiments which were performed to understand the physics of pulsed laser annealing are described, and related to detailed thermal modeling. The fabrication of silicon solar cells using both thermal and laser processing is described, both of which give very goods results.

  2. Mechanical properties of turbine blade alloys in hydrogen at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanical properties of single crystal turbine blade alloys in a gaseous hydrogen environment were determined. These alloys are proposed for use in space propulsion systems in pure or partial high pressure hydrogen environments at elevated temperatures. Mechanical property tests included: tensile, creep, low fatigue (LCF), and crack growth. Specimens were in both transverse and longitudinal directions relative to the casting solidification direction. Testing was conducted on solid specimens exposed to externally pressurized environments of gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen-enriched steam.

  3. Effect of thermal exposure, forming, and welding on high-temperature, dispersion-strengthened aluminum alloy: Al-8Fe-1V-2Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, J. R.; Gilman, P. S.; Zedalis, M. S.; Skinner, D. J.; Peltier, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of applying conventional hot forming and welding methods to high temperature aluminum alloy, Al-8Fe-1V-2Si (FVS812), for structural applications and the effect of thermal exposure on mechanical properties were determined. FVS812 (AA8009) sheet exhibited good hot forming and resistance welding characteristics. It was brake formed to 90 deg bends (0.5T bend radius) at temperatures greater than or equal to 390 C (730 F), indicating the feasibility of fabricating basic shapes, such as angles and zees. Hot forming of simple contoured-flanged parts was demonstrated. Resistance spot welds with good static and fatigue strength at room and elevated temperatures were readily produced. Extended vacuum degassing during billet fabrication reduced porosity in fusion and resistance welds. However, electron beam welding was not possible because of extreme degassing during welding, and gas-tungsten-arc welds were not acceptable because of severely degraded mechanical properties. The FVS812 alloy exhibited excellent high temperature strength stability after thermal exposures up to 315 C (600 F) for 1000 h. Extended billet degassing appeared to generally improve tensile ductility, fatigue strength, and notch toughness. But the effects of billet degassing and thermal exposure on properties need to be further clarified. The manufacture of zee-stiffened, riveted, and resistance-spot-welded compression panels was demonstrated.

  4. Changes in life history parameters of Rhopalosiphum maidis (Homoptera: Aphididae) under four different elevated temperature and CO2 combinations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haicui; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Zhenying; Ni, Xinzhi; Cai, Wanzhi; He, Kanglai

    2014-08-01

    Biological characteristics of corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), on barley, Hordeum vulgare L., were examined for two generations under four different elevated temperature and CO2 combinations. The developmental duration for each life stage was significantly reduced under the elevated temperature (+4 degrees C). The elevated CO2 (700-750 microl/liter) reduced only the development time of fourth-instar nymph. The overall duration of nymphal stage was reduced in the second generation. Thus, the temperature was the dominant factor to development duration of corn leaf aphid. The fecundity of corn leaf aphid was significantly increased under the elevated temperature and CO2, as well as in the later generation. Elevated temperature and CO2 increased the number of alate production, which may enhance the aphid migration or dispersal and the spread of plant viruses. Corn leaf aphid had the highest intrinsic rate of increase under the elevated temperature and CO2 combination in the second generation. These results indicate that the combined effects of both elevated temperature and CO2 on aphid biology may exacerbate aphid damage on barley under the climate change in accompany with elevated temperature and CO2 level. PMID:25195429

  5. ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ALTER THE ECOSYSTEM C EXCHANGE IN A YOUNG DOUGLAS FIR MESOCOSM EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (EC) [ambient CO2 (AC) + 190 ppm] and elevated temperature (ET) [ambient temperature (AT) + 3.6 °C] on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of seedling Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mesocosms. As the study utilized seedlings in reconstruc...

  6. A comparison of deflagration rates, at elevated pressures and temperatures, with thermal explosion results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glascoe, Elizabeth; Springer, H. Keo; Tringe, Joseph W.; Maienschein, Jon L.

    2011-06-01

    Previously, the deflagration rate and behavior of HMX-based explosives have been correlated with the violence of thermal explosion experiments. In particular, HMX materials that experience deconsolidative burning at elevated pressures (i.e. P = 200 - 600 MPa) also produce significantly more violent thermal explosions. Recently, we have measured the deflagration rates of HMX-based explosives at elevated temperatures (i.e. T = 150 - 180C) and moderate pressures (i.e. P = 10 - 100 MPa). These conditions more closely mimic the pressure and temperatures of an explosive shortly after ignition of a thermal explosion. We will discuss the deflagration rates of HMX based explosives at elevated temperatures and make comparisons with thermal explosion studies on the same materials. The Joint DoD-DOE Munitions Technology Development Program is acknowledged for funding. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Effects of intermittent flow and irradiance level on back reef Porites corals at elevated seawater temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.W.; Birkeland, C.

    2007-01-01

    Corals inhabiting shallow back reef habitats are often simultaneously exposed to elevated seawater temperatures and high irradiance levels, conditions known to cause coral bleaching. Water flow in many tropical back reef systems is tidally influenced, resulting in semi-diurnal or diurnal flow patterns. Controlled experiments were conducted to test effects of semi-diurnally intermittent water flow on photoinhibition and bleaching of the corals Porites lobata and P. cylindrica kept at elevated seawater temperatures and different irradiance levels. All coral colonies were collected from a shallow back reef pool on Ofu Island, American Samoa. In the high irradiance experiments, photoinhibition and bleaching were less for both species in the intermittent high-low flow treatment than in the constant low flow treatment. In the low irradiance experiments, there were no differences in photoinhibition or bleaching for either species between the flow treatments, despite continuously elevated seawater temperatures. These results suggest that intermittent flow associated with semi-diurnal tides, and low irradiances caused by turbidity or shading, may reduce photoinhibition and bleaching of back reef corals during warming events. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Final Report on Materials Characterization for the Wetted Cathodes for Low-Temperature Aluminum Smelting Program

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, Charles F.

    2002-10-30

    This report is a summary of materials characterization results on twenty cathode samples that were used in a novel aluminum reduction cell at the Northwest Aluminum Technologies laboratory. Most of these cathodes were based on the TiB2 composition and showed very little corrosion as a result of testing. Most of the samples also showed good wetting by Al metal that formed during cell operation.

  9. The flammability limits of hydrogen and methane in air at moderately elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ale, B.B.; Wierzba, I.

    1997-12-31

    The flammability limits of hydrogen and methane in air were determined experimentally at elevated initial mixture temperatures up to 350 C at atmospheric pressure for upward flame propagation in a conventional steel test tube apparatus. Additionally, the extent to which a prolonged exposure (i.e., residence time) of the mixture to elevated temperatures before spark ignition and, consequently, the existence of pre-ignition reactions that may influence the value of the lean and rich flammability limits was also investigated. It was shown that the flammability limits for methane widened approximately linearly with an increase in the initial mixture temperature over the whole range of temperatures tested. These limits were not affected by the length of the residence time before spark ignition. Different behavior was observed for flammability limits of hydrogen. They were also widened with an increase in the initial temperature but only up to 200 C. In this initial temperature range the limits were not affected by the length of the residence time. However, at initial temperature exceeding 200 C the flammability limits, especially, the rich limits narrowed with an increase in the temperature and were significantly affected by the residence time before spark ignition. It was suggested that the substantial drop in the value of the rich limit with the increase in the residence time was caused by the relatively low temperature catalytic reactions on the stainless steel surface of the flame tube. Simple method for calculating the hydrogen conversion to water was proposed. The results of calculations are in fair agreement with the experimental evidence.

  10. Cell structural changes in the mesophyll of Norway spruce needles by elevated ozone and elevated temperature in open-field exposure during cold acclimation.

    PubMed

    Kivimäenpää, Minna; Riikonen, Johanna; Sutinen, Sirkka; Holopainen, Toini

    2014-04-01

    The effects of elevated ozone (1.4× ambient) and temperature (ambient +1.3 °C) alone and in combination were studied on the needle cell structure of soil-grown Norway spruce seedlings in the late growing season and winter. Temperature treatment continued over winter and lengthened the snow-free period. Elevated temperature caused microscopic changes related to photosynthesis (decreased chloroplast size and increased number), carbon storage (reduced starch and increased cytoplasmic lipids) and defence (decreased mitochondrial size and proportion per cytoplasm, increased peroxisomes and plastoglobuli, altered appearance of tannins). The results suggest increased oxidative stress by elevated temperature and altered allocation of limited carbon reserve to defence. The number of peroxisomes and plastoglobuli remained high in the outer cells of needles of ozone-exposed seedlings but decreased in the inner cells. This may indicate defence allocation to cells close to the stomata and surface, which are experiencing more oxidative stress. Ozone reduced winter hardiness based on seasonal changes in chloroplast shape and location in the cells. The effects of ozone became evident at the end of the growing season, indicating the effect of cumulative ozone dose or that the seedlings were vulnerable to ozone at the later phases of winter hardening. Elevated temperature increased cellular damage in early winter and visible damage in spring, and the damage was enhanced by ozone. In conclusion, the study suggests that modest air temperature elevation increases stress at the cell structural level in spruce seedlings and is enhanced by low ozone elevation. Future climatic conditions where snow cover is formed later or is lacking but temperatures are low can increase the risk of severe seedling damage, and current and future predicted ozone concentrations increase this risk.

  11. Cell structural changes in the mesophyll of Norway spruce needles by elevated ozone and elevated temperature in open-field exposure during cold acclimation.

    PubMed

    Kivimäenpää, Minna; Riikonen, Johanna; Sutinen, Sirkka; Holopainen, Toini

    2014-04-01

    The effects of elevated ozone (1.4× ambient) and temperature (ambient +1.3 °C) alone and in combination were studied on the needle cell structure of soil-grown Norway spruce seedlings in the late growing season and winter. Temperature treatment continued over winter and lengthened the snow-free period. Elevated temperature caused microscopic changes related to photosynthesis (decreased chloroplast size and increased number), carbon storage (reduced starch and increased cytoplasmic lipids) and defence (decreased mitochondrial size and proportion per cytoplasm, increased peroxisomes and plastoglobuli, altered appearance of tannins). The results suggest increased oxidative stress by elevated temperature and altered allocation of limited carbon reserve to defence. The number of peroxisomes and plastoglobuli remained high in the outer cells of needles of ozone-exposed seedlings but decreased in the inner cells. This may indicate defence allocation to cells close to the stomata and surface, which are experiencing more oxidative stress. Ozone reduced winter hardiness based on seasonal changes in chloroplast shape and location in the cells. The effects of ozone became evident at the end of the growing season, indicating the effect of cumulative ozone dose or that the seedlings were vulnerable to ozone at the later phases of winter hardening. Elevated temperature increased cellular damage in early winter and visible damage in spring, and the damage was enhanced by ozone. In conclusion, the study suggests that modest air temperature elevation increases stress at the cell structural level in spruce seedlings and is enhanced by low ozone elevation. Future climatic conditions where snow cover is formed later or is lacking but temperatures are low can increase the risk of severe seedling damage, and current and future predicted ozone concentrations increase this risk. PMID:24718738

  12. Note: A method for minimizing oxide formation during elevated temperature nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, I. C.; Hodge, A. M.; Garcia-Sanchez, E.

    2014-09-15

    A standardized method to protect metallic samples and minimize oxide formation during elevated-temperature nanoindentation was adapted to a commercial instrument. Nanoindentation was performed on Al (100), Cu (100), and W (100) single crystals submerged in vacuum oil at 200 °C, while the surface morphology and oxidation was carefully monitored using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results were compared to room temperature and 200 °C nanoindentation tests performed without oil, in order to evaluate the feasibility of using the oil as a protective medium. Extensive surface characterization demonstrated that this methodology is effective for nanoscale testing.

  13. The Thermal Expansion, Elastic and Fracture Properties of Porous Cordierite at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Pandey, Amit; Watkins, Thomas R; More, Karren

    2012-01-01

    The properties that determine the thermal shock resistance in materials are reported for porous cordierite, a leading candidate material for the fabrication of diesel particulate filters. Fracture toughness and slow crack growth tests were performed on test specimens obtained from the walls of diesel particulate filter monolithic substrates using the double-torsion test method at temperatures between 20 C and 900 C. The thermal expansion and elastic properties were characterized between 20 C and 1000 C. The role of the microstructure of porous cordierite in determining its unusual thermal expansion and elevated temperature Young's modulus and fracture toughness are discussed.

  14. The vacancy in silicon: Identical diffusion properties at cryogenic and elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, George D.

    2008-05-01

    The vacancy contribution to self-diffusion in silicon, recently revealed in the study by Shimitzu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 095901 (2007)], is analyzed to demonstrate that the pre-exponential term, as well as the enthalpy term, matches accurately to that of the isolated neutral vacancy, as determined many years earlier at cryogenic temperatures by electron paramagnetic resonance and deep level transient spectroscopy. The persistent suggestion of an "extended" vacancy with very different migrational properties at elevated temperatures is therefore incorrect. There is only one vacancy.

  15. A falsification of the thermal specialization paradigm: compensation for elevated temperatures in Antarctic fishes

    PubMed Central

    Seebacher, Frank; Davison, William; Lowe, Cara J; Franklin, Craig E

    2005-01-01

    Specialization to a particular environment is one of the main factors used to explain species distributions. Antarctic fishes are often cited as a classic example to illustrate the specialization process and are regarded as the archetypal stenotherms. Here we show that the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki has retained the capacity to compensate for chronic temperature change. By displaying astounding plasticity in cardiovascular response and metabolic control, the fishes maintained locomotory performance at elevated temperatures. Our falsification of the specialization paradigm indicates that the effect of climate change on species distribution and extinction may be overestimated by current models of global warming. PMID:17148152

  16. Large-strain cyclic response and martensitic transformation of austenitic stainless steel at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamasaki, H.; Nakano, T.; Ishimaru, E.; Yoshida, F.

    2016-08-01

    Cyclic tension-compression tests were carried out for austenitic stainless steel (SUS304) at elevated temperatures. The significant Bauschinger effect was found in the obtained stress-strain curve. In addition, stagnation of deformation induced martensitic transformation was observed just after stress reversal until the equivalent stress reached the maximum value in the course of experiment. The constitutive model for SUS304 at room temperature was developed, in which homogenized stress of SUS304 was expressed by the weighed summation of stresses of austenite and martensite phases. The calculated stress-strain curves and predicted martensite volume fraction were well correlated with those experimental results.

  17. Final report of comprehensive testing program for concrete at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Oland, C.B.; Naus, D.J.; Robinson, G.C.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this program was to define the variations in physical (thermal) and mechanical (strength) properties of limestone aggregate concrete and lightweight insulating concrete exposed to elevated temperatures that could occur as a result of a postulated large sodium spill in a lined LMFBR equipment cell. To meet this objective, five test series were conducted: (1) unconfined compression, (2) shear, (3) rebar bond, (4) sustained loading (creep), and (5) thermal properties. Mechanical property results are presented for concretes subjected to temperature up to 621{sup 0}C (1150{sup 0}F).

  18. Small angle neutron scattering from nanocrystalline Pd and Co compacted at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, P.G.; Weertman, J.R.; Barker, J.G.; Siegel, R.W.

    1994-05-01

    Nanocrystalline (n-) Cu and Pd, prepared by inert gas condensation and in situ room temperature (RT) and elevated temperature (warm) compactions, have been studied by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Previous work on RT compacted and subsequently annealed n-Pd seemed to show that all the scattering could be accounted for by a distribution of pores. Analysis of more extensive SANS measurements, together with results of prompt gamma activation analysis, indicates that the SANS can be explained by the presence of pores and hydrogen. Warm compaction reduces the hydrogen impurity level, while increasing the bulk density and decreasing the pore size. This can lead to a dramatic hardness increase in these materials.

  19. Climate change (elevated CO₂, elevated temperature and moderate drought) triggers the antioxidant enzymes' response of grapevine cv. Tempranillo, avoiding oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Parra, Carolina; Aguirreolea, Jone; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Irigoyen, Juan José; Morales, Fermín

    2012-02-01

    Photosynthetic carbon fixation (A(N) ) and photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) are affected by different environmental stress factors, such as those associated with climate change. Under stress conditions, it can be generated an electron excess that cannot be consumed, which can react with O₂, producing reactive oxygen species. This work was aimed to evaluate the influence of climate change (elevated CO₂, elevated temperature and moderate drought) on the antioxidant status of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cv. Tempranillo leaves, from veraison to ripeness. The lowest ratios between electrons generated (ETR) and consumed (A(N) + respiration + photorespiration) were observed in plants treated with elevated CO₂ and elevated temperature. In partially irrigated plants under current ambient conditions, electrons not consumed seemed to be diverted to alternative ways. Oxidative damage to chlorophylls and carotenoids was not observed. However, these plants had increases in thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, an indication of lipid peroxidation. These increases matched well with an early rise of H₂O₂ and antioxidant enzyme activities, superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6). Enzymatic activities were maintained high until ripeness. In conclusion, plants grown under current ambient conditions and moderate drought were less efficient to cope with oxidative damage than well-irrigated plants, and more interestingly, plants grown under moderate drought but treated with elevated CO₂ and elevated temperature were not affected by oxidative damage, mainly because of higher rates of electrons consumed in photosynthetic carbon fixation.

  20. Exploratory study of elevated-temperature tensile properties of alloys based on the intermetallic compound TiNi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkle, M.

    1974-01-01

    The tensile properties and oxygen contamination behavior of TiNi alloyed with aluminum, chromium, and silicon were investigated in the temperature range between 800 and 1000 K (980 and 1340 F). The alloys were significantly stronger than unalloyed TiNi and less susceptible to embrittlement than the Ti-6242 alloy.

  1. Response of aluminum solubility to elevated nitrification in soil of a red spruce stand in eastern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of soluble Al can impair tree growth and be toxic to aquatic biota, but effects of acidic deposition on Al solubility in forest soils are only partially understood because of complex interactions with H+ and organic matter. We therefore evaluated Al solubility in two red spruce stands in eastern Maine, one of which received dry (NH4)2SO4 at a rate of 1800 equiv ha-1 yr-1 during 19891995. Samples of soil (Spodosol Oa and Bh horizons) and soil solution were collected on five dates from 1992 to 1995. The treatment elevated nitrification, causing an increase in acid input that led to inorganic Al concentrations of greater than 60 ??mol L-1 in both the Oa and Bh horizons. Solubility of Al was also lower in the Bh horizon of the treated stand than in the reference stand, a response related to higher DOC concentrations in the treated stand. Concentrations of CuCl2 and pyrophosphate-extractable Al were higher in the Oa horizon of the treated watershed than the reference stand, a result of accelerated weathering of mineral particles caused by lower solution pH in the treated stand (3.47) than in the reference stand (3.69). Dissolved Al concentrations in these soils are the result of complex mechanisms through which mineral matter, organic matter, and pH interact to control Al solubility; mechanisms that are not incorporated in current Al solubility models.

  2. Apparatus for Measuring Spectral Emissivity of Solid Materials at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Dengfeng; Tan, Hong; Xuan, Yimin; Han, Yuge; Li, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    Spectral emissivity measurements at high temperature are of great importance for both scientific research and industrial applications. A method to perform spectral emissivity measurements is presented based on two sample heating methods, the flat plate and tubular furnace. An apparatus is developed to measure the normal spectral emissivity of solid material at elevated temperatures from 1073 K to 1873 K and wavelengths from 2 \\upmu hbox {m} to 25 \\upmu hbox {m}. Sample heating is accomplished by a torch flame or a high temperature furnace. Two different variable temperature blackbody sources are used as standard references and the radiance is measured by a FTIR spectrometer. Following calibration of the spectral response and background radiance of the spectrometer, the effect of the blackbody temperature interval on calibration results is discussed. Measurements are performed of the normal spectral emissivity of SiC and graphite over the prescribed temperature and wavelength range. The emissivity of SiC at high temperatures is compared with the emissivity at room temperature, and the influence of an oxide layer formed at the surface of SiC on the emissivity is studied. The effect of temperature on the emissivity of graphite is also investigated. Furthermore, a thorough analysis of the uncertainty components of the emissivity measurement is performed.

  3. Ratchetting behavior of type 304 stainless steel at room and elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggles, M.; Krempl, E.

    1988-01-01

    The zero-to-tension ratchetting behavior was investigated under uniaxial loading at room temperature and at 550, 600 and 650/degree/ C. In History I the maximum stress level of ratchetting was equal to the stress reached in a tensile test at one percent strain. For History II the maximum stress level was established as the stress reached after a 2100 s relaxation at one percent strain. Significant ratchetting was observed for History I at room temperature but not at the elevated temperatures. The accumulated ratchet strain increases with decreasing stress rate. Independent of the stress rates used insignificant ratchet strain was observed at room temperature for History II. This observation is explained in the context of the viscoplasticity theory based on overstress by the exhaustion of the viscous contribution to the stress during relaxation. The viscous part of the stress is the driving force for the ratchetting in History I. Strain aging is presumably responsible for the lack of short-time inelastic deformation resulting in a nearly rate-independent behavior at the elevated temperatures. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Theoretical study of temperature elevation at muscle/bone interface during ultrasound hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Lin, W L; Liauh, C T; Chen, Y Y; Liu, H C; Shieh, M J

    2000-05-01

    This paper examines the distributions of the SAR (specific absorption rate) ratio and temperature elevation when an ultrasound beam propagates through the interface of muscle and bone. This interface is regarded as a flat boundary to partition the energy of the ultrasound beam, and the analytical solution of temperature distribution is based on the steady-state bio-heat transfer equation. The parameters considered are the incident angle of ultrasound beam, the ultrasound frequency, the acoustic attenuation coefficients of refracted longitudinal and shear waves in bone, and the blood perfusion in muscle. The results show that the peak of the SAR ratio is always at the interface of muscle and bone, while the peak of temperature is located in the bone region beyond the interface. A muscle with lower perfusion or a bone with higher acoustic attenuation results in the shifting of the temperature peak closer to the interface. It is more difficult to heat a higher perfused muscle in front of a bone using a lower frequency ultrasound since the temperature elevation for bone relative to muscle is greater.

  5. Lifetimes statistics for single Kevlar 49 aramid filaments in creep-rupture at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    Kevlar 49 fibrous composites are routinely fabricated to have strengths above 1.5 GPa(200 ksi), but in many applications one would like to sustain such stresses for long time periods, sometimes at elevated temperatures. Thus the temperature dependence of the creep-rupture process in the fibers is of interest. Experimental data are presented for the lifetime of single Kevlar 49 filaments under constant stress at elevated temperatures. The goal of this research was to fully characterize the statistical strength and lifetime behavior of single filaments in order to separate fiber effects from fiber/matrix interactions in the creep-rupture lifetime of Kevlar 49/epoxy composites as described for example in Phoenix and Wu (1983). First we conducted experiments to determine distributions for the strength of filaments from the two distinct spools as a function of temperature. As expected, the data could generally be fitted by a two-parameter Weibull distribution. Lifetime experiments at 80 and 130/sup 0/C were conducted at several stress levels chosen as suitable fractions of the Weibull scale parameter for short-term strength for that temperature. The lifetime data were well modelled by a two-parameter Weibull distribution with large variability.

  6. Response and Tolerance Mechanism of Cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. to Elevated Temperature Stress: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, Kashif Rafiq; Ali, Farhan; Shah, Farooq; Younas, Muhammad; Shah, Tariq; Shahwar, Durri; Hassan, Waseem; Ahmad, Zahoor; Qi, Chao; Lu, Yanli; Iqbal, Amjad; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is an important multipurpose crop which is highly sensitive to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Proper management of this cash crop requires systematic understanding of various environmental conditions that are vital to yield and quality. High temperature stress can severely affect the viability of pollens and anther indehiscence, which leads to significant yield losses. Cotton can respond to withstand adverse environmental condition in several phases among which the accumulation of chemicals is extremely vital. Calcium, kinases, reactive oxygen species, carbohydrate, transcription factors, gene expression regulation, and plant hormones signaling pathways are playing a handy role in activating the major genes responsible to encounter and defend elevated temperature stress. The production of heat shock proteins is up-regulated when crops are unleashed to high temperature stress. Molecular breeding can play a functional role to identify superior genes for all the important attributes as well as provide breeder ready markers for developing ideotypes. The development of high-temperature resistant transgenic cultivars of cotton can grant a stability benefit and can also ameliorate the production capacity in response to elevated temperature. PMID:27446165

  7. Response and Tolerance Mechanism of Cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. to Elevated Temperature Stress: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Kashif Rafiq; Ali, Farhan; Shah, Farooq; Younas, Muhammad; Shah, Tariq; Shahwar, Durri; Hassan, Waseem; Ahmad, Zahoor; Qi, Chao; Lu, Yanli; Iqbal, Amjad; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is an important multipurpose crop which is highly sensitive to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Proper management of this cash crop requires systematic understanding of various environmental conditions that are vital to yield and quality. High temperature stress can severely affect the viability of pollens and anther indehiscence, which leads to significant yield losses. Cotton can respond to withstand adverse environmental condition in several phases among which the accumulation of chemicals is extremely vital. Calcium, kinases, reactive oxygen species, carbohydrate, transcription factors, gene expression regulation, and plant hormones signaling pathways are playing a handy role in activating the major genes responsible to encounter and defend elevated temperature stress. The production of heat shock proteins is up-regulated when crops are unleashed to high temperature stress. Molecular breeding can play a functional role to identify superior genes for all the important attributes as well as provide breeder ready markers for developing ideotypes. The development of high-temperature resistant transgenic cultivars of cotton can grant a stability benefit and can also ameliorate the production capacity in response to elevated temperature. PMID:27446165

  8. Elevated CO2 Reduced Floret Death in Wheat Under Warmer Average Temperatures and Terminal Drought

    PubMed Central

    Dias de Oliveira, Eduardo; Palta, Jairo A.; Bramley, Helen; Stefanova, Katia; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated CO2 often increases grain yield in wheat by enhancing grain number per ear, which can result from an increase in the potential number of florets or a reduction in the death of developed florets. The hypotheses that elevated CO2 reduces floret death rather than increases floret development, and that grain size in a genotype with more grains per unit area is limited by the rate of grain filling, were tested in a pair of sister lines contrasting in tillering capacity (restricted- vs. free-tillering). The hypotheses were tested under elevated CO2, combined with +3°C above ambient temperature and terminal drought, using specialized field tunnel houses. Elevated CO2 increased net leaf photosynthetic rates and likely the availability of carbon assimilates, which significantly reduced the rates of floret death and increased the potential number of grains at anthesis in both sister lines by an average of 42%. The restricted-tillering line had faster grain-filling rates than the free-tillering line because the free-tillering line had more grains to fill. Furthermore, grain-filling rates were faster under elevated CO2 and +3°C above ambient. Terminal drought reduced grain yield in both lines by 19%. Elevated CO2 alone increased the potential number of grains, but a trade-off in yield components limited grain yield in the free-tillering line. This emphasizes the need for breeding cultivars with a greater potential number of florets, since this was not affected by the predicted future climate variables. PMID:26635837

  9. Photoluminescence in silicon implanted with erbium ions at an elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, N. A. Kalyadin, A. E.; Shek, E. I.; Sakharov, V. I.; Serenkov, I. T.; Vdovin, V. I.; Parshin, E. O.; Makoviichuk, M. I.

    2011-08-15

    Photoluminescence spectra of n-type silicon upon implantation with erbium ions at 600 Degree-Sign C and oxygen ions at room temperature and subsequent annealings at 1100 Degree-Sign C in a chlorine-containing atmosphere have been studied. Depending on the annealing duration, photoluminescence spectra at 80 K are dominated by lines of the Er{sup 3+} ion or dislocation-related luminescence. The short-wavelength shift of the dislocation-related luminescence line observed at this temperature is due to implantation of erbium ions at an elevated temperature. At room temperature, lines of erbium and dislocation-related luminescence are observed in the spectra, but lines of near-band-edge luminescence predominate.

  10. Fatigue life prediction of an intermetallic matrix composite at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolotta, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    A strain-based fatigue life prediction method is proposed for an intermetallic matrix composite (IMC) under tensile cyclic loadings at elevated temperatures. Styled after the 'Universal Slopes' method, the model utilizes the composite's tensile properties to estimate fatigue life. Factors such as fiber volume ratio (Vf), number of plys and temperature dependence are implicitly incorporated into the model through these properties. The model constants are determined by using unidirectional fatigue data at temperatures of 425 and 815 C. Fatigue lives from two independent sources are used to verify the model at temperatures of 650 and 760 C. Cross-ply lives at 760 C are also predicted. It is demonstrated that the correlation between experimental and predicted lives is within a factor of two.

  11. Fatigue life prediction of an intermetallic matrix composite at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.

    1991-01-01

    A strain-based fatigue life prediction method is proposed for an intermetallic matrix composite (IMC) under tensile cyclic loadings at elevated temperatures. Styled after the Universal Slopes method, the model utilizes the composite's tensile properties to estimate fatigue life. Factors such as fiber volume ratio, number of plys and temperature dependence are implicitly incorporated into the model through these properties. The model constants are determined by using unidirectional fatigue data at temperatures of 425 and 815 C. Fatigue lives from two independent sources are used to verify the model at temperatures of 650 and 760 C. Cross-ply lives at 760 C are also predicted. It is demonstrated that the correlation between experimental and predicted lives is within a factor of two.

  12. High Strength and Wear Resistant Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.; Chen, Po Shou

    2003-01-01

    Originally developed by NASA as high performance piston alloys to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low exhaust emission, the novel NASA alloys now offer dramatic increase in tensile strength for many other applications at elevated temperatures from 450 F (232 C) to about 750 F (400 C). It is an ideal low cost material for cast automotive components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. It can be very economically produced from conventional permanent mold, sand casting or investment casting, with silicon content ranging from 6% to 18%. At high silicon levels, the alloy exhibits excellent thermal growth stability, surface hardness and wear resistant properties.

  13. Complexation of neptunium(V) with fluoride in aqueous solutions at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Guoxin; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Friese, Judah I.

    2009-02-01

    Over the past several decades, the production and testing of nuclear weapons in the U.S. have created significant amounts of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) that are currently stored in underground tanks across the U.S. DOE (Department of Energy) sites. Eventually, the HLW will be made into the waste form and disposed of in geological repositories for HLW. Among the radioactive materials, neptunium is of great concern in the post-closure chemical environment in the repository because of the long half-life of 237Np (2.14•106 years) and the high mobility of Np(V), the most stable oxidation state of neptunium. It is estimated that 237Np, together with 129I and 99Tc, will be the major contributors to the potential total annual dose from the repository beyond 10000 years [1]. Due to the high radiation energy released from the HLW, the postclosure repository is expected to remain at elevated temperatures for thousands of years [1]. If the waste package is breached and becomes in contact with groundwater, neptunium, as well as other radioactive materials will be in aqueous solutions at elevated temperatures. Interactions of radioactive materials with the chemical components in groundwater play an important role in determining their migration in the repository. To predict the migration behavior of neptunium, it is necessary to have sufficient and reliable thermodynamic data on its complexation with the ligands that are present in the groundwater of the repository (e.g., OH–, F–, SO42– ,PO43– and CO32) at elevated temperatures. However, such data are scarce and scattered for 25°C, and nearly nonexistent for elevated temperatures [2]. To provide reliable thermodynamic data, we have conducted investigations of the complexation of actinides, including thorium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium, at elevated temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, including formation constants, enthalpy and heat capacity of complexation are experimentally determined. This paper

  14. Elevated Temperature Sensors for On-Line Critical Equipment Health Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    James Sebastian

    2003-09-29

    The objective of this research program is to improve high temperature piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) sensor technology to make it useful for instrumentation and health monitoring of current and future electrical power generation equipment. The program will extend the temperature range of the sensor from approximately 700 C to above 1000 C, and ultrasonic coupling to objects at these temperatures will be investigated and tailored for use with the sensor. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) AlN deposition process was successfully transferred from film production on tungsten carbide substrates to titanium alloy and silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. Further evaluation of the piezoelectric films on titanium caused it to be discarded as a candidate material due to an excessive thermal expansion coefficient mismatch, causing film failure upon reheating from room temperature. Deposition on SiC is proceeding well, with a highly conductive grade of silicon carbide required for practical use. Additional substrate materials, including refractory metals and conductive ceramics, have been considered but are generally not promising in light of the experience with titanium. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was investigated as an alternate means of creating the films as an alternative to CVD. A concurrent effort has focused on investigation of means of coupling ultrasound from the sensor into the test object at high temperature. A literature search combined with preliminary experimentation has resulted in the selection of two methods for coupling: low melting point glasses and metal foil- pressure couplant. The work in the next two years of the program will include continued improvement of the CVD deposition process, experimental testing of films and coupling at high temperatures, and a laboratory demonstration of the sensor in a simulated industrial application

  15. Instrumentation enabling study of plant physiological response to elevated night temperature

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Abdul R; Tarpley, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Background Global climate warming can affect functioning of crops and plants in the natural environment. In order to study the effects of global warming, a method for applying a controlled heating treatment to plant canopies in the open field or in the greenhouse is needed that can accept either square wave application of elevated temperature or a complex prescribed diurnal or seasonal temperature regime. The current options are limited in their accuracy, precision, reliability, mobility or cost and scalability. Results The described system uses overhead infrared heaters that are relatively inexpensive and are accurate and precise in rapidly controlling the temperature. Remote computer-based data acquisition and control via the internet provides the ability to use complex temperature regimes and real-time monitoring. Due to its easy mobility, the heating system can randomly be allotted in the open field or in the greenhouse within the experimental setup. The apparatus has been successfully applied to study the response of rice to high night temperatures. Air temperatures were maintained within the set points ± 0.5°C. The incorporation of the combination of air-situated thermocouples, autotuned proportional integrative derivative temperature controllers and phase angled fired silicon controlled rectifier power controllers provides very fast proportional heating action (i.e. 9 ms time base), which avoids prolonged or intense heating of the plant material. Conclusion The described infrared heating system meets the utilitarian requirements of a heating system for plant physiology studies in that the elevated temperature can be accurately, precisely, and reliably controlled with minimal perturbation of other environmental factors. PMID:19519906

  16. Tree and forest water use under elevated CO2 and temperature in Scandinavian boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg Hasper, Thomas; Wallin, Göran; Lamba, Shubhangi; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Laudon, Hjalmar; Medhurst, Jane L.; Räntfors, Mats; Linder, Sune; Uddling, Johan

    2014-05-01

    According to experimental studies and models, rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) and temperature have the potential to affect stomatal conductance and, consequently, tree and forest transpiration. This effect has in turn the capacity to influence the terrestrial energy and water balance, including affecting of the magnitude of river runoff. Furthermore, forest productivity is currently water-limited in southern Scandinavia and in a near future, under the projected climatic change, this limitation may become a reality in the central and northern parts of Scandinavia. In this study we examine the water-use responses in 12 40-year old native boreal Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees exposed to a factorial combination of two levels of [CO2] (ambient and doubled) and temperature (ambient and +2.8 °C in summer / +5.6 °C in winter), as well as of entire boreal forests to temporal variation in [CO2], temperature and precipitation over the past 50 years in central and northern Sweden. The controlled factorial CO2 and temperature whole-tree chamber experiment at Flakaliden study site demonstrated that Norway spruce trees lacked elevated [CO2]-induced water savings at guard cell, shoot, and tree levels in the years of measurements. Experimentally, elevated temperature did not result in increased shoot or tree water use as stomatal closure fully cancelled the effect of higher vapour pressure deficit in warmed air environment. Consistent with these results, large scale river runoff data and evapotranspiration estimates from large forested watersheds in central Sweden supported lack of elevated CO2-mediated water savings, and rather suggested that the increasing evapotranspiration trend found in this study was primarily linked to increasing precipitation, rising temperature and more efficient forest management. The results from the whole-tree chamber experiment and boreal forested watersheds have important implications for more accurate

  17. Investigation of temperature and aridity at different elevations of Mt. Ailao, SW China.

    PubMed

    You, Guangyong; Zhang, Yiping; Liu, Yuhong; Schaefer, Douglas; Gong, Hede; Gao, Jinbo; Lu, Zhiyun; Song, Qinghai; Zhao, Junbin; Wu, Chuansheng; Yu, Lei; Xie, Youneng

    2013-05-01

    Our current understanding is that plant species distribution in the subtropical mountain forests of Southwest China is controlled mainly by inadequate warmth. Due to abundant annual precipitation, aridity has been less considered in this context, yet rainfall here is highly seasonal, and the magnitude of drought severity at different elevations has not been examined due to limited access to higher elevations in this area.In this study, short-term micrometeorological variables were measured at 2,480 m and 2,680 m, where different forest types occur. Drought stress was evaluated by combining measurements of water evaporation demand (E p) and soil volumetric water content (VWC). The results showed that: (1) mean temperature decreased 1 °C from 2,480 m to 2,680 m and the minimum temperature at 2,680 m was above freezing. (2) Elevation had a significant influence on E p; however, the difference in daily E p between 2,480 m and 2,680 m was not significant, which was possibly due to the small difference in elevation between these two sites. (3) VWC had larger range of annual variation at 2,680 m than at 2,480 m, especially for the surface soil layer.We conclude that the decrease in temperature does not effectively explain the sharp transition between these forest types. During the dry season, plants growing at 2,680 m are likely to experience more drought stress. In seeking to understand the mountain forest distribution, further studies should consider the effects of drought stress alongside those of altitude. PMID:22752399

  18. Effects of elevated temperature and nickel pollution on the immune status of Japanese medaka.

    PubMed

    Prophete, C; Carlson, E A; Li, Y; Duffy, J; Steinetz, B; Lasano, S; Zelikoff, J T

    2006-09-01

    Changes in a host's environment (i.e. physical or chemical) can alter normal immune function. In aquatic organisms, exposure to stress can result in significant changes in innate immunity. In the natural environment, fish are exposed to multiple stressors simultaneously. Temperature change and/or chemical exposure as individual environmental stressors have been shown in various fish species to alter all aspects of the immune response. These same stressors have also been shown to alter plasma steroid levels in exposed fish. For this study, the effects of elevated temperature and nickel pollution on specific immune parameters of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were determined. Fish were exposed for 1, 7 or 14d to either: waterborne nickel (Ni) at the nominal concentration of 125ppb; a 5 degrees C (+/-0.5 degrees C) rapid increase in water temperature; or, both potential stressors in combination. Medaka maintained at room temperature (25 degrees C+/-1 degrees C) served as the controls. Altered function of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response was evaluated by assessing kidney macrophage-mediated superoxide (O(2)(-)) production and splenic T-cell proliferation, respectively. Plasma cortisol levels were analysed in the same fish as a marker of the physiological stress response. While kidney cell number was unaffected by exposure of fish to either stressor alone or both factors in combination, spleen cellularity was decreased (compared to control fish) in medaka exposed for 1d to thermal stress in combination with Ni, and to a lesser extent to thermal stress alone. T-lymphocyte proliferation by medaka splenocytes was not affected by any exposure paradigm. Unstimulated intracellular O(2)(-) production by kidney phagocytes was significantly elevated (compared to control) in medaka exposed for 1d to either thermal stress alone or temperature change in combination with Ni; by 7d, only the stressor combination significantly increased baseline O(2

  19. Engineered thermostable fungal cellulases exhibit efficient synergistic cellulose hydrolysis at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Devin L; Lee, Toni M; Arnold, Frances H

    2014-12-01

    A major obstacle to using widely available and low-cost lignocellulosic feedstocks to produce renewable fuels and chemicals is the high cost and low efficiency of the enzyme mixtures used to hydrolyze cellulose to fermentable sugars. One possible solution entails engineering current cellulases to function efficiently at elevated temperatures in order to boost reaction rates and exploit several other advantages of a higher temperature process. Here, we describe the creation of the most stable reported fungal endoglucanase, a derivative of Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) Cel5A, by combining stabilizing mutations identified using consensus design, chimera studies, and structure-based computational methods. The engineered endoglucanase has an optimal temperature that is 17°C higher than wild type H. jecorina Cel5A, and hydrolyzes 1.5 times as much cellulose over 60 h at its optimum temperature compared to the wild type enzyme at its optimal temperature. This enzyme complements previously engineered highly active, thermostable variants of the fungal cellobiohydrolases Cel6A and Cel7A in a thermostable cellulase mixture that hydrolyzes cellulose synergistically at an optimum temperature of 70°C over 60 h.The thermostable mixture produces three times as much total sugar as the best mixture of the wild type enzymes operating at its optimum temperature of 60°C, clearly demonstrating the advantage of higher temperature cellulose hydrolysis.

  20. The effects of elevated water temperature on native juvenile mussels: implications for climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganser, Alissa M.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Native freshwater mussels are a diverse but imperiled fauna and may be especially sensitive to increasing water temperatures because many species already may be living near their upper thermal limits. We tested the hypothesis that elevated water temperatures (20, 25, 30, and 35°C) adversely affected the survival and physiology of 2-mo-old juvenile mussels (Lampsilis abrupta, Lampsilis siliquoidea, and Megalonaias nervosa) in 28-d laboratory experiments. The 28-d LT50s (lethal temperature affecting 50% of the population) ranged from 25.3 to 30.3°C across species, and were lowest for L. abrupta and L. siliquoidea. Heart rate of L. siliquoidea was not affected by temperature, but heart rate declined at higher temperatures in L. abrupta and M. nervosa. However, for both of these species, heart rate also declined steadily during the experiment and a strong temperature × time interaction was detected. Juvenile growth was low for all species in all treatments and did not respond directly to temperature, but growth of some species responded to a temperature × time interaction. Responses to thermal stress differed among species, but potential laboratory artifacts may limit applicability of these results to real-world situations. Environmentally relevant estimates of upper thermal tolerances in native mussels are urgently needed to assess the extent of assemblage changes that can be expected in response to global climate change.

  1. Engineered thermostable fungal cellulases exhibit efficient synergistic cellulose hydrolysis at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Devin L; Lee, Toni M; Arnold, Frances H

    2014-12-01

    A major obstacle to using widely available and low-cost lignocellulosic feedstocks to produce renewable fuels and chemicals is the high cost and low efficiency of the enzyme mixtures used to hydrolyze cellulose to fermentable sugars. One possible solution entails engineering current cellulases to function efficiently at elevated temperatures in order to boost reaction rates and exploit several other advantages of a higher temperature process. Here, we describe the creation of the most stable reported fungal endoglucanase, a derivative of Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) Cel5A, by combining stabilizing mutations identified using consensus design, chimera studies, and structure-based computational methods. The engineered endoglucanase has an optimal temperature that is 17°C higher than wild type H. jecorina Cel5A, and hydrolyzes 1.5 times as much cellulose over 60 h at its optimum temperature compared to the wild type enzyme at its optimal temperature. This enzyme complements previously engineered highly active, thermostable variants of the fungal cellobiohydrolases Cel6A and Cel7A in a thermostable cellulase mixture that hydrolyzes cellulose synergistically at an optimum temperature of 70°C over 60 h.The thermostable mixture produces three times as much total sugar as the best mixture of the wild type enzymes operating at its optimum temperature of 60°C, clearly demonstrating the advantage of higher temperature cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:24916885

  2. A meta-analysis of plant physiological and growth responses to temperature and elevated CO(2).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Heckathorn, Scott A; Wang, Xianzhong; Philpott, Stacy M

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and global mean temperature are expected to be significantly higher by the end of the 21st century. Elevated CO(2) (eCO(2)) and higher temperature each affect plant physiology and growth, but their interactive effects have not been reviewed statistically with respect to higher chronic mean temperatures and abrupt heat stress. In this meta-analysis, we examined the effect of CO(2) on the physiology and growth of plants subjected to different temperature treatments. The CO(2) treatments were categorized into ambient (<400 ppm) or elevated (>560 ppm) levels, while temperature treatments were categorized into ambient temperature (AT), elevated temperature (ET; AT + 1.4-6°C), or heat stress (HS; AT + >8°C). Plant species were grouped according to photosynthetic pathways (C(3), C(4)), functional types (legumes, non-legumes), growth forms (herbaceous, woody), and economic purposes (crop, non-crop). eCO(2) enhanced net photosynthesis at AT, ET, and HS in C(3) species (especially at the HS level), but in C(4) species, it had no effect at AT, a positive effect at ET, and a negative effect at HS. The positive effect of eCO(2) on net photosynthesis was greater for legumes than for non-legumes at HS, for non-crops than crops at ET, and for woody than herbaceous species at ET and HS. Total (W (T)) and above- (W (AG)) and below-ground (W (BG)) biomass were increased by eCO(2) for most species groups at all temperatures, except for C(4) species and W (BG) of legumes at HS. Hence, eCO(2) × heat effects on growth were often not explained by effects on net photosynthesis. Overall, the results show that eCO(2) effects on plant physiology and growth vary under different temperature regimes, among functional groups and photosynthetic pathways, and among response variables. These findings have important implications for biomass accumulation and ecosystem functioning in the future when the CO(2) level is higher and climate extremes, such as heat waves

  3. Geopolymeric materials prepared using Class F fly ash and elevated temperature curing

    SciTech Connect

    Bakharev, T. . E-mail: tanya.bakharev@eng.monash.edu.au

    2005-06-01

    This paper reports the results of the study of the influence of elevated temperature curing on phase composition, microstructure and strength development in geopolymer materials prepared using Class F fly ash and sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. In particular, the effect of storage at room temperature before the application of heat on strength development and phase composition was studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and SEM were utilised in this study. Long precuring at room temperature before application of heat was beneficial for strength development in all studied materials, as strength comparable to 1 month of curing at elevated temperature can develop in this case only after 24 h of heat curing. The main product of reaction in the geopolymeric materials was amorphous alkali aluminosilicate gel. However, in the case of sodium hydroxide activator in addition to it, traces of chabazite, Linde Type A, Na-P1 (gismondine) zeolites and hydroxysodalite were also present. The type of zeolite present and composition of aluminosilicate gel were dependent on the curing history.

  4. Chemical and mechanical stability of sodium sulfate activated slag after exposure to elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Rashad, A.M.; Bai, Y.; Basheer, P.A.M.; Collier, N.C.; Milestone, N.B.

    2012-02-15

    The chemical and mechanical stability of slag activated with two different concentrations of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) after exposure to elevated temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 Degree-Sign C with an increment of 200 Degree-Sign C has been examined. Compressive strengths and pH of the hardened pastes before and after the exposure were determined. The various decomposition phases formed were identified using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} activated slag has a better resistance to the degradation caused by exposure to elevated temperature up to 600 Degree-Sign C than Portland cement system as its relative strengths are superior. The finer slag and higher Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration gave better temperature resistance. Whilst the pH of the hardened pastes decreased with an increase in temperature, it still maintained a sufficiently high pH for the protection of reinforcing bar against corrosion.

  5. Elevated temperature as a treatment for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in captive frogs.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Matthew W H; Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L

    2011-05-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been implicated in amphibian declines worldwide. In vitro laboratory studies and those done on wild populations indicate that Bd grows best at cool temperatures between 17 and 25 degrees C. In the present study, we tested whether moderately elevating the ambient temperature to 30 degrees C could be an effective treatment for frogs infected with Bd. We acquired 35 bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana from breeding facilities and 36 northern cricket frogs Acris crepitans from the wild and acclimated them to either 23 or 26 degrees C for 1 mo. Following the acclimation period, frogs were tested for the presence of Bd using qPCR TaqMan assays. The 12 R. catesbeiana and 16 A. crepitans that tested positive for Bd were subjected to 30 degrees C for 10 consecutive days before returning frogs to their starting temperatures. Post-treatment testing revealed that 27 of the 28 frogs that had tested positive were no longer infected with Bd; only a single A. crepitans remained infected following treatment. This result indicates that elevating ambient temperature to a moderate 30 degrees C can be effective as a treatment for Bd infection in captive amphibians, and suggests that heat may be a superior alternative to antifungal drugs.

  6. Development and evaluation of a HEPA filter for increased strength and resistance to elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.; Bergman, W.; Fretthold, J.K.

    1992-12-31

    We have developed an improved HEPA filter for increased strength and resistance to elevated temperature to improve the reliability of HEPA filters under accident conditions. The improvements to the HEPA filter consist of a silicone rubber sealant and a new HEPA medium reinforced with a glass cloth. Several prototype filters were built and evaluated for temperature and pressure resistance and resistance to rough handling. The temperature resistance test consisted of exposing the HEPA filter to 1,000 scan at 700 degrees F for five minutes. The pressure resistance test consisted of exposing the HEPA filter to a differential pressure of 10 in. w.g. using a water saturated air flow at 95 degrees F. For the rough handling test, we used a vibrating machine designated the Q110. DOP filter efficiency tests were performed before and after each of the environmental tests. In addition to following the standard practice of using a separate new filter for each environmental test, we also subjected the same filter to the elevated temperature test followed by the pressure resistance test. The efficiency test results show that the improved HEPA filter is significantly better than the standard HEPA filter.

  7. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, C.; Sadras, V. O.; Hancock, R. D.; Soole, K. L.; Ford, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2–4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4–6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4–10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4–6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

  8. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, C; Sadras, V O; Hancock, R D; Soole, K L; Ford, C M

    2014-11-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2-4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4-6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4-10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4-6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit.

  9. Implications of High Temperature and Elevated CO2 on Flowering Time in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jagadish, S. V. Krishna; Bahuguna, Rajeev N.; Djanaguiraman, Maduraimuthu; Gamuyao, Rico; Prasad, P. V. Vara; Craufurd, Peter Q.

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is a crucial determinant for plant reproductive success and seed-set. Increasing temperature and elevated carbon-dioxide (e[CO2]) are key climate change factors that could affect plant fitness and flowering related events. Addressing the effect of these environmental factors on flowering events such as time of day of anthesis (TOA) and flowering time (duration from germination till flowering) is critical to understand the adaptation of plants/crops to changing climate and is the major aim of this review. Increasing ambient temperature is the major climatic factor that advances flowering time in crops and other plants, with a modest effect of e[CO2].Integrated environmental stimuli such as photoperiod, temperature and e[CO2] regulating flowering time is discussed. The critical role of plant tissue temperature influencing TOA is highlighted and crop models need to substitute ambient air temperature with canopy or floral tissue temperature to improve predictions. A complex signaling network of flowering regulation with change in ambient temperature involving different transcription factors (PIF4, PIF5), flowering suppressors (HvODDSOC2, SVP, FLC) and autonomous pathway (FCA, FVE) genes, mainly from Arabidopsis, provides a promising avenue to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flowering time under changing climate. Elevated CO2 mediated changes in tissue sugar status and a direct [CO2]-driven regulatory pathway involving a key flowering gene, MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT), are emerging evidence for the role of e[CO2] in flowering time regulation. PMID:27446143

  10. Implications of High Temperature and Elevated CO2 on Flowering Time in Plants.

    PubMed

    Jagadish, S V Krishna; Bahuguna, Rajeev N; Djanaguiraman, Maduraimuthu; Gamuyao, Rico; Prasad, P V Vara; Craufurd, Peter Q

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is a crucial determinant for plant reproductive success and seed-set. Increasing temperature and elevated carbon-dioxide (e[CO2]) are key climate change factors that could affect plant fitness and flowering related events. Addressing the effect of these environmental factors on flowering events such as time of day of anthesis (TOA) and flowering time (duration from germination till flowering) is critical to understand the adaptation of plants/crops to changing climate and is the major aim of this review. Increasing ambient temperature is the major climatic factor that advances flowering time in crops and other plants, with a modest effect of e[CO2].Integrated environmental stimuli such as photoperiod, temperature and e[CO2] regulating flowering time is discussed. The critical role of plant tissue temperature influencing TOA is highlighted and crop models need to substitute ambient air temperature with canopy or floral tissue temperature to improve predictions. A complex signaling network of flowering regulation with change in ambient temperature involving different transcription factors (PIF4, PIF5), flowering suppressors (HvODDSOC2, SVP, FLC) and autonomous pathway (FCA, FVE) genes, mainly from Arabidopsis, provides a promising avenue to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flowering time under changing climate. Elevated CO2 mediated changes in tissue sugar status and a direct [CO2]-driven regulatory pathway involving a key flowering gene, MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT), are emerging evidence for the role of e[CO2] in flowering time regulation. PMID:27446143

  11. Influence of growth temperature and scandium concentration on piezoelectric response of scandium aluminum nitride alloy thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Morito; Kano, Kazuhiko; Teshigahara, Akihiko

    2009-10-19

    The authors have investigated the influence of growth temperature and scandium concentration on the piezoelectric response of scandium aluminum nitride (Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N) films prepared by dual reactive cosputtering. The piezoelectric response strongly depends on the growth temperature and scandium concentration. The piezoelectric response of the films prepared at 400 deg. C gradually increases with increasing scandium concentration. On the other hand, the piezoelectric response of the films prepared at 580 deg. C drastically decreases and increases in the scandium concentration from 30% to 40%. We think that the drastic change of the piezoelectric response is due to the disordered grain growth.

  12. Elevation, Temperature, and Aquatic Connectivity All Influence the Infection Dynamics of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in Adult Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Sapsford, Sarah J.; Alford, Ross A.; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases can cause population declines and even extinctions. The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has caused population declines and extinctions in amphibians on most continents. In the tropics, research on the dynamics of this disease has focused on amphibian populations in mountainous areas. In most of these areas, high and low elevation sites are connected by an assemblage of streams that may transport the infectious stage of the pathogen from high to low elevations, and, also, this pathogen, which grows well at cool temperatures, may persist better in cooler water flowing from high elevations. Thus, the dynamics of disease at low elevation sites without aquatic connections to higher elevation sites, i.e., non-contiguous low elevation sites, may differ from dynamics at contiguous low elevation sites. We sampled adult common mistfrogs (Litoria rheocola) at six sites of three types: two at high (> 400m) elevations, two at low elevations contiguous with high elevation streams, and two at low elevations non-contiguous with any high elevation site. Adults were swabbed for Bd diagnosis from June 2010 to June 2011 in each season, over a total of five sampling periods. The prevalence of Bd fluctuated seasonally and was highest in winter across all site types. Site type significantly affected seasonal patterns of prevalence of Bd. Prevalence remained well above zero throughout the year at the high elevation sites. Prevalence declined to lower levels in contiguous low sites, and reached near-zero at non-contiguous low sites. Patterns of air temperature fluctuation were very similar at both the low elevation site types, suggesting that differences in water connectivity to high sites may have affected the seasonal dynamics of Bd prevalence between contiguous and non-contiguous low elevation site types. Our results also suggest that reservoir hosts may be important in the persistence of disease at low elevations. PMID:24324786

  13. Elevated Temperature and CO2 Stimulate Late-Season Photosynthesis But Impair Cold Hardening in Pine[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rising global temperature and CO2 levels may sustain late-season net photosynthesis of evergreen conifers but could also impair the development of cold hardiness. Our study investigated how elevated temperature, and the combination of elevated temperature with elevated CO2, affected photosynthetic rates, leaf carbohydrates, freezing tolerance, and proteins involved in photosynthesis and cold hardening in Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus). We designed an experiment where control seedlings were acclimated to long photoperiod (day/night 14/10 h), warm temperature (22°C/15°C), and either ambient (400 μL L−1) or elevated (800 μmol mol−1) CO2, and then shifted seedlings to growth conditions with short photoperiod (8/16 h) and low temperature/ambient CO2 (LTAC), elevated temperature/ambient CO2 (ETAC), or elevated temperature/elevated CO2 (ETEC). Exposure to LTAC induced down-regulation of photosynthesis, development of sustained nonphotochemical quenching, accumulation of soluble carbohydrates, expression of a 16-kD dehydrin absent under long photoperiod, and increased freezing tolerance. In ETAC seedlings, photosynthesis was not down-regulated, while accumulation of soluble carbohydrates, dehydrin expression, and freezing tolerance were impaired. ETEC seedlings revealed increased photosynthesis and improved water use efficiency but impaired dehydrin expression and freezing tolerance similar to ETAC seedlings. Sixteen-kilodalton dehydrin expression strongly correlated with increases in freezing tolerance, suggesting its involvement in the development of cold hardiness in P. strobus. Our findings suggest that exposure to elevated temperature and CO2 during autumn can delay down-regulation of photosynthesis and stimulate late-season net photosynthesis in P. strobus seedlings. However, this comes at the cost of impaired freezing tolerance. Elevated temperature and CO2 also impaired freezing tolerance. However, unless the frequency and timing of extreme low-temperature

  14. Elevated temperature and drought interact to reduce parasitoid effectiveness in suppressing hosts.

    PubMed

    Romo, Cecilia M; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2013-01-01

    Climate change affects the abundance, distribution and activity of natural enemies that are important for suppressing herbivore crop pests. Moreover, higher mean temperatures and increased frequency of climatic extremes are expected to induce different responses across trophic levels, potentially disrupting predator-prey interactions. Using field observations, we examined the response of an aphid host-parasitoid system to variation in temperature. Temperature was positively associated with attack rates by parasitoids, but also with a non-significant trend towards increased attack rates by higher-level hyperparasitoids. Elevated hyperparasitism could partly offset any benefit of climate warming to parasitoids, and would suggest that higher trophic levels may hamper predictions of predator-prey interactions. Additionally, the mechanisms affecting host-parasitoid dynamics were examined using controlled laboratory experiments that simulated both temperature increase and drought. Parasitoid fitness and longevity responded differently when exposed to each climatic variable in isolation, compared to the interaction of both variables at once. Although temperature increase or drought tended to positively affect the ability of parasitoids to control aphid populations, these effects were significantly reversed when the drivers were expressed in concert. Additionally, separate warming and drought treatments reduced parasitoid longevity, and although temperature increased parasitoid emergence success and drought increased offspring production, combined temperature and drought produced the lowest parasitoid emergence. The non-additive effects of different climate drivers, combined with differing responses across trophic levels, suggest that predicting future pest outbreaks will be more challenging than previously imagined.

  15. Characteristics of ocular temperature elevations after exposure to quasi- and millimeter waves (18-40 GHz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Masami; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Sasaki, Kensuke; Wake, Kanako; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Kamimura, Yoshitsugu; Hirata, Akimasa; Sasaki, Kazuyuki; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate changes in ocular temperature in rabbit eyes exposed to different frequencies (18 to 40 GHz) of quasi-millimeter waves, and millimeter waves (MMW). Pigmented rabbits were anesthetized with both general and topical anesthesia, and thermometer probes (0.5 mm in diameter) were inserted into their cornea (stroma), lens (nucleus) and vitreous (center of vitreous). The eyes were exposed unilaterally to 200 mW/cm2 by horn antenna for 3 min at 18, 22 and 26.5 GHz using a K band exposure system or 26.5, 35 and 40 GHz using a Ka band exposure system. Changes in temperature of the cornea, lens and vitreous were measured with a fluoroptic thermometer. Since the ocular temperatures after exposure to 26.5 GHz generated by the K band and Ka band systems were similar, we assumed that experimental data from these 2 exposure systems were comparable. The highest ocular temperature was induced by 40 GHz MMW, followed by 35 GHz. The 26.5 and 22 GHz corneal temperatures were almost the same. The lowest temperature was recorded at 18 GHz. The elevation in ocular temperature in response to exposure to 200 mW/cm2 MMW is dependent on MMW frequency. MMW exposure induced heat is conveyed not only to the cornea but also the crystalline lens.

  16. Rheological and Mechanical Property Measurements of PMDI Foam at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Nemer, Martin Bernard; Brooks, Carlton F.; Shelden, Bion; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; Barringer, David Alan

    2014-10-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the viscosity of liquefied 20 lb/ft3 poly methylene diisocyanate (PMDI) foam and the stress required to puncture solid PMDI foam at elevated temperatures. For the rheological measurements the foam was a priori liquefied in a pressure vessel such that the volatiles were not lost in the liquefaction process. The viscosity of the liquefied PMDI foam was found to be Newtonian with a power law dependence on temperature log10(μ/Pa s) = 20.6 – 9.5 log10(T/°C) for temperatures below 170 °C. Above 170 °C, the viscosity was in the range of 0.3 Pa s which is close to the lower measurement limit (≈ 0.1 Pa s) of the pressurized rheometer. The mechanical pressure required to break through 20lb/ft3 foam was 500-800 psi at temperatures from room temperature up to 180 °C. The mechanical pressure required to break through 10 lb/ft3 was 170-300 psi at temperatures from room temperature up to 180 °C. We have not been able to cause gas to break through the 20 lb/ft3 PMDI foam at gas pressures up to 100 psi.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES OF HEAT EXCHANGER AND STEAM GENERATOR ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Wright; L.J. Carroll; C.J. Cabet; T. Lillo; J.K. Benz; J.A. Simpson; A. Chapman; R.N. Wright

    2012-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant project is considering Alloy 800H and Alloy 617 for steam generator and intermediate heat exchangers. It is envisioned that a steam generator would operate with reactor outlet temperatures from 750 to 800 C, while an intermediate heat exchanger for primary to secondary helium would operate up to an outlet temperature of 950 C. Although both alloys are of interest due in part to their technical maturity, a number of specific properties require further characterization for design of nuclear components. Strain rate sensitivity of both alloys has been characterized and is found to be significant above 600 C. Both alloys also exhibit dynamic strain aging, characterized by serrated flow, over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. High temperature tensile testing of Alloy 617 has been conducted over a range of temperatures. Dynamic strain aging is a concern for these materials since it is observed to result in reduced ductility for many solid solution alloys. Creep, fatigue, and creep-fatigue properties of Alloy 617 have been measured as well, with the goal of determining the influence of the temperature, strain rate and atmosphere on the creep fatigue life of Alloy 617. Elevated temperature properties and implications for codification of the alloys will be described.

  18. Gas diffusion electrode setup for catalyst testing in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wiberg, Gustav K. H. E-mail: m.arenz@chem.ku.dk; Fleige, Michael; Arenz, Matthias E-mail: m.arenz@chem.ku.dk

    2015-02-15

    We present a detailed description of the construction and testing of an electrochemical cell setup allowing the investigation of a gas diffusion electrode containing carbon supported high surface area catalysts. The setup is designed for measurements in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperature, i.e., very close to the actual conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The cell consists of a stainless steel flow field and a PEEK plastic cell body comprising the electrochemical cell, which exhibits a three electrode configuration. The cell body and flow field are braced using a KF-25 vacuum flange clamp, which allows an easy assembly of the setup. As demonstrated, the setup can be used to investigate temperature dependent electrochemical processes on high surface area type electrocatalysts, but it also enables quick screening tests of HT-PEMFC catalysts under realistic conditions.

  19. Analysis of elevated temperature data for thermodynamic properties of selected radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Wruck, D.A.; Palmer, C.E.A.

    1997-08-01

    This report is a review of chemical thermodynamic data for Ni, Zr, Tc, U, Np, Pu and Am in aqueous solutions at elevated temperatures. Thermodynamic data for aqueous reactions over the temperature range 20-150{degrees}C are needed for geochemical modeling studies of the Yucca Mountain Project. The present review is focused on the aqueous complexes relevant to expected conditions in the Yucca Mountain region: primarily the hydroxide, carbonate, sulfate and fluoride complexes with the metal ions. Existing thermodynamic data are evaluated, and means of extrapolating 25{degrees}C data to the temperatures of interest are discussed. There will be a separate review of solubility data for relevant Ni, Zr, Tc, Np, Pu and Am compounds.

  20. THERMODYNAMICS OF NEPTUNIUM(V) FLOURIDE AND SULFATE AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    L. Rao; G. Tian; Y. Xia; J.I. Friese

    2006-03-06

    Complexation of neptunium(V) with fluoride and sulfate at elevated, temperatures was studied by microcalorimetry. Thermodynamic parameters, including the equilibrium constants and enthalpy of protonation of fluoride and sulfate, and the enthalpy of complexation between Np(V) and fluoride and sulfate at 25-70 C were determined. Results show that the complexation of Np(V) with fluoride and sulfate is endothermic and that the complexation is enhanced by the increase in temperature--a threefold increase in the stability constants of NpO{sub 2}F(aq) and NpO{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{sup -} as the temperature is increased from 25 to 70 C.

  1. Generation of Constant Life Diagram under Elevated Temperature Ratcheting of 316LN Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Aritra; Nagesha, A.; Sandhya, R.; Mathew, M. D.

    2016-04-01

    Combined influence of mean stress and stress amplitude on the cyclic life under elevated temperature (823-923 K) ratcheting of 316LN austenitic stainless steel is discussed. Constant life Haigh diagrams have been generated, using different combinations of stress amplitude and mean stress. In the plastic domain, the allowable stress was found to increase or decrease with mean stress depending on the temperature and combination of mean stress - stress amplitude employed. Strong influence of dynamic strain aging (DSA) was found at 823 K which affected the mode of deformation of the material in comparison with 923 K. Failure mode expressed through a fracture mechanism map was found to change from fatigue to necking depending on the test temperature as well as combinations of mean stress and stress amplitude. Occurrence of DSA at 823 K proved to be beneficial by way of extending the safe zone of operation to higher R-ratios in comparison with 923 K.

  2. Modeling the effects of elevated temperatures on action potential propagation in unmyelinated axons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Mohit; Jenkins, Michael W.; Chiel, Hillel J.; Jansen, E. Duco

    2016-03-01

    Infrared lasers (λ=1.87 μm) are capable of inducing a thermally mediated nerve block in Aplysia and rat nerves. While this block is spatially precise and reversible in sensory and motor neurons, the mechanism of block is not clearly understood. Model predictions show that, at elevated temperatures, the rates of opening and closing of the voltage gated ion channels are disrupted and normal functioning of the gates is hindered. A model combining NEURON with Python is presented here that can simulate the behavior of unmyelinated nerve axons in the presence of spatially and temporally varying temperature distributions. Axon behavior and underlying mechanism leading to conduction block is investigated. The ability to understand the photothermal interaction of laser light and temperature dependence of membrane ion channels in-silico will help speed explorations of parameter space and guide future experiments testing the feasibility of selectively blocking pain conduction fibers (Photonic Analgesia of Nerves (PAIN)) in humans.

  3. Analysis of Screen Channel LAD Bubble Point Tests in Liquid Methane at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason; McQuillen, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of varying the liquid temperature and pressure on the bubble point pressure for screen channel Liquid Acquisition Devices in cryogenic liquid methane using gaseous helium across a wide range of elevated pressures and temperatures. Testing of a 325 x 2300 Dutch Twill screen sample was conducted in the Cryogenic Components Lab 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Test conditions ranged from 105 to 160K and 0.0965 - 1.78 MPa. Bubble point is shown to be a strong function of the liquid temperature and a weak function of the amount of subcooling at the LAD screen. The model predicts well for saturated liquid but under predicts the subcooled data.

  4. Effect of elevated temperature curing on properties of alkali-activated slag concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Bakharev, T.; Sanjayan, J.G.; Cheng, Y.B.

    1999-10-01

    This investigation is focused on the effect of curing temperature on microstructure, shrinkage, and compressive strength of alkali-activated slag (AAS) concrete. Concrete prepared using sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide as the activator had greater early and flexural strength than ordinary Portland cement concrete of the same water/binder ratio, but it also had high autogenous and drying shrinkage. Heat treatment was found to be very effective in reducing drying shrinkage of AAS concrete and promoting high early strength. However, strength of AAS concrete at later ages was reduced. Microstructural study revealed an inhomogeneity in distribution of hydration product in AAS concrete that can be a cause of strength reduction. Pretreatment at room temperature before elevated temperature curing further improved early strength and considerably decreased shrinkage in AAS concrete.

  5. An anisotropic thermomechanical damage model for concrete at transient elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Baker, Graham; de Borst, René

    2005-11-15

    The behaviour of concrete at elevated temperatures is important for an assessment of integrity (strength and durability) of structures exposed to a high-temperature environment, in applications such as fire exposure, smelting plants and nuclear installations. In modelling terms, a coupled thermomechanical analysis represents a generalization of the computational mechanics of fracture and damage. Here, we develop a fully coupled anisotropic thermomechanical damage model for concrete under high stress and transient temperature, with emphasis on the adherence of the model to the laws of thermodynamics. Specific analytical results are given, deduced from thermodynamics, of a novel interpretation on specific heat, evolution of entropy and the identification of the complete anisotropic, thermomechanical damage surface. The model is also shown to be stable in a computational sense, and to satisfy the laws of thermodynamics. PMID:16243703

  6. The effect of elevated temperature and substrate on free-living Symbiodinium cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitschke, M. R.; Davy, S. K.; Cribb, T. H.; Ward, S.

    2015-03-01

    Elevated temperatures can produce a range of serious, deleterious effects on marine invertebrate— Symbiodinium symbioses. The responses of free-living Symbiodinium to elevated temperature, however, have been little studied, especially in the context of their natural habitat. In this study, we investigated physiological responses of two Symbiodinium cultures to elevated temperature, an exclusively free-living ITS2 clade A (strain HI-0509) and the symbiosis-forming ITS2 type A1 (strain CCMP2467). Free-living Symbiodinium strains have recently been isolated from benthic sediments, and both cultures were therefore grown with or without a microhabitat of carbonate sediment at 25, 28 or 31 °C. Maximum quantum yield of photosystem II ( F v/ F m) and specific growth rate were measured as response variables. In culture, Symbiodinium cells exhibit motility in a helical swimming pattern, and therefore, revolutions per minute (RPM) were also measured with video microscopy. The exclusively free-living clade A was physiologically superior to Symbiodinium A1 across all measured variables and treatment combinations. F v/ F m remained relatively stable through time (at approximately 0.55) and was not substantially affected by temperature or the presence or the absence of sediment. Populations of the exclusively free-living Symbiodinium A reproduced faster with sediment than without and exhibited high levels of motility across all treatments (surpassing 300 RPM). In contrast, the F v/ F m of A1 dropped to 0.42 in sediment (relative to cultures without sediment) and exhibited dramatic declines in cell concentration, most severely at 31 °C. A > 50 % reduction in motility was also observed at 31 °C. Even in the absence of sediment, elevated temperature was observed to reduce population growth and cell motility of type A1. We suggest that vital behaviours linked to motility (such as vertical migration and the locating of potential hosts) may become impaired during future thermal

  7. Spring photosynthetic recovery of boreal Norway spruce under conditions of elevated [CO(2)] and air temperature.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Göran; Hall, Marianne; Slaney, Michelle; Räntfors, Mats; Medhurst, Jane; Linder, Sune

    2013-11-01

    Accumulated carbon uptake, apparent quantum yield (AQY) and light-saturated net CO2 assimilation (Asat) were used to assess the responses of photosynthesis to environmental conditions during spring for three consecutive years. Whole-tree chambers were used to expose 40-year-old field-grown Norway spruce trees in northern Sweden to an elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, [CO2], of 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) (CE) and an air temperature (T) between 2.8 and 5.6 °C above ambient T (TE), during summer and winter. Net shoot CO2 exchange (Anet) was measured continuously on 1-year-old shoots and was used to calculate the accumulated carbon uptake and daily Asat and AQY. The accumulated carbon uptake, from 1 March to 30 June, was stimulated by 33, 44 and 61% when trees were exposed to CE, TE, and CE and TE combined, respectively. Air temperature strongly influenced the timing and extent of photosynthetic recovery expressed as AQY and Asat during the spring. Under elevated T (TE), the recovery of AQY and Asat commenced ∼10 days earlier and the activity of these parameters was significantly higher throughout the recovery period. In the absence of frost events, the photosynthetic recovery period was less than a week. However, frost events during spring slowed recovery so that full recovery could take up to 60 days to complete. Elevated [CO2] stimulated AQY and Asat on average by ∼10 and ∼50%, respectively, throughout the recovery period, but had minimal or no effect on the onset and length of the photosynthetic recovery period during the spring. However, AQY, Asat and Anet all recovered at significantly higher T (average +2.2 °C) in TE than in TA, possibly caused by acclimation or by shorter days and lower light levels during the early part of the recovery in TE compared with TA. The results suggest that predicted future climate changes will cause prominent stimulation of photosynthetic CO2 uptake in boreal Norway spruce forest during spring, mainly caused by elevated T

  8. Spring photosynthetic recovery of boreal Norway spruce under conditions of elevated [CO(2)] and air temperature.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Göran; Hall, Marianne; Slaney, Michelle; Räntfors, Mats; Medhurst, Jane; Linder, Sune

    2013-11-01

    Accumulated carbon uptake, apparent quantum yield (AQY) and light-saturated net CO2 assimilation (Asat) were used to assess the responses of photosynthesis to environmental conditions during spring for three consecutive years. Whole-tree chambers were used to expose 40-year-old field-grown Norway spruce trees in northern Sweden to an elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, [CO2], of 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) (CE) and an air temperature (T) between 2.8 and 5.6 °C above ambient T (TE), during summer and winter. Net shoot CO2 exchange (Anet) was measured continuously on 1-year-old shoots and was used to calculate the accumulated carbon uptake and daily Asat and AQY. The accumulated carbon uptake, from 1 March to 30 June, was stimulated by 33, 44 and 61% when trees were exposed to CE, TE, and CE and TE combined, respectively. Air temperature strongly influenced the timing and extent of photosynthetic recovery expressed as AQY and Asat during the spring. Under elevated T (TE), the recovery of AQY and Asat commenced ∼10 days earlier and the activity of these parameters was significantly higher throughout the recovery period. In the absence of frost events, the photosynthetic recovery period was less than a week. However, frost events during spring slowed recovery so that full recovery could take up to 60 days to complete. Elevated [CO2] stimulated AQY and Asat on average by ∼10 and ∼50%, respectively, throughout the recovery period, but had minimal or no effect on the onset and length of the photosynthetic recovery period during the spring. However, AQY, Asat and Anet all recovered at significantly higher T (average +2.2 °C) in TE than in TA, possibly caused by acclimation or by shorter days and lower light levels during the early part of the recovery in TE compared with TA. The results suggest that predicted future climate changes will cause prominent stimulation of photosynthetic CO2 uptake in boreal Norway spruce forest during spring, mainly caused by elevated T

  9. The Effect of Aluminum and Ammonium Perchlorate Content on Temperature Sensitivity, Mechanical Properties and Performance of HTPB Propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tüzün, F. Nihal

    This paper describes the effect of aluminum content variation of HTPB (hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene) propellants on temperature sensitivity, mechanical properties and performance values. Aluminum (Al) content was applied as 16, 18 and 20 percent to the propellant compositions and those compositions were tested at small test motors with three different propellant area ratios (K=200, 250 and 300) by keeping the propellant grain at three different temperatures (231, 258 and 323 K). As a result of this, a relationship such as P=aesT was determined with different coefficients for each of the three compositions and propellant area ratios. The lowest temperature sensitivity value was obtained for the composition containing 20% Al and 65% AP. The second relation as P=bKy was derived for three propellants and temperatures. The highest pressure was found with the K value of 300 for the propellant including 16% Al and 69% AP at 323 K. The third relationship such as r=cPn was also determined for three propellant compositions and temperatures. It was observed that the propellant having 16% Al and 69% AP had the highest burning rate at 323 K. The highest maximum tensile stress and elongation values were obtained for the propellants including 20% Al and 16% Al respectively. Evaluation of performance values for those propellants exhibits that the maximum characteristic velocity value is attained for the propellant containing 16% Al and 69% AP.

  10. Plant Pathogenic Microbial Communication Affected by Elevated Temperature in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum.

    PubMed

    Saha, N D; Chaudhary, A; Singh, S D; Singh, D; Walia, S; Das, T K

    2015-11-01

    Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria regulate specific gene expression in a population density-dependent manner by sensing level of Acyl-Homoserine Lactone (HSL) molecules which they produce and liberate to the environment, called Quorum Sensing (QS). The production of virulence factors (extracellular enzyme viz. cellulase, pectinase, etc.) in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) is under strong regulation of QS. The QS signal molecule, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-Homoserine Lactone (OHHL) was found as the central regulatory system for the virulence factor production in Pcc and is also under strict regulation of external environmental temperature. Under seven different incubation temperatures (24, 26, 28, 30, 33, 35, and 37 °C) in laboratory condition, highest amount of OHHL (804 violacein unit) and highest (79 %) Disease Severity Index (DSI) were measured at 33 °C. The OHHL production kinetics showed accumulation of highest concentration of OHHL at late log phase of the growth but diminution in the concentration occurred during stationary phase onwards to death phase. At higher temperature (35 and 37 °C) exposure, OHHL was not at detectable range. The effect of temperature on virulence factor production is the concomitant effect of HSL production and degradation which justifies less disease severity index in cross-inoculated tomato fruits incubated at 35 and 37 °C. The nondetection of the OHHL in the elevated temperature may because of degradation as these signal molecules are quite sensitive and prone to get degraded under different physical factors. This result provides the rationale behind the highest disease severity up to certain elevated temperature and leaves opportunities for investigation on mutation, co-evolution of superior plant pathogen with more stable HSL signals-mediated pathogenesis under global warming context. PMID:26271295

  11. Plant Pathogenic Microbial Communication Affected by Elevated Temperature in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum.

    PubMed

    Saha, N D; Chaudhary, A; Singh, S D; Singh, D; Walia, S; Das, T K

    2015-11-01

    Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria regulate specific gene expression in a population density-dependent manner by sensing level of Acyl-Homoserine Lactone (HSL) molecules which they produce and liberate to the environment, called Quorum Sensing (QS). The production of virulence factors (extracellular enzyme viz. cellulase, pectinase, etc.) in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) is under strong regulation of QS. The QS signal molecule, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-Homoserine Lactone (OHHL) was found as the central regulatory system for the virulence factor production in Pcc and is also under strict regulation of external environmental temperature. Under seven different incubation temperatures (24, 26, 28, 30, 33, 35, and 37 °C) in laboratory condition, highest amount of OHHL (804 violacein unit) and highest (79 %) Disease Severity Index (DSI) were measured at 33 °C. The OHHL production kinetics showed accumulation of highest concentration of OHHL at late log phase of the growth but diminution in the concentration occurred during stationary phase onwards to death phase. At higher temperature (35 and 37 °C) exposure, OHHL was not at detectable range. The effect of temperature on virulence factor production is the concomitant effect of HSL production and degradation which justifies less disease severity index in cross-inoculated tomato fruits incubated at 35 and 37 °C. The nondetection of the OHHL in the elevated temperature may because of degradation as these signal molecules are quite sensitive and prone to get degraded under different physical factors. This result provides the rationale behind the highest disease severity up to certain elevated temperature and leaves opportunities for investigation on mutation, co-evolution of superior plant pathogen with more stable HSL signals-mediated pathogenesis under global warming context.

  12. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, YongHua; Wang, WenKe; He, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and l-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings. PMID:26395070

  13. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, YongHua; Wang, WenKe; He, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and l-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings.

  14. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Wang, Wenke; He, Yunhua

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and L-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings.

  15. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, YongHua; Wang, WenKe; He, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and l-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings. PMID:26395070

  16. Sensitivity of cold acclimation to elevated autumn temperature in field-grown Pinus strobus seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Christine Y.; Unda, Faride; Zubilewich, Alexandra; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Ensminger, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will increase autumn air temperature, while photoperiod decrease will remain unaffected. We assessed the effect of increased autumn air temperature on timing and development of cold acclimation and freezing resistance in Eastern white pine (EWP, Pinus strobus) under field conditions. For this purpose we simulated projected warmer temperatures for southern Ontario in a Temperature Free-Air-Controlled Enhancement (T-FACE) experiment and exposed EWP seedlings to ambient (Control) or elevated temperature (ET, +1.5°C/+3°C during day/night). Photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, photoprotective pigments, leaf non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), and cold hardiness were assessed over two consecutive autumns. Nighttime temperature below 10°C and photoperiod below 12 h initiated downregulation of assimilation in both treatments. When temperature further decreased to 0°C and photoperiod became shorter than 10 h, downregulation of the light reactions and upregulation of photoprotective mechanisms occurred in both treatments. While ET seedlings did not delay the timing of the downregulation of assimilation, stomatal conductance in ET seedlings was decreased by 20–30% between August and early October. In both treatments leaf NSC composition changed considerably during autumn but differences between Control and ET seedlings were not significant. Similarly, development of freezing resistance was induced by exposure to low temperature during autumn, but the timing was not delayed in ET seedlings compared to Control seedlings. Our results indicate that EWP is most sensitive to temperature changes during October and November when downregulation of photosynthesis, enhancement of photoprotection, synthesis of cold-associated NSCs and development of freezing resistance occur. However, we also conclude that the timing of the development of freezing resistance in EWP seedlings is not affected by moderate temperature increases used in our field

  17. Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Ceramics and Ceramic Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuo

    1995-01-01

    Advanced ceramics and ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) have great potential for structural application in combustion engines and other energy generating equipment since the required high operating temperatures in such environments have driven traditional metals and superalloys to their limits due to their melting points. As promising substitutes, ceramics and ceramic matrix composites not only significantly increase service temperature, but also have other salient features, such as low density, good chemical stability, and excellent hardness, which offer additional potential for extending performance limits beyond those offered by metallic materials. Dynamic mechanical properties are significant properties for structural materials which subject to dynamic loading. Because of the challenge of high temperature and vibratory environments in advanced combustion engines and energy generating systems, ceramics and ceramic composites also should have good dynamic properties so as to increase durability, reliability, and reduce noise and vibration levels. But, unfortunately, knowledge regarding dynamic mechanical properties of ceramics and ceramic composites at elevated temperatures is limited. This research has focused on the dynamic mechanical properties of silicon nitride based ceramics and composites reinforced with silicon carbide whiskers. These ceramic materials have been considered to be the most attractive structural materials for engine applications. By conducting experiments up to 1100^circC, this research systematically investigates the damping and elastic behavior, explores the possible mechanisms which dominate the damping properties of these materials, and examines the effects of simulated thermal cycling loads on dynamic mechanical properties and microstructures of these promising high temperature structural materials. This research also studies the experimental methods for dynamic testing of ceramic materials, compares experimental results with some

  18. High temperature oxidation behavior of gamma-nickel+gamma'-nickel aluminum alloys and coatings modified with platinum and reactive elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Nan

    Materials for high-pressure turbine blades must be able to operate in the high-temperature gases (above 1000°C) emerging from the combustion chamber. Accordingly, the development of nickel-based superalloys has been constantly motivated by the need to have improved engine efficiency, reliability and service lifetime under the harsh conditions imposed by the turbine environment. However, the melting point of nickel (1455°C) provides a natural ceiling for the temperature capability of nickel-based superalloys. Thus, surface-engineered turbine components with modified diffusion coatings and overlay coatings are used. Theses coatings are capable of forming a compact and adherent oxide scale, which greatly impedes the further transport of reactants between the high-temperature gases and the underlying metal and thus reducing attack by the atmosphere. Typically, these coatings contain beta-NiAl as a principal constituent phase in order to have sufficient aluminum content to form an Al2O3 scale at elevated temperatures. The drawbacks to the currently-used beta-based coatings, such as phase instabilities, associated stresses induced by such phase instabilities, and extensive coating/substrate interdiffusion, are major motivations in this study to seek next-generation coatings. The high-temperature oxidation resistance of novel Pt+Hf-modified gamma-Ni+gamma'-Ni 3Al-based alloys and coatings were investigated in this study. Both early-stage and 4-days isothermal oxidation behavior of single-phase gamma-Ni and gamma'-Ni3Al alloys were assessed by examining the weight changes, oxide-scale structures, and elemental concentration profiles through the scales and subsurface alloy regions. It was found that Pt promotes Al 2O3 formation by suppressing the NiO growth on both gamma-Ni and gamma'-Ni3Al single-phase alloys. This effect increases with increasing Pt content. Moreover, Pt exhibits this effect even at lower temperatures (˜970°C) in the very early stage of oxidation. It

  19. Microstructure and elevated-temperature erosion-oxidation behaviour of aluminized 9Cr-1Mo Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttunen-Saarivirta, E.; Honkanen, M.; Tsipas, S. A.; Omar, H.; Tsipas, D.

    2012-10-01

    Degradation of materials by a combination of erosive wear and atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures constitutes a problem in some power generation processes, such as fluidized-bed combustion. In this work, 9Cr-1Mo steel, a common tube material in combustion chambers, is coated by a pack cementation method from an Al-containing pack in order to improve the resistance to erosion-oxidation at elevated temperatures. The resulting coating is studied in terms of microstructure and microhardness and tested for its resistance against impacts by sand particles in air at temperatures of 550-700 °C under several conditions, with thickness changes and appearance of the exposed surfaces being studied. The coating was found to contain several phases and layers, the outermost of which was essentially Al-rich and contained e.g., small AlN precipitates. The microhardness values for such coating ranged from 950 to 1100 HV20g. The coating provided the substrate with increased protection particularly against normal particle impacts, as manifested by smaller thickness losses for coated specimens as compared to uncoated counterparts. However, much of the coating was lost under all test conditions, despite the fact that particle debris formed a homogeneous layer on the surface. These results are described and discussed in this paper.

  20. Near-infrared Laser-induced Temperature Elevation in Optically-trapped Aqueous Droplets in Air.

    PubMed

    Ishizaka, Shoji; Ma, Jiang; Fujiwara, Terufumi; Yamauchi, Kunihiro; Kitamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared laser-induced temperature elevation in single aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets levitated in air were evaluated by means of laser trapping and Raman spectroscopy. Since the vapor pressure in an aqueous solution droplet should be thermodynamically in equilibrium with that of water in air, the equilibrium size of the droplet varies sensitively through evaporation/condensation of water in accordance with the temperature change of the droplet. In this study, we demonstrated that the changes in the size of an optically levitated aqueous ammonium sulfate droplet were induced by irradiation of a 1064-nm laser beam as a heat source under an optical microscope. Temperature elevation in the droplet was evaluated successfully by means of Raman spectroscopy, and the values determined were shown to be in good agreement with those by the theoretical calculations based on the absorption coefficient of water at 1064-nm and the thermal conductivity of air. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental demonstration showing that the absorption coefficient evaluated from changes in the size of optically-trapped aqueous droplets is consistent with that of pure water. PMID:27063715

  1. Electrodeposition of germanium at elevated temperatures and pressures from ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minxian; Vanhoutte, Gijs; Brooks, Neil R; Binnemans, Koen; Fransaer, Jan

    2015-05-14

    The electrodeposition of germanium at elevated temperatures up to 180 °C and pressures was studied from the ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide containing [GeCl4(BuIm)2] (where BuIm = 1-butylimidazole) or GeCl4. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were used to investigate the electrochemical behavior and the properties of the electrodeposited germanium. Electrodeposition at elevated temperatures leads to higher deposition rates due to: (1) increase in the diffusion rate of the electroactive germanium compounds; (2) faster electrochemical kinetics in the electrolyte; and (3) higher electrical conductivity of the electrodeposited germanium film. Moreover, the morphology of the germanium film is also of a better quality at higher electrodeposition temperatures due to an increase in adatom mobility.

  2. Control of Thermal Deflection, Panel Flutter and Acoustic Fatigue at Elevated Temperatures Using Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh; Huang, Jen-Kuang

    1996-01-01

    The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) will have to be designed to withstand high aerodynamic load at supersonic speeds (panel flutter) and high acoustic load (acoustic or sonic fatigue) due to fluctuating boundary layer or jet engine acoustic pressure. The thermal deflection of the skin panels will also alter the vehicle's configuration, thus it may affect the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle and lead to poor performance. Shape memory alloys (SMA) have an unique ability to recover large strains completely when the alloy is heated above the characteristic transformation (austenite finish T(sub f)) temperature. The recovery stress and elastic modulus are both temperature dependent, and the recovery stress also depends on the initial strain. An innovative concept is to utilize the recovery stress by embedding the initially strained SMA wire in a graphite/epoxy composite laminated panel. The SMA wires are thus restrained and large inplane forces are induced in the panel at elevated temeperatures. By embedding SMA in composite panel, the panel becomes much stiffer at elevated temperatures. That is because the large tensile inplane forces induced in the panel from the SMA recovery stress. A stiffer panel would certainly yield smaller dynamic responses.

  3. Measurements of Young's and shear moduli of rail steel at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yuanye; Zhang, Haifeng; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Karim, Md Afzalul; Felix Wu, H

    2014-03-01

    The design and modelling of the buckling effect of Continuous Welded Rail (CWR) requires accurate material constants, especially at elevated temperatures. However, such material constants have rarely been found in literature. In this article, the Young's moduli and shear moduli of rail steel at elevated temperatures are determined by a new sonic resonance method developed in our group. A network analyser is used to excite a sample hanged inside a furnace through a simple tweeter type speaker. The vibration signal is picked up by a Polytec OFV-5000 Laser Vibrometer and then transferred back to the network analyser. Resonance frequencies in both the flexural and torsional modes are measured, and the Young's moduli and shear moduli are determined through the measured resonant frequencies. To validate the measured elastic constants, the measurements have been repeated by using the classic sonic resonance method. The comparisons of obtained moduli from the two methods show an excellent consistency of the results. In addition, the material elastic constants measured are validated by an ultrasound test based on a pulse-echo method and compared with previous published results at room temperature. The measured material data provides an invaluable reference for the design of CWR to avoid detrimental buckling failure.

  4. OSMOTIC COEFFICIENTS, SOLUBILITIES, AND DELIQUESCENCE RELATIONS IN MIXED AQUEOUS SALT SOLUTIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    M.S. Gruszkiewicz; D.A. Palmer

    2006-02-22

    While thermodynamic properties of pure aqueous electrolytes are relatively well known at ambient temperature, there are far fewer data for binary systems extending to elevated temperatures and high concentrations. There is no general theoretically sound basis for prediction of the temperature dependence of ionic activities, and consequently temperature extrapolations based on ambient temperature data and empirical equations are uncertain and require empirical verification. Thermodynamic properties of mixed brines in a wide range of concentrations would enhance the understanding and precise modeling of the effects of deliquescence of initially dry solids in humid air in geological environments and in modeling the composition of waters during heating, cooling, evaporation or condensation processes. These conditions are of interest in the analysis of waters on metal surfaces at the proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results obtained in this project will be useful for modeling the long-term evolution of the chemical environment, and this in turn is useful for the analysis of the corrosion of waste packages. In particular, there are few reliable experimental data available on the relationship between relative humidity and composition that reveals the eutonic points of the mixtures and the mixture deliquescence RH. The deliquescence RH for multicomponent mixtures is lower than that of pure component or binary solutions, but is not easy to predict quantitatively since the solutions are highly nonideal. In this work we used the ORNL low-temperature and high-temperature isopiestic facilities, capable of precise measurements of vapor pressure between ambient temperature and 250 C for determination of not only osmotic coefficients, but also solubilities and deliquescence points of aqueous mixed solutions in a range of temperatures. In addition to standard solutions of CaCl{sub 2}, LiCl, and NaCl used as references, precise direct

  5. Temperature elevation by HIFU in ex vivo porcine muscle: MRI measurement and simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Solovchuk, Maxim A.; Hwang, San Chao; Chang, Hsu; Thiriet, Marc; Sheu, Tony W. H.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: High-intensity focused ultrasound is a rapidly developing medical technology with a large number of potential clinical applications. Computational model can play a pivotal role in the planning and optimization of the treatment based on the patient's image. Nonlinear propagation effects can significantly affect the temperature elevation and should be taken into account. In order to investigate the importance of nonlinear propagation effects, nonlinear Westervelt equation was solved. Weak nonlinear propagation effects were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the predicted and measured temperature elevations and lesion in a porcine muscle. Methods: The investigated single-element transducer has a focal length of 12 cm, an aperture of 8 cm, and frequency of 1.08 MHz. Porcine muscle was heated for 30 s by focused ultrasound transducer with an acoustic power in the range of 24–56 W. The theoretical model consists of nonlinear Westervelt equation with relaxation effects being taken into account and Pennes bioheat equation. Results: Excellent agreement between the measured and simulated temperature rises was found. For peak temperatures above 85–90 °C “preboiling” or cavitation activity appears and lesion distortion starts, causing small discrepancy between the measured and simulated temperature rises. From the measurements and simulations, it was shown that distortion of the lesion was caused by the “preboiling” activity. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that for peak temperatures below 85–90 °C numerical simulation results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data in three dimensions. Both temperature rise and lesion size can be well predicted. Due to nonlinear effect the temperature in the focal region can be increased compared with the linear case. The current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) resolution is not sufficient. Due to the inevitable averaging the measured

  6. Surface mapping of field-induced piezoelectric strain at elevated temperature employing full-field interferometry.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Tim; Quast, Tatjana; Bartl, Guido; Schmitz-Kempen, Thorsten; Weaver, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric actuators and sensors are widely used for flow control valves, including diesel injectors, ultrasound generation, optical positioning, printing, pumps, and locks. Degradation and failure of material and electrical properties at high temperature typically limits these applications to operating temperatures below 200°C, based on the ubiquitous Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramic. There are, however, many applications in sectors such as automotive, aerospace, energy and process control, and oil and gas, where the ability to operate at higher temperatures would open up new markets for piezoelectric actuation. Presented here is a review of recent progress and initial results toward a European effort to develop measurement techniques to characterize high-temperature materials. Full-field, multi-wavelength absolute length interferometry has, for the first time, been used to map the electric-field-induced piezoelectric strain across the surface of a PZT ceramic. The recorded variation as a function of temperature has been evaluated against a newly developed commercial single-beam system. Conventional interferometry allows measurement of the converse piezoelectric effect with high precision and resolution, but is often limited to a single point, average measurement and to limited sample environments because of optical aberrations in varying atmospheres. Here, the full-field technique allows the entire surface to be analyzed for strain and, in a bespoke sample chamber, for elevated temperatures. PMID:25585393

  7. Piezoelectric response of BiFeO3 ceramics at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojac, Tadej; Makarovic, Maja; Walker, Julian; Ursic, Hana; Damjanovic, Dragan; Kos, Tomaz

    2016-07-01

    The high Curie temperature (TC ˜ 825 °C) of BiFeO3 has made this material potentially attractive for the development of high-TC piezoelectric ceramics. Despite significant advances in the search of new BiFeO3-based compositions, the piezoelectric behavior of the parent BiFeO3 at elevated temperatures remains unexplored. We present here a systematic analysis of the converse, longitudinal piezoelectric response of BiFeO3 measured in situ as a function of temperature (25-260 °C), driving-field frequency, and amplitude. Earlier studies performed at room temperature revealed that the frequency and field dependence of the longitudinal response of BiFeO3 is dominated by linear and nonlinear piezoelectric Maxwell-Wagner mechanisms, originating from the presence of local conductive paths along domain walls and grain boundaries within the polycrystalline matrix. This study shows that the same mechanisms are responsible for the distinct temperature dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient and phase angle and thus identifies the local electrical conductivity as the key for controlling the temperature dependent piezoelectric response of BiFeO3 and possibly other, more complex BiFeO3-based compositions.

  8. Surface mapping of field-induced piezoelectric strain at elevated temperature employing full-field interferometry.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Tim; Quast, Tatjana; Bartl, Guido; Schmitz-Kempen, Thorsten; Weaver, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric actuators and sensors are widely used for flow control valves, including diesel injectors, ultrasound generation, optical positioning, printing, pumps, and locks. Degradation and failure of material and electrical properties at high temperature typically limits these applications to operating temperatures below 200°C, based on the ubiquitous Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramic. There are, however, many applications in sectors such as automotive, aerospace, energy and process control, and oil and gas, where the ability to operate at higher temperatures would open up new markets for piezoelectric actuation. Presented here is a review of recent progress and initial results toward a European effort to develop measurement techniques to characterize high-temperature materials. Full-field, multi-wavelength absolute length interferometry has, for the first time, been used to map the electric-field-induced piezoelectric strain across the surface of a PZT ceramic. The recorded variation as a function of temperature has been evaluated against a newly developed commercial single-beam system. Conventional interferometry allows measurement of the converse piezoelectric effect with high precision and resolution, but is often limited to a single point, average measurement and to limited sample environments because of optical aberrations in varying atmospheres. Here, the full-field technique allows the entire surface to be analyzed for strain and, in a bespoke sample chamber, for elevated temperatures.

  9. Identification of possible factors influencing temperatures elevation during implant site preparation with piezoelectric technique

    PubMed Central

    Lamazza, Luca; Laurito, Domenica; Lollobrigida, Marco; Brugnoletti, Orlando; Garreffa, Girolamo; De Biase, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Overheating during implant site preparation negatively affects the osseointegration process as well the final outcome of implant rehabilitations. Piezoelectric techniques seem to provide to a gentle implant preparation although few scientific reports have investigated the heat generation and its underlying factors. Purpose To investigate, through a proper methodological approach, the main factors influencing temperature rise during piezoelectric implant site preparation. Materials and methods Different piezoelectric tips (IM1s, IM2, P2-3, IM3, Mectron Medical Technology, Carasco, Italy) have been tested. The experimental set-up consisted in a mechanical positioning device equipped with a load cell and a fluoroptic thermometer. Results The first tip of the sequence (IM1s) generated the highest temperature increasing (ΔT). The diamond tips (IM1s and P2-3) determined higher ΔT values than the smooth tips (IM2 and IM3). Further tests with IM1s suggested that the temperature elevation during the first thirty seconds may be predictive of the maximal temperature as well as of the overall thermal impact. Conclusions Working load, working movements management and bone features resulted to be the main factors influencing temperature rise during piezoelectric implant site preparation. Irrigant temperature and clogging effect may also synergically contribute to the heat generation. PMID:25774245

  10. Plasticity mechanisms in HfN at elevated and room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Katherine; Yu, Xiao-Xiang; De Leon, Nicholas; Weinberger, Christopher R.; Thompson, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    HfN specimens deformed via four-point bend tests at room temperature and at 2300 °C (~0.7 Tm) showed increased plasticity response with temperature. Dynamic diffraction via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed ⟨110⟩{111} as the primary slip system in both temperature regimes and ⟨110⟩{110} to be a secondary slip system activated at elevated temperature. Dislocation line lengths changed from a primarily linear to a curved morphology with increasing temperature suggestive of increased dislocation mobility being responsible for the brittle to ductile temperature transition. First principle generalized stacking fault energy calculations revealed an intrinsic stacking fault (ISF) along ⟨112⟩{111}, which is the partial dislocation direction for slip on these close packed planes. Though B1 structures, such as NaCl and HfC predominately slip on ⟨110⟩{110}, the ISF here is believed to facilitate slip on the {111} planes for this B1 HfN phase. PMID:27708354

  11. Soot surface temperature measurements in pure and diluted flames at atmospheric and elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Berry Yelverton, T.L.; Roberts, W.L.

    2008-10-15

    Soot surface temperature was measured in laminar jet diffusion flames at atmospheric and elevated pressures. The soot surface temperature was measured in flames at one, two, four, and eight atmospheres with both pure and diluted (using helium, argon, nitrogen, or carbon dioxide individually) ethylene fuels with a calibrated two-color soot pyrometry technique. These two dimensional temperature profiles of the soot aid in the analysis and understanding of soot production, leading to possible methods for reducing soot emission. Each flame investigated was at its smoke point, i.e., at the fuel flow rate where the overall soot production and oxidation rates are equal. The smoke point was chosen because it was desirable to have similar soot loadings for each flame. A second set of measurements were also taken where the fuel flow rate was held constant to compare with earlier work. These measurements show that overall flame temperature decreases with increasing pressure, with increasing pressure the position of peak temperature shifts to the tip of the flame, and the temperatures measured were approximately 10% lower than those calculated assuming equilibrium and neglecting radiation. (author)

  12. Hindered diffusion of asphaltenes at elevated temperature and pressure. Semiannual report, March 20 - September 20, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Geelen, R.; Gregory, C.; Yang, X.

    1996-11-01

    The objectives are to: investigate the hindered diffusion of coal and petroleum asphaltenes in the pores of catalyst particles at elevated temperature and pressures; and examine the effects of concentration, temperature, solvent type, and pressure on the intraparticle diffusivity of asphaltenes. Progress was made in several areas during this time period. The high temperature/high pressure autoclave has been received from Parr Instrument Company and is in the process of being set up and checked out. During this time period we mainly worked in two areas. In the first area, we performed some measurements on the adsorption isotherms of the model compound quinoline in cyclohexane onto a Criterion 324 catalyst at three temperatures. We are looking at the effect of temperature on the adsorption isotherms of several model compounds. This area is important since the adsorptive uptake of asphaltenes is being studied and the model compound systems lend insight as to how we may expect the more complex asphaltene systems to behave during adsorption on the surface of the porous particles. We found that even for the simple model compound quinoline, the adsorption behavior vs. temperature was quite 0563 complex. The second area explored during this time period was the application of a mathematical model to adsorptive uptake data for asphaltenes on Criterion 324 catalyst particles. This adsorptive uptake data was obtained during the previous time period and was analyzed by mathematical modeling during the current time period. The detailed findings in both of these areas are presented in this report.

  13. Plasticity mechanisms in HfN at elevated and room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinson, Katherine; Yu, Xiao-Xiang; de Leon, Nicholas; Weinberger, Christopher R.; Thompson, Gregory B.

    2016-10-01

    HfN specimens deformed via four-point bend tests at room temperature and at 2300 °C (~0.7 Tm) showed increased plasticity response with temperature. Dynamic diffraction via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed ⟨110⟩{111} as the primary slip system in both temperature regimes and ⟨110⟩{110} to be a secondary slip system activated at elevated temperature. Dislocation line lengths changed from a primarily linear to a curved morphology with increasing temperature suggestive of increased dislocation mobility being responsible for the brittle to ductile temperature transition. First principle generalized stacking fault energy calculations revealed an intrinsic stacking fault (ISF) along ⟨112⟩{111}, which is the partial dislocation direction for slip on these close packed planes. Though B1 structures, such as NaCl and HfC predominately slip on ⟨110⟩{110}, the ISF here is believed to facilitate slip on the {111} planes for this B1 HfN phase.

  14. Evolution of precipitate in nickel-base alloy 718 irradiated with argon ions at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuoxue; Luo, Fengfeng; Ma, Shuli; Chen, Jihong; Li, Tiecheng; Tang, Rui; Guo, Liping

    2013-07-01

    Alloy 718 is a nickel-base superalloy whose strength derives from γ'(Ni3(Al,Ti)) and γ″(Ni3Nb) precipitates. The evolution of the precipitates in alloy 718 irradiated with argon ions at elevated temperature were examined via transmission electron microscopy. Selected-area electron diffraction indicated superlattice spots disappeared after argon ion irradiation, which showing that the ordered structure of the γ' and γ″ precipitates became disordered. The size of the precipitates became smaller with the irradiation dose increasing at 290 °C.

  15. Correlation between mobile continents and elevated temperatures in the subcontinental mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Charitra; Rozel, Antoine; Tackley, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Rolf et al. (EPSL, 2012) and Coltice et al. (Science, 2012) have previously shown that continents exert a first order influence on Earth's mantle flow by affecting convective wavelength and surface heat flow. With stationary continents, Heron and Lowman (JGR, 2014) highlighted the decreasing role of continental insulation on subcontinental temperatures with higher Rayleigh number (Ra). However, the question whether there exists a correlation between mobile continents and elevated temperatures in the subcontinental mantle or not remains to be answered. By systematically varying parameters like core-mantle boundary (CMB) temperature, continental size, and mantle heating modes (basal and internal); we model thermo-chemical mantle convection with 2D spherical annulus geometry (Hernlund and Tackley, PEPI 2008) using StagYY (Tackley, PEPI 2008). Starting with a simple incompressible model having mobile continents, we observe this correlation. Furthermore, this correlation still holds when the model complexity is gradually increased by introducing internal heating, compressibility, and melting. In general, downwellings reduce the mantle temperature away from the continents, thereby resulting in correlation between mobile continents and elevated temperatures in the subcontinental mantle. For incompressible models (Boussinesq approximation), correlation exists and the dominant degree of convection varies with the continental distribution. When internal heating is switched on, correlation is observed but it is reduced as there are less cold regions in the mantle. Even for compressible models with melting, big continents are able to focus the heat underneath them. The dominant degree of convection changes with continental breakup. Additionally, correlation is observed to be higher in the upper mantle (300 - 1000 km) compared to the lower mantle (1000 - 2890 km). At present, mobile continents in StagYY are simplified into a compositionally distinct field drifting at the top of

  16. Effects of multigenerational exposure to elevated temperature on reproduction, oxidative stress, and Cu toxicity in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eunhye; Samanta, Palas; Yoo, Jisu; Jung, Jinho

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of temperature (20 and 25°C) on reproduction, oxidative stress, and copper (Cu) toxicity in Daphnia magna across three generations (F0, F1, and F2). Exposing D. magna to elevated temperature significantly decreased the number of offspring per female per day, the time to first brood, and body length compared to exposure to the optimal temperature (p<0.05). In addition, elevated temperature induced a significantly higher production of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation (p<0.05). These findings suggest that D. magna likely responded to thermal stress by investing more energy into defense mechanisms, rather than growth and reproduction. In addition, oxidative stress at the elevated temperature gradually increased with each generation, possibly owing to the reduced fitness of the offspring. Exposing D. magna to 25°C (EC50=34±3µgL(-1)) substantially increased the median effective concentration of Cu in all generations compared to exposure to 20°C (EC50=25±3µgL(-1)), indicating a decrease in acute toxicity at elevated temperature. However, elevated temperature significantly increased the oxidative stress induced by a sublethal concentration of Cu (10µgL(-1)). The interaction between elevated temperature and Cu exposure appears to be synergistic; however, this needs to be confirmed using multiple generations in a long-term experiment. PMID:27376351

  17. Structural characteristics and elevated temperature mechanical properties of AJ62 Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Kubásek, J. Vojtěch, D.; Martínek, M.

    2013-12-15

    Structure and mechanical properties of the novel casting AJ62 (Mg–6Al–2Sr) alloy developed for elevated temperature applications were studied. The AJ62 alloy was compared to commercial casting AZ91 (Mg–9Al–1Zn) and WE43 (Mg–4Y–3RE) alloys. The structure was examined by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometry. Mechanical properties were characterized by Viskers hardness measurements in the as-cast state and after a long-term heat treatment at 250 °C/150 hours. Compressive mechanical tests were also carried out both at room and elevated temperatures. Compressive creep tests were conducted at a temperature of 250 °C and compressive stresses of 60, 100 and 140 MPa. The structure of the AJ62 alloy consisted of primary α-Mg dendrites and interdendritic nework of the Al{sub 4}Sr and massive Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 13}Sr phases. By increasing the cooling rate during solidification from 10 and 120 K/s the average dendrite arm thickness decreased from 18 to 5 μm and the total volume fraction of the interdendritic phases from 20% to 30%. Both factors slightly increased hardness and compressive strength. The room temperature compressive strength and hardness of the alloy solidified at 30 K/s were 298 MPa and 50 HV 5, i.e. similar to those of the as-cast WE43 alloy and lower than those of the AZ91 alloy. At 250 °C the compressive strength of the AJ62 alloy decreased by 50 MPa, whereas those of the AZ91 and WE43 alloys by 100 and 20 MPa, respectively. The creep rate of the AJ62 alloy was higher than that of the WE43 alloy, but significantly lower in comparison with the AZ91 alloy. Different thermal stabilities of the alloys were discussed and related to structural changes during elevated temperature expositions. - Highlights: • Small effect of cooling rate on the compressive strength and hardness of AJ 62 • A bit lower compressive strength of AJ 62 compared to AZ91 at room temperature • Higher resistance of the AJ 62

  18. Evaluation Of Liner Back-pressure Due To Concrete Pore Pressure At Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.J.; Rashid, Y.R.; Liu, A.S.; Gou, B.

    2006-07-01

    GE's latest evolution of the boiling water reactor, the ESBWR, has innovative passive design features that reduce the number and complexity of active systems, which in turn provide economic advantages while also increasing safety. These passive systems used for emergency cooling also mean that the primary containment system will experience elevated temperatures with longer durations than conventional plants in the event of design basis accidents. During a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the drywell in the primary containment structure for the ESBWR will be exposed to saturated steam conditions for up to 72 hours following the accident. A containment spray system may be activated that sprays the drywell area with water to condense the steam as part of the recovery operations. The liner back-pressure will build up gradually over the 72 hours as the concrete temperatures increase, and a sudden cool down could cause excessive differential pressure on the liner to develop. For this analysis, it is assumed that the containment spray is activated at the end of the 72-hour period. A back-pressure, acting between the liner and the concrete wall of the containment, can occur as a result of elevated temperatures in the concrete causing steam and saturated vapor pressures to develop from the free water remaining in the pores of the concrete. Additional pore pressure also develops under the elevated temperatures from the non-condensable gases trapped in the concrete pores during the concrete curing process. Any buildup of this pore pressure next to the liner, in excess of the drywell internal pressure, will act to push the liner away from the concrete with a potential for tearing at the liner anchorages. This paper describes the methods and analyses used to quantify this liner back-pressure so that appropriate measures are included in the design of the liner and anchorage system. A pore pressure model is developed that calculates the pressure distribution across the concrete

  19. Numerical simulation of transient temperature profiles for canned apple puree in semi-rigid aluminum based packaging during pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Shafiekhani, Soraya; Zamindar, Nafiseh; Hojatoleslami, Mohammad; Toghraie, Davood

    2016-06-01

    Pasteurization of canned apple puree was simulated for a 3-D geometry in a semi-rigid aluminum based container which was heated from all sides at 378 K. The computational fluid dynamics code Ansys Fluent 14.0 was used and the governing equations for energy, momentum, and continuity were computed using a finite volume method. The food model was assumed to have temperature-dependent properties. To validate the simulation, the apple puree was pasteurized in a water cascading retort. The effect of the mesh structures was studied for the temperature profiles during thermal processing. The experimental temperature in the slowest heating zone in the container was compared with the temperature predicted by the model and the difference was not significant. The study also investigated the impact of head space (water-vapor) on heat transfer. PMID:27478233

  20. Numerical simulation of transient temperature profiles for canned apple puree in semi-rigid aluminum based packaging during pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Shafiekhani, Soraya; Zamindar, Nafiseh; Hojatoleslami, Mohammad; Toghraie, Davood

    2016-06-01

    Pasteurization of canned apple puree was simulated for a 3-D geometry in a semi-rigid aluminum based container which was heated from all sides at 378 K. The computational fluid dynamics code Ansys Fluent 14.0 was used and the governing equations for energy, momentum, and continuity were computed using a finite volume method. The food model was assumed to have temperature-dependent properties. To validate the simulation, the apple puree was pasteurized in a water cascading retort. The effect of the mesh structures was studied for the temperature profiles during thermal processing. The experimental temperature in the slowest heating zone in the container was compared with the temperature predicted by the model and the difference was not significant. The study also investigated the impact of head space (water-vapor) on heat transfer.