Science.gov

Sample records for elevated triglyceride levels

  1. Triglyceride level

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels may be due to: Low fat diet Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) Malabsorption syndrome (conditions in which the ... Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency High blood cholesterol levels Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Malabsorption Metabolism Nephrotic syndrome Protein in diet ...

  2. Genetically elevated levels of circulating triglycerides and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Yao, W-M; Zhang, H-F; Zhu, Z-Y; Zhou, Y-L; Liang, N-X; Xu, D-J; Zhou, F; Sheng, Y-H; Yang, R; Gong, L; Yin, Z-J; Chen, F-K; Cao, K-J; Li, X-L

    2013-04-01

    Elevated levels of circulating triglycerides and increased arterial stiffness are associated with cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies have reported an association between levels of circulating triglycerides and arterial stiffness. We used Mendelian randomization to test whether this association is causal. We investigated the association between circulating triglyceride levels, the apolipoprotein A-V (ApoA5) -1131T>C single nucleotide polymorphism and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) by examining data from 4421 subjects aged 18-74 years who were recruited from the Chinese population. baPWV was significantly associated with the levels of circulating triglycerides after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, heart rate, waist-to-hip ratio, antihypertensive treatment and diabetes mellitus status. The -1131C allele was associated with a 5% (95% confidence interval 3-8%) increase in circulating triglycerides (adjusted for age, sex, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diabetes mellitus and antihypertensive treatment). Instrumental variable analysis showed that genetically elevated levels of circulating triglycerides were not associated with increased baPWV. These results do not support the hypothesis that levels of circulating triglycerides have a causal role in the development of arterial stiffness.

  3. Prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors of elevated triglyceride levels in US children.

    PubMed

    Christian, Jennifer B; Juneja, Maneesh X; Meadowcroft, Amy M; Borden, Spencer; Lowe, Kimberly A

    2011-12-01

    Limited information is available on the epidemiology of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG; 150-499 mg/dL) and severe HTG (SHTG; >500 mg/dL) in children. This study estimates the prevalence of HTG and SHTG, evaluates factors that may be associated with these conditions, and describes the use of dyslipidemic agents in children. The sample included children 12 to 19 years old who participated in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008 (n = 3248) and children 5 to 19 years of age who were part of a large managed-care claims database in the United States (n = 65 258). Results from NHANES confirm the rarity of SHTG in the US pediatric population (ie, 0.2%). Factors statistically significantly associated with having HTG or SHTG in the claims database were being male, 12 to 19 years old, having high low-density lipoprotein (LDL), having low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), diabetes, and psychological disorders. Fibrates were the most commonly prescribed triglyceride-lowering agent among children with SHTG, followed by statins and Lovaza.

  4. Triglycerides

    MedlinePlus

    Triglycerides are a type of fat found in your blood. Too much of this type of fat ... especially in women. A blood test measures your triglycerides along with your cholesterol. Normal triglyceride levels are ...

  5. Exceptionally elevated triglyceride in severe lipemia retinalis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Han Y; Warman, Roberto; Suh, Edward H; Cheng, Anny MS

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of successful treatment for severe lipemia retinalis with extreme severe hypertriglyceridemia (sHTG). Design Observational case report. Observations A 6-week-old infant with severe lipemia retinalis manifested diffuse creamy retinal vessels complicated with vulvar xanthomas. Extreme sHTG with 185-folds of the normal level was reported. Chromosome microarray and lipid gene sequencing confirmed a homozygous lipoprotein lipase gene coding mutation. Results Under strict adherence to a high medium-chain triglycerides formula and discontinuation of breast milk, the lipemia retinalis and vulval lesions resolved along with a stable plasma lipid level throughout the follow-up period of 6 months. Conclusion Strict adherence to a low-fat diet without breast milk appears to be effective in treating infants with severe lipemia retinalis associated with exceptionally high triglycerides. PMID:27799830

  6. Obese First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Elevated Triglyceride Levels Exhibit Increased β-Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Porchia, Leonardo M.; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Mejia, M. Elba; Báez-Duarte, Blanca G.; Pulido-Pérez, Patricia; Rivera, Alicia; Romero, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized as a disease continuum that is marked by metabolic changes that are present for several years, sometimes well before frank diagnosis of T2DM. Genetic predisposition, ethnicity, geography, alterations in BMI, and lipid profile are considered important markers for the pathogenesis of T2DM through mechanisms that remain unresolved and controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between triglycerides (TGs) and β-cell function, insulin resistance (IR), and insulin sensitivity (IS) in obese first-degree relatives of patients with T2DM (FDR-T2DM) among subjects from central Mexico with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We studied 372 FDR-T2DM subjects (ages,18–65) and determined body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin, and TGs levels. Subjects were categorized based on glycemic control [NGT, prediabetes (PT2DM), or T2DM]. NGT subjects were further categorized by BMI [normal weight (Ob−) or obese (Ob+)] and TGs levels (TG−, <150 mg/dL, or TG+, ≥150 mg/dL). β-cell function, IR, and IS were determined by the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA2-β), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR), and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) indices, respectively. Results: The obese subjects with elevated TGs levels had 21%–60% increased β-cell function when compared to all groups (P<0.05). In addition, this group had insulin levels, IS, and IR similar to PT2DM. Furthermore, only in obese subjects did TGs correlate with β-cell function (ρ=0.502, P<0.001). Conclusion: We characterized FDR-T2DM subjects from central Mexico with NGT and revealed a class of obese subjects with elevated TGs and β-cell function, which may precede PT2DM. PMID:25423015

  7. Time and dose relationships between schisandrin B- and schisandrae fructus oil-induced hepatotoxicity and the associated elevations in hepatic and serum triglyceride levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Nan; Zhu, Pei-Li; Chu, Zhu-Sheng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background Schisandrin B (Sch B), a dibenzocyclooctadiene compound, is isolated from schisandrae fructus (SF). This study was conducted to compare the time- and dose-response between Sch B- and SF oil (SFO)-induced changes in hepatic and serum parameters in mice. Methods Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were given a single oral dose of Sch B (0.125–2 g/kg) or SFO (0.3–5 g/kg). Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, hepatic malondialdehyde, and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured at increasing time intervals within 6–120 hours postdosing. Results Serum ALT activity was elevated by 60%, with maximum effect (Emax) =45.77 U/L and affinity (KD) =1.25 g/kg at 48–96 hours following Sch B, but not SFO, treatment. Sch B and SFO treatments increased hepatic malondialdehyde level by 70% (Emax =2.30 nmol/mg protein and KD =0.41 g/kg) and 22% (Emax =1.42 nmol/mg protein and KD =2.56 g/kg) at 72 hours postdosing, respectively. Hepatic index was increased by 16%–60% (Emax =11.01, KD =0.68 g/kg) and 8%–32% (Emax =9.88, KD =4.47 g/kg) at 12–120 hours and 24–120 hours after the administration of Sch B and SFO, respectively. Hepatic TG level was increased by 40%–158% and 35%–85%, respectively, at 12–96 hours and 6–48 hours after Sch B and SFO treatment, respectively. The values of Emax and KD for Sch B/SFO-induced increase in hepatic TG were estimated to be 22.94/15.02 μmol/g and 0.78/3.03 g/kg, respectively. Both Sch B and SFO increased serum TG (up to 427% and 123%, respectively), with the values of Emax =5.50/4.60 mmol/L and KD =0.43/2.84 g/kg, respectively. Conclusion The findings indicated that Sch B/SFO-induced increases in serum/hepatic parameters occurred in a time-dependent manner, with the time of onset being serum TG level < hepatic TG level < hepatic index < serum ALT activity. However, the time of recovery of these parameters to normal values varied as follow: serum TG level < hepatic TG level and liver injury < hepatic index

  8. Treatment with buckwheat bran extract prevents the elevation of serum triglyceride levels and fatty liver in KK-A(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Toshio; Sasaga, Sayaka; Yamasaka, Yukiko; Nii, Yoshitaka; Edazawa, Kazuhiro; Tsutsumi, Rie; Shuto, Emi; Okahisa, Naoki; Iwata, Shinya; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Buckwheat powder or protein has been shown to decrease the total serum cholesterol level in non-diabetic mice or rats. However, the lipid-lowering effect of buckwheat bran extract (BBE) in diabetic mice has not been fully elucidated. KK-A(y) mice that received six-week treatment with BBE showed decreased body weight and liver weight compared to those of control (vehicle) mice. However, there was no significant difference in food intake. BBE treatments prevented liver triglyceride accumulation and decreased the serum level of triglycerides. In addition, mRNA expression levels lipogenic enzyme genes, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-coenzyme a oxidase and stearyl-coenzyme a desaturase 1, but not those of β-oxidized enzyme genes, were decreased in BBE-treated mice. Level of transcription factors ChREBP and SREBP1c, transcripts of lipogenic genes, were also decreased in BBE-treated mice. These results suggest that chronic treatment with BBE derivatives could have beneficial effects on hypertriglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  9. Inhibition of Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Slc10a2 Improves Triglyceride Metabolism and Normalizes Elevated Plasma Glucose Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Snaith, Michael; Lindmark, Helena; Lundberg, Johanna; Östlund-Lindqvist, Ann-Margret; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma TG levels were reduced in Slc10a2-deficient mice, and when challenged with a sucrose-rich diet, they displayed a reduced response in hepatic TG production as observed from the mRNA levels of several key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis. This effect was paralleled by a diminished induction of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c). Unexpectedly, the SR-diet induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 mRNA and normalized bile acid synthesis in Slc10a2−/− mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of Slc10a2 in diabetic ob/ob mice reduced serum glucose, insulin and TGs, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of Srebp1c and its target genes. These responses are contrary to those reported following treatment of mice with a bile acid binding resin. Moreover, when key metabolic signal transduction pathways in the liver were investigated, those of Mek1/2 - Erk1/2 and Akt were blunted after treatment of ob/ob mice with the Slc10a2 inhibitor. It is concluded that abrogation of Slc10a2 reduces hepatic Srebp1c activity and serum TGs, and in the diabetic ob/ob model it also reduces glucose and insulin levels. Hence, targeting of Slc10a2 may be a promising strategy to treat hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes. PMID:22662222

  10. L-Arginine enhances the triglyceride-lowering effect of simvastatin in patients with elevated plasma triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Friedrich; Glos, Sabrina; Petruschka, Dörte; Altenburg, Christiane; Maas, Renke; Benndorf, Ralf; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Beil, Ulrich; Böger, Rainer H

    2009-05-01

    We recently noticed a possible triglyceride-lowering effect during dietary supplementation with L-arginine. The major limitation of prior studies on L-arginine, however, was that triglyceride levels were not the primary end point, and patients were not necessarily hypertriglyceridemic. Therefore, we conducted a 2-arm, randomized, double-blind study in 33 hypertriglyceridemic patients to investigate the hypothesis that oral L-arginine may lower serum triglyceride levels in hypertriglyceridemic patients on and off statins. The study consisted of a 6-week run-in phase, 6 weeks of treatment with L-arginine (n = 22, 1.5 g bid) or placebo (n = 11), and a 6-week extension period where simvastatin (20 mg qd) was added. All patients received dietary advice during each study visit. Routine and lipid laboratory parameters were determined in the local routine clinical laboratory. Treatment with L-arginine alone had no effects on serum lipids compared to placebo. The combination of L-arginine with simvastatin led to a significantly stronger reduction in triglycerides compared to placebo plus simvastatin (-140.5 +/- 149.2 mg/dL vs -56.1 +/- 85.0 mg/dL; P = .048). In addition, we found simvastatin-induced increases in aspartate transaminase and fibrinogen to be attenuated by L-arginine as compared to placebo. We conclude from our data that L-arginine enhances the effects of simvastatin on lipid metabolism, but it has no triglyceride-lowering effects when given alone.

  11. Trends in Elevated Triglyceride in Adults: United States, 2001-2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... 59, and 30.9% for 60 and over). Did the percentage of adults with elevated triglyceride change ... National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2012. Did the trend in the percentage of adults with ...

  12. How do elevated triglycerides and low HDL-cholesterol affect inflammation and atherothrombosis?

    PubMed

    Welty, Francine K

    2013-09-01

    This review article summarizes recent research into the mechanisms as to how elevated levels of triglyceride (TG) and low levels of high- density- lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) contribute to inflammation and atherosclerosis. Evidence supports the role of TG-rich lipoproteins in signaling mechanisms via apolipoproteins C-III and free fatty acids leading to activation of NFKβ, VCAM-1 and other inflammatory mediators which lead to fatty streak formation and advanced atherosclerosis. Moreover, the cholesterol content in TG-rich lipoproteins has been shown to predict CAD risk better than LDL-C. In addition to reverse cholesterol transport, HDL has many other cardioprotective effects which include regulating immune function. The "functionality" of HDL appears more important than the level of HDL-C. Insulin resistance and central obesity underlie the pathophysiology of elevated TG and low HDL-C in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle recommendations including exercise and weight loss remain first line therapy in ameliorating insulin resistance and the adverse signaling processes from elevated levels of TG-rich lipoproteins and low HDL-C.

  13. Acute exposure to 2,4-dinitrophenol alters zebrafish swimming performance and whole body triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Marit, Jordan S; Weber, Lynn P

    2011-06-01

    While swimming endurance (critical swimming speed or U(crit)) and lipid stores have both been reported to acutely decrease after exposure to a variety of toxicants, the relationship between these endpoints has not been clearly established. In order to examine these relationships, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were aqueously exposed to solvent control (ethanol) or two nominal concentrations of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a mitochondrial electron transport chain uncoupler, for a 24-h period. Following exposure, fish were placed in a swim tunnel in clean water for swimming testing or euthanized immediately without testing, followed by analysis of whole body triglyceride levels. U(crit) decreased in both the 6 mg/L and 12 mg/L DNP groups, with 12 mg/L approaching the LC₅₀. A decrease in tail beat frequency was observed without a significant change in tail beat amplitude. In contrast, triglyceride levels were elevated in a concentration-dependent manner in the DNP exposure groups, but only in fish subjected to swimming tests. This increase in triglyceride stores may be due to a direct interference of DNP on lipid catabolism as well as increased triglyceride production when zebrafish were subjected to the co-stressors of swimming and toxicant exposure. Future studies should be directed at determining how acute DNP exposure combines with swimming to cause alterations in triglyceride accumulation.

  14. Detecting Elevated Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, H.L.; Elford, R.W.; Shumak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Reflotron dry chemistry reflectance photometer was studied as a case-finding method in physicians' offices. A total of 713 adult patients had their risk factor profiles determined along with fingerprick blood cholesterol measurements. Blood cholesterol levels were classified into three categories, (<5.2 mmol/L), 51%; borderline high (5.2 to 6.1 mmol/L), 28%; and high (≥6.2 mmol/L), 21%. The physicians' predictions from clinical risk factor profiles of which patients had elevated serum cholesterol levels were inaccurate. PMID:21229051

  15. WWOX gene is associated with HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Altered lipid profile, and in particular low HDL and high triglyceride (TG) plasma levels, are within the major determinants of cardiovascular diseases. The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting these lipid levels is a relevant issue for predictive purposes. The WWOX gene has been recently associated with HDL levels. This gene is located at chromosome 16q23, a region previously linked to familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) and HDL. Our objective is to perform a genetic association analysis at the WWOX gene region with HDL, TG and TG/HDL ratio. Methods A quantitative association analysis performed in 801 individuals selected from the Spanish general population. Results For HDL levels, two regions of intron 8 display clustering of positive signals (p < 0.05) but none of them was associated in the haplotypic analysis (0.07 ≤ p ≤ 0.165). For TG levels not only intron 8 but also a 27 kb region spanning from the promoter region to intron 4 are associated in this study. For the TG/HDL genetic association analysis, positive signals are coincident with those of the isolated traits. Interestingly, haplotypic analysis at the 5' region showed that variation in this region modified both HDL and TG levels, especially the latter (p = 0.003). Conclusions Our results suggest that WWOX is a QTL for both TG and HDL. PMID:20942981

  16. Maternal undernutrition leads to elevated hepatic triglycerides in male rat offspring due to increased expression of lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei-Fen; Zhu, Jian-Fang; Liang, Li; Shen, Zheng; Wang, Ying-Min

    2016-05-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) at birth increases the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, which encompasses various symptoms including hypertriglyceridemia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether maternal undernutrition during pregnancy may lead to alterations in hepatic triglyceride content and the gene expression levels of hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in SGA male offspring. The present study focused on the male offspring in order to prevent confounding factors, such as estrus cycle and hormone profile. Female Sprague Dawley rats were arbitrarily assigned to receive an ad libitum chow diet or 50% food restricted diet from pregnancy day 1 until parturition. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to measure the gene expression levels of hepatic LPL at day 1 and upon completion of the third week of age. Chromatin immunoprecipitation quantified the binding activity of liver X receptor‑α (LXR‑α) gene to the LXR response elements (LXRE) on LPL promoter and LPL epigenetic characteristics. At 3 weeks of age, SGA male offspring exhibited significantly elevated levels of hepatic triglycerides, which was concomitant with increased expression levels of LPL. Since LPL is regulated by LXR‑α, the expression levels of LXR‑α were detected in appropriate for gestational age and SGA male offspring. Maternal undernutrition during pregnancy led to an increase in the hepatic expression levels of LXR‑α, and enriched binding to the putative LXR response elements in the LPL promoter regions in 3‑week‑old male offspring. In addition, enhanced acetylation of histone H3 [H3 lysine (K)9 and H3K14] was detected surrounding the LPL promoter. The results of the present study indicated that maternal undernutrition during pregnancy may lead to an increase in hepatic triglycerides, via alterations in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the LPL gene.

  17. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. -- Highlights: ► Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ► Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ► Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ► Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  18. Insulin resistance and elevated triglyceride in muscle: more important for survival than ‘thrifty’ genes?

    PubMed Central

    Stannard, S R; Johnson, N A

    2004-01-01

    Elevated intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) is strongly associated with insulin resistance, though a cause and effect relationship has not been fully described. Insulin sensitivity and IMTG content are both dynamic and can alter rapidly in response to dietary variation, physical activity and thermoregulatory response. Physically active humans (athletes) display elevated IMTG content, but in contrast to obese persons, are insulin sensitive. This paradox has created confusion surrounding the role of IMTG in the development of insulin resistance. In this review we consider the modern athlete as the physiological archetype of the Late Palaeolithic hunter–gatherer to whom the selection pressures of food availability, predation and fluctuating environmental conditions applied and to whom the genotype of modern man is virtually identical. As food procurement by the hunter–gatherer required physical activity, ‘thrifty’ genes that encouraged immediate energy storage upon refeeding after food deprivation (Neel, 1962) must have been of secondary importance in survival to genes that preserved physical capacity during food deprivation. Similarly genes that enabled survival during cold exposure whilst starved would be of primary importance. In this context, we discuss the advantage afforded by an elevated IMTG content, and how under these conditions, a concomitant muscle resistance to insulin-mediated glucose uptake would also be advantageous. In sedentary modern man, adiposity is high and skeletal muscle appears to respond as if a state of starvation exists. In this situation, elevated plasma lipids serve to accrue lipid and induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Reversal of this physiological state is primarily dependant on adequate contractile activity, however, in modern Western society, physical inactivity combined with abundant food and warmth has rendered IMTG a redundant muscle substrate. PMID:14608009

  19. Plasma exchange treatment for acute hyperlipidemic pancreatitis with falsely low levels of serum triglycerides - a case report.

    PubMed

    Markota, A; Knehtl, M; Sinkovic, A; Ekart, R; Hojs, R; Bevc, S

    2014-10-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a well-recognized cause of acute pancreatitis. We present a patient with acute hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis. At presentation serum triglycerides were severely elevated (104 mmol/l) and were decreasing the next day (11 mmol/l). However, based on increasing levels of serum lipase, worsening respiratory failure and evidently lipemic serum, we decided to perform plasma exchange, and patient's condition improved dramatically. Repeated laboratory test of the serum obtained before the first plasma exchange revealed that the actual value of serum triglycerides was 57 mmol/l. A clinically-driven decision is crucial when treating patients with hypertriglyceridemic acute pancreatitis as the serum triglyceride levels can be falsely low.

  20. Circadian clocks and feeding time regulate the oscillations and levels of hepatic triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Adamovich, Yaarit; Rousso-Noori, Liat; Zwighaft, Ziv; Neufeld-Cohen, Adi; Golik, Marina; Kraut-Cohen, Judith; Wang, Miao; Han, Xianlin; Asher, Gad

    2014-02-04

    Circadian clocks play a major role in orchestrating daily physiology, and their disruption can evoke metabolic diseases such as fatty liver and obesity. To study the role of circadian clocks in lipid homeostasis, we performed an extensive lipidomic analysis of liver tissues from wild-type and clock-disrupted mice either fed ad libitum or night fed. To our surprise, a similar fraction of lipids (∼17%) oscillated in both mouse strains, most notably triglycerides, but with completely different phases. Moreover, several master lipid regulators (e.g., PPARα) and enzymes involved in triglyceride metabolism retained their circadian expression in clock-disrupted mice. Nighttime restricted feeding shifted the phase of triglyceride accumulation and resulted in ∼50% decrease in hepatic triglyceride levels in wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that circadian clocks and feeding time dictate the phase and levels of hepatic triglyceride accumulation; however, oscillations in triglycerides can persist in the absence of a functional clock.

  1. The impact of exams anxiety on the level of triglycerides in university female students.

    PubMed

    Maimanee, Tahia A

    2010-04-01

    Anxiety affects the level of blood fats such as the triglycerides according to several studies conducted in various conditions causing anxiety as exam for the university students. The health experts suggested that the anxiety works to stimulate the autonomic nervous system which in turn leads to the appearance of a group of physiologic symptoms. The current study showed the changes happened in the triglycerides' levels in the female university students before and after exams at the intermediate anxiety level compared to other high and low levels of anxiety. In addition, there was a difference in triglycerides' levels in female students of college of Science before and after exam. This difference did not appear in case of other colleges. The exam type had an impact as the significant difference appeared in the triglycerides' levels during the periodical tests and these differences did not appear in the final exam.

  2. Serum Triglyceride Level: A Predictor of Complications and Outcomes in Acute Pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Tariq, Hassan; Gaduputi, Vinaya; Peralta, Richard; Abbas, Naeem; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar; Thet, Phyo; Zaw, Tin; Hui, Shirley; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study serum triglyceride level as a predictor of complications and outcomes in acute pancreatitis. Methods. In this retrospective observational study, 582 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis, who had serum triglyceride levels measured within the first 24 hours, were divided into two groups. The study group consisted of patients with a triglyceride level ≥2.26 mmol/L (group 2) and the control group consisted of triglyceride level of <2.26 mmol/L (group 1). We collected data for baseline demographics, laboratory values, incidence of complications (local and systemic), admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), ICU length of stay, length of total hospital stay, and death in the two groups. Results. A triglyceride level of ≥2.26 mmol/L was found to be an independent predictor of developing altered mental status (p: 0.004), pancreatic necrosis (p: 0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (p: 0001), systemic Inflammatory response syndrome (p: 0.001), acute kidney injury (p: 0.001), hospital length of stay (LOS) (p: 0.002), admission to intensive care unit (ICU) (p: 0.002), and ICU LOS (p: 0.003). Conclusion. A triglyceride level of ≥2.26 mmol/L on admission in acute pancreatitis is an independent predictor of developing local and systemic complications, hospital LOS, admission to ICU, and ICU LOS.

  3. Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

    2002-09-16

    The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

  4. Associations of triglyceride levels with longevity and frailty: A Mendelian randomization analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zuyun; Burgess, Stephen; Wang, Zhengdong; Deng, Wan; Chu, Xuefeng; Cai, Jian; Zhu, Yinsheng; Shi, Jianming; Xie, Xuejuan; Wang, Yong; Jin, Li; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies suggest associations of triglyceride levels with longevity and frailty. This study aimed to test whether the associations are causal. We used data from the Rugao Longevity and Ageing Study, a population-based cohort study performed in Rugao, China. A variant in the APOA5 gene region (rs662799) was used as the genetic instrument. Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were performed to examine the associations of genetically predicted triglycerides with two ageing phenotypes – longevity ( ≥95 years) and frailty (modified Fried frailty phenotype and Rockwood frailty index). C allele of rs662799 was robustly associated with higher triglyceride levels in the comparison group (β = 0.301 mmol/L per allele, p < 0.001), with an F statistic of 95.3 and R2 = 0.040. However MR analysis did not provide strong evidence for an association between genetically predicted triglyceride levels and probability of longevity (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.35, 1.07 per 1 mmol/L increase in triglycerides). In the ageing arm (70–84 years), genetically predicted triglyceride levels were not associated with the frailty index (β = 0.008; 95% CI: −0.013, 0.029) or the frailty phenotype (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 0.84, 4.37). In conclusion, there is currently a lack of sufficient evidence to support causal associations of triglyceride levels with longevity and frailty in elderly populations. PMID:28134330

  5. Space elevator systems level analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  6. Serum hepcidin levels are associated with serum triglycerides and interleukin-6 concentrations in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Samouilidou, Elisabeth; Pantelias, Konstantinos; Petras, Dimitrios; Tsirpanlis, George; Bakirtzi, Joulia; Chatzivasileiou, George; Tzanatos, Helen; Grapsa, Eirini

    2014-06-01

    Hepcidin has emerged as a peptide with a key role in the regulation of iron homeostasis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), having a strong dependence on inflammation. Recent studies reveal that hepcidin may be also associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. This study was performed to analyze the relation of hepcidin to markers of atherosclerosis and inflammation in patients on dialysis. A total of 90 individuals were enrolled. Sixty patients with end-stage renal disease, who were on hemodialysis (HD) (N = 30) and peritoneal dialysis (N = 30) were compared with 30 normal controls (NC). Age, body mass index, time on dialysis, serum lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured and analyzed in correlation with hepcidin concentration. It was found that patients on HD and peritoneal dialysis have significantly higher (P < 0.0001) levels of hepcidin, CRP and IL-6 than NC. Hepcidin in dialysis patients is significantly related to age (r = 0.373, P = 0.012), serum triglycerides (r = 0.401, P = 0.005), HDL-C (r = -0.268, P = 0.048), CRP (r = 0.436, P = 0.0007) and IL-6 (r = 0.569, P < 0.0001). In multiple regression analysis, hepcidin correlated independently with triglycerides (β = 0.402, P = 0.041) and IL-6 (β = 0.559, P = 0.006). Moreover, patients with high triglycerides in combination with high IL-6 levels have significantly increased concentrations of hepcidin than those with low triglycerides and low IL-6 levels (P < 0.0001). Elevated levels of hepcidin in patients with CKD on dialysis may be related to the occurrence of high triglycerides and high IL-6 serum concentrations. This probably suggests that hepcidin may play a role to the progression of atherosclerosis and inflammation, but this hypothesis should be further evaluated.

  7. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  8. Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Hoem, Nils; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Meyer, Ingo; Banni, Sebastiano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-05-27

    We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m², age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5 ± 96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome.

  9. Inheritance of rare functional GCKR variants and their contribution to triglyceride levels in families

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Matthew G.; Raimondo, Anne; Wang, Jian; Ban, Matthew R.; Davis, Mindy I.; Barrett, Amy; Ranft, Jessica; Jagdhuhn, David; Waterstradt, Rica; Baltrusch, Simone; Simeonov, Anton; Collins, Francis S.; Hegele, Robert A.; Gloyn, Anna L.

    2014-01-01

    Significant resources have been invested in sequencing studies to investigate the role of rare variants in complex disease etiology. However, the diagnostic interpretation of individual rare variants remains a major challenge, and may require accurate variant functional classification and the collection of large numbers of variant carriers. Utilizing sequence data from 458 individuals with hypertriglyceridemia and 333 controls with normal plasma triglyceride levels, we investigated these issues using GCKR, encoding glucokinase regulatory protein. Eighteen rare non-synonymous GCKR variants identified in these 791 individuals were comprehensively characterized by a range of biochemical and cell biological assays, including a novel high-throughput-screening-based approach capable of measuring all variant proteins simultaneously. Functionally deleterious variants were collectively associated with hypertriglyceridemia, but a range of in silico prediction algorithms showed little consistency between algorithms and poor agreement with functional data. We extended our study by obtaining sequence data on family members; however, functional variants did not co-segregate with triglyceride levels. Therefore, despite evidence for their collective functional and clinical relevance, our results emphasize the low predictive value of rare GCKR variants in individuals and the complex heritability of lipid traits. PMID:24879641

  10. Bivariate linkage analysis of cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuyang; Wang, Kai

    2003-01-01

    We performed a bivariate analysis on cholesterol and triglyceride levels on data from the Framingham Heart Study using a new score statistic developed for the detection of potential pleiotropic, or cluster, genes. Univariate score statistics were also computed for each trait. At a significance level 0.001, linkage signals were found at markers GATA48B01 on chromosome 1, GATA21C12 on chromosome 8, and ATA55A11 on chromosome 16 using the bivariate analysis. At the same significance level, linkage signals were found at markers 036yb8 on chromosome 3 and GATA3F02 on chromosome 12 using the univariate analysis. A strong linkage signal was also found at marker GATA112F07 by both the bivariate analysis and the univariate analysis, a marker for which evidence for linkage had been reported previously in a related study. PMID:14975130

  11. A rare variant in APOC3 is associated with plasma triglyceride and VLDL levels in Europeans.

    PubMed

    Timpson, Nicholas J; Walter, Klaudia; Min, Josine L; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Malerba, Giovanni; Shin, So-Youn; Chen, Lu; Futema, Marta; Southam, Lorraine; Iotchkova, Valentina; Cocca, Massimiliano; Huang, Jie; Memari, Yasin; McCarthy, Shane; Danecek, Petr; Muddyman, Dawn; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina; Perry, John R B; Ring, Susan M; Gaye, Amadou; Dedoussis, George; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Burton, Paul; Talmud, Philippa J; Gambaro, Giovanni; Spector, Tim D; Smith, George Davey; Durbin, Richard; Richards, J Brent; Humphries, Steve E; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Soranzo, Nicole

    2014-09-16

    The analysis of rich catalogues of genetic variation from population-based sequencing provides an opportunity to screen for functional effects. Here we report a rare variant in APOC3 (rs138326449-A, minor allele frequency ~0.25% (UK)) associated with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (-1.43 s.d. (s.e.=0.27 per minor allele (P-value=8.0 × 10(-8))) discovered in 3,202 individuals with low read-depth, whole-genome sequence. We replicate this in 12,831 participants from five additional samples of Northern and Southern European origin (-1.0 s.d. (s.e.=0.173), P-value=7.32 × 10(-9)). This is consistent with an effect between 0.5 and 1.5 mmol l(-1) dependent on population. We show that a single predicted splice donor variant is responsible for association signals and is independent of known common variants. Analyses suggest an independent relationship between rs138326449 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. This represents one of the first examples of a rare, large effect variant identified from whole-genome sequencing at a population scale.

  12. A rare variant in APOC3 is associated with plasma triglyceride and VLDL levels in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Timpson, Nicholas J.; Walter, Klaudia; Min, Josine L.; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Malerba, Giovanni; Shin, So-Youn; Chen, Lu; Futema, Marta; Southam, Lorraine; Iotchkova, Valentina; Cocca, Massimiliano; Huang, Jie; Memari, Yasin; McCarthy, Shane; Danecek, Petr; Muddyman, Dawn; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina; Perry, John R. B.; Ring, Susan M.; Gaye, Amadou; Dedoussis, George; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Burton, Paul; Talmud, Philippa J.; Gambaro, Giovanni; Spector, Tim D.; Smith, George Davey; Durbin, Richard; Richards, J Brent; Humphries, Steve E.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Soranzo, Nicole; Al Turki, Saeed; Anderson, Carl; Anney, Richard; Antony, Dinu; Soler Artigas, Maria; Ayub, Muhammad; Balasubramaniam, Senduran; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Barroso, Inês; Beales, Phil; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Birney, Ewan; Blackwood, Douglas; Bobrow, Martin; Bochukova, Elena; Bolton, Patrick; Bounds, Rebecca; Boustred, Chris; Breen, Gerome; Calissano, Mattia; Carss, Keren; Chatterjee, Krishna; Chen, Lu; Ciampi, Antonio; Cirak, Sebhattin; Clapham, Peter; Clement, Gail; Coates, Guy; Collier, David; Cosgrove, Catherine; Cox, Tony; Craddock, Nick; Crooks, Lucy; Curran, Sarah; Curtis, David; Daly, Allan; Danecek, Petr; Davey Smith, George; Day-Williams, Aaron; Day, Ian N. M.; Down, Thomas; Du, Yuanping; Dunham, Ian; Durbin, Richard; Edkins, Sarah; Ellis, Peter; Evans, David; Faroogi, Sadaf; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fitzpatrick, David R.; Flicek, Paul; Flyod, James; Foley, A Reghan; Franklin, Christopher S; Futema, Marta; Gallagher, Louise; Gaunt, Tom; Geihs, Matthias; Geschwind, Daniel; Greenwood, Celia; Griffin, Heather; Grozeva, Detelina; Guo, Xueqin; Guo, Xiaosen; Gurling, Hugh; Hart, Deborah; Hendricks, Audrey; Holmans, Peter; Howie, Bryan; Huang, Jie; Huang, Liren; Hubbard, Tim; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matthew E.; Hysi, Pirro; Jackson, David K.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Jing, Tian; Joyce, Chris; Kaye, Jane; Keane, Thomas; Keogh, Julia; Kemp, John; Kennedy, Karen; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Lachance, Genevieve; Langford, Cordelia; Lawson, Daniel; Lee, Irene; Lek, Monkol; Liang, Jieqin; Lin, Hong; Li, Rui; Li, Yingrui; Liu, Ryan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Lopes, Margarida; Lotchkova, Valentina; MacArthur, Daniel; Marchini, Jonathan; Maslen, John; Massimo, Mangino; Mathieson, Iain; Marenne, Gaëlle; McCarthy, Shane; McGuffin, Peter; McIntosh, Andrew; McKechanie, Andrew G.; McQuillin, Andrew; Memari, Yasin; Metrustry, Sarah; Min, Josine; Mitchison, Hannah; Moayyeri, Alireza; Morris, James; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Northstone, Kate; O'Donnovan, Michael; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Oualkacha, Karim; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Parker, Victoria; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Paunio, Tiina; Payne, Felicity; Perry, John; Pietilainen, Olli; Plagnol, Vincent; Quaye, Lydia; Quail, Michael A.; Raymond, Lucy; Rehnström, Karola; Richards, Brent; Ring, Susan; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Roberts, Nicola; Savage, David B.; Scambler, Peter; Schiffels, Stephen; Schmidts, Miriam; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Semple, Robert K.; Serra, Eva; Sharp, Sally I.; Shihab, Hasheem; Shin, So-Youn; Skuse, David; Small, Kerrin; Soranzo, Nicole; Southam, Lorraine; Spasic-Boskovic, Olivera; Spector, Tim; St Clair, David; Stalker, Jim; Stevens, Elizabeth; St Pourcian, Beate; Sun, Jianping; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Suvisaari, Jaana; Tachmazidou, Ionna; Timpson, Nicholas; Tobin, Martin D.; Valdes, Ana; Van Kogelenberg, Margriet; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Visscher, Peter M.; Wain, Louise V.; Walter, Klaudia; Walters, James T. R.; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yu; Ward, Kirsten; Wheeler, Elanor; Whyte, Tamieka; Williams, Hywel; Williamson, Kathleen A.; Wilson, Crispian; Wilson, Scott G.; Wong, Kim; Xu, ChangJiang; Yang, Jian; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhang, Fend; Zhang, Pingbo; Zheng, Hou-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of rich catalogues of genetic variation from population-based sequencing provides an opportunity to screen for functional effects. Here we report a rare variant in APOC3 (rs138326449-A, minor allele frequency ~0.25% (UK)) associated with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (−1.43 s.d. (s.e.=0.27 per minor allele (P-value=8.0 × 10−8)) discovered in 3,202 individuals with low read-depth, whole-genome sequence. We replicate this in 12,831 participants from five additional samples of Northern and Southern European origin (−1.0 s.d. (s.e.=0.173), P-value=7.32 × 10−9). This is consistent with an effect between 0.5 and 1.5 mmol l−1 dependent on population. We show that a single predicted splice donor variant is responsible for association signals and is independent of known common variants. Analyses suggest an independent relationship between rs138326449 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. This represents one of the first examples of a rare, large effect variant identified from whole-genome sequencing at a population scale. PMID:25225788

  13. Serotonin (5-HT) receptor 5A sequence variants affect human plasma triglyceride levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Smith, E. M.; Baye, T. M.; Eckert, J. V.; Abraham, L. J.; Moses, E. K.; Kissebah, A. H.; Martin, L. J.

    2010-01-01

    Neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) work closely with leptin and insulin to fine-tune the metabolic and neuroendocrine responses to dietary intake. Losing the sensitivity to excess food intake can lead to obesity, diabetes, and a multitude of behavioral disorders. It is largely unclear how different serotonin receptor subtypes respond to and integrate metabolic signals and which genetic variations in these receptor genes lead to individual differences in susceptibility to metabolic disorders. In an obese cohort of families of Northern European descent (n = 2,209), the serotonin type 5A receptor gene, HTR5A, was identified as a prominent factor affecting plasma levels of triglycerides (TG), supported by our data from both genome-wide linkage and targeted association analyses using 28 publicly available and 12 newly discovered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 3 were strongly associated with plasma TG levels (P < 0.00125). Bayesian quantitative trait nucleotide (BQTN) analysis identified a putative causal promoter SNP (rs3734967) with substantial posterior probability (P = 0.59). Functional analysis of rs3734967 by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed distinct binding patterns of the two alleles of this SNP with nuclear proteins from glioma cell lines. In conclusion, sequence variants in HTR5A are strongly associated with high plasma levels of TG in a Northern European population, suggesting a novel role of the serotonin receptor system in humans. This suggests a potential brain-specific regulation of plasma TG levels, possibly by alteration of the expression of HTR5A. PMID:20388841

  14. Association of apolipoprotein A5 concentration with serum insulin and triglyceride levels and coronary artery disease in Korean men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: Whereas the relation between apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene polymorphisms and triglycerides (TG) levels is well established, the associations between apoA5 concentrations, TG and coronary artery disease (CAD) remain controversial. Therefore, we investigated these relations in the setting ...

  15. Krill oil supplementation lowers serum triglycerides without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with borderline high or high triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Harwood, Melody; Hoem, Nils; Burri, Lena

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of 12 weeks daily krill oil supplementation on fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein particle levels in subjects whose habitual fish intake is low and who have borderline high or high fasting serum TG levels (150-499 mg/dL). We hypothesized that Krill oil lowers serum TG levels in subjects with borderline high or high fasting TG levels. To test our hypothesis 300 male and female subjects were included in a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled study with five treatment groups: placebo (olive oil) or 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g/day of krill oil. Serum lipids were measured after an overnight fast at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to a high intra-individual variability in TG levels, data from all subjects in the four krill oil groups were pooled to increase statistical power, and a general time- and dose-independent one-way analysis of variance was performed to assess efficacy. Relative to subjects in the placebo group, those administered krill oil had a statistically significant calculated reduction in serum TG levels of 10.2%. Moreover, LDL-C levels were not increased in the krill oil groups relative to the placebo group. The outcome of the pooled analysis suggests that krill oil is effective in reducing a cardiovascular risk factor. However, owing to the individual fluctuations of TG concentrations measured, a study with more individual measurements per treatment group is needed to increase the confidence of these findings.

  16. Apolipoprotein C3 SstI polymorphism and triglyceride levels in Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, S; Narang, R; Krishnan, LR; Vasisht, S; Agarwal, DP; Srivastava, LM; Manchanda, SC; Das, N

    2002-01-01

    Background A close association between Sst I polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the apolipoproteinC3 (APOC3) gene and levels of plasma triglycerides (TG) had been reported by different investigators. Hypertriglyceridemia(HTG) is a known risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) in the context of Asian Indians. We conducted a study on the relationship between APOC3 SstI polymorphism (S1S1, S1S2 and S2S2 genotypes) and plasma TG levels in a group of 139 male healthy volunteers from Northern India. Methods DNA samples were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by SstI digestion. Digested PCR products were run on 3% agarose gel and visualized by ethidium bromide staining. Results Rare S2 allele was highly prevalent in our study population (0.313) as compared to the Caucasians (0.00–0.11). The genotypic distribution was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. S2 allele was almost two times more prevalent in the HTG group (N = 34) as compared to NTG group (N = 105) (p = 0.001). Multiple logistic regression revealed S1S2 individuals had age-adjusted odds ratio of 2.43 (95%CI = 0.99–6.01, p = 0.054) and S2S2 had 9.9 (95%CI = 2.66–37.29, p = 0.0006) for developing HTG in comparison to S1S1 genotype. Conclusions Our study shows a significant association between rare S2 allele and HTG in Asian Indians. PMID:12052247

  17. Associations between Dietary Patterns, ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg with Regard to Serum Triglyceride Levels: J-MICC Study

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Hinako; Nishida, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Kazuyo; Tanaka, Keitaro; Naito, Mariko; Yin, Guang; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Takashima, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Nindita, Yora; Kohno, Michiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Koyama, Teruhide; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between dietary patterns and 2 β-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ) gene polymorphisms (ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg) were examined with regard to the effects on serum triglyceride levels. The cross-sectional study comprised 1720 men and women (aged 35–69 years) enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. Genotyping was conducted using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based invader assay. We used 46 items from a validated short food frequency questionnaire and examined major dietary patterns by factor analysis. We identified four dietary patterns: healthy, Western, seafood and bread patterns. There was no significant association between any dietary pattern and serum triglyceride levels. After a separate genotype-based analysis, significant interactions between ADRβ3 Trp64Arg genotype and the bread pattern (p for interaction = 0.01) were associated with serum triglyceride levels; specifically, after adjusting for confounding factors, Arg allele carriers with the bread pattern had lower serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.01). However, the Trp/Trp homozygous subjects with the bread pattern showed no association with serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.55). Interactions between other dietary patterns and ADRβ polymorphisms were not significant for serum triglyceride levels. Our findings suggest that ADRβ3 polymorphism modifies the effects of the bread pattern on triglyceride levels. PMID:27608039

  18. The rs2516839 Polymorphism of the USF1 Gene May Modulate Serum Triglyceride Levels in Response to Cigarette Smoking.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Pawel; Nowak, Tomasz; Iwanicki, Tomasz; Gorczynska-Kosiorz, Sylwia; Balcerzyk, Anna; Krauze, Jolanta; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Wiecha, Maria; Zak, Iwona

    2015-06-10

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the USF1 gene (upstream stimulatory factor 1) influence plasma lipid levels. This study aims to determine whether USF1 SNPs interact with traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis to increase coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. In the present study serum lipid levels and USF1 gene polymorphisms (rs2516839 and rs3737787) were determined in 470 subjects: 235 patients with premature CAD and 235 controls. A trend of increasing triglycerides (TG) levels in relation to the C allele dose of rs2516839 SNP was observed. The synergistic effect of cigarette smoking and C allele carrier state on CAD risk was also found (SIM = 2.69, p = 0.015). TG levels differentiated significantly particular genotypes in smokers (1.53 mmol/L for TT, 1.80 mmol/L for CT and 2.27 mmol/L for CC subjects). In contrast, these differences were not observed in the non-smokers subgroup (1.57 mmol/L for TT, 1.46 mmol/L for CT and 1.49 mmol/L for CC subjects). In conclusion, the rs2516839 polymorphism may modulate serum triglyceride levels in response to cigarette smoking. Carriers of the C allele seem to be particularly at risk of CAD, when exposed to cigarette smoking.

  19. The rs2516839 Polymorphism of the USF1 Gene May Modulate Serum Triglyceride Levels in Response to Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Niemiec, Pawel; Nowak, Tomasz; Iwanicki, Tomasz; Gorczynska-Kosiorz, Sylwia; Balcerzyk, Anna; Krauze, Jolanta; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Wiecha, Maria; Zak, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the USF1 gene (upstream stimulatory factor 1) influence plasma lipid levels. This study aims to determine whether USF1 SNPs interact with traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis to increase coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. In the present study serum lipid levels and USF1 gene polymorphisms (rs2516839 and rs3737787) were determined in 470 subjects: 235 patients with premature CAD and 235 controls. A trend of increasing triglycerides (TG) levels in relation to the C allele dose of rs2516839 SNP was observed. The synergistic effect of cigarette smoking and C allele carrier state on CAD risk was also found (SIM = 2.69, p = 0.015). TG levels differentiated significantly particular genotypes in smokers (1.53 mmol/L for TT, 1.80 mmol/L for CT and 2.27 mmol/L for CC subjects). In contrast, these differences were not observed in the non-smokers subgroup (1.57 mmol/L for TT, 1.46 mmol/L for CT and 1.49 mmol/L for CC subjects). In conclusion, the rs2516839 polymorphism may modulate serum triglyceride levels in response to cigarette smoking. Carriers of the C allele seem to be particularly at risk of CAD, when exposed to cigarette smoking. PMID:26068452

  20. Enhanced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in bulimia nervosa: relationships to psychiatric comorbidity, psychopathology and hormonal variables.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Santonastaso, Paolo; Pannuto, Marilena; Favaro, Angela; Caregaro, Lorenza; Castaldo, Eloisa; Zanetti, Tatiana; Maj, Mario

    2005-04-30

    Increased levels of cholesterol have been reported in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), but all but one of the published studies were performed on non-fasting subjects, which limits the interpretation of this finding. Moreover, the relationships between serum lipids and comorbid psychiatric disorders or bulimic psychopathology have scarcely been investigated. We measured serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, 17beta-estradiol and thyroid hormones in 75 bulimic women and 64 age-matched healthy females after an overnight fast. Compared with healthy women, bulimic patients exhibited significantly enhanced serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, but similar values of glucose, 17beta-estradiol, FT3 and FT4. No significant differences emerged in these variables between patients with or without comorbid depression, borderline personality disorder or lifetime anorexia nervosa. Circulating cholesterol was positively correlated to the patients' drive for thinness, ineffectiveness, enteroceptive awareness and impulse regulation sub-item scores of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2. These findings confirm that BN is associated with increased levels of serum lipids. This alteration may be involved in the pathophysiology of certain psychopathological characteristics of BN and cannot be explained by the co-occurrence of other psychiatric disorders.

  1. Rice protein improves adiposity, body weight and reduces lipids level in rats through modification of triglyceride metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To elucidate whether rice protein can possess a vital function in improving lipids level and adiposity, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkaline (RP-A) and α-amylase (RP-E) on triglyceride metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-enriched diets for 2 weeks, as compared with casein (CAS). Results Compared with CAS, plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids were significantly reduced by RP-feeding (P < 0.05), as well as hepatic accumulation of lipids (P < 0.05). RP-A and RP-E significantly depressed the hepatic activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) (P < 0.05), whereas the activities of lipoprotein lipase (PL) and hepatic lipase (HL) were significantly stimulated (P < 0.05), as compared to CAS. Neither lipids level nor activities of enzymes were different between RP-A and RP-E (P > 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between protein digestibility and deposit fat (r = 0.8567, P < 0.05), as well as the plasma TG concentration (r = 0.8627, P < 0.05). Conclusions The present study demonstrates that rice protein can modify triglyceride metabolism, leading to an improvement of body weight and adiposity. Results suggest that the triglyceride-lowering action as well as the potential of anti-adiposity induced by rice protein is attributed to upregulation of lipolysis and downregulation of lipogenesis, and the lower digestibility of rice protein may be the main modulator responsible for the lipid-lowering action. PMID:22330327

  2. Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J.; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2006-03-01

    Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter-enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. diabetes mellitus | glucose transport | RGK GTPase | transgenic mouse

  3. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  4. View of book shop on elevator reboarding level Washington ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of book shop on elevator reboarding level - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level 11. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  6. Elevated levels of serum creatine kinase induced by hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, I; Jonas, M; Thaler, M; Grossman, E

    1997-08-01

    Elevated serum creatine kinase levels are one of the major criteria for the diagnosis of myocardial injury. Noncardiac causes such as muscular and brain damage may also be associated with elevated serum creatine kinase levels. Hyponatremia may induce increased serum creatine kinase in association with rhabdomyolysis or with hypothyroidism. A patient is described where three episodes of hyponatraemia not associated with rhabdomyolysis or hypothyroidism induced transient elevations of serum creatine kinase levels. The association between hyponatraemia and elevated creatine kinase levels should be emphasized to prevent erroneous diagnosis of myocardial injury.

  7. NASH Resolution is Associated with Improvements in HDL and Triglyceride Levels But Not Improvement in LDL or Non-HDL-C Levels

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Kathleen E.; Vuppalanchi, Raj; Wilson, Laura A.; Cummings, Oscar W.; Chalasani, Naga

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aim To determine the relationship between resolution of NASH and dyslipidemia. Methods Individuals in the Pioglitazone versus Vitamin E versus Placebo for the Treatment of Nondiabetic Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (PIVENS) trial with paired liver biopsies and fasting lipid levels were included (N=222). In the PIVENS trial individuals were randomized to pioglitazone 30mg, vitamin E 800IU or placebo for 96 weeks. Change in lipid levels at 96 weeks was compared between those with and without NASH resolution. Results Dyslipidemia at baseline was frequent, with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (<40mg/dL in men or <50 mg/dL in women) in 63%, hypertriglyceridemia (≥150 mg/dL) in 46%, hypercholesterolemia (≥200 mg/dL) in 47%, and triglycerides (TG)/HDL>5.0 in 25%. Low-density lipoprotein (LD) ≥ 160 mg/dL was found in 16% and elevated non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) (≥130 mg/dL) in 73%. HDL increased with NASH resolution but decreased in those without resolution (2.9mg/dL vs. −2.5mg/dL, P<0.001). NASH resolution was associated with significant decreases in TG and TG/HDL ratio compared to those without resolution (TG: −21.1 vs. −2.3mg/dL, P=0.03 and TG/HDL: −0.7 vs 0.1, P=0.003). Non-HDL-C, LDL and cholesterol decreased over 96 weeks in both groups but there was no significant difference between groups. Treatment group did not impact lipids. Conclusions NASH resolution is associated with improvements in TG and HDL but not in other CVD risk factors including LDL and non-HDL-C levels. Individuals with resolution of NASH may still be at increased risk of CVD. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00063622 PMID:25429853

  8. Flyway-scale variation in plasma triglyceride levels as an index of refueling rate in spring-migrating western sandpipers (Calidris mauri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, T.D.; Warnock, N.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Bishop, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We combined radiotelemetry, plasma metabolite analyses, and macro-invertebrate prey sampling to investigate variation in putative fattening rates (estimated as plasma triglyceride levels) at the flyway scale in Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) migrating between Punta Banda, Mexico (31??N), and Hartney Bay, Alaska (60??N), a distance of 4,240 km. Birds were caught at a wintering site (San Francisco Bay) and eight stopover sites along this Pacific Flyway. Body mass was higher in females than in males at six sites, but variation was not correlated with latitude for either sex, and the relationship of change in mass by date within sites was uninformative with regard to possible latitudinal variation in fattening rates. At San Francisco Bay, triglyceride levels were higher in the spring than in the winter. Mean plasma triglyceride varied among stopover sites, and there was a significant linear trend of increasing triglyceride levels with latitude as birds migrated north. At San Francisco Bay, length of stay was negatively related to triglyceride levels. However, plasma triglyceride levels at wintering or initial stopover sites (San Francisco and Punta Banda) did not predict individual variation in subsequent rates of travel during migration. We found no significant relationship between triglyceride levels and prey biomass at different stopover sites, which suggests that the latitudinal pattern is not explained by latitudinal changes in food availability. Rather, we suggest that differences in physiology of migratory birds at southern versus northern stopover sites or behavioral differences may allow birds to sustain higher fattening rates closer to the breeding grounds. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  9. Exophthalmos and elevated thyroxine levels in association with lithium therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, P.L.; Evans, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Although goiter formation and hypothyroidism are not infrequent following lithium therapy, the association of exophthalmos and/or elevated thyroxine levels with lithium is uncommon. We describe a 62 year old man who rapidly developed exophthalmos, elevated circulating thyroxine, elevated TSH levels and elevated radioiodine uptake within six weeks of reexposure to lithium carbonate. When the medication was stopped, all indices of thyroid function returned to normal and the proptosis receded from 22 to 17mm. Lithium decreases secretion of preformed thyroid hormone and the secondary elevation of TSH levels usually restores euthyroid status. We propose that in our patient, because triiodothyronine levels remained normal, the pituitary was refractory to the normal inhibitory feedback effect of thyroxine and that continued hypersecretion of TSH resulted in hyperthyroidism

  10. Using high dose omega-3 fatty acid supplements to lower triglyceride levels in 10–19 year-olds

    PubMed Central

    de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Milliren, Carly E.; Denhoff, Erica R.; Steltz, Sarah K.; Selamet Tierney, Elif Seda; Feldman, Henry A.; Osganian, Stavroula K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) supplements lower triglyceride (TG) levels in adults; little pediatric information is available. We evaluated their effect in hypertriglyceridemic adolescents. Methods 25 patients ages 10–19 years with TG levels 150–1000 mg/dL were randomized to 6 months double-blind trial of Lovaza [∼3360 mg docosahexaenoic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid/day] vs. Placebo. Results Baseline mean TG levels were 227 mg/dl (SD 49). TG levels declined at 3 months in the Lovaza group by 54 ± 27 mg/dL [mean ± standard error (SE)] (p=0.02) and by 34 ± 26 mg/dL (p=0.16) in the Placebo group. The difference in TG lowering between groups was not significant (p=0.52). There were no between-group differences in endothelial function, blood pressure, body mass index, C-reactive protein or side effects. Conclusions High dose omega-3 FA supplements are well tolerated in adolescents. However, declines in TG levels did not differ significantly from Placebo in this small study. PMID:24707021

  11. Plasma Triglyceride Levels May Be Modulated by Gene Expression of IQCJ, NXPH1, PHF17 and MYB in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Vallée Marcotte, Bastien; Guénard, Frédéric; Cormier, Hubert; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Rudkowska, Iwona; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2017-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) by our group identified loci associated with the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to ω-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation in IQCJ, NXPH1, PHF17 and MYB. Our aim is to investigate potential mechanisms underlying the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the four genes and TG levels following ω-3 FA supplementation. 208 subjects received 3 g/day of ω-3 FA (1.9–2.2 g of EPA and 1.1 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) for six weeks. Plasma TG were measured before and after the intervention. 67 SNPs were selected to increase the density of markers near GWAS hits. Genome-wide expression and methylation analyses were conducted on respectively 30 and 35 participants’ blood sample together with in silico analyses. Two SNPs of IQCJ showed different affinities to splice sites depending on alleles. Expression levels were influenced by genotype for one SNP in NXPH1 and one in MYB. Associations between 12 tagged SNPs of IQCJ, 26 of NXPH1, seven of PHF17 and four of MYB and gene-specific CpG site methylation levels were found. The response of plasma TG to ω-3 FA supplementation may be modulated by the effect of DNA methylation on expression levels of genes revealed by GWAS. PMID:28134766

  12. Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide elevates circulating glucose in maternal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, L.J.; Goeden, H.; Roth, S.H. )

    1990-09-01

    Although the lethal effect of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) has long been known, the results of exposure to low levels of H{sub 2}S have not been well documented. Rat dams and pups were exposed to low levels of H{sub 2}S (less than or equal to 75 ppm) from d 1 of gestation until d 21 postpartum and analyzed for changes in circulating enzymatic activity and metabolites. Blood glucose was significantly elevated in maternal blood on d 21 postpartum at all exposure levels. This increase in glucose was accompanied by a possible decrease in serum triglyceride in the pups and in the dams on d 21 postpartum. There was no evidence of alterations in serum alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, or serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase.

  13. Diabetes, Triglyceride Levels, and Other Risk Factors for Glaucoma in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Fang; Boland, Michael V.; Gupta, Priya; Gadkaree, Shekhar K.; Vitale, Susan; Guallar, Eliseo; Zhao, Di; Friedman, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine risk factors for glaucoma in a population-based study in the United States. Methods Participants age 40 and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey underwent questionnaires, physical examination, laboratory tests, and vision tests including fundus imaging. Glaucoma was determined based on expert grading of fundus photographs. Regression modeling of glaucoma risk factors was performed. Results Participants with glaucoma (172) were older (mean age 68.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 65.6–70.7] vs. 56.4 years [95% CI 55.6–57.2, P < 0.001]), likely to have less than high school education (25.1% vs. 18.1%, P = 0.05), to have diabetes (23.1% vs. 10.8%, P < 0.001), to have central obesity (72.5% vs. 60.7%, P = 0.01), to have systolic hypertension (30.3% vs. 20.1%, P = 0.01), to have diastolic hypotension (30.3% vs. 13.9%, P < 0.001), and to be nonsmokers (91.0% vs. 79.3%, P = 0.002). Sex, poverty, access to health care, fasting glucose, insulin dependence, body mass index, cholesterol levels, diastolic hypertension, systolic hypotension, obstructive sleep apnea, and marijuana were not associated with glaucoma. Multivariable modeling showed associations between glaucoma and older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.09 per year, 95% CI 1.04–1.14), black race (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.71–11.30), and poverty (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.73–6.66). Diabetes was no longer associated with glaucoma after adjustment for triglyceride levels. Sex, education, insurance status, body mass index, blood pressure, obstructive sleep apnea, and smoking were not associated with glaucoma. Conclusions People who are older, of black race, and with lower income levels have a higher prevalence of glaucoma. A novel association between diabetes, triglyceride levels, and glaucoma is also identified. PMID:27111561

  14. The Associations Between Smoking Habits and Serum Triglyceride or Hemoglobin A1c Levels Differ According to Visceral Fat Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Koda, Michiko; Kitamura, Itsuko; Okura, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Rei; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether smokers and former smokers have worse lipid profiles or glucose levels than non-smokers remains unclear. Methods The subjects were 1152 Japanese males aged 42 to 81 years. The subjects were divided according to their smoking habits (nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers) and their visceral fat area (VFA) (<100 cm2 and ≥100 cm2). Results The serum triglyceride (TG) levels of 835 males were assessed. In the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, a significantly greater proportion of current smokers (47.3%) exhibited TG levels of ≥150 mg/dL compared with former smokers (36.4%) and non-smokers (18.8%). The difference in TG level distribution between former smokers and non-smokers was also significant. However, among the subjects with VFA of <100 cm2, the TG levels of the three smoking habit groups did not differ. The serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of 877 males were also assessed. In the VFA <100 cm2 group, significantly higher proportions of current smokers (17.9%) and former smokers (14.9%) demonstrated HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers (6.3%). In contrast, in the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, significantly fewer former smokers displayed HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers and current smokers. Furthermore, the interaction between smoking habits and VFA was associated with the subjects’ TG and HbA1c concentrations, and the associations of TG and HbA1c concentrations and smoking habits varied according to VFA. Conclusions Both smoking habits and VFA exhibited associations with TG and HbA1c concentrations. The associations between smoking habits and these parameters differed according to VFA. PMID:26616395

  15. Effects of a single oral load of medium-chain triglyceride on serum lipid and insulin levels in man.

    PubMed

    Tamir, I; Grant, D B; Fosbrooke, A S; Segall, M M; Lloyd, J K

    1968-09-01

    Analysis of serum free fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography showed high proportions (27-57%) of octanoic acid for up to 4 hr after the ingestion of a single oral load of medium-chain triglyceride (approximately 1 g/kg body weight) in four volunteers. The effects of a medium-chain triglyceride load on the concentrations of plasma free long-chain fatty acids, plasma glucose, serum insulin, and serum triglyceride were observed and compared with the effects of a glucose load. A rapid fall in the free long-chain fatty acids followed both loads but only a small rise in serum insulin was observed after medium-chain triglyceride. The fall in free long-chain fatty acids following ingestion of medium-chain triglyceride cannot therefore be caused mainly by the release of insulin and may be due to a direct action on adipose tissue. No medium-chain fatty acids were detected in the serum triglyceride after ingestion of medium-chain triglyceride, but there was a small but significant increase in the percentage of hexadecenoic acid in this fraction.

  16. NORTHWEST ELEVATION SHOWING THE THREE LEVEL EQUIPMENT AREA. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST ELEVATION SHOWING THE THREE LEVEL EQUIPMENT AREA. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Theater, Hornet Avenue between Enterprise & Pokomoke Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype) and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype) modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively) in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics. Methods The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission. Results High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C (>80 mg/dl), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl) were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67–2.94] and 1.39 [0.99–1.96], respectively), and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28–0.49] and 0.51 [0.37–0.69], respectively). The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45–0.80]). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl) and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl). Conclusions The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast

  18. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (p<0.05), but the odds ratio for waist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI.

  19. 46. MAIN WAREHOUSE SECOND LEVEL Two elevators, left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. MAIN WAREHOUSE - SECOND LEVEL Two elevators, left and center, and stairs, all lead to the third level. The finished produce of canned fish was stored here, awaiting shipment by either truck or train. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  20. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Langley, J Adam; McKee, Karen L; Cahoon, Donald R; Cherry, Julia A; Megonigal, J Patrick

    2009-04-14

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO(2)] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO(2) (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr(-1) in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO(2) effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO(2), may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  1. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    PubMed Central

    Langley, J. Adam; McKee, Karen L.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cherry, Julia A.; Megonigal, J. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas. PMID:19325121

  2. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  3. THE INTAKE OF FIBER MESOCARP PASSIONFRUIT (PASSIFLORA EDULIS) LOWERS LEVELS OF TRIGLYCERIDE AND CHOLESTEROL DECREASING PRINCIPALLY INSULIN AND LEPTIN

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, E.M.; Medina, L.; Barros-Monteiro, J.; Valle, N.O.; Sales, R.; Magalães, A.; Souza, F.C.A.; Carvalho, T.B.; Lemos, J.R.; Lira, E.F.; Lima, E.S.; Galeno, D.M.L.; Morales, L.; Ortiz, C.; Carvalho, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand in folk medicine for natural sources that could help in the treatment of chronic diseases, including diabetes. The rind of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa) is traditionally used as a functional food due to its high concentration of soluble and insoluble fiber. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-fiber diet albedo of passion fruit on the metabolic and biochemical profile in diabetic rats induced by alloxan (2%). Design The passion fruit mesocarp fiber was dried in an oven with circulating air at 60°C and pulverized. We used 32 adult male rats, divided into 4 groups: Wistar group 1 control (GC), Wistar group 2, 15% fiber (GF15), Wistar group 3, 30% fiber (GF30), Wistar group 4, fiber disolved in water (GFH2O). The ratio of passion fruit was prepared according to the AIN 93M guidelines, varying only the source of dietary fiber. The corresponding diet for each group was offered to the animals for 60 days. Results There was a statically significant decrease in plasma glucose for GFH2O, GF15%, and GF30% groups with 27.0%, 37.4%, and 40.2%, respectively. Conclusion The use of mesocarp fiber of passion fruit at concentrations of 15% and 30% are an important dietary supplement for the treatment of DM due to its potential hypoglycemic effect, and its ability to reduce triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol levels with a principal reduction of insulin and leptin. PMID:25346913

  4. Elevated serum zinc levels in metal fume fever

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, N.E.; Ruthman, J.C.

    1988-11-01

    Metal fume fever is not an uncommon syndrome among welders following exposure to oxidized metal fumes (usually zinc). The relationship of serum zinc level to the acute phase of this illness is not known. Two cases of metal fume fever, associated with elevated serum zinc levels, are presented. Further studies are necessary to determine the diagnostic usefulness of serum zinc levels in metal fume fever.

  5. Elevation view of east wall from fifteenth level, west platform. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of east wall from fifteenth level, west platform. Two hoisting supports are nested on the test stand structure in the background center and foreground right. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  6. 56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators and detail of aluminum and glass connection to brick from east side of 1946/1948 store for homes and parking garage. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  7. Sirolimus Therapy Is Associated with Elevation in Circulating PCSK9 Levels in Cardiac Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Simha, Vinaya; Qin, Sisi; Shah, Pankaj; Smith, Byron H; Kremers, Walter K; Kushwaha, Sudhir; Wang, Liewei; Pereira, Naveen L

    2017-02-01

    Sirolimus used in transplantation is often associated with hypercholesterolemia. We measured serum lipid and PCSK9 levels in 51 heart transplant recipients who had their immunosuppressive therapy switched from calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus. The switch resulted in a 23% increase in LDL cholesterol, and 46% increase in triglycerides and PCSK9 levels increased from 316 ± 105 ng/mL to 343 ± 107 ng/mL (p = 0.04), however the change in PCSK9 levels did not correlate with an increase in lipid levels (p = 0.2). To investigate the mechanism for the variability in the change in PCSK9 levels, lymphoblastoid cell lines were incubated with both sirolimus and everolimus, resulting in a 2-3 fold increase in PCSK9 expression and protein levels in mTOR inhibitor sensitive but not in mTOR inhibitor resistant cell lines. This first in human study demonstrates that sirolimus therapy is associated with elevation in PCSK9 levels which is not associated with sirolimus-induced hypercholesterolemia.

  8. An APOC3 3′UTR variant associated with plasma triglycerides levels and coronary heart disease by creating a functional miR-4271 binding site

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sen-Lin; Cui, Guang-Lin; Huang, Jin; Jiang, Jian-Gang; Wang, Dao-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3) is a key regulator of plasma triglycerides levels. Increasing evidence has shown that loss-of-function mutations in APOC3 is associated with reduction in plasma triglycerides levels and will confer a benefit in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease. However, these favorable mutations were extremely distribution discrepant among different ethnics. In this study, the APOC3 gene was resequenced and we identified a common variant which located in the microRNA-binding site in APOC3 and would affect its expression and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The molecular mechanism was explored. We found that the T allele of rs4225 suppressed APOC3 translation by facilitating miR-4271 binding, but not the G allele. Subjects carrying the GG genotype had higher plasma APOC3 levels (p for trend = 0.03) than those with the TT genotype. Furthermore, the T allele was significantly associated with decreased triglyceride levels [Beta (SE): −0.024 (0.020), P = 0.03]. Finally, the case-control study suggested that the TT genotype resulted in a significant reduction in overall CHD risk [OR, 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.77–0.98), P = 0.009]. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that the rs4225 in the 3′-UTR of APOC3 might contribute to the risk of CHD by interfering with miR-4271 binding. PMID:27624799

  9. Papillary thyroid carcinoma shows elevated levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate.

    PubMed

    Rakheja, Dinesh; Boriack, Richard L; Mitui, Midori; Khokhar, Shama; Holt, Shelby A; Kapur, Payal

    2011-04-01

    Elevated levels of D: -2-hydroxyglutarate (D: -2-HG) occur in gliomas and myeloid leukemias associated with mutations of IDH1 and IDH2. L: -2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria, an inherited metabolic disorder, predisposes to brain tumors. Therefore, we asked whether sporadic cancers, without IDH1 or IDH2 hot-spot mutations, show elevated 2-hydroxyglutarate levels. We retrieved 15 pairs of frozen papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and adjacent non-neoplastic thyroid, and 14 pairs of hyperplastic nodule (HN) and adjacent non-hyperplastic thyroid. In all lesions, exon 4 sequencing confirmed the absence of known mutations of IDH1 and IDH2. We measured 2-hydroxyglutarate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Compared to normal thyroid, PTCs had significantly higher D: -2-HG and L: -2-hydroxyglutarate (L: -2-HG) levels, and compared to HNs, PTCs had significantly higher D: -2-HG levels. D: -2-HG/L: -2-HG levels were not significantly different between HNs and normal thyroid. Further studies should clarify if elevated 2-hydroxyglutarate in PTC may be useful as cancer biomarker and evaluate the role of 2-hydroxyglutarate in cancer biology.

  10. The relationship between elevated magnesium levels and coronary artery ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Yolcu; Emrah, Ipek; Erkan, Yıldırım; Fatih, Rifat Ulusoy; Serdar, Turkmen; Alper, Sertcelik; Yücel, Ozen

    2016-01-01

    Summary Backround Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) without specific symptoms is the localised or diffuse swelling of the epicardial coronary arteries. Magnessium (Mg) plays an important role in cardiac excitability, vascular tonus, contractibility, reactivity and vasodilatation. In our research, we aimed to study the vasodilatory effect of Mg in the aetiopathogenesis of ectasia. Methods Patients identified during routine coronary angiograms in our clinic between January 2010 and 2013 were included in the study. Sixty-two patients with isolated CAE, 57 with normal coronary angiograms (NCA), 73 with severe coronary artery disease (CAD), and 95 with stenosis of at least one coronary artery and CAE (CAD + CAE) were included in the study. Serum Mg levels were measured in mg/ dl after 12 hours of fasting. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of age, hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, family history of coronary artery disease and medications used. Serum glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), urea, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, sodium and potassium levels were similar in all groups. Serum Mg levels were 1.90 ± 0.19 mg/dl in patients with isolated CAE, 1.75 ± 0.19 mg/dl in those with CAD, 1.83 ± 0.20 mg/dl in those with CAD + CAE, and 1.80 ± 0.16 mg/dl in the NCA group. These results show that Mg levels were higher in ectasia patients with or without CAD. Conclusions The histopathological characteristics of patients with CAE were similar to those with CAD. The specific mechanism of abnormal luminal dilatation seen in CAE however remains to be elucidated. Mg is a divalent cation with powerful vasodilatory effects. In our study, serum Mg levels were found to be statistically higher in ectasia patients with or without CAD. PMID:27123953

  11. Predicting mass rapid transit noise levels on an elevated station.

    PubMed

    Pamanikabud, Pichai; Paoprayoon, Suwajchai

    2003-04-01

    This study developed a noise prediction model for elevated mass rapid transit (MRT) platforms. Relevant physical and operational parameters (e.g. cruise speed, acceleration and deceleration rates for trains, building façade setbacks and so on) were collected from the Bangkok mass transit system (BTS), the first elevated MRT system operated in Bangkok, Thailand. The equivalent continuous sound pressure levels (L(Aeq)) were collected from both sides of the MRT stations at the center of each platform. The relevant parameters were collected on both platforms and ground level, on both sides of MRT stations. These parameters were statistically tested to determine their correlation with MRT noise. The final model was built from highly correlated parameters using multiple regression analysis with a stepwise regression technique. Statistical evaluation showed a high degree of goodness-of-fit test for the model to the observed data. Therefore, it can be efficiently used for the projection of MRT noise in the affected areas.

  12. 48. MAIN WAREHOUSE THIRD LEVEL Elevator drive mechanism is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. MAIN WAREHOUSE - THIRD LEVEL Elevator drive mechanism is seen to the right, while drive wheels, belt wheels and chain drives are visible in the wooden wall framing. The horizontal metal conveyor (at the top of the wall Just under the inverted 'V' brace) is part of the empty can supply system connected to the external can conveyor. See Photo No. 28. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  13. Differential Benefit of Statin in Secondary Prevention of Acute Myocardial Infarction according to the Level of Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Cheol Hwan; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Wan; Kim, Jong Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The differential benefit of statin according to the state of dyslipidemia has been sparsely investigated. We sought to address the efficacy of statin in secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) according to the level of triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on admission. Subjects and Methods Acute MI patients (24653) were enrolled and the total patients were divided according to level of triglyceride and HDL-C on admission: group A (HDL-C≥40 mg/dL and triglyceride<150 mg/dL; n=11819), group B (HDL-C≥40 mg/dL and triglyceride≥150 mg/dL; n=3329), group C (HDL-C<40 mg/dL and triglyceride<150 mg/dL; n=6062), and group D (HDL-C<40 mg/dL & triglyceride≥150 mg/dL; n=3443). We evaluated the differential efficacy of statin according to the presence or absence of component of dyslipidemia. The primary end points were major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for 2 years. Results Statin therapy significantly reduced the risk of MACE in group A (hazard ratio=0.676; 95% confidence interval: 0.582-0.785; p<0.001). However, the efficacy of statin was not prominent in groups B, C, or D. In a propensity-matched population, the result was similar. In particular, the benefit of statin in group A was different compared with group D (interaction p=0.042) Conclusion The benefit of statin in patients with MI was different according to the presence or absence of dyslipidemia. In particular, because of the insufficient benefit of statin in patients with MI and dyslipidemia, a different lipid-lowering strategy is necessary in these patients. PMID:27275169

  14. 9. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS OF THE MILL CAN BE CLEARLY SEEN HERE. THE UPPER MOST LEVEL CONSISTS OF A CONVEORY THAT BROUGHT ORE TO A JAW CRUSHER. THE CRUSHED ORE WAS CHANNELED DIRECTLY INTO A LARGE ORE BIN LOCATED BEHIND THE COVERED WALL (CENTER). THE NEXT LEVEL SHOWS THE BULL (DRIVE) WHEEL ON THE UPPER PART OF THE STAMP BATTERIES. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (STAIRS) IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE STAMP BATTERIES WITH THE MORTAR BLOCKS AND APRONS. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (LOWER RIGHT) HELD CONCENTRATION (SHAKING) TABLES AND A CLASSIFIER. MOST EXTERIOR WALL COVERING, TIMBERS, AND ROOF IS MISSING FROM THE MILL. SEE CA-290-42 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  15. 42. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS OF THE MILL CAN BE CLEARLY SEEN HERE. THE UPPER MOST LEVEL CONSISTS OF A CONVEORY THAT BROUGHT ORE TO A JAW CRUSHER. THE CRUSHED ORE WAS CHANNELED DIRECTLY INTO A LARGE ORE BIN LOCATED BEHIND THE COVERED WALL (CENTER). THE NEXT LEVEL SHOWS THE BULL (DRIVE) WHEEL ON THE UPPER PART OF THE STAMP BATTERIES THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (STAIRS) IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE STAMP BATTERIES WITH MORTAR BLOCKS AND APRONS. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (LOWER RIGHT) HELD CONCENTRATION (SHAKING) TABLES AND A CLASSIFIER. MOST EXTERIOR WALL COVERING, TIMBERS, AND ROOF IS MISSING FROM THE MILL. SEE CA-290-9 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. Determination of triglycerides with special emphasis on biosensors: a review.

    PubMed

    Pundir, C S; Narang, Jagriti

    2013-10-01

    Triglycerides (TG) are transesterification product of fatty acids and glycerol and engaged in the transportation of fats. Elevated triglyceride level is associated with coronary heart disease (CAD), atherosclerosis and hypolipoprotenemia. Convenient and reproducible assay systems based on enzymes are an attractive alternative to conventional analytical methods. Triglyceride biosensors (TGBs) are based on either measurement of oxygen consumed or electron generated from splitting of H2O2, an ultimate product, of immobilized enzymes. TGBs work optimally within 2-900 s, between pH 6.4-8.5 and the potential 0.5-4V. TGBs measure TG level in serum directly and can be used over a period of 14 to 168 days. This review describes the analytic characteristics of various methods available for determination of TGs with special emphasis on TGBs.

  17. Treating elevated cholesterol levels: the great Satan in perspective.

    PubMed

    Gibaldi, M; Kradjan, W

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide perspective on the developments leading to the recognition of high cholesterol levels as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Another objective is to consider the unfolding controversies regarding the relative value of cholesterol-lowering drug therapy in primary and secondary prevention. Should physicians use lipid-lowering drugs to treat patients with elevated cholesterol levels but no clinical evidence of coronary disease, or limit intervention to patients with a previous history of angina, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass surgery, or myocardial infarction? This review finds inadequate data to support a recommendation for screening large populations for the presence of elevated cholesterol levels or for primary prevention in those known to have high cholesterol. On the other hand, there is mounting evidence to support vigorous intervention in those with known coronary disease. Further study is needed to determine whether a subset of patients with one or more well-defined risk factors would benefit from primary prevention.

  18. Elevated Matrix Metalloproteinase Levels in Bronchi Infected with Periodontopathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bernasconi, Luca; Ramenzoni, Liza L.; Al-Majid, Ahmed; Tini, Gabrielo M.; Graber, Sereina M.; Schmidlin, Patrick R.; Irani, Sarosh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether bronchial colonisations/infections with periodontopathogenic bacteria are associated with elevated inflammatory markers such as MMPs, interleukins and Tumor necrosis factor alpha in the bronchial fluid. Methods Periodontal status was assessed in consecutive outpatients planned for elective bronchoscopies, and PCR for periodontopathogenic bacteria was performed from a protected specimen brush sample taken from the bronchial mucosa. Additionally, MMPs, interleukins and Tumor necrosis factor alpha were measured in the bronchial fluid. Results Out of the four species assessed, one species was found in 13 of 91 (14%) patients, and two in 12 (13%), three in 13 (14%) and all four in 1 (1%) patient, respectively. In multiple linear regression models the presence of Treponema denticola showed a consistent pattern of positive effects in bronchial fluid (Bonferroni adjusted p-values) on the levels of MMP9 (p adj.: 0.028) and MMP12 (p adj.: 0.029). Active smoking was independently associated with increased levels of aMMP8 (p adj.: 0.005) and MMP9 (p adj.: 0.009). Levels of IL-1 ß, IL-8 and Tumor necrosis factor alpha measured in the bronchial fluid were not affected by the presence of periodontopathogenic bacteria. Conclusions Bronchial colonisation/infection with Treponema denticola and smoking are independently associated with elevated MMPs (MMP9/MMP12 and MMP8/MMP9, respectively) in the bronchial fluid. PMID:26656474

  19. Treatment with PPARα Agonist Clofibrate Inhibits the Transcription and Activation of SREBPs and Reduces Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Liver of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijun; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Shenghua; Shangguan, Mingjun; Xue, Lina; Zhang, Bianying; Ding, Fuxiang; Hui, Dequan; Liang, Aihua; He, Dongchang

    2015-01-01

    PPARα agonist clofibrate reduces cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in rodent liver by an inhibition of SREBP-dependent gene expression. In present study we investigated the regulation mechanisms of the triglyceride- and cholesterol-lowering effect of the PPARα agonist clofibrate in broiler chickens. We observed that PPARα agonist clofibrate decreases the mRNA and protein levels of LXRα and the mRNA and both precursor and nuclear protein levels of SREBP1 and SREBP2 as well as the mRNA levels of the SREBP1 (FASN and GPAM) and SREBP2 (HMGCR and LDLR) target genes in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group, whereas the mRNA level of INSIG2, which inhibits SREBP activation, was increased in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group. Taken together, the effects of PPARα agonist clofibrate on lipid metabolism in liver of broiler chickens involve inhibiting transcription and activation of SREBPs and SREBP-dependent lipogenic and cholesterologenic gene expression, thereby resulting in a reduction of the triglyceride and cholesterol levels in liver of broiler chickens. PMID:26693219

  20. Prazosin lowers plasma triglyceride concentration in rats: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Reaven, G M; Dall'Aglio, E

    1982-01-01

    Prazosin was administered by intraperitoneal injection (0.3 or 3.0 mg/kg) to normal chow-fed male rats for 14 days. Mean +/- SEM plasma triglyceride levels were lower (p less than 0.001) in the prazosin-treated rats (74 +/- 12 mg/dl and 72 +/- 9 mg/dl) than in saline-injected control rats (115 +/- 11 mg/dl). This effect was associated with commensurate reductions in very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride secretion in prazosin-treated rats. No changes were noted in either plasma total or high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. In addition, prazosin was capable of reducing by approximately 50% the elevation in plasma triglyceride concentration produced by a high glucose diet in control rats. The mechanism of the observed effect of prazosin on very low density lipoprotein metabolism in the rat remains to be defined.

  1. Elevated systemic galectin-1 levels characterize HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Annegret; Blois, Sandra M; Meint, Peter; Freitag, Nancy; Ernst, Wolfgang; Barrientos, Gabriela; Conrad, Melanie L; Rose, Matthias; Seelbach-Göbel, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    Galectin-1 (gal-1), a member of a family of conserved β-galactoside-binding proteins, has been shown to exert a key role during gestation. Though gal-1 is expressed at higher levels in the placenta from HELLP patients, it is still poorly understood whether systemic gal-1 levels also differ in HELLP patients. In the present study, we evaluated the systemic expression of gal-1, together with the angiogenic factors, placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) in conjunction with HELLP syndrome severity. Systemic levels of gal-1 and sFlt-1 were elevated in patients with both early- and late-onset HELLP syndrome as compared to healthy controls. In contrast, peripheral PlGF levels were decreased in early- and late-onset HELLP. A positive correlation between systemic gal-1 levels and sFlt-1/PlGF ratios was found in early onset HELLP patients. Our results show that HELLP syndrome is associated with increased circulating levels of gal-1; integrating systemic gal-1 measurements into the diagnostic analyses of pregnant women may provide more effective prediction of HELLP syndrome development.

  2. Elevated blood lead levels from exposure via a radiator workshop.

    PubMed

    Treble, R G; Thompson, T S; Morton, D N

    1998-04-01

    Elevated lead levels were discovered in blood samples collected from family members where both the father and the mother worked in a radiator repair workshop. The father and mother were found to have blood lead levels of 2.0 and 0.5 mumol/L (41.7 and 10.4 micrograms/dL), respectively. The father's blood lead level was just below the Canadian occupational health and safety intervention level (2.5 mumol/L or 52.1 micrograms/dL). The two children had blood lead levels of 1.0 and 0.8 mumol/L (20.8 and 16.7 micrograms/dL), both of which are in excess of the recommended guideline for intervention in the case of children (0.5 mumol/L or 10.4 micrograms/dL). The exposure of the two children was possibly due to a combination of pathways including exposure at the workshop itself during visits and also the transportation of lead-containing dust to the home environment.

  3. Elevated calprotectin levels reveal bowel inflammation in spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cypers, H; Varkas, G; Beeckman, S; Debusschere, K; Vogl, T; Roth, J; Drennan, M B; Lavric, M; Foell, D; Cuvelier, C A; De Vos, M; Delanghe, J; Van den Bosch, F; Elewaut, D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Microscopic bowel inflammation is present in up to 50% of patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) and is associated with more severe disease. Currently no reliable biomarkers exist to identify patients at risk. Calprotectin is a sensitive marker of neutrophilic inflammation, measurable in serum and stool. Objectives To assess whether serum and faecal calprotectin in addition to C-reactive protein (CRP) can be used to identify patients with SpA at risk of microscopic bowel inflammation. Methods Serum calprotectin and CRP were measured in 125 patients with SpA. In 44 of these patients, faecal samples were available for calprotectin measurement. All 125 patients underwent an ileocolonoscopy to assess the presence of microscopic bowel inflammation. Results Microscopic bowel inflammation was present in 53 (42.4%) patients with SpA. Elevated serum calprotectin and CRP were independently associated with microscopic bowel inflammation. Faecal calprotectin was also significantly higher in patients with microscopic bowel inflammation. Patients with CRP and serum calprotectin elevated had a frequency of bowel inflammation of 64% vs 25% in patients with low levels of both. When either CRP or serum calprotectin was elevated, the risk was intermediate (40%) and measuring faecal calprotectin provided further differentiation. Hence we suggest a screening approach where initially serum calprotectin and CRP are assessed and, if necessary, faecal calprotectin. The model using this scenario provided an area under the ROC curve of 74.4% for detection of bowel inflammation. Conclusions Calprotectin measurements in stool and serum, in addition to CRP, may provide a promising strategy to identify patients with SpA at risk of bowel inflammation and could play a role in overall patient stratification. PMID:26698844

  4. Role of bran in normals. Serum levels of cholesterols, triglyceride, calcium and total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid, and intestinal transit time.

    PubMed

    Winreich, J; Pedersen, O; Dinesen, K

    1977-01-01

    After the intake of approximately 24 g wheat bran daily for 5 weeks, 25 trainee nurses showed no changes in the serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium or total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid. On the other hand, the study revealed a reduced intestinal transit time with good correlation to an increased frequency of bowel movements. Average body weight fell significantly, by 0.4 kg. The daily caloric intake remained constant throughout the study period, whereas the calcium intake was significantly increased. Among the serum parameters and the dietary constituents, good correlation was found only between serum cholesterol and the dietary cholesterol content. In addition, an inverse relationship was demonstrated between the serum levels of cholesterol and total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid. The significance of this observation is as yet unknown.

  5. Elevated Osteopontin Levels in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuan; Yin, Xue Song; Guo, Hong; Han, Rong Kun; He, Rui Dong; Chi, Li Jun

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators are closely associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Osteopontin (OPN) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been shown to play an important role in various neuroinflammatory diseases. However, the function of OPN in AD and MCI progression is not well defined. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples were obtained from 35 AD patients, 31 MCI patients, and 20 other noninflammatory neurologic diseases (OND). Concentrations of OPN in the CSF and plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. During a 3-year clinical followup, 13 MCI patients converted to AD (MCI converters), and 18 were clinically stable (MCI nonconverters). CSF OPN concentrations were significantly increased in AD and MCI converters compared to OND, and increased levels of OPN in AD were associated with MMSE score; OPN protein levels both in the CSF and plasma of newly diagnosed AD patients were higher than that of chronical patients. In MCI converters individuals tested longitudinally, both plasma and CSF OPN concentrations were significantly elevated when they received a diagnosis of AD during followup. Further wide-scale studies are necessary to confirm these results and to shed light on the etiopathogenic role of osteopontin in AD. PMID:23576854

  6. Confirmation of elevated arsenic levels in groundwater of Myanmar.

    PubMed

    van Geen, Alexander; Win, Kyi Htut; Zaw, Than; Naing, Win; Mey, Jacob L; Mailloux, Brian

    2014-04-15

    Millions of villagers across South and Southeast Asia are exposed to toxic levels of arsenic (As) by drinking well water. In order to confirm the field-kit results that Myanmar is also affected, a total of 55 wells were tested in the field in January 2013 and sampled for laboratory analysis across seven villages spanning a range of As contamination in the lower Ayeyarwady basin. Elevated concentrations of As (50-630 μg/L) were measured in wells up to 60 m deep and associated with high levels of Fe (up to 21 mg/L) and low concentrations of SO4 (<0.05 mg/L). Concentrations of As <10 μg/L were measured in some shallow (<30 m) grey sands and in both shallow and deep orange sands. These results indicate that the main mechanism of As release to groundwater in Myanmar is the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides, as in the neighboring Bengal, Mekong, and Red River basins. Concentrations of As in groundwater of Myanmar are therefore unlikely to change rapidly over time and switching to existing low-As wells is a viable way of reducing exposure in the short term. However, only 17 of the 55 well owners interviewed correctly recalled the status of their well despite extensive testing in the region. A renewed effort is thus needed to test existing wells and new wells that continue to be installed and to communicate the health risks of exposure to As for infants, children, and adults.

  7. Medium chain triglycerides and hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, M. Hilary; Bolton, C. H.; Morris, J. S.; Read, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    The oral administration of short (C6) and medium (C8 and (C10) chain triglycerides produced no clinical or electroencephalographic changes in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Arterial ammonia levels were also monitored in these patients and showed no significant change after medium chain triglycerides. It was concluded that medium chain triglycerides, known to be of potential value in the treatment of malabsorption in patients with cirrhosis, are not clinically contraindicated, even in patients with evidence of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:4841275

  8. Effects of a medium chain triglyceride oil mixture and alpha-lipoic acid diet on body composition, antioxidant status, and plasma lipid levels in the Golden Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Wollin, Stephanie D; Wang, Yanwen; Kubow, Stan; Jones, Peter J H

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALP) versus a medium chain triglyceride oil mixture (MCTo), which was designed to increase energy expenditure and to improve lipid profiles containing medium chain triglycerides, phytosterols, and omega-3 fatty acids in the form of flaxseed oil. A total of 48 hamsters were fed a) hypercholesterolemic (HC) control, b) HC MCTo, c) HC ALP, or d) HC MCTo/ALP diet for 4 weeks. No differences were observed on food intake, body weight, total body water, lean and fat mass, and tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). ALP alone had no effect on total cholesterol (TC); however, MCTo feeding increased TC with (P < 0.03) and without (P < 0.003) ALP when compared with control. ALP increased HDL levels compared with control (P < 0.04) and MCTo/ALP (P < 0.007) groups. MCTo, with (P < 0.0001) or without (P < 0.006) ALP, increased non-HDL cholesterol levels versus control. The non-HDL:HDL cholesterol ratio was decreased by ALP compared with MCTo (45%) and MCTo/ALP (68%) (P < 0.0001), a similar trend was seen when compared with the HC control (22%) group (P < 0.14). Triglyceride levels were not altered by any dietary treatment. Liver and heart tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) was increased (P < 0.05) by all three treatments when compared with control. Both tissues showed an increase (P < 0.05) in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) when fed ALP as compared with other treatments. Hamsters fed ALP had a lower (P < 0.05) GSH/GSSG ratio compared with other treatment groups. In conclusion, MCTo feeding does not elicit beneficial effects on circulating plasma lipids and measures of body composition. In addition, our results do not clearly support an improvement in oxidative status through supplementation of ALP. However, our results do support the existence of beneficial effects of ALP on circulating lipoprotein content in the hamster.

  9. Effects of Beak Trimming, Stocking Density and Sex on Carcass Yield, Carcass Components, Plasma Glucose and Triglyceride Levels in Large White Turkeys.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Turgay; Inci, Hakan; Sengul, Ahmet Y; Sogut, Bunyamin; Kiraz, Selahattin

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of beak trimming, stocking density (D) and sex (S) on live weight (LW), carcass yield and its component, and plasma glucose (PG) and triglyceride levels in Large White turkeys. To accomplish this aims, totally 288 d old large white turkey chicks (144 in each sex) were used. Beaks of 77 male and female poults were trimmed when 8 d old with an electrical beak trimmer. The birds were fed by commercial turkey rasion. Experiment was designed as 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 3 replications in each group. Beak trimming and stocking density did not affect live weight, carcass composition and its components. The higher LW and carcass weight observed in trimmed groups. As expected, male birds are heavier than female, and carcass percentage (CP) would be adverse. However, in this study, CP of male was higher in trimmed, in 0.25 m(2)/bird. (D) × sex (S) interaction had an effect on both CP and thigh weights (p<0.05). Significantly D × S was observed in LW, CP and PG. The weight of carcass and its some components were higher in male. S × D interaction had an effect on plasma glucose level (p<0.05). Triglyceride level was affected (p<0.05) by sex. Significant relationships were found between percentage of thighs (r=0.447, p<0.01) and percentage of breast (r=0.400, p<0.01). According to this study, it can be said that trimming is useful with density of 0.25 m(2)/bird in turkey fattening.

  10. Confirmation of elevated arsenic levels in groundwater of Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    van Geen, Alexander; Win, Kyi Htut; Zaw, Than; Naing, Win; Mey, Jacob L.; Mailloux, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Millions of villagers across South and Southeast Asia are exposed to toxic levels of arsenic (As) by drinking well water. In order to confirm field-kit results that Myanmar is also affected, a total of 55 wells were tested in the field in January 2013 and sampled for laboratory analysis across seven villages spanning a range of As contamination in the lower Ayeyarwady basin. Elevated concentrations of As (50–630 μg/L) were measured in wells up to 60 m deep and associated with high levels of Fe (up to 21 mg/L) and low concentrations of SO4 (<0.05 mg/L). Concentrations of As <10 μg/L were measured in some shallow (<30 m) grey sands and in both shallow and deep orange sands. These results indicate that the main mechanism of As release to groundwater in Myanmar is the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides, as in the neighboring Bengal, Mekong, and Red River basins. Concentrations of As in groundwater of Myanmar are therefore unlikely to change rapidly over time and switching to existing low-As wells is a viable way of reducing exposure in the short term. However, only 17 of the 55 well owners interviewed correctly recalled the status of their well despite extensive testing in the region. A renewed effort is thus needed to test existing wells and new wells that continue to be installed and to communicate the health risks of exposure to As for infants, children, and adults. PMID:24530581

  11. Elevated levels of serum cholesterol are associated with better performance on tasks of episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Leritz, Elizabeth C; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H; Milberg, William P

    2016-04-01

    We examined how serum cholesterol, an established risk factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD), relates to cognitive function in healthy middle-older aged individuals with no neurologic or CVD history. A complete lipid panel was obtained from a cohort of one hundred twenty individuals, ages 43-85, who also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination. In order to reduce the number of variables and empirically identify broad cognitive domains, scores from neuropsychological tests were submitted into a factor analysis. This analysis revealed three explainable factors: Memory, Executive Function and Memory/Language. Three separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted using individual cholesterol metrics (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein; LDL, high density lipoprotein; HDL, and triglycerides), as well as age, education, medication status (lipid lowering agents), ApoE status, and additional risk factors for CVD to predict neuropsychological function. The Memory Factor was predicted by a combination of age, LDL, and triglyceride levels; both age and triglycerides were negatively associated with factor score, while LDL levels revealed a positive relationship. Both the Executive and Memory/Language factor were only explained by education, whereby more years were associated with better performance. These results provide evidence that individual cholesterol lipoproteins and triglycerides may differentially impact cognitive function, over and above other common CVD risk factors and ApoE status. Our findings demonstrate the importance of consideration of vascular risk factors, such as cholesterol, in studies of cognitive aging.

  12. Elevated Levels of Urinary Markers of Oxidative DNA and RNA Damage in Type 2 Diabetes with Complications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinle; Gan, Wei; Zou, Yuangao; Su, Zhenzhen; Deng, Jin; Wang, Lanlan

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying progression of type 2 diabetes are complex and varied. Recent studies indicated that oxidative stress provided a new sight. To further assess the relationship between nucleic acid oxidation and complications in patients with type 2 diabetes and explore its possible molecular mechanisms, we studied 1316 subjects, including 633 type 2 diabetes patients and 683 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Urinary levels of DNA oxidation marker 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and RNA oxidation marker 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) were measured by ultraperformance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Serum glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) were also determined. The results showed significantly elevated levels of both the urinary 8-oxodGuo and 8-oxoGuo in diabetes patients with/without complications compared with age-matched healthy control subjects (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, resp.). Patients with complications, especially macrovascular complications, exhibited higher levels of 8-oxoGuo than those without complications, while there was no difference in the concentrations of serum glucose and lipids. The finding indicates the role for oxidative damage to DNA and RNA, as a molecular mechanism contributing to the progression of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of 8-oxoGuo may be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes complications, especially in diabetic macrovascular complications. PMID:26770653

  13. Triglyceride-increasing alleles associated with protection against type-2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are an established risk factor for type-2 diabetes (T2D). However, recent studies have hinted at the possibility that genetic risk for TG may paradoxically protect against T2D. In this study, we examined the association of genetic risk for TG with incident T2...

  14. Usefulness of Icosapent Ethyl (Eicosapentaenoic Acid Ethyl Ester) in Women to Lower Triglyceride Levels (Results from the MARINE and ANCHOR Trials).

    PubMed

    Mosca, Lori; Ballantyne, Christie M; Bays, Harold E; Guyton, John R; Philip, Sephy; Doyle, Ralph T; Juliano, Rebecca A

    2017-02-01

    There are limited data on the efficacy and safety of triglyceride (TG)-lowering agents in women. We conducted subgroup analyses of the effects of icosapent ethyl (a high-purity prescription form of the ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid) on TG levels (primary efficacy variable) and other atherogenic and inflammatory parameters in a total of 215 women with a broad range of TG levels (200-2000 mg/dl) enrolled in two 12-week placebo-controlled trials: MARINE (n = 18; placebo, n = 18) and ANCHOR (n = 91; placebo, n = 88). Icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly reduced TG levels from baseline to week 12 versus placebo in both MARINE (-22.7%; p = 0.0327) and ANCHOR (-21.5%; p <0.0001) without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Significant improvements were also observed in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in MARINE (-15.7%; p = 0.0082) and ANCHOR (-14.2%; p <0.0001) and total cholesterol levels in MARINE (-14.9%; p = 0.0023) and ANCHOR (-12.1%; p <0.0001), along with significant increases of >500% in eicosapentaenoic acid levels in plasma and red blood cells (all p <0.001). Icosapent ethyl was well tolerated, with adverse-event profiles comparable with findings in the overall studies. In conclusion, icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly reduced TG levels and other atherogenic parameters in women without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with placebo; the clinical implications of these findings are being evaluated in the REDUCtion of Cardiovascular Events With Eicosapentaenoic Acid [EPA]-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) cardiovascular outcomes study.

  15. Why do premature newborn infants display elevated blood adenosine levels?

    PubMed

    Panfoli, Isabella; Cassanello, Michela; Bruschettini, Matteo; Colella, Marina; Cerone, Roberto; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Candiano, Giovanni; Ramenghi, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary data show high levels of adenosine in the blood of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, positively correlating to their prematurity (i.e. body weight class). This prompted us to look for a mechanism promoting such impressive adenosine increase. We hypothesized a correlation with oxygen challenge. In fact, it is recognized that either oxygen lack or its excess contribute to the pathogenesis of the injuries of prematurity, such as retinopathy (ROP) and periventricular white matter lesions (PWMI). The optimal concentration of oxygen for resuscitation of VLBW infants is currently under revision. We propose that the elevated adenosine blood concentrations of VLBW infants recognizes two sources. The first could be its activity-dependent release from unmyelinated brain axons. Adenosine in this respect would be an end-product of the hypometabolic VLBW newborn unmyelinated axon intensely firing in response to the environmental stimuli consequent to premature birth. Adenosine would be eventually found in the blood due to blood-brain barrier immaturity. In fact, adenosine is the primary activity-dependent signal promoting differentiation of premyelinating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) into myelinating cells in the Central Nervous System, while inhibiting their proliferation and inhibiting synaptic function. The second, would be the ecto-cellular ATP synthesized by the endothelial cell plasmalemma exposed to ambient oxygen concentrations due to premature breathing, especially in lung. ATP would be rapidly transformed into adenosine by the ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase I (CD39), and NT5E (CD73). An ectopic extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP synthetic ability was reported in many cell plasma-membranes, among which endothelial cells. The potential implications of the cited hypotheses for the neonatology area would be great. The amount of oxygen administration for reviving of newborns would find a molecular basis for its assessment. VLBW

  16. Improvement of Triglyceride Levels through the Intake of Enriched-β-Conglycinin Soybean (Nanahomare) Revealed in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Yuji; Satoh, Hiroki; Takahashi, Yoko; Hajika, Makita; Nishihira, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is recognized as a beneficial food with various functional components, such as β-conglycinin, which improves lipid metabolism. We evaluated the effects of the β-conglycinin-rich soybean Nanahomare on triglyceride (TG) levels. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we divided 134 adult subjects into test and placebo groups that consumed processed food containing enriched-β-conglycinin soybean or low-β-conglycinin soybean. Hematological tests and body composition measurements were performed at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, and 12 of the study period. TG levels significantly decreased in the test group compared with the placebo group at weeks 4 (change from baseline to week 4, placebo: 0.27 ± 44.13 mg/dL, test: −20.31 ± 43.74 mg/dL, p = 0.035) and 12 (change from baseline to week 12, placebo: −0.14 ± 65.83 mg/dL, test: −21.30 ± 46.21 mg/dL, p = 0.041). In addition, among subjects whose baseline TG levels were ≥100 mg/dL, the levels significantly improved in the test group at weeks 4 (p = 0.010) and 12 (p = 0.030), whereas the levels were not different between the test and placebo groups among those whose baseline levels were <100 mg/dL. These results suggest that the ingestion of enriched-β-conglycinin soybean improves serum TG levels. PMID:27529274

  17. Different effects of cabergoline and bromocriptine on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with elevated prolactin levels.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopien, Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia is suggested to be associated with metabolic and hormonal complications. No previous study has compared the effect of different dopamine agonists on plasma lipids, carbohydrate metabolism markers and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with elevated prolactin levels. The study included eight bromocriptine-resistant women with prolactinoma (group 1) and twelve matched women with hyperprolactinaemia unrelated to prolactinoma (group 2). Group 1 was then treated with cabergoline, while group 2 with bromocriptine. Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers and plasma levels of prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed before and after 6 months of therapy. Both treatments normalized plasma prolactin levels. Cabergoline reduced triglycerides, 2-hr post-challenge plasma glucose, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and circulating levels of IGF-1, free fatty acids (FFA), uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), homocysteine and fibrinogen, as well as increased HDL cholesterol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. With the exception of a reduction in HOMA-IR, bromocriptine treatment produced no significant effect on the investigated biomarkers. Cabergoline was superior to bromocriptine in affecting 2-hr post-challenge plasma glucose levels, HOMA-IR, as well as circulating levels of IGF-1, FFA, uric acid, hsCRP, homocysteine, fibrinogen and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Our results may suggest that cabergoline is superior to bromocriptine when it comes to affecting atherogenic dyslipidaemia, insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of cardiovascular risk factors in hyperprolactinaemic patients. These findings seem to support previous observations that cabergoline may be a better treatment for patients with elevated prolactin levels than bromocriptine.

  18. Elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, T.L. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. The author has discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with X-rays also elevates ZPP two- to three-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12 to 14 post-irradiation and peaks between days 18 to 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 to 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms which cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury.

  19. The elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, T.L.; Draganac, P.S.; Farkas, W.R.

    1984-05-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. We have discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with x-rays also elevates ZPP 2-3-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12-14 postirradiation and peaks between days 18 and 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 and 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP, but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms that cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation-induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury.

  20. High Triglycerides Are Associated with Low Thrombocyte Counts and High VEGF in Nephropathia Epidemica.

    PubMed

    Martynova, Ekaterina V; Valiullina, Aygul H; Gusev, Oleg A; Davidyuk, Yuriy N; Garanina, Ekaterina E; Shakirova, Venera G; Khaertynova, Ilsiyar; Anokhin, Vladimir A; Rizvanov, Albert A; Khaiboullina, Svetlana F

    2016-01-01

    Nephropathia epidemica (NE) is a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Several reports have demonstrated a severe alteration in lipoprotein metabolism. However, little is known about changes in circulating lipids in NE. The objectives of this study were to evaluate changes in serum total cholesterol, high density cholesterol (HDCL), and triglycerides. In addition to evaluation of serum cytokine activation associations, changes in lipid profile and cytokine activation were determined for gender, thrombocyte counts, and VEGF. Elevated levels of triglycerides and decreased HDCL were observed in NE, while total cholesterol did not differ from controls. High triglycerides were associated with both the lowest thrombocyte counts and high serum VEGF, as well as a high severity score. Additionally, there were higher levels of triglycerides in male than female NE patients. Low triglycerides were associated with upregulation of IFN-γ and IL-12, suggesting activation of Th1 helper cells. Furthermore, levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 were increased in patients with lower severity scores, suggesting that a Th1 type immune response is playing protective role in NE. These combined data advance the understanding of NE pathogenesis and indicate a role for high triglycerides in disease severity.

  1. High Triglycerides Are Associated with Low Thrombocyte Counts and High VEGF in Nephropathia Epidemica

    PubMed Central

    Valiullina, Aygul H.; Gusev, Oleg A.; Davidyuk, Yuriy N.; Garanina, Ekaterina E.; Shakirova, Venera G.; Khaertynova, Ilsiyar

    2016-01-01

    Nephropathia epidemica (NE) is a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Several reports have demonstrated a severe alteration in lipoprotein metabolism. However, little is known about changes in circulating lipids in NE. The objectives of this study were to evaluate changes in serum total cholesterol, high density cholesterol (HDCL), and triglycerides. In addition to evaluation of serum cytokine activation associations, changes in lipid profile and cytokine activation were determined for gender, thrombocyte counts, and VEGF. Elevated levels of triglycerides and decreased HDCL were observed in NE, while total cholesterol did not differ from controls. High triglycerides were associated with both the lowest thrombocyte counts and high serum VEGF, as well as a high severity score. Additionally, there were higher levels of triglycerides in male than female NE patients. Low triglycerides were associated with upregulation of IFN-γ and IL-12, suggesting activation of Th1 helper cells. Furthermore, levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 were increased in patients with lower severity scores, suggesting that a Th1 type immune response is playing protective role in NE. These combined data advance the understanding of NE pathogenesis and indicate a role for high triglycerides in disease severity. PMID:28053993

  2. Relationships among Blood Pressure, Triglycerides and Verbal Learning in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Regina C.; Madhere, Serge; Gordon, Shalanda; Clark, Elijah; Abayomi, Kobi A.; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) display poorer cognitive functioning across various cognitive domains. This finding is particularly prevalent among older adults; however, few studies examine these relationships among younger adults or among African Americans. Purpose The objective was to examine the relationships among 2 cardiovascular risk factors, elevated blood pressure and elevated triglycerides, and verbal learning in a community-based sample of African Americans. Methods Measurements of blood pressure and triglycerides were obtained in 121 African-American adults and compared to performance on 3 domains of the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II). Results Blood pressure was not related to CVLT-II performance. Triglyceride levels were inversely related to CVLT-II performance. Higher triglyceride levels were associated with poorer immediate, short delay and long delay recall. Conclusions Consistent with studies involving older participants, the current investigation shows that in a nonelderly sample of African Americans, triglyceride levels may be related to cognitive functioning. Because early detection and intervention of vascular-related cognitive impairment may have a salutary effect, future studies should include younger adults to highlight the impact of cardiovascular risk on cognition. PMID:18942281

  3. Effect of honey intake on serum cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein levels in albino rats and potential benefits on risks of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Alagwu, E A; Okwara, J E; Nneli, R O; Osim, E E

    2011-12-20

    The beneficial effect of honey has been widely reported particularly in the treatment of wounds and gastrointestinal tract disorders. However there is paucity of reports on its effect on the plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) including cholesterol levels despite common consumption of honey worldwide including, Nigeria. The effect of the widely consumed unrefined Nigeria honey on plasma HDL, VLDL, LDL, TG, cholesterol and cardiovascular risk predictive index (CVPI) was studied using 20 adult male albino rats to ascertain its scientific and clinical relevance. The rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups, the control and honey-fed (test) groups, ten in each group. The rats weighed between 190-200gm at the start of the study. The control group was fed on normal rat (Pfizer-Nigeria) while the test group was fed on normal rat feed and honey (1ml of honey was added to 10ml of drinking water given once every day) for 22 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized with thiopentone sodium and blood collected by cardiac puncture. Serum TG, HDL, VLDL, LDL and total cholesterol in the control and the test groups were determined. The results showed significant increase in the level of plasma TG, HDL, and VLDL in the test group when compared with the control group. In contrast, there were significant decreases in the levels of plasma LDL and total cholesterol in the test when compared with the control group. Computed values of CVPI showed significant increase in the test values compared to that of the control. It is concluded that consumption of unrefined Nigeria honey significantly improved lipid profile and computed cardiovascular disease predictive index in male albino rats.

  4. Fasting and nonfasting triglycerides in cardiovascular and other diseases.

    PubMed

    Piťha, J; Kovář, J; Blahová, T

    2015-01-01

    Moderately elevated plasma/serum triglycerides (2-10 mmol/l) signalize increased risk for cardiovascular disease or presence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Extremely elevated triglycerides (more than 10 mmol/l) signalize increased risk for pancreatitis and lipemia retinalis. The concentration of triglycerides is regulated by many genetic and nongenetic factors. Extremely elevated triglycerides not provoked by nutritional factors, especially inappropriate alcohol intake are more likely to have a monogenic cause. On the contrary, mildly to moderately elevated triglycerides are often caused by polygenic disorders; these could be also associated with central obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. Concentration of triglycerides is also closely interconnected with presence of atherogenic remnant lipoproteins, impaired reverse cholesterol transport and more atherogenic small LDL particles. In general, there is tight association between triglycerides and many other metabolic factors including intermediate products of lipoprotein metabolism which are frequently atherogenic. Therefore, reliable evaluation of the independent role of triglycerides especially in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease is difficult. In individual cases values of HDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol (total minus HDL cholesterol), non-HDL/nonLDL cholesterol (total minus HDL minus LDL cholesterol, especially in nonfasting status), atherogenic index of plasma and/or apolipoprotein B could help in decisions regarding aggressiveness of treatment.

  5. Elevated plasma tricyclic levels with therapeutic doses of imipramine.

    PubMed

    Garvey, M J; Tuason, V B; Johnson, R A; Valentine, R H; Cooper, T B

    1984-07-01

    Nine (15%) of 59 patients treated with imipramine at doses of 150 to 300 mg/day had steady-state plasma levels greater than 500 ng/ml. Low capacity for hydroxylation was found in all six patients for whom hydroxy metabolites were measured. Maximum tricyclic levels in the nine study patients were comparable to levels found in tricyclic antidepressant overdoses (651-2439 ng/ml). No study patient experienced any adverse effects: QRS durations were all less than 100 msec, and a mildly dry mouth was the most commonly reported side effect (five of nine patients). Depressive symptoms recurred in three patients when their imipramine dose was decreased.

  6. Thermodynamics of a stochastic three level elevator model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicane, Giuseppe; Tsige, Mesfin; Aragie, Berhanu

    2015-11-01

    We study the thermodynamic properties of a single particle occupying one of three available energy levels in a non-equilibrium regime. The particle is thermally coupled to a classical Maxwell-Boltzmann thermal reservoir and can jump among the available levels by exchanging energy with the heat bath. The bottom and middle energy levels are simultaneously raised at a given rate regardless of particle occupation, but keeping the energy gaps among the three levels fixed. We explicitly calculate the work, heat and entropy production rates, and the classical efficiency. We also consider the case of a Bose-Einstein thermal reservoir and provide explicit expressions for the non-equilibrium, steady-state probabilities.

  7. Polymerized and functionalized triglycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant oils are useful sustainable raw materials for the development of new chemical products. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a new method for polymerizing epoxidized triglycerides with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the ...

  8. Association analyses of East Asian individuals and trans-ancestry analyses with European individuals reveal new loci associated with cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Spracklen, Cassandra N; Chen, Peng; Kim, Young Jin; Wang, Xu; Cai, Hui; Li, Shengxu; Long, Jirong; Wu, Ying; Wang, Ya Xing; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Jung, Keum-Ji; Hu, Cheng; Akiyama, Koichi; Zhang, Yonghong; Moon, Sanghoon; Johnson, Todd A; Li, Huaixing; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; He, Meian; Cannon, Maren E; Roman, Tamara S; Salfati, Elias; Lin, Keng-Hung; Guo, Xiuqing; Sheu, Wayne H H; Absher, Devin; Adair, Linda S; Assimes, Themistocles L; Aung, Tin; Cai, Qiuyin; Chang, Li-Ching; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Du, Shufa; Fan, Qiao; Fann, Cathy S J; Feranil, Alan B; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Gu, Dongfeng; Gui, Lixuan; Guo, Zhirong; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Hixson, James; Hou, Xuhong; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Hu, Yao; Hwang, Mi Yeong; Hwu, Chii-Min; Isono, Masato; Juang, Jyh-Ming Jimmy; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Kim, Yun Kyoung; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, I-Te; Lee, Sun-Ju; Lee, Wen-Jane; Liang, Kae-Woei; Lim, Blanche; Lim, Sing-Hui; Liu, Jianjun; Nabika, Toru; Pan, Wen-Harn; Peng, Hao; Quertermous, Thomas; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Sandow, Kevin; Shi, Jinxiu; Sun, Liang; Tan, Pok Chien; Tan, Shu-Pei; Taylor, Kent D; Teo, Yik-Ying; Toh, Sue-Anne; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; van Dam, Rob M; Wang, Aili; Wang, Feijie; Wang, Jie; Wei, Wen Bin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yao, Jie; Yuan, Jian-Min; Zhang, Rong; Zhao, Wanting; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Wu, Tangchun; Lin, Xu; Han, Bok-Ghee; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Cho, Yoon Shin; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Jia, Weiping; Jee, Sun-Ha; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Kato, Norihiro; Jonas, Jost B; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shu, Xiao-Ou; He, Jiang; Zheng, Wei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Huang, Wei; Kim, Bong-Jo; Tai, E-Shyong; Mohlke, Karen L; Sim, Xueling

    2017-02-21

    Large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >175 loci associated with fasting cholesterol levels, including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). With differences in linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure and allele frequencies between ancestry groups, studies in additional large samples may detect new associations. We conducted staged GWAS meta-analyses in up to 69,414 East Asian individuals from 24 studies with participants from Japan, the Philippines, Korea, China, Singapore, and Taiwan. These meta-analyses identified (P < 5 × 10-8) three novel loci associated with HDL-C near CD163-APOBEC1 (P = 7.4 × 10-9), NCOA2 (P = 1.6 × 10-8), and NID2-PTGDR (P = 4.2 × 10-8), and one novel locus associated with TG near WDR11-FGFR2 (P = 2.7 × 10-10). Conditional analyses identified a second signal near CD163-APOBEC1. We then combined results from the East Asian meta-analysis with association results from up to 187,365 European individuals from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium in a trans-ancestry meta-analysis. This analysis identified (log10Bayes Factor ≥6.1) eight additional novel lipid loci. Among the twelve total loci identified, the index variants at eight loci have demonstrated at least nominal significance with other metabolic traits in prior studies, and two loci exhibited coincident eQTLs (P < 1 × 10-5) in subcutaneous adipose tissue for BPTF and PDGFC. Taken together, these analyses identified multiple novel lipid loci, providing new potential therapeutic targets.

  9. Elevated blood lead levels in children of construction workers.

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, E A; Piacitelli, G M; Gerwel, B; Schnorr, T M; Mueller, C A; Gittleman, J; Matte, T D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether children of lead-exposed construction workers had higher blood lead levels than neighborhood control children. METHODS: Twenty-nine construction workers were identified from the New Jersey Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) registry. Eighteen control families were referred by workers. Venous blood samples were collected from 50 children (31 exposed, 19 control subjects) under age 6. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of workers children had blood lead levels at or over the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention action level of 0.48 mumol/L (10 micrograms/dL), compared with 5% of control children (unadjusted odds ratio = 6.1; 95% confidence interval = 0.9, 147.2). CONCLUSIONS: Children of construction workers may be at risk for excessive lead exposure. Health care providers should assess parental occupation as a possible pathway for lead exposure of young children. PMID:9279275

  10. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…

  11. Response of tomato to defoliation and elevated CO[sub 2]level

    SciTech Connect

    Freidus, D. )

    1993-06-01

    Increased resources are expected to result in increased plant productivity and to increase a plant's ability to replace tissue lost to defoliation. This hypothesis was tested by growing tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in a phytotron greenhouse at ambient (355 ppm) and elevated (710 ppm) levels of CO[sub 2]. The experiment was fully factorial for CO[sub 2] level and two manual defoliation treatments, the first during vegetative growth and the second during fruiting. Elevated CO[sub 2] level did not alter total biomass, but did alter allocation: total fruit biomass and fruit number decreased. This is contrary to the expected result. Only the first defoliation treatment lowered total vegetative and reproductive biomass produced. There was no interaction between response to defoliation and response to elevated CO[sub 2] level. Thus, both the main effect of elevated CO[sub 2] and the interaction of defoliation and elevated CO[sub 2] were inconsistent with my hypothesis.

  12. Enhanced Metabolic Flexibility Associated with Elevated Adiponectin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Asterholm, Ingrid Wernstedt; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolically healthy individuals effectively adapt to changes in nutritional state. Here, we focus on the effects of the adipocyte-derived secretory molecule adiponectin on adipose tissue in mouse models with genetically altered adiponectin levels. We found that higher adiponectin levels increased sensitivity to the lipolytic effects of adrenergic receptor agonists. In parallel, adiponectin-overexpressing mice also display enhanced clearance of circulating fatty acids and increased expansion of subcutaneous adipose tissue with chronic high fat diet (HFD) feeding. These adaptive changes to the HFD were associated with increased mitochondrial density in adipocytes, smaller adipocyte size, and a general transcriptional up-regulation of factors involved in lipid storage through efficient esterification of free fatty acids. The physiological response to adiponectin overexpression resembles in many ways the effects of chronic exposure to β3-adrenergic agonist treatment, which also results in improvements in insulin sensitivity. In addition, using a novel computed tomography-based method for measurements of hepatic lipids, we resolved the temporal events taking place in the liver in response to acute HFD exposure in both wild-type and adiponectin-overexpressing mice. Increased levels of adiponectin potently protect against HFD-induced hepatic lipid accumulation and preserve insulin sensitivity. Given these profound effects of adiponectin, we propose that adiponectin is a factor that increases the metabolic flexibility of adipose tissue, enhancing its ability to maintain proper function under metabolically challenging conditions. PMID:20093494

  13. Ethanol Extract of Peanut Sprout Lowers Blood Triglyceride Levels, Possibly Through a Pathway Involving SREBP-1c in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kang, Nam E; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2015-08-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that peanut sprout extracts (PSE) could reduce fat accumulation through activating the transcription of SREBP-1c genes. Sprague-Dawley (SD) were randomly assigned into two groups and fed the following diet for 4 weeks; 10 normal fat (NF, 7 g of fat/100 g diet) and 30 high fat (HF, 20 g of fat/100 g diet). After 4 weeks, the HF group was divided into three groups; HF, HF with 15 mg of PSE/kg diet (HF+low PSE, 0.025% resveratrol), and HF with 30 mg of PSE/kg diet (HF+high PSE, 0.05% resveratrol) and fed for an additional 5 weeks. The HF+high PSE group had significantly lower weight gain than the HF group. Plasma triglyceride (TG) level and the hepatic total lipid level were significantly lower in the HF+high PSE group compared to the HF group. Fecal excretions of total lipids, cholesterol, and TG in the HF+high PSE group tended to be higher than in the HF group, but these differences were not significant. The mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-c (SREBP-1c) were significantly lower in the HF+high PSE group than in the HF group. The mRNA expressions of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase were significantly lower in the HF+high PSE groups compared to the HF group. The mRNA expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase1 was significantly higher than the HF group in both the HF+low PSE and HF+high PSE groups, with much greater increase observed in the HF+high PSE group. In conclusion, consumption of PSE was effective for improving blood lipid levels, possibly by suppressing the expression of SREBP-1c, in rats fed a high-fat diet.

  14. Optogenetic elevation of endogenous glucocorticoid level in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Yeh, Chen-Min; Castillo Ramírez, Luis A.; Ryu, Soojin

    2013-01-01

    The stress response is a suite of physiological and behavioral processes that help to maintain or reestablish homeostasis. Central to the stress response is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as it releases crucial hormones in response to stress. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the final effector hormones of the HPA axis, and exert a variety of actions under both basal and stress conditions. Despite their far-reaching importance for health, specific GC effects have been difficult to pin-down due to a lack of methods for selectively manipulating endogenous GC levels. Hence, in order to study stress-induced GC effects, we developed a novel optogenetic approach to selectively manipulate the rise of GCs triggered by stress. Using this approach, we could induce both transient hypercortisolic states and persistent forms of hypercortisolaemia in freely behaving larval zebrafish. Our results also established that transient hypercortisolism leads to enhanced locomotion shortly after stressor exposure. Altogether, we present a highly specific method for manipulating the gain of the stress axis with high temporal accuracy, altering endocrine and behavioral responses to stress as well as basal GC levels. Our study offers a powerful tool for the analysis of rapid (non-genomic) and delayed (genomic) GC effects on brain function and behavior, feedbacks within the stress axis and developmental programming by GCs. PMID:23653595

  15. Elevated tritium levels at the World Trade Center

    SciTech Connect

    Semkow, Thomas M.; Hafner, Ronald S.; Parekh, Pravin P.; Wozniak, Gordon J.; Haines, Douglas K.; Husain, Liaquat; Rabun, Robert L.; Williams, Philip G.

    2002-05-14

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at [the]World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174 plus or minus 0.074 (2s) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 plus or minus 0.17 and 2.83 plus or minus 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure.

  16. MONOTERPENE LEVELS IN NEEDLES OF DOUGLAS-FIR EXPOSED TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of monoterpenes in current year needles of douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were measured at the conclusion of four years of exposure to ambient or elevated CO2 (+ 179 mmol.mol-1), and ambient or elevated temperature (+ 3.5 C). Eleven monoterpen...

  17. Elevated levels of measles antibodies in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijendra K; Jensen, Ryan L

    2003-04-01

    Virus-induced autoimmunity may play a causal role in autism. To examine the etiologic link of viruses in this brain disorder, we conducted a serologic study of measles virus, mumps virus, and rubella virus. Viral antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serum of autistic children, normal children, and siblings of autistic children. The level of measles antibody, but not mumps or rubella antibodies, was significantly higher in autistic children as compared with normal children (P = 0.003) or siblings of autistic children (P

  18. Summertime elevation of sup 222 Rn levels in Huntsville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.L.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Saultz, R.J. )

    1991-02-01

    Indoor Rn concentrations and Rn in adjacent karst terrains were studied at four houses with crawlspaces in Huntsville, AL. In warm summertime weather, Rn-rich air may vent through limestone solution cavities exposed as holes at the surface of the properties. A probable interrelated-finding is that the indoor levels of {sup 222}Rn are distinctly higher in the summer than winter. The karst underlying the homes is structurally faulted and, in all probability, facilitates Rn transport from the solution cavities to the crawlspaces. Abrupt day-to-day changes in indoor Rn concentrations were recorded in addition to large seasonal changes. If the owners or residents of these particular homes had attempted to make, and interpret, short-term screening measurements for Rn during the fall season, problems, including false negatives, could have arisen because of order-of-magnitude changes in Rn concentration occurring over a few days. The best time of year to make screening measurements would be during the summer when indoor Rn concentrations are more likely to reach their maximum values.

  19. Adenovirus infection elevates levels of cellular topoisomerase I.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, K C; Pearson, G D

    1985-01-01

    We have developed a specific, sensitive, and quantitative assay for topoisomerase I, which is based on the formation of a covalent enzyme-DNA intermediate. Our assay measures the quantitative transfer of 32P radioactivity from 32P-labeled DNA to topoisomerase I. Since 32P-labeled topoisomerase molecules are resolved by NaDodSO4/PAGE, HeLa topoisomerase I (100 kDa) and calf thymus topoisomerase I (82 kDa) can be quantitatively assayed in the same reaction mixture. The assay can detect at least 0.3 ng (3 fmol) of topoisomerase I. We have used our assay to measure the levels of topoisomerase I activity in crude extracts of nuclei prepared from uninfected, adenovirus-infected, and adenovirus-transformed human cells. The evidence suggests that an adenovirus early gene product, presumably a protein encoded in early region 1A (E1A), increases cellular topoisomerase I activity at least 10-fold. Immunoblotting analysis with antiserum against calf thymus topoisomerase I shows that the increase in activity is due to an increase in the amount of enzyme. Images PMID:2986107

  20. Towards quantitative ecological risk assessment of elevated carbon dioxide levels in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Pepijn; Tamis, Jacqueline E; Foekema, Edwin M; Klok, Chris; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-08-30

    The environmental impact of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels has become of more interest in recent years. This, in relation to globally rising CO2 levels and related considerations of geological CO2 storage as a mitigating measure. In the present study effect data from literature were collected in order to conduct a marine ecological risk assessment of elevated CO2 levels, using a Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD). It became evident that information currently available from the literature is mostly insufficient for such a quantitative approach. Most studies focus on effects of expected future CO2 levels, testing only one or two elevated concentrations. A full dose-response relationship, a uniform measure of exposure, and standardized test protocols are essential for conducting a proper quantitative risk assessment of elevated CO2 levels. Improvements are proposed to make future tests more valuable and usable for quantitative risk assessment.

  1. Elevated social stress levels and depressive symptoms in primary hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Gross, Katharina M; Schote, Andrea B; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst

    2014-01-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress ('Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress': TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants.

  2. Additive effects of LPL, APOA5 and APOE variant combinations on triglyceride levels and hypertriglyceridemia: results of the ICARIA genetic sub-study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a well-established independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the influence of several genetic variants in genes related with triglyceride (TG) metabolism has been described, including LPL, APOA5 and APOE. The combined analysis of these polymorphisms could produce clinically meaningful complementary information. Methods A subgroup of the ICARIA study comprising 1825 Spanish subjects (80% men, mean age 36 years) was genotyped for the LPL-HindIII (rs320), S447X (rs328), D9N (rs1801177) and N291S (rs268) polymorphisms, the APOA5-S19W (rs3135506) and -1131T/C (rs662799) variants, and the APOE polymorphism (rs429358; rs7412) using PCR and restriction analysis and TaqMan assays. We used regression analyses to examine their combined effects on TG levels (with the log-transformed variable) and the association of variant combinations with TG levels and hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1.69 mmol/L), including the covariates: gender, age, waist circumference, blood glucose, blood pressure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Results We found a significant lowering effect of the LPL-HindIII and S447X polymorphisms (p < 0.0001). In addition, the D9N, N291S, S19W and -1131T/C variants and the APOE-ε4 allele were significantly associated with an independent additive TG-raising effect (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Grouping individuals according to the presence of TG-lowering or TG-raising polymorphisms showed significant differences in TG levels (p < 0.0001), with the lowest levels exhibited by carriers of two lowering variants (10.2% reduction in TG geometric mean with respect to individuals who were homozygous for the frequent alleles of all the variants), and the highest levels in carriers of raising combinations (25.1% mean TG increase). Thus, carrying two lowering variants was protective against HTG (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39-0.98; p = 0.042) and having one single raising polymorphism (OR

  3. Flowering responses of insect-pollinated plants to elevated CO{sub 2} levels

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, J.H.; Koch, G.W.; Chiariello, N.R. ||

    1995-06-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations have been predicted or shown to substantially influence plants, communities and ecosystems in a variety of ways. Here, we examined the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} levels on the timing and magnitude of flowering for two insect-pollinated annual plant species in a serpentine grassland. We focused on Lasthenia californica and Linanthus parviflorus and addressed three questions: (1) Do elevated CO{sub 2} levels influence flowering phenologies and is this species specific? (2) Do elevated CO{sub 2} levels affect flower production and is this due to altered numbers of individuals, flowers per plant, or both? and (3) Are effects on flowering due to elevated CO{sub 2} levels per se or changes in environmental conditions associated with methods used to manipulate CO{sub 2} levels? To address these questions, we used the ecosystem experiment at Stanford University`s Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (San Mateo Co., CA). This system consists of 20 open-topped chambers - half receiving ambient CO{sub 2} (360 ppm) and half receiving elevated CO{sub 2} (720 ppm) - and 10 untreated plots serving as chamber controls. Results from the 1994 season demonstrated that there were species-specific responses to elevated CO{sub 2} levels and the field chambers. For Lasthenia californica, elevated CO{sub 2} per se did not affect relative abundance, inflorescence production, or phenology, but chambers did significantly increase inflorescence production and extend the duration of flowering. For Linanthus parviflorus, elevated CO{sub 2} levels significantly increased relative abundance and flower production, and extended the flowering period slightly, while the chambers significantly decreased flower production early in the season and increased it later in the season.

  4. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  5. Interaction of dietary cholesterol and triglycerides in the regulation of hepatic low density lipoprotein transport in the hamster.

    PubMed Central

    Spady, D K; Dietschy, J M

    1988-01-01

    These studies report the effects of dietary cholesterol and triglyceride on rates of receptor-dependent and receptor-independent LDL transport in the liver of the hamster. In animals fed diets enriched with 0.1, 0.25, or 1% cholesterol for 1 mo, receptor-dependent LDL transport in the liver was suppressed by 43, 63, and 77%, respectively, and there were reciprocal changes in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. In addition, dietary triglycerides modified the effect of dietary cholesterol on hepatic LDL transport and plasma LDL concentrations so that at each level of cholesterol intake, polyunsaturated triglycerides diminished and saturated triglycerides accentuated the effect of dietary cholesterol. When animals were raised from weaning on diets containing small amounts of cholesterol, the decline in receptor-dependent LDL transport was nearly abolished by the addition of polyunsaturated or monounsaturated triglycerides, but was markedly augmented by the addition of saturated lipids. When animals raised on diets containing cholesterol and saturated triglycerides were returned to the low cholesterol, low triglyceride control diet, hepatic receptor-dependent LDL transport and plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations returned essentially to normal within 2 wk. Neither receptor-independent LDL transport nor the receptor-dependent uptake of asialofetuin was significantly altered by dietary cholesterol or triglyceride suggesting that the effect of these lipids on hepatic LDL receptor activity was specific and not due to a generalized alteration in the physiochemical properties of hepatic membranes. These studies demonstrate the important role of saturated triglycerides in augmenting the effect of cholesterol in suppressing hepatic LDL receptor activity and elevating LDL-cholesterol levels. PMID:2448340

  6. Elevated voltage level I.sub.DDQ failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Righter, Alan W.

    1996-01-01

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC's is eliminated by I.sub.DDQ testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip.

  7. Elevated voltage level I{sub DDQ} failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Righter, A.W.

    1996-05-21

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC`s is eliminated by I{sub DDQ} testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip. 4 figs.

  8. Triglycerides: how much credit do they deserve?

    PubMed

    Kohli, Payal; Cannon, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    In the modern era of statin therapy, major advances have been made in treating coronary heart disease. However, despite intensive treatment with statin therapy, residual cardiovascular risk persists and has been attributed to the persistence of atherogenic dyslipidemia and, in part, elevated triglycerides (TGs). In this review, the authors focus on the mechanism of elevated TGs and provide a discussion of the challenges of measuring TGs as a biomarker, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic heart disease, and results of several recent studies that have elucidated the relationship between TGs and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  9. [Plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and transmission to other trophic levels]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.E.

    1995-10-01

    This program investigated how host plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide may be transmitted to other trophic levels, especially leaf eating insects, and alter consumption of leaves and impare their function. Study results included the following findings: increased carbon dioxide to plants alters feeding by insect herbivores; leaves produced under higher carbon conditions contain proportionally less nitrogen; insect herbivores may have decreased reproduction under elevated carbon dioxide.

  10. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Fernanda Adame, Maria; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  11. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Adame, Maria Fernanda; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-02-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  12. Possible association of elevated serum collagen type IV level with skin sclerosis in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Akiko; Fujiwara, Chisako; Toki, Sayaka; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2016-08-29

    Collagen type IV is the primary collagen in the basement membranes around blood vessels and in the dermoepidermal junction in the skin. Perivascular collagen type IV is synthesized by endothelial cells and pericytes, and contributes to the homeostasis and remodeling of blood vessels. It has been well recognized that elevated serum collagen type IV levels are associated with the liver fibrosis. The objective was to examine serum collagen type IV levels and their clinical associations in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and to examine the expression of collagen type IV in the fibrotic skin in SSc. Serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients and diffuse cutaneous type SSc patients were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals. Serum collagen type IV levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. Serum collagen type IV levels in early stage (disease duration ≤3 years) diffuse cutaneous SSc patients were significantly elevated. Serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients with digital ulcers (DU) were significantly elevated. In immunohistochemical staining, the expression of collagen type IV around dermal small vessels in the affected skin was reduced compared with those of normal individuals. These results suggest that elevated serum collagen type IV levels may be associated with the skin sclerosis in the early stage of SSc. The measurement of serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients may be useful as a disease activity marker in skin sclerosis and DU.

  13. Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

  14. Interference of an anesthetic preparation with plasma triglyceride determinations.

    PubMed

    Hata, Y; Shigematsu, H; Tonomo, Y; Ehata, Y; Goto, Y; Miyajima, E

    1978-06-01

    A marked elevation in plasma triglycerides is observed when experimental animals are anesthetized with a pentobarbital sodium injection (Nembutal), a most widely used anesthetic in animal experiments. This is proven, however, to be a false rise due to the interference of propylene glycol present in the solvent of the injection with the plasma triglyceride determinations. One mole of propylene glycol produces one mole of formaldehyde by oxidation. The formaldehyde thus generated from propylene glycol mixes with those from glycerol moiety of plasma triglycerides, and gives an enhanced color reaction to all chromogenic reactions with formaldehyde. Since most of the chemical methods for plasma triglyceride determination is based on either one of these color reactions, we have to pay attention to a hypertriglyceridemia due to such influence as exerted by a solvent additive of propylene glycol upon the triglyceride measurements.

  15. CT brain findings in a patient with elevated brain cesium levels.

    PubMed

    Khangure, Simon R; Williams, Eric S; Welman, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    We describe the CT findings in the brain of a woman with pathologically proven elevated levels of blood and tissue cesium. The 42-year-old woman had been receiving cesium chloride as a non-mainstream treatment for metastatic breast carcinoma. She presented to hospital following a seizure, and died 48 hours after admission. A brain CT performed on hospital admission showed a diffuse increase in attenuation of brain parenchyma. Autopsy revealed elevated levels of cesium in blood and solid organs including the brain. We hypothesize that the imaging findings are attributable to the abnormally elevated level of brain cesium at the time of the CT scan. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this imaging finding.

  16. Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels affect community structure of rice root-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Takashi; Liu, Dongyan; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Ikeda, Seishi; Asakawa, Susumu; Tokida, Takeshi; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Aoki, Naohiro; Ishimaru, Ken; Ujiie, Kazuhiro; Usui, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Hayashi, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) affects rice yields and grain quality. However, the responses of root-associated bacteria to [CO2] elevation have not been characterized in a large-scale field study. We conducted a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment (ambient + 200 μmol.mol(-1)) using three rice cultivars (Akita 63, Takanari, and Koshihikari) and two experimental lines of Koshihikari [chromosome segment substitution and near-isogenic lines (NILs)] to determine the effects of [CO2] elevation on the community structure of rice root-associated bacteria. Microbial DNA was extracted from rice roots at the panicle formation stage and analyzed by pyrosequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize the members of the bacterial community. Principal coordinate analysis of a weighted UniFrac distance matrix revealed that the community structure was clearly affected by elevated [CO2]. The predominant community members at class level were Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria in the control (ambient) and FACE plots. The relative abundance of Methylocystaceae, the major methane-oxidizing bacteria in rice roots, tended to decrease with increasing [CO2] levels. Quantitative PCR revealed a decreased copy number of the methane monooxygenase (pmoA) gene and increased methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) in elevated [CO2]. These results suggest elevated [CO2] suppresses methane oxidation and promotes methanogenesis in rice roots; this process affects the carbon cycle in rice paddy fields.

  17. Risk factors associated with elevated serum pancreatic amylase levels during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Hsu; Yang, Wu-Chang; Wang, Feng-Ming; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Chen, Jinn-Yang; Ng, Yee-Yung; Wu, Tsai-Hun; Lin, Yao-Ping; Lin, Chih-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of serum pancreatic enzymes are frequently observed in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The complex hemodynamic, biochemical, and physiological alterations in uremia were speculated to cause excessive release of pancreatic enzymes beyond decreased renal clearance. However, hemodynamic factors are seldom explored in this aspect. We performed the study to evaluate the association between intradialytic hemodynamic change and elevated serum pancreatic amylase (SPA). Eighty-three prevalent HD patients without any clinical evidence of acute pancreatitis underwent pre-HD and post-HD blood sampling for serum pancreatic enzyme levels. Demographic, biochemical, and hematological data were collected from patient record review. Hemodialysis information including intradialytic blood pressure changes and ultrafiltration (UF) amount were collected and averaged for 1 month before the blood sampling day. Patients with elevated SPA during the HD session had greater mean systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure reduction, greater UF volume, greater pre-HD blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, higher serum phosphorus, lower pre-HD serum total CO2, and lower left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF). Using multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis, the independent predictors of elevated SPA were determined to be mean arterial pressure reduction during HD, mean UF amount, pre-HD serum total CO2, and LVEF. Greater blood pressure reduction during HD, greater UF volume, lower pre-HD serum total CO2, and lower LVEF were significantly associated with elevated SPA during HD. This suggests that hemodynamic factors contribute to elevated serum pancreatic enzymes in HD patients.

  18. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical

  19. Bullet fragment–induced lead arthropathy with subsequent fracture and elevated blood lead levels

    PubMed Central

    Adkison, Jonathan; Meyers, Ridgely; Benham, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Lead foreign bodies in joint spaces, often due to projectiles such as bullets, may cause localized arthropathy. There are no reports of joint fracture related to lead arthropathy. Additionally, lead foreign bodes embedded in the joint space may be a source of systemic lead absorption, causing elevated blood lead levels and toxicity to other organs. We present a young adult patient with retained left hip joint bullet fragments who developed suspected lead arthropathy and subsequent acute left hip fracture, as well as systemic lead absorption demonstrated by elevated blood lead levels. PMID:28127147

  20. Radiation response of Chinese hamster cells after elevation of intracellular glutathione levels

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, A.; Mitchell, J.B.

    1984-08-01

    Cellular glutathione (GSH) levels were modulated by either inhibition of GSH synthesis by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) or elevation of GSH by treatment with 2-oxo-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTZ), cobaltous chloride, or cysteamine. Using these agents, x ray survival in air was assessed as a function of cellular GSH levels. Depletion of GSH by GSO resulted in slight sensitization of the aerated curve. However, elevation of GSH by as much as 200 to 300% of controls provided no radioprotection in air. These data are discussed in the context of the role of GSH and GSH peroxidase in the detoxification of peroxides produced by x rays.

  1. Successful use of aromatase inhibitor letrozole in NOA with an elevated FSH level: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Pan, L; Zhang, F; Pan, F; Ma, J; Zhang, X; Liu, Y

    2014-05-01

    Aromatase inhibitors inhibit the conversion of testosterone to oestrogens and could reduce serum oestradiol concentrations. Letrozole is one of aromatase inhibitors frequently used in treatment of men with oligospermia. We present the case of an infertile man with small testes and an elevated FSH level, which was diagnosed as NOA, hypospermatogenesis proven by testicular biopsy. After taking letrozole for 3 months, semen analyses by computer-aided sperm analysis present that this man had normal spermatogenesis. This is the first case report of the activation of spermatogenesis, in man who was NOA with elevated FSH level, resulting from the use of the one of aromatase inhibitors.

  2. [Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and abetalipoproteinemia].

    PubMed

    Berriot-Varoqueaux, N; Aggerbeck, L P; Samson-Bouma, M

    2000-05-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is a dimeric protein complex consisting of protein disulfide isomerase and a unique 97 kDa subunit. In vitro, MTP accelerates the transport of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester, and phospholipid between vesicles. It was recently demonstrated that abetalipoproteinemia, a disease characterized as an inability to produce chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins in the intestine and liver, respectively, is the result of a genetic absence of MTP. Downstream effects resulting from this defect, include very low plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, absence of plasma apolipoprotein B and a lipid malabsorption syndrome, leading to lipo-soluble vitamin deficiencies. A low fat diet is instituted to eliminate the diarrhea. In addition, a therapy with vitamins A and E is essential to prevent patients from developing secondary effects such as neuropathy, muscle weakness, and retinopathy.

  3. Elevated serum levels of APRIL, but not BAFF, in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Takashi; Fujimoto, Manabu; Echigo, Takeshi; Matsushita, Yukiyo; Shimada, Yuka; Hasegawa, Minoru; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Sato, Shinichi

    2008-03-01

    Elevated serum levels of B-cell-activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) and/or a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) are shown in autoimmune diseases. We determined serum levels of BAFF and APRIL, and clinical association in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Serum levels of BAFF and APRIL from 35 patients with AD, 25 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, 25 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and 25 normal healthy subjects were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of APRIL, but not BAFF, were significantly elevated in patients with AD than in healthy controls or patients with psoriasis vulgaris. Patients with severe AD exhibited significantly increased APRIL levels compared to patients with moderate AD and mild AD, and serum APRIL levels were significantly decreased after treatment compared with those before treatment. In addition, increased APRIL levels were significantly associated with serum immunoglobulin E levels and blood eosinophil numbers. These results suggest that elevated serum levels of APRIL are associated with disease severity and activity in AD, and APRIL may have an important role in the pathogenesis of AD.

  4. Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

    2013-05-01

    Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse.

  5. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and

  6. Elevated homocysteine levels in type 2 diabetes induce constitutive neutrophil extracellular traps

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Manjunath B; Baipadithaya, Guruprasad; Balakrishnan, Aswath; Hegde, Mangala; Vohra, Manik; Ahamed, Rayees; Nagri, Shivashankara K; Ramachandra, Lingadakai; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2016-01-01

    Constitutively active neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and elevated plasma homocysteine are independent risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) associated vascular diseases. Here, we show robust NETosis due to elevated plasma homocysteine levels in T2D subjects and increased components of NETs such as neutrophil elastase and cell free DNA. Cooperative NETs formation was observed in neutrophils exposed to homocysteine, IL-6 and high glucose suggesting acute temporal changes tightly regulate constitutive NETosis. Homocysteine induced NETs by NADPH oxidase dependent and independent mechanisms. Constitutively higher levels of calcium and mitochondrial superoxides under hyperglycemic conditions were further elevated in response to homocysteine leading to accelerated NETosis. Homocysteine showed robust interaction between neutrophils and platelets by inducing platelet aggregation and NETosis in an interdependent manner. Our data demonstrates that homocysteine can alter innate immune function by promoting NETs formation and disturbs homeostasis between platelets and neutrophils which may lead to T2D associated vascular diseases. PMID:27811985

  7. Transgenic overexpression of the presynaptic choline transporter elevates acetylcholine levels and augments motor endurance.

    PubMed

    Holmstrand, Ericka C; Lund, David; Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Wright, Jane; Martin, Rolicia F; Ennis, Elizabeth A; Stanwood, Gregg D; Sarter, Martin; Blakely, Randy D

    2014-07-01

    The hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) sensitive, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) sustains cholinergic signaling via the presynaptic uptake of choline derived from dietary sources or from acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-mediated hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh). Loss of cholinergic signaling capacity is associated with cognitive and motor deficits in humans and in animal models. Whereas genetic elimination of CHT has revealed the critical nature of CHT in maintaining ACh stores and sustaining cholinergic signaling, the consequences of elevating CHT expression have yet to be studied. Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated transgenic methods, we generated mice with integrated additional copies of the mouse Slc5a7 gene. BAC-CHT mice are viable, appear to develop normally, and breed at wild-type (WT) rates. Biochemical studies revealed a 2 to 3-fold elevation in CHT protein levels in the CNS and periphery, paralleled by significant increases in [(3)H]HC-3 binding and synaptosomal choline transport activity. Elevations of ACh in the BAC-CHT mice occurred without compensatory changes in the activity of either choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or AChE. Immunohistochemistry for CHT in BAC-CHT brain sections revealed markedly elevated CHT expression in the cell bodies of cholinergic neurons and in axons projecting to regions known to receive cholinergic innervation. Behaviorally, BAC-CHT mice exhibited diminished fatigue and increased speeds on the treadmill test without evidence of increased strength. Finally, BAC-CHT mice displayed elevated horizontal activity in the open field test, diminished spontaneous alteration in the Y-maze, and reduced time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. Together, these studies provide biochemical, pharmacological and behavioral evidence that CHT protein expression and activity can be elevated beyond that seen in wild-type animals. BAC-CHT mice thus represent a novel tool to examine both the positive and negative impact of

  8. Transgenic overexpression of the presynaptic choline transporter elevates acetylcholine levels and augments motor endurance

    PubMed Central

    Holmstrand, Ericka C.; Lund, David; Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Wright, Jane; Martin, Rolicia F.; Ennis, Elizabeth A.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Sarter, Martin; Blakely, Randy D.

    2014-01-01

    The hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) sensitive, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) sustains cholinergic signaling via the presynaptic uptake of choline derived from dietary sources or from acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-mediated hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh). Loss of cholinergic signaling capacity is associated with cognitive and motor deficits in humans and in animal models. Whereas genetic elimination of CHT has revealed the critical nature of CHT in maintaining ACh stores and sustaining cholinergic signaling, the consequences of elevating CHT expression have yet to be studied. Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated transgenic methods, we generated mice with integrated additional copies of the mouse Slc5a7 gene. BAC–CHT mice are viable, appear to develop normally, and breed at wild-type (WT) rates. Biochemical studies revealed a 2 to 3-fold elevation in CHT protein levels in the CNS and periphery, paralleled by significant increases in [3H]HC-3 binding and synaptosomal choline transport activity. Elevations of ACh in the BAC–CHT mice occurred without compensatory changes in the activity of either choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or AChE. Immunohistochemistry for CHT in BAC–CHT brain sections revealed markedly elevated CHT expression in the cell bodies of cholinergic neurons and in axons projecting to regions known to receive cholinergic innervation. Behaviorally, BAC–CHT mice exhibited diminished fatigue and increased speeds on the treadmill test without evidence of increased strength. Finally, BAC–CHT mice displayed elevated horizontal activity in the open field test, diminished spontaneous alteration in the Y-maze, and reduced time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. Together, these studies provide biochemical, pharmacological and behavioral evidence that CHT protein expression and activity can be elevated beyond that seen in wild-type animals. BAC–CHT mice thus represent a novel tool to examine both the positive and negative

  9. Triglycerides: Why Do They Matter?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect how your body converts fat to energy. High triglycerides could also be a side effect of taking medications such as beta blockers, birth ... for red meat. Limit how much alcohol you drink. Alcohol is high in ... particularly potent effect on triglycerides. Even small amounts of alcohol can ...

  10. Proteomics of Peripheral Leukocytes in Patients with Elevated Serum Levels of PSA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    3 INTRODUCTION: This research has the long-term goal of developing a test that will discriminate between prostate cancer ( PrCA ) and benign...observed to have an elevated serum level of PSA, in order to distinguish among CP, BPH and PrCA . To achieve these objectives, we proposed to employ mass

  11. SAFETY AND SECURITY BUILDING, TRA614. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. TWO ROOF LEVELS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SAFETY AND SECURITY BUILDING, TRA-614. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. TWO ROOF LEVELS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-814-2, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0614-00-098-100703, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of coastal wetlands to sea level rise in Liaohe Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guo-dong; Wang, Ming; Lu, Xian-guo; Jiang, Ming

    2016-10-01

    The Liaohe Delta in China is an ecologically and commercially important wetland system under threat from sea level rise and marsh subsidence. Sediments deposited in coastal marshes could offer wetlands a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level, yet coastal wetland stability in Liaohe Delta is not well understood due to limited data from long-term experiments. In this study, wetland surface elevation and vertical accretion were measured from 2011 to 2015 using a surface elevation table (SET) and feldspar marker horizons in two Phragmites and two Suaeda marshes receiving Liaohe River water. The analysis shows that the Phragmites marshes exhibited higher rates of marsh accretion and elevation change than the Suaeda marshes. The two Phragmites marsh sites had average surface elevation change rates at 8.8 and 9.3 mm yr-1, vertical accretion at 17.4 and 17.6 mm yr-1, and shallow subsidence at 8.6 and 8.3 mm yr-1. The average rates of elevation change, vertical accretion, and shallow subsidence at two Suaeda marsh sites were 5.8 and 6.3 mm yr-1, 13.6 and 14.8 mm yr-1, and 7.8 and 8.5 mm yr-1, respectively. The trends suggest that coastal marshes in Liaohe Delta are experiencing changes in average soil elevation that range from a net increase of 0.3 mm y-1 to 6.9 mm y-1 relative to averaged sea level rise in Bohai Sea reported by the 2016 State Oceanic Administration People's Republic of China projection (2.4-5.5 mm y-1), which indicated that the four wetland sites would adjust to the sea level rise and even continue to gain elevation, especially for the Phragmites sites. Nevertheless, the vulnerability of coastal wetlands in Liaohe Delta need further assessment considering the accelerated sea level rise, the high rate of subsidence, and the declining sediment delivery owing to anthropogenic activities such as dam constructions in the river basin.

  13. [Studies on the mechanism of elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in alcoholic liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Sakizono, Kenji; Oita, Tatsuo; Eto, Masaaki; Bito, Sanae; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Kasakura, Shinpei

    2002-03-01

    We measured serum PIVKA-II concentrations in 18 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease was diagnosed by the history of ethanol intake of more than 900 ml/day for over 10 years. Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed histologically. Infections with hepatitis B and C viruses were ruled out by assaying serum virus markers. No tumor was detected in liver by ultrasonography and computed tomography during observation period. None of the patients studied were positive for alpafetoprotein (AFP). Eight out of 18 (44.4%) patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis showed elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. In contrast, only eight out of 93 (8.6%) patients with nonalcholic liver cirrhosis had elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. PIVKA-II is well known as a tumor marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The rates of positive PIVKA-II found in alcoholic liver cirrhosis approached its rates in HCC. However, the time course for the elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels was different each other in alcoholic liver cirrhosis and HCC. In HCC, serum PIVKA-II "levels" continued to elevate until therapy. In contrast, its elevation was transient and its levels returned to baseline in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The values of ALT (GPT), gamma-GTP, and ALP correlated poorly with serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. To investigate the mechanism by which elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis occurred, we studied the effect of vitamin K on production of PIVKA-II and AFP by hepatocytes. Hepatocytes(Alexander PLC/PRF/F cell line) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of vitamin K (Kaytwo, Eisai, Tokyo). Vitamin K had no effect on AFP production. In contrast, PIVKA-II production was inhibited by addition of vitamin K in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was suppressed by administration of vitamin K (Kaytwo) to these patients. Taken

  14. Elevated plasma levels of F2 alpha isoprostane in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Collins, C E; Quaggiotto, P; Wood, L; O'Loughlin, E V; Henry, R L; Garg, M L

    1999-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with chronic lung infection, inflammation, and elevated indices of oxidative stress. Recently, isoprostanes were shown to be a reliable in vivo marker of oxidant injury with 8-iso-PGF2 alpha, shown to cause airflow obstruction and plasma exudation in guinea pig lung. The present study was designed to examine the relationship between 8-iso-PGF2 alpha levels, plasma antioxidants, and clinical status in CF. We hypothesized that plasma 8-iso-PGF2 alpha levels would be higher in subjects with CF compared to healthy controls. Plasma 8-iso-PGF2 alpha levels were prospectively measured in 22 subjects with CF and nine healthy controls using an 8-isoprostane enzyme immunoassay kit along with plasma vitamins A, E, and beta-carotene. Plasma 8-iso-PGF2 alpha levels were shown to be significantly elevated in the CF subjects compared to controls (319.6 +/- 52.6 vs. 145.0 +/- 21.0 pg/mL, P = 0.005). Plasma levels of antioxidants were significantly lower for the CF subjects compared to the controls (vitamin A, P < 0.003; vitamin E, P < 0.001; and beta-carotene, P < 0.01). This study confirms significantly elevated lipid peroxidation in CF using 8-iso-PGF2 alpha levels.

  15. Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Lee S. . E-mail: lfriedman@tspri.org; Lukyanova, Elena M.; Kundiev, Yuri I.; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava A.; Chislovska, Nataliya V.; Mucha, Amy; Zvinchuk, Alexander V.; Oliynyk, Irene; Hryhorczuk, Daniel

    2006-09-15

    No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25{mu}g/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21{mu}g/L (range=0.11-0.42{mu}g/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21{mu}g/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries.

  16. Elevated Serum Titanium Level as a Marker for Failure in a Titanium Modular Fluted Tapered Stem.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Ian P; Abdel, Matthew P

    2016-07-01

    Serum ion concentrations of cobalt and chromium are commonly used to monitor for the development of local metal reactions in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties, as well as dual-modular constructs. Although rarely used in clinical practice, elevated serum titanium levels have the ability to indicate a failure with contemporary revision constructs, such as with titanium modular fluted tapered (TMFT) stems. The authors report the case of a 64-year-old man with a TMFT stem after revision total hip arthroplasty for a dual-modular neck construct who had set screw disengagement with subsequent proximal body loosening. The patient's serum cobalt and chromium levels were normal, but he had a markedly elevated serum titanium level, indicating failure of the titanium modular junction. Implant failures at modular junctions in femoral components are well described. Although several different failure mechanisms have been defined, to the authors' knowledge this is the first reported failure of this particular TMFT stem. In addition, this is the first report describing the use of serum titanium levels in identifying a novel failure mechanism. With the popularity of this stem, surgeons should be aware that an elevated serum titanium level may aid in the diagnosis of this unique complication. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e768-e770.].

  17. Chronic renovascular hypertension is associated with elevated levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin

    PubMed Central

    Eirin, Alfonso; Gloviczki, Monika L.; Tang, Hui; Rule, Andrew D.; Woollard, John R.; Lerman, Amir; Textor, Stephen C.; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2012-01-01

    Background Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the stenotic kidney and progressive renal dysfunction. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), an acute phase protein induced in inflammatory conditions and ischemia, is a novel biomarker for acute kidney injury. We hypothesized that chronic RVH would be associated with increased renal and circulating NGAL levels. Methods We prospectively measured renal vein and inferior vena cava (IVC) levels of NGAL and inflammatory cytokines in essential hypertensive (EH) and RVH patients, during constant sodium intake and anti-hypertensive regimens, and compared them with systemic levels in age-matched normotensive subjects (n = 22 each). In addition, we measured urinary NGAL and kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 in all patients. Results Blood pressure, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), lipid panels and medications were similar in RVH and EH. Systemic, stenotic and contralateral renal vein levels of NGAL were all similarly elevated in RVH versus normal hypertension and EH (P < 0.05), as were renal vein levels of inflammatory markers like tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, renal vein NGAL levels inversely correlated with eGFR, and directly with renal vein (but not systemic) levels of inflammatory markers. Urinary levels of NGAL and KIM-1 were elevated in both EH and RVH, as were systemic levels of C-reactive protein. Conclusions Chronic RVH is associated with elevated NGAL levels, likely due to ongoing kidney and systemic inflammation and ischemia. These findings may also imply the occurrence of the inflammation process in chronic RVH, which might contribute to the poorer outcomes of RVH compared with EH patients. PMID:22923545

  18. Impact of elevated CO2 background levels on the host-seeking behaviour of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Shahid; Hill, Sharon Rose; Ignell, Rickard

    2014-02-15

    Mosquitoes rely on carbon dioxide (CO2) to detect and orient towards their blood hosts. However, the variable and rapid fluctuations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations may have an impact on the host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes. In this study, we analysed the effect of transient elevated background levels of CO2 on the host-seeking behaviour and the physiological characteristics of the CO2-sensitive olfactory receptor neurones (ORNs) in female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. We show that the take-off and source contact behaviour of A. aegypti is impeded at elevated background levels of CO2 as a result of masking of the stimulus signal. The mechanism underlying this masking during take-off behaviour is one of sensory constraint. We show that the net response of the CO2-ORNs regulates this CO2-related behaviour. Since these neurones themselves are not habituated or fatigued by the transient elevation of background CO2, we propose that habituation of second-order neurones in response to the elevated CO2-ORN activity could be one mechanism by which the net response is transduced by the olfactory system. The findings from this study may help to predict future shifts in mosquito-host interactions and consequently to predict vectorial capacity in the light of climate change.

  19. Elevated Progesterone Levels on the Day of Oocyte Maturation May Affect Top Quality Embryo IVF Cycles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo; Ren, Xinling; Wu, Li; Zhu, Lixia; Xu, Bei; Li, Yufeng; Ai, Jihui; Jin, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the impact of elevated progesterone on endometrial receptivity, the data on whether increased progesterone levels affects the quality of embryos is still limited. This study retrospectively enrolled 4,236 fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and sought to determine whether increased progesterone is associated with adverse outcomes with regard to top quality embryos (TQE). The results showed that the TQE rate significantly correlated with progesterone levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger (P = 0.009). Multivariate linear regression analysis of factors related to the TQE rate, in conventional IVF cycles, showed that the TQE rate was negatively associated with progesterone concentration on the day of hCG (OR was -1.658, 95% CI: -2.806 to -0.510, P = 0.005). When the serum progesterone level was within the interval 2.0-2.5 ng/ml, the TQE rate was significantly lower (P <0.05) than when the progesterone level was < 1.0 ng/ml; similar results were obtained for serum progesterone levels >2.5 ng/ml. Then, we choose a progesterone level at 1.5ng/ml, 2.0 ng/ml and 2.5 ng/ml as cut-off points to verify this result. We found that the TQE rate was significantly different (P <0.05) between serum progesterone levels < 2.0 ng/ml and >2.0 ng/ml. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly demonstrated a negative effect of elevated progesterone levels on the day of hCG trigger, on TQE rate, regardless of the basal FSH, the total gonadotropin, the age of the woman, or the time of ovarian stimulation. These data demonstrate that elevated progesterone levels (>2.0 ng/ml) before oocyte maturation were consistently detrimental to the oocyte.

  20. Falsely elevated serum creatinine levels secondary to the presence of 5-fluorocytosine.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, R T; Marshall, L H; Lefkowitz, L B; Stratton, C W

    1985-08-01

    The Kodak Ektachem (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) is a new clinical chemistry analyzer that uses an enzymatic method to measure creatinine. The authors report the case of a patient with falsely elevated creatinine levels that were caused by the presence of 5-fluorocytosine. A review of the literature confirmed that this can occur, but well documented reports are not found. In order to determine the magnitude of this interference, the authors plotted creatinine levels versus 5-FC concentration. Significant interference is seen with therapeutic levels of 5-FC. Both clinicians and pathologists should be aware of this phenomenon.

  1. Admixture mapping in two Mexican samples identifies significant associations of locus ancestry with triglyceride levels in the BUD13/ZNF259/APOA5 region and fine mapping points to rs964184 as the main driver of the association signal.

    PubMed

    Parra, Esteban J; Mazurek, Andrew; Gignoux, Christopher R; Sockell, Alexandra; Agostino, Michael; Morris, Andrew P; Petty, Lauren E; Hanis, Craig L; Cox, Nancy J; Valladares-Salgado, Adan; Below, Jennifer E; Cruz, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    We carried out an admixture mapping study of lipid traits in two samples from Mexico City. Native American locus ancestry was significantly associated with triglyceride levels in a broad region of chromosome 11 overlapping the BUD13, ZNF259 and APOA5 genes. In our fine-mapping analysis of this region using dense genome-wide data, rs964184 is the only marker included in the 99% credible set of SNPs, providing strong support for rs964184 as the causal variant within this region. The frequency of the allele associated with increased triglyceride concentrations (rs964184-G) is between 30-40% higher in Native American populations from Mexico than in European populations. The evidence currently available for this variant indicates that it may be exerting its effect through three potential mechanisms: 1) modification of enhancer activity, 2) regulation of the expression of several genes in cis and/or trans, or 3) modification of the methylation patterns of the promoter of the APOA5 gene.

  2. Admixture mapping in two Mexican samples identifies significant associations of locus ancestry with triglyceride levels in the BUD13/ZNF259/APOA5 region and fine mapping points to rs964184 as the main driver of the association signal

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Andrew; Sockell, Alexandra; Morris, Andrew P.; Petty, Lauren E.; Hanis, Craig L.; Cox, Nancy J.; Cruz, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    We carried out an admixture mapping study of lipid traits in two samples from Mexico City. Native American locus ancestry was significantly associated with triglyceride levels in a broad region of chromosome 11 overlapping the BUD13, ZNF259 and APOA5 genes. In our fine-mapping analysis of this region using dense genome-wide data, rs964184 is the only marker included in the 99% credible set of SNPs, providing strong support for rs964184 as the causal variant within this region. The frequency of the allele associated with increased triglyceride concentrations (rs964184-G) is between 30–40% higher in Native American populations from Mexico than in European populations. The evidence currently available for this variant indicates that it may be exerting its effect through three potential mechanisms: 1) modification of enhancer activity, 2) regulation of the expression of several genes in cis and/or trans, or 3) modification of the methylation patterns of the promoter of the APOA5 gene. PMID:28245265

  3. Exponential wake structure of heated turbulent boundary layers at elevated levels of free-stream turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Sepri, P. )

    1987-05-01

    The wake region of a turbulent boundary layer is demonstrated to exhibit simple exponential behavior at elevated levels of free-stream turbulence (FST). As a predictive tool, the computer code STANCOOL has been modified to include FST effects in heated turbulent boundary layers. Preliminary comparisons with experimental data indicate improvements in computational capabiity, although futher development of the code is required. From these comparisons, three new results are offered: (1) At elevated levels of FST, several statistical profiles in the boundary layer wake region decay exponentially into the free stream; (2) {ovr v{prime}T{prime}} decays at half the rate of the mean velocity and temperature; (3) analytical expressions are provided for {ovr u{prime}v{prime}} and {ovr v{prime}T{prime}} in this case.

  4. Elevated prolactin levels in patients with schizophrenia: mechanisms and related adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Halbreich, U; Kinon, B J; Gilmore, J A; Kahn, L S

    2003-01-01

    The neurologic processes involved in schizophrenia are complex and diverse and the mechanisms through which antipsychotic agents exert their effects have been only partly elucidated. Hyperprolactinemia is a common side effect of treatment with many antipsychotics and is particularly associated with conventional ('typical') agents as well as the atypical antipsychotic risperidone. In contrast, other atypical agents introduced over the last decade do not elevate prolactin levels. This article discusses the regulatory mechanisms involved in prolactin secretion, the physiologic role of prolactin, and the etiology of hyperprolactinemia. Elevated prolactin levels may play important roles, both direct and indirect, in various pathologic states, including breast cancer, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disorders, and sexual disturbances. Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia may be associated with similar clinical manifestations; these are examined with particular reference to patients with schizophrenia.

  5. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora *

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xing-Zheng; Wang, Gen-Xuan; Shen, Zhu-Xia; Zhang, Hao; Qiu, Mu-Qing

    2006-01-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO2 concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO2 concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO2 concentrations (350 μmol/mol and 500 μmol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO2 on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO2 concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO2 enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO2 enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO2 concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO2 enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO2 depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO2 enrichment with sufficient water supply. PMID:16532530

  6. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xing-zheng; Wang, Gen-xuan; Shen, Zhu-xia; Zhang, Hao; Qiu, Mu-qing

    2006-04-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO(2) concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO(2) concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO(2) concentrations (350 micromol/mol and 500 micromol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO(2) on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO(2) concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO(2) enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO(2) enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO(2) concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO(2) concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO(2) enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO(2) depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO(2) enrichment with sufficient water supply.

  7. Serum endostatin levels are elevated in colorectal cancer and correlate with invasion and systemic inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Kantola, T; Väyrynen, J P; Klintrup, K; Mäkelä, J; Karppinen, S M; Pihlajaniemi, T; Autio-Harmainen, H; Karttunen, T J; Mäkinen, M J; Tuomisto, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endostatin, a fragment of collagen XVIII, is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with anti-tumour functions. However, elevated circulating endostatin concentrations have been found in several human cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Serum endostatin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay from a series of 143 patients with CRC and from 84 controls, and correlated with detailed clinicopathological features of CRC, serum leukocyte differential count and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results: Patients with CRC had higher serum endostatin levels than the controls (P=0.005), and high levels associated with age, tumour invasion through the muscularis propria and poor differentiation, but not with metastases. Endostatin levels showed a positive correlation with the markers of systemic inflammatory response and a negative correlation with the densities of tumour-infiltrating mast cells and dendritic cells. Collagen XVIII was expressed in tumour stroma most strikingly in blood vessels and capillaries, and in the muscle layer of the bowel wall. Conclusions: Elevated endostatin levels in CRC correlate with systemic inflammation and invasion through the muscularis propria. Increased endostatin level may be a result of invasion-related cleavage of collagen XVIII expressed in the bowel wall. The negative correlations between serum endostatin and intratumoural mast cells and immature dendritic cells may reflect angiogenesis inhibition by endostatin. PMID:25137019

  8. Elevated Salivary Levels of Oxytocin Persist More than 7 h after Intranasal Administration.

    PubMed

    van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bhandari, Ritu; van der Veen, Rixt; Grewen, Karen M; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2012-01-01

    We addressed the question how long salivary oxytocin levels remain elevated after intranasal administration, and whether it makes a difference when 16 or 24 IU of oxytocin administration is used. Oxytocin levels were measured in saliva samples collected from 46 female participants right before intranasal administration (at 9:30 a.m.) of 16 IU (n = 18) or 24 IU (n = 10) of oxytocin, or a placebo (n = 18), and each hour after administration, for 7 h in total. Oxytocin levels did not differ among conditions before use of the nasal spray. Salivary oxytocin levels in the placebo group showed high stability across the day. After oxytocin administration oxytocin levels markedly increased, they peaked around 1 h after administration, and were still significantly elevated 7 h after administration. The amount of oxytocin (16 or 24 IU) did not make a difference for oxytocin levels. The increase of oxytocin levels for at least 7 h shows how effective intranasal administration of oxytocin is. Our findings may raise ethical questions about potentially persisting behavioral effects after participants have left the lab setting. More research into the long-term neurological and behavioral effects of sniffs of oxytocin is urgently needed.

  9. Elevated Level of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Search for a Malignancy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Muhammad W

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been shown to be associated with tumor burden in patients with colorectal cancer. However, it is also elevated to a significant degree in a number of other malignant and non-malignant conditions. We report a case of reversible CEA elevation in a patient using lithium for bipolar disorder. A 58-year-old female with a longstanding smoking history and a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bipolar illness, hypothyroidism, and obesity was found to have an elevated CEA level of 11.2 ng/ml (normal level <5 ng/ml) in the workup for postmenopausal bleeding. Her history was not positive for malignancy of colorectum, ovaries, thyroid, or breast.  She underwent a large number of imaging and endoscopic studies to evaluate for colorectal, breast, ovarian, and lung cancer; however, it did not reveal any evidence of malignancy. Upon review of her medications, she reported that she had recently started lithium for her bipolar illness. We followed up her CEA level while her dose of lithium was reduced from 450 to 300 mg per day. Her CEA level decreased from 25 mg/dl to 6.1 mg/dl and remained stable over the course of the next eight months. Our case is the first case report that identifies lithium as a potential cause of reversible CEA elevation. The underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated, but it underscores the importance of investigating the medications as part of the workup. PMID:27446768

  10. Elevated HGF Levels in Sera from Breast Cancer Patients Detected Using a Protein Microarray ELISA

    SciTech Connect

    Woodbury, Ronald L. ); Varnum, Susan M. ); Zangar, Richard C. )

    2002-01-01

    We developed an ELISA in high-density microassay format to detect hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in human serum. The microassay can detect HGF at sub-pg/mL concentrations in sample volumes of 100 uL or less. The microassay is also quantitative and was used to detect elevated HGF levels in sera from recurrent breast cancer patients. The microarray format provides the potential for high-throughput quantitation of multiple biomarkers in parallel.

  11. Elevated factor J levels in synovial fluid from patients with inflammatory arthropathies.

    PubMed

    González-Rubio, C; Saboya-Palero, A; Pascual-Salcedo, D; Balsa, A; Fontán, G; López-Trascasa, M

    1997-12-01

    Factor J (FJ) is a complement inhibitor that is able to regulate in vitro both the classical and alternative human complement pathways. In the search of its biological significance, we have analyzed FJ levels in synovial fluid from patients with different arthropathies, in which IL-6 levels had been previously measured. The pathologies included in this study were: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 21), crystal deposition diseases (CDD) (n = 6), osteoarthritis (OA) (n = 23), spondyloarthritis (SpA) (n = 3) and other inflammatory arthropathies (OIA) (n = 4). We found a good correlation between IL-6 and FJ levels (r = 0.33, p = 0.0132) in the 57 processed samples. Synovial fluids had high levels of IL-6 (median: 3000 pg/ml). Besides, we found that FJ levels were elevated (241 +/- 429 micrograms/ml) when compared with NHS (5.32 +/- 2.82 micrograms/ml). Considering OA patients as control group for non-inflammatory situation, we found that FJ levels were significantly elevated in inflammatory patients only if RA patients were excluded. Furthermore, there were also significant differences with CDD patients. In addition, we have examined the presence of this inhibitor in synovial fluid by Western blot after running gels at acid pH and electrophoretical transference at the same pH. In these experiments, we evidenced the presence of a cationic protein immunoreactive with polyclonal and monoclonal anti-FJ antibodies. In conclusion, FJ levels are elevated in pathological synovial fluids. FJ could be an acute phase reactant as other molecules present in the synovial fluid, or could be shed from extracellular matrix as a consequence of the high enzymatic activity present in the articular fluid or as a response to the inflammatory stimulus.

  12. Elevated levels of circulating IL-18BP and perturbed regulation of IL-18 in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin (IL)-18 has been proposed to play a role in schizophrenia, since elevated circulating levels of its protein and altered frequencies of genetic variants in its molecular system are reported in schizophrenic patients. Methods We analyzed 77 patients with schizophrenia diagnosis (SCZ) and 77 healthy control subjects (HC) for serum concentration of both IL-18 and its natural inhibitor, the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). Results We confirmed that serum levels of total IL-18 are significantly increased in SCZ, as compared to HC. However, due to a highly significant increase in levels of circulating IL-18BP in SCZ, as compared to HC, the levels of free, bioactive IL-18 are not significantly different between the two groups. In addition, the relationships between the levels of IL-18 and its inhibitor, as well as between the two molecules and age appear dissimilar for SCZ and HC. In particular, the elevated levels of IL-18BP, likely a consequence of the body’s attempt to counteract the early prominent inflammation which characterizes schizophrenia, are maintained in earlier and later stages of the disease. However, the IL-18BP elevation appears ineffective to balance the IL-18 system in younger SCZ patients, while in older patients the levels of circulating bioactive IL-18 are comparable to those of HC, if not lower. Conclusions In conclusion, these findings indicate that the IL-18 system is perturbed in schizophrenia, supporting the idea that this pro-inflammatory cytokine might be part of a pathway of genetic and environmental components for vulnerability to the disease. PMID:22913567

  13. Effect of Sustained Elevated Gastric pH Levels on Gefitinib Exposure.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weifeng; Tomkinson, Helen; Masson, Eric

    2017-02-08

    This open-label, randomized, phase 1 crossover study investigated the effect of elevated gastric pH level (>5) on the relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. Healthy male volunteers (n = 26) were randomized to gefitinib 250 mg (fasted), either alone on day 1 (unmodified gastric pH) or 1 hour following the second of 2 oral doses of the H2 -receptor antagonist ranitidine 450 mg (elevated gastric pH). After a 3-week washout period, volunteers crossed to the other treatment. The geometric least-squares (GLS) mean AUC0-∞ and Cmax for gefitinib were reduced by 47% and 71%, respectively, under conditions of sustained elevated gastric pH; for both parameters, the 90%CI for the ratio of the GLS means lay below the prespecified lower limit. Median tmax was delayed from 5 to 6 hours. Mean t1/2 was similar under both gastric pH conditions. No serious adverse events were reported. The bioavailability of a single oral gefitinib 250-mg dose was reduced by approximately 50% when gefitinib was administered under conditions of sustained elevated gastric pH.

  14. Elevated serum digoxin levels in a patient taking digoxin and Siberian ginseng.

    PubMed Central

    McRae, S

    1996-01-01

    A 74-year-old man taking a constant dose of digoxin for many years was found to have an elevated serum digoxin level with no signs of toxic effects. Common causes of elevated serum digoxin were ruled out, and the patient's digoxin level remained high after digoxin therapy was stopped. The patient then revealed that he was taking Siberian ginseng, a popular herbal remedy. The patient stopped taking ginseng, and the serum digoxin level soon returned to an acceptable level. The digoxin therapy was resumed. The patient resumed taking ginseng several months later, and the serum digoxin level again rose. Digoxin therapy was maintained at a constant daily dose, the ginseng was stopped once more, and the serum digoxin levels again returned to within the therapeutic range. It is unclear whether some component of the ginseng was converted to digoxin in vivo, interfered with digoxin elimination or caused a false serum assay result. The author cautions physicians to be alert to the potential for herbal remedies to interact with prescribed medications and to affect biochemical analyses. PMID:8705908

  15. Association of Elevated Amyloid Levels With Cognition and Biomarkers in Cognitively Normal People From the Community

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ronald C.; Wiste, Heather J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Rocca, Walter A.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Lowe, Val J.; Knopman, David S.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Machulda, Mary M.; Geda, Yonas E.; Jack, Clifford R.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The role of amyloid in the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology is of central interest to the design of randomized clinical trials. The presence of amyloid has become a prerequisite for enrollment in several secondary prevention trials for AD, yet the precise effect of elevated amyloid levels on subsequent clinical and biomarker events is less certain. OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of elevated amyloid levels on subsequent changes in cognition and biomarkers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A total of 564 cognitively normal individuals (median age, 78 years) from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a population-based longitudinal study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, with serial cognitive data were selected for this study. The data used in this study were collected from January 12, 2006, to January 9, 2014. Individuals included in this study had undergone magnetic resonance imaging, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET at baseline were not cognitively impaired at baseline and had at least 1 clinical follow-up. A subset of 286 individuals also underwent serial imaging. Elevated amyloid level was defined as a standardized uptake value ratio of greater than 1.5 on PiB PET. Associations with baseline amyloid status and baseline and longitudinal change in clinical and imaging measures were evaluated after adjusting for age and hippocampal volume. APOE4 effects were also evaluated. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cognitive measures of memory, language, attention/executive function, visuospatial skills, PiB levels, hippocampal and ventricular volumes, and FDG-PET measures. RESULTS At baseline, 179 (31.7%) individuals with elevated amyloid levels had poorer cognition in all domains measured, reduced hippocampal volume, and greater FDG-PET hypometabolism. Elevated amyloid levels at baseline were associated with a greater rate of cognitive decline in all domains (0.04 to 0.09 z score units per year

  16. Triglyceride-Lowering Effects of Two Probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 and Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601, in a Rat Model of High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Il-Dong; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Jeong, Ji-Woong; Lee, Dong Eun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Hong, Seong Soo; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2016-03-01

    The triglyceride-lowering effect of probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 and Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 were investigated. Male SD Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed high-fat diet (HFD), HFD and probiotics (5 X 10(9) CFU/day of L. plantarum KY1032 and 5 X 10(9) CFU/day of L. curvatus HY7601), or normal diet for 6 weeks. Probiotic treatment significantly lowered the elevated plasma triglyceride and increased plasma free fatty acid, glycerol, and plasma apolipoprotein A-V (ApoA-V) levels. The probiotic-treated group showed elevated hepatic mRNA expression of PPARα, bile acid receptor (FXR), and ApoA-V. These results demonstrate that L. plantarum KY1032 and L. curvatus HY7601 lower triglycerides in hypertriglyceridemic rats by upregulating ApoA-V, PPARα, and FXR.

  17. Effects of intermittent flow and irradiance level on back reef Porites corals at elevated seawater temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.W.; Birkeland, C.

    2007-01-01

    Corals inhabiting shallow back reef habitats are often simultaneously exposed to elevated seawater temperatures and high irradiance levels, conditions known to cause coral bleaching. Water flow in many tropical back reef systems is tidally influenced, resulting in semi-diurnal or diurnal flow patterns. Controlled experiments were conducted to test effects of semi-diurnally intermittent water flow on photoinhibition and bleaching of the corals Porites lobata and P. cylindrica kept at elevated seawater temperatures and different irradiance levels. All coral colonies were collected from a shallow back reef pool on Ofu Island, American Samoa. In the high irradiance experiments, photoinhibition and bleaching were less for both species in the intermittent high-low flow treatment than in the constant low flow treatment. In the low irradiance experiments, there were no differences in photoinhibition or bleaching for either species between the flow treatments, despite continuously elevated seawater temperatures. These results suggest that intermittent flow associated with semi-diurnal tides, and low irradiances caused by turbidity or shading, may reduce photoinhibition and bleaching of back reef corals during warming events. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Feng, Youzhi; Yu, Yongjie; Tang, Haoye; Zu, Qianhui; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-02-01

    Although elevated ground-level O₃ has a species-specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O₃ pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O₃ Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O₃-tolerant (YD6) and the O₃-sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O₃ pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O₃ negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O₃ pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O₃ pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O₃ pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O₃.

  19. Pancreatic Tuberculosis with Markedly Elevated CA 19-9 Levels: A Diagnostic Pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Manveen; Dalal, Varsha; Bhatnagar, Amar; Siraj, Fouzia

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries, isolated pancreatic TB is rare and is usually seen in immunocompromised patients. It presents with non-specific signs and symptoms and may mimic malignancy both clinically and radiologically. Cytologic and histologic confirmation is required to establish the definitive diagnosis. We present a case of a 25-year-old male with a pancreatic mass and markedly elevated serum cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 levels raising the suspicion of malignancy but with a histopathologic picture of TB. This case suggests that clinicians should have a heightened suspicion of pancreatic TB when faced with discrete pancreatic lesions even though elevated tumor markers may indicate malignancy. It is important to perform appropriate diagnostic testing and initiate antitubercular therapy early. PMID:27974961

  20. Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrell, J. R.; Zuber, M. T.

    2000-01-01

    Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation of the northern polar cap. Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) provide comprehensive, high-accuracy topographical information required to precisely determine polar insolation. In this study, we employ a geodetic elevation model to quantify the north polar insolation and consider implications for seasonal and climatic changes. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  1. Men with elevated testosterone levels show more affiliative behaviours during interactions with women

    PubMed Central

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Buunk, Abraham P.; Fawcett, Tim W.; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone (T) is thought to play a key role in male–male competition and courtship in many vertebrates, but its precise effects are unclear. We explored whether courtship behaviour in humans is modulated and preceded by changes in T. Pairs of healthy male students first competed in a non-physical contest in which their T levels became elevated. Each participant then had a short, informal interaction with either an unfamiliar man or woman. The sex of the stimulus person did not affect the participants' behaviour overall. However, in interactions with women, those men who had experienced a greater T increase during the contest subsequently showed more interest in the woman, engaged in more self-presentation, smiled more and made more eye contact. No such effects were seen in interactions with other men. This is the first study to provide direct evidence that elevating T during male–male competition is followed by increased affiliative behaviour towards women. PMID:21632627

  2. Elevated plasma midkine and pleiotrophin levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Cui; Yuan, Hui; Pan, Hai-Feng; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2016-11-26

    Emerging evidence suggests that two heparin-binding growth factor, midkine and pleiotrophin are implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases including SLE. To investigate the plasma midkine and pleiotrophin levels in SLE patients, as well as their correlation with major clinical parameters and interleukin-17 (IL-17) level in SLE, 83 SLE patients and 123 controls including 20 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, 21 Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients and 82 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Plasma midkine, pleiotrophin and IL-17 levels were detected by ELISA. Midkine and pleiotrophin levels were significantly higher in SLE, RA and SS patients compared with HCs (all P < 0.05). There were significantly lower midkine and pleiotrophin levels in SLE compared to SS (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). No significant differences in midkine and pleiotrophin levels were found between SLE and RA (P = 0.240 and P = 0.074, respectively). Both plasma midkine and pleiotrophin levels were associated with rash and anti-SSA in SLE. In addition, both midkine and pleiotrophin levels were positively associated with IL-17 level in SLE (both P < 0.001). Area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for midkine and pleiotrophin were 0.606 (0.527-0.681) and 0.605 (0.526-0.680) respectively. In conclusion, elevated plasma midkine and pleiotrophin levels and their associations with rash, anti-SSA and IL-17 in SLE patients suggest their involvement in this disease.

  3. Surface Elevation, Carbon Sequestration Potential and Rising sea Levels in Estuarine Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, J. F.; Howe, A.; Saco, P. M.

    2007-12-01

    Estuarine wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth, providing habitat for commercially important fish species and migratory shorebirds, serving as nurseries for many other marine organisms and supporting the productivity of adjacent coastal waters. Typically, these wetlands are driven by tidal hydrodynamics and are net sinks for sediment and soil carbon. Their distribution in the tidal frame depends on a delicate balance between topographic gradient, the rate of vertical soil development, and the rate of sea level change. The complex interactions between hydrodynamics, ecology and soil processes that govern this balance produce positive feedbacks and system self-organization. As complex systems, these wetlands demonstrate resilience under a wide range of conditions but they have been observed to collapse or move to another equilibrium state above certain thresholds. Research at a wetland in the Hunter estuary, southeast Australia has tracked changes in relative sea level and surface elevation in mangrove and saltmarsh wetlands over a five year period (2002- 2006) and soil carbon over a two year period (2005-2006). Mangrove surface elevation was strongly correlated with relative sea level (R2=0.715, p=0.004) but there was no correlation between relative sea level and saltmarsh surface elevation (R2=0.093, p=0.424). Soil carbon levels were high in both vegetation types (% loss on ignition of 16.2% and 18.8% for mangrove and saltmarsh soils, respectively) and not significantly different (ANOVA F=1.36, p=0.270). A 16% increase in soil carbon was recorded in each vegetation type over the period 2005-2006. Mean annual sea level rose by 55 mm and net annual precipitation (rainfall minus evaporation) fell by 189 mm over the same period. The ability of mangrove to respond rapidly to changes in relative sea level and the indicative positive trend between soil carbon and relative sea level suggest that this wetland type is both resilient to future sea level

  4. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj

    2014-09-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3 were measured in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of BDNF and NT-3 were evaluated in various affective states in bipolar disorder patients during a 6-12 months period and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Careful attention was given to standardization of all procedures and adjustment for potential confounders of BDNF and NT-3. In linear mixed models, adjusting for demographical and lifestyle factors, levels of BDNF were significantly elevated in bipolar disorder patients in euthymic- (p<0.05), depressed- (p<0.005) and manic/hypomanic (p<0.005) states compared with healthy control subjects. Within bipolar disorder patients, adjusting for medication, there was no significant difference in BDNF levels between affective states, with equally elevated levels present in euthymic-, depressive- and manic/hypomanic patients. Levels of BDNF were higher in patients with longer duration of illness compared with patients with shorter duration of illness. We found no difference in NT-3 levels between bipolar disorder patients in any affective state compared with healthy control subjects and no difference in NT-3 levels between affective states in bipolar disorder patients. The results suggest that

  5. Transplantation of Deceased Donor Livers With Elevated Levels of Serum Transaminases at Shiraz Transplant Center

    PubMed Central

    Fakhar, Nasir; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Kazemi, Kourosh; Shamsayeefar, Ali Reza; Gholami, Siavash; Kasraianfard, Amir; Malek-Hosseini, Seyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background The current organ shortage has prompted the use of marginal organs. We conducted this retrospective study to present our experience with transplanting deceased donor livers with elevated levels of serum transaminases and to explain whether elevated levels of serum transaminases in donors affect allograft function and survival of the recipients. Methods Data of deceased donor livers and patients, who underwent liver transplantation from March 2013 to March 2015 at Shiraz center for organ transplantation, was reviewed. Liver donors with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and/or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level of more than 500 IU/l and their related recipients were considered as the case group (n = 24) and the others were considered as the control group (n = 834). Results In the case group, the medians of levels of serum AST and ALT of donors were 834 ± 425 IU/L (range: 250 - 2285) and 507 ± 367 IU/L (range: 100 - 1600), respectively. Recipients were followed for a median of 13.6 ± 9 months (range: 7 - 28.4). Post-transplant complications were acute rejection (n = 5), infection (n = 3), portal vein thrombosis (n = 3), bile duct stricture (n = 1), and hepatic artery stenosis (n = 1). The one-year survival rate of the patients was 91.7%. Demographics, post-transplant complications and one-year survival rates were not significantly different between the two study groups. Conclusions Transplanting deceased donor livers with markedly elevated liver enzymes may be an acceptable choice for expanding the donor pool. PMID:27882068

  6. Myxedema ascites with an extremely elevated CA125 Level: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kanehara, Hideo; Bando, Yukihiro; Tomita, Manabu; Kontani, Makoto; Takegoshi, Yasuo; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi

    2007-08-01

    Carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) is a tumor-marker frequently associated with ovarian malignancies; however, benign gynecologic conditions (e.g. ovarian cysts) commonly cause a smaller increase in CA125 levels. This report describes an elderly Japanese woman with high CA125 levels and massive ascites caused by hypothyroidism. A 67-year-old woman presented herself with a weight gain of about 12 kg and abdominal distension. Her serum CA125 level was markedly elevated (822 U/ml) and abdominal CT revealed a right ovarian cyst and massive ascites. Hormonal laboratory data showed severe primary hypothyroidism with a serum TSH of 594 IU/L and a free thyroxin level of 0.05 ng/dl. Ascitic fluid was found to be exudate with a high protein content of 42 g/L. Cytological analysis and FDG-PET showed no evidence of malignancy. The ascites completely disappeared and serum CA125 normalized after adequate hormonal replacement therapy. These data suggest that hypothyroidism should be considered in patients with ascites and elevated serum CA125.

  7. Elevation of liver enzyme levels during psychopharmacological treatment is associated with weight gain.

    PubMed

    Himmerich, Hubertus; Kaufmann, Christian; Schuld, Andreas; Pollmächer, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Increased circulating levels of liver enzymes emerging during treatment with psychotropic drugs are frequently encountered and, in general, attributed to drug metabolism or toxic effects. Because obesity was shown to be associated with elevated liver enzyme levels in different non-psychiatric study samples, we hypothesized that drug-induced weight gain might be an additional causative factor. We tested this hypothesis in 67 inpatients who received psychopharmacological treatment across five weeks. Stepwise linear regression was used to predict changes in the serum levels of aspartate-amino transferase (ASAT) and alanine-amino transferase (ALAT) by changes in the body mass index (BMI), by changes in other biological parameters related to body weight (tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha], soluble TNF receptors [sTNF-R], interleukin-6 [IL-6], leptin plasma levels) and by the respective liver enzyme baseline level. BMI changes from baseline to endpoint were significantly associated with the changes in ALAT and ASAT levels across five weeks of treatment and with ALAT and ASAT levels at the end point of the study. The baseline levels of ALAT and ASAT also had a significant impact on these liver enzyme level changes, whereas all other variables had not. These results suggest that weight gain-associated metabolic changes occurring during treatment with psychotropic drugs have consistent and clinically relevant effects on the liver.

  8. Identification of the source of elevated hepatocyte growth factor levels in multiple myeloma patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine which can lead to cancer cell proliferation, migration and metastasis. In multiple myeloma (MM) patients it is an abundant component of the bone marrow. HGF levels are elevated in 50% of patients and associated with poor prognosis. Here we aim to investigate its source in myeloma. Methods HGF mRNA levels in bone marrow core biopsies from healthy individuals and myeloma patients were quantified by real-time PCR. HGF gene expression profiling in CD138+ cells isolated from bone marrow aspirates of healthy individuals and MM patients was performed by microarray analysis. HGF protein concentrations present in peripheral blood of MM patients were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cytogenetic status of CD138+ cells was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA sequencing of the HGF gene promoter. HGF secretion in co-cultures of human myeloma cell lines and bone marrow stromal cells was measured by ELISA. Results HGF gene expression profiling in both bone marrow core biopsies and CD138+ cells showed elevated HGF mRNA levels in myeloma patients. HGF mRNA levels in biopsies and in myeloma cells correlated. Quantification of HGF protein levels in serum also correlated with HGF mRNA levels in CD138+ cells from corresponding patients. Cytogenetic analysis showed myeloma cell clones with HGF copy numbers between 1 and 3 copies. There was no correlation between HGF copy number and HGF mRNA levels. Co-cultivation of the human myeloma cell lines ANBL-6 and JJN3 with bone marrow stromal cells or the HS-5 cell line resulted in a significant increase in secreted HGF. Conclusions We here show that in myeloma patients HGF is primarily produced by malignant plasma cells, and that HGF production by these cells might be supported by the bone marrow microenvironment. Considering the fact that elevated HGF serum and plasma levels predict poor prognosis, these findings are of

  9. Nitrate retention in riparian ground water at natural and elevated nitrate levels in north central Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Duff, John H; Jackman, Alan P; Triska, Frank J; Sheibley, Richard W; Avanzino, Ronald J

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between local ground water flows and NO(3)(-) transport to the channel was examined in three well transects from a natural, wooded riparian zone adjacent to the Shingobee River, MN. The hillslope ground water originated as recharge from intermittently grazed pasture up slope of the site. In the hillslope transect perpendicular to the stream, ground water NO(3)(-) concentrations decreased from approximately 3 mg N L(-1) beneath the ridge (80 m from the channel) to 0.01 to 1.0 mg N L(-1) at wells 1 to 3 m from the channel. The Cl(-) concentrations and NO(3)/Cl ratios decreased toward the channel indicating NO(3)(-) dilution and biotic retention. In the bankside well transect parallel to the stream, two distinct ground water environments were observed: an alluvial environment upstream of a relict beaver dam influenced by stream water and a hillslope environment downstream of the relict beaver dam. Nitrate was elevated to levels representative of agricultural runoff in a third well transect located approximately 5 m from the stream to assess the effectiveness of the riparian zone as a NO(3)(-) sink. Subsurface NO(3)(-) injections revealed transport of up to 15 mg N L(-1) was nearly conservative in the alluvial riparian environment. Addition of glucose stimulated dissolved oxygen uptake and promoted NO(3)(-) retention under both background and elevated NO(3)(-) levels in summer and winter. Disappearance of added NO(3)(-) was followed by transient NO(2)(-) formation and, in the presence of C(2)H(2), by N(2)O formation, demonstrating potential denitrification. Under current land use, most NO(3)(-) associated with local ground water is biotically retained or diluted before reaching the channel. However, elevating NO(3)(-) levels through agricultural cultivation would likely result in increased NO(3)(-) transport to the channel.

  10. Nitrate retention in riparian ground water at natural and elevated nitrate levels in North Central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duff, J.H.; Jackman, A.P.; Triska, F.J.; Sheibley, R.W.; Avanzino, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between local ground water flows and NO3- transport to the channel was examined in three well transects from a natural, wooded riparian zone adjacent to the Shingobee River, MN. The hillslope ground water originated as recharge from intermittently grazed pasture up slope of the site. In the hillslope transect perpendicular to the stream, ground water NO3- concentrations decreased from ???3 mg N L-1 beneath the ridge (80 m from the channel) to 0.01 to 1.0 mg N L-1 at wells 1 to 3 m from the channel. The Cl- concentrations and NO3/Cl ratios decreased toward the channel indicating NO3- dilution and biotic retention. In the bankside well transect parallel to the stream, two distinct ground water environments were observed: an alluvial environment upstream of a relict beaver dam influenced by stream water and a hillslope environment downstream of the relict beaver dam. Nitrate was elevated to levels representative of agricultural runoff in a third well transect looted ???5 m from the stream to assess the effectiveness of the riparian zone as a NO3- sink. Subsurface NO3- injections revealed transport of up to 15 mg N L-1 was nearly conservative in the alluvial riparian environment. Addition of glucose stimulated dissolved oxygen uptake and promoted NO3- retention under both background and elevated NO 3- levels in summer and winter. Disappearance of added NO3- was followed by transient NO2- formation and, in the presence of C2H2, by N2O formation, demonstrating potential denitrification. Under current land use, most NO3- associated with local ground water is biotically retained or diluted before reaching the channel. However, elevating NO 3- levels through agricultural cultivation would likely result in increased NO3- transport to the channel. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  11. The ontogeny of individual vs. stand-level responses to elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1994-06-01

    Plant species appear to differ widely in terms of growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2]; however, most existing comparative data are limited to observations made early in the ontogeny on plants grown an isolated individuals. We examined growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2] in nine species of herbaceous plants, including three erect annuals (genera included Abutilon, Ambrosia, and Cassia) three grasses (Dactylis, Lolium, Panicum), and three rosette species (Plantago, Rumex, and Taraxacum), each grown as isolated individuals and as dense monocultures in ambient (350 ppm) and 2X ambient (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] atmospheres in a glasshouse over 5-6 mo. Soil texture, depth, and nutrient conditions matched those of waste areas in western Massachusetts. On the basis of non-destructive estimates of leaf area index (LAI), all species exhibited large early growth responses to CO[sub 2], ranging up to 50-120%. However, later in stand ontogeny LAI consistently converged between CO[sub 2] treatments, eventually becoming lower at ambient than at elevated CO[sub 2] in most species. Final total biomass effects at the stand level were in the range of 0-10% enhancements, with no consistent differences among growth forms. Reproductive output was significantly reduced by elevated CO[sub 2] in several species, including some with very high early growth enhancements. Our results strongly suggest that CO[sub 2] effects on early growth of individual plants greatly overestimate longer term effects on species performance and net ecosystem carbon gain.

  12. Role of transport in elevated CO levels over Delhi during onset phase of monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Reka; Beig, Gufran; Peshin, Sunil K.

    2016-09-01

    While local anthropogenic emission sources contribute significantly to pollutant levels in a megacity Delhi, meteorology can significantly modulate carbon monoxide (CO) levels. We hereby demonstrate that the concentration of CO during the unusual onset of monsoon 2013 was dramatically elevated and crossed the permissible limit (1.7 ppmv) for about a month long-period as against normal onset of monsoon where CO concentration generally drops down significantly. We compare level of CO in 2013 with normal monsoon year 2012. We provide a hypothesis to interpret this long lasting high concentration CO episode and validate using interactive high resolution WRF-Chem model. The model indicates that the high CO episode was caused by an unusually active Bay of Bengal branch of monsoon which bounces off from the east and transports CO rich air from the eastern part of the Indo Gangetic Plains to Delhi.

  13. Elevated serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Young; Jang, Sun Hee; Kim, Song Yee; Chung, Kyung Soo; Song, Joo Han; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kang, Young Ae

    2016-01-01

    Increased serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with nonmalignant diseases have been investigated in previous reports. This study evaluates the clinical significance of serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease and pulmonary tuberculosis. The median CA 19-9 level was higher in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease than in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease: 13.80, tuberculosis: 5.85, p<0.001). A multivariate logistic regression analysis performed in this study showed that Mycobacterium abscessus (OR 9.97, 95% CI: 1.58, 62.80; p=0.014) and active phase of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease (OR 12.18, 95% CI: 1.07, 138.36, p=0.044) were found to be risk factors for serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. The serum CA 19-9 levels showed a tendency to decrease during successful treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease but not in pulmonary tuberculosis. These findings suggest that CA 19-9 may be a useful marker for monitoring therapeutic responses in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, although it is not pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease-specific marker.

  14. Greek rheumatoid arthritis patients have elevated levels of antibodies against antigens from Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Georgios; Christopoulou, V; Routsias, J G; Babionitakis, A; Antoniadis, C; Vaiopoulos, G

    2017-03-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from different ethnic groups present elevated levels of antibodies against Proteus mirabilis. This finding implicates P. mirabilis in the development of RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of P. mirabilis in the etiopathogenesis of RA in Greek RA patients. In this study, 63 patients with RA and 38 healthy controls were included. Class-specific antibodies IgM, IgG, and IgA against three human cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive synthetic peptides from P. mirabilis-hemolysin (HpmB), urease C (UreC), and urease F (UreF)-were performed in all subjects, using the ELISA method. RA patients had elevated levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies against HpmB and UreC Proteus peptide which are significantly different compared to healthy controls: p = 0.005, p < 0.001, and p = 0.003 and p = 0.007, p = 0.002, and p < 0.001, correspondingly. Also, elevated levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies against the UreF Proteus peptide-which are non-cross-reactive with human tissue antigens-were observed and their significant difference compared to healthy controls (p = 0.007, p < 0.001, p < 0.001). Anti-peptide antibodies in RA patients showed a significant correlation with rheumatoid factors (Rf), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP), especially when patients were divided into subgroups according to the receiving treatment. Greek RA patients present elevated levels of antibodies against P. mirabilis antigenic epitopes, such as in North European populations, albeit Greek RA patients presenting the cross-reaction antigen in a low percentage. These results indicate that P. mirabilis through the molecular mimicry mechanism leads to inflammation and damage of the joints in RA.

  15. Elevation of circulating LOX-1 ligand levels in Zucker obese and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Shimomura, Tomoko; Nakanishi, Mamoru; Uchida, Kagehiro

    2015-01-01

    LOX-1 ligands containing apolipoprotein B (LAB) reflect ligand activity of LOX-1, which is a key molecule for initiation of atherosclerosis. The Zucker rat is a well-known model used for research on obesity and diabetes. Blood levels of LAB were compared among Zucker fatty (ZF), Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Zucker lean (ZL) rats. Log-transformed LAB was significantly higher in ZF and ZDF rats than in control ZL rats, while no significant difference was found in log-transformed LAB of ZF and ZDF rats. This study for the first time demonstrated that circulating LOX-1 ligands were elevated in obesity and diabetes model rats.

  16. Ovarian tumors with elevated CA-125 levels and severe juvenile hypothyroidism: a need for increased awareness.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Seth, Anju; Puri, Archana; Anand, Rama; Aneja, Satinder

    2010-06-01

    A 15-yr-old girl presented with bilateral gross ovarian tumors, clinical features of long-standing unrecognized hypothyroidism and markedly elevated CA-125 levels. Ovarian resection was avoided, as the presentation was consistent with the Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome; and the patient was treated with replacement of thyroid hormone. Regression of the ovarian tumors occurred 6 months after initiation of the treatment. The authors emphasise the need for increased awareness and screening for hypothyroidism in patients with ovarian tumors, in order to prevent inadvertent operative interventions.

  17. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common va...

  18. Serum levels of genomic DNA of α1(I) collagen are elevated in scleroderma patients.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Soichiro; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Shimbara, Miki; Nakamura, Kayo; Kudo, Hideo; Inoue, Kuniko; Nakayama, Wakana; Kajihara, Ikko; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2017-03-31

    Recent studies have indicated that various nucleic acids are present in human sera, and attracted attention for their potential as novel disease markers in many human diseases. In this study, we tried to evaluate the possibility that DNA and RNA of collagens exist in human sera, and determined whether their serum levels can be useful biomarkers in scleroderma patients. The RNA or DNA of collagens were purified from sera, and detected by polymerase chain reaction or quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Among approximately 18 360 bases of full-length α1(I) collagen DNA, various regions were detected by polymerase chain reaction in human sera. However, α2(I) collagen DNA, α1(I) collagen RNA or α2(I) collagen RNA were not detectable. α1(I) Collagen DNA in sera was quantitative using our method. The levels of serum α1(I) collagen DNA were significantly increased in scleroderma patients compared with healthy control subjects or systemic lupus erythematosus patients. According to the receiver-operator curve analysis, serum α1(I) collagen DNA levels were shown to be effective as a diagnostic marker of scleroderma. Furthermore, when we determined the association of serum α1(I) collagen DNA levels with clinical/laboratory features in scleroderma patients, those with elevated α1(I) collagen DNA levels showed significantly higher prevalence of pitting scars/ulcers. In summary, elevation of serum α1(I) collagen DNA levels in scleroderma patients may be useful as the diagnostic marker, reflecting the presence of vasculopathy.

  19. Lake Levels in Northeastern South Dakota Reach Historical Maximum Elevations in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. T.; Driscoll, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    The hydroclimatic conditions in the winter and spring of 2011 in eastern South Dakota combined to raise lake levels to historical maximums in northeastern South Dakota. The high lake levels caused extensive damage to lakeside homes and the transportation grid of rural, county, and State roads. These lake levels are one more manifestation of long-term upward trends of precipitation and streamflow conditions for the area. For example, upward trends are evident in the annual streamflow records for the James and Big Sioux Rivers in eastern South Dakota (Anderson and others, 2008). Levels in Waubay Lake in Day County reached an elevation of 1805.36 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 on July 18, 2011, exceeding the previous maximum level that occurred in 1999 by 1.36 feet. Anecdotal evidence and measurements indicate that many other lakes also reached maximum levels in 2011, such as Bitter Lake (1802.98 feet), Blue Dog Lake (1805.80), and Rush Lake (1805.75). These lakes are within a closed basin, with Bitter Lake being the terminal lake. At an estimated elevation of about 1811 feet, water in the Waubay-Bitter Lake system would begin to flow into the Big Sioux River. Some areas of the glaciated terrain of eastern South Dakota have such low topographic relief, that comparatively small increases in lake levels can inundate large land areas. The valuable historical archive of freely available satellite imagery from the U.S. Geological Survey permits analysis of the areal extent of flooding. Landsat and France's SPOT (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre) imagery are coupled with lake-level hydrographs to clearly depict change in land-surface inundation over time. Image analysis will present the change in flooded acreage from minimum lake levels in 1976 to maximum levels in July 2011 for Day County. The hydroclimatic trends are indicating wetter conditions, which leaves open the possibility that lake levels may continue to rise in future years.

  20. Elevated prolactin levels immediately precede decisions to babysit by male meerkat helpers.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Russell, Andrew F; Young, Andrew J; Jordan, Neil R; McNeilly, Alan S; Parlow, Al F; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2006-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that decisions to care for the offspring of others in societies of cooperative vertebrates may have a hormonal basis. The crucial question of whether changes in hormone levels immediately precede or merely follow bouts of offspring care, however, remains largely unanswered. Here, we show that in wild groups of cooperatively breeding meerkats, male helpers that decided to babysit for the day had significantly higher levels of prolactin, coupled with lower levels of cortisol, before initiating a babysitting session compared with similarly aged individuals that decided to forage. In addition, these hormonal differences disappeared over the course of the day, suggesting that hormone levels changed in a fundamentally different way in meerkats that babysat versus those that foraged. In contrast, long-term contributions to babysitting were not significantly associated with plasma levels of prolactin, cortisol, or testosterone in individual male helpers. Our results show, for the first time, that elevated levels of prolactin may immediately precede bouts of helping behavior but differ from recent findings on the same study population in which plasma levels of cortisol, but not prolactin, were significantly and positively associated with rates of pup feeding by male helpers. Together, these results lend significant weight to the idea that decisions to help in cooperative vertebrates have a hormonal basis, although different hormones appear to be associated with different types of care.

  1. Slow intestinal transit contributes to elevate urinary p-cresol level in Italian autistic children.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Altieri, Laura; Neri, Cristina; Urbani, Andrea; Bravaccio, Carmela; Riccio, Maria Pia; Iovene, Maria Rosaria; Bombace, Francesca; De Magistris, Laura; Persico, Antonio M

    2016-07-01

    The uremic toxin p-cresol (4-methylphenol) is either of environmental origin or can be synthetized from tyrosine by cresol-producing bacteria present in the gut lumen. Elevated p-cresol amounts have been previously found in the urines of Italian and French autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children up until 8 years of age, and may be associated with autism severity or with the intensity of abnormal behaviors. This study aims to investigate the mechanism producing elevated urinary p-cresol in ASD. Urinary p-cresol levels were thus measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in a sample of 53 Italian ASD children assessed for (a) presence of Clostridium spp. strains in the gut by means of an in vitro fecal stool test and of Clostridium difficile-derived toxin A/B in the feces, (b) intestinal permeability using the lactulose/mannitol (LA/MA) test, (c) frequent use of antibiotics due to recurrent infections during the first 2 years of postnatal life, and (d) stool habits with the Bristol Stool Form Scale. Chronic constipation was the only variable significantly associated with total urinary p-cresol concentration (P < 0.05). No association was found with presence of Clostridium spp. in the gut flora (P = 0.92), augmented intestinal permeability (P = 0.18), or frequent use of antibiotics in early infancy (P = 0.47). No ASD child was found to carry C. difficile in the gut or to release toxin A/B in the feces. In conclusion, urinary p-cresol levels are elevated in young ASD children with increased intestinal transit time and chronic constipation. Autism Res 2016, 9: 752-759. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Associated with Retained Bullet Fragments - United States, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Debora; Tomasallo, Carrie D; Meiman, Jon G; Alarcon, Walter; Graber, Nathan M; Bisgard, Kristine M; Anderson, Henry A

    2017-02-10

    An estimated 115,000 firearm injuries occur annually in the United States, and approximately 70% are nonfatal (1). Retained bullet fragments (RBFs) are an infrequently reported, but important, cause of lead toxicity; symptoms are often nonspecific and can appear years after suffering a gunshot wound (2,3). Adult blood lead level (BLL) screening is most commonly indicated for monitoring of occupational lead exposure; routine testing of adults with RBFs is infrequent (3). States collaborate with CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to monitor elevated BLLs through the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program (4,5). To help assess the public health burden of RBFs, data for persons with BLLs ≥10 μg/dL reported to ABLES during 2003-2012 were analyzed. An RBF-associated case was defined as a BLL ≥10 μg/dL in a person with an RBF. A non-RBF-associated case was defined as a BLL ≥10 μg/dL without an RBF. During 2003-2012, a total of 145,811 persons aged ≥16 years with BLLs ≥10 μg/dL were reported to ABLES in 41 states. Among these, 457 RBF-associated cases were identified with a maximum RBF-associated BLL of 306 μg/dL. RBF-associated cases accounted for 0.3% of all BLLs ≥10 μg/dL and 4.9% of BLLs ≥80 μg/dL. Elevated BLLs associated with RBFs occurred primarily among young adult males in nonoccupational settings. Low levels of suspicion of lead toxicity from RBFs by medical providers might cause a delay in diagnosis (3). Health care providers should inquire about an RBF as the potential cause for lead toxicity in an adult with an elevated BLL whose lead exposure is undetermined.

  3. Peripheral interleukin-1β levels are elevated in chronic tension-type headache patients

    PubMed Central

    Vedova, Chris Della; Cathcart, Stuart; Dohnalek, Alan; Lee, Vanessa; Hutchinson, Mark R; Immink, Maarten A; Hayball, John

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tension-type headache is the most common form of headache and its chronic form, chronic tension-type headache (CTTH), is one of the most difficult to treat. The etiology of CTTH is not well understood, but is believed to be multifactorial and to vary among individuals. In the present study, the authors sought to identify common mechanisms of CTTH pathology. Empirical studies have implicated various immunomodulatory cytokines as mediators of chronic pain disorders, including CTTH. OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of peripheral cytokines and genetic factors in the development of CTTH. METHODS: A panel of cytokines hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of CTTH was measured using cytometric bead arrays and ELISAs in 56 individuals with CTTH and 42 healthy control participants between 18 and 65 years of age. RESULTS: Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β were significantly elevated in participants diagnosed with CTTH relative to healthy controls, while IL-18 levels were found to be significantly elevated in men with CTTH. Because the levels of these immune mediators were increased in the apparent absence of injury or infection, the authors sought to determine whether genetic changes were responsible for fluctuations in cytokine levels. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses were used to determine individual genotypes at key single nucleotide polymorphism positions in the IL-1B gene. No association was observed between CTTH and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the IL-1β gene. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that increases in key proinflammatory cytokine levels are associated with CTTH and the pathology of the disorder involves sterile neurovascular inflammation. PMID:23957020

  4. Origin of elevated water levels encountered in Pahute Mesa emplacement boreholes: Preliminary investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Brikowski, T.; Chapman, J.; Lyles, B.; Hokett, S.

    1993-11-01

    The presence of standing water well above the predicted water table in emplacement boreholes on Pahute Mesa has been a recurring phenomenon at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). If these levels represent naturally perched aquifers, they may indicate a radionuclide migration hazard. In any case, they can pose engineering problems in the performance of underground nuclear tests. The origin of these elevated waters is uncertain. Large volumes of water are introduced during emplacement drilling, providing ample source for artificially perched water, yet elevated water levels can remain constant for years, suggesting a natural origin instead. In an effort to address the issue of unexpected standing water in emplacement boreholes, three different sites were investigated in Area 19 on Pahute Mesa by Desert Research Institute (DRI) staff from 1990-93. These sites were U-19az, U-19ba, and U-19bh. As of this writing, U-19bh remains available for access; however, nuclear tests were conducted at the former two locations subsequent to this investigations. The experiments are discussed in chronological order. Taken together, the experiments indicate that standing water in Pahute Mesa emplacement holes originates from the drainage of small-volume naturally perched zones. In the final study, the fluids used during drilling of the bottom 100 m of emplacement borehole U-19bh were labeled with a chemical tracer. After hole completion, water level rose in the borehole, while tracer concentration decreased. In fact, total mass of tracer in the borehole remained constant, while water levels rose. After water levels stabilized in this hole, no change in tracer mass was observed over two years, indicating that no movement of water out of the borehole is taking place (as at U- 19ba). Continued labeling tests of standing water are recommended to confirm the conclusions made here, and to establish their validity throughout Pahute Mesa.

  5. Elevated level of acetylation of APE1 in tumor cells modulates DNA damage repair

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Shiladitya; Mantha, Anil K.; Song, Heyu; Roychoudhury, Shrabasti; Nath, Somsubhra; Ray, Sutapa; Bhakat, Kishor K.

    2016-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are frequently generated in the genome by spontaneous depurination/depyrimidination or after removal of oxidized/modified bases by DNA glycosylases during the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Unrepaired AP sites are mutagenic and block DNA replication and transcription. The primary enzyme to repair AP sites in mammalian cells is AP endonuclease (APE1), which plays a key role in this repair pathway. Although overexpression of APE1 in diverse cancer types and its association with chemotherapeutic resistance are well documented, alteration of posttranslational modification of APE1 and modulation of its functions during tumorigenesis are largely unknown. Here, we show that both classical histone deacetylase HDAC1 and NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 regulate acetylation level of APE1 and acetylation of APE1 enhances its AP-endonuclease activity both in vitro and in cells. Modulation of APE1 acetylation level in cells alters AP site repair capacity of the cell extracts in vitro. Primary tumor tissues of diverse cancer types have higher level of acetylated APE1 (AcAPE1) compared to adjacent non-tumor tissue and exhibit enhanced AP site repair capacity. Importantly, in the absence of APE1 acetylation, cells accumulate AP sites in the genome and show increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. Together, our study demonstrates that elevation of acetylation level of APE1 in tumor could be a novel mechanism by which cells handle the elevated levels of DNA damages in response to genotoxic stress and maintain sustained proliferation. PMID:27655688

  6. Investigation of potential sea level rise impact on the Nile Delta, Egypt using digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Emad; Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Hong, Yang

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the future impact of Sea Level Rise (SLR) on the Nile Delta region in Egypt is assessed by evaluating the elevations of two freely available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs): the SRTM and the ASTER-GDEM-V2. The SLR is a significant worldwide dilemma that has been triggered by recent climatic changes. In Egypt, the Nile Delta is projected to face SLR of 1 m by the end of the 21th century. In order to provide a more accurate assessment of the future SLR impact on Nile Delta's land and population, this study corrected the DEM's elevations by using linear regression model with ground elevations from GPS survey. The information for the land cover types and future population numbers were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and the Gridded Population of the Worlds (GPWv3) datasets respectively. The DEM's vertical accuracies were assessed using GPS measurements and the uncertainty analysis revealed that the SRTM-DEM has positive bias of 2.5 m, while the ASTER-GDEM-V2 showed a positive bias of 0.8 m. The future inundated land cover areas and the affected population were illustrated based on two SLR scenarios of 0.5 m and 1 m. The SRTM DEM data indicated that 1 m SLR will affect about 3900 km(2) of cropland, 1280 km(2) of vegetation, 205 km(2) of wetland, 146 km(2) of urban areas and cause more than 6 million people to lose their houses. The overall vulnerability assessment using ASTER-GDEM-V2 indicated that the influence of SLR will be intense and confined along the coastal areas. For instance, the data indicated that 1 m SLR will inundate about 580 Km(2) (6%) of the total land cover areas and approximately 887 thousand people will be relocated. Accordingly, the uncertainty analysis of the DEM's elevations revealed that the ASTER-GDEM-V2 dataset product was considered the best to determine the future impact of SLR on the Nile Delta region.

  7. Elevated Levels of Plasma Phenylalanine in Schizophrenia: A Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase-1 Metabolic Pathway Abnormality?

    PubMed Central

    Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Muravitskaja, Olesja; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ashraf, Ayesha; Hinman, Sarah; Giegling, Ina; Hartmann, Annette M.; Konte, Bettina; Friedl, Marion; Schiffman, Jason; Hong, Elliot; Reeves, Gloria; Groer, Maureen; Dantzer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Phenylalanine and tyrosine are precursor amino acids required for the synthesis of dopamine, the main neurotransmitter implicated in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Inflammation, increasingly implicated in schizophrenia, can impair the function of the enzyme Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; which catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine) and thus lead to elevated phenylalanine levels and reduced tyrosine levels. This study aimed to compare phenylalanine, tyrosine, and their ratio (a proxy for PAH function) in a relatively large sample of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Methods We measured non-fasting plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine in 950 schizophrenia patients and 1000 healthy controls. We carried out multivariate analyses to compare log transformed phenylalanine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio between patients and controls. Results Compared to controls, schizophrenia patients had higher phenylalanine (p<0.0001) and phenylalanine: tyrosine ratio (p<0.0001) but tyrosine did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.596). Conclusions Elevated phenylalanine and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio in the blood of schizophrenia patients have to be replicated in longitudinal studies. The results may relate to an abnormal PAH function in schizophrenia that could become a target for novel preventative and interventional approaches. PMID:24465804

  8. Elevated plasma osteoprotegerin levels are associated with venous thrombosis and bleeding in patients with polycythemia vera.

    PubMed

    Kees, Mathias; Wiesbauer, Franz; Gisslinger, Bettina; Wagner, Renate; Shehata, Medhat; Gisslinger, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    Patients with polycythemia vera (PV) have an increased risk for the development of thrombohemorrhagic complications. The pathogenesis of these complications is still unclear. An important role in vascular disease has recently been attributed to osteoprotegerin (OPG). It has been shown that various tissues of the cardiovascular system produce OPG, and there is growing evidence of an association between elevated serum OPG levels and cardiovascular morbidity. We evaluated if OPG was associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis or bleeding complications in a cohort of 114 PV patients. The analysis consisted of a retrospective and a prospective part. In the retrospective univariate analysis, a one unit change in OPG caused the odds of venous thrombosis to increase by 40% (p=0.005) and the odds of bleeding to increase by 52% (p=0.001). Multivariate analysis only slightly attenuated the association to 33% (p=0.03) and 37% (p=0.013) for venous thrombosis and bleeding, respectively. OPG was also related to the development of the combined outcome of venous thrombosis and bleeding in the prospective analysis (log-rank-test: p=0.017). This is the first report that links the occurrence of venous thrombosis or bleeding to elevated OPG levels.

  9. Cerebral Spinal Fluid levels of Cytokines are elevated in Patients with Metachromatic Leukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Thibert, Kathryn A.; Raymond, Gerald V.; Tolar, Jakub; Miller, Weston P.; Orchard, Paul J.; Lund, Troy C.

    2016-01-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a lysosomal storage disease resulting from a deficiency of arylsulfatase A causing an accumulation of cerebroside sulfate, a lipid normally abundant in myelin. Sulfatide accumulation is associated with progressive demyelination and a clinical presentation in severe disease forms that is dominated by motor manifestations. Cerebral inflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology of MLD. To date, cytokine levels in the cerebral spinal fluid of MLD patients have not previously been reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the CSF of patients with MLD and to compare these levels to unaffected controls. Of 22 cytokines evaluated, we documented significant elevations of MCP-1, IL-1Ra, IL-8, MIP-1b and VEGF in the MLD patients compared to unaffected controls. The elevated cytokines identified in this study may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of MLD. Better understanding of the inflammatory and neurodegenerative process of MLD may lead to improved targeted therapies. PMID:27079147

  10. The Effects of Dietary Iron and Capsaicin on Hemoglobin, Blood Glucose, Insulin Tolerance, Cholesterol, and Triglycerides, in Healthy and Diabetic Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Villalpando-Hernández, Salvador; Ríos-Silva, Mónica; Díaz-Reval, María I.; Cruzblanca, Humberto; Mancilla, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to assess the effects of dietary iron, and the compound capsaicin, on hemoglobin as well as metabolic indicators including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Materials and Methods Our animal model was the Wistar rat, fed a chow diet, with or without experimentally induced diabetes. Diabetic males were fed control, low, or high-iron diets, the latter, with or without capsaicin. Healthy rats were fed identical diets, but without the capsaicin supplement. We then measured the parameters listed above, using the Student t-test and ANOVA, to compare groups. Results Healthy rats fed a low-iron diet exhibited significantly reduced total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, compared with rats fed a control diet. Significantly reduced blood lipid was also provoked by low dietary iron in diabetic rats, compared with those fed a control diet. Insulin, and glucose tolerance was only improved in healthy rats fed the low-iron diet. Significant increases in total cholesterol were found in diabetic rats fed a high-iron diet, compared with healthy rats fed the same diet, although no statistical differences were found for triglycerides. Hemoglobin levels, which were not statistically different in diabetic versus healthy rats fed the high-iron diet, fell when capsaicin was added. Capsaicin also provoked a fall in the level of cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetic animals, versus diabetics fed with the high iron diet alone. In conclusion, low levels of dietary iron reduced levels of serum triglycerides, hemoglobin, and cholesterol, and significantly improved insulin, and glucose tolerance in healthy rats. In contrast, a high-iron diet increased cholesterol significantly, with no significant changes to triglyceride concentrations. The addition of capsaicin to the high-iron diet (for diabetic rats) further reduced levels of hemoglobin, cholesterol, and triglycerides. These results suggest that capsaicin, may be suitable

  11. Treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy is associated with elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Hannerfors, A-K; Hellgren, C; Schijven, D; Iliadis, S I; Comasco, E; Skalkidou, A; Olivier, J D A; Sundström-Poromaa, I

    2015-08-01

    Treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, but causality remains unclear. While placental CRH production is correlated with gestational length and preterm birth, it has been difficult to establish if psychological stress or mental health problems are associated with increased CRH levels. This study compared second trimester CRH serum concentrations in pregnant women on SSRI treatment (n=207) with untreated depressed women (n=56) and controls (n=609). A secondary aim was to investigate the combined effect of SSRI treatment and CRH levels on gestational length and risk for preterm birth. Women on SSRI treatment had significantly higher second trimester CRH levels than controls, and untreated depressed women. CRH levels and SSRI treatment were independently associated with shorter gestational length. The combined effect of SSRI treatment and high CRH levels yielded the highest risk estimate for preterm birth. SSRI treatment during pregnancy is associated with increased CRH levels. However, the elevated risk for preterm birth in SSRI users appear not to be mediated by increased placental CRH production, instead CRH appear as an independent risk factor for shorter gestational length and preterm birth.

  12. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Luying

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of the preoperative plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A total of 168 consecutive locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Plasma D-dimer levels were measured by a latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Of the 168 patients enrolled, 106 patients were males and 62 patients were females. There was significant difference between plasma D-dimer levels and clinical responses (P=0.001). The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year cumulative overall survival rates were 50.6%, 15.0%, and 4.9%, respectively. Plasma D-dimer levels (P<0.001) and platelet counts (P=0.010) were significantly related with overall survival in univariate analysis. The Cox proportional hazards regression indicated that plasma D-dimer levels (P=0.028), platelet counts (P=0.004), and treatment response (P<0.001) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  13. Elevated Omentin Serum Levels Predict Long-Term Survival in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Luedde, Mark; Benz, Fabian; Niedeggen, Jennifer; Vucur, Mihael; Hippe, Hans-Joerg; Spehlmann, Martina E.; Schueller, Florian; Loosen, Sven; Frey, Norbert; Trautwein, Christian; Koch, Alexander; Luedde, Tom; Tacke, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Omentin, a recently described adipokine, was shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, its role in critical illness and sepsis is currently unknown. Materials and Methods. Omentin serum concentrations were measured in 117 ICU-patients (84 with septic and 33 with nonseptic disease etiology) admitted to the medical ICU. Results were compared with 50 healthy controls. Results. Omentin serum levels of critically ill patients at admission to the ICU or after 72 hours of ICU treatment were similar compared to healthy controls. Moreover, circulating omentin levels were independent of sepsis and etiology of critical illness. Notably, serum concentrations of omentin could not be linked to concentrations of inflammatory cytokines or routinely used sepsis markers. While serum levels of omentin were not predictive for short term survival during ICU treatment, low omentin concentrations were an independent predictor of patients' overall survival. Omentin levels strongly correlated with that of other adipokines (e.g., leptin receptor or adiponectin), which have also been identified as prognostic markers in critical illness. Conclusions. Although circulating omentin levels did not differ between ICU-patients and controls, elevated omentin levels were predictive for an impaired patients' long term survival. PMID:27867249

  14. Proteome Analyses of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm at Elevated Levels of NaCl.

    PubMed

    Islam, Nazrul; Ross, Julia M; Marten, Mark R

    2015-10-01

    Our studies demonstrate that sodium chloride (NaCl) induces changes in biofilm, mediated by increased production of polysaccharides intercellular adhesion (PIA). We identified 12 proteins that showed higher abundance in increased level of NaCl. This includes one important protein (IsaA) known to be associated with biofilm stability. In addition, we also found higher abundance of a cold shock protein, CspA, at higher NaCl. We have also identified several other proteins that are differentially expressed to the elevated levels of NaCl and mapped them in the regulatory pathways of PIA. The majority of proteins are involved with various aspects bacterial metabolic function. Our results demonstrated that NaCl influences gene regulatory networks controlling exopolysaccharide expression.

  15. Predictors of elevational biodiversity gradients change from single taxa to the multi-taxa community level

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Marcell K.; Hemp, Andreas; Appelhans, Tim; Behler, Christina; Classen, Alice; Detsch, Florian; Ensslin, Andreas; Ferger, Stefan W.; Frederiksen, Sara B.; Gebert, Friederike; Haas, Michael; Helbig-Bonitz, Maria; Hemp, Claudia; Kindeketa, William J.; Mwangomo, Ephraim; Ngereza, Christine; Otte, Insa; Röder, Juliane; Rutten, Gemma; Schellenberger Costa, David; Tardanico, Joseph; Zancolli, Giulia; Deckert, Jürgen; Eardley, Connal D.; Peters, Ralph S.; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Schleuning, Matthias; Ssymank, Axel; Kakengi, Victor; Zhang, Jie; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Brandl, Roland; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Kleyer, Michael; Nauss, Thomas; Tschapka, Marco; Fischer, Markus; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2016-01-01

    The factors determining gradients of biodiversity are a fundamental yet unresolved topic in ecology. While diversity gradients have been analysed for numerous single taxa, progress towards general explanatory models has been hampered by limitations in the phylogenetic coverage of past studies. By parallel sampling of 25 major plant and animal taxa along a 3.7 km elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro, we quantify cross-taxon consensus in diversity gradients and evaluate predictors of diversity from single taxa to a multi-taxa community level. While single taxa show complex distribution patterns and respond to different environmental factors, scaling up diversity to the community level leads to an unambiguous support for temperature as the main predictor of species richness in both plants and animals. Our findings illuminate the influence of taxonomic coverage for models of diversity gradients and point to the importance of temperature for diversification and species coexistence in plant and animal communities. PMID:28004657

  16. Sensing, physiological effects and molecular response to elevated CO2 levels in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Sharabi, Kfir; Lecuona, Emilia; Helenius, Iiro Taneli; Beitel, Greg J; Sznajder, Jacob Iasha; Gruenbaum, Yosef

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important gaseous molecule that maintains biosphere homeostasis and is an important cellular signalling molecule in all organisms. The transport of CO2 through membranes has fundamental roles in most basic aspects of life in both plants and animals. There is a growing interest in understanding how CO2 is transported into cells, how it is sensed by neurons and other cell types and in understanding the physiological and molecular consequences of elevated CO2 levels (hypercapnia) at the cell and organism levels. Human pulmonary diseases and model organisms such as fungi, C. elegans, Drosophila and mice have been proven to be important in understanding of the mechanisms of CO2 sensing and response. PMID:19863692

  17. Creatine Kinase Levels are Elevated During 2-A-Day Practices in Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Greg G.; Ball, Thomas E.; Liston, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine blood serum creatine kinase (CK) levels in football players undergoing 2-a-day football practices and to determine if CK levels are related to fitness. Our hypotheses were that CK levels in each subject would increase over the course of practices and that higher levels of fitness would result in smaller increases in CK. Design and Setting: Creatine kinase measurements were taken 4 times over 10 days of preseason, 2-a-day practices: before beginning practices (CKM1) and on the mornings of the 4th (CKM2), 7th (CKM3), and 10th (CKM4) days of practice. Subjects: Twelve male Division I football players from a midwestern university. Measurements: Fitness tests included percentage of body fat, body mass index, anaerobic capacity, and peak power from a 1-leg step test and 1-repetition maximum bench press and squat lifts. Changes in CK levels were calculated as the difference between the second CK measure (CKM2) and the first CK measure (CKM1). Results: Differences were significant between the CK measurements (P = .0002). Post hoc analysis revealed that CKM2 and CKM3 levels were statistically higher than CKM1 levels. No other statistically significant differences between CK measures were noted. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients showed that athletes who generated higher peak power during a 15-second step test had smaller increases in CK levels from CMK1 to CMK2 (r = −.64). Although the correlations with anaerobic capacity (r = −.54, P = .071), body mass index (r = −.51, P = .090), and percentage of body fat (r = −.52, P = .082) approached statistical significance, no other correlations were statistically significant. The mean CKM2 level was 5124.7 U·L−1 ± 5518.1, approximately 30 times the norm for men. Conclusions: Participation in 2-a-day football practices resulted in significant serum CK elevations, which remained elevated for at least 7 days. Participants who had higher peak power had smaller increases in CK. PMID

  18. Novel polymeric materials from triglycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triglycerides are good platforms for new polymeric products that can substitute for petroleum-based materials. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a number of reactions in efforts to produce a wide range of value-added products. In this ...

  19. Elevated urinary level of vitamin D-binding protein as a novel biomarker for diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, XIAO-QIN; ZHAO, LI-MIN; GE, JIA-PU; ZHANG, YAN; XU, YAN-CHENG

    2014-01-01

    Improving the early prediction and detection of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains a great challenge in disease management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early detection power of urinary vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) for the diagnosis of DN. Urine samples were obtained from 45 healthy volunteers and 105 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (DM group), microalbuminuria (DN1 group) and macroalbuminuria (DN2 group) (n=35 per group). The VDBP expression patterns in urine from patients and controls were quantified by western blot analysis. The excretion levels of urinary VDBP were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The quantification results were obtained by correcting for creatinine expression and showed that urinary VDBP levels were significantly elevated in the patients of the DN1 and DN2 groups compared with those of the DM group and normal controls (1,011.33±325.30 and 1,406.34±239.66 compared with 466.54±213.63 and 125.48±98.27 ng/mg, respectively) (P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis of urinary VDBP levels for the diagnosis of DN rendered an optimum cut-off value of 552.243 ng/mg corresponding to 92.86% sensitivity and 85.00% specificity, which also showed an area under the ROC curve of 0.966. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that urinary VDBP may be a potential biomarker for the early detection and prevention of DN. Further studies are required to examine the pathogenic mechanisms of elevated VDBP levels and their role in the diagnosis of DN. PMID:24396416

  20. Elevated Hypothalamic Glucocorticoid Levels Are Associated With Obesity and Hyperphagia in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sefton, Charlotte; Harno, Erika; Davies, Alison; Small, Helen; Allen, Tiffany-Jayne; Wray, Jonathan R.; Lawrence, Catherine B.; Coll, Anthony P.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (Gc) excess, from endogenous overproduction in disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or exogenous medical therapy, is recognized to cause adverse metabolic side effects. The Gc receptor (GR) is widely expressed throughout the body, including brain regions such as the hypothalamus. However, the extent to which chronic Gcs affect Gc concentrations in the hypothalamus and impact on GR and target genes is unknown. To investigate this, we used a murine model of corticosterone (Cort)-induced obesity and analyzed Cort levels in the hypothalamus and expression of genes relevant to Gc action. Mice were administered Cort (75 μg/mL) or ethanol (1%, vehicle) in drinking water for 4 weeks. Cort-treated mice had increased body weight, food intake, and adiposity. As expected, Cort increased plasma Cort levels at both zeitgeber time 1 and zeitgeber time 13, ablating the diurnal rhythm. Liquid chromatography dual tandem mass spectrometry revealed a 4-fold increase in hypothalamic Cort, which correlated with circulating levels and concentrations of Cort in other brain regions. This occurred despite decreased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Hsd11b1) expression, the gene encoding the enzyme that regenerates active Gcs, whereas efflux transporter Abcb1 mRNA was unaltered. In addition, although Cort decreased hypothalamic GR (Nr3c1) expression 2-fold, the Gc-induced leucine zipper (Tsc22d3) mRNA increased, which indicated elevated GR activation. In keeping with the development of hyperphagia and obesity, Cort increased Agrp, but there were no changes in Pomc, Npy, or Cart mRNA in the hypothalamus. In summary, chronic Cort treatment causes chronic increases in hypothalamic Cort levels and a persistent elevation in Agrp, a mediator in the development of metabolic disturbances. PMID:27649090

  1. Elevated Choline-Containing Compound Levels in Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bo; Stanley, Jeffrey A; Passos, Ives Cavalcante; Mwangi, Benson; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Zunta-Soares, Giovana B; Soares, Jair C

    2017-03-29

    Previous studies have found increased levels of choline-containing compounds (ie, glycerophosphocholine plus phosphocholine (GPC+PC)) in bipolar disorder using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), especially in bipolar I disorder (BD-I). Increased levels of GPC+PC suggest alterations in the membrane phospholipids metabolism in bipolar disorder. Rapid cycling (RC) bipolar disorder is considered as a severe course of bipolar disorder, but it is unclear whether rapid cycling bipolar disorder is linked to highly altered membrane phospholipid metabolism. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the regional extent of elevated GPC+PC were greater in BD-I patients with rapid cycling compared to BD-I patients without rapid cycling and healthy controls. Using a multi-voxel (1)H MRS approach at 3 Tesla with high spatial resolution and absolute quantification, GPC+PC levels from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate and putamen of 16 RC BD-I, 34 non-RC BD-I and 44 healthy controls were assessed. We found significantly elevated GPC+PC levels in ACC, putamen and caudate of RC BD-I patients compared to healthy controls (P<0.005) and in ACC compared to non-RC BD-I patients (P<0.05). These results suggest greater alteration of membrane phospholipid metabolisms in rapid cycling BD-I compared to non-rapid-cycling BD-I.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 29 March 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.39.

  2. Serum Interleukin-34 Levels Are Elevated in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxu; Cao, Ju; Lai, Xiaofei

    2016-12-28

    Interleukin-34 (IL-34) was initially identified as an alternative ligand for the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) to mediate the biology of mononuclear phagocytic cells. Recently, IL-34 was found to be associated with chronic inflammation, such as in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Both RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are multifactorial autoimmune diseases and are characterized by excessive immune and inflammatory responses. Thus, we investigated whether IL-34 is involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. In all, 78 SLE patients and 53 healthy controls were enrolled in the research. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to measure the concentrations of serological IL-34. Then serum IL-34 levels between the SLE group and healthy controls were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. Meanwhile, the correlations between the serum IL-34 levels and disease activity indexes and other established serum markers were assessed. Furthermore, the serum IL-34 levels of 20 active SLE patients were reevaluated when diseases were in the remission stage from corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs. Serum IL-34 levels were significantly higher in SLE patients compared to healthy controls. Their levels were remarkably associated with accumulation of the clinical features of SLE. Additionally, IL-34 titers were positively correlated with the SLE disease activity indexes, anti-double-stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA) titers and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and inversely with complement3 (C3) levels. Moreover, serum IL-34 levels were significantly decreased after successful treatment of SLE. Serum IL-34 could be a candidate biomarker for SLE as there are elevated serum levels in treatment-naive SLE patients and we saw a significant decrease after effective treatment.

  3. Interactive effects of salinity and elevated CO2 levels on juvenile eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Gary H; Ivanina, Anna V; Matoo, Omera B; Pörtner, Hans O; Lannig, Gisela; Bock, Christian; Beniash, Elia; Sokolova, Inna M

    2012-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) lead to acidification of the ocean and alter seawater carbonate chemistry, which can negatively impact calcifying organisms, including mollusks. In estuaries, exposure to elevated CO(2) levels often co-occurs with other stressors, such as reduced salinity, which enhances the acidification trend, affects ion and acid-base regulation of estuarine calcifiers and modifies their response to ocean acidification. We studied the interactive effects of salinity and partial pressure of CO(2) (P(CO2)) on biomineralization and energy homeostasis in juveniles of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, a common estuarine bivalve. Juveniles were exposed for 11 weeks to one of two environmentally relevant salinities (30 or 15 PSU) either at current atmospheric P(CO2) (∼400 μatm, normocapnia) or P(CO2) projected by moderate IPCC scenarios for the year 2100 (∼700-800 μatm, hypercapnia). Exposure of the juvenile oysters to elevated P(CO2) and/or low salinity led to a significant increase in mortality, reduction of tissue energy stores (glycogen and lipid) and negative soft tissue growth, indicating energy deficiency. Interestingly, tissue ATP levels were not affected by exposure to changing salinity and P(CO2), suggesting that juvenile oysters maintain their cellular energy status at the expense of lipid and glycogen stores. At the same time, no compensatory upregulation of carbonic anhydrase activity was found under the conditions of low salinity and high P(CO2). Metabolic profiling using magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed altered metabolite status following low salinity exposure; specifically, acetate levels were lower in hypercapnic than in normocapnic individuals at low salinity. Combined exposure to hypercapnia and low salinity negatively affected mechanical properties of shells of the juveniles, resulting in reduced hardness and fracture resistance. Thus, our data suggest that the combined effects of elevated P(CO2) and

  4. Efficient Quantitative Analysis of Carboxyalkylpyrrole Ethanolamine Phospholipids: Elevated Levels in Sickle Cell Disease Blood.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junhong; Wang, Hua; Hrinczenko, Borys; Salomon, Robert G

    2016-07-18

    γ-Hydroxy-α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, generated by oxidative damage of polyunsaturated phospholipids, form pyrrole derivatives that incorporate the ethanolamine phospholipid (EP) amino group such as 2-pentylpyrrole (PP)-EP and 2-(ω-carboxyalkyl)pyrrole (CAP)-EP derivatives: 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP)-EP, 2-(ω-carboxypropyl)pyrrole (CPP)-EP, and 2-(ω-carboxyheptyl)pyrrole (CHP)-EP. Because EPs occur in vivo in various forms, a complex mixture of pyrrole-modified EPs with different molecular weights is expected to be generated. To provide a sensitive index of oxidative stress, all of the differences in mass related to the glycerophospholipid moieties were removed by releasing a single CAP-ethanolamine (ETN) or PP-ETN from each mixture by treatment with phospholipase D. Accurate quantization was achieved using the corresponding ethanolamine-d4 pyrroles as internal standards. The product mixture obtained by phospholipolysis of total blood phospholipids from sickle cell disease (SCD) patients was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The method was applied to measure CAP-EP and PP-EP levels in blood plasma from clinical monitoring of SCD patients. We found uniformly elevated blood levels of CEP-EP (63.9 ± 9.7 nM) similar to mean levels in blood from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients (56.3 ± 37.1 nM), and 2-fold lower levels (27.6 ± 3.6 nM, n = 5) were detected in plasma from SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis, although mean levels remain higher than those (12.1 ± 10.5 nM) detected in blood from healthy controls. Plasma levels of CPP-EPs from SCD clinic patients were 4-fold higher than those of SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis (45.1 ± 10.9 nM, n = 5 versus 10.9 ± 3.4 nM, n = 6; p < 0.002). PP-EP concentration in plasma from SCD clinic patients is nearly 4.8-fold higher than its level in plasma samples from SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis (7.06 ± 4.05 vs 1.48 ± 0.92 nM; p < 0.05). Because

  5. Lichens as indicators of elevated levels of environmental lead in Utah Valley, Utah. [Rhizoplaca melanophthalma

    SciTech Connect

    St. Clair, L.L.; Rushforth, S.R.; Newberry, C.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Utah Valley, Utah is a high elevation mountain valley with a moderate population and a large aged integrated steel mill. Fine particulate pollution (PM{sub 10}) levels in the valley are among the highest din the US, particularly during winter inversion periods. Utah Valley also has high levels of carbon monoxide. The local bureau of air quality monitored ambient air lead in Utah Valley for several years through the 1980s. Values as high as 1.35 g/m{sup 3} were noted from this monitoring. Such levels are 90% of the federal ambient air standard of 1.5 g/m{sup 3}. Lichens have long been recognized as bioindicators for heavy metals. Reports of high concentrations of lead in lichen thalli were common prior to the development and use of unleaded fuels. Since that time, lead concentrations in lichen thalli have generally decreased. Recent studies indicate lichen lead levels from clean air areas in the western US range from 10 to 25 ppm. Studies of the umbilicate saxicolous lichen Rhizoplaca melanophthalma in Utah Valley indicate lead levels between 188 and 200 ppm. Excess lead in Utah Valley likely originates from the steel mill and from the high number of vehicles still using leaded fuels.

  6. Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead workers with iron- sufficient microcytosis.

    SciTech Connect

    Ronin, D.; Strehl, F.; Human Resources

    1998-05-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) measurement is a required test under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's lead standard. However, there is no mention of the influence of hemoglobinopathy on the ZPP test value. We undertook a retrospective laboratory review of 382 employees at the Argonne National Laboratory who had been subjects in a lead surveillance program since 1982. A total of 321 samples were analyzed, after female subjects and samples with abnormally high bilirubin levels were excluded. A group with low mean red blood cell volume (MCV; less than 80.0 fL) was compared with a group with normal MCV (greater or equal to 80.0 fL). A statistically significant difference was noted in ZPP (P < 0.007) and total bilirubin (P< 0.0003) values of two groups. There was no statistically significant difference noted in age, lead levels, or iron levels between the two groups. Abnormally high ZPP levels may occur in individuals with hemoglobinopathies. Only a minor part of this elevation could be explained by the higher bilirubin levels.

  7. Are serum hepcidin levels chronically elevated in collegiate female distance runners?

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoya; Patterson, Kaitlyn J; Gieschen, Kayla M; Bodary, Peter F

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of iron deficiency tends to be higher in athletic populations, especially among endurance-trained females. Recent studies have provided evidence that the iron-regulating hormone hepcidin is transiently increased with acute exercise and suggest that this may contribute to iron deficiency anemia in athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether resting serum hepcidin is significantly elevated in highly trained female distance runners compared with a low exercise control group. Due to the importance of the monocyte in the process of iron recycling, monocyte expression of hepcidin was also measured. A single fasted blood sample was collected midseason from twenty female distance runners averaging 81.9 ± 14.2 km of running per week. Ten age-, gender-, and BMI-matched low-exercise control subjects provided samples during the same period using identical collection procedures. There was no difference between the runners (RUN) and control subjects (CON) for serum hepcidin levels (p = .159). In addition, monocyte hepcidin gene expression was not different between the two groups (p = .635). Furthermore, no relationship between weekly training volume and serum hepcidin concentration was evident among the trained runners. The results suggest that hepcidin is not chronically elevated with sustained training in competitive collegiate runners. This is an important finding because the current clinical conditions that link hepcidin to anemia include a sustained elevation in serum hepcidin. Nevertheless, additional studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance of the well-documented, transient rise in hepcidin that follows acute sessions of exercise.

  8. Mineral nutrition and plant responses to elevated levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, A.

    1996-08-01

    The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a radiatively-active ({open_quotes}green-house{close_quotes}) gas, is increasing. This increase is considered a post-industrial phenomenon attributable to increasing rates of fossil fuel combustion and changing land use practices, particularly deforestation. Climate changes resulting from such elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, in addition to the direct effects of increased CO{sub 2}, are expected to modify the productivity of forests and alter species distributions. Elevated levels of CO{sub 2} have been shown, in some cases, to lead to enhanced growth rates in plants, particularly those with C{sub 3} metabolism - indicating that plant growth is CO{sub 2}-limited in these situations. Since the major process underlying growth is CO{sub 2} assimilation via photosynthesis in leaves, plant growth represents a potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon into biomass, but this potential could be hampered by plant carbon sink size. Carbon sinks are utilization sites for assimilated carbon, enabling carbon assimilation to proceed without potential inhibition from the accumulation of assimilate (photosynthate). Plant growth provides new sinks for assimilated carbon which permits greater uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, sinks are, on the whole, reduced in size by stress events due to the adverse effects of stress on photosynthetic rates and therefore growth. This document reviews some of the literature on plant responses to increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and to inadequate nutrient supply rates, and with this background, the potential for nutrient-limited plants to respond to increasing carbon dioxide is addressed. Conclusions from the literature review are then tested experimentally by means of a case study exploring carbon-nitrogen interactions in seedlings of loblolly pine.

  9. Elevated level of nitric oxide mediates the anti-depressant effect of rubidium chloride in mice.

    PubMed

    Kordjazy, Nastaran; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Amiri, Shayan; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Kordjazy, Mehdi; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2015-09-05

    Rubidium has been used to treat psychiatric conditions including depression. We examined the antidepressant activity of rubidium chloride (RbCl) in male mice and the possible interference of nitric oxide (NO) in this effect. Mouse forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of RbCl. These drugs were used in this study: N(G)-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 7-Nitroindazole and aminoguanidine, selective neuronal and inducible NOS inhibitors, respectively, and l-arginine, an NO precursor. We studied the changes of serum and hippocampus nitrite level after different treatments. RbCl (30mg/kg), when administered 60min before the tests, significantly reduced the immobility time. Non-effective doses of l-NAME (10mg/kg) and aminoguanidine (50mg/kg), co-administered with the effective dose of RbCl (30mg/kg), reversed the anti-immobility effect of RbCl, while 7-NI (25mg/kg) could not prevent the diminishing effect of RbCl on immobility time. Moreover, co-administration of non-effective doses of l-arginine (750mg/kg) and RbCl (10mg/kg) decreased the immobility time. None of the mentioned treatments altered the locomotor activity of mice in open-field test. Nitrite level was significantly increased in serum and hippocampus of animals after RbCl (30mg/kg) administration and this nitrite level elevation was reversed by non-effective dose of l-NAME and aminoguanidine, but not 7-NI. Our data for the first time reveal the role of NO pathway in the antidepressant-like activity of RbCl, concluding that this effect results from elevation of NO through involvement of iNOS in mice.

  10. Highly elevated atmospheric levels of volatile organic compounds in the Uintah Basin, Utah.

    PubMed

    Helmig, D; Thompson, C R; Evans, J; Boylan, P; Hueber, J; Park, J-H

    2014-05-06

    Oil and natural gas production in the Western United States has grown rapidly in recent years, and with this industrial expansion, growing environmental concerns have arisen regarding impacts on water supplies and air quality. Recent studies have revealed highly enhanced atmospheric levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from primary emissions in regions of heavy oil and gas development and associated rapid photochemical production of ozone during winter. Here, we present surface and vertical profile observations of VOC from the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies conducted in January-February of 2012 and 2013. These measurements identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric alkane hydrocarbons with enhanced rates of C2-C5 nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) mean mole fractions during temperature inversion events in 2013 at 200-300 times above the regional and seasonal background. Elevated atmospheric NMHC mole fractions coincided with build-up of ambient 1-h ozone to levels exceeding 150 ppbv (parts per billion by volume). The total annual mass flux of C2-C7 VOC was estimated at 194 ± 56 × 10(6) kg yr(-1), equivalent to the annual VOC emissions of a fleet of ∼100 million automobiles. Total annual fugitive emission of the aromatic compounds benzene and toluene, considered air toxics, were estimated at 1.6 ± 0.4 × 10(6) and 2.0 ± 0.5 × 10(6) kg yr(-1), respectively. These observations reveal a strong causal link between oil and gas emissions, accumulation of air toxics, and significant production of ozone in the atmospheric surface layer.

  11. [Prevalence of Elevated Lipoprotein (a) Levels in Patients < 60 Years of Age with Retinal Vein Occlusion].

    PubMed

    Kuhli-Hattenbach, C; Hellstern, P; Miesbach, W; Kohnen, T; Hattenbach, L-O

    2016-09-19

    Background: The potential impact of elevated Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels on retinal venous occlusive (RVO) diseases with regard to age and various risk factors has not been studied extensively. Patients and Methods: In a retrospective case-control study, thrombophilia data of 106 young patients (< 60 years at the time of the RVO or a previous thromboembolic event) with RVO and 76 healthy subjects were evaluated. Results: Elevated Lp(a) plasma levels were significantly more prevalent among RVO patients (29.2 %) than among controls (9.2 %; p = 0.0009). Lp(a) levels were found to be significantly (p = 0.012) different between patients and controls. Moreover, we found that an unusual personal or family history of thromboembolism was a strong predictor of elevated Lp(a) (p = 0.03). We observed a significant correlation between elevated Lp(a) and other coagulation disorders (p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that elevated lipoprotein(a) levels (OR: 3.5; p = 0.003) were an independent risk factor for the development of RVO. Conclusions: Elevated plasma levels of Lp(a) are associated with the development of RVO. Selective screening of young patients and subjects with a personal or family history of thromboembolism may be helpful in identifying RVO patients with elevated Lp(a).

  12. beta-Alanine elevates dopamine levels in the rat nucleus accumbens: antagonism by strychnine.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Mia; Clarke, Rhona B C; Chau, PeiPei; Adermark, Louise; Söderpalm, Bo

    2010-04-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) in the nucleus accumbens (nAc) have recently been suggested to be involved in the reinforcing and dopamine-elevating properties of ethanol via a neuronal circuitry involving the VTA. Apart from ethanol, both glycine and taurine have the ability to modulate dopamine output via GlyRs in the same brain region. In the present study, we wanted to explore whether yet another endogenous ligand for the GlyR, beta-alanine, had similar effects. To this end, we monitored dopamine in the nAc by means of in vivo microdialysis and found that local perfusion of beta-alanine increased dopamine output. In line with previous observations investigating ethanol, glycine and taurine, the competitive GlyR antagonist strychnine completely blocked the dopamine elevation. The present results suggest that beta-alanine has the ability to modulate dopamine levels in the nAc via strychnine-sensitive GlyRs, and are consistent with previous studies suggesting the importance of this receptor for modulating dopamine output.

  13. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Fire Assay Workers and Their Children in Alaska, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Cassandra; Fearey, Donna; Castrodale, Louisa J.; Verbrugge, David; McLaughlin, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, an employee at Facility A in Alaska that performs fire assay analysis, an industrial technique that uses lead-containing flux to obtain metals from pulverized rocks, was reported to the Alaska Section of Epidemiology (SOE) with an elevated blood lead level (BLL) ≥10 micrograms per deciliter (μg/dL). The SOE initiated an investigation; investigators interviewed employees, offered blood lead screening to employees and their families, and observed a visit to the industrial facility by the Alaska Occupational Safety and Health Section (AKOSH). Among the 15 employees with known work responsibilities, 12 had an elevated BLL at least once from October 2010 through February 2011. Of these 12 employees, 10 reported working in the fire assay room. Four children of employees had BLLs ≥5 μg/dL. Employees working in Facility A's fire assay room were likely exposed to lead at work and could have brought lead home. AKOSH inspectors reported that they could not share their consultative report with SOE investigators because of the confidentiality requirements of a federal regulation, which hampered Alaska SOE investigators from fully characterizing the lead exposure standards. PMID:26327721

  14. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Fire Assay Workers and Their Children in Alaska, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Porter, Kimberly A; Kirk, Cassandra; Fearey, Donna; Castrodale, Louisa J; Verbrugge, David; McLaughlin, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, an employee at Facility A in Alaska that performs fire assay analysis, an industrial technique that uses lead-containing flux to obtain metals from pulverized rocks, was reported to the Alaska Section of Epidemiology (SOE) with an elevated blood lead level (BLL) ≥10 micrograms per deciliter (μg/dL). The SOE initiated an investigation; investigators interviewed employees, offered blood lead screening to employees and their families, and observed a visit to the industrial facility by the Alaska Occupational Safety and Health Section (AKOSH). Among the 15 employees with known work responsibilities, 12 had an elevated BLL at least once from October 2010 through February 2011. Of these 12 employees, 10 reported working in the fire assay room. Four children of employees had BLLs ≥5 μg/dL. Employees working in Facility A's fire assay room were likely exposed to lead at work and could have brought lead home. AKOSH inspectors reported that they could not share their consultative report with SOE investigators because of the confidentiality requirements of a federal regulation, which hampered Alaska SOE investigators from fully characterizing the lead exposure standards.

  15. Changes in wetland sediment elevation following major storms: implications for estimating trends in relative sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Hurricanes can be important agents of geomorphic change in coastal marshes and mangrove forests. Hurricanes can cause large-scale redistribution of sediments within the coastal environment resulting in sedimentation, erosion, disruption of vegetated substrates, or some combination of these processes in coastal wetlands. It has been proposed that such sediment pulsing events are important at maintaining wetland sediment elevations in sediment-poor settings with high rates of relative sea-level rise, such as the Mississippi River Delta. But do these pulsing events result in a net gain in sediment elevation even when substantial amounts of sediment are deposited? Clearly sediment erosion and scour would result in a loss of elevation. But will a substantial sediment deposit on poorly consolidated sediments always result in a net gain in elevation? If the wetland vegetation is killed by wind, tidal surge, or the introduction of saline water, will there be a collapse of sediment elevation in the absence of root production and ongoing decomposition of root matter? During the past decade several wetlands where my colleagues and I have monitored sedimentation and elevation change have been struck by one to several hurricanes. This paper describes the range of sediment elevation responses to hurricane strikes, the suggested mechanisms driving those responses, the implications for estimating long-term trends in relative sea-level rise, and future research needs for improving our understanding of the role that major storms play in wetland sediment elevation dynamics. For many wetlands the change in sediment elevation was directly proportional to the amount of sediment deposited by the storm. But surprisingly, there was a loss of elevation in some wetlands with substantial sediment deposits. In these wetlands, the impact of the storm was either direct (sedimentation and compaction) or indirect (vegetation death), and the effect on sediment elevation was either permanent or

  16. Elevated Serum Uric Acid Levels Are Related to Cognitive Deterioration in an Elderly Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kazushi; Koide, Daisuke; Fujii, Kurumi; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Shoji; Iwata, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Aims The association between serum uric acid (UA) levels and cognitive function is controversial since UA can be a risk factor for cerebral ischemia as well as acting as a neuroprotective antioxidant. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 228 elderly participants and examined neuropsychological test results, clinical data as well as brain magnetic resonance imaging data. Patients Overall, 64 participants were diagnosed with cognitive deterioration. To control for the effect of sex differences, 2 independent sets of single-variable and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed with quartiles divided into non-sex-specific and sex-specific cutoff values for UA. Results In non-sex-specific quartiles, the participants in the highest quartiles of UA levels were found to be at a significantly higher risk of cognitive deterioration than those in the lowest quartiles. In sex-specific quartiles, the highest quartile showed an increased risk of cognitive deterioration, and a greater than fourfold increase in the risk in the highest quartiles was confirmed using multivariate regression models. However, no significant association was observed between serum UA levels and the presence of white matter lesions. Conclusions Elevated serum UA levels were independently associated with cognitive deterioration. UA might have unknown adverse effects on cognitive function, other than causing vascular pathology. PMID:28203247

  17. Exposures to environmental phenols in Southern California firefighters and findings of elevated urinary benzophenone-3 levels.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Jed M; Gavin, Qi; Anderson, Meredith; Hoover, Sara; Alvaran, Josephine; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Fenster, Laura; Wu, Nerissa T; Krowech, Gail; Plummer, Laurel; Israel, Leslie; Das, Rupali; She, Jianwen

    2016-03-01

    Firefighters are at increased risk for exposure to toxic chemicals compared to the general population, but few studies of this occupational group have included biomonitoring. We measured selected phenolic chemicals in urine collected from 101 Southern California firefighters. The analytes included bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, benzophenone-3 (BP-3), and parabens, which are common ingredients in a range of consumer products. BP-3, BPA, triclosan, and methyl paraben were detected in almost all study subjects (94-100%). The BP-3 geometric mean for firefighters was approximately five times higher than for a comparable National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) subgroup. Demographic and exposure data were collected from medical records and via a questionnaire, and covariates were examined to assess associations with BP-3 levels. BP-3 levels were elevated across all firefighter age groups, with the highest levels observed in the 35 to 39year old group. Body fat percentage had a significant inverse association with BP-3 concentrations. Our results indicate pervasive exposure to BP-3, BPA, triclosan, and methyl paraben in this population of firefighters, consistent with studies of other populations. Further research is needed to investigate possible explanations for the higher observed BP-3 levels, such as occupational or California-specific exposures.

  18. [Association of hypercalcemia, elevated levels of calcitriol and tuberculosis in patients on hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Díaz Corte, C

    2000-01-01

    Hypercalcemia is associated with numerous chronic granulomatous processes and chronic infections. Increased production of calcitriol by activated macrophages has been shown to be the cause in most cases. In this article, we describe three cases of hypercalcemia associated with inappropriately elevated calcitriol levels and suppressed PTH in hemodialysis. In addition to conventional techniques for tuberculosis diagnosis we used Ligase Chain Reaction (LCR) to detect mycobacterial DNA in pleural effusion with acid-fast stain and culture negativity. Antituberculous therapy was associated with a decrease in the levels of calcium, as well as in serum calcitriol concentrations, and a substantial increase in the levels of iPTH. The serum levels of 25(OH)D3 remained unchanged. These findings suggested ectopic production of calcitriol. The discussion reviews the previously reported cases of hypercalcemia and tuberculosis that occurred during hemodialysis, and concludes that ectopic production of calcitriol by tuberculous granulomas is extremely unusual and its demonstration requires a high index of suspicion. Molecular techniques are a potentially useful approach for early and rapid diagnosis of tuberculous infection in dialysis patients.

  19. Elevated C-reactive protein levels, psychological distress, and depression in 73, 131 individuals.

    PubMed

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT The pathogenesis of depression is not fully understood, but studies suggest that low-grade systemic inflammation contributes to the development of depression. OBJECTIVE To test whether elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with psychological distress and depression. DESIGN We performed cross-sectional and prospective analyses of CRP levels in 4 clinically relevant categories using data from 2 general population studies. SETTING The Copenhagen General Population and the Copenhagen City Heart studies. PARTICIPANTS We examined 73 131 men and women aged 20 to 100 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES We ascertained psychological distress with 2 single-item self-reports and depression using self-reported antidepressant use, register-based prescription of antidepressants, and register-based hospitalization with depression. RESULTS In cross-sectional analyses, increasing CRP levels were associated with increasing risk for psychological distress and depression (P = 3 × 10-8 to P = 4 × 10-105 for trend). For self-reported use of antidepressants, the odds ratio was 1.38 (95% CI, 1.23-1.55) for CRP levels of 1.01 to 3.00 mg/L, 2.02 (1.77-2.30) for 3.01 to 10.00 mg/L, and 2.70 (2.25-3.25) for greater than 10.00 mg/L compared with 0.01 to 1.00 mg/L. For prescription of antidepressants, the corresponding odds ratios were 1.08 (95% CI, 0.99-1.17), 1.47 (1.33-1.62), and 1.77 (1.52-2.05), respectively; for hospitalization with depression, 1.30 (1.01-1.67), 1.84 (1.39-2.43), and 2.27 (1.54-3.32), respectively. In prospective analyses, increasing CRP levels were also associated with increasing risk for hospitalization with depression (P = 4 × 10-8 for trend). CONCLUSIONS Elevated levels of CRP are associated with increased risk for psychological distress and depression in the general population.

  20. Elevated plasma homocysteine levels in patients with multiple sclerosis are associated with male gender.

    PubMed

    Zoccolella, Stefano; Tortorella, Carla; Iaffaldano, Pietro; Direnzo, Vita; D'Onghia, Mariangela; Paolicelli, Damiano; Livrea, Paolo; Trojano, Maria

    2012-10-01

    Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels exert several neurotoxic actions and vascular dysfunctions that may be involved in pathogenesis and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). The effective role of Hcy in MS however remains to be determined. The aim of this work was to compare plasma Hcy levels in MS patients and neurological disease controls (NDC) and to evaluate their relationships with clinical and demographic variables. In this cross-sectional study, we examined plasma Hcy levels in 217 patients with MS [53 clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) suggestive of MS, 134 relapsing remitting (RR), 23 secondary progressive (SP) and seven primary progressive (PP) MS], recruited among patients attending a tertiary clinical center in southern Italy and in 219 age/sex-matched controls. Median Hcy levels were slightly higher in MS patients compared to NDC (9.1 μmol/l; range, 3.4-35.9 vs. 8.6, range 3.5-27.4; p = 0.02). Median Hcy concentrations were increased in males more than in females in the MS population (10.4 vs. 8.4; p < 0.0001), whereas no differences across genders were found in NDC (9.1 vs. 8.5). Hcy levels were higher in male MS patients compared to the male NDC patients (p = 0.001). Patients with CIS had lower Hcy (7.5 μmol/l; p = 0.004) compared to patients with RR (9.5 μmol/l), SP (10.1 μmol/l) and PP (9.9 μmol/l). Median Hcy concentration was higher in patients with disease duration longer than 22 months (9.7 vs. 8.6 μmol/l; p = 0.02). Plasma Hcy levels are increased in patients with definite MS. Higher Hcy levels are associated with male sex, suggesting a role of Hcy in neurodegenerative processes of MS, which are prominent in male patients.

  1. Elevated Levels of Microbial Translocation Markers and CCL2 Among Older HIV-1-Infected Men.

    PubMed

    Scully, Eileen; Lockhart, Ainsley; Huang, Lisa; Robles, Yvonne; Becerril, Carlos; Romero-Tejeda, Marisol; Albrecht, Mary A; Palmer, Christine D; Bosch, Ronald J; Altfeld, Marcus; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Lin, Nina H

    2016-03-01

    The aging of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected population obligates a focus on the interaction between aging, comorbid conditions, and HIV-1. We recruited a cohort of HIV-1-infected men aged ≤ 35 years or ≥ 50 years who were receiving fully suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We analyzed plasma markers of inflammation; T-cell activation, exhaustion, proliferation; and innate cellular subsets and functional capacity. Levels of lipopolysaccharide and the plasma marker of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 were significantly elevated in older HIV-infected men despite comparable cellular phenotypes. Compared with similarly age-stratified uninfected subjects, older HIV-1-infected adults were also more frequently in the upper quartile of soluble CD14 expression.

  2. Familial synchronous bilateral teratoid Wilms tumor with elevated alpha-fetoprotein level.

    PubMed

    Okur, Arzu; Pinarli, Faruk Guclu; Karadeniz, Ceyda; Poyraz, Aylar; Fidan, Kibriya; Basaklar, Can; Oguz, Aynur

    2012-11-01

    Familial Wilms tumor is a rare entity that accounts for only 1-2% of all Wilms tumor cases, with an earlier age of onset and an increased frequency of bilateral tumors. Teratoid Wilms tumor is a variant of nephroblastoma with a predominance of heterologous tissues comprising more than 50% of the tumor volume. Wilms tumor does not usually secrete any specific tumor marker and all teratoid Wilms tumor cases previously reported were sporadic non-secreting neoplasms. Here we describe an infant with familial synchronous bilateral teratoid Wilms tumor whose serum alpha-fetoprotein level was elevated. To our knowledge, this extremely rare type of case is reported for the first time in the literature.

  3. Elevated Blood Lead Levels of Children in Guiyu, an Electronic Waste Recycling Town in China

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xia; Peng, Lin; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Liangkai; Qiu, Bo; Qi, Zongli; Zhang, Bao; Han, Dai; Piao, Zhongxian

    2007-01-01

    Background Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has remained primitive in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) in children living in the local environment. Objectives We compared the BLLs in children living in the e-waste recycling town of Guiyu with those living in the neighboring town of Chendian. Methods We observed the processing of e-waste recycling in Guiyu and studied BLLs in a cluster sample of 226 children < 6 years of age who lived in Guiyu and Chendian. BLLs were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Hemoglobin (Hgb) and physical indexes (height and weight, head and chest circumferences) were also measured. Results BLLs in 165 children of Guiyu ranged from 4.40 to 32.67 μg/dL with a mean of 15.3 μg/dL, whereas BLLs in 61 children of Chendian were from 4.09 to 23.10 μg/dL with a mean of 9.94 μg/dL. Statistical analyses showed that children living in Guiyu had significantly higher BLLs compared with those living in Chendian (p < 0.01). Of children in Guiyu, 81.8% (135 of 165) had BLLs > 10 μg/dL, compared with 37.7% of children (23 of 61) in Chendian (p < 0.01). In addition, we observed a significant increasing trend in BLLs with increasing age in Guiyu (p < 0.01). It appeared that there was correlation between the BLLs in children and numbers of e-waste workshops. However, no significant difference in Hgb level or physical indexes was found between the two towns. Conclusions The primitive e-waste recycling activities may contribute to the elevated BLLs in children living in Guiyu. PMID:17637931

  4. Exposure to Elevated Carbon Monoxide Levels at an Indoor Ice Arena--Wisconsin, 2014.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Paul D; Meiman, Jon G; Nehls-Lowe, Henry; Vogt, Christy; Wozniak, Ryan J; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry

    2015-11-20

    On December 13, 2014, the emergency management system in Lake Delton, Wisconsin, was notified when a male hockey player aged 20 years lost consciousness after participation in an indoor hockey tournament that included approximately 50 hockey players and 100 other attendees. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) (range = 45 ppm-165 ppm) were detected by the fire department inside the arena. The emergency management system encouraged all players and attendees to seek medical evaluation for possible CO poisoning. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine what caused the exposure and to recommend preventive strategies. Investigators abstracted medical records from area emergency departments (EDs) for patients who sought care for CO exposure during December 13-14, 2014, conducted a follow-up survey of ED patients approximately 2 months after the event, and conducted informant interviews. Ninety-two persons sought ED evaluation for possible CO exposure, all of whom were tested for CO poisoning. Seventy-four (80%) patients had blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels consistent with CO poisoning; 32 (43%) CO poisoning cases were among hockey players. On December 15, the CO emissions from the propane-fueled ice resurfacer were demonstrated to be 4.8% of total emissions when actively resurfacing and 2.3% when idling, both above the optimal range of 0.5%-1.0%. Incomplete fuel combustion by the ice resurfacer was the most likely source of elevated CO. CO poisonings in ice arenas can be prevented through regular maintenance of ice resurfacers, installation of CO detectors, and provision of adequate ventilation.

  5. [The elevated level of anti-thyroid antibodies aTPO in chronic spontaneous urticaria].

    PubMed

    Chaykivska, Zlata; Antoszczyk, Grazyna; Czarnobilska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of chronic urticaria (CU - Chronic Urticaria) is one of the most difficult issues in allergy practice. Studies on the etiopathogenesis of chronic urticaria suggest that environmental factors, immune, genetic and hormonal are involved in triggering and maintaining the reaction of hives. In practice, despite detailed diagnosis is usually not possible to determine the real cause of the disease. For this reason, the use of causal treatment for patients suffering from chronic urticaria is not possible and supportive treatment is often ineffective. 0.1% of the population suffers from chronic spontaneous urticaria, which main cause has not been detected. Very often CU coexists with autoimmune thyroid dysfunction. Studies confirm higher incidence of thyroid antibodies in patients with chronic urticaria than in the general population. We analyzed 100 patients who met the criteria for chronic urticaria according to the WHO, in Allergology Clinic of the University Hospital Jagiellonian University Medical College. According to our study 17.4% of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria occurred elevated titer of anti-TPO antibodies. In patients with non-spontaneous type of CU, elevated titer of anti-TPO antibodies only occurred in 8.3% of patients, and this difference was statistically significant p = < 0.003. All the patients had thyroid levels normal and there were no clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. Our research indicates a link with autoimmune thyroid diseases, especially Hashimoto's disease, with a prevalence of CU. It is necessary to conduct further studies to confirm the relationship of pathogenic autoimmune thyroid disorders with the occurrence of CU, which will help to provide the causal treatment of spontaneous CU coexisting with high levels of anti-TPO antibodies in patients with euthyroid status.

  6. Litterfall dynamics and nutrient deposition at different elevation and land use levels on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Joscha; Pabst, Holger; Mnyonga, James; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    One of the major pathways that connect above- and belowground nutrient and carbon stocks in forest ecosystems is litterfall. Depending on climate, tree species composition and stand structure it varies considerably between different ecosystems. Another driving factor that is known to affect ecosystem cycles is the level of anthropogenic disturbance such as land use. In case of tropical regions this is often present as the transformation from rainforests to plantation economy and sustainable agroforestry. The objective of this study was to quantify and determine patterns of carbon and nutrient deposition via tree litterfall in natural and anthropogenically affected forest ecosystems along an elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Tree litter of three natural (lower montane forest), two sustainably used (home gardens) and one intensively managed (shaded coffee plantation) ecosystem was collected on a biweekly basis from May 2012 to July 2013. Samples were separated into leaves, branches and remaining residues, dried and weighted. Carbon and nutrient content were measured in leave samples. We found that the overall annual pattern of litterfall was closely related to rainfall exhibiting a large peak during the dry season. Albeit visible on all plots, this characteristic decreased with elevation. No consistent patterns were found for other components than leaves. Total annual litter mainly consisted of leaf litter and ranges from 4639 kg/ha to 10673 kg/ha for all vegetation types. Flowers, fruits, etc. make up roughly 20% of total litter. Highest and lowest values occurred at home gardens and could not be significantly related to land use or elevation levels. Chemistry though differed between natural and used forest plots. N, P and K contents increased significantly with usage intensity while Mn decreased and C is more or less unaffected. We conclude that on the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, short term variations in litterfall are related to seasonal climatic

  7. Elevated glycated hemoglobin levels may increase the risk of atrial fibrillation in patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Fan; Zhu, Wen-Qing; Cheng, Kuan; Chen, Qing-Xing; Xu, Ye; Pang, Yang; Liu, Gui-Jian; Ge, Jun-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background: As the most common cardiac arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation (AF) is always accompanied with various complications if without detection and treatment timely. Blood-based pleiotropic molecule biomarkers have now been popularly applied in clinical detection. We hence performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the correlation of serum glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels with the risk of AF in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Covering myriads of computerized databases, we identified potential relevant studies for statistical analysis. We used a standard reporting form to extract data from each included study. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) criteria was used for methodological quality assessment. Statistical analyses were conducted with the STATA statistical software. Results: Six cohort studies in full text fulfilled our inclusion criteria, and following overestimation indicated that serum levels of HbA1c in DM patients with AF was higher than that in DM patients without AF (SMD = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.39-0.94, P < 0.001). Subgroup analyses by sample size and detection method implicated that elevated serum HbA1c levels exhibited significant correlations with an increased risk of AF in DM patients in the large-size subgroup (n ≥ 200), the small-size subgroup (n < 200), the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) subgroup and the non-HPLC subgroup (Large-size: SMD = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.38-1.03, P < 0.001; Small-size: SMD = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.09-1.19, P = 0.023; HPLC: SMD = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.49-1.12, P < 0.001; Non-HPLC: SMD = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.04-0.68, P = 0.029; respectively). Conclusion: Elevated serum HbA1c levels may be associated with an increased risk of AF in DM patients, possibly reflecting that serum HbA1c level might be a potential biomarker in the prediction of AF in DM patients. PMID:26064216

  8. Elevated preoperative plasma D-dimer levels and the incidence of venous thromboembolism in Japanese females with gynecological cancer.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Junichi; Seki, Noriko; Fukushima, Chikako; Kusumoto, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Keiichiro; Hongo, Atsushi; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of increased levels of D-dimer and associated factors in preoperative patients with gynecological cancer. Furthermore, we determined the incidence and risk factors associated with preoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). Overall, 456 patients with invasive gynecological cancer scheduled to undergo surgery were recruited. Preoperative plasma D-dimer levels were measured and patients whose plasma D-dimer concentration exceeded the pre-set cut-off value underwent computed tomography scanning. The incidence of elevated D-dimer and VTE was identified as significantly higher in patients with ovarian cancer. Multivariate analysis revealed that advanced age, low hemoglobin levels and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were independent factors for preoperative elevations in plasma D-dimer levels. Advanced age was an independent risk factor for preoperative VTE. Massive ascites and the presence of co-morbidities were independent risk factors for preoperative VTE in ovarian cancer. Advanced age and stage were independent risk factors for preoperative VTE in endometrial cancer. Advanced age was an independent risk factor for preoperative VTE in cervical cancer. Plasma D-dimer levels and the incidence of preoperative VTE were higher in patients with ovarian cancer compared with those with other gynecological cancers. Advanced age, low hemoglobin levels and elevated CRP levels were significant factors associated with elevated plasma D-dimer levels and age was an independent risk factor for preoperative VTE in gynecological cancer.

  9. High sensitivity to chronically elevated CO2 levels in a eurybathic marine sipunculid.

    PubMed

    Langenbuch, M; Pörtner, H O

    2004-10-18

    CO2 levels are expected to rise (a) in surface waters of the oceans as atmospheric accumulation continues or (b) in the deep sea, once industrial CO2 dumping is implemented. These scenarios suggest that CO2 will become a general stress factor in aquatic environments. The mechanisms of sensitivity to CO2 as well as adaptation capacity of marine animals are insufficiently understood. Here, we present data obtained in Sipunculus nudus, a sediment-dwelling marine worm that is able to undergo drastic metabolic depression to survive regular exposure to elevated CO2 levels within its natural habitat. We investigated animal survival and the proximate biochemical body composition during long-term CO2 exposure. Results indicate an unexpected and pronounced sensitivity characterized by the delayed onset of enhanced mortality at CO2 levels within the natural range of concentrations. Therefore, the present study contrasts the previously assumed high-CO2 tolerance of animals adapted to temporary hypercapnia. As a consequence, we expect future loss of species and, thereby, detrimental effects on marine benthic ecosystems with as yet poorly defined critical thresholds of long-term tolerance to CO2.

  10. Elevation of C-reactive protein levels in patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Rick; Kim, Michael; Rondina, Matthew T.; Porcelijn, Leendert; Semple, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related fatalities and is characterized by the onset of acute respiratory distress within six hours following blood transfusion. In most cases, donor antibodies are suggested to be involved, however, the pathogenesis is poorly understood. A two-hit model is generally assumed to underlie TRALI pathogenesis where the first hit consists of a patient predisposing factor such as inflammation and the second hit is due to donor antibodies present in the transfused blood. We recently demonstrated that the acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) could enhance murine anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-mediated TRALI. Whether CRP is increased in human TRALI patients which would support its role as a risk factor for human TRALI, is currently unknown. For that purpose, we measured CRP levels in the plasma of human TRALI patients and found CRP levels to be significantly elevated compared to transfused control patients. These data support the notion that CRP may be a novel first hit risk factor in human TRALI and that modulation of CRP levels could be an effective therapeutic strategy for this serious adverse event of transfusion. PMID:27793007

  11. Elevated renin levels in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Mahmoud; El-Kenawy, Ayman El-Meghawry; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed M; El-Kady, Ibrahim; Talaat, Ayman

    2010-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is the common consequence of chronic liver injury of any etiology, disrupting the normal architecture,and causing hepatocellular dysfunction and portal hypertension. Since the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may be involved in chronic liver diseases, in the present study we assayed renin levels using ELISA in groups of Egyptian patients with liver cirrhosis (N=32) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (N=67), for comparison with twenty five healthy controls. The results showed significant differences between the control and liver cirrhosis patients (P<0.001) and also the controls and HCC patients (P<0.001), without significant variation between the patient groups. Furthermore, in HCC patients, it was found that the renin levels negatively correlated with serum albumin and prothrombin time (P=0.003 for each) and positively with α-fetoprotein (P=0.04). Thus, it is concluded that renin levels are elevated in patients with liver cirrhosis and HCC and suitable medical intervention should be placed for management of such alteration. Moreover, further studies are warranted to explore its prognostic significance.

  12. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, R; Kindahl, H; Lagerstedt, A-S

    2006-01-01

    Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite), progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β) levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra. PMID:16722306

  13. Pyometra in bitches induces elevated plasma endotoxin and prostaglandin F2alpha metabolite levels.

    PubMed

    Hagman, R; Kindahl, H; Lagerstedt, A S

    2006-01-01

    Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2alpha metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha (PG-metabolite), progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17beta) levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The gamma-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra.

  14. A National Assessment of Sea Level Rise Exposure Using Lidar Elevation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, B.; Kulp, S. A.; Tebaldi, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Third National Climate Assessment addressed sea level rise and aggravated coastal flood exposure in all regions, but was completed before high quality lidar-based elevation data became available throughout the entire coastal United States (excluding Alaska). Here we present what we believe to be the first full national assessment incorporating these data. The assessment includes tabulation of land less than 1-6 m above the local high tide line, and of a wide range of features sitting on that land, including total population, socially vulnerable population, housing, property value, road miles, power plants, schools, hospitals, and a wide range of other infrastructure and critical facilities, as well as EPA-listed facilities that are potential sources of contamination during floods or permanent inundation. Tabulations span from zip code to national levels. Notable patterns include the strong concentration of exposure across multiple scales, with a small number of states accounting for most of the total national exposure; and a small number of zip codes accounting for a large proportion of the exposure within many states. Additionally, different features show different exposure patterns; in one example, land and road miles have relatively high exposure but population and property have relatively low exposure in North Carolina. The assessment further places this exposure analysis in the context of localized sea level rise projections integrated with coastal flood risk.

  15. Elevated Levels of Circulating DNA in Cardiovascular Disease Patients: Metagenomic Profiling of Microbiome in the Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Dinakaran, Vasudevan; Rathinavel, Andiappan; Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Sivakumar, Ramamoorthy; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. An expanding body of evidence supports the role of human microbiome in the establishment of CVDs and, this has gained much attention recently. This work was aimed to study the circulating human microbiome in CVD patients and healthy subjects. The levels of circulating cell free DNA (circDNA) was higher in CVD patients (n = 80) than in healthy controls (n = 40). More specifically, the relative levels of circulating bacterial DNA and the ratio of 16S rRNA/β-globin gene copy numbers were higher in the circulation of CVD patients than healthy individuals. In addition, we found a higher circulating microbial diversity in CVD patients (n = 3) in comparison to healthy individuals (n = 3) by deep shotgun sequencing. At the phylum level, we observed a dominance of Actinobacteria in CVD patients, followed by Proteobacteria, in contrast to that in healthy controls, where Proteobacteria was predominantly enriched, followed by Actinobacteria. The circulating virome in CVD patients was enriched with bacteriophages with a preponderance of Propionibacterium phages, followed by Pseudomonas phages and Rhizobium phages in contrast to that in healthy individuals, where a relatively greater abundance of eukaryotic viruses dominated by Lymphocystis virus (LCV) and Torque Teno viruses (TTV) was observed. Thus, the release of bacterial and viral DNA elements in the circulation could play a major role leading to elevated circDNA levels in CVD patients. The increased circDNA levels could be either the cause or consequence of CVD incidence, which needs to be explored further. PMID:25133738

  16. Application of plastic polymers in remediating wine with elevated alkyl-methoxypyrazine levels.

    PubMed

    Botezatu, Andreea; Pickering, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    3-Alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines (MPs) are odour-active compounds that elicit atypical green aromas and flavours in some wines, and are resilient to removal using traditional wine-making approaches. They originate either as contaminants from Coccinellidae beetles inadvertently introduced during wine processing ("ladybug taint") or as grape-derived constituents that are undesirable at elevated levels. In this study we investigated the capacity of a selection of plastic polymers to reduce concentrations of three MPs: isopropyl methoxypyrazine (IPMP), secbutyl methoxypyrazine (SBMP) and isobutyl methoxypyrazine (IBMP). In Trial 1, red wine was spiked with IPMP (20 ng/l), SBMP (20 ng/l) and IBMP (20 ng/l), then separately treated with 13 plastic polymers (surface area 350 cm(2)/l). Three polymers were then identified for further testing based on the results from Trial 1: silicone, ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA) and a poly-lactic acid-based biodegradable polymer. In Trial 2, the efficacy of these selected polymers to reduce MP levels in red wine was tested as a function of contact time. Solid-phase micro-extraction multi-dimensional GC-MS was used to measure MP levels before and after treatment with the polymers. Results showed significant reductions in all target odorants after 24 h treatment: silicone reduced IPMP and IBMP by 96% and 100%, respectively, while the biodegradable polymer decreased IPMP and IBMP concentrations by 52% and 36%, respectively. EVA was less effective in lowering MP levels (7% IPMP and 23% IBMP after 24 h). Taken overall, the data suggest the potential for the use of poly-lactic acid and silicone in treating wines contaminated by ladybug taint, as well as in reducing high levels of grape-derived MPs.

  17. Elevated levels of circulating DNA in cardiovascular disease patients: metagenomic profiling of microbiome in the circulation.

    PubMed

    Dinakaran, Vasudevan; Rathinavel, Andiappan; Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Sivakumar, Ramamoorthy; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. An expanding body of evidence supports the role of human microbiome in the establishment of CVDs and, this has gained much attention recently. This work was aimed to study the circulating human microbiome in CVD patients and healthy subjects. The levels of circulating cell free DNA (circDNA) was higher in CVD patients (n = 80) than in healthy controls (n = 40). More specifically, the relative levels of circulating bacterial DNA and the ratio of 16S rRNA/β-globin gene copy numbers were higher in the circulation of CVD patients than healthy individuals. In addition, we found a higher circulating microbial diversity in CVD patients (n = 3) in comparison to healthy individuals (n = 3) by deep shotgun sequencing. At the phylum level, we observed a dominance of Actinobacteria in CVD patients, followed by Proteobacteria, in contrast to that in healthy controls, where Proteobacteria was predominantly enriched, followed by Actinobacteria. The circulating virome in CVD patients was enriched with bacteriophages with a preponderance of Propionibacterium phages, followed by Pseudomonas phages and Rhizobium phages in contrast to that in healthy individuals, where a relatively greater abundance of eukaryotic viruses dominated by Lymphocystis virus (LCV) and Torque Teno viruses (TTV) was observed. Thus, the release of bacterial and viral DNA elements in the circulation could play a major role leading to elevated circDNA levels in CVD patients. The increased circDNA levels could be either the cause or consequence of CVD incidence, which needs to be explored further.

  18. Effect of Chromium Niacinate and Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on Lipid Peroxidation, TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, Glycated Hemoglobin, Triglycerides and Cholesterol Levels in blood of Streptozotocin-treated Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sushil K.; Rains, Justin L.; Croad, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Chromium (Cr3+) supplementation facilitate normal protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, and is widely used by public in many countries. This study examined the effect of chromium niacinate (Cr-N) or chromium picolinate (Cr-P) supplementation on lipid peroxidation (LP), TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1), cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) in diabetic rats. Diabetes (D) was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by streptozotocin (STZ) (ip, 65 mg/kg BW). Control buffer, Cr-N or Cr-P (400 µg Cr/Kg BW) was administered by gavages daily for 7 wks. Blood was collected by heart puncture using light anesthesia. Diabetes caused a significant increase in blood levels of TNF-α, IL-6, glucose, HbA1, cholesterol, TG and LP. Compared with D, Cr-N supplementation lowered the blood levels of TNF-α (p=0.04), IL-6 (p=0.02), CRP (p=0.02) LP (p=0.01), HbA1 (p=0.02), TG (p=0.04) and cholesterol (p=0.04). Compared with D, Cr-P supplementation showed a decrease in TNF-α (p=0.02), IL-6 (p=0.02) and LP (p=0.01). Chromium niacinate lowers blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, CRP), oxidative stress and lipids levels in diabetic rats, and appears to be more effective form of Cr3+-supplementation. This study suggests that Cr3+-supplementation can lower risk of vascular inflammation in diabetes. PMID:17854708

  19. Effect of chromium niacinate and chromium picolinate supplementation on lipid peroxidation, TNF-alpha, IL-6, CRP, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels in blood of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sushil K; Rains, Justin L; Croad, Jennifer L

    2007-10-15

    Chromium (Cr(3+)) supplementation facilitates normal protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, and is widely used by the public in many countries. This study examined the effect of chromium niacinate (Cr-N) or chromium picolinate (Cr-P) supplementation on lipid peroxidation (LP), TNF-alpha, IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1)), cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) in diabetic rats. Diabetes (D) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocin (STZ) (ip, 65 mg/kg BW). Control buffer, Cr-N, or Cr-P (400 microg Cr/kg BW) was administered by gavages daily for 7 weeks. Blood was collected by heart puncture using light anesthesia. Diabetes caused a significant increase in blood levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, glucose, HbA(1), cholesterol, TG, and LP. Compared with D, Cr-N supplementation lowered the blood levels of TNF-alpha (P=0.04), IL-6 (P=0.02), CRP (P=0.02), LP (P=0.01), HbA(1) (P=0.02), TG (P=0.04), and cholesterol (P=0.04). Compared with D, Cr-P supplementation showed a decrease in TNF-alpha (P=0.02), IL-6 (P=0.02), and LP (P=0.01). Chromium niacinate lowers blood levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6, CRP), oxidative stress, and lipids levels in diabetic rats, and appears to be a more effective form of Cr(3+) supplementation. This study suggests that Cr(3+) supplementation can lower the risk of vascular inflammation in diabetes.

  20. Elevated Aspartate and Alanine Aminotransferase Levels and Natural Death among Patients with Methamphetamine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chian-Jue; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Liao, Ya-Tang; Conwell, Yeates; Lee, Wen-Chung; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Lin, Shih-Ku; Chen, Chiao-Chicy; Chen, Wei J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine is one of the fastest growing illicit drugs worldwide, causing multiple organ damage and excessive natural deaths. The authors aimed to identify potential laboratory indices and clinical characteristics associated with natural death through a two-phase study. Methods Methamphetamine-dependent patients (n = 1,254) admitted to a psychiatric center in Taiwan between 1990 and 2007 were linked with a national mortality database for causes of death. Forty-eight subjects died of natural causes, and were defined as the case subjects. A time-efficient sex- and age-matched nested case-control study derived from the cohort was conducted first to explore the potential factors associated with natural death through a time-consuming standardized review of medical records. Then the identified potential factors were evaluated in the whole cohort to validate the findings. Results In phase I, several potential factors associated with natural death were identified, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), comorbid alcohol use disorder, and the prescription of antipsychotic drugs. In phase II, these factors were confirmed in the whole cohort using survival analysis. For the characteristics at the latest hospital admission, Cox proportional hazards models showed that the adjusted hazard ratios for natural death were 6.75 (p<0.001) in the group with markedly elevated AST (>80 U/L) and 2.66 (p<0.05) in the group with mildly elevated AST (40–80 U/L), with reference to the control group (<40 U/L). As for ALT, the adjusted hazard ratios were 5.41 (p<0.001), and 1.44 (p>0.05). Comorbid alcohol use disorder was associated with an increased risk of natural death, whereas administration of antipsychotic drugs was not associated with lowered risk. Conclusions This study highlights the necessity of intensive follow-up for those with elevated AST and ALT levels and comorbid alcohol use disorder for preventing excessive natural

  1. Elevated fluoride levels and periostitis in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients receiving long-term voriconazole.

    PubMed

    Tarlock, Katherine; Johnson, Darren; Cornell, Cathy; Parnell, Shawn; Meshinchi, Soheil; Baker, K Scott; Englund, Janet A

    2015-05-01

    Azole therapy is widely utilized in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients for the treatment of aspergillus. Complications of voriconazole treatment related to its elevated fluoride content have been described in adults, including reports of symptomatic skeletal fluorosis. We review fluoride levels, clinical, and laboratory data in five pediatric HCT recipients on long-term voriconazole therapy, all found to have elevated serum fluoride levels. Two patients had toxic fluoride levels, one infant had symptoms of significant pain with movement and radiographs confirmed skeletal fluorosis. Monitoring fluoride levels in children, especially with skeletal symptoms, should be considered in patients on long-term voriconazole.

  2. Elevated levels of antibodies against xenobiotics in a subgroup of healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Aristo; Kharrazian, Datis; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2015-01-01

    In spite of numerous research efforts, the exact etiology of autoimmune diseases remains largely unknown. Genetics and environmental factors, including xenobiotics, are believed to be involved in the induction of autoimmune disease. Some environmental chemicals, acting as haptens, can bind to a high-molecular-weight carrier protein such as human serum albumin (HSA), causing the immune system to misidentify self-tissue as an invader and launch an immune response against it, leading to autoimmunity. This study aimed to examine the percentage of blood samples from healthy donors in which chemical agents mounted immune challenges and produced antibodies against HSA-bound chemicals. The levels of specific antibodies against 12 different chemicals bound to HSA were measured by ELISA in serum from 400 blood donors. We found that 10% (IgG) and 17% (IgM) of tested individuals showed significant antibody elevation against aflatoxin-HSA adduct. The percentage of elevation against the other 11 chemicals ranged from 8% to 22% (IgG) and 13% to 18% (IgM). Performance of serial dilution and inhibition of the chemical–antibody reaction by specific antigens but not by non-specific antigens were indicative of the specificity of these antibodies. Although we lack information about chemical exposure in the tested individuals, detection of antibodies against various protein adducts may indicate chronic exposure to these chemical haptens in about 20% of the tested individuals. Currently the pathological significance of these antibodies in human blood is still unclear, and this protein adduct formation could be one of the mechanisms by which environmental chemicals induce autoimmune reactivity in a significant percentage of the population. PMID:25042713

  3. Consideration of vertical uncertainty in elevation-based sea-level rise assessments: Mobile Bay, Alabama case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, Dean B.

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy with which coastal topography has been mapped directly affects the reliability and usefulness of elevationbased sea-level rise vulnerability assessments. Recent research has shown that the qualities of the elevation data must be well understood to properly model potential impacts. The cumulative vertical uncertainty has contributions from elevation data error, water level data uncertainties, and vertical datum and transformation uncertainties. The concepts of minimum sealevel rise increment and minimum planning timeline, important parameters for an elevation-based sea-level rise assessment, are used in recognition of the inherent vertical uncertainty of the underlying data. These concepts were applied to conduct a sea-level rise vulnerability assessment of the Mobile Bay, Alabama, region based on high-quality lidar-derived elevation data. The results that detail the area and associated resources (land cover, population, and infrastructure) vulnerable to a 1.18-m sea-level rise by the year 2100 are reported as a range of values (at the 95% confidence level) to account for the vertical uncertainty in the base data. Examination of the tabulated statistics about land cover, population, and infrastructure in the minimum and maximum vulnerable areas shows that these resources are not uniformly distributed throughout the overall vulnerable zone. The methods demonstrated in the Mobile Bay analysis provide an example of how to consider and properly account for vertical uncertainty in elevation-based sea-level rise vulnerability assessments, and the advantages of doing so.

  4. The fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mutation: Developmentally related alterations in hepatic triglyceride metabolism and protein expression

    SciTech Connect

    Reue, K.; Rehnmark, S.; Cohen, R.D.; Leete, T.H.; Doolittle, M.H. |; Giometti, C.S.; Mishler, K.; Slavin, B.G.

    1997-07-01

    Fatty liver dystrophy (fld) is an autosomal recessive mutation in mice characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and development of a fatty liver in the early neonatal period. Also associated with the fld phenotype is a tissue-specific deficiency in the expression of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase, as well as elevations in hepatic apolipoprotein A-IV and apolipoprotein C-II mRNA levels. Although these lipid abnormalities resolve at the age of weaning, adult mutant mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy associated with abnormal myelin formation. The fatty liver in fld/fld neonates is characterized by the accumulation of large triglyceride droplets within the parenchymal cells, and these droplets persist within isolated hepatocytes maintained in culture for several days. To identify the metabolic defect that leads to lipid accumulation, the authors investigated several aspects of cellular triglyceride metabolism. The mutant mice exhibited normal activity of acid triacylglycerol lipase, an enzyme thought to be responsible for hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides in the liver. Metabolic labeling studies performed with oleic acid revealed that free fatty acids accumulate in the liver of 3 day old fld/fld mice, but not in adults. This accumulation in liver was mirrored by elevated free fatty acid levels in plasma of fld/fld neonates, with levels highest in very young mice and returning to normal by the age of one month. Quantitation of fatty acid oxidation in cells isolated from fld/fld neonates revealed that oxidation rate is reduced 60% in hepatocytes and 40% in fibroblasts; hepatocytes from adult fld/fld mice exhibited an oxidation rate similar to those from wild-type mice.

  5. RABEX-5 overexpression in gastric cancer is correlated with elevated MMP-9 level

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Lili; Hao, Xuwen; Tang, Yanping; Wei, Xiaodong; Gong, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate mRNA and protein expression levels of RABEX-5 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), their mutual correlation, and biological behavior in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Methods: The expression levels of RABEX-5 and MMP-9 were determined by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting in cell lines, GC tissues, and adjacent normal tissues. In addition, RABEX-5 and MMP-9 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed tissues from 113 GC patients. Results: The mRNA and protein expression levels of RABEX-5 and MMP-9 in GC cell lines and GC tissues were higher than those in normal gastric mucosa cell line and adjacent normal tissues. RABEX-5 expression and MMP-9 expression in GC tissues were significantly and positively correlated. In addition, the size of tumor (p<0.001), Lauren’s classification (p=0.009), and N stage (p<0.001) were identified as the relative factors of RABEX-5 expression, whereas the expression of MMP-9 was correlated with N stage (p=0.003). The results of the multivariate analysis revealed that the independent predictive factors of overall survival were T stage (hazard ratio (HR)=2.382; p=0.028), N stage (HR=1.755; p<0.001), RABEX-5 expression (HR=0.452; p=0.004), and MMP-9 expression (HR=0.561; p=0.032). Conclusions: RABEX-5 and MMP-9 expression levels were elevated in GC tissues and were associated with tumor invasion, metastasis, and prognosis. Therefore, they may be promising prognostic indicators of survival in GC patients. PMID:27347344

  6. Elevated plasma oxytocin levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome compared with healthy unrelated siblings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lisa; Manzardo, Ann M; Miller, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Daniel J; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder associated with distinct abnormal behaviors including hyperphagia, profound social deficits, and obsessive-compulsive tendencies. PWS males showed reduced oxytocin receptor (OTR) gene expression and density in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus that may play a role in PWS psychopathology. Oxytocin is an anorexigenic neuropeptide similar to vasopressin that is associated with social cognition and obsessive-compulsive behavior. To evaluate oxytocin biology in PWS, we examined overnight fasting plasma oxytocin levels in 23 children with PWS (mean ± SD age: 8.2 ± 2.0 year) having genetic confirmation and 18 age matched healthy unrelated siblings without PWS (mean ± SD age: 8.2 ± 2.3 year) and a similar gender ratio under the same clinical assessments, specimen processing and laboratory conditions. Multiplex immune assays were carried out using the Milliplex Human Neuropeptide Magnetic panel and the Luminex system. Natural log-transformed oxytocin levels were analyzed using general linear model adjusting for diagnosis, gender, age and body mass index (BMI). Oxytocin plasma levels were significantly elevated in children with PWS (168 ± 121 pg/ml) compared with unrelated and unaffected siblings without the diagnosis of PWS (64.8 ± 83.8 pg/ml, F = 8.8, P < 0.01) and the diagnosis of PWS predicted oxytocin level (F = 9.5, P < 0.003) in controlled regression analysis with an overall model fit R(2) = 0.33 (P < 0.01). The symptoms of hyperphagia, anxiety and repetitive behaviors classically seen in PWS may be related to the disruption of oxytocin responsivity or feedback in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus possibly influencing vasopressin signaling. Further study is needed to characterize oxytocin function in PWS.

  7. Overexpression of Sly41 suppresses COPII vesicle–tethering deficiencies by elevating intracellular calcium levels

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Indrani; Barlowe, Charles

    2016-01-01

    SLY41 was identified as a multicopy suppressor of loss of Ypt1, a Rab GTPase essential for COPII vesicle tethering at the Golgi complex. SLY41 encodes a polytopic membrane protein with homology to a class of solute transporter proteins, but how overexpression suppresses vesicle-tethering deficiencies is not known. Here we show that Sly41 is efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles and actively cycles between the ER and Golgi compartments. SLY41 displays synthetic negative genetic interactions with PMR1, which encodes the major Golgi-localized Ca2+/Mn2+ transporter and suggests that Sly41 influences cellular Ca2+ and Mn2+ homeostasis. Experiments using the calcium probe aequorin to measure intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in live cells reveal that Sly41 overexpression significantly increases cytosolic calcium levels. Although specific substrates of the Sly41 transporter were not identified, our findings indicate that localized overexpression of Sly41 to the early secretory pathway elevates cytosolic calcium levels to suppress vesicle-tethering mutants. In vitro SNARE cross-linking assays were used to directly monitor the influence of Ca2+ on tethering and fusion of COPII vesicles with Golgi membranes. Strikingly, calcium at suppressive concentrations stimulated SNARE-dependent membrane fusion when vesicle-tethering activity was reduced. These results show that calcium positively regulates the SNARE-dependent fusion stage of ER–Golgi transport. PMID:27030673

  8. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  9. Immunological Roles of Elevated Plasma Levels of Matricellular Proteins in Japanese Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Shiratori, Beata; Zhao, Jingge; Okumura, Masao; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Yanai, Hideki; Mizuno, Kazue; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Idei, Tadashi; Ashino, Yugo; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Hattori, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Elevated matricellular proteins (MCPs), including osteopontin (OPN) and galectin-9 (Gal-9), were observed in the plasma of patients with Manila-type tuberculosis (TB) previously. Here, we quantified plasma OPN, Gal-9, and soluble CD44 (sCD44) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and another 29 cytokines by Luminex assay in 36 patients with pulmonary TB, six subjects with latent tuberculosis (LTBI), and 19 healthy controls (HCs) from Japan for a better understanding of the roles of MCPs in TB. All TB subjects showed positive results of enzyme-linked immunospot assays (ELISPOTs). Spoligotyping showed that 20 out of 36 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains belong to the Beijing type. The levels of OPN, Gal-9, and sCD44 were higher in TB (positivity of 61.1%, 66.7%, and 63.9%, respectively) than in the HCs. Positive correlations between OPN and Gal-9, between OPN and sCD44, and negative correlation between OPN and ESAT-6-ELISPOT response, between chest X-ray severity score of cavitary TB and ESAT-6-ELISPOT response were observed. Instead of OPN, Gal-9, and sCD44, cytokines G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-12p70, and IL-1RA levels were higher in Beijing MTB-infected patients. These findings suggest immunoregulatory, rather than inflammatory, effect of MCPs and can advance the understanding of the roles of MCPs in the context of TB pathology. PMID:28025511

  10. Effects of Elevated β-Estradiol Levels on the Functional Morphology of the Testis - New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Leavy, Myles; Trottmann, Matthias; Liedl, Bernhard; Reese, Sven; Stief, Christian; Freitag, Benjamin; Baugh, John; Spagnoli, Giulio; Kölle, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Elevated estradiol levels are correlated with male infertility. Causes of hyperestrogenism include diseases of the adrenal cortex, testis or medications affecting the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The aim of our study was to elucidate the effects of estradiol treatment on testicular cellular morphology and function, with reference to the treatment regimen received. Testes samples (n = 9) were obtained post-orchiectomy from male-to-female transsexuals within the age range of 26–52 years. Each patient had a minimum of 1–6 years estradiol treatment. For comparison, additional samples were obtained from microscopically unaltered testicular tissue surrounding tumors (n = 7). The tissues obtained were investigated by stereomicroscopy, histochemistry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunohistochemistry. Our studies revealed that estradiol treatment significantly decreased the diameter of the seminiferous tubules (p < 0.05) and induced fatty degeneration in the surrounding connective tissue. An increase in collagen fiber synthesis in the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding the seminiferous tubules was also induced. Spermatogenesis was impaired resulting in mainly spermatogonia being present. Sertoli cells revealed diminished expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Both Sertoli and Leydig cells showed morphological alterations and glycoprotein accumulations. These results demonstrate that increased estradiol levels drastically impact the human testis. PMID:28045098

  11. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    PubMed Central

    Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

  12. Spatial learning results in elevated agmatine levels in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Collie, Nicola D; Chary, Sree; Jing, Yu; Zhang, Hu

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that agmatine, a metabolite of L-arginine by arginine decarboxylase, is a novel neurotransmitter, and exogenous agmatine can modulate behavior functions including learning and memory. However, direct evidence of its involvement in learning and memory processes is currently lacking. This study measured agmatine levels in the hippocampus, parahippocampal region, cerebellum, and vestibular nucleus in rats that were trained to find a hidden escape platform in the water-maze task, or forced to swim in the pool with no platform presented, or kept in the holding-box, using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Compared with the swimming only group and holding-box group, agmatine levels were significantly increased in the CA1 and dentate gyrus subregions of the hippocampus, the entorhinal cortex and the vestibular nucleus in the water-maze training group. These results, for the first time, demonstrate spatial learning-induced region-specific elevation in agmatine, and raise a novel issue of the involvement of agmatine in the processes of learning and memory.

  13. Apple leaf extract as a potential candidate for suppressing postprandial elevation of the blood glucose level.

    PubMed

    Shirosaki, Miyuki; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Yazawa, Kazunaga

    2012-01-01

    While the industrial value of fruits has long been recognized, only recently have the leaves of fruit trees been considered to have immense and mostly-untapped potential. In the present study, the physiological effects of apple leaf extract in mice were investigated. In addition, we sought to elucidate the active principle(s) and examined its potential for application. Apple leaf extract suppressed postprandial elevation of the blood glucose level and increased the residual amount of glucose in the small intestine in glucose-loaded mice compared with those in control mice. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to an active component that was identified as phloridzin, a known SGLT inhibitor, based on an analysis of its spectral data. With regard to an anti-hyperglycemic effect, extraction with ethanol from leaves of apple tree gave the best results. These effects decreased with heating during the extraction procedure. Since bolus ingestion of the extract did not affect blood glucose levels in normal mice with or without an overnight fast, the inhibitory effects on glucose absorption were not considered to be associated with unspecific gastrointestinal impairment and the extract did not cause hypoglycemia at a normally effective dose. Therefore, the leaf parts of apple tree may be a promising candidate as an industrial resource for maintaining good health in the future.

  14. Elevated C-reactive protein level predicts lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding

    PubMed Central

    TOMIZAWA, MINORU; SHINOZAKI, FUMINOBU; HASEGAWA, RUMIKO; SHIRAI, YOSHINORI; MOTOYOSHI, YASUFUMI; SUGIYAMA, TAKAO; YAMAMOTO, SHIGENORI; ISHIGE, NAOKI

    2016-01-01

    Lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding can be caused by colorectal polyps or cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify blood test variables and medications that can predict lower GI bleeding, which would allow for appropriate colonoscopy. The medical records of patients who underwent colonoscopy from September 2014 to September 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The selected patients included 278 men (mean age, 67.0±11.5 years) and 249 women (mean age, 69.6±12.0 years). The diagnosis, medications, and blood test variables were compared between patients with and without bleeding. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with lower GI bleeding. The presence of colorectal polyp and cancer was associated with lower GI bleeding (P=0.0044) with an odds ratio of 6.71 (P=0.0148). No lower GI bleeding was observed in patients taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, or anticoagulants. The C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were significantly higher in patients with lower GI bleeding (P=0.0227). The Hb levels were lower in patients with lower GI bleeding, however this finding was not statistically significant (P>0.05). No blood test variable was associated with lower GI bleeding. Elevated CRP was associated with lower GI bleeding, while there was no association between the medications and lower GI bleeding. PMID:27284411

  15. Experimental Study of Vane Heat Transfer and Aerodynamics at Elevated Levels of Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Forrest E.

    1994-01-01

    A four vane subsonic cascade was used to investigate how free stream turbulence influences pressure surface heat transfer. A simulated combustor turbulence generator was built to generate high level (13 percent) large scale (Lu approximately 44 percent inlet span) turbulence. The mock combustor was also moved upstream to generate a moderate level (8.3 percent) of turbulence for comparison to smaller scale grid generated turbulence (7.8 percent). The high level combustor turbulence caused an average pressure surface heat transfer augmentation of 56 percent above the low turbulence baseline. The smaller scale grid turbulence produced the next greatest effect on heat transfer and demonstrated the importance of scale on heat transfer augmentation. In general, the heat transfer scaling parameter U(sub infinity) TU(sub infinity) LU(sub infinity)(exp -1/3) was found to hold for the turbulence. Heat transfer augmentation was also found to scale approximately on Re(sub ex)(exp 1/3) at constant turbulence conditions. Some evidence of turbulence intensification in terms of elevated dissipation rates was found along the pressure surface outside the boundary layer. However, based on the level of dissipation and the resulting heat transfer augmentation, the amplification of turbulence has only a moderate effect on pressure surface heat transfer. The flow field turbulence does drive turbulent production within the boundary layer which in turn causes the high levels of heat transfer augmentation. Unlike heat transfer, the flow field straining was found to have a significant effect on turbulence isotropy. On examination of the one dimensional spectra for u' and v', the effect to isotropy was largely limited to lower wavenumber spectra. The higher wavenumber spectra showed little or no change. The high level large scale turbulence was found to have a strong influence on wake development. The free stream turbulence significantly enhanced mixing resulting in broader and shallower

  16. Elevated Ozone Levels in Denmark: Analysis Employing Trajectory and Chemical Transport Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, A.; Gross, A.; Petrova, I.

    2009-09-01

    In our study, among 9 Danish measurement sites, 3 sites having long-term ozone measurement (with a time resolution of 1 hour and starting in early 1990s) records were selected - Ulborg (DK31; 56.28°N, 8.43°E) and Frederiksborg (DK32; 55.97°N, 12.33°E) and Lille Valby (DK41; 55.69°N, 12.13°E) located on Jutland Peninsula and Zealand Island of Denmark, respectively. After pre-screening of the time series (covering almost 15 year period and including almost 543 thousand valid observations), the measurements with high ozone level (using threshold as 150 µg/m3) were selected accounting in total for 508 cases for these 3 locations. Among these, 42 (for DK41) and 59 (for DK31 and DK32) cases showed very high ozone concentrations (i.e. above 180 µg/m3). For all these cases, at first, the trajectory modelling approach was applied in order to estimate atmospheric transport pathway of air mass arrival at the measurement sites and potential source regions from where the elevated ozone level can be associated. In our study the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) model using REANALYSIS meteorological dataset (global, 1948-present) was run to calculate a set of backward trajectories (in total 508, with duration of 5 day backward in time and arriving at altitude of 100 m) and divide into groups with respect to potential source regions and dominating atmospheric transport pathways using cluster analysis technique. Several relatively long-term episodes with continuous elevated ozone were identified in the analyzed time series; in particular, for DK31 - 7 episodes (having longest duration and observed in Jun 1996 and Jun 2000), DK32 - 5 (Jul 1992 and Jun 2000), and DK41 - 4 (Jul 1992 and Jun 2000). For selected episodes the off-line Eulerian Chemistry-Aerosol-Cloud (CAC) model was run over the European domain. As meteorological driver, the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) generated output with 3D meteorological fields was used

  17. The effect of elevated plasma phenylalanine levels on protein synthesis rates in adult rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, D S; Yang, X R; Lajtha, A

    1994-01-01

    Increasing the plasma phenylalanine concentration to levels as high as 0.560-0.870 mM (over ten times normal levels) had no detectable effect on the rate of brain protein synthesis in adult rats. The average rates for 7-week-old rats were: valine, 0.58 +/- 0.05%/h, phenylalanine, 0.59 +/- 0.06%/h, and tyrosine, 0.60 +/- 0.09%/h, or 0.59 +/- 0.06%/h overall. Synthesis rates calculated on the basis of the specific activity of the tRNA-bound amino acid were slightly lower (4% lower for phenylalanine) than those based on the brain free amino acid pool. Similarly, the specific activities of valine and phenylalanine in microdialysis fluid from striatum were practically the same as those in the brain free amino acid pool. Thus the specific activities of the valine and phenylalanine brain free pools are good measures of the precursor specific activity for protein synthesis. In any event, synthesis rates, whether based on the specific activities of the amino acids in the brain free pool or those bound to tRNA, were unaffected by elevated levels of plasma phenylalanine. Brain protein synthesis rates measured after the administration of quite large doses of phenylalanine (> 1.5 mumol/g) or valine (15 mumol/g) were in agreement (0.62 +/- 0.01 and 0.65 +/- 0.01%/h respectively) with the rates determined with infusions of trace amounts of amino acids. Thus the technique of stabilizing precursor-specific activity, and pushing values in the brain close to those of the plasma, by the administration of large quantities of precursor, appears to be valid. PMID:8093014

  18. Plasma Levels of Biotin Metabolites Are Elevated in Hemodialysis Patients with Cramps.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Masako; Ando, Itiro; Yagi, Shigeaki; Nishizawa, Manabu; Oguma, Shiro; Satoh, Keisuke; Sato, Hiroshi; Imai, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Patients with renal failure undergoing hemodialysis (HD) are susceptible to muscle cramps during and after HD. Muscle cramps are defined as the sudden onset of a prolonged involuntary muscle contraction accompanied by severe pain. Through HD, water-soluble vitamins are drawn out with water. Since biotin, a water-soluble vitamin, plays an essential role as one of the coenzymes in producing energy, we have hypothesized that deficiency of biotin may be responsible for HD-associated cramps. We previously reported that biotin administration ameliorated the muscle cramps, despite the elevated plasma biotin levels before HD and biotin administration, as judged by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, the ELISA measures not only biotin but also total avidin-binding substances (TABS) including biotin metabolites. In the present study, we determined biotin in HD patients as well as healthy controls, using a newly developed method with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The plasma samples were collected from 28 HD patients (16 patients with cramps and 12 patients without cramps) before HD and biotin administration and from 11 controls. The results showed that the accumulation of biotin and TABS in plasma of HD patients compared to controls. Importantly, the levels of biotin metabolites, i.e. TABS subtracted by biotin, increased significantly in patients with cramps over those without cramps. Moreover, the levels of biotin metabolites were significantly higher in patients with a poor response to administered biotin, compared to those with a good response. We propose that accumulated biotin metabolites impair biotin's functions as a coenzyme.

  19. Elevated bilirubin levels are associated with a better renal prognosis and ameliorate kidney fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jin Ho; Kim, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jin Hyuk; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Seung Hee; Lee, Jung Pyo

    2017-01-01

    Background Bilirubin has been reported to protect against kidney injury. However, further studies highlighting the beneficial effects of bilirubin on renal fibrosis and chronic renal function decline are necessary. Methods We assessed a prospective cohort with a reference range of total bilirubin levels. The primary outcome was a 30% reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline, and the secondary outcome was a doubling of the serum creatinine levels, halving of the eGFR and the initiation of dialysis. In addition, experiments with tubular epithelial cells and C57BL/6 mice were performed to investigate the protective effects of bilirubin on kidney fibrosis. Results As a result, 1,080 patients were included in the study cohort. The study group with relative hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin 0.8–1.2 mg/dL) showed a better prognosis in terms of the primary outcome (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19–0.59, P < 0.001) and the secondary outcome (adjusted HR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.71, P = 0.01) than that of the control group. Moreover, the bilirubin-treated mice showed less fibrosis in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model (P < 0.05). In addition, bilirubin treatment decreased fibronectin expression in tubular epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Conclusions Mildly elevated serum bilirubin levels were associated with better renal prognosis, and bilirubin treatment induced a beneficial effect on renal fibrosis. Therefore, bilirubin could be a potential therapeutic target to delay fibrosis-related kidney disease progression. PMID:28225832

  20. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 Is Associated with Elevated Levels of Anxiety in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Tobias; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F.; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objective NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is an anorexigenic hormone with elevated levels in obese and decreased levels in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients. Moreover, a role in the regulation of stress and emotions was suggested by several rodent and preliminary human studies. Since anxiety and depression are common comorbidities in AN, we investigated the association of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 with anxiety, depression and perceived stress in AN. Methods We analyzed circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels in 64 female inpatients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (body mass index, BMI; mean±SD, 14.7±2.3 kg/m2). At the same time anxiety (GAD-7), depression (PHQ-9), stress (PSQ-20) and disordered eating (EDI-2) were measured psychometrically. Results No correlation was observed between NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and BMI (r = 0.06, p = 0.70). The study population was divided in patients with low anxiety (n = 32, GAD-7 scores, mean±SD, 7.5±3.3) and high anxiety (n = 32, 16.0±3.0, p<0.001). Patients with high anxiety scores displayed 65% higher NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels (p = 0.04). This was reflected by a positive correlation of GAD-7 and NUCB2/nesfatin-1-levels (r = 0.32, p = 0.04). Scores of PSQ-20 (73.3±14.3 vs. 48.6±17.2) and PHQ-9 (18.8±5.0 vs. 10.3±5.1) were higher in the high anxiety group (p<0.001) but did not correlate with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 (p>0.05). EDI-2 total score was also higher in the high anxiety group (52.3±14.1 vs. 40.2±16.0, p = 0.02), while no correlations of EDI-2-scores with plasma NUCB2/nesfatin-1 were observed (p>0.05). Conclusions Circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels correlated positively with perceived anxiety, whereas no association with BMI or eating disorder symptoms was observed. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 might be primarily involved in the modulation of anxiety and subsequently in the regulation of eating habits and body weight in AN. PMID:26162003

  1. Elevated Circulating Interleukin 33 Levels in Stable Renal Transplant Recipients at High Risk for Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Mansell, Holly; Soliman, Mahmoud; Elmoselhi, Hamdi; Shoker, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    . Diminished eGFR, age, diabetes, serum phosphorus and microalbuminurea demonstrate significant relationship with elevated IL-33 levels, supporting the possible pathognomonic role of IL-33 in the cardiovascular burden in RTR. PMID:26544186

  2. Northeastern Salt Marshes: Elevation Capital and Resilience to Sea Level Rise

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable tidal salt marshes exist at an elevation that is supra-optimal relative to peak biomass production, which for Spartina alterniflora, and other marsh macrophytes, follows a parabolic distribution as a function of elevation, as a surrogate for inundation frequency. In order...

  3. Does an elevated serum vitamin B(12) level mask actual vitamin B(12) deficiency in myeloproliferative disorders?

    PubMed

    Gauchan, Dron; Joshi, Nitin; Gill, Amandeep Singh; Patel, Vishal; Debari, Vincent A; Guron, Gunwant; Maroules, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Elevation of the methylmalonic acid level is a sensitive marker of vitamin B(12) deficiency. Our cross-sectional observational study of 33 patients with myeloproliferative disorders found that 9 patients, 27.27% had occult deficiency despite having normal to elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels. Early detection of vitamin B(12) deficiency by using the methylmalonic acid measurement may prevent significant neurologic and hematologic complications in patients with myeloproliferative disorders. In patients with myeloproliferative disorders, normal to high serum vitamin B(12) concentrations have often been reported. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether normal or elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels in myeloproliferative disorders might actually mask the true underlying vitamin B(12) deficiency in some patients. Thirty-three patients (12 men, 21 women; mean age, 70.55 years [range, 37-90 years]) with polycythemia vera (n = 13), essential thrombocythemia (n = 12), chronic myelogenous leukemia (n = 5), and idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF) (n = 3) were accrued over a period of 1 year, from March 2009 to February 2010. From all of the subjects, serum vitamin B(12) level, methylmalonic acid level, a basic complete blood cell count panel, and liver and renal function tests were obtained. Normal to elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels were recorded in all the patients. However, elevated serum methylmalonic acid levels were found in 9 (27.27%) patients, with a prevalence of 2 patients with polycythemia vera, 23% in polycythemia vera, 4 patients with essential thrombocythemia, 33.3% in essential thrombocythemia, 1 patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia, 20% in chronic myelogenous leukemia, and 2 patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis, 66.7% in IMF. Our data suggest that 27.27% of the total enrolled patients had occult vitamin B(12) deficiency despite normal to elevated vitamin B(12) levels on regular serum vitamin B(12) testing.

  4. Detection of elevated levels of 2-5A synthetase in serum from children with various infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Sugino, H; Mitani, I; Koike, M; Kodama, T; Sokawa, J; Sawai, H; Ishibashi, K; Itoh, M; Watanabe, S; Sokawa, Y

    1986-01-01

    By a sensitive radioimmunoassay method, (2'-5')oligoadenylate synthetase was detected in serum from patients with viral, bacterial, or mycoplasmal infections at elevated levels compared with enzyme levels in serum from healthy individuals and patients suffering from noninfectious diseases. PMID:3760142

  5. Elevated Nicotianamine Levels in Arabidopsis halleri Roots Play a Key Role in Zinc Hyperaccumulation[W

    PubMed Central

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Weber, Michael; Schmidt, Holger; Rensch, Stefan; Trampczynska, Aleksandra; Hansen, Thomas H.; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Talke, Ina N.; Krämer, Ute; Clemens, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Zn deficiency is among the leading health risk factors in developing countries. Breeding of Zn-enriched crops is expected to be facilitated by molecular dissection of plant Zn hyperaccumulation (i.e., the ability of certain plants to accumulate Zn to levels >100-fold higher than normal plants). The model hyperaccumulators Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens share elevated nicotianamine synthase (NAS) expression relative to nonaccumulators among a core of alterations in metal homeostasis. Suppression of Ah-NAS2 by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in strongly reduced root nicotianamine (NA) accumulation and a concomitant decrease in root-to-shoot translocation of Zn. Speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed that the dominating Zn ligands in roots were NA and thiols. In NAS2-RNAi plants, a marked increase in Zn-thiol species was observed. Wild-type A. halleri plants cultivated on their native soil showed elemental profiles very similar to those found in field samples. Leaf Zn concentrations in NAS2-RNAi lines, however, did not reach the Zn hyperaccumulation threshold. Leaf Cd accumulation was also significantly reduced. These results demonstrate a role for NAS2 in Zn hyperaccumulation also under near-natural conditions. We propose that NA forms complexes with Zn(II) in root cells and facilitates symplastic passage of Zn(II) toward the xylem. PMID:22374395

  6. Oxidative stress elevated DNA damage and homocysteine level in normal pregnant women in a segment of Pakistani population.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Shazia A; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Ibrahim, Z; Jalal, Fatima; Rana, Shahid Mahboob; Nagra, Saeed A

    2011-04-01

    Maternal oxidative stress during pregnancy may impair fetal growth and help in the development of diseases in adulthood. The aim of current study was to assess total oxidation status (TOS), related parameters and their relationship to DNA damage (%) and homocysteine level in normal pregnant women in low-income participants. In a cross-sectional study healthy women were grouped as normal, while age matched nulliparous and singleton pregnancies were included for first, second and third trimester groups. TOS (P<0.01), melanodialdehyde (MDA) (P<0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P<0.01), triiodothyronine (T3) (P<0.01), thyroxine (T4) (P<0.01), and homocysteine (P<0.001), in pregnant women were significantly higher as compared to normal healthy women. While serum total proteins (P<0.01), albumin (P<0.01) and total antioxidant status (TAS) (P<0.001) decreased significantly as compared to normal healthy women. Women in third trimester showed a significantly high level of body temperature (P<0.01), triglyceride (P<0.01), LDL-cholesterol (P<0.05), AST (P<0.01), T3 (P<0.01), homocysteine (P<0.001), TOS (P<0.01) and MDA (P<0.001) but a lower concentration of serum proteins, albumin and TAS at the end of the pregnancy. Pearson correlation indicated a positive relationship of homocysteine with triglycerides (P<0.027), TOS (P<0.01), MDA (P<0.035) and had a negative relationship with total protein (P<0.026). DNA damage was strongly related with T3 (P<0.008), TOS (P<0.02), MDA (P<0.037) and MBI (P<0.048) profiles of pregnant women. These changes were considered normal for pregnant women having optimum blood pressure and normal child birth. Hormonal influences and hemodilution may contribute towards the observed changes in this study.

  7. Taurine elevates dopamine levels in the rat nucleus accumbens; antagonism by strychnine.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Mia; Molander, Anna; Stomberg, Rosita; Söderpalm, Bo

    2006-06-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, projecting from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (nAcc), is involved in reward-related behaviours and addictive processes, such as alcoholism and drug addiction. It was recently suggested that strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors (GlyR) in the nAcc regulate both basal and ethanol-induced mesolimbic DA activity via a neuronal loop involving endogenous activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in the VTA. However, as the nAcc appears to contain few glycine-immunoreactive cell bodies or fibres, the question as to what may be the endogenous ligand for GlyRs in this brain region remains open. Here we have investigated whether the amino acid taurine could serve this purpose using in vivo microdialysis in awake, freely moving male Wistar rats. Local perfusion of taurine (1, 10 or 100 mm in the perfusate) increased DA levels in the nAcc. The taurine (10 mm)-induced DA increase was, similarly to that previously observed after ethanol, completely blocked by (i) perfusion of the competitive GlyR antagonist strychnine in the nAcc, (ii) perfusion of the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine (100 microm) in the VTA, and (iii) systemic administration of the acetylcholine-depleting drug vesamicol (0.4 mg/kg, i.p). The present results suggest that taurine may be an endogenous ligand for GlyRs in the nAcc and that the taurine-induced elevation of DA levels in this area, similarly to that observed after local ethanol, is mediated via a neuronal loop involving endogenous activation of nAChRs in the VTA.

  8. Programmed cell death genes are linked to elevated creatine kinase levels in unhealthy male nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangkyu; Simon, Eric; Myers, Leann; Hamm, L. Lee; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2016-01-01

    Declining health in the oldest-old takes an energy toll for simple maintenance of body functions. The underlying mechanisms, however, differ in males and females. In females, the declines are explained by loss of muscle mass, but this is not the case in males in whom they are associated with increased levels of circulating creatine kinase. This relationship raises the possibility that muscle damage rather than muscle loss is the cause of the increased energy demands of unhealthy aging in males. We have now examined factors that contribute to the increase in creatine kinase. Much of it (60%) can be explained by a history of cardiac problems and lower kidney function, while being mitigated by moderate physical activity, reinforcing the notion that tissue damage is a likely source. In a search for genetic risk factors associated with elevated creatine kinase, the Ku70 gene XRCC6 and the ceramide synthase gene LASS1 were investigated because of their roles in telomere length and longevity and healthy aging, respectively. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these two genes were independently associated with creatine kinase levels. The XRCC6 variant was epistatic to one of the LASS1 variants but not to the other. These gene variants have potential regulatory activity. Ku70 is an inhibitor of the pro-apoptotic Bax, while the product of Lass1, ceramide, operates in both caspase-dependent and independent pathways of programmed cell death, providing a potential cellular mechanism for the effects of these genes on tissue damage and circulating creatine kinase. PMID:26913518

  9. Photosynthesis and antioxidant defense system of Gynura Bicolor DC grown at different elevated CO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO _{2}] will increase in the future and will affect global climate and ecosystem productivity. However, this is not clearly an area that requires further study on the most appropriate [CO _{2}] selection for plant growth and quality in a closed, controlled environment. The aim of this study was to determine the variation of photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant status under five CO _{2} concentration (400, 800, 1200, 2000 and 3000 umol mol (-1) ) on the leaf of Gynura bicolor DC. Here the results show that net photosynthetic rate(Pn), Chl content, edible biomass(EB), leaf blade width(LBW), root weight(RW), fructose(Fru) and sucrose(Suc) of Gynura bicolor DC increased under elevated [CO _{2}] of 800 umol mol (-1) , 1200 umol mol (-1) and 2000 umol mol (-1) . On the contrary, photosynthesis and biomass production declined significantly at 3000 umol mol (-1) CO _{2}, While Lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H _{2}O _{2}) achieved the highest levels. Furthermore, the contents of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C (VC), and vitamin E (VE), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) reached the highest level at 2000 umol mol ({-1) }CO _{2}. Results imply that a significant increase in growth and antioxidant defense system of Gynura bicolor DC occurred under 800-2000 umol mol (-1) of CO _{2} concentration provided a theoretical basis for the application for plants selection in Bioregeneration Life Support System (BLSS) and a closed controlled environment.

  10. Elevated levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in human fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Sarahrudi, Kambiz; Mousavi, Mehdi; Thomas, Anita; Eipeldauer, Stefan; Vécsei, Vilmos; Pietschmann, Peter; Aharinejad, Seyedhossein

    2010-05-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) plays a unique role in bone remodeling. However, to our knowledge, no data on the role of M-CSF in fracture healing in humans have been published so far. This study addressed this issue. One hundred and thirteen patients with long-bone fractures were included in the study and divided into two groups, according to their course of fracture healing. The first group contained 103 patients with normal fracture healing. Ten patients with impaired fracture healing formed the second group of the study. Volunteers donated blood samples as control. Serum samples were collected over a period of 6 months, following a standardized time schedule. In addition, M-CSF levels were measured in fracture hematoma and serum of 11 patients with bone fractures. M-CSF concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fracture hematoma contained significantly higher M-CSF concentrations compared to M-CSF concentrations in patient's serum. M-CSF levels in fracture hematoma and in patient's serum were both significantly higher than M-CSF concentrations measured in serum of healthy controls. Highly elevated M-CSF serum concentrations were found in patients with physiological fracture healing over the entire observation period. Significant differences in the M-CSF serum concentration between patients with normal fracture healing and patients with impaired fracture healing were not observed. This study indicates, for the first time, to our knowledge, a possible local and systemic involvement of M-CSF in humans during fracture healing.

  11. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  12. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands of Micronesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, K.W.; Cahoon, D.R.; Allen, J.A.; Ewel, K.C.; Lynch, J.C.; Cormier, N.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marine communities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer mangroves a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level. In this study, we investigated sedimentation and elevation dynamics of mangrove forests in three hydrogeomorphic settings on the islands of Kosrae and Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Surface accretion rates ranged from 2.9 to 20.8 mm y-1, and are high for naturally occurring mangroves. Although mangrove forests in Micronesian high islands appear to have a strong capacity to offset elevation losses by way of sedimentation, elevation change over 61/2 years ranged from -3.2 to 4.1 mm y-1, depending on the location. Mangrove surface elevation change also varied by hydrogeomorphic setting and river, and suggested differential, and not uniformly bleak, susceptibilities among Pacific high island mangroves to sea-level rise. Fringe, riverine, and interior settings registered elevation changes of -1.30, 0.46, and 1.56 mm y-1, respectively, with the greatest elevation deficit (-3.2 mm y-1) from a fringe zone on Pohnpei and the highest rate of elevation gain (4.1 mm y-1) from an interior zone on Kosrae. Relative to sea-level rise estimates for FSM (0.8-1.8 mm y-1) and assuming a consistent linear trend in these estimates, soil elevations in mangroves on Kosrae and Pohnpei are experiencing between an annual deficit of 4.95 mm and an annual surplus of 3.28 mm. Although natural disturbances are important in mediating elevation gain in some situations, constant allochthonous sediment deposition probably matters most on these Pacific high islands, and is especially helpful in certain hydrogeomorphic zones

  13. High-Intensity Targeted Screening for Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in 2 Inner-City Chicago Communities

    PubMed Central

    Dignam, Timothy A.; Evens, Anne; Eduardo, Eduard; Ramirez, Shokufeh M.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Kilpatrick, Nikki; Noonan, Gary P.; Flanders, W. Dana; Meyer, Pamela A.; McGeehin, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood), risk factors, and previous blood lead testing among children in 2 high-risk Chicago, Ill, communities. Methods. Through high-intensity targeted screening, blood lead levels were tested and risks were assessed among a representative sample of children aged 1 to 5 years who were at risk for lead exposure. Results. Of the 539 children who were tested, 27% had elevated blood lead levels, and 61% had never been tested previously. Elevated blood lead levels were associated with chipped exterior house paint. Conclusions. Most of the children who lived in these communities—where the prevalence for elevated blood lead levels among children was 12 times higher than the national prevalence—were not tested for lead poisoning. Our findings highlight the need for targeted community outreach that includes testing blood lead levels in accordance with the American Academy of Pediatrics’ recommendations. PMID:15514235

  14. Regulation of adipose triglyceride lipase by rosiglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Liu, L.-F.; Purushotham, A.; Wendel, A. A.; Koba, K.; DeIuliis, J.; Lee, K.; Belury, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To elucidate the mechanism by which rosiglitazone regulates adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Methods Male C57Bl/6 mice were treated with rosiglitazone daily (10 mg/kg body weight), and adipose tissues were weighed and preserved for mRNA and protein analysis of ATGL. In parallel, preadipocyte (3T3-L1) cells were differentiated with insulin/dexamethasone/3-isobutyl-1-methlxanthine cocktail or rosiglitazone, and ATGL levels were measured with real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results Rosiglitazone concomitantly promoted differentiation of pre-adipocytes to functional adipocytes and induced mRNA levels of ATGL. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) antagonist bisphenol A diglycidyl ether significantly abrogated the induction of mRNA, but not protein levels of ATGL by rosiglitazone in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the presence of epinephrine rosiglitazone stimulated free fatty acid release and increased diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT-1) mRNA suggest that ATGL and DGAT-1 may be cooperatively involved in rosiglitazone-stimulated triglyceride hydrolysis and fatty acid re-esterification in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with rosiglitazone or insulin did not appear to alter localization of ATGL staining surrounding lipid droplets. Finally, we found that rosiglitazone increased ATGL mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in the presence of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, suggesting that rosiglitazone regulation of ATGL occurs at the transcriptional level. Conclusions Rosiglitazone directly regulates transcription of ATGL, likely through a PPARγ-mediated mechanism. PMID:18643838

  15. Unique Molecular Patterns Uncovered in Kawasaki Disease Patients with Elevated Serum Gamma Glutamyl Transferase Levels: Implications for Intravenous Immunoglobulin Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shiying; Deng, Xiaohong; Huang, Min; Ren, Miao; Jiang, Xiyuan; Kanegaye, John T.; Ha, Kee-Soo; Lee, JungHwa; Li, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Xuejun; Yu, Yunxian; Tremoulet, Adriana H.; Burns, Jane C.; Whitin, John C.; Shin, Andrew Y.; Sylvester, Karl G.; McElhinney, Doff B.; Cohen, Harvey J.; Ling, Xuefeng B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) occurs in 10–20% of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD). The risk of resistance is about two-fold higher in patients with elevated gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels. We sought to understand the biological mechanisms underlying IVIG resistance in patients with elevated GGT levels. Method We explored the association between elevated GGT levels and IVIG-resistance with a cohort of 686 KD patients (Cohort I). Gene expression data from 130 children with acute KD (Cohort II) were analyzed using the R square statistic and false discovery analysis to identify genes that were differentially represented in patients with elevated GGT levels with regard to IVIG responsiveness. Two additional KD cohorts (Cohort III and IV) were used to test the hypothesis that sialylation and GGT may be involved in IVIG resistance through neutrophil apoptosis. Results Thirty-six genes were identified that significantly explained the variations of both GGT levels and IVIG responsiveness in KD patients. After Bonferroni correction, significant associations with IVIG resistance persisted for 12 out of 36 genes among patients with elevated GGT levels and none among patients with normal GGT levels. With the discovery of ST6GALNAC3, a sialyltransferase, as the most differentially expressed gene, we hypothesized that sialylation and GGT are involved in IVIG resistance through neutrophil apoptosis. We then confirmed that in Cohort III and IV there was significantly less reduction in neutrophil count in IVIG non-responders. Conclusions Gene expression analyses combining molecular and clinical datasets support the hypotheses that: (1) neutrophil apoptosis induced by IVIG may be a mechanism of action of IVIG in KD; (2) changes in sialylation and GGT level in KD patients may contribute synergistically to IVIG resistance through blocking IVIG-induced neutrophil apoptosis. These findings have implications for understanding the mechanism of

  16. Elevated serum complement C3 levels are associated with prehypertension in an adult population.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xue; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Shi, Hongbin; Xia, Yang; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Han, Peipei; Dong, Renwei; Wang, Xiuyang; Li, Chunlei; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Kang, Li; Ma, Yixuan; Yu, Bin; Ma, Xinyu; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Guo, Qi; Song, Kun; Wang, GuoLin; Huang, Guowei; Niu, Kaijun

    2017-01-01

    Prehypertension is a public health epidemic associated with various adverse outcomes, but can be reversed by timely intervention. However, little attention has been paid to prehypertension. Complement C3 is a central hub of complement-related immune system. We examined the association between C3 and prehypertension in an adult population for the first time, aiming to investigate whether pro-inflammatory immune response is involved in the prehypertensive state. About 7820 Tianjin residents without hypertension were categorized into sex-specific quintiles based on their serum concentration of complement C3. Adjusted logistic regression models were used separately by gender to assess the association between C3 quintiles and the prevalence of prehypertension. After multiple adjustment, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prehypertension across increasing quintiles of C3 were 1.00 (reference), 1.02 (0.84, 1.25), 1.15 (0.94, 1.42), 1.25 (1.01, 1.54), and 1.71 (1.35, 2.17) (p for trend < 0.0001) among men and were 1.00 (reference), 1.17 (0.92, 1.49), 1.13 (0.88, 1.44), 1.15 (0.89, 1.48), and 1.40 (1.07, 1.84) (p for trend = 0.03) among women. The findings suggested that elevated serum C3 levels are associated with prehypertension. Reducing inflammation may be a potential therapeutic strategy for prehypertension and hypertension that is worthy of further studies and discussion.

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has diminished capacity to counteract redox stress induced by elevated levels of endogenous superoxide

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T.; Bhaskar, Ashima; Chakrapani, Harinath; Singh, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved protective and detoxification mechanisms to maintain cytoplasmic redox balance in response to exogenous oxidative stress encountered inside host phagocytes. In contrast, little is known about the dynamic response of this pathogen to endogenous oxidative stress generated within Mtb. Using a noninvasive and specific biosensor of cytoplasmic redox state of Mtb, we for first time discovered a surprisingly high sensitivity of this pathogen to perturbation in redox homeostasis induced by elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). We synthesized a series of hydroquinone-based small molecule ROS generators and found that ATD-3169 permeated mycobacteria to reliably enhance endogenous ROS including superoxide radicals. When Mtb strains including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) patient isolates were exposed to this compound, a dose-dependent, long-lasting, and irreversible oxidative shift in intramycobacterial redox potential was detected. Dynamic redox potential measurements revealed that Mtb had diminished capacity to restore cytoplasmic redox balance in comparison with Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), a fast growing nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Accordingly, Mtb strains were extremely susceptible to inhibition by ATD-3169 but not Msm, suggesting a functional linkage between dynamic redox changes and survival. Microarray analysis showed major realignment of pathways involved in redox homeostasis, central metabolism, DNA repair, and cell wall lipid biosynthesis in response to ATD-3169, all consistent with enhanced endogenous ROS contributing to lethality induced by this compound. This work provides empirical evidence that the cytoplasmic redox poise of Mtb is uniquely sensitive to manipulation in steady-state endogenous ROS levels, thus revealing the importance of targeting intramycobacterial redox metabolism for controlling TB infection. PMID:25819161

  18. Examining pica in NYC pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Candalla, Barbara M; Ehrlich, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    We sought to describe the impact of pica, the craving for and intentional ingestion of substances not defined as food, as a risk factor for lead poisoning in New York City (NYC) pregnant women. In order to describe pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) who report pica, NYC health department data from 491 cases of lead-poisoned pregnant women from January 2001 to June 2009 were reviewed. Descriptive frequencies were obtained for women reporting pica. Data were compared between women reporting and not reporting pica. In NYC, of the 43 (9%) lead-poisoned pregnant women reporting pica, 42 (97.7%) were immigrants and 28 (64.6%) had consumed soil. Compared to lead-poisoned pregnant women not reporting pica, women reporting pica had higher peak BLLs (29.5 vs. 23.8 μg/dL, P = 0.0001), were more likely to have had a BLL ≥ 45 μg/dL (OR = 3.3, 95% CI, 1.25, 8.68) and receive chelation (OR = 10.88, 95% CI, 1.49, 79.25), more likely to have emigrated from Mexico (OR = 3.05, 95% CI, 1.38–6.72), and less likely to have completed high school (OR = indeterminate; 0 vs. 34%; P = 0.003). Among NYC lead-poisoned pregnant women, pica was associated with higher peak BLLs. Providers in NYC, and possibly other urban settings, should be vigilant and question pregnant women, especially immigrants, about pica and strongly consider testing this at-risk population for lead poisoning.

  19. Amino Acid Change in the Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein is associated with lower triglycerides and myocardial infarction incidence depending on level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the PREDIMED trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variant (rs3812316, C771G, and Gln241His) in the MLXIPL (Max-like protein X interacting protein-like) gene encoding the carbohydrate response element binding protein has been associated with lower triglycerides. However, its association with cardiovascular diseases and gene-diet interactions modul...

  20. The effect of institutionalisation on elevated IgD and IgG levels in patients with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    McMillan, B C; Hanson, R P; Golubjatnikov, G; Sinha, S K

    1975-01-01

    Serum levels of IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM and levels of secretory IgA (S-IgA) in nasal specimens were quantitated by radial immunodiffusion in a group of forty-one institutionalised patients with Down's syndrome (all non-disjunctive trisomy-G karyotype) and their age, sex and race matched controls, consisting of institutionalised non-mongols and normal non-institutionalised subjects. Analysis of levels of all immunoglobulins by age and sex showed no differences within the populations. However, levels of IgA, IgD and IgG were found significantly higher in mongols than in the other two populations. The concentrations of IgM were lower in mongols than in other institutionalised retardates but higher than non-institutionalised normal controls. Levels of S-IgA or IgE were similar in all populations. It was shown that the length of institutionalisation was associated with elevated levels of IgA and depressed levels of IgM in mongols. However, elevated IgG levels in mongols did not appear to be associated with their length of institutionalisation. Similarly, elevated levels of IgD in mongols were not associated with their length of institutionalisation.

  1. Decreased glutathione and elevated hair mercury levels are associated with nutritional deficiency-based autism in Oman.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Farsi, Omar; Ali, Amanat; Ouhtit, Allal; Zang, Tianzhu; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Deth, Richard C

    2014-06-01

    Genetic, nutrition, and environmental factors have each been implicated as sources of risk for autism. Oxidative stress, including low plasma levels of the antioxidant glutathione, has been reported by numerous autism studies, which can disrupt methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation of gene expression with neurodevelopmental consequences. We investigated the status of redox and methylation metabolites, as well as the level of protein homocysteinylation and hair mercury levels, in autistic and neurotypical control Omani children, who were previously shown to exhibit significant nutritional deficiencies in serum folate and vitamin B₁₂. The serum level of glutathione in autistic subjects was significantly below control levels, while levels of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were elevated, indicative of oxidative stress and decreased methionine synthase activity. Autistic males had lower glutathione and higher homocysteine levels than females, while homocysteinylation of serum proteins was increased in autistic males but not females. Mercury levels were markedly elevated in the hair of autistic subjects vs. control subjects, consistent with the importance of glutathione for its elimination. Thus, autism in Oman is associated with decreased antioxidant resources and decreased methylation capacity, in conjunction with elevated hair levels of mercury.

  2. Distribution of serum immunoglobulin G4 levels in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and clinical features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with elevated serum immunoglobulin G4 levels.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Ken; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Hidefumi; Inagaki, Yuko; Yamaoka, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Furuta, Hiroto; Nishi, Masahiro; Akamizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels, IgG4-positive plasmacytes, and lymphocyte infiltration into multiple organs. IgG4 thyroiditis is a subset of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) who exhibited histopathological features of IgG4-RD; its source of serum IgG4 is suggested to be the thyroid gland. Although a relationship between IgG4-RD and IgG4 thyroiditis has been reported, the meaning of serum IgG4 in HT is uncertain. In this report, we prospectively evaluated serum IgG4 levels and clinical features of patients with HT. A total of 149 patients with HT were prospectively recruited into this study. According to the comprehensive diagnostic criteria of IgG4-RD, patients were divided into two groups: elevated IgG4 (>135 mg/dL) and non-elevated IgG4 (≤135 mg/dL). Median serum IgG4 levels of HT patients were 32.0 mg/dL (interquartile range, 20.0-65.0), with a unimodal non-normal distribution. Six patients (4.0%) had elevated serum IgG4 levels above 135 mg/dL. The elevated IgG4 group was older and exhibited enlarged hypoechoic areas in the thyroid gland, as revealed by ultrasonography, relative to the non-elevated IgG4 group. Levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement doses and titers of anti-thyroid antibodies did not differ significantly between the two groups. Two out of six HT patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels had extra-thyroid organ involvement as seen in IgG4-RD. In conclusion, HT patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels shared clinical features with both IgG4-RD and IgG4 thyroiditis. Longer follow-up periods and histopathological assessments are needed to further understand the meaning of elevated serum IgG4 levels in HT.

  3. Elevated levels of interferon-induced 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase in generalized persistent lymphadenopathy and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Read, S E; Williams, B R; Coates, R A; Evans, W K; Fanning, M M; Garvey, M B; Shepherd, F A

    1985-09-01

    The levels of the 2'-5' oligoadenylate enzyme synthetase in extracts of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC) were measured and compared with synthetase levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMs) from healthy heterosexual and homosexual controls. The mean basal synthetase level in heterosexual and homosexual controls was 14 +/- 13 and 12 +/- 9 pmol per hr/10(5) PBMs, respectively. Thirteen individuals with AIDS had a mean basal level of 129 +/- 75 pmol. Serial levels were persistently elevated in six of these individuals over a one- to 10-month period. Twelve of the 13 individuals had antibodies to human T cell lymphotrophic virus-III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). Thirty-three individuals with ARC had a mean basal synthetase level of 68 +/- 84 pmol. Thirty-two of the 33 had antibodies to HTLV-III/LAV. Eleven (33%) have had consistently normal synthetase levels (less than 2 SD above the mean for the homosexual controls, i.e., 30 pmol) over a three- to nine-month follow-up period. Fourteen (42%) had persistently elevated levels over the same period; four (29%) of these developed AIDS during the follow-up period. Eight have had fluctuating levels but have remained clinically well. These studies suggest that persistently elevated synthetase levels in individuals with ARC and antibodies to HTLV-III/LAV indicate progressive virus-induced disease activity. Elevated synthetase levels may be an important prognostic indicator of increased risk of progression to AIDS.

  4. Elevation of branched-chain amino acid levels in diabetes and NAFL and changes with antidiabetic drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Motoh; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Mifuji-Moroka, Rumi; Fujita, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Iwata, Kazuko; Kaito, Masahiko; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), and obesity are associated with elevated branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels, but the mechanism and significance of this has not been elucidated. Eighty-four subjects were enrolled including 43 with DM. Serum BCAA levels were positively correlated with waist-hip ratio and ALT. Serum BCAA levels in subjects with DM were higher than non-DM and those in subjects with NAFL were also higher than non-NAFL. Treatment with pioglitazone and alogliptin (19 of 43 DM subjects) improved serum haemoglobin A1c and decreased BCAA levels. The decrease in BCAAs with improved glucose metabolism suggests that abnormal glucose metabolism is also a factor in elevated BCAA levels.

  5. Triglyceride-induced diabetes mellitus in congenital generalized lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Renan Magalhães; Montenegro, Ana Paula Dias Rangel; Fernandes, Maria Inez Machado; de Moraes, Renata Ribeiro; Elias, Jorge; Gouveia, Leonor Maria Ferreira Braz; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Foss, Milton Cesar; Moreira, Ayrton Custódio; Martinelli, Carlos Eduardo

    2002-04-01

    High levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by intense whole body reduction of subcutaneous fat. Its clinical manifestations appear during the first years of life. However, DM is usually a late event. We report a patient with CGL, diagnosed at 4 months of age, who has severe hypertriglyceridemia (serum triglyceride 12.34 mmol/l and cholesterol 3.90 mmol/l), muscular hypertrophy, hepatomegaly and DM (fasting glycemia 25.9 mmol/l). Hepatic biopsy revealed steatosis and fibrosis. A modified normolipidic (composed of medium chain triglycerides) normocaloric normoproteic milky diet and insulin therapy were instituted. After 1 month treatment a reduction of serum glucose and triglyceride levels (4.13 mmol/I and 7.7 mmol/l, respectively) was noted, with later normalization, which led to the discontinuation of insulin therapy. The patient has been maintaining good control with diet alone, presenting normal serum lipid levels (triglycerides 1.07 mmol/l, total cholesterol 2.71 mmol/l) and the following glycemic profile at OGTT: 0' 4.4 mmol/l; 30' 7.0 mmol/l; 60' 3.8 mmol/l; 90' 5.3 mmol/l, and 120' 5.2 mmol/l. The disappearance of hepatic steatosis was evidenced by a biopsy obtained 1 year after the beginning of treatment. In conolusion, this report suggests that the DM occurring in CGL can be precipitated by high triglyceride levels.

  6. Packaged bulk micromachined triglyceride biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanasundaram, S. V.; Mercy, S.; Harikrishna, P. V.; Rani, Kailash; Bhattacharya, Enakshi; Chadha, Anju

    2010-02-01

    Estimation of triglyceride concentration is important for the health and food industries. Use of solid state biosensors like Electrolyte Insulator Semiconductor Capacitors (EISCAP) ensures ease in operation with good accuracy and sensitivity when compared to conventional sensors. In this paper we report on packaging of miniaturized EISCAP sensors on silicon. The packaging involves glass to silicon bonding using adhesive. Since this kind of packaging is done at room temperature, it cannot damage the thin dielectric layers on the silicon wafer unlike the high temperature anodic bonding technique and can be used for sensors with immobilized enzyme without denaturing the enzyme. The packaging also involves a teflon capping arrangement which helps in easy handling of the bio-analyte solutions. The capping solves two problems. Firstly, it helps in the immobilization process where it ensures the enzyme immobilization happens only on one pit and secondly it helps with easy transport of the bio-analyte into the sensor pit for measurements.

  7. Analysis of lidar elevation data for improved identification and delineation of lands vulnerable to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of sea-level rise in shaping coastal landscapes is well recognized within the earth science community, but as with many natural hazards, communicating the risks associated with sea-level rise remains a challenge. Topography is a key parameter that influences many of the processes involved in coastal change, and thus, up-to-date, high-resolution, high-accuracy elevation data are required to model the coastal environment. Maps of areas subject to potential inundation have great utility to planners and managers concerned with the effects of sea-level rise. However, most of the maps produced to date are simplistic representations derived from older, coarse elevation data. In the last several years, vast amounts of high quality elevation data derived from lidar have become available. Because of their high vertical accuracy and spatial resolution, these lidar data are an excellent source of up-to-date information from which to improve identification and delineation of vulnerable lands. Four elevation datasets of varying resolution and accuracy were processed to demonstrate that the improved quality of lidar data leads to more precise delineation of coastal lands vulnerable to inundation. A key component of the comparison was to calculate and account for the vertical uncertainty of the elevation datasets. This comparison shows that lidar allows for a much more detailed delineation of the potential inundation zone when compared to other types of elevation models. It also shows how the certainty of the delineation of lands vulnerable to a given sea-level rise scenario is much improved when derived from higher resolution lidar data. ?? 2009 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

  8. Biomass Production Potential of a Wastewater Alga Chlorella vulgaris ARC 1 under Elevated Levels of CO2 and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Chinnasamy, Senthil; Ramakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Das, Keshav C.

    2009-01-01

    The growth response of Chlorella vulgaris was studied under varying concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036 to 20%) and temperature (30, 40 and 50°C). The highest chlorophyll concentration (11 μg mL–1) and biomass (210 μg mL–1), which were 60 and 20 times more than that of C. vulgaris at ambient CO2 (0.036%), were recorded at 6% CO2 level. At 16% CO2 level, the concentrations of chlorophyll and biomass values were comparable to those at ambient CO2 but further increases in the CO2 level decreased both of them. Results showed that the optimum temperature for biomass production was 30°C under elevated CO2 (6%). Although increases in temperature above 30°C resulted in concomitant decrease in growth response, their adverse effects were significantly subdued at elevated CO2. There were also differential responses of the alga, assessed in terms of NaH14CO3 uptake and carbonic anhydrase activity, to increases in temperature at elevated CO2. The results indicated that Chlorella vulgaris grew better at elevated CO2 level at 30°C, albeit with lesser efficiencies at higher temperatures. PMID:19333419

  9. ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

  10. Differences in responses of summer and winter spinach to elevated UV-B at varying soil NPK levels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, S B

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal variations in response of spinach to elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) during summer and winter were assessed with respect to growth, biomass, yield, NPK uptake and NPK use efficiencies at varying NPK levels. The nutrient amendments were recommended NPK (RNPK) and 1.5 times recommended NPK (1.5 RNPK). Season significantly affected the measured parameters except the number of leaves. Under ambient UV-B, the growth performance of summer spinach was better in both the NPK levels, higher being at 1.5 RNPK leading to higher nutrient uptake. However, more reduction in biomass under elevated UV-B in 1.5 RNPK was recorded during summer, while during winter in RNPK. Reduction in biomass under elevated UV-B was accompanied by the modification in its partitioning with more biomass allocation to root during summer compared to winter at both the NPK levels. NPK uptake was higher in summer, while NPK use efficiencies were higher during winter. At higher than recommended NPK level, better NPK use efficiencies were displayed during both the seasons. Increased NPK supply during winter enabled spinach to capitalize light more efficiently and hence increased biomass accumulation. Strategies for surviving elevated UV-B in winter differ from those that provided protection from the same stress when it occurs in summer.

  11. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver and elevated alpha fetoprotein level in an infant with isolated hemihyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Demir, Hac Ahmet; Varan, Ali; Akçören, Zuhal; Haliloglu, Mithat; Büyükpamukcu, Münevver

    2008-10-01

    A case of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver in a 43-day-old baby girl with isolated hemihyperplasia and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein is presented. The child referred to our hospital with bilateral renal masses detected by prenatal and postnatal ultrasonography. A mass lesion was detected in segment 6 of liver and was diagnosed as focal nodular hyperplasia. We present this case to emphasize the presence of focal nodular hyperplasia in a patient with isolated hemihypertrophy and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level.

  12. Cardiac Reactivity and Elevated Blood Pressure Levels among Young African Americans: The Importance of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Ivor Lensworth; Marshall, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the racial differences in elevated arterial blood pressure between African American youth, especially adolescents, and their White counterparts. Argues that African American adolescents' perception of day-to-day stress is an important contributor to this condition. Considers a conceptual model of the sociopsychophysiological stress…

  13. Elevated Levels of Somatic Mutation as a Biomarker of Environmental Effects Contributing to Breast Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    elevated in xeroderma pigmentosum patients, which are characterized by a deficiency in nucleotide excision repair (Tates et al., 1989; Cole et al...circulating T-lymphocytes of xeroderma pigmentosum patients. Mutat Res 1992 Mar; 273(2): 171-8. Cole J, Skopek TR. Somatic mutant frequency, mutation rates and

  14. Acceleration levels on board the Space Station and a tethered elevator for micro and variable-gravity applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M.; Vetrella, S.; Moccia, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics and acceleration levels of a new tethered system for micro and variable-gravity applications. The system consists of two platforms tethered on opposite sides to the Space Station. A fourth platform, the elevator, is placed in between the Space Station and the upper platform. Variable-g levels on board the elevator are obtained by moving this facility along the upper tether, while micro-g experiments are carried out on board the Space Station. By controlling the length of the lower tether the position of the system CM can be maintained on board the Space Station despite variations of the station's distribution of mass. The paper illustrates the mathematical model, the environmental perturbations and the control techniques which have been adopted for the simulation and control of the system dynamics. Two sets of results from two different simulation runs are shown. The first set shows the system dynamics and the acceleration spectra on board the Space Station and the elevator during station-keeping. The second set of results demonstrates the capability of the elevator to attain a preselected g-level.

  15. Source identification and budget analysis on elevated levels of formaldehyde within ship plumes: a photochemical/dynamic model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, C. H.; Kim, H. S.; von Glasow, R.; Brimblecombe, P.; Kim, J.; Park, R. J.; Woo, J. H.

    2010-06-01

    Elevated levels of formaldehyde (HCHO) along the ship corridors have been observed by satellite sensors, such as ESA/ERS-2 GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), and were also predicted by global 3-D chemistry-transport models. In this study, three likely sources of the elevated HCHO levels were investigated to identify the detailed sources and examine the contributions of the sources (budget) of the elevated levels of HCHO in the ship corridors using a newly-developed ship-plume photochemical/dynamic model: (1) primary HCHO emission from ships; (2) secondary HCHO production via the atmospheric oxidation of Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted from ships; and (3) atmospheric oxidation of CH4 within the ship plumes. From multiple ship-plume model simulations, CH4 oxidation by elevated levels of in-plume OH radicals was found to be the main factor responsible for the elevated levels of HCHO in the ship corridors. More than ~91% of the HCHO for the base ship plume case (ITCT 2K2 ship-plume case) is produced by this atmospheric chemical process, except in the areas close to the ship stacks where the main source of the elevated HCHO levels would be primary HCHO from the ships (due to the deactivation of CH4 oxidation from the depletion of in-plume OH radicals). Because of active CH4 oxidation (chemical destruction of CH4) by OH radicals, the instantaneous chemical lifetime of CH4 (τ CH4) decreased to ~0.45 yr inside the ship plume, which is in contrast to τ CH4 of ~1.1 yr in the background (up to ~41% decrease). A variety of likely ship-plume situations at three locations at different latitudes within the global ship corridors was also studied to determine the extent of the enhancements in the HCHOlevels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) influenced by ship emissions. It was found that the ship-plume HCHO levels could be 20.5-434.9 pptv higher than the background HCHO levels depending on the latitudinal locations of the ship plumes (i

  16. PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism is associated with elevated alanine transaminase levels in Mexican Indigenous and Mestizo populations.

    PubMed

    Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Menjivar, Marta; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahúm; Cárdenas, Vanessa; Bañuelos-Moreno, Manuel; Flores, Yvonne N; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón, Jorge; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2014-07-01

    The patatin like phospholipase domain-containing (PNPLA3) I148M variant is the strongest genetic factor associated with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in different populations, particularly in Hispanics who have the highest 148M risk allele frequency reported to date. It has been suggested that Indigenous ancestry is associated with higher ALT levels in Mexicans. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo individuals, and to examine its association with serum ALT levels. The study included a total of 1624 Mexican individuals: 919 Indigenous subjects from five different native groups and 705 Mexican Mestizo individuals (141 cases with ALT levels ≥ 40 U/L and 564 controls with ALT <40 U/L). The I148M polymorphism was genotyped by TaqMan assays. The frequency of elevated ALT levels in Indigenous populations was 18.7%, and varied according to obesity status: 14.4% in normal weight, 19.9% in overweight and 24.5% in obese individuals. The Mexican indigenous populations showed the highest reported frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele (mean 0.73). The M148M genotype was significantly associated with elevated ALT levels in indigenous individuals (OR = 3.15, 95 % CI 1.91-5.20; P = 7.1 × 10(-6)) and this association was confirmed in Mexican Mestizos (OR = 2.24, 95% CI 1.50-3.33; P = 8.1 × 10(-5)). This is the first study reporting the association between M148M genotype and elevated ALT levels in Indigenous Mexican populations. The 148M allele risk may be considered an important risk factor for liver damage in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo populations.

  17. Competitive interactions between established grasses and woody plant seedlings under elevated CO₂ levels are mediated by soil water availability.

    PubMed

    Manea, A; Leishman, M R

    2015-02-01

    The expansion of woody plants into grasslands has been observed worldwide and is likely to have widespread ecological consequences. One proposal is that woody plant expansion into grasslands is driven in part by the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We have examined the effect of CO2 concentration on the competitive interactions between established C4 grasses and woody plant seedlings in a model grassland system. Woody plant seedlings were grown in mesocosms together with established C4 grasses in three competition treatments (root competition, shoot competition and root + shoot competition) under ambient and elevated CO2 levels. We found that the growth of the woody plant seedlings was suppressed by competition from grasses, with root and shoot competition having similar competitive effects on growth. In contrast to expectations, woody plant seedling growth was reduced at elevated CO2 levels compared to that at the ambient CO2 level across all competition treatments, with the most plausible explanation being reduced light and soil water availability in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Reduced light and soil water availability in the elevated CO2 mesocosms was associated with an increased leaf area index of the grasses which offset the reductions in stomatal conductance and increased rainfall interception. The woody plant seedlings also had reduced 'escapability' (stem biomass and stem height) under elevated compared to ambient CO2 levels. Our results suggest that the expansion of woody plants into grasslands in the future will likely be context-dependent, with the establishment success of woody plant seedlings being strongly coupled to the CO2 response of competing grasses and to soil water availability.

  18. The conservation value of elevation data accuracy and model sophistication in reserve design under sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingjian; Hoctor, Tom; Volk, Mike; Frank, Kathryn; Linhoss, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Many studies have explored the value of using more sophisticated coastal impact models and higher resolution elevation data in sea-level rise (SLR) adaptation planning. However, we know little about to what extent the improved models and data could actually lead to better conservation outcomes under SLR. This is important to know because high-resolution data are likely to not be available in some data-poor coastal areas in the world and running more complicated coastal impact models is relatively time-consuming, expensive, and requires assistance by qualified experts and technicians. We address this research question in the context of identifying conservation priorities in response to SLR. Specifically, we investigated the conservation value of using more accurate light detection and ranging (Lidar)-based digital elevation data and process-based coastal land-cover change models (Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model, SLAMM) to identify conservation priorities versus simple "bathtub" models based on the relatively coarse National Elevation Dataset (NED) in a coastal region of northeast Florida. We compared conservation outcomes identified by reserve design software (Zonation) using three different model dataset combinations (Bathtub-NED, Bathtub-Lidar, and SLAMM-Lidar). The comparisons show that the conservation priorities are significantly different with different combinations of coastal impact models and elevation dataset inputs. The research suggests that it is valuable to invest in more accurate coastal impact models and elevation datasets in SLR adaptive conservation planning because this model-dataset combination could improve conservation outcomes under SLR. Less accurate coastal impact models, including ones created using coarser Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data can still be useful when better data and models are not available or feasible, but results need to be appropriately assessed and communicated. A future research priority is to investigate how

  19. The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, G.G.; Brikowski, T.H.

    1993-12-01

    The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes at Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, is uncertain. If the water is from naturally perched aquifers, then presumed ``above water table`` weapons tests may directly impact the groundwater quality. The purpose of this study is to determine the probable source of the elevated water in boreholes by comparing modeled seepage of infiltrated drilling fluids, and the seepage from a simulated naturally perched aquifer with the observed water level history. In the model, large volumes of water are infiltrated, yet return flow of fluids back into the hole stops within three days after the end of drilling and is insufficient to produce observed standing water. Return flow is limited for two reasons: (1) the volume of the saturated rock next to the borehole is small; (2) pressure head gradient direct unsaturated flow away from the borehole. Simulation of seepage from a naturally perched aquifer readily reproduces the observed water levels.

  20. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide - sorghum at elevated levels of CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, R.B.; Chaudhuri, U.N.; Kanemasu, E.T.; Kirkham, M.B.

    1985-12-31

    Enhancement of plant growth is an important effect of the rising concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Crops vary in response to elevated CO{sub 2}. Growth often appears greater in C{sub 3} plants than in C{sub 4} plants. But relatively little work has been done with C{sub 4} plants, and most of it has been with corn. The few existing C{sub 4} data conflict. Some studies indicate that the yield of C{sub 4} plants at elevated CO{sub 2} is about one-fourth that of C{sub 3} crops, but other studies show that C{sub 4} plants with increased CO{sub 2} yield at a rate the average for all crops.

  1. Ecosystem response to elevated CO(2) levels limited by nitrogen-induced plant species shift.

    PubMed

    Langley, J Adam; Megonigal, J Patrick

    2010-07-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems gain carbon through photosynthesis and lose it mostly in the form of carbon dioxide (CO(2)). The extent to which the biosphere can act as a buffer against rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration in global climate change projections remains uncertain at the present stage. Biogeochemical theory predicts that soil nitrogen (N) scarcity may limit natural ecosystem response to elevated CO(2) concentration, diminishing the CO(2)-fertilization effect on terrestrial plant productivity in unmanaged ecosystems. Recent models have incorporated such carbon-nitrogen interactions and suggest that anthropogenic N sources could help sustain the future CO(2)-fertilization effect. However, conclusive demonstration that added N enhances plant productivity in response to CO(2)-fertilization in natural ecosystems remains elusive. Here we manipulated atmospheric CO(2) concentration and soil N availability in a herbaceous brackish wetland where plant community composition is dominated by a C(3) sedge and C(4) grasses, and is capable of responding rapidly to environmental change. We found that N addition enhanced the CO(2)-stimulation of plant productivity in the first year of a multi-year experiment, indicating N-limitation of the CO(2) response. But we also found that N addition strongly promotes the encroachment of C(4) plant species that respond less strongly to elevated CO(2) concentrations. Overall, we found that the observed shift in the plant community composition ultimately suppresses the CO(2)-stimulation of plant productivity by the third and fourth years. Although extensive research has shown that global change factors such as elevated CO(2) concentrations and N pollution affect plant species differently and that they may drive plant community changes, we demonstrate that plant community shifts can act as a feedback effect that alters the whole ecosystem response to elevated CO(2) concentrations. Moreover, we suggest that trade-offs between the abilities

  2. Elevated Levels of Somatic Mutation as a Biomarker of Environmental Effects Contributing to Breast Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    A somatic mutation assay. Genetic Testing 1: 261-267. 10. Langlois RG, Bigbee WL, Jensen RH, German J (1989) Evidence for elevated in vivo...eds), Humana, Totowa (NJ), pp. 335-393. 20. Latimer JJ (2000) Epithelial cell cultures useful for in vitro testing . US patent 6074874. 21. Kovacs E... test for 300 chemicals. Mutation Research 221: 263-286. 27. Grant SG, Wenger SL, Latimer JJ, Thull D, Burke LW. (2000) Analysis of genomic

  3. Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins Modulate the Distribution and Extravasation of Ly6C/Gr1(low) Monocytes.

    PubMed

    Saja, Maha F; Baudino, Lucie; Jackson, William D; Cook, H Terence; Malik, Talat H; Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Ruseva, Marieta; Pickering, Matthew C; Woollard, Kevin J; Botto, Marina

    2015-09-22

    Monocytes are heterogeneous effector cells involved in the maintenance and restoration of tissue integrity. However, their response to hyperlipidemia remains poorly understood. Here, we report that in the presence of elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, induced by administration of poloxamer 407, the blood numbers of non-classical Ly6C/Gr1(low) monocytes drop, while the number of bone marrow progenitors remains similar. We observed an increased crawling and retention of the Gr1(low) monocytes at the endothelial interface and a marked accumulation of CD68(+) macrophages in several organs. Hypertriglyceridemia was accompanied by an increased expression of tissue, and plasma CCL4 and blood Gr1(low) monocyte depletion involved a pertussis-toxin-sensitive receptor axis. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that a triglyceride-rich environment can alter blood monocyte distribution, promoting the extravasation of Gr1(low) cells. The behavior of these cells in response to dyslipidemia highlights the significant impact that high levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may have on innate immune cells.

  4. Chief Complaint at Admission Relates to Troponin Level and Mortality in Patients With Non-ACS Troponin Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Piscator, Eva; Lowing Svensson, Lukas; Svensson, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated level of troponin T (TnT) in the absence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can be caused by a number of conditions but the relevance of the chief complaint at admission for TnT level and prognosis has not been reported previously. The aim was to study whether TnT level differs among chief complaints or underlying causes in patients with non-ACS TnT elevation and if these factors predict mortality. Methods Patients admitted with TnT elevation were categorized as ACS or non-ACS and followed for 1 year. Statistical comparisons between different chief complaints and underlying causes were performed. Results Patients with non-ACS TnT elevation (n = 71) were less likely to present with chest pain compared to ACS (n = 50) (37% vs. 74%, P < 0.001) whereas dyspnea (25%), syncope/arrhythmia (14%) or other chief complaints (24%) were more common. Patients with dyspnea and other chief complaints had higher peak values of TnT compared to chest pain (P < 0.05). The most common peak occurred within 3 hours after admission for chest pain, dyspnea and other chief complaints whereas for arrhythmia it occurred after 3 - 9 hours (P < 0.01). A peak value > 15 hours after admission was only observed among dyspnea and other chief complaints. Mortality was higher in patients presenting with dyspnea (50%) or other causes (35%) compared to chest pain (8%) or syncope/arrhythmia (10%) (P < 0.05). Renal failure was the only underlying cause that predicted mortality. Conclusion Among patients with non-ACS TnT elevation, patients presenting with dyspnea had higher TnT and higher 1-year mortality, whereas patients with chest pain were at lower risk. PMID:25883711

  5. Elevated levels of activated NHE1 protect the myocardium and improve metabolism following ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Mraiche, Fatima; Wagg, Cory S; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Fliegel, Larry

    2011-01-01

    In the myocardium, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) is a plasma membrane protein that regulates intracellular pH. Inhibition of NHE1 activity has been shown to be beneficial in cardiovascular disease. However, recent reports have suggested that elevation of NHE1 levels has beneficial effects in hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. We determined if activated and non-activated NHE1 proteins have varying cardioprotective and metabolic effects with ischemia/reperfusion in the isolated perfused working mouse heart. We used transgenic mice hearts that specifically expressed wild type NHE1 (N-line) or activated NHE1 protein (K-line). Intact hearts 10-12 weeks of age were perfused under working conditions, with fatty acids and glucose present as substrates. Hearts were subjected to 30 min of aerobic perfusion, followed by 20 min of global no-flow ischemia and 40 min of aerobic reperfusion. We examined changes in contractility and substrate use and ATP levels. K-line hearts expressing activated NHE1, recovered to a much greater extent than N-line and control hearts recovering almost 75% of their preischemic function. In addition, K-line hearts had elevated fatty acid oxidation, increased glycolysis rates and elevated ATP levels relative to N-line mice or controls. An examination of kinase activation showed that there were no differences between controls and transgenics in ERK, p38, p90(rsk) or pGSK3β levels. The results demonstrate that elevated levels of NHE1 induce cardioprotection and alter cardiac metabolism. However, in the working heart model, with glucose and fatty acid as substrates, this required an activated NHE1 protein.

  6. Growth response and tissue accumulation trends of herbaceous wetland plant species exposed to elevated aqueous mercury levels.

    PubMed

    Willis, Jonathan M; Gambrell, Robert P; Hester, Mark W

    2010-08-01

    The impacts of elevated aqueous mercury levels (0, 2, and 4 ppm) on the growth status and mercury tissue concentrations of Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, Juncus effuses, Typha latifolia, and Panicum hemitomon were determined. Both short-term (net CO2 assimilation) and long-term (biomass) indicators of plant growth status suggest that Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, and Juncus effuses were relatively unimpacted by elevated mercury levels, whereas Typha latifolia and Panicum hemitomon were somewhat impacted at elevated mercury levels. Eleocharis parvula, Panicum hemitomon, and Typha latifolia generally had the greatest overall belowground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 7.21, 7.32, and 9.64 ppm respectively; 4 ppm treatment: 16.23, 18.23, and 13.98 ppm, respectively) and aboveground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 0.01, 0.04, 0.02; 4 ppm treatment: 0.26; 0.11; 0.17 ppm, respectively). However, the species investigated in this study demonstrated lower levels of mercury accumulation into tissues when compared with similar investigations of other aquatic plants, suggesting that the above species are not optimal for phytoremediation efforts.

  7. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Mohlke, Karen L; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Daly, Mark J; Neale, Benjamin M; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2013-11-01

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.

  8. Elevated urinary leukotriene E4 levels are associated with hospitalization for pain in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Jeanine E; Ramkumar, Thiruvamoor; Mao, Jingnan; Boyd, Jessica; Castro, Mario; Field, Joshua J; Strunk, Robert C; DeBaun, Michael R

    2008-08-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CsyLTs) are inflammatory mediators produced by white blood cells. Leukotriene LTE(4) is the stable metabolite of CsyLTs, which can be measured in urine. We tested two hypotheses among children with sickle cell disease (SCD): (1) baseline urinary LTE(4) levels are elevated in children with SCD when compared with controls; and (2) baseline LTE(4) levels are associated with an increased incidence rate of hospitalization for SCD-related pain. Baseline LTE(4) levels were measured in children with SCD (cases) and children without SCD matched for age and ethnicity (controls). Medical records of cases were reviewed to assess the frequency of hospitalization for pain within 3 years of study entry. LTE(4) levels were obtained in 71 cases and 22 controls. LTE(4) levels were higher in cases compared with controls (median LTE(4): 100 vs. 57 pg/mg creatinine, P < 0.001). After adjustment for age and asthma diagnosis, a greater incidence rate of hospitalization for pain was observed among children with SCD in the highest LTE(4) tertile when compared with the lowest (114 vs. 52 episodes per 100 patient-years, P = 0.038). LTE(4) levels are elevated in children with SCD when compared with controls. LTE(4) levels are associated with an increased rate of hospitalizations for pain.

  9. Catabolite control of the elevation of PGK mRNA levels by heat shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Piper, P W; Curran, B; Davies, M W; Hirst, K; Lockheart, A; Seward, K

    1988-05-01

    Heat shock enhances the very high level of transcription of the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) gene in fermentative cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This response of PGK mRNA levels was not found on gluconeogenic carbon sources, and could be switched on or off subject to availability of fermentable carbon source. The addition of glucose to yeast growing on glycerol resulted in acquisition, within 30-60 min, of the ability to elevate PGK mRNA levels after heat shock. In addition, in aerobic cultures growing on glucose the exhaustion of the medium glucose coincided with a loss of the heat-shock effect on PGK mRNA and a switch-over to slower growth by aerobic respiration. Levels of hsp26 mRNA were analysed during these experiments. Contrasting with this requirement for fermentable catabolite for manifestation of a heat-shock response of PGK mRNA levels, the PGK enzyme was not synthesized at a greater level in heat-shocked fermentative than in gluconeogenic cultures. PGK is one of only a few proteins made efficiently after mild heat shock of yeast. Thus, heat-stress-induced elevation of PGK mRNA levels does not appreciably increase PGK synthesis during exposure to high temperatures and so its role may be to assist cells repressed in mitochondrial function during recovery following a heat shock.

  10. Increased expression of low-density lipoprotein receptors in a Smith-Lemli-Opitz infant with elevated bilirubin levels.

    PubMed

    Ness, G C; Lopez, D; Borrego, O; Gilbert-Barness, E

    1997-01-31

    We report on an infant girl with severe RSH or Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome with hyperbilirubinemia. The infant died at age 2 months. Sterol analysis of liver and brain tissues showed marked elevations of 7-dehydrocholesterol with decreased levels of cholesterol. Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated remarkable increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in these tissues, indicative of a deficiency in available cholesterol for tissue needs.

  11. Elevated soluble HLA II protein levels in patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency with or without COPD.

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Kueppers, Friedrich; Hildebrand, William; Buchli, Rico; Gaughan, John

    2012-08-01

    Elevated levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins have been reported in several pathologic conditions that are associated with increased concentrations of white blood cells (e.g., infection, inflammation, and lymphoproliferative disorders). The mechanisms by which HLA proteins are solubilized from cell membranes are insufficiently understood. We hypothesized that HLA proteins may be cleaved from cell membranes by insufficiently inhibited leukocytic elastase, as expected in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD), resulting in elevated plasma levels of soluble HLA (sHLA) proteins. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we measured sHLA II levels in the peripheral blood of patients with A1ATD with or without co-existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with COPD only, and in a control group. Mean (±SD) sHLA II plasma levels were 110 ± 200 pg/mL in patients with A1ATD and COPD (Group 1), 10 ± 30 pg/mL in patients with COPD without A1ATD (Group 2), 70 ± 90 pg/mL in patients with A1ATD without COPD (Group 3), and 10 ± 30 pg/mL in healthy donors (Group 4). Soluble HLA II plasma levels were significantly higher in Group 1 (P = .001) and Group 3 (P = .002) versus Group 4. Our preliminary results suggest that leukocytic elastase and probably other proteinases solubilize HLA proteins from cell membranes. This mechanism would operate in inflammation with elevated leukocytic elastase levels but more so with inflammation and A1ATD, where elastase would be insufficiently inhibited. If this mechanism is verified, plasma sHLA levels could potentially be used to measure cell damage due to proteinases and, therefore, for monitoring the therapeutic efficacy of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) augmentation therapy.

  12. Elevated levels of collagen cross-link residues in gingival tissues and crevicular fluid of teeth with periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Søren; Springer, Ingo N G; Buschmann, Andreas; Hedderich, Jürgen; Açil, Yahya

    2003-06-01

    Lysylpyridinoline (LP) and hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) are collagen cross-link residues. Lysylpyridinoline is present in most tissues, whereas LP is present mainly in mineralized tissue. Both are elevated in tissue with increased collagen resorption. The purpose of this investigation was to assess if the concentrations of LP and HP are elevated in gingiva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of teeth with advanced periodontitis (AP). We investigated human gingival biopsies of healthy teeth (n = 19) and teeth with AP (n = 43) in 49 individuals. Samples of GCF from 54 teeth with AP were collected in seven patients and compared with samples from 11 patients with experimentally induced gingivitis. Levels of LP and HP were measured by HPLC and fluorescence detection. Gingival concentrations of HP but not LP around teeth with advanced periodontitis were significantly elevated compared with teeth with healthy periodontium. While significant amounts of HP and LP were measurable in the GCF of teeth with AP, no HP and LP was identified 3 months following non-surgical periodontal therapy of the teeth or in fluid from teeth subjected to experimentally induced gingivitis. Elevated concentrations of HP and LP in GCF may serve as indicators of ongoing destruction of periodontal tissues and alveolar bone in advanced periodontitis.

  13. Children's Elevated Cortisol Levels at Daycare: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed nine studies in which children's cortisol levels at center daycare were assessed. Our first hypothesis, concerning intraindividual differences in cortisol levels across home and daycare settings, was also tested in a meta-analysis. Our main finding was that at daycare children display higher cortisol levels compared to the home…

  14. Analytical model of sea level elevation during a storm: Support for coastal flood risk assessment associated with cyclone passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, Natan Zambroni; Calliari, Lauro Julio; Nicolodi, João Luiz

    2016-08-01

    Sea level oscillations are a result of continuous astronomic, oceanographic, and atmospheric interactions on different time and intensity scales. Thus, the collective action of forcing factors such as tide, wind, atmospheric pressure, and wave action may lead to elevated sea levels during cyclone events over the continental shelf, abruptly impacting adjacent coasts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential risks of sea level rise and coastal flooding associated with the passage of cyclones in southern Brazil. An analytical model was developed based on extreme storm events from 1997 to 2008. The model identifies the impact of each forcing factor during temporary sea level rise. Through the development of a digital terrain model, it was possible to identify the areas most vulnerable to flooding by superimposing the terrain model onto calculated sea levels. During storm events, sea level elevations ranged from 2 to 5 m and show wind as the major forcing factor, followed by swells waves, astronomical tide and finally atmospheric pressure.

  15. Prolonged fasting and cortisol reduce myostatin mRNA levels in tilapia larvae; short-term fasting elevates.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Buel D; Weber, Gregory M; Kelley, Kevin M; Levine, Michael A

    2003-05-01

    Myostatin negatively regulates muscle growth and development and has recently been characterized in several fishes. We measured fasting myostatin mRNA levels in adult tilapia skeletal muscle and in whole larvae. Although fasting reduced some growth indexes in adults, skeletal muscle myostatin mRNA levels were unaffected. By contrast, larval myostatin mRNA levels were sometimes elevated after a short-term fast and were consistently reduced with prolonged fasting. These effects were specific for myostatin, as mRNA levels of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphatase were unchanged. Cortisol levels were elevated in fasted larvae with reduced myostatin mRNA, whereas in addition immersion of larvae in 1 ppm (2.8 microM) cortisol reduced myostatin mRNA in a time-dependent fashion. These results suggest that larval myostatin mRNA levels may initially rise but ultimately fall during a prolonged fast. The reduction is likely mediated by fasting-induced hypercortisolemia, indicating divergent evolutionary mechanisms of glucocorticoid regulation of myostatin mRNA, since these steroids upregulate myostatin gene expression in mammals.

  16. Venous thrombosis risk associated with plasma hypofibrinolysis is explained by elevated plasma levels of TAFI and PAI-1.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Mirjam E; Lisman, Ton; de Groot, Philip G; Meijers, Joost C M; le Cessie, Saskia; Doggen, Carine J M; Rosendaal, Frits R

    2010-07-08

    Elevated plasma clot lysis time (CLT) increases risk of venous and arterial thrombosis. It is unclear which fibrinolytic factors contribute to thrombosis risk. In 743 healthy control subjects we investigated determinants of CLT. By comparison with 770 thrombosis patients, we assessed plasma levels of fibrinolytic proteins as risk factors for a first thrombosis. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were the main determinants of CLT, followed by plasminogen, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), prothrombin, and alpha2-antiplasmin. Fibrinogen, factor VII, X, and XI contributed minimally. These proteins explained 77% of variation in CLT. Levels of the fibrinolytic factors were associated with thrombosis risk (odds ratios, highest quartile vs lowest, adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index: 1.6 for plasminogen, 1.2 for alpha2-antiplasmin, 1.6 for TAFI, 1.6 for PAI-1, and 1.8 for tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA]). Adjusting for acute-phase proteins attenuated the risk associated with elevated plasminogen levels. The risk associated with increased t-PA nearly disappeared after adjusting for acute-phase proteins and endothelial activation. TAFI and PAI-1 remained associated with thrombosis after extensive adjustment. In conclusion, CLT reflects levels of all fibrinolytic factors except t-PA. Plasminogen, TAFI, PAI-1, and t-PA are associated with venous thrombosis. However, plasminogen and t-PA levels may reflect underlying risk factors.

  17. Elevated plasma homocysteine level is possibly associated with skin sclerosis in a series of Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Toki, Sayaka; Yamada, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2014-11-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid that is derived from dietary methionine, and there has been increasing evidence that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including carotid, coronary and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The association of plasma homocysteine levels with peripheral vascular involvements, such as Raynaud phenomenon (RP), digital ulcers (DU) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to examine plasma homocysteine levels and their clinical associations in patients with SSc. Plasma homocysteine levels in 151 Japanese patients with SSc and 20 healthy controls were examined. No significant differences were observed in plasma homocysteine levels between SSc patients and healthy individuals. Demographic and clinical features of the SSc patients revealed that severe skin sclerosis, anti-topoisomerase I antibody positivity, complications of DU, acro-osteolysis (AO) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were significantly more prevalent among the patients with elevated plasma homocysteine levels. The plasma homocysteine levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. The plasma homocysteine levels in the SSc patients with DU, AO and ILD were significantly higher than those in the SSc without DU, AO and ILD, respectively. Plasma homocysteine levels did not correlate with either the mean or max intima-media thickness (IMT) or plaque score, suggesting that plasma homocysteine levels might not be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in SSc patients. The measurement of plasma homocysteine levels in SSc patients might be useful for the risk stratifications of severe skin sclerosis, DU and AO.

  18. Orexin-A level elevation in recently abstinent male methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Yin; Kao, Chung-Feng; Chen, Po-Yu; Lin, Shih-Ku; Huang, Ming-Chyi

    2016-05-30

    Research has suggested that methamphetamine (METH) use influences orexin regulation. We examined the difference in orexin-A levels between METH abusers and healthy controls. Fasting serum orexin-A levels were measured in 35 participants who used METH in the preceding 3 weeks and 36 healthy controls. We found METH abusers had significantly higher orexin-A levels. No association was observed between orexin-A levels and METH use variables. Our results, consistent with prior preclinical evidence, showed that recent METH exposure is associated with increased orexin-A expression. Further investigation is required to determine whether orexin-A levels normalize after a longer term of abstinence.

  19. Hepatitis A virus genotype IA-infected patient with marked elevation of aspartate aminotransferase levels.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoshifumi; Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Takahashi, Koji; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Arai, Makoto; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2017-02-01

    We describe a case of acute liver failure (ALF) without hepatic encephalopathy with marked elevation of aminotransferase due to hepatitis A, according to the revised Japanese criteria of ALF. This liver biopsy of the patient showed compatible to acute viral hepatitis and she immediately recovered without intensive care. She had no comorbid disorders. Of interest, phylogenetic tree analysis using almost complete genomes of hepatitis A virus (HAV) demonstrated that the HAV isolate from her belonged to the HAV subgenotype IA strain and was similar to the HAJFF-Kan12 strain (99% nucleotide identity) or FH1 strain (98% nucleotide identity), which is associated with severe or fulminant hepatitis A. Careful interpretation of the association between HAV genome variations and severity of hepatitis A is needed and the mechanism of the severe hepatitis should be explored.

  20. Identification of a small molecule that stabilizes lipoprotein lipase in vitro and lowers triglycerides in vivo.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Mikael; Caraballo, Rémi; Ericsson, Madelene; Lookene, Aivar; Enquist, Per-Anders; Elofsson, Mikael; Nilsson, Stefan K; Olivecrona, Gunilla

    2014-07-25

    Patients at increased cardiovascular risk commonly display high levels of plasma triglycerides (TGs), elevated LDL cholesterol, small dense LDL particles and low levels of HDL-cholesterol. Many remain at high risk even after successful statin therapy, presumably because TG levels remain high. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) maintains TG homeostasis in blood by hydrolysis of TG-rich lipoproteins. Efficient clearance of TGs is accompanied by increased levels of HDL-cholesterol and decreased levels of small dense LDL. Given the central role of LPL in lipid metabolism we sought to find small molecules that could increase LPL activity and serve as starting points for drug development efforts against cardiovascular disease. Using a small molecule screening approach we have identified small molecules that can protect LPL from inactivation by the controller protein angiopoietin-like protein 4 during incubations in vitro. One of the selected compounds, 50F10, was directly shown to preserve the active homodimer structure of LPL, as demonstrated by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. On injection to hypertriglyceridemic apolipoprotein A-V deficient mice the compound ameliorated the postprandial response after an olive oil gavage. This is a potential lead compound for the development of drugs that could reduce the residual risk associated with elevated plasma TGs in dyslipidemia.

  1. Health Impact of Elevated Levels of Lead Encountered in the Manufacture of Crystal Glass.

    PubMed

    Bilban, Marjan

    2015-12-01

    Lead is known to cause harmful effects in the haematopoietic, nervous, digestive, renal, and other organ systems, inhibiting a number of enzymes in the biosynthesis of haem, as well as other enzymes with haematological significance. Our study involved 151 employees involved with the cutting of crystal, i.e. leaded glass, who had been found using eco-monitoring to have been exposed to above normal levels of lead. Our bio-monitoring process followed the values of lead, delta-ALAD and EPP.The highest level of lead detected was 276 µg/L, the lowest level of delta-ALAD was 99 nkat/L), and the highest level of EPP was 14.2 nmol/gHb). We had found that contrary to expectations, lead levels were not correlated to haemoglobin levels, or to gender or age, but were instead based only on the post of the employee and their time spent working at the glassworks. The levels of haematopoiesis were directly proportional to the levels of lead, however, the correlation was not statistically significant or had perhaps been masked by the exposure due to the employee's post and gender. We had also found a significant correlation of lead levels to the levels of renal function. The study had indicated some health impacts of lead on the exposed glass workers, but also at least partly diverged from the results of previous studies, prompting us to continue our research.

  2. Mutations of the microsomal triglyceride-transfer-protein gene in abetalipoproteinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Narcisi, T.M.E.; Shoulders, C.C.; Chester, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Elevated plasma levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins constitute a major risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. In the rare recessively inherited disorder abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) the production of apoB-containing lipoproteins is abolished, despite no abnormality of the apoB gene. In the current study we have characterized the gene encoding a microsomal triglyceride-transfer protein (MTP), localized to chromosome 4q22-24, and have identified a mutation of the MTP gene in both alleles of all individuals in a cohort of eight patients with classical ABL. Each mutant allele is predicted to encode a truncated form of MTP with a variable number of aberrant amino acids at its C-terminal end. Expression of genetically engineered forms of MTP in Cos-1 cells indicates that the C-terminal portion of MTP is necessary for triglyceride-transfer activity. Deletion of 20 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus of the 894-amino-acid protein and a missense mutation of cysteine 878 to serine both abolished activity. These results establish that defects of the MTP gene are the predominant, if not sole, cause of hereditary ABL and that an intact carboxyl terminus is necessary for activity. 49 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. An elevated level of physical activity is associated with normal lipoprotein(a) levels in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Aparicio, Daniel; Rojas, Edward; Peñaranda, Lianny; Finol, Freddy; Acosta, Luis; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Joselyn; Arráiz, Nailet; Toledo, Alexandra; Colmenares, Carlos; Urribarí, Jesica; Sanchez, Wireynis; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Dalia; Faria, Judith; Añez, Roberto; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Sorell, Luis; Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in which concentrations are genetically regulated. Contradictory results have been published about physical activity influence on Lp(a) concentration. This research aimed to determine associations between different physical activity levels and Lp(a) concentration. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in 1340 randomly selected subjects (males = 598; females = 712) to whom a complete clinical history, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Lp(a) level determination were made. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess qualitative variables relationship by chi2 and differences between means by one-way analysis of variance considering a P value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results are shown as absolute frequencies, percentages, and mean +/- standard deviation according to case. Physical activity levels were ordinal classified as follows: low activity with 24.3% (n = 318), moderate activity with 35.0% (n = 458), and high physical activity with 40.8% (n = 534). Lp(a) concentration in the studied sample was 26.28 +/- 12.64 (IC: 25.59-26.96) mg/dL. Lp(a) concentration according to low, moderate, and high physical activity levels were 29.22 +/- 13.74, 26.27 +/- 12.91, and 24.53 +/- 11.35 mg/dL, respectively, observing statistically significant differences between low and moderate level (P = 0.004) and low and high level (P < 0.001). A strong association (chi2 = 9.771; P = 0.002) was observed among a high physical activity level and a normal concentration of Lp(a) (less than 30 mg/dL). A lifestyle characterized by high physical activity is associated with normal Lp(a) levels.

  4. Elevated furin levels in human cystic fibrosis cells result in hypersusceptibility to exotoxin A–induced cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ornatowski, Wojciech; Poschet, Jens F.; Perkett, Elizabeth; Taylor-Cousar, Jennifer L.; Deretic, Vojo

    2007-01-01

    Progressive pulmonary disease and infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa remain an intractable problem in cystic fibrosis (CF). At the cellular level, CF is characterized by organellar hyperacidification, which results in altered protein and lipid glycosylation. Altered pH of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) may further disrupt the protein processing and packaging that occurs in this organelle. Here we measured activity of the major TGN endoprotease furin and demonstrated a marked upregulation in human CF cells. Increased furin activity was linked to elevated production in CF of the immunosuppressive and tissue remodeling cytokine TGF-β and its downstream effects, including macrophage deactivation and augmented collagen secretion by epithelial cells. As furin is responsible for the proteolytic processing of a range of endogenous and exogenous substrates including growth factors and bacterial toxins, we determined that elevated furin-dependent activation of exotoxin A caused increased cell death in CF respiratory epithelial cells compared with genetically matched CF transmembrane conductance regulator–corrected cells. Thus elevated furin levels in CF respiratory epithelial cells contributes to bacterial toxin–induced cell death, fibrosis, and local immunosuppression. These data suggest that the use of furin inhibitors may represent a strategy for pharmacotherapy in CF. PMID:17948127

  5. A 5-month-old boy with recurrent respiratory infections, failure to thrive, and borderline elevated sweat chloride levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Helen C; Whelan, Meg A; McGeady, Stephen J; Yousef, Ejaz

    2006-01-01

    Both severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and cystic fibrosis (CF) may present in infancy with a history of respiratory infections and failure to thrive. Elevated sweat chloride levels on multiple sweat tests is diagnostic of CF; transient elevation of sweat chloride has been reported in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia and antibody deficiency without CF. This article presents a case report of a 5-month-old boy with recurrent respiratory infections, failure to thrive, and two borderline elevated sweat test levels. Laboratory evaluation including testing for CF as well as immune deficiency was performed in this patient. Two borderline abnormal sweat chloride tests together with isolation of Pseudomonas from the airway caused clinicians initially to suspect CF; however, mutation in gene coding for the gamma-chain of the IL-2 receptor and a negative CF genetic mutation analysis ultimately led to the final diagnosis of SCID. It is essential to make the diagnosis of SCID as early as possible because infants with SCID who do not undergo reconstitution of their immune system universally die in infancy because of infection. Early diagnosis and intervention can lead to an excellent prognosis in a previously fatal disease.

  6. A computational model for exploratory activity of rats with different anxiety levels in elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ariadne A; Morato, Silvio; Roque, Antonio C; Tinós, Renato

    2014-10-30

    The elevated plus-maze is an apparatus widely used to study the level of anxiety in rodents. The maze is plus-shaped, with two enclosed arms and two open arms, and elevated 50cm from the floor. During a test, which usually lasts for 5min, the animal is initially put at the center and is free to move and explore the entire maze. The level of anxiety is measured by variables such as the percentage of time spent and the number of entries in the enclosed arms. High percentage of time spent at and number of entries in the enclosed arms indicate anxiety. Here we propose a computational model of rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze based on an artificial neural network trained by a genetic algorithm. The fitness function of the genetic algorithm is composed of reward (positive) and punishment (negative) terms, which are incremented as the computational agent (virtual rat) moves in the maze. The punishment term is modulated by a parameter that simulates the effects of different drugs. Unlike other computational models, the virtual rat is built independently of prior known experimental data. The exploratory behaviors generated by the model for different simulated pharmacological conditions are in good agreement with data from real rats.

  7. Elevated cyclic AMP levels in T lymphocytes transformed by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Kress, Andrea K; Schneider, Grit; Pichler, Klemens; Kalmer, Martina; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Grassmann, Ralph

    2010-09-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the cause of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), transforms CD4(+) T cells to permanent growth through its transactivator Tax. HTLV-1-transformed cells share phenotypic properties with memory and regulatory T cells (T-reg). Murine T-reg-mediated suppression employs elevated cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels as a key regulator. This led us to determine cAMP levels in HTLV-1-transformed cells. We found elevated cAMP concentrations as a consistent feature of all HTLV-1-transformed cell lines, including in vitro-HTLV-1-transformed, Tax-transformed, and patient-derived cells. In transformed cells with conditional Tax expression, high cAMP levels coincided with the presence of Tax but were lost without it. However, transient ectopic expression of Tax alone was not sufficient to induce cAMP. We found specific downregulation of the cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) in HTLV-1-transformed cells, which was independent of Tax in transient expression experiments. This is in line with the notion that PDE3B transcripts and cAMP levels are inversely correlated. Overexpression of PDE3B led to a decrease of cAMP in HTLV-1-transformed cells. Decreased expression of PDE3B was associated with inhibitory histone modifications at the PDE3B promoter and the PDE3B locus. In summary, Tax transformation and its continuous expression contribute to elevated cAMP levels, which may be regulated through PDE3B suppression. This shows that HTLV-1-transformed cells assume biological features of long-lived T-cell populations that potentially contribute to viral persistence.

  8. Can seal eating explain elevated levels of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in walrus blubber from eastern Hudson Bay (Canada)?

    PubMed

    Muir, D C; Segstro, M D; Hobson, K A; Ford, C A; Stewart, R E; Olpinski, S

    1995-01-01

    Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber samples from Inukjuak and Akulivik (East Hudson Bay), Foxe Basin (Igloolik and Hall Beach) and Loks Land (East Baffin Island) were analysed for PCB congeners (ortho and non-ortho substituted) and other persistent organochlorines (DDT, toxaphene, chlordanes, dieldrin, mirex), as well as chlorinated dioxins/furans, to document spatial trends in contaminants in Canadian Arctic marine biota. Samples from 19 of 53 individuals had concentrations of SigmaPCBs greater than 1000 ng g(-1) (wet wt); the remaining individuals had much lower concentrations (50-600 ng g(-1)). Highest concentrations were found in samples from Inukjuak where average concentrations in blubber of females (N = 9) were 1450 +/- 954 ng g(-1) toxaphene, 2750 +/- 1780 ng g(-1) SigmaCHLOR, 2160 +/- 925 ng g(-1) SigmaDDT and 4790 +/- 2380 ng g(-1) SigmaPCB. SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT concentrations greater than 1000 ng g(-1) were unexpected based on previous studies of walrus from Greenland and Alaska. Local contamination was ruled out because levels of all organochlorines were elevated in each animal from Inukjuak, and elevated levels were also found in animals from Akulivik and Loks Land. Walrus from Inukjuak had sigma13C and sigma15N values in muscle intermediate between those of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and those of walrus from Akulivik with low organochlorine levels. There was a weak but significant correlation between and sigma15N and (log)SigmaPCB. The Inukjuak walrus also had higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCB congeners, and higher DDE/SigmaDDT ratios than walrus from Igloolik or Akulivik. The results suggest that the walrus with elevated organochlorines are feeding at a higher trophic level than those with low levels and are probably utilizing ringed seals for a portion of their diet.

  9. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide. Field studies of plant responses to elevated carbon dioxide levels 1984

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    In the present study, CO{sub 2} enrichment has been applied to sweet potatoes and cowpeas in order to investigate its effect on their growth, physiology, and yield under field condition. Objectives were: (1) to establish at Tuskegee Institute the facilities for growing crops in the field under enriched CO{sub 2} atmospheric conditions; (2) to obtain field data on the morphological, physiological, biochemical, growth and yield responses of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to elevated levels of CO{sub 2}; (3) to determine the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} in the rate of nitrogen fixation of cowpeas; (4) to provide data for a generalized crop growth model for predicting yield of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas as a function of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment.

  10. MITF depletion elevates expression levels of ERBB3 receptor and its cognate ligand NRG1-beta in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Alver, Tine N.; Lavelle, Timothy J.; Longva, Ane S.; Øy, Geir F.; Hovig, Eivind; Bøe, Sigurd L.

    2016-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is frequently hyper-activated upon vemurafenib treatment of melanoma. We have here investigated the relationship between SRY-box 10 (SOX10), forkhead box 3 (FOXD3) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in the regulation of the receptor tyrosine-protein kinase ERBB3, and its cognate ligand neuregulin 1-beta (NRG1-beta). We found that both NRG1-beta and ERBB3 mRNA levels were elevated as a consequence of MITF depletion, induced by either vemurafenib or MITF small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment. Elevation of ERBB3 receptor expression after MITF depletion caused increased activation of the PI3K pathway in the presence of NRG1-beta ligand. Together, our results suggest that MITF may play a role in the development of acquired drug resistance through hyper-activation of the PI3K pathway. PMID:27391157

  11. Elevated substance P levels in HIV-infected women in comparison to HIV-negative women.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Steven D; Cnaan, Avital; Lynch, Kevin G; Benton, Tami; Zhao, Huaqing; Gettes, David R; Evans, Dwight L

    2008-03-01

    Substance P and its receptor (neurokinin-1R) are potent modulators of neuroimmunoregulation and HIV/AIDS infection. We previously demonstrated that HIV-seropositive men had significantly higher substance P levels compared to uninfected controls. We now demonstrate that substance P plasma levels are significantly higher in HIV-infected women in comparison to uninfected control women.

  12. Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

  13. What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction Cholesterol What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides? Cholesterol travels to the body’s cells through the bloodstream by way of lipoproteins (LDL and ...

  14. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, Nazmul; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Islam, Khairul; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md. Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-11-15

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose–response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. - Highlights: • PUA levels were higher in arsenic-endemic subjects than in non-endemic subjects. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed significant associations with PUA levels. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed dose–response relationships with

  15. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level Increased the Risk of Early Renal Impairment in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjuan; Li, Guode; Xu, Zuohang; Zhang, Chengguo; Wang, Yukai; Xie, Haiqun; Shao, Yan; Peng, Lingmei; Lu, Jiancong; Yuan, Dahua

    2017-03-08

    Renal insufficiency is associated with the prognosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels. This study investigated the association between plasma Hcy levels and renal insufficiency in patients with AIS. A total of 987 patients with AIS who had been treated at the First People's Hospital of Foshan between 2011 and 2014 were retrospectively studied. Based on their cystatin C (Cys C) levels, the patients were divided into the normal renal function group (Cys C ≤ 1.25 mg/L) or the renal impairment group (Cys C > 1.25 mg/L). Multivariate regression analysis was applied to reveal the association between hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and renal impairment. The renal impairment group showed more advanced age of onset, higher percentage of prior stroke and hypertension, higher baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and higher Hcy levels compared with the normal renal function group. A multivariate analysis revealed a relationship between early renal impairment and Hcy levels: an increase of Hcy by 1 μmol/L was associated with an increase of 12-18% of the risk of renal impairment among patients with AIS and HHcy. Patients with AIS and HHcy had a 2.42-3.51 fold increase of the risk of renal impairment compared with patients with normal Hcy level (P < 0.001). In conclusion, patients with stroke and HHcy could be more prone to renal impairment.

  16. Evidence for Elevated Levels of Arsenic in Public Wells of Bangladesh Due To Improper Installation.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, I; Ahmed, K M; Hasan, M; Mozumder, M R H; Knappett, P S K; Ellis, T; van Geen, A

    2016-11-01

    One of the mainstays of mitigation to reduce the exposure of the rural population of Bangladesh to arsenic (As) from private, mostly <90-m deep wells over the past 15 years has been the installation of over 300,000 deeper community wells. A comprehensive testing campaign previously conducted across a 180 km(2) of area of Bangladesh identified 9 out of total of 927 wells >90 m deep that contained >50 µg/L arsenic. We show here that for five of these nine wells, conductivity profiles obtained after spiking the well bore with salt indicate a shallow leak that could explain the high As in the well water. In two of the five leaky wells, the presence of additional screens at the depth of the leak was documented with a downhole camera. The downhole camera did not detect anomalies in the construction of the remaining three leaky wells or in the four wells that did not leak. The four wells that did not leak were all >150-m deep and located in two villages separated by less than 500 m. Excluding these two villages and a handful of leaky wells, the results indicate an aquifer that is consistently low in As over a sizeable area at depths >90 m. Isolated cases of public wells that are elevated in As that have been reported elsewhere in Bangladesh may therefore reflect improper installation rather than actual contamination of the deep aquifer.

  17. Osteoprotegerin levels in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Temporal profile and association with myocardial injury and left ventricular function

    PubMed Central

    Shetelig, Christian; Limalanathan, Shanmuganathan; Eritsland, Jan; Hoffmann, Pavel; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Gran, Jon Michael; Aukrust, Pål; Ueland, Thor; Andersen, Geir Øystein

    2017-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been associated with adverse outcomes in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the role of OPG in myocardial injury and adverse remodeling in STEMI patients remains unclear. The aims of this observational cohort study were to evaluate: 1) the temporal profile of OPG during STEMI, 2) possible associations between OPG measured acutely and after 4 months, with infarct size, adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling, microvascular obstruction (MVO) and myocardial salvage and 3) the effect of heparin administration on OPG levels. Methods Blood samples were drawn repeatedly from 272 STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was performed in the acute phase and after 4 months. The effect of heparin administration on OPG levels was studied in 20 patients referred to elective coronary angiography. Results OPG levels measured acutely were significantly higher than Day 1 and during follow-up. OPG levels were correlated with age. No association was found between early OPG levels and CMR measurements at 4 months. Patients with >median OPG levels measured at Day 1 had larger final infarct size, lower LV ejection fraction (LVEF) at 4 months and higher frequency of MVO. There were no associations between OPG and change in end-diastolic volume or myocardial salvage. OPG remained associated with infarct size and LVEF after adjustment for relevant covariates, except peak troponin T and CRP. A 77% increase in OPG levels following heparin administration was found in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. Conclusions OPG was found to be associated with myocardial injury, but not with LV remodeling or myocardial salvage. The use of OPG as a biomarker in STEMI patients seems to be limited by a strong association with age, confounding effect of heparin administration, and little additive value to established biomarkers. PMID

  18. Meta-analysis of the relationship between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and susceptibility to serum ferritin level elevation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yan; Su, Junfeng; Yao, Changjiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible relationship between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and their susceptibility to serum ferritin level elevation. Methods: We searched the PubMed, Springer, Medline, and OVID databases for any-language original research articles relating to serum ferritin levels in ALS patients published between June 2005 and June 2015. The search term used with ‘amyotrophic lateral sclerosis’, ‘ferritins’, ‘ferritin’, ‘iron’, ‘iron stores, ‘iron status, ‘iron intake’, and ‘iron consumption’. The meta-analysis software RevMan 5.0 was used for the heterogeneity test, and to test for the overall effect. Results: Six case-control studies met our inclusion criteria including data from a total of 1813 participants. The mean difference of serum ferritin levels comparing ALS to healthy controls was 69.05 (95% confidence interval: 52.56-85.54; p<0.00001); heterogeneity: p=0.03; I2=50%. The findings indicate homology in the sensitivity analysis. Funnel plot assessment indicated publication bias. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ALS is positively associated with susceptibility to the elevation of serum ferritin levels; however, further evidence is required to support this. PMID:27094521

  19. Accumulation of high OPDA level correlates with reduced ROS and elevated GSH benefiting white cell survival in variegated leaves

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Qiu, Jie; Chen, Jianjun; Kittur, Farooqahmed S.; Oldham, Carla E.; Henny, Richard J.; Burkey, Kent O.; Fan, Longjiang; Xie, Jiahua

    2017-01-01

    Variegated ‘Marble Queen’ (Epipremnum aureum) plant has white (VMW) and green (VMG) sectors within the same leaf. The white sector cells containing undifferentiated chloroplasts are viable, but the underlying mechanism for their survival and whether these white cells would use any metabolites as signal molecules to communicate with the nucleus for maintaining their viability remain unclear. We analyzed and compared phytohormone levels with their precursors produced in chloroplasts between VMW and VMG, and further compared their transcriptomes to understand the consequences related to the observed elevated 12-oxo phytodienoic acid (OPDA), which was 9-fold higher in VMW than VMG. Transcriptomic study showed that a large group of OPDA-responsive genes (ORGs) were differentially expressed in VMW, including stress-related transcription factors and genes for reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, DNA replication and repair, and protein chaperones. Induced expression of these ORGs could be verified in OPDA-treated green plants. Reduced level of ROS and higher levels of glutathione in VMW were further confirmed. Our results suggest that elevated OPDA or its related compounds are recruited by white cells as a signaling molecule(s) to up-regulate stress and scavenging activity related genes that leads to reduced ROS levels and provides survival advantages to the white cells. PMID:28276518

  20. Elevated iron levels in hair from steel mill workers in Karachi, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Jamall, I.S.; Jaffer, R.A.

    1987-10-01

    Over the last two decades, much interest has been focused on the use of trace metals in human hair to diagnose nutritional deficiencies of these metals or toxicities of metals such as lead or organic mercury. Although the diagnostic value of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead and mercury levels in human hair have been well established, little information is available on the significance of iron (Fe) levels in hair to diagnose nutritional deficiency or toxicity of this metal. The present study was conducted to determine if occupational exposure in the steel industry resulted in alterations i the levels of Fe, Zn, and Cu in hair and could thus serve as a simple tool for monitoring exposure to potentially hazardous levels of these metals.

  1. Rhode Island Salt Marshes: Elevation Capital and Resilience to Sea Level Rise

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tidal salt marsh is especially sensitive to deterioration due to the effects of accelerated sea level rise when combined with other anthropogenically linked stressors, including crab herbivory, changes in tidal hydrology, nutrient loading, dam construction, changes in temperature...

  2. Elevated Levels of Cell-Free Circulating DNA in Patients with Acute Dengue Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Tran Thi Ngoc; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Murao, Lyre Anni; Lan, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Thuy, Tran Thi; Tuan, Ha Manh; Nga, Cao Thi Phi; Tuong, Vo Van; Dat, Tran Van; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Yasunami, Michio; Morita, Kouichi; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Hirayama, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of severe dengue and the release of cell-free DNA into the circulatory system in several medical conditions. Therefore, we investigated circulating DNA as a potential biomarker for severe dengue. Methods and Findings A direct fluorometric degradation assay using PicoGreen was performed to quantify cell-free DNA from patient plasma. Circulating DNA levels were significantly higher in patients with dengue virus infection than with other febrile illnesses and healthy controls. Remarkably, the increase of DNA levels correlated with the severity of dengue. Additionally, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that circulating DNA levels independently correlated with dengue shock syndrome. Conclusions Circulating DNA levels were increased in dengue patients and correlated with dengue severity. Additional studies are required to show the benefits of this biomarker in early dengue diagnosis and for the prognosis of shock complication. PMID:22016795

  3. Elevated blood lead levels among unskilled construction workers in Jimma, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No study has been carried out to assess the blood lead levels of workers or the contribution of common workplace practices to lead exposure in Ethiopia. This study was carried out to assess the blood lead levels of female and male laborers in the construction sector in Jimma town, Ethiopia. Method A cross-sectional study on the blood lead levels of 45 construction workers was carried out in the town of Jimma. The t-test, analysis of variance, the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann–Whitney and odds ratio tests were used to compare mean blood lead levels and to investigate the associations between specific job type, use of self-protection device, sex, service years and occurrence of non-specific symptoms with BLLs. Results The mean blood lead level of the exposed group (40.03 ± 10.41 μg/dL) was found to be significantly greater than that of the unexposed group (29.81 ± 10.21 μg/dL), p = 0.05. Among the exposed group female workers were found to have higher mean blood lead level (42.04 ± 4.11 μg/dL) than their male colleagues (33.99 ± 3.28 μg/dL). Laborers who were regularly using self-protection devices were found to have significantly lower blood lead levels than those who were not using. Conclusion The blood lead levels of construction workers in Jimma town are considerably high with a range of 20.46 – 70.46 μg/dL and the workers are in danger of imminent lead toxicity. More endangered are female construction workers who are bearers of the future children of the country and the issue requires urgent attention. PMID:24645964

  4. No effect of an elevated miR-30b level in mouse milk on its level in pup tissues

    PubMed Central

    Laubier, Johann; Castille, Johan; Le Guillou, Sandrine; Le Provost, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that ingested microRNAs may be transferred to blood, accumulate in tissues and exert canonical regulation on endogenous transcripts. In spite of several attempts to replicate these findings, they have not been confirmed and several questions remain. By using a transgenic mouse model presenting a high level of miR-30b in milk, the horizontal delivery of this microRNA via oral ingestion was studied in pups. Our findings demonstrated that, although very high levels of miR-30b were found in milk and in stomach contents of the pups, we did not detect an increase in miR-30b in tissues of pups fed by transgenic females compared to pups fed by wild-type females. PMID:25763824

  5. CNS germinoma with elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin level: Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Hiroyuki . E-mail: ogino@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp; Shibamoto, Yuta; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Kazunori; Ishihara, Shun-Ichi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Sugie, Chikao; Nomoto, Yoshihito; Mimura, Mikio

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: The prognostic significance of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level in central nervous system germinoma remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical characteristics and prognosis of germinoma patients with normal and high HCG titers in the serum. Methods and Materials: We undertook a multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 103 patients with central nervous system germinoma whose serum HCG and/or {beta}-HCG level had been measured before treatment between 1984 and 2002. All patients had been treated with radiation therapy either alone (n = 66) or in combination with chemotherapy (n = 37) with a median dose of 47.8 Gy. Results: HCG and/or {beta}-HCG level in the serum was high in 39% of all patients. The proportion of HCG-producing tumors was higher in the lesions at the basal ganglia than in the lesions at the other sites. No correlation was found between tumor size and HCG level, but there seemed to be a weak correlation between size and {beta}-HCG. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 96% and 94%, respectively, in both patient groups with normal and high HCG (p = 0.99). The 5- and 10-year relapse-free survival rates were 87% and 82%, respectively, in patients with normal HCG level and were both 87% in patients with high HCG (p = 0.74). Also, no other patient-, tumor-, or treatment-related factors seemed to influence the prognosis of the patients. Conclusion: Serum HCG level does not seem to influence patient prognosis when treated with sufficient doses of radiation. Relationship between tumor size and site and HCG level should be investigated further.

  6. Elevated Serum 25(OH)-Vitamin D Levels Are Negatively Correlated with Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Thiering, E.; Kratzsch, J.; Heinrich-Weltzien, R.; Hickel, R.; Heinrich, J.; Wichmann, HE; Heinrich, J

    2015-01-01

    To date, the precise etiology of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is uncertain. Vitamin D plays a key role in hard tissue formation. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and dental health data obtained from 1,048 children in a 10-year follow-up of the Munich GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. The dental examination included the diagnosis of MIH and recording of (non-)cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from blood samples of the 10-year investigation and measured with a fully automated, modular system. Different logistic regression and Poisson hurdle models were calculated. MIH was diagnosed in 13.6% of the study population. Approximately 16.4% of the children demonstrated caries-related defects (D3-4MFS > 0). The mean season-adjusted concentration of 25(OH)D was 75.8 nmol/l (standard deviation 22.0 nmol/l). After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, parental education, equivalent income, and television/personal computer (TV/PC) viewing hours, a 10 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio of having MIH (OR = 0.89; P = 0.006). Furthermore, higher 25(OH)D values were associated with a lower number of caries-affected permanent teeth. It is concluded that elevated serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with better dental health parameters. PMID:25503610

  7. Elevated serum 25(OH)-vitamin D levels are negatively correlated with molar-incisor hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Kühnisch, J; Thiering, E; Kratzsch, J; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Hickel, R; Heinrich, J

    2015-02-01

    To date, the precise etiology of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is uncertain. Vitamin D plays a key role in hard tissue formation. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and dental health data obtained from 1,048 children in a 10-year follow-up of the Munich GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. The dental examination included the diagnosis of MIH and recording of (non-)cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from blood samples of the 10-year investigation and measured with a fully automated, modular system. Different logistic regression and Poisson hurdle models were calculated. MIH was diagnosed in 13.6% of the study population. Approximately 16.4% of the children demonstrated caries-related defects (D3-4MFS > 0). The mean season-adjusted concentration of 25(OH)D was 75.8 nmol/l (standard deviation 22.0 nmol/l). After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, parental education, equivalent income, and television/personal computer (TV/PC) viewing hours, a 10 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio of having MIH (OR = 0.89; P = 0.006). Furthermore, higher 25(OH)D values were associated with a lower number of caries-affected permanent teeth. It is concluded that elevated serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with better dental health parameters.

  8. Environmental salinity modulates the effects of elevated CO2 levels on juvenile hard-shell clams, Mercenaria mercenaria.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Gary H; Matoo, Omera B; Tourek, Robert T; Sokolova, Inna M; Beniash, Elia

    2013-07-15

    Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations results in a decrease in seawater pH and shifts in the carbonate chemistry that can negatively affect marine organisms. Marine bivalves such as the hard-shell clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, serve as ecosystem engineers in estuaries and coastal zones of the western Atlantic and, as for many marine calcifiers, are sensitive to the impacts of ocean acidification. In estuaries, the effects of ocean acidification can be exacerbated by low buffering capacity of brackish waters, acidic inputs from freshwaters and land, and/or the negative effects of salinity on the physiology of organisms. We determined the interactive effects of 21 weeks of exposure to different levels of CO2 (~395, 800 and 1500 μatm corresponding to pH of 8.2, 8.1 and 7.7, respectively) and salinity (32 versus 16) on biomineralization, shell properties and energy metabolism of juvenile hard-shell clams. Low salinity had profound effects on survival, energy metabolism and biomineralization of hard-shell clams and modulated their responses to elevated PCO2. Negative effects of low salinity in juvenile clams were mostly due to the strongly elevated basal energy demand, indicating energy deficiency, that led to reduced growth, elevated mortality and impaired shell maintenance (evidenced by the extensive damage to the periostracum). The effects of elevated PCO2 on physiology and biomineralization of hard-shell clams were more complex. Elevated PCO2 (~800-1500 μatm) had no significant effects on standard metabolic rates (indicative of the basal energy demand), but affected growth and shell mechanical properties in juvenile clams. Moderate hypercapnia (~800 μatm PCO2) increased shell and tissue growth and reduced mortality of juvenile clams in high salinity exposures; however, these effects were abolished under the low salinity conditions or at high PCO2 (~1500 μatm). Mechanical properties of the shell (measured as microhardness and

  9. Delayed and prolonged elevated serum paracetamol level after an overdose - possible causes and implications.

    PubMed

    Bihari, Shailesh; Verghese, Santosh; Bersten, Andrew D

    2011-12-01

    We report the case of a 29-year-old man who ingested about 50 g of standard-preparation paracetamol plus other medications. The serum paracetamol level remained low in the first 24 hours. It peaked 54 hours after ingestion and remained high for 5 days. An N-acetylcysteine (NAC) infusion was started at admission, but was ceased 36 hours later as the clinical and laboratory signs were reassuring. On Day 3, the patient's liver function deteriorated and a rising serum paracetamol level was noted; hence, an NAC infusion was reinitiated. Despite this, the patient developed fulminant hepatic failure. This case underlines the importance of monitoring paracetamol levels and liver function for at least 72 hours after a suspected large overdose of paracetamol before discontinuing NAC infusion.

  10. Kidney fibroblast growth factor 23 does not contribute to elevation of its circulating levels in uremia.

    PubMed

    Mace, Maria L; Gravesen, Eva; Nordholm, Anders; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Secher, Thomas; Olgaard, Klaus; Lewin, Ewa

    2017-03-21

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secreted by osteocytes is a circulating factor essential for phosphate homeostasis. High plasma FGF23 levels are associated with cardiovascular complications and mortality. Increases of plasma FGF23 in uremia antedate high levels of phosphate, suggesting a disrupted feedback regulatory loop or an extra-skeletal source of this phosphatonin. Since induction of FGF23 expression in injured organs has been reported we decided to examine the regulation of FGF23 gene and protein expressions in the kidney and whether kidney-derived FGF23 contributes to the high plasma levels of FGF23 in uremia. FGF23 mRNA was not detected in normal kidneys, but was clearly demonstrated in injured kidneys, already after four hours in obstructive nephropathy and at 8 weeks in the remnant kidney of 5/6 nephrectomized rats. No renal extraction was found in uremic rats in contrast to normal rats. Removal of the remnant kidney had no effect on plasma FGF23 levels. Well-known regulators of FGF23 expression in bone, such as parathyroid hormone, calcitriol, and inhibition of the FGF receptor by PD173074, had no impact on kidney expression of FGF23. Thus, the only direct contribution of the injured kidney to circulating FGF23 levels in uremia appears to be reduced renal extraction of bone-derived FGF23. Kidney-derived FGF23 does not generate high plasma FGF23 levels in uremia and is regulated differently than the corresponding regulation of FGF23 gene expression in bone.

  11. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I.; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  12. The earliest stages of ecosystem succession in high-elevation (5000 metres above sea level), recently deglaciated soils

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, S.K; Reed, Sasha C; Nemergut, Diana R; Stuart Grandy, A; Cleveland, Cory C; Weintraub, Michael N; Hill, Andrew W; Costello, Elizabeth K; Meyer, A.F; Neff, J.C; Martin, A.M

    2008-01-01

    Global climate change has accelerated the pace of glacial retreat in high-latitude and high-elevation environments, exposing lands that remain devoid of vegetation for many years. The exposure of ‘new’ soil is particularly apparent at high elevations (5000 metres above sea level) in the Peruvian Andes, where extreme environmental conditions hinder plant colonization. Nonetheless, these seemingly barren soils contain a diverse microbial community; yet the biogeochemical role of micro-organisms at these extreme elevations remains unknown. Using biogeochemical and molecular techniques, we investigated the biological community structure and ecosystem functioning of the pre-plant stages of primary succession in soils along a high-Andean chronosequence. We found that recently glaciated soils were colonized by a diverse community of cyanobacteria during the first 4–5 years following glacial retreat. This significant increase in cyanobacterial diversity corresponded with equally dramatic increases in soil stability, heterotrophic microbial biomass, soil enzyme activity and the presence and abundance of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments. Furthermore, we found that soil nitrogen-fixation rates increased almost two orders of magnitude during the first 4–5 years of succession, many years before the establishment of mosses, lichens or vascular plants. Carbon analyses (pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy) of soil organic matter suggested that soil carbon along the chronosequence was of microbial origin. This indicates that inputs of nutrients and organic matter during early ecosystem development at these sites are dominated by microbial carbon and nitrogen fixation. Overall, our results indicate that photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixing bacteria play important roles in acquiring nutrients and facilitating ecological succession in soils near some of the highest elevation receding glaciers on the Earth. PMID:18755677

  13. The earliest stages of ecosystem succession in high-elevation (5000 metres above sea level), recently deglaciated soils.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S K; Reed, Sasha C; Nemergut, Diana R; Grandy, A Stuart; Cleveland, Cory C; Weintraub, Michael N; Hill, Andrew W; Costello, Elizabeth K; Meyer, A F; Neff, J C; Martin, A M

    2008-12-22

    Global climate change has accelerated the pace of glacial retreat in high-latitude and high-elevation environments, exposing lands that remain devoid of vegetation for many years. The exposure of 'new' soil is particularly apparent at high elevations (5000 metres above sea level) in the Peruvian Andes, where extreme environmental conditions hinder plant colonization. Nonetheless, these seemingly barren soils contain a diverse microbial community; yet the biogeochemical role of micro-organisms at these extreme elevations remains unknown. Using biogeochemical and molecular techniques, we investigated the biological community structure and ecosystem functioning of the pre-plant stages of primary succession in soils along a high-Andean chronosequence. We found that recently glaciated soils were colonized by a diverse community of cyanobacteria during the first 4-5 years following glacial retreat. This significant increase in cyanobacterial diversity corresponded with equally dramatic increases in soil stability, heterotrophic microbial biomass, soil enzyme activity and the presence and abundance of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments. Furthermore, we found that soil nitrogen-fixation rates increased almost two orders of magnitude during the first 4-5 years of succession, many years before the establishment of mosses, lichens or vascular plants. Carbon analyses (pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy) of soil organic matter suggested that soil carbon along the chronosequence was of microbial origin. This indicates that inputs of nutrients and organic matter during early ecosystem development at these sites are dominated by microbial carbon and nitrogen fixation. Overall, our results indicate that photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixing bacteria play important roles in acquiring nutrients and facilitating ecological succession in soils near some of the highest elevation receding glaciers on the Earth.

  14. Elevated serum level of IL-27 and VEGF in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and associate with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian-Tian; Lu, Jing; Qi, Chen-Yue; Yuan, Lin; Li, Xiao-Lin; Xia, Li-Ping; Shen, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-27 is an IL-12 family cytokine and exerts a critical role in immune regulation in the context of infection, autoimmunity, and angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible pathophysiological role of IL-27 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). One hundred and forty AS patients and 90 healthy controls were included in the current study. The levels of IL-27 and VEGF in serum and synovial fluid (SF) samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 were measured by standard laboratory techniques. Disease activity in AS was scored with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Hip involvement, peripheral arthritis, and eye involvement were also recorded. The serum levels of IL-27 were remarkably higher in AS patients than healthy groups and significantly correlated with serum levels of VEGF. Furthermore, the serum levels of IL-27 were correlated with BASDAI independent of other markers of inflammation. Elevated serum levels of IL-27 and VEGF were detected in AS patients with peripheral arthritis and HLA-B27 positive. The SF levels of IL-27 and VEGF were significantly higher than serum levels in AS patients with peripheral arthritis. By contrast, levels of IL-27 and VEGF were not increased in AS patients with hip involvement and eye involvement. IL-27 may regulate the immunological or inflammatory process of AS.

  15. Elevated morning cortisol is a stratified population-level biomarker for major depression in boys only with high depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Owens, Matthew; Herbert, Joe; Jones, Peter B; Sahakian, Barbara J; Wilkinson, Paul O; Dunn, Valerie J; Croudace, Timothy J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2014-03-04

    Major depressive disorder (MD) is a debilitating public mental health problem with severe societal and personal costs attached. Around one in six people will suffer from this complex disorder at some point in their lives, which has shown considerable etiological and clinical heterogeneity. Overall there remain no validated biomarkers in the youth population at large that can aid the detection of at-risk groups for depression in general and for boys and young men in particular. Using repeated measurements of two well-known correlates of MD (self-reported current depressive symptoms and early-morning cortisol), we undertook a population-based investigation to ascertain subtypes of adolescents that represent separate longitudinal phenotypes. Subsequently, we tested for differential risks for MD and other mental illnesses and cognitive differences between subtypes. Through the use of latent class analysis, we revealed a high-risk subtype (17% of the sample) demarcated by both high depressive symptoms and elevated cortisol levels. Membership of this class of individuals was associated with increased levels of impaired autobiographical memory recall in both sexes and the greatest likelihood of experiencing MD in boys only. These previously unidentified findings demonstrate at the population level a class of adolescents with a common physiological biomarker specifically for MD in boys and for a mnemonic vulnerability in both sexes. We suggest that the biobehavioral combination of high depressive symptoms and elevated morning cortisol is particularly hazardous for adolescent boys.

  16. Elevated morning cortisol is a stratified population-level biomarker for major depression in boys only with high depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Matthew; Herbert, Joe; Jones, Peter B.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Wilkinson, Paul O.; Dunn, Valerie J.; Croudace, Timothy J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MD) is a debilitating public mental health problem with severe societal and personal costs attached. Around one in six people will suffer from this complex disorder at some point in their lives, which has shown considerable etiological and clinical heterogeneity. Overall there remain no validated biomarkers in the youth population at large that can aid the detection of at-risk groups for depression in general and for boys and young men in particular. Using repeated measurements of two well-known correlates of MD (self-reported current depressive symptoms and early-morning cortisol), we undertook a population-based investigation to ascertain subtypes of adolescents that represent separate longitudinal phenotypes. Subsequently, we tested for differential risks for MD and other mental illnesses and cognitive differences between subtypes. Through the use of latent class analysis, we revealed a high-risk subtype (17% of the sample) demarcated by both high depressive symptoms and elevated cortisol levels. Membership of this class of individuals was associated with increased levels of impaired autobiographical memory recall in both sexes and the greatest likelihood of experiencing MD in boys only. These previously unidentified findings demonstrate at the population level a class of adolescents with a common physiological biomarker specifically for MD in boys and for a mnemonic vulnerability in both sexes. We suggest that the biobehavioral combination of high depressive symptoms and elevated morning cortisol is particularly hazardous for adolescent boys. PMID:24550453

  17. Tuna fish diet influences cat behavior. [Elevated levels of selenium and mercury in commercial tuna fish cat food

    SciTech Connect

    Houpt, K.A.; Essick, L.A.; Shaw, E.B.; Alo, D.K.; Gilmartin, J.E.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    When observed in their home cages, cats fed commercial tuna fish cat food were less active, vocalized less, and spent more time on the floor and more time eating than cats fed commercial beef cat food. There were no differences in response to human handling between the two groups. There were no differences in learning ability on a two-choice point maze or in reversal learning in the same maze between beef- and tuna-fed cats. The behavior of the groups differed in a 15-min open field test only in the number of toys contacted. Cats fed the tuna had elevated tissue levels of mercury and selenium.

  18. Elevated interleukin-6 expression levels are associated with intervertebral disc degeneration

    PubMed Central

    DENG, XIAO; ZHAO, FENG; KANG, BAOLIN; ZHANG, XIN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression levels were associated with the onset and progression of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). A comprehensive meta-analysis of the scientific literature from numerous electronic databases was performed, in order to obtain published studies associated with the topic of interest. Relevant case-control studies that had previously assessed a correlation between IL-6 expression levels and IDD were identified using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The STATA version 12.0 software was used for statistical analysis of the extracted data. A total of 112 studies were initially retrieved, with eight studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These contained a total of 392 subjects, of which 263 were patients with IDD and 129 were healthy controls. A meta-analysis of the eight studies demonstrated that serum IL-6 protein expression levels may be associated with IDD, and this was irrespective of IDD subtype (bulging, protrusion, or sequestration). Notably, serum expression levels of the IL-6 protein were upregulated in intervertebral disc (IVD) protrusion tissue, as compared with normal IVD tissue; thus suggesting that IL-6 may have an important role in the pathophysiological process of IDD. PMID:27073460

  19. Basal Plasma Levels of Copeptin are Elevated in Inactive Inflammatory Bowel Disease after Bowel Resection

    PubMed Central

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Melander, Olle

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interactions between the enteric nervous system, neuropeptides, and the immune system is growing. The aim of this study was to examine basal plasma levels of a variety of peptide precursors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In two middle-aged cohorts, Malmö Preventive Medicine (n = 5,415) and Malmö Diet and Cost Study (n = 6,103), individuals with the diagnosis of IBD were identified. Medical records were scrutinized. Three controls were matched for each patient. Copeptin, midregional fragments of adrenomedullin, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, and proenkephalin A, as well as N-terminal protachykinin A and proneurotensin were analyzed in the plasma. Sixty-two IBD patients were identified. The only difference between patients and controls was higher copeptin levels in the patients compared with controls (P = 0.006), with higher copeptin levels in resected than unresected patients (P = 0.020). There was no difference in any precursor levels between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, between different distributions of disease lesions, or between different treatments. PMID:26244009

  20. Chronic lamotrigine treatment increases rat hippocampal GABA shunt activity and elevates cerebral taurine levels.

    PubMed

    Hassel, B; Taubøll, E; Gjerstad, L

    2001-02-01

    The mechanism of action of the antiepileptic drug lamotrigine has previously been investigated only in acute experiments and is thought to involve inhibition of voltage-dependent sodium channels. However, lamotrigine is effective against more forms of epilepsies than other antiepileptic drugs that also inhibit sodium channels. We investigated whether chronic lamotrigine treatment may affect cerebral amino acid levels. Rats received lamotrigine, 10 mg/kg/day, for 90 days. The hippocampal level of GABA increased 25%, and the activities of glutamate decarboxylase and succinic semialdehyde/GABA transaminase increased 12 and 21% (p< 0.05), respectively, indicating increased GABA turnover. The uptake of GABA and glutamate into proteoliposomes remained unaltered. The level of taurine increased 27% in the hippocampus and 16% in the frontal and parietal cortices. The activities of hexokinase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, remained at control values. Serum lamotrigine was 41.7+/-1.5 microM (mean+/-S.E.M.), which is within the range seen in epileptic patients. Acute experiments with 5, 20 or 100 mg lamotrigine/kg, caused no changes in brain amino acid levels. The results suggest that chronic lamotrigine treatment increases GABAergic activity in the hippocampus. The cerebral increase in taurine, which has neuromodulatory properties, may contribute to the antiepileptic effect of lamotrigine.

  1. Effects of elevated peroxidase levels and corn earworm feeding on gene expression in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato gene arrays were used to investigate how high levels of transgenic peroxidase expression and feeding by the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, affected expression of defensive and other genes. High peroxidase activity significantly upregulated proteinase inhibitors and a few other defensive gene...

  2. Mothers Do Not Show Increased Offspring Avoidance and Elevated Corticosterone Levels during Weaning Conflict in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Charlotte; Hager, Reinmar

    2016-01-01

    Parent-offspring conflict is predicted to occur because offspring will demand more parental investment than is optimal for the parent, and is said to be strongest during weaning when parents reduce nursing while offspring continue to demand parental care. While weaning conflict has been shown to be stressful in offspring, little is known about the effects of weaning conflict on mothers. We hypothesized that during weaning mothers have higher levels of stress hormone (corticosterone) compared to early lactation because of increased offspring demand. Further, we predicted that if mothers are given the option to avoid offspring solicitation they would do so and show lower corticosterone levels. We tested our hypotheses in an experimental population of rats in which one group of females was given the opportunity to avoid offspring solicitation. We measured faecal corticosterone metabolite levels using a non-invasive approach, and maternal and offspring behaviours during weaning. In contrast to our predictions, we detected lower levels of corticosterone metabolites during weaning than before, irrespective of cage type. Further, during weaning mothers did not show increased offspring avoidance behaviour although offspring solicitation increased significantly. Our results therefore cast doubt on the generally accepted notion of weaning conflict as a stressful period for mothers characterized by overt offspring solicitation. PMID:27662366

  3. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl substances in estuarine sediments of Charleston, SC.

    PubMed

    White, Natasha D; Balthis, Len; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; De Silva, Amila O; Wu, Qian; French, Katherine M; Daugomah, James; Spencer, Christine; Fair, Patricia A

    2015-07-15

    Urban areas are sources of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the environment, although little is known about specific point sources and distribution of PFASs. Sentinel species, like bottlenose dolphins, are important indicators of environmental perturbations. The high PFAS levels found in dolphins inhabiting Charleston, South Carolina prompted investigation of these chemicals in this area. This study provides further evidence on the extent of contamination and potential sources of PFASs. In this study, concentrations of 11 PFASs measured in estuarine sediments collected in 2012 from the Charleston Harbor and the Ashley and Cooper Rivers (n=36) in South Carolina revealed higher levels than those reported in any other U.S. urban areas. Detectable levels were found in all sample locations with mean total PFAS concentrations of 3.79ngg(-1) (range 0.22 to 19.2ngg(-1) d.w.). Dominant compounds were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (mean 1.52ngg(-1); range 0.09-7.37ngg(-1) d.w.), followed by perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) (mean 0.83ngg(-1); range 0.06-4.76ngg(-1) d.w.) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (mean 0.42ngg(-1); range 0.02-2.52ngg(-1) d.w.). PFOS levels in sediments at 19 of 36 sites (representing 52% of the study area) exceeded the published global median PFOS sediment concentration of 0.54ngg(-1).

  4. Persistently Elevated C-Reactive Protein Level in the First Year of Antiretroviral Therapy, Despite Virologic Suppression, Is Associated With HIV Disease Progression in Resource-Constrained Settings.

    PubMed

    Shivakoti, Rupak; Yang, Wei-Teng; Berendes, Sima; Mwelase, Noluthando; Kanyama, Cecilia; Pillay, Sandy; Samaneka, Wadzanai; Santos, Breno; Poongulali, Selvamuthu; Tripathy, Srikanth; Riviere, Cynthia; Lama, Javier R; Cardoso, Sandra W; Sugandhavesa, Patcharaphan; Balagopal, Ashwin; Gupte, Nikhil; Semba, Richard D; Campbell, Thomas B; Bollinger, Robert C; Gupta, Amita

    2016-04-01

    A case-cohort analysis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was performed within a multicountry randomized trial (PEARLS) to assess the prevalence of persistently elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, based on serial measurements of CRP levels, and their association with HIV clinical failure. A persistently elevated CRP level in plasma (defined as ≥ 5 mg/L at both baseline and 24 weeks after ART initiation) was observed in 50 of 205 individuals (24%). A persistently elevated CRP level but not an elevated CRP level only at a single time point was independently associated with increased clinical failure, compared with a persistently low CRP level, despite achievement of virologic suppression. Serial monitoring of CRP levels could identify individuals who are at highest risk of HIV progression and may benefit from future adjunct antiinflammatory therapies.

  5. Neighborhood level health risk assessment of lead paint removal activities from elevated steel bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, R.F.; Cohen, J.T.; Bowers, T.

    1999-07-01

    The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) has adopted strict containment and monitoring procedures during paint removal activities on its bridges because of the increasing awareness about lead poisoning in children in urban environments and the potential risk of lead-based paint releases during those activities. NYCDOT owns nearly 800 bridges scattered throughout New York City. Before undertaking paint removal activities as part of its ongoing preventive maintenance and rehabilitation program, NYCDOT recently conducted an analysis to determine the public health risk posed to children living near them. The analysis the first of its kind to assess the actual public health risk potential during both routine operations and upset conditions, or accidental releases evaluated the total and incremental blood lead levels from paint removal activities on more than 5,000 children from 6 months to 6 years old. Increases in baseline blood lead levels were estimated using several models, including EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model. This model estimates steady-state blood lead levels in children, reflecting exposure to lead in multiple media over an extended period of time. Increases in lead exposure from paint removal activities in the area surrounding the bridges was estimated using EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model to calculate ambient air and deposition levels. Potential releases from the containment and ancillary equipment used in the paint removal process were modeled based on different release scenarios ranging from routine operations to complete failure of containment. To estimate the paint removal activities' contribution to long-term exterior dust lead levels (and its related interior component), a stochastic simulation model was developed for each block in the study area.

  6. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J.; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M.; Donnelly, Louise A.; Ehret, Georg B.; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U.; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E.; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S.F.; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E.; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J.P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V.M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J.; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Pelt, L. Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S.; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B.; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B.; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Franks, Paul W.; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Rich, Stephen S.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Mohlke, Karen L.; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Daly, Mark J.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2013-01-01

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiologic studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P<5×10−8 for each) to examine the role of triglycerides on risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides, and show that the direction and magnitude of both are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong magnitude of association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a polymorphism's strength of effect on triglycerides is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD. PMID:24097064

  7. Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels predict cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 10-year prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Tae-Seok; Yun, Jae-Seung; Cha, Seon-Ah; Song, Ki-Ho; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) level is known to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the data that has been reported on the association between the Lp(a) level and CVD in type 2 diabetes has been limited and incoherent. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the Lp(a) concentration and new onset CVD in type 2 diabetes. Methods From March 2003 to December 2004, patients with type 2 diabetes without a prior history of CVD were consecutively enrolled. CVD was defined as the occurrence of coronary artery disease or ischemic stroke. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify the associations between the Lp(a) and CVD after adjusting for confounding variables. Results Of the 1,183 patients who were enrolled, 833 participants were evaluated with a median follow-up time of 11.1 years. A total of 202 participants were diagnosed with CVD (24.2%). The median Lp(a) level for 1st and 4th quartile group was 5.4 (3.5 to 7.1) and 55.7 mg/dL (43.1 to 75.3). Compared with patients without CVD, those with CVD were older, had a longer duration of diabetes and hypertension, and used more insulin and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers at baseline. A Cox hazard regression analysis revealed that the development of CVD was significantly associated with serum Lp(a) level (hazard ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26 to 2.92; p < 0.001, comparing the 4th vs. 1st quartile of Lp[a]). Conclusions Elevated Lp(a) level was an independent predictable risk factor for CVD in type 2 diabetes. Other cardiovascular risk factors should be treated more intensively in type 2 diabetic patients with high Lp(a) levels. PMID:27756118

  8. Elevated D-dimer and fibrinogen levels in serum of preoperative bone fracture patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Song, Ying; Zhao, Jingzhong; Xu, Qinzhu; Liu, Ning; Zhao, Lei; Lu, Songsong; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The changes of coagulation parameters in preoperative fracture patients reflect the coagulation status before surgery. We did retrospective assessment of preoperative fracture patients (n = 113) admitted to the hospital between September 2013 and September 2014. The control group were selected from healthy adults (n = 113) with matched age and gender. Platelet, PT INR, APTT, fibrinogen (FIB) and D-dimer values were collected and analyzed. PT INR level was 1.043 ± 0.119, APTT was 31.91 ± 7.56 s, FIB was 320.6 ± 71.8 mg/dl and D-dimer was 1283 ± 1582 ng/ml for the fracture patients. For the control group, PT INR level was 0.9976 ± 0.0602, APTT was 33.22 ± 2.55 s, FIB was 277.3 ± 44.7 mg/dl and D-dimer was 97.53 ± 63.90 ng/ml. Meanwhile, D-dimer levels of different sites of fractures were also measured: Femora 2448 ± 1961 ng/ml; Humerus 792.4 ± 691.2 ng/ml; Ulna/Radius 619.4 ± 843.7 ng/ml; Vertebra 647.7 ± 787.1 ng/ml; Tibia/Fibula 496.3 ± 268.8 ng/ml; Clavicle 260.9 ± 170.9 ng/ml; Ankle 415.4 ± 286.6 ng/ml. To conclude, D-dimer and fibrinogen levels get higher in preoperative fracture patients than controls. Besides, D-dimer levels are significantly different among different locations of fractures, and our data revealed that D-dimer levels of Femora fracture were higher than other sites.

  9. Elevated C-reactive protein levels and metabolic syndrome in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Zuliani, Giovanni; Volpato, Stefano; Galvani, Matteo; Blè, Alessandro; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Guralnik, Jack M.; Fellin, Renato; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) and “low grade” systemic inflammation (LGSI) are very common findings in the older population. Although MS and LGSI have been associated in adults, it is not known what is the real contribution of MS, and its single components, to LGSI in older persons, due to the potential confounding effect of comorbidity and aging. We investigated the relationship between increased C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels, a marker of LGSI, and MS in 1044 older (≥65 years) community dwelling Italian individuals enrolled the InChianti study. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the NCEP-ATP III-AHA/NHLBI criteria. High sensitivity CRP (hs.CRP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and defined as high when >3 mg/L. The overall prevalence of MS was 31%. The prevalence of high hs.CRP was 54.5% in subjects with, and 41.3% in those without MS (p < 0.001). MS was associated with high hs.CRP levels after adjustment for age, gender, and comorbidity (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.46-2.55). Compared to subjects with MS and no LGSI, individuals with MS and LGSI were characterized by higher waist circumference, BMI, and HOMA score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between waist circumference and high hs.CRP levels in subjects with MS (waist circumference III vs. I tertile OR: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.79-3.77) independent of age, gender, and important confounding variables including comorbidity. Additional analyses, conducted with and without dichotomization of hs.CRP levels, confirmed the central role of waist circumference in the LGSI phenomenon, independent of gender and diagnosis of MS. We conclude that in older individuals, MS is associated with LGSI, but the association is mainly supported by a strong independent correlation between waist circumference and high hs.CRP levels. In the absence of this specific MS component, it seems that the contribution of MS to LGSI would be modest at best. PMID:18845301

  10. Elevated fecal calprotectin levels during necrotizing enterocolitis are associated with activated neutrophils extruding neutrophil extracellular traps

    PubMed Central

    MacQueen, BC; Christensen, RD; Yost, CC; Lambert, DK; Baer, VL; Sheffield, MJ; Gordon, PV; Cody, MJ; Gerday, E; Schlaberg, R; Lowe, J; Shepherd, JG

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) have higher calprotectin levels in stool than do healthy neonates. However, it is not known whether high stool calprotectin at the onset of bowel symptoms identifies neonates who truly have NEC vs. other bowel disorders. STUDY DESIGN Neonates were eligible for this study when an x-ray was ordered to “rule-out NEC”. Stool calprotectin was quantified at that time and in a follow-up stool. Each episode was later categorized as NEC or not NEC. The location of calprotectin in the bowel was determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Neonates with NEC had higher initial and follow-up stool calprotectin levels than did neonates without NEC. Calprotectin in bowel from neonates with NEC was within neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). CONCLUSION At the onset of signs concerning for NEC, fecal calprotectin is likely to be higher in neonates with NEC. Calprotectin in their stools is exported from neutrophils via NETs. PMID:27388941

  11. Elevated Galectin-3 Levels in the Serum of Patients With Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuexin; Zhang, Shuping; Lin, Faliang; Chu, Wenzheng; Yue, Shouwei

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is characterized by a conserved sequence within the carbohydrate recognition domain. The effect of Gal-3 in AD is presently unknown. In this study, we found significantly increased Gal-3 serum levels in patients with AD compared to control participants (P=.017). There was no significant difference between patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (P=.143) or between patients with AD and MCI (P=.688). The degree of cognitive impairment, as measured by the Mini-Mental Status Examination score, was found to have a significant correlation with the Gal-3 serum levels in all patients and healthy controls. These data suggest that Gal-3 potentially plays a role in the neuropathogenesis of AD. The Gal-3 found in serum could be a potential candidate for a biomarker panel for AD diagnosis.

  12. Responses to elevated c-di-GMP levels in mutualistic and pathogenic plant-interacting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Aragón, Isabel M; Prada-Ramírez, Harold A; Romero-Jiménez, Lorena; Ramos, Cayo; Gallegos, María-Trinidad; Sanjuán, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Despite a recent burst of research, knowledge on c-di-GMP signaling pathways remains largely fragmentary and molecular mechanisms of regulation and even c-di-GMP targets are yet unknown for most bacteria. Besides genomics or bioinformatics, accompanying alternative approaches are necessary to reveal c-di-GMP regulation in bacteria with complex lifestyles. We have approached this study by artificially altering the c-di-GMP economy of diverse pathogenic and mutualistic plant-interacting bacteria and examining the effects on the interaction with their respective host plants. Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas and symbiotic Rhizobium strains with enhanced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP displayed common free-living responses: reduction of motility, increased production of extracellular polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation. Regarding the interaction with the host plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi cells containing high c-di-GMP levels formed larger knots on olive plants which, however, displayed reduced necrosis. In contrast, development of disease symptoms in P. syringae-tomato or P. syringae-bean interactions did not seem significantly affected by high c-di-GMP. On the other hand, increasing c-di-GMP levels in symbiotic R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains favoured the early stages of the interaction since enhanced adhesion to plant roots, but decreased symbiotic efficiency as plant growth and nitrogen contents were reduced. Our results remark the importance of c-di-GMP economy for plant-interacting bacteria and show the usefulness of our approach to reveal particular stages during plant-bacteria associations which are sensitive to changes in c-di-GMP levels.

  13. Responses to Elevated c-di-GMP Levels in Mutualistic and Pathogenic Plant-Interacting Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Aragón, Isabel M.; Prada-Ramírez, Harold A.; Romero-Jiménez, Lorena; Ramos, Cayo; Gallegos, María-Trinidad; Sanjuán, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Despite a recent burst of research, knowledge on c-di-GMP signaling pathways remains largely fragmentary and molecular mechanisms of regulation and even c-di-GMP targets are yet unknown for most bacteria. Besides genomics or bioinformatics, accompanying alternative approaches are necessary to reveal c-di-GMP regulation in bacteria with complex lifestyles. We have approached this study by artificially altering the c-di-GMP economy of diverse pathogenic and mutualistic plant-interacting bacteria and examining the effects on the interaction with their respective host plants. Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas and symbiotic Rhizobium strains with enhanced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP displayed common free-living responses: reduction of motility, increased production of extracellular polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation. Regarding the interaction with the host plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi cells containing high c-di-GMP levels formed larger knots on olive plants which, however, displayed reduced necrosis. In contrast, development of disease symptoms in P. syringae-tomato or P. syringae-bean interactions did not seem significantly affected by high c-di-GMP. On the other hand, increasing c-di-GMP levels in symbiotic R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains favoured the early stages of the interaction since enhanced adhesion to plant roots, but decreased symbiotic efficiency as plant growth and nitrogen contents were reduced. Our results remark the importance of c-di-GMP economy for plant-interacting bacteria and show the usefulness of our approach to reveal particular stages during plant-bacteria associations which are sensitive to changes in c-di-GMP levels. PMID:24626229

  14. Elevated Serum Levels of Mannose-Binding Lectin and Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ling-Zhi; Tong, Qiang; Xu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inflammation and complement activation initiated by mannose-binding lectin (MBL) may be implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. We investigated serum MBL levels in type 2 diabetes with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and with persistent normoalbuminuria. Method Serum MBL levels were determined in 242 type 2 diabetes with overt nephropathy and 242 type 2 diabetes with persistent normoalbuminuria matched for age, sex, and duration of diabetes, as well as in 100 healthy control subjects. The prediction value of MBL was compared with HbA1c, Hs-CRP and with other known predictors. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Results The serum MBL levels were significantly higher in diabetes with DN as compared to with persistent normoalbuminuria (P<0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for common factors showed that serum MBL levels≥2950ug/L was an independent indictor of DN (OR=7.55; 95%CI: 3.44–19.04). Based on the ROC curve, the optimal cutoff value of serum MBL levels as an indicator for diagnosis of DN was projected to be 2950ug/L, which yielded a sensitivity of 77.2 % and a specificity of 80.8%, with the area under the curve at 0.809 (95%CI, 0.769—0.848). Conclusion Our findings suggested that MBL may be involved in the pathogenesis of DN in type 2 diabetes, and that determination of MBL status might be used to identify patients at increased risk of developing nephropathy complications. PMID:25803807

  15. Automated Classification of Basic-Level Terrain Features in Digital Elevation Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    One unexplored area is identifying specific geomorphologic landforms, such as drumlins and alluvial fans. A second unexplored area is identifying...geometry of specific landforms, such as drumlins and cirques. However, in order for specific geomorphometry to be realized, one must isolate the form to...level forms from their surroundings. 2 Table 1 Terrain Categorization System Superordinate Basic Subordinate Terrain Mount Drumlin Dune Inselberg Plain

  16. Elevated levels of angiogenic cytokines in the plasma of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann-Benzakein, E; Ma, M N; Rubbia-Brandt, L; Mentha, G; Ruefenacht, D; Sappino, A P; Pepper, M S

    2000-01-01

    Although in the normal healthy organism angiogenesis is a tightly regulated process, under a variety of circumstances it may contribute to disease states. These include the growth of solid tumors, the hematogenous spread of tumor cells and the growth of metastasis. Our aim was to measure the levels of 5 angiogenic cytokines in the plasma of patients with a variety of cancers, to establish a plasmatic angiogenic profile. We prospectively obtained blood samples in citrated tubes from 40 healthy individuals and 75 patients with a variety of solid tumors. Patients who had received any form of treatment in the preceeding 6 months were excluded from the study. Plasma levels of the following 5 cytokines were determined by ELISA: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In some cases, additional samples were taken 4 and 15 days after surgical removal of the tumor. Our findings demonstrate, that firstly, compared to the tumor group VEGF was almost always undetectable or present at very low levels in healthy individuals; secondly, a threshold value for HGF was found to exist between the 2 groups (healthy vs. tumor); and thirdly, there was a clear relationship between plasma levels of VEGF and HGF and extension of disease (i.e., without or with metastases). The timing of blood sampling in the post-operative period was found to be critical, particularly with regard to VEGF and HGF. The existence of a systemic angiogenic profile in the plasma of cancer patients may be useful as a diagnostic and prognostic tool and may help in the future to monitor the responses of individual patients to anti-tumor and, particularly, anti-angiogenic therapy.

  17. Experimental Study of Vane Heat Transfer and Film Cooling at Elevated Levels of Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Forrest E.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the results of an experimental study on the influence of high level turbulence on vane film cooling and the influence of film cooling on vane heat transfer. Three different cooling configurations were investigated which included one row of film cooling on both pressure and suction surfaces, two staggered rows of film cooling on both suction and pressure surfaces, and a shower-head cooling array. The turbulence had a strong influence on film cooling effectiveness, particularly on the pressure surface where local turbulence levels were the highest. For the single row of holes, the spanwise mixing quickly reduced centerline effectiveness levels while mixing in the normal direction was more gradual. The film cooling had a strong influence on the heat transfer in the laminar regions of the vane. The effect of film cooling on heat transfer was noticeable in the turbulent regions but augmentation ratios were significantly lower. In addition to heat transfer and film cooling, velocity profiles were taken downstream of the film cooling rows at three spanwise locations. These profile comparisons documented the strong spanwise mixing due to the high turbulence. Total pressure exit measurements were also documented for the three configurations.

  18. Elevated levels of TRF2 induce telomeric ultrafine anaphase bridges and rapid telomere deletions

    PubMed Central

    Nera, Bernadette; Huang, Hui-Shun; Lai, Thao; Xu, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    The shelterin protein TRF2 is essential for chromosome-end protection. Depletion of TRF2 causes chromosome end-to-end fusions, initiating genomic instability that can be cancer promoting. Paradoxically, significant increased levels of TRF2 are observed in a subset of human cancers. Experimental overexpression of TRF2 has also been shown to induce telomere shortening, through an unknown mechanism. Here we report that TRF2 overexpression results in replication stalling in duplex telomeric repeat tracts and the subsequent formation of telomeric ultrafine anaphase bridges (UFBs), ultimately leading to stochastic loss of telomeric sequences. These TRF2 overexpression-induced telomere deletions generate chromosome fusions resembling those detected in human cancers and in mammalian cells containing critically shortened telomeres. Therefore, our findings have uncovered a second pathway by which altered TRF2 protein levels can induce end-to-end fusions. The observations also provide mechanistic insight into the molecular basis of genomic instability in tumour cells containing significantly increased TRF2 levels. PMID:26640040

  19. Deimination level and peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 expression are elevated in astrocytes with increased incubation temperature.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Algeciras, Mabel; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K; Serra, Horacio M

    2015-09-01

    Astrocytes respond to environmental cues, including changes in temperatures. Increased deimination, observed in many progressive neurological diseases, is thought to be contributed by astrocytes. We determined the level of deimination and expression of peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) in isolated primary astrocytes in response to changes on either side (31°C and 41°C) of the optimal temperature (37°C). We investigated changes in the astrocytes by using a number of established markers and accounted for cell death with the CellTiter-Blue assay. We found increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, ALDH1L1, and J1-31, resulting from increased incubation temperature and increased expression of TSP1, S100β, and AQP4, resulting from decreased incubation temperature vs. optimal temperature, suggesting activation of different biochemical pathways in astrocytes associated with different incubation temperatures. Mass spectrometric analyses support such trends. The PAD2 level was increased only as a result of increased incubation temperature with a commensurate increased level of deimination. Actin cytoskeleton and iso[4]LGE, a lipid peroxidase modification, also showed an increase with higher incubation temperature. Altogether, these results suggest that temperature, as an environmental cue, activates astrocytes in a different manner on either side of the optimal temperature and that increase in deimination is associated only with the higher temperature side of the spectrum.

  20. Elevated Circulating Levels of Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al Shahi, Hamad; Shimada, Kazunori; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Yoshihara, Takuma; Sai, Eiryu; Shiozawa, Tomoyuki; Naito, Ryo; Aikawa, Tatsuro; Ouchi, Shohei; Kadoguchi, Tomoyasu; Miyazaki, Tetsuro; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We evaluated inflammatory cytokines and chemokine in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with either acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods. We enrolled 20 ACS patients and 50 stable CAD patients without previous history of ACS who underwent cardiac catheterization. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and C-reactive protein of ≥1.0 mg/dL were excluded. Blood samples were collected from the patients just before catheterization, and PBMCs were isolated from the whole blood. The levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine were measured by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoassays. Results. The expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-10, IL-23A, IL-27, and IL-37 was significantly higher in the ACS group than in the CAD group (P < 0.05). In contrast, the expression of IL-33 was significantly lower in the ACS group than in the CAD group (P < 0.05). The ACS patients had higher plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in the ACS group than in the CAD group. Conclusion. Circulating levels of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-23A, IL-27, IL-33, and IL-37, may be associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in ACS patients. PMID:26504600

  1. Gamiwalbitang, composed of four herbs, controls body weight increase and lipid level elevation induced by a high-fat diet in mice.

    PubMed

    An, Hyo-Jin; Rim, Hong-Kun; Suh, Se-Eun; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2010-06-01

    Gamiwalbitang (GWB) is a newly developed dietary supplement that is composed of four herbs. The purpose of GWB development is to help control weight. The aim of this study was to investigate whether GWB combined with a 40% high-fat (HF) diet can influence body weight and fat accumulation. An experiment was conducted with 40 C57BL/6J mice with an initial body weight of approximately 18g. Body weight was recorded weekly, and plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and leptin were analyzed at the end of the study. Weight increases in the 10% GWB group were 38.5% less than in the HF diet group (P < 0.05). Plasma triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels decreased by 21.2% and 51.0%, respectively, in the 5% GWB group, and 44.1% and 51.5%, respectively, in the 10% GWB group compared to the HF diet group. The HDL cholesterol level was increased by 184.0% in the 5% GWB group and 188.2% in the 10% GWB group. The serum leptin level was significantly decreased by the GWB diet, and in the GWB diet group; gene expression of leptin in adipose tissue was also decreased compared with HF diet group. These findings indicate that GWB may be beneficial in the regulation of high-fat diet-induced blood circulatory disorders.

  2. Increased expression of the IgE Fc receptors on rat macrophages induced by elevated serum IgE levels.

    PubMed Central

    Boltz-Nitulescu, G; Plummer, J M; Spiegelberg, H L

    1984-01-01

    Macrophages (M phi) from rats with elevated serum IgE levels induced by (i) Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) infection, (ii) IgE-secreting plasmacytoma IR 162, or (iii) i.p. injection of purified rat IgE, and M phi from normal animals cultured in the presence of 10 micrograms/ml IgE were analysed for Fc IgE receptors (Fc epsilon R) expression. To detect Fc epsilon R-bearing cells, a rosette assay employing fixed ox erythrocytes coated with rat IgE was used. With undersensitized indicator cells a significantly (P less than 0.002) greater number of M phi from animals having elevated serum IgE levels or of M phi cultured in the presence of IgE formed IgE rosettes than M phi from normal donors. The IgE rosettes were IgE class-specific, since they were inhibited by rat IgE in a dose-dependent manner, but not by any other rat Ig class, heat-denatured rat IgE or human IgE. The modulating effect of Fc epsilon R expression on M phi was IgE specific, because neither rat IgG nor heated rat IgE induced increased IgE rosette formation. Furthermore, elevated serum IgE levels did not increase the expression of Fc receptors for IgG subclasses. Studies of 125I-IgE binding showed that alveolar macrophages (AM phi) from Nb-infected rats bind IgE with similar affinity (Ka 1.1 X 10(7) M-1) as AM phi from normal animals, but they have increased numbers of IgE binding sites. Collectively, the results demonstrate that in vivo and in vitro elevated serum IgE concentrations induce increased IgE rosette formation as a result of a marked increase in the number of Fc epsilon R per macrophage. PMID:6236146

  3. Elevating your elevator talk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  4. Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 on Primary Metabolite Levels in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 Leaves: An Examination of Metabolome Data.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Ko; Watanabe, Chihiro K; Terashima, Ichiro

    2015-11-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentrations ([CO(2)]) affect primary metabolite levels because CO(2) is a direct substrate for photosynthesis. In several studies, the responses of primary metabolite levels have been examined using Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, but these results have not been comprehensively discussed. Here, we examined metabolome data for A. thaliana accession Col-0 leaves that were grown at elevated [CO(2)] with sufficient nitrogen (N) nutrition. At elevated [CO(2)], starch, monosaccharides and several major amino acids accumulated in leaves. The degree of accumulation depended on whether the rooting medium contained NH(4) (+) or only NO(3) (-). Because low N conditions induce an increase in carbohydrates similar to that of elevated [CO(2)], we compared the responses of primary metabolite levels between elevated [CO(2)] and low N conditions. Levels of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-associated organic acids and major amino acids decreased with low N, but not with elevated [CO(2)]. Even at elevated [CO(2)], the low N induced the decreases in the levels of organic acids and major amino acids. A small sink size also affects the primary metabolite response patterns in leaves under elevated [CO(2)] conditions. Thus, care is necessary when interpreting primary metabolite changes in leaves of field-grown plants.

  5. Prognostic Value of Plasma Intermedin Level in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengyang; Shi, Lin; Han, Yalei; Zhao, Yuntao; Qi, Yongfen; Wang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Intermedin (IMD), an autocrine/paracrine biologically active peptide, plays a critical role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Recent research has shown that high plasma levels of IMD are associated with poor outcomes for patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. However, the prognostic utility of IMD levels in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) has not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that the level of plasma IMD would have prognostic value in patients with NSTE-ACS. Plasma IMD was determined by radioimmunoassay in 132 NSTE-ACS patients on admission to hospital and 132 sex- and age-matched healthy-control subjects. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including death, heart failure, hospitalization, and acute myocardial infarction, were noted during follow-up. In total, 23 patients suffered MACEs during the follow-up period (mean 227 ± 118 days, range 2-421 days). Median IMD levels were higher in NSTE-ACS patients than control [320.0 (250.9/384.6) vs. 227.2 (179.7/286.9) pg/mL, P <0.001]. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for IMD and N-terminal pro-B-type brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) did not significantly differ (0.73 and 0.79, both P <0.001, respectively; P = 0.946). ROC curve analysis revealed a cut-off value for IMD at 340.7 pg/mL. Cox regression analysis with cardiovascular risk variables and NT-proBNP showed that the risk of MACEs increased by a factor of 12.96 (95% CI, 3.26-49.42; P <0.001) with high IMD levels (at the cut-off value). IMD has potential as a prognostic biomarker for predicting MACEs in patients with NSTE-ACS.

  6. Elevated systemic glutamic acid level in the non-obese diabetic mouse is Idd linked and induces beta cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Banday, Viqar Showkat; Lejon, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T-cell-mediated disease in the effector stage, the mechanism behind the initial beta cell assault is less understood. Metabolomic differences, including elevated levels of glutamic acid, have been observed in patients with T1D before disease onset, as well as in pre-diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Increased levels of glutamic acid damage both neurons and beta cells, implying that this could contribute to the initial events of T1D pathogenesis. We investigated the underlying genetic factors and consequences of the increased levels of glutamic acid in NOD mice. Serum glutamic acid levels from a (NOD×B6)F2 cohort (n = 182) were measured. By genome-wide and Idd region targeted microsatellite mapping, genetic association was detected for six regions including Idd2, Idd4 and Idd22. In silico analysis of potential enzymes and transporters located in and around the mapped regions that are involved in glutamic acid metabolism consisted of alanine aminotransferase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, aldehyde dehydrogenase 18 family, alutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase, glutamic acid transporters GLAST and EAAC1. Increased EAAC1 protein expression was observed in lysates from livers of NOD mice compared with B6 mice. Functional consequence of the elevated glutamic acid level in NOD mice was tested by culturing NOD. Rag2(-/-) Langerhans' islets with glutamic acid. Induction of apoptosis of the islets was detected upon glutamic acid challenge using TUNEL assay. Our results support the notion that a dysregulated metabolome could contribute to the initiation of T1D. We suggest that targeting of the increased glutamic acid in pre-diabetic patients could be used as a potential therapy.

  7. A Lead ANRIL Polymorphism Is Associated with Elevated CRP Levels in Periodontitis: A Pilot Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Teeuw, Wijnand J; Laine, Marja L; Bizzarro, Sergio; Loos, Bruno G

    2015-01-01

    Elevated high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a marker for systemic inflammation and a risk marker for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), and has also been associated with periodontitis. Inter-individual variation for hsCRP in periodontitis has been shown. ANRIL is the strongest genetic susceptibility locus for both periodontitis and ACVD, and it is speculated that genetic variation in ANRIL may modulate inflammatory processes. Therefore, we explored the possible association between hsCRP plasma levels and a leading ANRIL single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in periodontitis patients and controls. 171 healthy subjects with North European descent (115 periodontitis and 56 controls) were included in this case-control study. hsCRP levels were determined and subjects were genotyped for the leading ANRIL SNP rs1333048. In a multivariate analysis, periodontitis, female gender, increasing BMI and homozygosity for the major allele (AA-genotype) of rs1333048 were significantly associated with elevated hsCRP plasma levels (p = 0.012, p = 0.004, p = 0.007 and p = 0.003, respectively). Periodontitis patients with rs1333048 AA-genotype showed higher levels of hsCRP than those carrying the minor C allele (median: 4.5 mg/L vs. 1.6 mg/L, padjusted = 0.007). This study is the first to show that, in addition to gender and BMI, also a leading SNP in ANRIL is explanatory for inter-individual variation in hsCRP levels in periodontitis patients of North European descent.

  8. Prognostic Value of Plasma Intermedin Level in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengyang; Shi, Lin; Han, Yalei; Zhao, Yuntao; Qi, Yongfen; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Intermedin (IMD), an autocrine/paracrine biologically active peptide, plays a critical role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Recent research has shown that high plasma levels of IMD are associated with poor outcomes for patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. However, the prognostic utility of IMD levels in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) has not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that the level of plasma IMD would have prognostic value in patients with NSTE-ACS. Plasma IMD was determined by radioimmunoassay in 132 NSTE-ACS patients on admission to hospital and 132 sex- and age-matched healthy-control subjects. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including death, heart failure, hospitalization, and acute myocardial infarction, were noted during follow-up. In total, 23 patients suffered MACEs during the follow-up period (mean 227 ± 118 days, range 2–421 days). Median IMD levels were higher in NSTE-ACS patients than control [320.0 (250.9/384.6) vs. 227.2 (179.7/286.9) pg/mL, P <0.001]. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for IMD and N-terminal pro-B-type brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) did not significantly differ (0.73 and 0.79, both P <0.001, respectively; P = 0.946). ROC curve analysis revealed a cut-off value for IMD at 340.7 pg/mL. Cox regression analysis with cardiovascular risk variables and NT-proBNP showed that the risk of MACEs increased by a factor of 12.96 (95% CI, 3.26–49.42; P <0.001) with high IMD levels (at the cut-off value). IMD has potential as a prognostic biomarker for predicting MACEs in patients with NSTE-ACS. PMID:27100434

  9. Elevated Urinary T Helper 1 Chemokine Levels in Newly Diagnosed Hypertensive Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Övünç Hacıhamdioğlu, Duygu; Zeybek, Cengiz; Gök, Faysal; Pekel, Aysel; Muşabak, Uğur

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Increasing evidence suggests that T helper (Th) cells play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of obesity and anti-hypertensive treatment on urinary Th1 chemokines. Methods: The study groups consisted of three types of patients: hypertensive obese, healthy, and non-hypertensive obese. Pre-treatment and post-treatment samples of the hypertensive obese group and one sample from the other two groups were evaluated for urinary chemokine: regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP10), and monokine induced by interferon-gamma (MIG). In the hypertensive obese group, urine microalbumin: creatinine ratio was examined before and after treatment. We recommended lifestyle changes to all patients. Captopril was started in those who could not be controlled with lifestyle changes and those who had stage 2 hypertension. Results: Twenty-four hypertensive obese (mean age 13.1), 27 healthy (mean age 11.2) and 22 non-hypertensive obese (mean age 11.5) children were investigated. The pre-treatment urine albumin: creatinine ratio was positively correlated with pre-treatment MIG levels (r=0.41, p<0.05). RANTES was significantly higher in the pre-treatment hypertensive and non-hypertensive obese group than in the controls. The urinary IP10 and MIG levels were higher in the pre-treatment hypertensive obese group than in the non-hypertensive obese. Comparison of the pre- and post-treatment values indicated significant decreases in RANTES, IP10, and MIG levels in the hypertensive obese group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Th1 cells could be activated in obese hypertensive children before the onset of clinical indicators of target organ damage. Urinary RANTES seemed to be affected by both hypertension and obesity, and urinary IP10 and MIG seemed to be affected predominantly by hypertension. PMID:26831550

  10. Spinal cord excitability is not influenced by elevated blood lactate levels.

    PubMed

    Coco, Marinella; Alagona, Giovanna; Perciavalle, Valentina; Cicirata, Valentina; Perciavalle, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association of high blood lactate levels, induced with a maximal cycling or with an intravenous infusion, with spinal cord excitability. The study was carried out on 17 male athletes; all the subjects performed a maximal cycling test on a mechanically braked cycloergometer, while 6 of them were submitted to the intravenous infusion of a lactate solution (3 mg/kg in 1 min). Before the exercise or the injection, also at the end as well as 5 and 10 min after the conclusion, venous blood lactate was measured and excitability of the spinal α-motoneurons was evaluated by using the H reflex technique. In both experimental conditions, it has been observed that an exhaustive exercise is associated with a strong increase of blood lactate (but not of blood glucose) and with a significant reduction of spinal excitability. Since a similar augment of blood lactate induced by an intravenous infusion, in subjects not performing any exercise, is not associated with significant changes of spinal excitability, it can be concluded that the increase of blood lactate levels during a maximal exercise is not per se capable of modifying the excitability of spinal α-motoneurons.

  11. Cardioprotective effect of intermittent fasting is associated with an elevation of adiponectin levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ruiqian; Ahmet, Ismayil; Brown, Martin; Cheng, Aiwu; Kamimura, Naomi; Talan, Mark; Mattson, Mark P

    2010-05-01

    It has been reported that dietary energy restriction, including intermittent fasting (IF), can protect heart and brain cells against injury and improve functional outcome in animal models of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Here we report that IF improves glycemic control and protects the myocardium against ischemia-induced cell damage and inflammation in rats. Echocardiographic analysis of heart structural and functional variables revealed that IF attenuates the growth-related increase in posterior ventricular wall thickness, end systolic and diastolic volumes, and reduces the ejection fraction. The size of the ischemic infarct 24 h following permanent ligation of a coronary artery was significantly smaller, and markers of inflammation (infiltration of leukocytes in the area at risk and plasma IL-6 levels) were less, in IF rats compared to rats on the control diet. IF resulted in increased levels of circulating adiponectin prior to and after MI. Because recent studies have shown that adiponectin can protect the heart against ischemic injury, our findings suggest a potential role for adiponectin as a mediator of the cardioprotective effect of IF.

  12. Elevated blood lead levels among adults in Massachusetts, 1991-1995.

    PubMed Central

    Tumpowsky, C M; Davis, L K; Rabin, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lead poisoning, the oldest recognized occupational disease, remains a danger for children and adults. Data collected for 664 cases reported to the Massachusetts Occupational Lead Registry in 1991-1995 were summarized in a 1998 state report. Here, the authors present some of the key findings from that report for a wider audience. METHODS: The authors summarize key findings of the 1998 state report. FINDINGS: Construction workers, in particular licensed deleaders and house painters, accounted for almost 70% of occupational cases involving blood lead levels > or = 40 micrograms of lead per deciliter (mcg/dl) of blood. Among 100 workers with the highest blood lead levels (> or = 60 mcg/dl), 29% were house painters. Hispanic workers were over-represented in the Registry. A small proportion of cases were non-occupational, typically associated with recreational use of firing ranges or do-it-yourself home renovations. CONCLUSION: Lead poisoning is a preventable disease, yet these data indicate that additional prevention efforts are warranted. PMID:11059431

  13. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-03-11

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2-85.0) and 46.6 (36.5-60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring's consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children's BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children's BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure.

  14. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0) and 46.6 (36.5–60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure. PMID:26978384

  15. Elevated selenium levels in bluegills and their effect on reproduction. [Lepomis macrochirus

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    A series of 18 artificial crosses of bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, from Hyco Reservoir, North Carolina (mean Se = 7.94 ppm) and Roxboro City Lake, North Carolina (mean Se = 0.38 ppm) were generated. Neither percent fertilization nor percent hatch differed significantly among the parent combinations. However, all crosses of females with high Se body burdens resulted in larvae with edema; larvae from all crosses of females with low Se body burdens were normal. No differences were found in morphology of the membranes from immature ova between females of the two reservoirs. Sections of heart and intestines appear similar between larvae from females of Hyco Reservoir and Roxboro City Lake suggesting that edema occurs from physiological impairment and not from developmental abnormalities. Mean Se levels in the gonads and carcass of adult bluegills were more than 20 times higher in fishes from Hyco Reservoir than in those from Roxboro City Lake. The high Se concentration in ovaries of Hyco Reservoir bluegills, coupled with high Se levels in larvae from artificial crosses indicated that Se was transferred from females to offspring and resulted in larval edema. /sup 75/Se-selenomethionine was fed to adult bluegills. After 12 weeks of feeding, liver and testis had the highest /sup 75/Se activities according to gamma activity assays while ovary, heart and skeletal muscle had the lowest activities.

  16. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity. PMID:27010803

  17. Class switch recombination process in ataxia telangiectasia patients with elevated serum levels of IgM.

    PubMed

    Mohammadinejad, Payam; Abolhassani, Hassan; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Pourhamdi, Shabnam; Ghosh, Sujal; Sadeghi, Bamdad; Nasiri Kalmarzi, Rasoul; Durandy, Anne; Borkhardt, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder with various clinical manifestations. Increased serum levels of IgM and recurrent infections, mainly sinopulmonary infections, can be the presenting feature in a number of AT patients and may be initially misdiagnosed as hyper-IgM (HIgM) syndrome. This study was designed to investigate class switch recombination (CSR) as a critical mechanism in B lymphocytes' maturation to produce different isotypes of antibody in response to antigen stimulation in AT cases with HIgM presentation. Quantitative IgE production after stimulation by IL-4 and CD40L was considered as an indicator for CSR function. We also compared their results with sex and age matched AT patients without HIgM presentation. We report four AT patients with recurrent infections during infancy and high serum levels of IgM. Laboratory evaluations revealed defective CSR while none of the three AT patients without HIgM presentation had a defect in the CSR process. The characterized defect in AT is a mutation in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. This gene may result in CSR defects due to impaired DNA break repair. A special association between AT and HIgM may indicate a new subgroup of AT patients according to their clinical phenotype and CSR condition.

  18. Retroviral vectors elevate coexpressed protein levels in trans through cap-dependent translation.

    PubMed

    Gou, Yongqiang; Byun, Hyewon; Zook, Adam E; Singh, Gurvani B; Nash, Andrea K; Lozano, Mary M; Dudley, Jaquelin P

    2015-03-17

    Retroviruses cause immunodeficiency and cancer but also are used as vectors for the expression of heterologous genes. Nevertheless, optimal translation of introduced genes often is not achieved. Here we show that transfection into mammalian cells of lentiviral or gammaretroviral vectors, including those with specific shRNAs, increased expression of a cotransfected gene relative to standard plasmid vectors. Levels of most endogenous cellular proteins were unchanged. Transfer of lentiviral vector sequences into a standard plasmid conferred the ability to give increased expression of cotransfected genes (superinduction). Superinduction by the retroviral vector was not dependent on the cell type or species, the type of reporter gene, or the method of transfection. No differences were detected in the IFN, unfolded protein, or stress responses in the presence of retroviral vectors. RT-PCRs revealed that RNA levels of cotransfected genes were unchanged during superinduction, yet Western blotting, pulse labeling, and the use of bicistronic vectors showed increased cap-dependent translation of cointroduced genes. Expression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase target 4E-BP1, but not the mTOR inhibitor Torin 1, preferentially inhibited superinduction relative to basal protein expression. Furthermore, transcription of lentiviral vector sequences from a doxycycline-inducible promoter eliminated superinduction, consistent with a DNA-triggered event. Thus, retroviral DNA increased translation of cointroduced genes in trans by an mTOR-independent signaling mechanism. Our experiments have broad applications for the design of retroviral vectors for transfections, DNA vaccines, and gene therapy.

  19. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity.

  20. Elevated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid histamine levels in allergic asthmatics are associated with methacholine bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Casale, T B; Wood, D; Richerson, H B; Trapp, S; Metzger, W J; Zavala, D; Hunninghake, G W

    1987-01-01

    Using a sensitive single isotope enzymatic assay we measured bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid histamine in asymptomatic normal (nonallergic), allergic rhinitic, and allergic asthmatic subjects. Normal subjects were found to have little or no detectable amounts of histamine in BAL fluid (11 +/- 11 pg/ml), and few BAL fluid mast cells. In comparison, the allergic rhinitics and allergic asthmatics had much higher amounts of BAL fluid histamine (113 +/- 53 and 188 +/- 42 pg/ml, respectively), and a significantly greater number of BAL fluid mast cells. Furthermore, despite having equivalent baseline pulmonary function values, allergic asthmatics with BAL fluid histamine levels greater than 100 pg/ml required only 7 +/- 2 breath units of methacholine to induce a 20% drop in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (PD20FEV1) while asthmatics with BAL fluid histamine levels less than 100 pg/ml required 49 +/- 19 breath units (P less than 0.05). These data suggest that allergic asthmatics have ongoing lung mast cell degranulation that might contribute to the etiology of airway hyperresponsiveness. Images PMID:3549781

  1. Elevated blood lead levels among children living in a fishing community, Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hozhabri, Siroos; White, Franklin; Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Luby, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Lead is a widespread environmental contaminant worldwide and is associated with adverse outcomes in children, including impaired neurobehavioral development and learning difficulties. A cross-sectional survey of 53 young children was conducted in a fishing village on an island adjacent to Karachi, Pakistan. Whole blood from each individual was tested for lead levels. Also tested were samples of cooked food, house dust, and drinking water from 36 households. Laboratory determinations were made by the Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research with quality control by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fifty-two subjects (98%) had blood lead levels above 10 microg/dl (mean 21.60 microg/dl), an internationally recognized threshold for potential neurotoxicity. The mean concentration was 3.90 microg/g in cooked food, 4.02 microg/l in drinking water, and 91.30 microg/g in house dust. These findings indicate possible major health concerns and suggest significant environmental contamination in this community as well as the need to identify locally relevant early childhood exposures.

  2. Voluntary exercise and clomipramine treatment elevate prepro-galanin mRNA levels in the locus coeruleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Philip V; Yoo, Ho Sang; Dishman, Rod K

    2006-11-06

    Exercise exerts antidepressant effects in humans and rodent models of affective disorders. These effects may be mediated by the upregulation of endogenous factors that exert antidepressant actions. The physiological functions and behavioral actions of the neuropeptide galanin (GAL) suggest antidepressant activity. Previous studies have shown that various modes of exercise elevate GAL gene expression in the locus coeruleus (LC) in rats. The present experiments examined the interaction between voluntary exercise and antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided access to activity wheels (exercise condition) or inoperative wheels (sedentary condition) for 28 days. Rats in each group were injected with clomipramine (10mg/kg/day) or vehicle throughout this period (for 3 weeks). Prepro-GAL mRNA in the LC was measured by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Exercise and clomipramine treatment significantly elevated GAL gene expression, though prepro-GAL mRNA levels in rats receiving both interventions did not differ from sedentary controls that received vehicle. Prepro-GAL mRNA levels were significantly correlated with running distance. The results further implicate a role for GAL in the antidepressant effects of exercise and pharmacotherapy, though the mechanisms through which these treatments influence GAL gene expression appear to differ significantly.

  3. Indications for the tracking of elevated nitrogen levels through the fungal route in a soil food web.

    PubMed

    Hogervorst, R F; Dijkhuis, M A J; van der Schaar, M A; Berg, M P; Verhoef, H A

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of elevated N in dead organic matter on the growth of fungi and to establish the consequences for the development of microbivores. Therefore, three fungal species were cultured on Scots pine litter differing in N content. The growth of the soil fungal species Trichoderma koningii, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides was directly influenced by the N content (ranging from 1.25 to 2.19% N) of the substrate. For all three fungal species maximum growth was highest at intermediate N content (1.55%) of the substrate. The fungivorous collembolan Orchesella cincta reached highest asymptotic body mass when fed with C. cladosporioides, grown on litter medium with intermediate N content (1.55%). The growth of O. cincta was lower when fed with C. cladosporioides from litter medium with the highest N content (2.19%). Similar results were obtained in mesocosm experiments in which pine litter with three levels of N (1.11, 1.78, 2.03% N) was used as substrate for the fungi. On litter with the highest N content (2.03%) hyphal length and asymptotic body mass of O. cincta were reduced. The results show that the N content of the substrate determines the growth of both fungi and fungivores, and suggest that elevated levels of N in soil track through the fungal part of the soil food web.

  4. Diabetes and elevated urea level predict for uretero-ileal stricture after radical cystectomy and ileal conduit formation

    PubMed Central

    Hoag, Nathan; Papa, Nathan; Beharry, Bhawanie Koonj; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Chiu, Danny; Sengupta, Shomik; Bolton, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Benign uretero-ileal anastomotic stricture is a significant complication following radical cystectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion after radical cystectomy. We examined risk factors for stricture formation to predict those at greatest stricture risk. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients undergoing radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion between 2002 and 2012. Demographic data and patient variables were analyzed to determine risk factors for uretero-ileal stricture using multivariate logistic regression. Results Over the study period, 133 patients underwent cystectomy and ileal conduit formation, with 14 (10.5%) developing uretero-ileal anastomotic stricture. Diabetes and elevated serum urea level (defined as >7.1 mmol/L) were associated with increased risk for development of uretero-ileal stricture (odds ratio 4.31 and 4.28, respectively; p<0.05 for each). Conclusions In this patient cohort, diabetes and elevated serum urea level were predictive for the development of uretero-ileal anastomotic stricture. Further prospective study with larger patient samples is required. PMID:28360953

  5. Elevated Oxygen Consumption Rate in Response to Acute Low- Glucose Stress: Metformin Restores Rate to Normal Level

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Emmanuel D.; Rogers, Steven C.; Zhang, Xiaomin; Azhar, Gohar; Wei, Jeanne Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of mortality among all age demographics in the United States, with the highest occurrence in populations aged 65 and older. Glucose levels, particularly hyperglycemia, are associated with the premature onset of age-related diseases including CVD. A major challenge in the treatment of elderly patients with chronically elevated blood glucose is the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes. Molecular mechanisms of hypoglycemia remain unclear, but are associated with premature onset of age-related-diseases. Here we report a mitochondrial metabolic profile assessing short-term (up to six hours) and longer-term (12–24 hours) durations of low-glucose stress. We observed that the antidiabetic biguanide and mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, metformin, can lower and restore the elevated oxygen consumption rate during shorter-term glucose stress to levels similar to that of cells cultured in normal glucose. This effect appears, in part, to involve activation of the 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). PMID:26256471

  6. Geochemical and γ ray characterization of Pennsylvanian black shales: Implications for elevated home radon levels in Vanderburgh County, Indiana.

    PubMed

    Scheller, Kent W; Elliott, William S

    2015-10-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) is a radioactive gas that results from the decay of uranium ((238)U) in the Earth's crust. This study characterizes the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in the Pennsylvanian black shales of southwest Indiana. Cores were drilled on the campus of the University of Southern Indiana to a depth of 237.7 m (780 ft) during exploration for coal-bed methane. Gamma ray logs were taken to measure radioactive activity as a function of depth in the bore hole. Activity readings of 270, 467, 555, and 388 GAPI (American Petroleum Institute γ ray units) were measured at depths of 124.3 m (408 ft), 154.0 m (505 ft), 187.1 m (614 ft) and 214.0 m (702 ft) in four separate shale layers of the Pennsylvanian stratigraphic column. GAPI units are used in the petroleum industry when drilling to represent the relative intensities of γ radiation from (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U in bore holes (Belknap et al., 1959). For purposes of this study, the high activity readings on the gamma ray logs were used only to identify at which depths further gamma ray spectroscopy of the cores would be completed in the laboratory. Gamma ray spectroscopic studies of these cores were conducted with a large volume NaI crystal detector to observe γ rays of specific energies. Characteristic γ rays from various isotopes were identified confirming the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in core samples. Geochemical analysis of cores was also conducted to measure presence and quantity of trace metals and radon precursors. Of 744 homes tested in Vanderburgh County from 2007 to 2013, 169 homes (22.7 percent) had elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L(-1) (4.0 pCi L(-1)). Additionally, 246 homes (33.1 percent) had measured radon levels of 74-145 mBq L(-1) (2.0-3.9 pCi L(-1)). About 80 percent of elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L(-1) (4.0 pCi L(-1)) are located in proximity to depositional contacts between the Dugger and Shelburn formations, or the

  7. No Association between Elevated Total Homocysteine Levels and Functional Outcome in Elderly Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wanjun; Gao, Chunlin; Yu, Changshen; Liu, Shoufeng; Hou, Dongzhe; Wang, Yajing; Wang, Chen; Mo, Lidong; Wu, Jialing

    2017-01-01

    Background: An elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) level is an independent risk factor for vascular events. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between tHcy levels in the acute phase of cerebral infarction and functional outcome among elderly patients. Methods: Between October 2009 and December 2012, we recruited 594 elderly patients (age > 75) with first-onset acute cerebral infarction who were consecutively admitted to the Department of Neurology of Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, China. Levels of tHcy and other biochemical values were measured within 24 h after admission. tHcy values were classified according to quartiles (<9.94; 9.94 to <12.7; 12.7 to <16.8; and ≥16.8 μmol/L). We examined the relationship between tHcy levels at admission and modified Rankin Scale scores (mRS) using univariate and multivariate analyses. Patients were followed up at 3 months and 1 year after stroke. Results: Within 3 months after stroke, 64 patients died, 37 had recurrent ischemic stroke, and 22 were lost to follow-up; thus, 471 patients were reviewed and analyzed. By the time of the 1-year follow-up, an additional 48 patients had died, 44 had recurrent ischemic stroke, and 40 had been lost to follow-up; the remaining 339 patients were thus reviewed and analyzed. Elevated tHcy levels were not associated with functional outcome among elderly patients with acute cerebral infarction (p > 0.05). Only the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was associated with a poor outcome after adjusting for confounders at 3 months and 1 year (adjusted odds ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.28–1.49; p < 0.01; adjusted odds ratio, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.25–1.44; p < 0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Among elderly patients with acute cerebral infarction, elevated tHcy at admission was not a predictive factor of outcome at 3 months and 1 year after stroke onset. PMID:28377713

  8. Elevated levels of GABA+ in migraine detected using (1) H-MRS.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Maria-Eliza R; Lagopoulos, Jim; Leaver, Andrew M; Rebbeck, Trudy; Hübscher, Markus; Brennan, Patrick C; Refshauge, Kathryn M

    2015-07-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been implicated in several pain conditions, yet no study has systematically evaluated GABA levels in migraine using (1) H-MRS. The accurate detection, separation and quantification of GABA in individuals with migraine could elucidate the role of this neurotransmitter in migraine pathophysiology. Such information may eventually be useful in the diagnosis and development of more effective treatments for migraine. The aims of this study were therefore to compare the concentration of GABA+ in individuals with migraine with that in asymptomatic individuals, and to determine the diagnostic potential of GABA+ in the classification of those with or without migraine. In this case-control study, GABA+ levels in the brain were determined in 19 participants with migraine and 19 matched controls by (1) H-MRS using Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy (MEGA-PRESS) sequence. The diagnostic accuracy of GABA+ for the detection of migraine and the optimal cut-off value were determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. GABA+ levels were significantly higher (p = 0.002) in those with migraine [median, 1.41 institutional units (IU); interquartile range, 1.31-1.50 IU] than in controls (median, 1.18 IU; interquartile range, 1.12-1.35 IU). The GABA+ concentration appears to have good accuracy for the classification of individuals with or without migraine [area under the curve (95% confidence interval), 0.837 (0.71-0.96); p < 0.001]. The optimal GABA+ cut-off value for migraine was 1.30 IU, with a sensitivity of 84.2%, specificity of 68.4% and positive likelihood ratio of +2.67. The outcomes of this study suggest altered GABA metabolism in migraine. These results add to the scarce evidence on the putative role of GABA in migraine and provide a basis to further explore the causal relationship between GABA+ and the pathophysiology of migraine. This study also demonstrates that GABA+ concentration has good diagnostic accuracy for migraine

  9. The impact of low technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Aschengrau, A.; Hardy, S.; Mackey, P.; Pultinas, D.

    1998-10-01

    This prospective environmental intervention study was conducted to determine the impact of low-technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. Children whose homes had severe lead hazards were automatically assigned to the intervention group. Children whose homes had lesser hazards were randomly assigned to the intervention group or comparison group. The one-time intervention focused mainly on cleaning and repainting window areas and educating caregivers to maintain effective housekeeping techniques. Changes in blood lead and dust lead loading levels were observed following the interventions. Analysis of covariance was used to adjust comparisons of postintervention levels for preintervention levels and other variables. The lead hazard reduction activities were associated with a modest decline in blood lead levels among children with severe hazards. The magnitude of the decline depended on the confounder that was controlled; the majority ranged from {minus}1.1 to {minus}1.6 {micro}g/dL. A moderate reduction in window well dust lead loading levels was also observed. While low-technology lead hazard reduction measures appeared to be an effective secondary prevention strategy among children with severe household lead hazards, larger studies are needed to confirm these results.

  10. Markedly elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase levels are a clue to the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, G R; Al-Abdely, H; Flanders, C D; Geimer, J; Patterson, T F

    1997-05-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is a common late manifestation of AIDS, but the diagnosis may be unsuspected in some patients because the clinical presentation of histoplasmosis may mimic other opportunistic infections. High serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels have been associated with disseminated histoplasmosis. We therefore evaluated whether markedly increased LDH levels were useful for making a diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis by comparing admission LDH levels for 15 patients with culture-proven disseminated histoplasmosis with those for 30 patients with advanced AIDS who were admitted to the hospital for evaluation of pulmonary infiltrates and fever. The mean admission LDH level in patients with disseminated histoplasmosis was 1,356 IU/L (range, 145-5,410 IU) whereas it was 332 (range, 77-832 IU) in the patients with other pulmonary processes. Admission LDH levels were >600 IU in 11 (73%) of the 15 patients with disseminated histoplasmosis vs. 3 (10%) of controls (P < .001). We conclude that markedly elevated admission LDH levels may be a clinical clue to the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS.

  11. Elevated lead levels and adverse effects on natural killer cells in children from an electronic waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Huo, Xia; Cao, Junjun; Yang, Tian; Xu, Long; Xu, Xijin

    2016-06-01

    Lead (Pb) has been proved to exert immunotoxicity to influence immune homeostasis in humans. To monitor the internal Pb level and evaluate its effect on natural killer (NK) cells and cytokine/chemokine concentrations, we recruited 285 preschool children from Guiyu, one of the largest electronic waste (e-waste) destinations and recycling areas in the world, and known to have high concentrations of Pb in the air, soil, water, sediment and plants. A total of 126 preschool children were selected from Haojiang as a reference group. Results showed that children in Guiyu, the exposed area, had higher blood Pb levels and lower percentages of NK cells than children from the reference area. A significantly negative association was found between the percentage of NK cells and increasing Pb levels. Moreover, children in Guiyu area had higher platelet counts and IL-1β concentrations, and lower levels of IL-2, IL-27, MIP-1α and MIP-1β were observed in the exposed children. These changes might not be conducive to the development and differentiation of NK cells. Taken together, the elevated Pb levels result in the lower percentages of NK cells, but also alter the levels of platelets, IL-1β and IL-27, which might be unconducive to the activity and function of NK cells.

  12. Claudin tight junction proteins in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin: Spatial response to elevated cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Gauberg, Julia; Kolosov, Dennis; Kelly, Scott P

    2017-01-01

    This study examined regional distribution and corticosteroid-induced alterations of claudin (cldn) transcript abundance in teleost fish skin. Regional comparison of mRNA encoding 20 Cldns indicated that 12 exhibit differences in abundance along the dorsoventral axis of skin. However, relative abundance of cldns (i.e. most to least abundant) remained similar in different skin regions. Several cldns appear to be present in the epidermis and dermal vasculature whereas others are present only in the epidermis. Increased circulating cortisol levels significantly altered mRNA abundance of 10 cldns in a region specific manner, as well as corticosteroid receptors and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (type 2). Epidermis and epidermal mucous cell morphometrics also altered in response to cortisol, exhibiting changes that appear to enhance skin barrier properties. Taken together, data provide a first look at spatial variation in the molecular physiology of the teleost fish integument TJ complex and region-specific sensitivity to an endocrine factor.

  13. Elevated repetitive behaviors are associated with lower diurnal salivary cortisol levels in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Gabriels, Robin L; Agnew, John A; Pan, Zhaoxing; Holt, Katherine D; Reynolds, Ann; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2013-05-01

    Previously, we reported a subgroup of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) had consistently high rates of repetitive behaviors (RBs) with abnormal sensory sensitivity. Given evidence of lower cortisol levels in response to stress and associated sensory sensitivity in the ASD population, this pilot study evaluates whether the presence of RBs reflects an underlying pathophysiology related to cortisol regulation. Diurnal salivary cortisol from 21 children with ASD and high versus low occurrence RBs were collected at four time points over three consecutive days. Although a typical decline in salivary cortisol was observed, participants in the high RB group showed 36% lower diurnal salivary cortisol than the low RB group. Age, IQ, RB type, and sleep quality were unrelated to observed differences. These findings suggest that RBs may serve to mitigate distress or that the glucocorticoid system has been down regulated in association with prolonged distress in this sample population.

  14. Elevated fat skatole levels in immunocastrated, surgically castrated and entire male pigs with acute dysentery.

    PubMed

    Skrlep, Martin; Batorek, Nina; Bonneau, Michel; Fazarinc, Gregor; Segula, Blaž; Candek-Potokar, Marjeta

    2012-12-01

    Boar taint is due to androstenone and skatole (3-methyl-indole) accumulation in fat tissues. During a study to investigate the effect of immunocastration on fattening pigs, an outbreak of acute dysentery occurred caused by Lawsonia intracellularis and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and resulted in cachexia and high mortality. Low androstenone levels in the immunocastrates (0.25 ± 0.04 μg/g liquid fat) suggested that the immunocastration had been effective, but unusually high skatole concentrations in fat tissues were found not only in entire males, but also in surgical castrates and immunocastrates (0.22 ± 0.15, 0.14 ± 0.08 and 0.18 ± 0.14 μg/g liquid fat, respectively). The findings suggest that boar taint can arise in cases of intestinal infections, even in castrated pigs.

  15. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  16. Elevated Epidermal Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Levels Establish an Anti-Tumor Environment in the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Demehri, Shadmehr; Turkoz, Ahu; Manivasagam, Sindhu; Yockey, Laura J.; Turkoz, Mustafa; Kopan, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    Summary Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP), a cytokine implicated in induction of T helper 2 (Th2)-mediated allergic inflammation, has recently been shown to stimulate solid tumor growth and metastasis. Conversely, studying mice with clonal loss of Notch signaling in their skin revealed that high levels of TSLP released by barrier-defective skin caused a severe inflammation, resulting in gradual elimination of Notch-deficient epidermal clones and resistance to skin tumorigenesis. We found CD4+ T cells to be both required and sufficient to mediate these effects of TSLP. Importantly, TSLP overexpression in wild-type skin also caused resistance to tumorigenesis, confirming that TSLP functions as a tumor suppressor in the skin. PMID:23079659

  17. Elevated level of HSPA1L mRNA correlates with graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Atarod, Sadaf; Turner, Brie; Pearce, Kim Frances; Ahmed, Shaheda S; Norden, Jean; Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna; Wang, Xiao-nong; Collin, Matthew; Dickinson, Anne Mary

    2015-06-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can be a fatal complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). GVHD can be classified as acute (aGVHD: up to 100 days) or chronic (cGVHD: after 100 days) based on the time-point of disease occurrence. At present there are a limited number of biomarkers available for use in the clinic. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate the biomarker potential of the extensively studied Heat Shock Protein 70 family members (HSPA1A/HSPA1B and HSPA1L) at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level in acute and cGVHD patient cohorts. In the skin biopsies, HSPA1L mRNA expression was lower in patients with severe aGVHD (grades II-III) when compared to those with none or low grade aGVHD (grades 0-I) and normal controls. In whole blood, HSPA1L mRNA expression level was significantly (p = 0.008) up-regulated at 28 days post-transplant in cGVHD patients with a significant area under the curve (AUC = 0.773). In addition, HSPA1B expression in whole blood was significantly higher at 3 months post-transplant in both the aGVHD grade II-III (p = 0.012) and cGVHD (p = 0.027) patients. Our initial results in this small cohort show that quantifying HSPA1L mRNA expression in the whole blood of allo-HSCT patients at day 28 post-allo-HSCT may be a useful predictive biomarker for cGVHD.

  18. Elevated Systemic Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Older Women with Persistent Cervical HPV Infection1234

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Troy J.; Hildesheim, Allan; García-Piñeres, Alfonso; Williams, Marcus C.; Shearer, Gene M.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Burk, Robert; Freer, Enrique; Bonilla, Jose; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Defects in lymphoproliferative responses to mitogen/antigens in women >45 years old ith a persistent type-specific HPV infection have been reported. Methods To determine whether these defects were associated with altered cytokine profiles, plasma and PBMC culture supernatants from 50 cases (persistent HPV infection and weak lymphoproliferative responses) and 50 uninfected controls were examined for 24 cytokines using multiplexed bead-based immunoassays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The following plasma cytokines were significantly increased from cases relative to controls: (cases vs. controls (median pg/ml); IL-6: 393.1 vs. 14.5, IL-8: 1128.5 vs. 43.9, TNF-α: 164.1 vs. 9.2, MIP-1α: 1368.9 vs. 25.5, GM-CSF: 13.8 vs. 7.3, IL-1β: 8.3 vs. 1.6, all p<0.0001, and IL-1α: 218.2 vs. 169.5, p=0.02). We focused our analysis on the following cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and MIP-1α due to high fold change (>10) and highly statistically significant difference between cases and controls. Moreover, length of persistence or type of infection (high risk and low risk) did not affect these differences. IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α levels were increased in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants from cases compared to controls (p <0.05), except for IL-8 (p=0.09). However, the cytokine levels from PHA-stimulated PBMC culture supernatants were significantly lower in the cases (p<0.0001). Conclusions Persistent HPV infection in older women with evidence of immune deficit is associated with an increase in systemic inflammatory cytokines. Impact Future studies are needed to determine whether the inflammatory profile is age dependent and to examine the role inflammatory cytokines play in HPV-induced progression from infection to cervical cancer. PMID:20647411

  19. Ion Exchange Conceptual Design for Treating Seven Technical Area Sumps with Elevated Levels of Copper and Zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.

    1999-02-17

    Recently a meeting was held to discuss technical support for developing a conceptual design and estimate for installing and operating an in-line ion exchange system to treat seven Technical Area Sumps with elevated levels (high ppb - low ppm) of copper and potentially zinc (copper level is above the outfall limits). These sump waters are currently routed to the A01 outfall, which is permitted by the State of South Carolina. a study of potential treatment options and followup laboratory work done in the summer of 1997 by Larry Oji and John Hage identified two commercially available ion exchange resins, Duolit GT-73 and Chelex 100, for treating waters at these metals concentrations.

  20. Elevated levels of radium-226 and radium-228 in marine sediments of the Norwegian Trench ("Norskrenna") and Skagerrak.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, M; Lepland, Aivo

    2012-10-01

    Oil and gas extraction activities discharge waters bearing radium isotopes which may potentially be transported to locations distant from the discharge point. Sediment cores from the Norwegian Trench and Skagerrak, potential sinks for North Sea discharges, were analyzed for the contents of these isotopes. All cores were such that data could be obtained from periods prior to and during extensive operations in the North Sea. Results indicate elevated levels of radium isotopes in upper sedimentary layers when compared to data for the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. Although diagenetic processes involving manganese cycling may be responsible for these enrichments, the data support previous work indicating a possible influence of North Sea discharges on sediments of the area. The results highlight the need for further work on elaborating background levels of these isotopes in the North Sea and related areas such that possible impacts of these discharges can be properly evaluated.

  1. Independent effects of apolipoprotein AV and apolipoprotein CIII on plasma triglyceride concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Baroukh, Nadine N.; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-08-15

    Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered triglycerides. To overcome these confounding factors and address their relationship, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed (''double transgenic'') or completely lacked (''double knockout'') both apolipoprotein genes. We report that both ''double transgenic'' and ''double knockout'' mice display intermedia tetriglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Furthermore, we find that human ApoAV plasma protein levels in the ''double transgenic'' mice are approximately 500-fold lower than human ApoCIII levels, supporting ApoAV is a potent triglyceride modulator despite its low concentration. Together, these data indicate

  2. Prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and risk factors among residents less than 6 years of age, Puerto Rico - 2010

    PubMed Central

    Dignam, Timothy; García, Brenda Rivera; De León, Maridali; Curtis, Gerald; Creanga, Andreea A.; Azofeifa, Alejandro; O'Neill, Maureen; Blanton, Curtis; Kennedy, Chinaro; Rullán, Maria; Caldwell, Kathy; Rullán, John; Brown, Mary Jean

    2015-01-01

    Context Limited data exist about blood lead levels and potential exposures among children living in Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rico Department of Health has no formal blood lead surveillance program. Objectives We assessed the prevalence of elevated BLLs [≥ 5 micrograms (μg) of lead per deciliter (dL) of blood], household environmental lead levels, and risk factors for BLL among children less than 6 years old living in Puerto Rico in 2010. Methods We used a population-based cross-sectional sampling strategy to enroll an island-representative sample of Puerto Rican children less than 6 years old. We estimate the island-wide weighted prevalence of elevated BLL, and conducted bivariable and multivariable linear regression analyses to ascertain risk factors for elevated BLLs. Results The analytic dataset included 363 households and 439 children less than 6 years old throughout Puerto Rico. The weighted geometric mean BLL of children less than 6 years old was 1.57 μg/dL [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.27, 1.88). The weighted prevalence of children less than 6 years old with BLLs ≥ 5 μg/dL was 3.18% (95% CI = 0.93, 5.43) and for BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.50% (95% CI = 0, 1.31). Higher mean BLLs were significantly associated with data collection during the summer months, a lead-related activity or hobby of anyone in the residence and maternal education less than 12 years. Few environmental lead hazards were identified. Conclusions The prevalence of elevated BLLs among Puerto Rican children less than 6 years old is comparable to the most recent (2007 – 2010) U.S. national estimate [BLLs ≥ 5 μg/dL = 2.6% (95% CI = 1.6, 4.0)]. Our findings suggest targeted screening of specific higher-risk groups of children less than 6 years old can replace island-wide or insurance specific policies of mandatory blood lead testing in Puerto Rico. PMID:25822901

  3. Implications for glycine receptors and astrocytes in ethanol-induced elevation of dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Adermark, Louise; Clarke, Rhona B C; Olsson, Torsten; Hansson, Elisabeth; Söderpalm, Bo; Ericson, Mia

    2011-01-01

    Elevated dopamine levels are believed to contribute to the rewarding sensation of ethanol (EtOH), and previous research has shown that strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in the nucleus accumbens (nAc) are involved in regulating dopamine release and in mediating the reinforcing effects of EtOH. Furthermore, the osmoregulator taurine, which is released from astrocytes treated with EtOH, can act as an endogenous ligand for the glycine receptor, and increase extracellular dopamine levels. The aim of this study was to address if EtOH-induced swelling of astrocytes could contribute to elevated dopamine levels by increasing the extracellular concentration of taurine. Cell swelling was estimated by optical sectioning of fluorescently labeled astrocytes in primary cultures from rat, and showed that EtOH (25-150 mM) increased astrocyte cell volumes in a concentration- and ion-dependent manner. The EtOH-induced cell swelling was inhibited in cultures treated with the Na(+) /K(+) /2Cl⁻ cotransporter blocker furosemide (1 mM), Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase inhibitor ouabain (0.1 mM), potassium channel inhibitor BaCl₂ (50 µM) and in cultures containing low extracellular sodium concentration (3 mM). In vivo microdialysis performed in the nAc of awake and freely moving rats showed that local treatment with EtOH enhanced the concentrations of dopamine and taurine in the microdialysate, while glycine and β-alanine levels were not significantly modulated. EtOH-induced dopamine release was antagonized by local treatment with the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine (20 µM) or furosemide (100 µM or 1 mM). Furosemide also prevented EtOH-induced taurine release in the nAc. In conclusion, our data suggest that extracellular concentrations of dopamine and taurine are interconnected and that swelling of astrocytes contributes to the acute rewarding sensation of EtOH.

  4. Elevation of cellular NAD levels by nicotinic acid and involvement of nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase in human cells.

    PubMed

    Hara, Nobumasa; Yamada, Kazuo; Shibata, Tomoko; Osago, Harumi; Hashimoto, Tatsuya; Tsuchiya, Mikako

    2007-08-24

    NAD plays critical roles in various biological processes through the function of SIRT1. Although classical studies in mammals showed that nicotinic acid (NA) is a better precursor than nicotinamide (Nam) in elevating tissue NAD levels, molecular details of NAD synthesis from NA remain largely unknown. We here identified NA phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT) in humans and provided direct evidence of tight link between NAPRT and the increase in cellular NAD levels. The enzyme was abundantly expressed in the small intestine, liver, and kidney in mice and mediated [(14)C]NAD synthesis from [(14)C]NA in human cells. In cells expressing endogenous NAPRT, the addition of NA but not Nam almost doubled cellular NAD contents and decreased cytotoxicity by H(2)O(2). Both effects were reversed by knockdown of NAPRT expression. These results indicate that NAPRT is essential for NA to increase cellular NAD levels and, thus, to prevent oxidative stress of the cells. Kinetic analyses revealed that NAPRT, but not Nam phosphoribosyltransferase (NamPRT, also known as pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor or visfatin), is insensitive to the physiological concentration of NAD. Together, we conclude that NA elevates cellular NAD levels through NAPRT function and, thus, protects the cells against stress, partly due to lack of feedback inhibition of NAPRT but not NamPRT by NAD. The ability of NA to increase cellular NAD contents may account for some of the clinically observed effects of the vitamin and further implies a novel application of the vitamin to treat diseases such as those associated with the depletion of cellular NAD pools.

  5. Emergence of elevated levels of multiple infections in spatial host-virus dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Bradford; Penington, Catherine; Weitz, Joshua

    Bacteria are subject to infection and potentially to multiple simultaneous infections by viruses. Multiply infected hosts have altered life-history traits (e.g., viral burst size) and evolutionary rates (e.g., viral recombination). Yet our understanding of multiple infections of microbes is limited to lab settings where the ratio of inoculant viruses to hosts is controlled. In contrast, rates of multiple infection in natural environments are unknown. Here, we develop an individual based model to quantify rates of multiple infections by a single viral type. We explore different dispersal regimes by varying the viral adsorption rate. High dispersal regimes lead to spatial dynamics and rates of multiple infection equivalent to predictions from mean field models. Local clustering of bacterial hosts occurs for low dispersal. Comparing to mean field, the clustering leads to increased rates of multiple infection and fatter tails in the distribution of the number of internal viruses. The emergence of increased colocalization of viruses with infected hosts leads to these deviations. We show these deviations result from the wave-like spread of viruses when invading clusters of bacteria. Our work represents a key step in understanding the population-level effects of multiple infections.

  6. An anti-herbivore defense mutualism under elevated CO2 levels

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.; Lincoln, D.E. )

    1994-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that insects typically consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO2 enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. On the other hand, Lepidopteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which produce toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to see how these two factors would interact to affect consumption and growth of Fall Armyworm larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were grown under CO2 concentrations of 400 and 700 ul/L. Larvae had increased relative growth in the high CO2 treatment, but decreased growth when fed infected tissue. Relative consumption of leaf tissue was greater in the high CO2 treatment, but was not effected by infection. CO2 level, infection, and their interaction all significantly reduced the efficiency of conversion of food ingested (ECI). It appears that tall fescue may not be as well defended against herbivores under CO2 enrichment, although insects may still avoid and be negatively effected by endophyte infected plants.

  7. Antiherbivore defense mutualism under elevated carbon dioxide level: A fungal endophyte and grass

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.; Lincoln, D.E.

    1996-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that insects commonly consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO{sub 2} enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. However, lepidoteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which product toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but also suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to understand how these 2 factors may interact to affect larval consumption and growth in fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb., were grown under CO{sub 2} concentrations, but was not influenced by infection. As expected, larvae had significantly reduced efficiency of conversion of ingested food. These 2 factors also interacted so that the lowest efficiency of conversion of ingested food was seen when both infection and an enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} environment were present. As global atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels continue to increase, it appears that fungal endophytes will continue to be important in turfgrasses as protection against insect herbivores and may lead to increased fitness for infected plant genotypes. 47 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Nonselenium glutathione peroxidase in human brain : elevated levels in Parkinson's disease and dementia with lewy bodies.

    PubMed

    Power, John H T; Shannon, John M; Blumbergs, Peter C; Gai, Wei-Ping

    2002-09-01

    Nonselenium glutathione peroxidase (NSGP) is a new member of the antioxidant family. Using antibodies to recombinant NSGP we have examined the distribution of this enzyme in normal, Parkinson's disease (PD), and dementia with Lewy body disease (DLB) brains. We have also co-localized this enzyme with alpha-synuclein as a marker for Lewy bodies. In normal brains there was a very low level of NSGP staining in astrocytes. In PD and DLB there were increases in the number and staining intensity of NSGP-positive astrocytes in both gray and white matter. Cell counting of NSGP cells in PD and DLB frontal and cingulated cortices indicated there was 10 to 15 times more positive cells in gray matter and three times more positive cells in white matter than in control cortices. Some neurons were positive for both alpha-synuclein and NSGP in PD and DLB, and double staining indicated that NSGP neurons contained either diffuse cytoplasmic alpha-synuclein deposits or Lewy bodies. In concentric Lewy bodies, alpha-synuclein staining was peripheral whereas NSGP staining was confined to the central core. Immunoprecipitation indicated there was direct interaction between alpha-synuclein and NSGP. These results suggest oxidative stress conditions exist in PD and DLB and that certain cells have responded by up-regulating this novel antioxidant enzyme.