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Sample records for elevated triglyceride levels

  1. Boysenberry Polyphenols Suppressed Elevation of Plasma Triglyceride Levels in Rats.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Shigeru; Noguchi, Akane; Nagakura, Yuta; Kobori, Kinji; Ohta, Tatsuo; Sakaguchi, Ei; Ichiyanagi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Boysenberry, a hybrid Rubus berry, is mainly cultivated in New Zealand. We previously reported that consumption of boysenberry juice (BBJ) exhibited anti-obesity effects in high-fat feeding rats. In this study, we focused on the suppressive effect of BBJ and its fraction on triglyceride absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. BBJ effectively inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and was separated into four fractions (Fr1, Fr2, Fr3 and Fr4) by HP-20 column chromatography. Among all the fractions, Fr3, the ellagic acid-rich fraction, showed the most potent inhibition against pancreatic lipase in vitro with Fr2, the anthocyanin-rich fraction, second. Authentic ellagic acid equivalent in Fr3 showed poor activity against pancreatic lipase. Then, each fraction was orally administered with corn oil to rats fitted with a jugular catheter to examine the effects of each fraction on plasma triglyceride levels. Both Fr2 and Fr3 effectively suppressed the plasma triglyceride level elevation at a dose of 1,000 mg/kg body weight. These findings demonstrated that BBJ contains chemical components which inhibit triglyceride absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26440637

  2. Triglyceride level

    MedlinePlus

    ... may also cause swelling of your pancreas (called pancreatitis). The triglyceride level is usually included in a ... lower triglyceride levels may be used to prevent pancreatitis for levels above 500 mg/dL Low triglyceride ...

  3. Elevated triglyceride and decreased high density lipoprotein level in carbon disulfide workers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John; Chang, Ho-Yuan; Chang, Shu-Ju; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Huang, Chin-Chang

    2003-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) is a man-made product utilized primarily in the manufacture of viscose rayon. Overexposure to CS2 has been associated with an increase in coronary heart disease. The aims of this study were to examine the dose-response relationship of CS2 exposure and elevated lipid profile tests among CS2-exposed workers in Taiwan. A total of 132 workers were recruited from two viscose rayon plants. Air sampling was performed to determine the CS2 exposure of workers. Demographic data and work history were gathered by a standard self-administered questionnaire. Lipid profile tests were also performed by routine methods. The average CS2 exposure concentration was 50.6 +/- 25.6 ppm (range: 24-127 ppm) in the high-exposure group, 12.9 +/- 5 ppm (range: 5.2-22.3 ppm) in the mid-exposure group, and 3.5 +/- 1.2 ppm (range 0.97-5.2 ppm) in the low-exposure group. There were 21 out of 33 (63.7%) elevated triglyceride levels among high-CS2-exposure workers, 27 out of 64 (42.2%) among the middle-CS2-exposure, and 14 out of 35 (40%) among low-CS2-exposure workers, respectively. Compared to the low-CS2-exposure workers, the age- and weight-adjusted odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) of the prevalence of elevated triglyceride value were 1.12 (0.5, 2.7) for middle-CS2-exposure workers, and 2.81 (1.02, 7.8) for high-CS2-exposure workers. There was a significant linear trend between CS2 exposure and the prevalence of elevated triglyceride value (P = 0.046) after adjusting for other factors. There was also a lower prevalence of elevated HDL level in high-CS2-exposure workers than low-CS2-exposure workers (15.2% versus 31.4%). Compared to the low-CS2-exposure workers, the age- and weight-adjusted odds ratio (and 95% confidence intervals) of elevated HDL level were 0.34 (0.1, 1.18) for high-CS2-exposure workers, which was borderline significant. In conclusion, this study suggests that elevated triglyceride level and decreased HDL level are associated with CS2 exposure

  4. Genetic variation in Tanis was associated with elevating plasma triglyceride level in Chinese nondiabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of genetic polymorphisms of Tanis with triglyceride concentration in human has not been thoroughly examined. We aimed to investigate the relationship between triglyceride concentrations and Tanis genetic polymorphisms. Methods All participants (n=1497) selected from subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study were divided into two groups according to ethnicity (Han: n=1059; Uygur: n= 438). Four tagging SNPs (rs12910524, rs1384565, rs2101171, rs4965814) of Tanis gene were genotyped using TaqMan® assays from Applied Biosystems following the manufacturer’s suggestions and analyzed in an ABI 7900HT Fast Real-Time PCR System. Results We found that the SNP rs12910524 was associated with triglyceride levels by analyses of a dominant model (P<0.001), recessive model (P <0.001) and additive model (P < 0.001) not only in Han ethnic but also in Uygur ethnic group, and the difference remained significant after the adjustment of sex, age, alcohol intake, smoking, BMI and plasma glucose (GLU) level (All P < 0.001). However, this relationship was not observed in rs1384565, rs2101171, and rs4965814 before and after multivariate adjustment (All P > 0.05). Furthermore, there were significant interactions between rs12910524 and GLU on TG both in Han (P=0.001) and Uygur population (P=2.60×10-4). Conclusion Our results indicated that the rs12910524 in the Tanis gene was associated with triglyceride concentrations in subjects without diabetes in China. PMID:23829426

  5. Triglycerides

    MedlinePlus

    Triglycerides are a type of fat found in your blood. Too much of this type of fat ... especially in women. A blood test measures your triglycerides along with your cholesterol. Normal triglyceride levels are ...

  6. Exceptionally elevated triglyceride in severe lipemia retinalis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Han Y; Warman, Roberto; Suh, Edward H; Cheng, Anny MS

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of successful treatment for severe lipemia retinalis with extreme severe hypertriglyceridemia (sHTG). Design Observational case report. Observations A 6-week-old infant with severe lipemia retinalis manifested diffuse creamy retinal vessels complicated with vulvar xanthomas. Extreme sHTG with 185-folds of the normal level was reported. Chromosome microarray and lipid gene sequencing confirmed a homozygous lipoprotein lipase gene coding mutation. Results Under strict adherence to a high medium-chain triglycerides formula and discontinuation of breast milk, the lipemia retinalis and vulval lesions resolved along with a stable plasma lipid level throughout the follow-up period of 6 months. Conclusion Strict adherence to a low-fat diet without breast milk appears to be effective in treating infants with severe lipemia retinalis associated with exceptionally high triglycerides. PMID:27799830

  7. Obese First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Elevated Triglyceride Levels Exhibit Increased β-Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Porchia, Leonardo M.; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Mejia, M. Elba; Báez-Duarte, Blanca G.; Pulido-Pérez, Patricia; Rivera, Alicia; Romero, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized as a disease continuum that is marked by metabolic changes that are present for several years, sometimes well before frank diagnosis of T2DM. Genetic predisposition, ethnicity, geography, alterations in BMI, and lipid profile are considered important markers for the pathogenesis of T2DM through mechanisms that remain unresolved and controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between triglycerides (TGs) and β-cell function, insulin resistance (IR), and insulin sensitivity (IS) in obese first-degree relatives of patients with T2DM (FDR-T2DM) among subjects from central Mexico with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We studied 372 FDR-T2DM subjects (ages,18–65) and determined body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin, and TGs levels. Subjects were categorized based on glycemic control [NGT, prediabetes (PT2DM), or T2DM]. NGT subjects were further categorized by BMI [normal weight (Ob−) or obese (Ob+)] and TGs levels (TG−, <150 mg/dL, or TG+, ≥150 mg/dL). β-cell function, IR, and IS were determined by the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA2-β), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR), and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) indices, respectively. Results: The obese subjects with elevated TGs levels had 21%–60% increased β-cell function when compared to all groups (P<0.05). In addition, this group had insulin levels, IS, and IR similar to PT2DM. Furthermore, only in obese subjects did TGs correlate with β-cell function (ρ=0.502, P<0.001). Conclusion: We characterized FDR-T2DM subjects from central Mexico with NGT and revealed a class of obese subjects with elevated TGs and β-cell function, which may precede PT2DM. PMID:25423015

  8. The effect of lean fish consumption on triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Leaf, David A; Hatcher, Lauren

    2009-04-01

    Marine omega-3 fatty acids have an important role in reducing the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). The American Heart Association recommends 1 g/day of omega-3 fatty acids for patients with CAD, and for those without CAD, the consumption of a variety of fish (preferably fatty fish) at least twice a week is recommended. Greater amounts of omega-3 fatty acids (4 g per day) are recommended to treat hypertriglyceridemia. Fish oil capsules are often needed to provide the greater quantities of omega-3 fatty acids necessary to treat hypertriglyceridemia, which should not obscure the important triglyceride-lowering effects of seafood consumption. The effects of fish consumption on plasma lipids and lipoproteins are well described in studies that have generally been conducted with fatty fish and fish oil capsules. This study of a group of men and women in a strictly controlled dietary setting showed that compared with a cholesterol-free diet, both lean fish and beef diets raised plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, but the fish diet resulted in lower levels of plasma total cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides, and VLDL cholesterol, while the beef diet resulted in higher plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. These findings can help practitioners to extend their dietary recommendations to incorporate significant quantities of low-fat fish to reduce triglyceride levels. PMID:20048486

  9. Acute exposure to 2,4-dinitrophenol alters zebrafish swimming performance and whole body triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Marit, Jordan S; Weber, Lynn P

    2011-06-01

    While swimming endurance (critical swimming speed or U(crit)) and lipid stores have both been reported to acutely decrease after exposure to a variety of toxicants, the relationship between these endpoints has not been clearly established. In order to examine these relationships, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were aqueously exposed to solvent control (ethanol) or two nominal concentrations of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a mitochondrial electron transport chain uncoupler, for a 24-h period. Following exposure, fish were placed in a swim tunnel in clean water for swimming testing or euthanized immediately without testing, followed by analysis of whole body triglyceride levels. U(crit) decreased in both the 6 mg/L and 12 mg/L DNP groups, with 12 mg/L approaching the LC₅₀. A decrease in tail beat frequency was observed without a significant change in tail beat amplitude. In contrast, triglyceride levels were elevated in a concentration-dependent manner in the DNP exposure groups, but only in fish subjected to swimming tests. This increase in triglyceride stores may be due to a direct interference of DNP on lipid catabolism as well as increased triglyceride production when zebrafish were subjected to the co-stressors of swimming and toxicant exposure. Future studies should be directed at determining how acute DNP exposure combines with swimming to cause alterations in triglyceride accumulation. PMID:21406246

  10. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women) from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2). However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI. PMID:27255074

  11. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. -- Highlights: ► Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ► Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ► Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ► Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  12. Relationship between Plasma Triglyceride Level and Severity of Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Huei; Chou, Yu-Ching; Shangkuan, Wei-Chuan; Wei, Kuang-Yu; Pan, Yu-Han; Lin, Hung-Che

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis, but whether the level of triglyceride (TG) is related to severity of pancreatitis is unclear. Aim To evaluate the effect of TG level on the severity of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis (HTGP). Design Retrospective cohort study. Methods We reviewed the records of 144 patients with HTGP from 1999 to 2013 at Tri-Service General Hospital. Patients with possible etiology of pancreatitis, such as gallstones, those consuming alcohol or drugs, or those with infections were excluded. The classification of severity of pancreatitis was based on the revised Atlanta classification. We allocated the patients into high-TG and low-TG groups based on the optimal cut-off value (2648 mg/dL), which was derived from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve between TG level and severity of HTGP. We then compared the clinical characteristics, pancreatitis severity, and mortality rates of the groups. Results There were 66 patients in the low-TG group and 78 patients in the high-TG group. There was no significant difference in the age, sex ratio, body mass index, and comorbidity between the 2 groups. The high-TG group had significantly higher levels of glucose (P = 0.022), total cholesterol (P = 0.002), and blood urea nitrogen (P = 0.037), and lower levels of sodium (P = 0.003) and bicarbonate (P = 0.002) than the low-TG group. The incidences of local complication (P = 0.002) and severe and moderate form of pancreatitis (P = 0.004) were significantly higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group. The mortality rate was higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group (P = 0.07). Conclusions Higher TG level in patients with HTGP may be associated with adverse prognosis, but randomized and prospective studies are needed in the future verify this relationship. PMID:27727299

  13. Evaluation of the effects of various factors on the serum triglyceride level in young adults.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, R; Miyoshi, T; Imaki, M; Nakamura, T

    1994-06-01

    The life style of young adults has been receiving attention with a view to its improvement to preventing coronary heart diseases (CHD) in later life. In this study, for determining the influence of different life styles on the serum triglyceride level, we carried out surveys and laboratory studies on the relationships of the nutritional intake, physical activity, and cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption of young adults with their serum triglyceride levels. The nutritional survey indicated a significant correlation between the serum triglyceride level and carbohydrate intake (p < 0.01). In the survey of physical activity, a significant inverse correlation was found between the energy expenditure per kg body weight and the serum triglyceride level (p < 0.05). No significant relationship was found of smoking or drinking with the serum triglyceride level. The body mass index was found to have effects on both the serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. Of the factors examined, carbohydrate intake and energy expenditure per kg body weight had the greatest effects on the serum triglyceride level. Considering the trend for young people to consume large quantities of carbonated drinks, in which most of carbohydrate is sucrose, we tested the affect of a high carbohydrate diet on one group of subjects and found that it caused a significant increase in the serum triglyceride level (p < 0.05). Another group for whom a mild exercise regimen was prescribed showed slight, but not significant decrease in the serum triglyceride level. These results suggest that at least optimal nutrition and physical activity including weight control during adolescence are important for preventing CHD. PMID:7940529

  14. Diet-induced changes in serum transaminase and triglyceride levels in healthy adult men. Role of sucrose and excess calories.

    PubMed

    Porikos, K P; Van Itallie, T B

    1983-10-01

    Serum transaminase levels were measured as part of a study on the physiologic control of food intake. Twenty-one men, 15 nonobese and six obese, were housed on a metabolic ward for 30 days where they received ad libitum a baseline diet of conventional foods containing 25 to 30 percent of total calories as sucrose for 18 days and a calorically diluted diet containing less than 10 percent sucrose for 12 days. Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) levels rose significantly when subjects consumed the baseline diet and returned to their original levels on the calorically diluted aspartame-sweetened diet. Markedly abnormal transaminase levels developed in two subjects on the baseline diet and they had to be discharged from the study. Correlations between various components of the diet and enzyme changes suggested that both surplus calories and a high sucrose intake played a role in the elevation of enzyme levels. Serum triglyceride levels also showed a significant reduction when the subjects were switched from the baseline to the calorically diluted diet. In a second study designed to test systematically the role of sucrose on SGPT and SGOT levels and on serum triglyceride levels, six nonobese subjects received a carefully controlled liquid diet, relatively high in linoleic acid content, containing 50 percent of total calories as either sucrose or maltose. In comparison with the first study, sucrose had a smaller but still significant effect on the levels of both enzymes, but there was no significant effect on triglyceride levels.

  15. Two independent apolipoprotein A5 haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Pennacchio, Len A; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Krauss, Ronald M; Rubin, Edward M; Cohen, Jonathan C

    2002-11-15

    The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in approximately 16% of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n=419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12% of Caucasians, 14% of African-Americans and 28% of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25-50% of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

  16. Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

    2002-09-16

    The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

  17. Space elevator systems level analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  18. Apolipoprotein A-V: a potential modulator of plasma triglyceride levels in Turks.

    PubMed

    Hodoglugil, Ugur; Tanyolaç, Sinan; Williamson, David W; Huang, Yadong; Mahley, Robert W

    2006-01-01

    The apolipoprotein A-V gene (APOA5) plays an important role in determining plasma triglyceride levels. We studied the effects of APOA5 polymorphisms on plasma triglyceride levels in Turks, a population with low levels of HDL cholesterol and a high prevalence of coronary artery disease. We found 15 polymorphisms, three of which were novel. Seven haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen and genotyped in approximately 3,000 subjects. The rare alleles of the -1464T>C, -1131T>C, S19W, and 1259T>C SNPs were significantly associated with increased triglyceride levels (19-86 mg/dl; P < 0.05) and had clear gene-dose effects. Haplotype analysis of the nine common APOA5 haplotypes revealed significant effects on triglyceride levels (P < 0.001). Detailed analysis of haplotypes clearly showed that the -1464T>C polymorphism had no effect by itself but was a marker for the -1131T>C, S19W, and 1259T>C polymorphisms. The -1131T>C and 1259T>C polymorphisms were in a strong but incomplete linkage disequilibrium and appeared to have independent effects. Thus, the APOA5 -1131T>C, S19W, and 1259T>C rare alleles were associated with significant increases in plasma triglyceride levels. At least one of these alleles was present in approximately 40% of the Turks. Similar associations were observed for -1131T>C and S19W in white Americans living in San Francisco, California.

  19. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  20. Acute high-intensity endurance exercise is more effective than moderate-intensity exercise for attenuation of postprandial triglyceride elevation.

    PubMed

    Trombold, Justin R; Christmas, Kevin M; Machin, Daniel R; Kim, Il-Young; Coyle, Edward F

    2013-03-15

    Acute exercise has been shown to attenuate postprandial plasma triglyceride elevation (PPTG). However, the direct contribution of exercise intensity is less well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise intensity on PPTG and postprandial fat oxidation. One of three experimental treatments was performed in healthy young men (n = 6): nonexercise control (CON), moderate-intensity exercise (MIE; 50% Vo2peak for 60 min), or isoenergetic high-intensity exercise (HIE; alternating 2 min at 25% and 2 min at 90% Vo2peak). The morning after the exercise, a standardized meal was provided (16 kcal/kg BM, 1.02 g fat/kg, 1.36 g CHO/kg, 0.31 g PRO/kg), and measurements of plasma concentrations of triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, and β-hydroxybutyrate were made in the fasted condition and hourly for 6 h postprandial. Indirect calorimetry was used to determine fat oxidation in the fasted condition and 2, 4, and 6 h postprandial. Compared with CON, both MIE and HIE significantly attenuated PPTG [incremental AUC; 75.2 (15.5%), P = 0.033, and 54.9 (13.5%), P = 0.001], with HIE also significantly lower than MIE (P = 0.03). Postprandial fat oxidation was significantly higher in MIE [83.3 (10.6%) of total energy expenditure] and HIE [89.1 (9.8) %total] compared with CON [69.0 (16.1) %total, P = 0.039, and P = 0.018, respectively], with HIE significantly greater than MIE (P = 0.012). We conclude that, despite similar energy expenditure, HIE was more effective than MIE for lowering PPTG and increasing postprandial fat oxidation.

  1. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Powell, Elyse S; Avena, Nicole M; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2010-11-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 weeks) on (1) 12 h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12 h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24 h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories, but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity.

  2. Fatty acid profiles in relation to triglyceride level in the liver of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Mohamed, Tharwat; Goto, Akiko; Oikawa, Shin; Kurosawa, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    To elucidate possible relationships between triglyceride (TG) levels and fatty acid composition in bovine liver, hepatic TG and seven individual fatty acids were measured in 23 Holstein dairy cows, of them 6 are healthy. Liver TG level was greater than 3 % in 12 cows which were ruled fatty liver. Palmitic and oleic acid proportions were significantly higher in fatty liver cows than in the healthy cows, while stearic acid was lower in fatty liver cows. With increased liver TG, stearic acid proportions decreased dramatically. Results indicate that hepatic lipidosis markedly alters the proportions of the various fatty acids in the liver of dairy cows.

  3. Heterozygous Deficiency of Endoglin Decreases Insulin and Hepatic Triglyceride Levels during High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Beiroa, Daniel; Romero-Picó, Amparo; Langa, Carmen; Bernabeu, Carmelo; López, Miguel; López-Novoa, José M.; Nogueiras, Ruben; Diéguez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Endoglin is a transmembrane auxiliary receptor for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) that is predominantly expressed on proliferating endothelial cells. It plays a wide range of physiological roles but its importance on energy balance or insulin sensitivity has been unexplored. Endoglin deficient mice die during midgestation due to cardiovascular defects. Here we report for first time that heterozygous endoglin deficiency in mice decreases high fat diet-induced hepatic triglyceride content and insulin levels. Importantly, these effects are independent of changes in body weight or adiposity. At molecular level, we failed to detect relevant changes in the insulin signalling pathway at basal levels in liver, muscle or adipose tissues that could explain the insulin-dependent effect. However, we found decreased triglyceride content in the liver of endoglin heterozygous mice fed a high fat diet in comparison to their wild type littermates. Overall, our findings indicate that endoglin is a potentially important physiological mediator of insulin levels and hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:23336009

  4. Inheritance of rare functional GCKR variants and their contribution to triglyceride levels in families

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Matthew G.; Raimondo, Anne; Wang, Jian; Ban, Matthew R.; Davis, Mindy I.; Barrett, Amy; Ranft, Jessica; Jagdhuhn, David; Waterstradt, Rica; Baltrusch, Simone; Simeonov, Anton; Collins, Francis S.; Hegele, Robert A.; Gloyn, Anna L.

    2014-01-01

    Significant resources have been invested in sequencing studies to investigate the role of rare variants in complex disease etiology. However, the diagnostic interpretation of individual rare variants remains a major challenge, and may require accurate variant functional classification and the collection of large numbers of variant carriers. Utilizing sequence data from 458 individuals with hypertriglyceridemia and 333 controls with normal plasma triglyceride levels, we investigated these issues using GCKR, encoding glucokinase regulatory protein. Eighteen rare non-synonymous GCKR variants identified in these 791 individuals were comprehensively characterized by a range of biochemical and cell biological assays, including a novel high-throughput-screening-based approach capable of measuring all variant proteins simultaneously. Functionally deleterious variants were collectively associated with hypertriglyceridemia, but a range of in silico prediction algorithms showed little consistency between algorithms and poor agreement with functional data. We extended our study by obtaining sequence data on family members; however, functional variants did not co-segregate with triglyceride levels. Therefore, despite evidence for their collective functional and clinical relevance, our results emphasize the low predictive value of rare GCKR variants in individuals and the complex heritability of lipid traits. PMID:24879641

  5. Effects of switching from omega-3-acid ethyl esters to icosapent ethyl in a statin-treated patient with elevated triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Anurag W; Lynch, Erin

    2015-01-01

    In patients with dyslipidemia, elevated triglyceride (TG) levels, or TG-rich lipoproteins, and cardiovascular risk may remain despite statin therapy. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing the ethyl esters of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (omega-3-acid ethyl esters; Lovaza®) or high-purity EPA ethyl ester (icosapent ethyl; Vascepa®) are TG-lowering treatments that may be administered in addition to statins. Here we describe the effects of switching from omega-3-acid ethyl esters to icosapent ethyl in a 44-year-old obese man with dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hypothyroidism. The patient was receiving stable treatment with medications, including atorvastatin 40 mg/day and extended-release niacin 1000 mg/day. Owing to persistently elevated TG levels and other cardiovascular risk factors, the patient was initiated on omega-3-acid ethyl esters 4 g/day. After approximately 2 years on omega-3-acid ethyl esters, his total cholesterol (TC) level was 184 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level was 81 mg/dL, TG level was elevated at 307 mg/dL despite statin therapy, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) level was 144 mg/dL. After the switch to icosapent ethyl, TC level decreased by 34% to 121 mg/dL, LDL-C level decreased by 28% to 58 mg/dL, TG level decreased by 41% to 180 mg/dL, and non-HDL-C level decreased by 44% to 81 mg/dL. Switching from omega-3-acid ethyl esters containing both EPA and DHA to icosapent ethyl containing high-purity EPA resulted in beneficial and substantial changes in the lipid profile with a notable reduction of TG levels along with additional reductions in LDL-C levels in a statin-treated obese patient with persistently high TG levels. Treatment with icosapent ethyl was well tolerated. PMID:26453247

  6. Association of the acid phosphatase (ACP1) gene with triglyceride levels in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bottini, Nunzio; MacMurray, James; Peters, Warren; Rostamkhani, Masoud; Comings, David E

    2002-11-01

    The acid phosphatase (ACP1) locus codes for a low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMPTP) that is found ubiquitously in human tissues. The *A allele of the ACP1 gene is associated with lower total enzymatic activity than the *B and *C alleles. An association between the *A allele and extreme values of body-mass-index (BMI) and dyslipidemia has previously been described in several samples of obese subjects from the Italian population. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between ACP1 *A allele genotypes (*A/*A, *A/*B, and *A/*C) and non-*A allele genotypes (*B/*B, *B/*C, and *C/*C) and metabolic variables in 277 Caucasian post-menopausal subjects consisting of 82 non-obese subjects (BMI/=35) subjects. ACP1 genotypes were found to be significantly associated with total cholesterol (ptriglyceride (plevels in the obese and very obese women only. The significantly lower levels of triglycerides in *A carriers in this group suggest a protective effect of the *A allele against hypertriglyceridemia. It has been unclear why some individuals who gain weight develop dyslipidemia and other aspects of the metabolic syndrome while others do not. The present study suggests that those who gain weight and carry the ACP1 *A allele may be partially protected against developing the metabolic syndrome. The confirmation of ACP1 as a modifier gene of the metabolic complications could open the door to the prevention of the lethal complications of obesity. PMID:12409270

  7. Triglycerides and Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins in the Causal Pathway of Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Budoff, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical studies suggest that elevated triglyceride levels are a biomarker of cardiovascular (CV) risk. Consistent with these findings, recent genetic evidence from mutational analyses, genome-wide association studies, and Mendelian randomization studies provide robust evidence that triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are in the causal pathway for atherosclerotic CV disease, indicating that they may play a pathogenic role, much like low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Although statins are the cornerstone of dyslipidemia management, high triglyceride levels may persist in some patients despite statin therapy. Several triglyceride-lowering agents are available, including fibrates, niacin, and omega-3 fatty acids, of which prescription omega-3 fatty acids have the best tolerability and safety profile. In clinical studies, omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to reduce triglyceride levels, but products containing both eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid may increase LDL-C levels. Icosapent ethyl, a high-purity eicosapentaenoic acid-only product, does not raise LDL-C levels and also reduces triglyceride, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein levels. In conclusion, omega-3 fatty acids are currently being evaluated in large CV outcome studies in statin-treated patients; these studies should help to elucidate the causative role of triglycerides in atherosclerotic CV disease.

  8. Triglycerides and Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins in the Causal Pathway of Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Budoff, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical studies suggest that elevated triglyceride levels are a biomarker of cardiovascular (CV) risk. Consistent with these findings, recent genetic evidence from mutational analyses, genome-wide association studies, and Mendelian randomization studies provide robust evidence that triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are in the causal pathway for atherosclerotic CV disease, indicating that they may play a pathogenic role, much like low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Although statins are the cornerstone of dyslipidemia management, high triglyceride levels may persist in some patients despite statin therapy. Several triglyceride-lowering agents are available, including fibrates, niacin, and omega-3 fatty acids, of which prescription omega-3 fatty acids have the best tolerability and safety profile. In clinical studies, omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to reduce triglyceride levels, but products containing both eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid may increase LDL-C levels. Icosapent ethyl, a high-purity eicosapentaenoic acid-only product, does not raise LDL-C levels and also reduces triglyceride, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein levels. In conclusion, omega-3 fatty acids are currently being evaluated in large CV outcome studies in statin-treated patients; these studies should help to elucidate the causative role of triglycerides in atherosclerotic CV disease. PMID:27184174

  9. Serum Triglyceride Levels Independently Contribute to the Estimation of Visceral Fat Amount Among Nondiabetic Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chiao-Yu; Huang, Hsien-Liang; Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Lee, Long-Teng; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Tseng, Fen-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Determining the visceral fat amount is important in the risk stratification for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and obesity-related disorders. The area-based measurement of visceral fat area (VFA) via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an accurate but expensive and time-consuming method for estimating visceral fat amount. The aim of our study was to identify a practical predictive parameter for visceral obesity in clinical settings. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 51 nondiabetic obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 27 kg/m2) adults in Taiwan (21 men and 30 women, mean age 35.6 ± 9.2 years, mean BMI 33.3 ± 3.9 kg/m2). VFA was quantified by a single-slice MRI image. Anthropometric indices and biochemical parameters including fasting plasma glucose, serum level of alanine aminotransferase, and lipid profiles were measured. The associations between different variables and VFA were analyzed by linear regression analysis. Increases in BMI, waist circumference, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and triglycerides (TGs), and decreased serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were correlated with larger VFA. After adjustment for age, sex, and anthropometric indices, only serum TG level remained as an independent correlate of VFA. Besides demographic and anthropometric indices, adding TG level may explain a greater variance of VFA. In stepwise multivariate regression analysis, male sex, age, waist circumference, and serum TG level remained significant predictors of VFA. In a subgroup analysis among subjects with BMI ≥30 kg/m2, similar results were demonstrated and serum TG level remained as significant independent correlates of VFA in all of the predictive models. Among nondiabetic obese adults, serum TG level was positively associated with VFA. The combination of sex, age, anthropometric indices, and serum TG level may be used to estimate VFA in clinical settings. PMID:26061332

  10. Two meals with different carbohydrate, fat and protein contents render equivalent postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Darwiche, Gassan; Roth, Bodil; Höglund, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to compare postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin between a control breakfast and a moderately low-carbohydrate test breakfast, given randomly after 10-h fast. Blood samples were collected before and repeatedly after the meal. Plasma calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin were analyzed. The total area under the curve (tAUC) and change in AUC from baseline (dAUC) were calculated. Ratios between the test and control values were calculated to investigate equivalence. Healthy volunteers (8 men and 12 women; 46.0 ± 14.5 years) were included. tAUCs of cortisol and triglycerides did not differ between the breakfasts (p = 0.158 versus p = 0.579). Cortisol dAUCs were decreased and triglyceride dAUCs were increased after both breakfasts, with no differences between the breakfasts (p = 0.933 versus p = 0.277). Calprotectin and zonulin levels were unaffected. The meals were bioequivalent for cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin, but not for calprotectin.

  11. Fasting upregulates adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase levels and phosphorylation in mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Marvyn, Phillip M; Bradley, Ryan M; Button, Emily B; Mardian, Emily B; Duncan, Robin E

    2015-06-01

    Circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) rise during fasting and are taken up by the kidneys, either directly from the plasma or during re-uptake of albumin from glomerular filtrate, and are stored as triacylglycerol (TAG). Subsequent utilization of stored fatty acids requires their hydrolytic release from cellular lipid droplets, but relatively little is known about renal lipolysis. We found that total [(3)H]triolein hydrolase activity of kidney lysates was significantly increased by 15% in the fasted state. Adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl) mRNA expression was time-dependently increased by fasting, along with other fatty acid metabolism genes (Pparα, Cd36, and Aox). ATGL and HSL protein levels were also significantly induced (by 239 ± 7% and 322 ± 8%, respectively). Concomitant with changes in total protein levels, there was an increase in ATGL phosphorylation at the AMPK-regulated serine 406 site in the 14-3-3 binding motif, and an increase in HSL phosphorylation at serines 565 and 660 that are regulated by AMPK and PKA, respectively. Using immunofluorescence, we further demonstrate nearly ubiquitous expression of ATGL in the renal cortex with a concentration on the apical/lumenal surface of some cortical tubules. Our findings suggest a role for ATGL and HSL in kidney lipolysis.

  12. Fasting upregulates adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase levels and phosphorylation in mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Marvyn, Phillip M; Bradley, Ryan M; Button, Emily B; Mardian, Emily B; Duncan, Robin E

    2015-06-01

    Circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) rise during fasting and are taken up by the kidneys, either directly from the plasma or during re-uptake of albumin from glomerular filtrate, and are stored as triacylglycerol (TAG). Subsequent utilization of stored fatty acids requires their hydrolytic release from cellular lipid droplets, but relatively little is known about renal lipolysis. We found that total [(3)H]triolein hydrolase activity of kidney lysates was significantly increased by 15% in the fasted state. Adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl) mRNA expression was time-dependently increased by fasting, along with other fatty acid metabolism genes (Pparα, Cd36, and Aox). ATGL and HSL protein levels were also significantly induced (by 239 ± 7% and 322 ± 8%, respectively). Concomitant with changes in total protein levels, there was an increase in ATGL phosphorylation at the AMPK-regulated serine 406 site in the 14-3-3 binding motif, and an increase in HSL phosphorylation at serines 565 and 660 that are regulated by AMPK and PKA, respectively. Using immunofluorescence, we further demonstrate nearly ubiquitous expression of ATGL in the renal cortex with a concentration on the apical/lumenal surface of some cortical tubules. Our findings suggest a role for ATGL and HSL in kidney lipolysis. PMID:25879679

  13. A rare variant in APOC3 is associated with plasma triglyceride and VLDL levels in Europeans.

    PubMed

    Timpson, Nicholas J; Walter, Klaudia; Min, Josine L; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Malerba, Giovanni; Shin, So-Youn; Chen, Lu; Futema, Marta; Southam, Lorraine; Iotchkova, Valentina; Cocca, Massimiliano; Huang, Jie; Memari, Yasin; McCarthy, Shane; Danecek, Petr; Muddyman, Dawn; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina; Perry, John R B; Ring, Susan M; Gaye, Amadou; Dedoussis, George; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Burton, Paul; Talmud, Philippa J; Gambaro, Giovanni; Spector, Tim D; Smith, George Davey; Durbin, Richard; Richards, J Brent; Humphries, Steve E; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Soranzo, Nicole

    2014-09-16

    The analysis of rich catalogues of genetic variation from population-based sequencing provides an opportunity to screen for functional effects. Here we report a rare variant in APOC3 (rs138326449-A, minor allele frequency ~0.25% (UK)) associated with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (-1.43 s.d. (s.e.=0.27 per minor allele (P-value=8.0 × 10(-8))) discovered in 3,202 individuals with low read-depth, whole-genome sequence. We replicate this in 12,831 participants from five additional samples of Northern and Southern European origin (-1.0 s.d. (s.e.=0.173), P-value=7.32 × 10(-9)). This is consistent with an effect between 0.5 and 1.5 mmol l(-1) dependent on population. We show that a single predicted splice donor variant is responsible for association signals and is independent of known common variants. Analyses suggest an independent relationship between rs138326449 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. This represents one of the first examples of a rare, large effect variant identified from whole-genome sequencing at a population scale.

  14. Triglycerides Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Triglycerides Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: TG; TRIG Formal name: Triglycerides Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Direct ...

  15. Association between periodontal disease and plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    Lafaurie, Gloria Inés; Millán, Lina Viviana; Ardila, Carlos Martin; Duque, Andrés; Novoa, Camilo; López, Diego; Contreras, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: untreated periodontal disease seems to cause low grade systemic inflammation and blood lipid alteration leading to increased cardiovascular disease risk. To start testing this hypothesis in colombian patients, a multicentre study was conducted including the three main state capitals: bogota, medellin and cali. Methods: in this study 192 (28.4%) advanced and 256 (37.8%) moderate periodontitis patients were investigated for socio-demographic variables, city of precedence, periodontal parameters, smoking, red complex periodontopathic bacteria, serum antibodies against porphyromonas gingivalis and aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and blood lipids including total cholesterol, hdl, ldl and triglycerides (tg). Those parameters were compared to 229 (33.8%) controls having periodontal health or gingivitis. Results: advanced periodontitis had worst periodontal indexes, than moderate periodontitis and controls. Interestingly, higher hdl and tg levels were present in periodontitis. Bmi <30 and smoking were associated with increased hdl, hdl-35, ldl and tg, while glycemia >100 mg/dl associated with hdl, hdl-35 and tg. Tannerella forsythia showed a significant association with hdl-35 in bivariate analysis and serum igg1 against p. Gingivalis associated with hdl-35 and serum igg1 against t. Forsythia associated with tg and serum igg2 against a. Actinomycetemcomitans correlated with levels of hdl y hdl-35. In logistic regression the periodontitis patients from cali presented reduced hdl levels as compared to bogota and medellin patients. Presence of igg1 antibodies against p. Gingivalis and a. Actinomycetemcomitans correlated with reduced hdl levels. Conclusion: this study confirmed that untreated periodontitis generates alteration in serum lipid levels and systemic bacterial exposure against important periodontopathic bacteria could be the biological link. PMID:24892452

  16. Male Gender, Increased Blood Viscosity, Body Mass Index and Triglyceride Levels Are Independently Associated with Systemic Relative Hypertension in Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Romana, Marc; Lemonne, Nathalie; Mougenel, Daniele; Waltz, Xavier; Tressières, Benoît; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Tarer, Vanessa; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Connes, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have usually lower diastolic, systolic and mean blood pressure (BP) than the general population. However, BP values ≥120/70 mmHg considerably increase the risk for acute and chronic complications in SCA. The aim of this study was to identify biological factors associated with relative hypertension in adults with SCA. We compared the hematological, lipid and hemolytic profiles, as well as blood viscosity, between SCA patients with normal BP (<120/70 mmHg, n = 54) and those with relative hypertension (BP≥120/70 mmHg, n = 43). Our results demonstrated that male gender (OR: 3.49; 95%CI 1.20 to 10.16, p<0.05), triglycerides (OR: 9.19; 95% CI 2.29 to 36.95, p<0.01), blood viscosity (OR: 1.35; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.81, p<0.05) and body mass index (OR: 1.37; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.64, p<0.01) were independent risks factors for relative hypertension in SCA. No association was found between the BP status and the positive history of painful vaso-occlusive crisis or acute chest syndrome. An association between triglycerides level and the occurrence of these two major acute complications was detected. Our study suggests that male gender, increased triglycerides level, BMI and blood viscosity could increase the risk for developing relative hypertension in SCA. In addition, our results support a role of moderately elevated triglycerides in the pathophysiology of vaso-occlusive events. PMID:23785465

  17. Krill oil supplementation lowers serum triglycerides without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with borderline high or high triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Harwood, Melody; Hoem, Nils; Burri, Lena

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of 12 weeks daily krill oil supplementation on fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein particle levels in subjects whose habitual fish intake is low and who have borderline high or high fasting serum TG levels (150-499 mg/dL). We hypothesized that Krill oil lowers serum TG levels in subjects with borderline high or high fasting TG levels. To test our hypothesis 300 male and female subjects were included in a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled study with five treatment groups: placebo (olive oil) or 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g/day of krill oil. Serum lipids were measured after an overnight fast at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to a high intra-individual variability in TG levels, data from all subjects in the four krill oil groups were pooled to increase statistical power, and a general time- and dose-independent one-way analysis of variance was performed to assess efficacy. Relative to subjects in the placebo group, those administered krill oil had a statistically significant calculated reduction in serum TG levels of 10.2%. Moreover, LDL-C levels were not increased in the krill oil groups relative to the placebo group. The outcome of the pooled analysis suggests that krill oil is effective in reducing a cardiovascular risk factor. However, owing to the individual fluctuations of TG concentrations measured, a study with more individual measurements per treatment group is needed to increase the confidence of these findings. PMID:24461313

  18. Association of apolipoprotein A5 concentration with serum insulin and triglyceride levels and coronary artery disease in Korean men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: Whereas the relation between apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene polymorphisms and triglycerides (TG) levels is well established, the associations between apoA5 concentrations, TG and coronary artery disease (CAD) remain controversial. Therefore, we investigated these relations in the setting ...

  19. Plasma ApoC-III Levels, Triglycerides, and Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 2 Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Arman; Khetarpal, Sumeet A.; Khera, Amit V.; Qasim, Atif; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) have emerged as causal risk factors for developing coronary heart disease (CHD) independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) modulates TRL metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic uptake of TRL. Mutations causing loss-of-function of ApoC-III lower TG and reduce CHD risk, suggestive of a causal role for ApoC-III. Little data exist regarding the relationship of ApoC-III, TG, and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Here, we examined the relationships between plasma ApoC-III, TG and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in T2DM patients. Approach & Results Plasma ApoC-III levels were measured in a cross-sectional study of 1422 subjects with T2DM but without clinically manifest CHD. ApoC-III levels were positively associated with total cholesterol (Spearman r=0.36), TG (r=0.59), LDL-C (r=0.16), fasting glucose (r=0.16) and glycosylated hemoglobin (r=0.12) (P < 0.0001 for all). In age, gender, and race-adjusted analysis, ApoC-III levels were positively associated with CAC (Tobit regression ratio (TRR) 1.78, 95% CI 1.27–2.50 per SD-increase in ApoC-III, P <0.001). As expected for an intermediate mediator, these findings were attenuated when adjusted for both TG (TRR 1.43, 95% CI 0.94–2.18, P=0.086) and separately for VLDL-C (TRR 1.14, 95% ci 0.75–1.71, P=0.53). Conclusions In persons with T2DM, increased plasma ApoC-III is associated with higher TG, less favorable cardiometabolic phenotypes, and higher CAC, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Therapeutic inhibition of ApoC-III may thus be a novel strategy for reducing plasma TRLs and cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:26069232

  20. [Gastrointestinal disease with elevated plasma homocysteine level].

    PubMed

    Coll, P; Guttormsen, A B; Berstad, A

    1999-10-10

    Elevated plasma homocystein (tHcy) is a marker for functional deficiency of folate and/or cobalamin. Malabsorption of these vitamins occurs in various gastroenterologic diseases. A frequent mutation (C677T) in the gene coding for the enzyme methyltetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is often associated with elevated values of tHcy. We have investigated 24 patients with tHcy > 40 mumol/l for gastrointestinal disease that can contribute to such elevation. Of these, 19 were homozygous for mutated MTHFR, four were heterozygous and one was normal. We found two cases of probable celiac disease, one case of Crohn's disease and one case of ulcerative colitis. These four were homozygous for the C667T mutation. Furthermore, we found eight persons who were anacidic; four homozygous, three heterozygous and one normal. All had gastritis histologically, six had serum gastrin > 50 pmol/l, and four were already on treatment with cobalamin injections. Helicobacter pylori-infection was found in nine out of 22 persons. Gastrointestinal disease occurs frequently in patients with tHcy > 40 mumol/l, but with the exception of conditions resulting in serious deficiency of cobalamin, these diseases alone do not seem sufficient to cause such high levels. We suggest that a reasonable approach to patients with homocystein values above 40 mumol/l is to exclude cobalamin deficiency, and that further investigations should be based upon thorough anamnesis and symptoms. PMID:10563175

  1. Obesity and chronic stress are able to desynchronize the temporal pattern of serum levels of leptin and triglycerides.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Carla; Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; de Souza, Andressa; de Oliveira, Cleverson Moraes; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Marques Filho, Paulo Ricardo; Cioato, Stefania Giotti; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of the circadian system can lead to metabolic dysfunction as a response to environmental alterations. This study assessed the effects of the association between obesity and chronic stress on the temporal pattern of serum levels of adipogenic markers and corticosterone in rats. We evaluated weekly weight, delta weight, Lee index, and weight fractions of adipose tissue (mesenteric, MAT; subcutaneous, SAT; and pericardial, PAT) to control for hypercaloric diet-induced obesity model efficacy. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: standard chow (C), hypercaloric diet (HD), stress plus standard chow (S), and stress plus hypercaloric diet (SHD), and analyzed at three time points: ZT0, ZT12, and ZT18. Stressed animals were subjected to chronic stress for 1h per day, 5 days per week, during 80 days. The chronic exposure to a hypercaloric diet was an effective model for the induction of obesity and metabolic syndrome, increasing delta weight, Lee index, weight fractions of adipose tissue, and triglycerides and leptin levels. We confirmed the presence of a temporal pattern in the release of triglycerides, corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin in naïve animals. Chronic stress reduced delta weight, MAT weight, and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and leptin. There were interactions between chronic stress and obesity and serum total cholesterol levels, between time points and obesity and adiponectin and corticosterone levels, and between time points and chronic stress and serum leptin levels. In conclusion, both parameters were able to desynchronize the temporal pattern of leptin and triglyceride release, which could contribute to the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  2. Glucuronic acid epimerase is associated with plasma triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Turks.

    PubMed

    Hodoğlugil, Uğur; Williamson, David W; Yu, Yi; Farrer, Lindsay A; Mahley, Robert W

    2011-05-01

    We narrowed chromosome 15q21-23 linkage to plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in Turkish families by fine mapping, then focused on glucuronic acid epimerase (GLCE), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) biosynthesis enzyme. HSPGs participate in lipid metabolism along with apolipoprotein (apo) E. Of 31 SNPs in the GLCE locus, nine analyzed by haplotype were associated with HDL-C and triglyceride levels (permuted p = 0.006 and 0.013, respectively) in families. Of five tagging GLCE SNPs in two cohorts of unrelated subjects, three (rs16952868, rs11631403, and rs3865014) were associated with triglyceride and HDL-C levels in males (nonpermuted p < 0.05). The association was stronger in APOE 2/3 subjects (apoE2 has reduced binding to HSPGs) and reached multiple-testing significance (p < 0.05) in both males and females (n= 2612). Similar results were obtained in the second cohort (n= 1164). Interestingly, at the GLCE locus, bounded by recombination hotspots, Turks had a minor allele frequency of SNPs resembling Chinese more than European ancestry; adjoining regions resembled the European pattern. Studies of glce(+/-) apoe(-/-) mice fed a chow or high-fat diet supported a role for GLCE in lipid metabolism. Thus, SNPs in GLCE are associated with triglyceride and HDL-C levels in Turks, and mouse studies support a role for glce in lipid metabolism.

  3. Association of a Human FABP1 Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism with Altered Serum Triglyceride Levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yi-bing; Huang, Rong-dong; Lu, Qing-Qing; Lin, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), also known as fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP1), is a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. Elevated FABP1 levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndromes. In this study, we examine the association of FABP1 gene promoter variants with serum FABP1 and lipid levels in a Chinese population. Four promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FABP1 gene were genotyped in a cross-sectional survey of healthy volunteers (n = 1,182) from Fuzhou city of China. Results showed that only the rs2919872 G>A variant was significantly associated with serum TG concentration(P = 0.032).Compared with the rs2919872 G allele, rs2919872 A allele contributed significantly to reduced serum TG concentration, and this allele dramatically decreased the FABP1 promoter activity(P < 0.05). The rs2919872 A allele carriers had considerably lower serum FABP1 levels than G allele carriers (P < 0.01). In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the rs2919872 A allele was negatively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = —0.320, P = 0.003), while serum TG levels were positively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = 0.487, P = 0.014). Our data suggest that compared with the rs2919872 G allele, the rs2919872 A allele reduces the transcriptional activity of FABP1 promoter, and thereby may link FABP1 gene variation to TG level in humans. PMID:26439934

  4. Association of a Human FABP1 Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism with Altered Serum Triglyceride Levels.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xian-E; Wu, Yun-Li; Zhu, Yi-Bing; Huang, Rong-Dong; Lu, Qing-Qing; Lin, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), also known as fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP1), is a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. Elevated FABP1 levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndromes. In this study, we examine the association of FABP1 gene promoter variants with serum FABP1 and lipid levels in a Chinese population. Four promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FABP1 gene were genotyped in a cross-sectional survey of healthy volunteers (n = 1,182) from Fuzhou city of China. Results showed that only the rs2919872 G>A variant was significantly associated with serum TG concentration(P = 0.032).Compared with the rs2919872 G allele, rs2919872 A allele contributed significantly to reduced serum TG concentration, and this allele dramatically decreased the FABP1 promoter activity(P < 0.05). The rs2919872 A allele carriers had considerably lower serum FABP1 levels than G allele carriers (P < 0.01). In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the rs2919872 A allele was negatively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = -0.320, P = 0.003), while serum TG levels were positively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = 0.487, P = 0.014). Our data suggest that compared with the rs2919872 G allele, the rs2919872 A allele reduces the transcriptional activity of FABP1 promoter, and thereby may link FABP1 gene variation to TG level in humans. PMID:26439934

  5. JTT-130, a novel intestine-specific inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, suppresses food intake and gastric emptying with the elevation of plasma peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 in a dietary fat-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Hata, Takahiro; Mera, Yasuko; Ishii, Yukihito; Tadaki, Hironobu; Tomimoto, Daisuke; Kuroki, Yukiharu; Kawai, Takashi; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakutani, Makoto

    2011-03-01

    The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) takes part in the mobilization and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from enterocytes and hepatocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of diethyl-2-({3-dimethylcarbamoyl-4-[(4'-trifluoromethylbiphenyl-2-carbonyl) amino] phenyl}acetyloxymethyl)-2-phenylmalonate (JTT-130), a novel intestine-specific MTP inhibitor, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut peptides using Sprague-Dawley rats fed 3.1% fat, 13% fat, or 35% fat diets. JTT-130 treatment suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying in rats fed a 35% fat diet, but not a 3.1% fat diet. In rats fed a 13% fat diet, JTT-130 treatment decreased cumulative food intake but not gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with orlistat, a lipase inhibitor, completely abolished the reduction of food intake and gastric emptying by JTT-130 in rats fed a 35% fat diet. On the other hand, JTT-130 treatment increased the plasma concentrations of gut peptides, peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) but not cholecystokinin, in the portal vein in rats fed a 35% fat diet. These elevations in PYY and GLP-1 were also abolished by treatment with orlistat. Furthermore, JTT-130 treatment in rats fed a 35% fat diet increased the contents of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the intestinal lumen, which might contribute to the elevation of PYY and GLP-1 levels. The present findings indicate that JTT-130 causes satiety responses, decreased food intake, and gastric emptying in a dietary fat-dependent manner, with enhanced production of gut peptides such as PYY and GLP-1 from the intestine.

  6. Zinc Finger 259 Gene Polymorphism rs964184 is Associated with Serum Triglyceride Levels and Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mirhafez, Seyed Reza; Avan, Amir; Pasdar, Alireza; Khatamianfar, Sara; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Ganjali, Shiva; Movahedi, Ali; Pirhoushiaran, Maryam; Mellado, Valentina Gómez; Rosace, Domenico; van Krieken, Anne; Nohtani, Mahdi; Ferns, Gordon A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that include: abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. Recent genome wide association studies have identified several susceptibility regions involved in lipid metabolism that are also associated with MetS. We have explored the association of 9 genetic polymorphisms involved in lipid metabolism and hypertension, including: MTHFR C677T, SELE L554F, FGB - 455G>A, GNB3 C825T, ZNF259 C>G, PSRC-1 A>G, CETP I405V, LPL S447X and LPA C>T in 97 subjects with MetS and 96 individuals without MetS who were recruited randomly from Mashhad stroke and heart atherosclerotic disorder (MASHAD) study using a stratified cluster random sampling technique. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical measurements were determined in all the subjects. Genotyping was carried out followed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The subjects with MetS had a higher triglyceride and lower HDL- C. CG+ GG genotypes of ZNF259 polymorphism (rs964184 C>G) and TT+CT genotypes of MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) were associated with MetS, and individuals carrying the G allele for ZNF259 or the T allele for MTHFR polymorphisms were associated with MetS (e.g, odds ratio (OR) for CG+GG genotypes vs. CC wild type: 2.52, CI=1.33-4.77; P=0.005). However, after multiple comparison adjustment, this relationship remained significant only for CG+ GG genotypes of ZNF259 polymorphism. Moreover, the ZNF259 CG+ GG genotypes were associated with increased serum concentrations of triglycerides and LDL-C, compared to the wild type. These data support the necessity for further studies in larger multicenter settings. PMID:27386434

  7. Zinc Finger 259 Gene Polymorphism rs964184 is Associated with Serum Triglyceride Levels and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mirhafez, Seyed Reza; Avan, Amir; Pasdar, Alireza; Khatamianfar, Sara; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Ganjali, Shiva; Movahedi, Ali; Pirhoushiaran, Maryam; Mellado, Valentina Gómez; Rosace, Domenico; van Krieken, Anne; Nohtani, Mahdi; Ferns, Gordon A.; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that include: abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. Recent genome wide association studies have identified several susceptibility regions involved in lipid metabolism that are also associated with MetS. We have explored the association of 9 genetic polymorphisms involved in lipid metabolism and hypertension, including: MTHFR C677T, SELE L554F, FGB - 455G>A, GNB3 C825T, ZNF259 C>G, PSRC-1 A>G, CETP I405V, LPL S447X and LPA C>T in 97 subjects with MetS and 96 individuals without MetS who were recruited randomly from Mashhad stroke and heart atherosclerotic disorder (MASHAD) study using a stratified cluster random sampling technique. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical measurements were determined in all the subjects. Genotyping was carried out followed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The subjects with MetS had a higher triglyceride and lower HDL- C. CG+ GG genotypes of ZNF259 polymorphism (rs964184 C>G) and TT+CT genotypes of MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) were associated with MetS, and individuals carrying the G allele for ZNF259 or the T allele for MTHFR polymorphisms were associated with MetS (e.g, odds ratio (OR) for CG+GG genotypes vs. CC wild type: 2.52, CI=1.33-4.77; P=0.005). However, after multiple comparison adjustment, this relationship remained significant only for CG+ GG genotypes of ZNF259 polymorphism. Moreover, the ZNF259 CG+ GG genotypes were associated with increased serum concentrations of triglycerides and LDL-C, compared to the wild type. These data support the necessity for further studies in larger multicenter settings. PMID:27386434

  8. Associations between Dietary Patterns, ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg with Regard to Serum Triglyceride Levels: J-MICC Study.

    PubMed

    Nanri, Hinako; Nishida, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Kazuyo; Tanaka, Keitaro; Naito, Mariko; Yin, Guang; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Takashima, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Nindita, Yora; Kohno, Michiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Koyama, Teruhide; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between dietary patterns and 2 β-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ) gene polymorphisms (ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg) were examined with regard to the effects on serum triglyceride levels. The cross-sectional study comprised 1720 men and women (aged 35-69 years) enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. Genotyping was conducted using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based invader assay. We used 46 items from a validated short food frequency questionnaire and examined major dietary patterns by factor analysis. We identified four dietary patterns: healthy, Western, seafood and bread patterns. There was no significant association between any dietary pattern and serum triglyceride levels. After a separate genotype-based analysis, significant interactions between ADRβ3 Trp64Arg genotype and the bread pattern (p for interaction = 0.01) were associated with serum triglyceride levels; specifically, after adjusting for confounding factors, Arg allele carriers with the bread pattern had lower serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.01). However, the Trp/Trp homozygous subjects with the bread pattern showed no association with serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.55). Interactions between other dietary patterns and ADRβ polymorphisms were not significant for serum triglyceride levels. Our findings suggest that ADRβ3 polymorphism modifies the effects of the bread pattern on triglyceride levels. PMID:27608039

  9. Associations between Dietary Patterns, ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg with Regard to Serum Triglyceride Levels: J-MICC Study

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Hinako; Nishida, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Kazuyo; Tanaka, Keitaro; Naito, Mariko; Yin, Guang; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Takashima, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Nindita, Yora; Kohno, Michiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Koyama, Teruhide; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between dietary patterns and 2 β-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ) gene polymorphisms (ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg) were examined with regard to the effects on serum triglyceride levels. The cross-sectional study comprised 1720 men and women (aged 35–69 years) enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. Genotyping was conducted using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based invader assay. We used 46 items from a validated short food frequency questionnaire and examined major dietary patterns by factor analysis. We identified four dietary patterns: healthy, Western, seafood and bread patterns. There was no significant association between any dietary pattern and serum triglyceride levels. After a separate genotype-based analysis, significant interactions between ADRβ3 Trp64Arg genotype and the bread pattern (p for interaction = 0.01) were associated with serum triglyceride levels; specifically, after adjusting for confounding factors, Arg allele carriers with the bread pattern had lower serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.01). However, the Trp/Trp homozygous subjects with the bread pattern showed no association with serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.55). Interactions between other dietary patterns and ADRβ polymorphisms were not significant for serum triglyceride levels. Our findings suggest that ADRβ3 polymorphism modifies the effects of the bread pattern on triglyceride levels. PMID:27608039

  10. The rs2516839 Polymorphism of the USF1 Gene May Modulate Serum Triglyceride Levels in Response to Cigarette Smoking.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Pawel; Nowak, Tomasz; Iwanicki, Tomasz; Gorczynska-Kosiorz, Sylwia; Balcerzyk, Anna; Krauze, Jolanta; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Wiecha, Maria; Zak, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the USF1 gene (upstream stimulatory factor 1) influence plasma lipid levels. This study aims to determine whether USF1 SNPs interact with traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis to increase coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. In the present study serum lipid levels and USF1 gene polymorphisms (rs2516839 and rs3737787) were determined in 470 subjects: 235 patients with premature CAD and 235 controls. A trend of increasing triglycerides (TG) levels in relation to the C allele dose of rs2516839 SNP was observed. The synergistic effect of cigarette smoking and C allele carrier state on CAD risk was also found (SIM = 2.69, p = 0.015). TG levels differentiated significantly particular genotypes in smokers (1.53 mmol/L for TT, 1.80 mmol/L for CT and 2.27 mmol/L for CC subjects). In contrast, these differences were not observed in the non-smokers subgroup (1.57 mmol/L for TT, 1.46 mmol/L for CT and 1.49 mmol/L for CC subjects). In conclusion, the rs2516839 polymorphism may modulate serum triglyceride levels in response to cigarette smoking. Carriers of the C allele seem to be particularly at risk of CAD, when exposed to cigarette smoking.

  11. The rs2516839 Polymorphism of the USF1 Gene May Modulate Serum Triglyceride Levels in Response to Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Niemiec, Pawel; Nowak, Tomasz; Iwanicki, Tomasz; Gorczynska-Kosiorz, Sylwia; Balcerzyk, Anna; Krauze, Jolanta; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Wiecha, Maria; Zak, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the USF1 gene (upstream stimulatory factor 1) influence plasma lipid levels. This study aims to determine whether USF1 SNPs interact with traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis to increase coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. In the present study serum lipid levels and USF1 gene polymorphisms (rs2516839 and rs3737787) were determined in 470 subjects: 235 patients with premature CAD and 235 controls. A trend of increasing triglycerides (TG) levels in relation to the C allele dose of rs2516839 SNP was observed. The synergistic effect of cigarette smoking and C allele carrier state on CAD risk was also found (SIM = 2.69, p = 0.015). TG levels differentiated significantly particular genotypes in smokers (1.53 mmol/L for TT, 1.80 mmol/L for CT and 2.27 mmol/L for CC subjects). In contrast, these differences were not observed in the non-smokers subgroup (1.57 mmol/L for TT, 1.46 mmol/L for CT and 1.49 mmol/L for CC subjects). In conclusion, the rs2516839 polymorphism may modulate serum triglyceride levels in response to cigarette smoking. Carriers of the C allele seem to be particularly at risk of CAD, when exposed to cigarette smoking. PMID:26068452

  12. Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J.; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2006-03-01

    Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter-enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. diabetes mellitus | glucose transport | RGK GTPase | transgenic mouse

  13. Dietary effects in the early recovery phase of kwashiorkor. Plasma levels of triglycerides, FFA, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, postheparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL), glucose and insulin.

    PubMed

    Persson, B; Habte, D; Sterky, G

    1976-05-01

    The fatty liver often found in untreated kwashiorkor has been associated with highly variable concentration of circulating lipids. The effect on lipid metabolism of two isocaloric diets--one synthetic monomolecular (Vivonex) and one standard (Casilan)--which both initiated satisfactory clinical improvement was studied in 21 Ethiopian children with kwashiorkor during the first weeks of rehabilitation. Before treatment mean fasting values of all biochemical parameters were within normal ranges except for moderately elevated triglycerides--an unexpected finding-and low insulin. Individual values varied greatly; triglyceride between 0.39 and 3.49 mmol/1. FFA correlated both to glycerol, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate and triglyceride values. During treatment insulin, glucose and glycerol remained essentially unchanged and were similar in both dietary groups. In the Vivonex group only there was an initial marked, parallel fall of FFA and D-beta-hydroxybutyrate suggesting greater availability of carbohydrate and enhanced glucose utilization. This pattern of response seemed to occur without comparable inhibition of lipolysis. Triglycerides--like serum albumin--increased faster in the Casilan group. The highest mean triglyceride value was reached by day 8 in the Casilan group and by day 15 in the Vivonex group. Ten minutes following heparin injection triglycerides declined, FFA and glycerol increased indicating release of in vivo active lipase. LPL activity assayed in vitro was similar and unaffected by 2 weeks of dietary treatment in both groups. LPL activity was inversely correlated to triglycerides providing--beside the type of diet--another possible explanation for the wide variations seen in circulatory triglycerides. PMID:1274567

  14. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  15. View of book shop on elevator reboarding level Washington ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of book shop on elevator reboarding level - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. 3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level 11. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  17. Flyway-scale variation in plasma triglyceride levels as an index of refueling rate in spring-migrating western sandpipers (Calidris mauri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, T.D.; Warnock, N.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Bishop, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We combined radiotelemetry, plasma metabolite analyses, and macro-invertebrate prey sampling to investigate variation in putative fattening rates (estimated as plasma triglyceride levels) at the flyway scale in Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) migrating between Punta Banda, Mexico (31??N), and Hartney Bay, Alaska (60??N), a distance of 4,240 km. Birds were caught at a wintering site (San Francisco Bay) and eight stopover sites along this Pacific Flyway. Body mass was higher in females than in males at six sites, but variation was not correlated with latitude for either sex, and the relationship of change in mass by date within sites was uninformative with regard to possible latitudinal variation in fattening rates. At San Francisco Bay, triglyceride levels were higher in the spring than in the winter. Mean plasma triglyceride varied among stopover sites, and there was a significant linear trend of increasing triglyceride levels with latitude as birds migrated north. At San Francisco Bay, length of stay was negatively related to triglyceride levels. However, plasma triglyceride levels at wintering or initial stopover sites (San Francisco and Punta Banda) did not predict individual variation in subsequent rates of travel during migration. We found no significant relationship between triglyceride levels and prey biomass at different stopover sites, which suggests that the latitudinal pattern is not explained by latitudinal changes in food availability. Rather, we suggest that differences in physiology of migratory birds at southern versus northern stopover sites or behavioral differences may allow birds to sustain higher fattening rates closer to the breeding grounds. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  18. Using high dose omega-3 fatty acid supplements to lower triglyceride levels in 10–19 year-olds

    PubMed Central

    de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Milliren, Carly E.; Denhoff, Erica R.; Steltz, Sarah K.; Selamet Tierney, Elif Seda; Feldman, Henry A.; Osganian, Stavroula K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) supplements lower triglyceride (TG) levels in adults; little pediatric information is available. We evaluated their effect in hypertriglyceridemic adolescents. Methods 25 patients ages 10–19 years with TG levels 150–1000 mg/dL were randomized to 6 months double-blind trial of Lovaza [∼3360 mg docosahexaenoic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid/day] vs. Placebo. Results Baseline mean TG levels were 227 mg/dl (SD 49). TG levels declined at 3 months in the Lovaza group by 54 ± 27 mg/dL [mean ± standard error (SE)] (p=0.02) and by 34 ± 26 mg/dL (p=0.16) in the Placebo group. The difference in TG lowering between groups was not significant (p=0.52). There were no between-group differences in endothelial function, blood pressure, body mass index, C-reactive protein or side effects. Conclusions High dose omega-3 FA supplements are well tolerated in adolescents. However, declines in TG levels did not differ significantly from Placebo in this small study. PMID:24707021

  19. Diabetes, Triglyceride Levels, and Other Risk Factors for Glaucoma in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Fang; Boland, Michael V.; Gupta, Priya; Gadkaree, Shekhar K.; Vitale, Susan; Guallar, Eliseo; Zhao, Di; Friedman, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine risk factors for glaucoma in a population-based study in the United States. Methods Participants age 40 and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey underwent questionnaires, physical examination, laboratory tests, and vision tests including fundus imaging. Glaucoma was determined based on expert grading of fundus photographs. Regression modeling of glaucoma risk factors was performed. Results Participants with glaucoma (172) were older (mean age 68.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 65.6–70.7] vs. 56.4 years [95% CI 55.6–57.2, P < 0.001]), likely to have less than high school education (25.1% vs. 18.1%, P = 0.05), to have diabetes (23.1% vs. 10.8%, P < 0.001), to have central obesity (72.5% vs. 60.7%, P = 0.01), to have systolic hypertension (30.3% vs. 20.1%, P = 0.01), to have diastolic hypotension (30.3% vs. 13.9%, P < 0.001), and to be nonsmokers (91.0% vs. 79.3%, P = 0.002). Sex, poverty, access to health care, fasting glucose, insulin dependence, body mass index, cholesterol levels, diastolic hypertension, systolic hypotension, obstructive sleep apnea, and marijuana were not associated with glaucoma. Multivariable modeling showed associations between glaucoma and older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.09 per year, 95% CI 1.04–1.14), black race (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.71–11.30), and poverty (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.73–6.66). Diabetes was no longer associated with glaucoma after adjustment for triglyceride levels. Sex, education, insurance status, body mass index, blood pressure, obstructive sleep apnea, and smoking were not associated with glaucoma. Conclusions People who are older, of black race, and with lower income levels have a higher prevalence of glaucoma. A novel association between diabetes, triglyceride levels, and glaucoma is also identified. PMID:27111561

  20. Exophthalmos and elevated thyroxine levels in association with lithium therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, P.L.; Evans, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Although goiter formation and hypothyroidism are not infrequent following lithium therapy, the association of exophthalmos and/or elevated thyroxine levels with lithium is uncommon. We describe a 62 year old man who rapidly developed exophthalmos, elevated circulating thyroxine, elevated TSH levels and elevated radioiodine uptake within six weeks of reexposure to lithium carbonate. When the medication was stopped, all indices of thyroid function returned to normal and the proptosis receded from 22 to 17mm. Lithium decreases secretion of preformed thyroid hormone and the secondary elevation of TSH levels usually restores euthyroid status. We propose that in our patient, because triiodothyronine levels remained normal, the pituitary was refractory to the normal inhibitory feedback effect of thyroxine and that continued hypersecretion of TSH resulted in hyperthyroidism

  1. LCR bridge measurements at elevated operating levels

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.J., LLNL

    1997-12-01

    A critical part in the design of high voltage systems is the selection of the appropriate discrete components The proper selection involves consideration to the basic equivalent electrical parameters of inductance, capacitance, and resistance. The typical approach to establish these parameters involves the use of low level measurements at reduce scale and extrapolate the results to the desired operating ranges. A test voltage level of one volt represents the typical low- level measurement system. The linearity of this process is always in question and may not represent the system operating parameters. The following technique involves the use of a standard Hewlett Packard LCR bridge to measure the electrical parameters of a selected component while it is at its operating level. This process not only provides discrete component values at operating stress but also provides limited information of frequency information at the internal frequency steps. Capacitance is the principal parameter of interest and is highly stress related The significance of a varying capacitance as a function of voltage is the direct relationship to the available stored energy Additional concerns of system frequency response depend on the application.

  2. Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide elevates circulating glucose in maternal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, L.J.; Goeden, H.; Roth, S.H. )

    1990-09-01

    Although the lethal effect of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) has long been known, the results of exposure to low levels of H{sub 2}S have not been well documented. Rat dams and pups were exposed to low levels of H{sub 2}S (less than or equal to 75 ppm) from d 1 of gestation until d 21 postpartum and analyzed for changes in circulating enzymatic activity and metabolites. Blood glucose was significantly elevated in maternal blood on d 21 postpartum at all exposure levels. This increase in glucose was accompanied by a possible decrease in serum triglyceride in the pups and in the dams on d 21 postpartum. There was no evidence of alterations in serum alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, or serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase.

  3. Elevated circulating somatostatin levels in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Arosio, M; Porretti, S; Epaminonda, P; Giavoli, C; Gebbia, C; Penati, C; Beck-Peccoz, P; Peracchi, M

    2003-06-01

    GH increases hypothalamic somatostatin (SS) synthesis and secretion but it is unknown if chronic GH excess, as found in acromegaly, may influence circulating SS levels, that are mainly of enteropancreatic source and affect several gastrointestinal functions, including motility. Circulating SS occurs in several post-translational forms including somatostatin-14 (SS-14), somatostatin-28 (SS-28) and other small peptides. The aim of the present study was to characterize the fasting and postprandial pattern of plasma circulating somatostatin in normal subjects and patients with acromegaly. Fasting total SS and SS-28 levels were measured in 32 subjects, 16 acromegalic patients with a new diagnosis (A) (8 F, 8 M, median age 48) and 16 matched healthy volunteers (C) (8 F, 8 M, median age 45). SS was also determined after a standard solid-liquid meal (550 kCal) in 24 of the subjects (12 C and 12 A). Fasting SS and SS-28 were significantly higher in acromegalic patients as compared to healthy subjects. In the former, a positive correlation was found between IGF-I and SS levels (r = 0.525 p < 0.05). Furthermore, the ratio between SS (as pmol equivalent SS-14/I) and SS-28 was higher in the acromegalic patients than in the controls (3.4 +/- 2.1 vs 2.0 +/- 1.6, p < 0.05). The postprandial SS peak, as well as the incremental area above baseline values, was similar in the patients and controls. In conclusion, fasting but not postprandial hypersomatostatinemia, mainly due to an increase in SS-14, characterizes acromegaly. Excess GH/IGF-I could be a causal factor in somatostatin hypersecretion. Conceivably this abnormality might play a role in some alterations of gastrointestinal function of acromegalic patients such as prolonged bowel transit.

  4. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype) and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype) modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively) in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics. Methods The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission. Results High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C (>80 mg/dl), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl) were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67–2.94] and 1.39 [0.99–1.96], respectively), and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28–0.49] and 0.51 [0.37–0.69], respectively). The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45–0.80]). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl) and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl). Conclusions The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast

  5. VIEW OF THE JACKING, ELEVATING, AND LEVELING SKID. Cape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE JACKING, ELEVATING, AND LEVELING SKID. - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Crawler Transporters, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. Dietary lipids do not contribute to the higher hepatic triglyceride levels of fructose- compared to glucose-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Patricia M; Wright, Alan J; Veltien, Andor; van Asten, Jack J A; Tack, Cees J; Jones, John G; Heerschap, Arend

    2014-05-01

    Fructose consumption has been associated with the surge in obesity and dyslipidemia. This may be mediated by the fructose effects on hepatic lipids and ATP levels. Fructose metabolism provides carbons for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and stimulates enterocyte secretion of apoB48. Thus, fructose-induced hepatic triglyceride (HTG) accumulation can be attributed to both DNL stimulation and dietary lipid absorption. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of fructose diet on HTG and ATP content and the contributions of dietary lipids and DNL to HTG. Measurements were performed in vivo in mice by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and novel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) approaches. Abdominal adipose tissue volume and intramyocellular lipid levels were comparable between 8-wk fructose- and glucose-fed mice. HTG levels were ∼1.5-fold higher in fructose-fed than in glucose-fed mice (P<0.05). Metabolic flux analysis by (13)C and (2)H MRS showed that this was not due to dietary lipid absorption, but due to DNL stimulation. The contribution of oral lipids to HTG was, after 5 h, 1.60 ± 0.23% for fructose and 2.16 ± 0.35% for glucose diets (P=0.26), whereas that of DNL was higher in fructose than in glucose diets (2.55±0.51 vs.1.13±0.24%, P=0.01). Hepatic energy status, assessed by (31)P MRS, was similar for fructose- and glucose-fed mice. Fructose-induced HTG accumulation is better explained by DNL and not by dietary lipid uptake, while not compromising ATP homeostasis.

  7. Associations between a common variant near the MC4R gene and serum triglyceride levels in an obese pediatric cohort.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ariana Ester; de Melo, Maria Edna; Fujiwara, Clarissa Tamie Hiwatashi; Pioltine, Marina Brosso; Matioli, Sergio Russo; Santos, Aritânia; Cercato, Cintia; Halpern, Alfredo; Mancini, Marcio C

    2015-08-01

    Polymorphisms near the MC4R gene may be related to an increased risk for obesity, but studies of variations in this gene and its relation to cardiometabolic profiles and food intake are scarce and controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the variants rs12970134 and rs17782313 near the MC4R gene in food intake, binge eating (BE) behavior, anthropometric parameters, body composition, metabolic profile, and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children and adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study that included obese children and adolescents. We evaluated anthropometric, metabolic parameters and cardiometabolic risk factors, including hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL-cholesterol. BE was assessed through the BE scale, and a 24-h recall was used to evaluate total caloric intake and percentage of macronutrients and types of dietary fat. The MC4R variants rs12970134 and rs17782313 were genotyped using TaqMan assay. To assess the magnitude of risk, a logistic regression adjusted for Z-BMI, age, and gender was performed, adopting the significance level of 0.05. The study included 518 subjects (52.1 % girls, 12.7 ± 2.7 years old, Z-BMI = 3.24 ± 0.57). Carriers of the variant rs17782313 exhibit increased triglyceride levels (108 ± 48 vs. 119 ± 54, p = 0.034) and an increased risk of hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.985, 95 % CI 1.288-3.057, p = 0.002). There was no association of the SNP rs12970134 with clinical, metabolic, or nutritional parameters. The variant rs12970134 and rs17782313 did not influence food intake or the presence of BE. The variant rs17782313 is associated with an increased risk of hypertriglyceridemia in obese children and adolescents. PMID:25948074

  8. THE INTAKE OF FIBER MESOCARP PASSIONFRUIT (PASSIFLORA EDULIS) LOWERS LEVELS OF TRIGLYCERIDE AND CHOLESTEROL DECREASING PRINCIPALLY INSULIN AND LEPTIN

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, E.M.; Medina, L.; Barros-Monteiro, J.; Valle, N.O.; Sales, R.; Magalães, A.; Souza, F.C.A.; Carvalho, T.B.; Lemos, J.R.; Lira, E.F.; Lima, E.S.; Galeno, D.M.L.; Morales, L.; Ortiz, C.; Carvalho, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand in folk medicine for natural sources that could help in the treatment of chronic diseases, including diabetes. The rind of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa) is traditionally used as a functional food due to its high concentration of soluble and insoluble fiber. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-fiber diet albedo of passion fruit on the metabolic and biochemical profile in diabetic rats induced by alloxan (2%). Design The passion fruit mesocarp fiber was dried in an oven with circulating air at 60°C and pulverized. We used 32 adult male rats, divided into 4 groups: Wistar group 1 control (GC), Wistar group 2, 15% fiber (GF15), Wistar group 3, 30% fiber (GF30), Wistar group 4, fiber disolved in water (GFH2O). The ratio of passion fruit was prepared according to the AIN 93M guidelines, varying only the source of dietary fiber. The corresponding diet for each group was offered to the animals for 60 days. Results There was a statically significant decrease in plasma glucose for GFH2O, GF15%, and GF30% groups with 27.0%, 37.4%, and 40.2%, respectively. Conclusion The use of mesocarp fiber of passion fruit at concentrations of 15% and 30% are an important dietary supplement for the treatment of DM due to its potential hypoglycemic effect, and its ability to reduce triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol levels with a principal reduction of insulin and leptin. PMID:25346913

  9. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  10. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    PubMed Central

    Langley, J. Adam; McKee, Karen L.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cherry, Julia A.; Megonigal, J. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas. PMID:19325121

  11. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  12. Relationship between serum levels of triglycerides and vascular inflammation, measured as COX-2, in arteries from diabetic patients: a translational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammation is a common feature in the majority of cardiovascular disease, including Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Levels of pro-inflammatory markers have been found in increasing levels in serum from diabetic patients (DP). Moreover, levels of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are increased in coronary arteries from DP. Methods Through a cross-sectional design, patients who underwent CABG were recruited. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were cultured and COX-2 was measured by western blot. Biochemical and clinical data were collected from the medical record and by blood testing. COX-2 expression was analyzed in internal mammary artery cross-sections by confocal microscopy. Eventually, PGI2 and PGE2 were assessed from VSMC conditioned media by ELISA. Results Only a high glucose concentration, but a physiological concentration of triglycerides exposure of cultured human VSMC derived from non-diabetic patients increased COX-2 expression .Diabetic patients showed increasing serum levels of glucose, Hb1ac and triglycerides. The bivariate analysis of the variables showed that triglycerides was positively correlated with the expression of COX-2 in internal mammary arteries from patients (r2 = 0.214, P < 0.04). Conclusions We conclude that is not the glucose blood levels but the triglicerydes leves what increases the expression of COX-2 in arteries from DP. PMID:23642086

  13. An APOC3 3'UTR variant associated with plasma triglycerides levels and coronary heart disease by creating a functional miR-4271 binding site.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sen-Lin; Cui, Guang-Lin; Huang, Jin; Jiang, Jian-Gang; Wang, Dao-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3) is a key regulator of plasma triglycerides levels. Increasing evidence has shown that loss-of-function mutations in APOC3 is associated with reduction in plasma triglycerides levels and will confer a benefit in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease. However, these favorable mutations were extremely distribution discrepant among different ethnics. In this study, the APOC3 gene was resequenced and we identified a common variant which located in the microRNA-binding site in APOC3 and would affect its expression and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The molecular mechanism was explored. We found that the T allele of rs4225 suppressed APOC3 translation by facilitating miR-4271 binding, but not the G allele. Subjects carrying the GG genotype had higher plasma APOC3 levels (p for trend = 0.03) than those with the TT genotype. Furthermore, the T allele was significantly associated with decreased triglyceride levels [Beta (SE): -0.024 (0.020), P = 0.03]. Finally, the case-control study suggested that the TT genotype resulted in a significant reduction in overall CHD risk [OR, 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.98), P = 0.009]. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that the rs4225 in the 3'-UTR of APOC3 might contribute to the risk of CHD by interfering with miR-4271 binding. PMID:27624799

  14. An APOC3 3′UTR variant associated with plasma triglycerides levels and coronary heart disease by creating a functional miR-4271 binding site

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sen-Lin; Cui, Guang-Lin; Huang, Jin; Jiang, Jian-Gang; Wang, Dao-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3) is a key regulator of plasma triglycerides levels. Increasing evidence has shown that loss-of-function mutations in APOC3 is associated with reduction in plasma triglycerides levels and will confer a benefit in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease. However, these favorable mutations were extremely distribution discrepant among different ethnics. In this study, the APOC3 gene was resequenced and we identified a common variant which located in the microRNA-binding site in APOC3 and would affect its expression and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The molecular mechanism was explored. We found that the T allele of rs4225 suppressed APOC3 translation by facilitating miR-4271 binding, but not the G allele. Subjects carrying the GG genotype had higher plasma APOC3 levels (p for trend = 0.03) than those with the TT genotype. Furthermore, the T allele was significantly associated with decreased triglyceride levels [Beta (SE): −0.024 (0.020), P = 0.03]. Finally, the case-control study suggested that the TT genotype resulted in a significant reduction in overall CHD risk [OR, 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.77–0.98), P = 0.009]. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that the rs4225 in the 3′-UTR of APOC3 might contribute to the risk of CHD by interfering with miR-4271 binding. PMID:27624799

  15. 56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators and detail of aluminum and glass connection to brick from east side of 1946/1948 store for homes and parking garage. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  16. Elevation view of east wall from fifteenth level, west platform. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of east wall from fifteenth level, west platform. Two hoisting supports are nested on the test stand structure in the background center and foreground right. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. Elevated atmospheric sulfur levels off the Peruvian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltzman, E. S.; Savoie, D. L.; Prospero, J. M.; Zika, R. G.; Mosher, B.

    1986-06-01

    Elevated levels of non-sea-salt sulfate and SO2 in samples collected off the west coast of South America indicate that there is a major source of atmospheric sulfur in the region of southern Peru and northern Chile. During a 1983 cruise, observed concentrations of non-sea-salt sulfur, SO2, selenium, arsenic, and antimony were comparable to levels reported for moderately polluted urban air. In contrast, methanesulfonic acid levels were typical of coastal marine air. Clearly, the elevated atmospheric sulfur levels in this region cannot be ascribed to oceanic organosulfur emissions. The major inputs are tentatively attributed to the smelting of sulfide ores which is a major industry in this region. The transport of smelter derived aerosols to this region may have a number of consequences for the atmospheric and oceanic chemistry of the Peruvian upwelling area.

  18. Triglycerides and atherogenic lipoproteins: rationale for lipid management.

    PubMed

    Krauss, R M

    1998-07-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical studies have demonstrated a relation between plasma triglyceride levels and risk of coronary artery disease and an amplification of risk with combined elevations of triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. In patients with coronary disease, angiographic progression and clinical events have been correlated with concentrations of smaller very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL), consistent with evidence for enhanced atherogenicity of lipolytic products of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism, including postprandial lipoproteins. IDL levels also have been shown to be strongly and independently predictive of progression of carotid artery intimal-medial thickness, a measure of early atherogenesis that is related to coronary disease risk. Although there is evidence that these triglyceride-rich lipoprotein species may have direct atherogenic effects, other lipoprotein changes associated with altered triglyceride metabolism may be of particular importance in the development of coronary artery disease. These include reductions in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and increases in small, dense LDL particles (LDL subclass pattern B). Because of the strong interrelations among elevated triglyceride, reduced HDL, and small dense LDL, it is difficult to use statistical techniques to determine the independent contributions of these traits to coronary disease risk. Based on their biologic properties, it is likely that each are involved in multiple steps of the disease process. Moreover, this cluster of lipoprotein changes is associated with other conditions that can promote vascular disease, including increases in coagulation factors and reduced insulin sensitivity. Analyses from intervention trials in patients with coronary disease have indicated that measurement of plasma triglyceride and LDL particle distributions can be of value in predicting the benefits of specific lipid-altering therapies

  19. Nitrogen dioxide induced changes in level of free fatty acids, triglyceride, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the guinea pig brain

    SciTech Connect

    Farahani, H.; Hasan, M. )

    1992-02-01

    The biochemical response to controlled inhalation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was studied in 18 male guinea pigs. Animals were exposed to 2.5, 5.0, and 10 ppm NO2 for 2h daily for 35 consecutive days, and the results compared with six control animals exposed to filtered air for 2h daily for same period. Five biochemical parameters, including triglyceride, free fatty acids, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity were measured immediately after the last day of exposure. At 2.5 ppm NO2 inhalation no significant changes occurred in any region of the central nervous system (CNS). While as the dose concentration was increased to 5 and 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, significant dose-related alteration were observed in the levels of triglyceride, free fatty acid, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the different regions of the guinea pig CNS.

  20. Association of Serum Cholesterol, Triglyceride, High and Low Density Lipoprotein (HDL and LDL) Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Subjects with Risk for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD): A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sandi, R.M.; Pol, K.G.; Basavaraj, P.; Khuller, Nitin; Singh, Shilpi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high and low density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL) levels (serum lipid profile) in subjects with chronic periodontitis and the possible association for risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Materials and Methods: Total of 80 participants (42 males and 38 females) who were in the age range of 30-65 years were divided into test group (group I- 40 subjects with chronic periodontitis) and control group (group II- 40 subjects with healthy periodontium), based on their periodontal disease statuses. Three ml of venous blood samples were taken for measurement of parameters of lipid metabolism [serum cholesterol (chol); triglycerides (Tg); HDL and LDL. Results: Significant increase in serum cholesterol and LDL (P<0.05) were observed in test group (group I), whereas serum triglycerides and HDL (P>0.66) showed no significant increase in test group (group I) as compared to their values in the control group (group II). A P-value of < 0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Conclusions: Subjects with chronic periodontitis showed increased serum cholesterol and LDL levels. This may suggest that these subjects are potentially at a risk of getting CVD. PMID:24596778

  1. Differential Benefit of Statin in Secondary Prevention of Acute Myocardial Infarction according to the Level of Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Cheol Hwan; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Wan; Kim, Jong Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The differential benefit of statin according to the state of dyslipidemia has been sparsely investigated. We sought to address the efficacy of statin in secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) according to the level of triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on admission. Subjects and Methods Acute MI patients (24653) were enrolled and the total patients were divided according to level of triglyceride and HDL-C on admission: group A (HDL-C≥40 mg/dL and triglyceride<150 mg/dL; n=11819), group B (HDL-C≥40 mg/dL and triglyceride≥150 mg/dL; n=3329), group C (HDL-C<40 mg/dL and triglyceride<150 mg/dL; n=6062), and group D (HDL-C<40 mg/dL & triglyceride≥150 mg/dL; n=3443). We evaluated the differential efficacy of statin according to the presence or absence of component of dyslipidemia. The primary end points were major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for 2 years. Results Statin therapy significantly reduced the risk of MACE in group A (hazard ratio=0.676; 95% confidence interval: 0.582-0.785; p<0.001). However, the efficacy of statin was not prominent in groups B, C, or D. In a propensity-matched population, the result was similar. In particular, the benefit of statin in group A was different compared with group D (interaction p=0.042) Conclusion The benefit of statin in patients with MI was different according to the presence or absence of dyslipidemia. In particular, because of the insufficient benefit of statin in patients with MI and dyslipidemia, a different lipid-lowering strategy is necessary in these patients. PMID:27275169

  2. A VOYAGER Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Statin Therapy on Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels in Patients With Hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Karlson, Björn W; Palmer, Michael K; Nicholls, Stephen J; Lundman, Pia; Barter, Philip J

    2016-05-01

    Elevated triglyceride (TG) levels are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. In patients with mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia, defined by the European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel as a TG level of 177 to 885 mg/dl (2.0 to 10.0 mmol/L), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction remains the primary treatment goal. Using data from the indiVidual patient meta-analysis Of statin therapY in At risk Groups: Effects of Rosuvastatin, atorvastatin and simvastatin (VOYAGER) meta-analysis, we analyzed LDL-C and TG reductions in patients with baseline TG ≥177 mg/dl (≥2.0 mmol/L). Least squares mean percentage change from baseline in LDL-C and TG was compared using 15,800 patient exposures to rosuvastatin 5 to 40 mg, atorvastatin 10 to 80 mg, and simvastatin 10 to 80 mg in patients with baseline TG ≥177 mg/dl (≥2.0 mmol/L). Comparisons were made using mixed-effects models with data only from studies directly comparing treatments by randomized design. Mean LDL-C reductions ranged from -26.9% to -55.5%. Rosuvastatin 10 to 40 mg resulted in significantly greater LDL-C reductions than equal or double doses of atorvastatin and simvastatin (p <0.05). Mean TG reductions ranged from -15.1% to -31.3%. Rosuvastatin 10 mg resulted in significantly greater TG reductions than atorvastatin 10 mg (p <0.05). Rosuvastatin 20 and 40 mg resulted in TG reductions similar to those with equal doses of atorvastatin. Rosuvastatin 10 to 40 mg resulted in significantly greater TG reductions than equal or double doses of simvastatin (p <0.05). In conclusion, in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, LDL-C reduction was substantial and dependent on the choice and dose of statin. TG reduction was numerically less than for LDL-C, and additional TG-lowering therapy may be considered to further reduce residual cardiovascular risk.

  3. 48. MAIN WAREHOUSE THIRD LEVEL Elevator drive mechanism is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. MAIN WAREHOUSE - THIRD LEVEL Elevator drive mechanism is seen to the right, while drive wheels, belt wheels and chain drives are visible in the wooden wall framing. The horizontal metal conveyor (at the top of the wall Just under the inverted 'V' brace) is part of the empty can supply system connected to the external can conveyor. See Photo No. 28. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  4. 9. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS OF THE MILL CAN BE CLEARLY SEEN HERE. THE UPPER MOST LEVEL CONSISTS OF A CONVEORY THAT BROUGHT ORE TO A JAW CRUSHER. THE CRUSHED ORE WAS CHANNELED DIRECTLY INTO A LARGE ORE BIN LOCATED BEHIND THE COVERED WALL (CENTER). THE NEXT LEVEL SHOWS THE BULL (DRIVE) WHEEL ON THE UPPER PART OF THE STAMP BATTERIES. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (STAIRS) IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE STAMP BATTERIES WITH THE MORTAR BLOCKS AND APRONS. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (LOWER RIGHT) HELD CONCENTRATION (SHAKING) TABLES AND A CLASSIFIER. MOST EXTERIOR WALL COVERING, TIMBERS, AND ROOF IS MISSING FROM THE MILL. SEE CA-290-42 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. 42. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS OF THE MILL CAN BE CLEARLY SEEN HERE. THE UPPER MOST LEVEL CONSISTS OF A CONVEORY THAT BROUGHT ORE TO A JAW CRUSHER. THE CRUSHED ORE WAS CHANNELED DIRECTLY INTO A LARGE ORE BIN LOCATED BEHIND THE COVERED WALL (CENTER). THE NEXT LEVEL SHOWS THE BULL (DRIVE) WHEEL ON THE UPPER PART OF THE STAMP BATTERIES THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (STAIRS) IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE STAMP BATTERIES WITH MORTAR BLOCKS AND APRONS. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (LOWER RIGHT) HELD CONCENTRATION (SHAKING) TABLES AND A CLASSIFIER. MOST EXTERIOR WALL COVERING, TIMBERS, AND ROOF IS MISSING FROM THE MILL. SEE CA-290-9 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. Treatment with PPARα Agonist Clofibrate Inhibits the Transcription and Activation of SREBPs and Reduces Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Liver of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijun; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Shenghua; Shangguan, Mingjun; Xue, Lina; Zhang, Bianying; Ding, Fuxiang; Hui, Dequan; Liang, Aihua; He, Dongchang

    2015-01-01

    PPARα agonist clofibrate reduces cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in rodent liver by an inhibition of SREBP-dependent gene expression. In present study we investigated the regulation mechanisms of the triglyceride- and cholesterol-lowering effect of the PPARα agonist clofibrate in broiler chickens. We observed that PPARα agonist clofibrate decreases the mRNA and protein levels of LXRα and the mRNA and both precursor and nuclear protein levels of SREBP1 and SREBP2 as well as the mRNA levels of the SREBP1 (FASN and GPAM) and SREBP2 (HMGCR and LDLR) target genes in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group, whereas the mRNA level of INSIG2, which inhibits SREBP activation, was increased in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group. Taken together, the effects of PPARα agonist clofibrate on lipid metabolism in liver of broiler chickens involve inhibiting transcription and activation of SREBPs and SREBP-dependent lipogenic and cholesterologenic gene expression, thereby resulting in a reduction of the triglyceride and cholesterol levels in liver of broiler chickens. PMID:26693219

  7. Elevated levels of serum creatinine: recommendations for management and referral

    PubMed Central

    Mendelssohn, D C; Barrett, B J; Brownscombe, L M; Ethier, J; Greenberg, D E; Kanani, S D; Levin, A; Toffelmire, E B

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential benefits of earlier referral to a nephrologist of patients with elevated levels of serum creatinine include identifying and treating reversible causes of renal failure, slowing the rate of decline associated with progressive renal insufficiency, managing the coexisting conditions associated with chronic renal failure and facilitating efficient entry into dialysis programs for all patients who might benefit. METHODS: A subcommittee of the Canadian Society of Nephrology, which included representatives from family practice and internal medicine, conducted a MEDLINE search for the period 1966 to 1998 using the key words referral and consultation, dialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal replacement therapy and kidney diseases. Where published evidence was lacking, conclusions were reached by consensus. GUIDELINES: Earlier referral to nephrologists of patients with elevated creatinine levels is expected to lead to better health care outcomes and lower costs for both the patients and the health care system. All patients with newly discovered renal insufficiency (as evidenced by serum creatinine elevated to a level above the upper limit of the normal range of that laboratory, adjusted for age and height in children) must undergo investigations to determine the potential reversibility of disease, to evaluate the prognosis and to optimize planning of care. All patients with an established, progressive increase in serum creatinine level should be followed with a nephrologist. Adequate preparation for dialysis or transplantation (or both) requires at least 12 months of relatively frequent contact with a renal care team. Nephrologists should provide consultation in a timely manner for any patient with an elevated serum creatinine level. In addition, they should provide advice about what aspects of the condition require particularly urgent or emergency assessment. SPONSORS: This clinical practice guideline has been endorsed by the Canadian

  8. [Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ken-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    Cholesterol is a vital causal factor and focus of research into heart diseases, however the involvement of triglycerides remains unclear. We recently reported a patient suffering from severe congestive heart failure and needing cardiac transplantation. Massive accumulation of triglycerides was noted in coronary atherosclerotic lesions as well as in the myocardium. We named this phenotype"triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV)". The patient was identified as homozygous for a genetic mutation in the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), an essential molecule for hydrolysis of intracellular triglycerides. In this paper, we describe clinical characteristics of ATGL deficiency and discuss what we can learn from this disorder.

  9. Elevated systolic pressure following chronic low-level cadmiun feeding.

    PubMed

    Perry, H M; Erlanger, M; Perry, E F

    1977-02-01

    Groups of 16 female Long-Evans rats received 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg cadmium/liter dringking water (parts per million (ppm)), from the time they were weaned until they were 30 mo old. Systolic pressure was measured indirectly in triplicate at 6-mo intervals. Both 2.5 and 5 ppm cadmium consistently induced significant elevations in mean systolic pressure, ranging from 13 to 33 mmHg. At 6 mo, 10 and 25 ppm cadmium also induced significant elevations, whereas at 12 mo and subsequently 1 ppm cadmium induced significant elevations. With 10 ppm cadmium or less weight gain was normal and there was no evidence of cadmium toxicity. With 25 and 50 ppm cadmium weight gain was diminished, suggesting toxicity. Five rats with each level of exposure were sacrificed every 6 mo from a second population of similarly handled rats in order to determine renal cadmium concetrations. Cadmium intakes that had induced hypertension were associated with mean renal cadmium concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 mug/g kidney.

  10. Treating elevated cholesterol levels: the great Satan in perspective.

    PubMed

    Gibaldi, M; Kradjan, W

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide perspective on the developments leading to the recognition of high cholesterol levels as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Another objective is to consider the unfolding controversies regarding the relative value of cholesterol-lowering drug therapy in primary and secondary prevention. Should physicians use lipid-lowering drugs to treat patients with elevated cholesterol levels but no clinical evidence of coronary disease, or limit intervention to patients with a previous history of angina, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass surgery, or myocardial infarction? This review finds inadequate data to support a recommendation for screening large populations for the presence of elevated cholesterol levels or for primary prevention in those known to have high cholesterol. On the other hand, there is mounting evidence to support vigorous intervention in those with known coronary disease. Further study is needed to determine whether a subset of patients with one or more well-defined risk factors would benefit from primary prevention.

  11. Treating elevated cholesterol levels: the great Satan in perspective.

    PubMed

    Gibaldi, M; Kradjan, W

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide perspective on the developments leading to the recognition of high cholesterol levels as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Another objective is to consider the unfolding controversies regarding the relative value of cholesterol-lowering drug therapy in primary and secondary prevention. Should physicians use lipid-lowering drugs to treat patients with elevated cholesterol levels but no clinical evidence of coronary disease, or limit intervention to patients with a previous history of angina, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass surgery, or myocardial infarction? This review finds inadequate data to support a recommendation for screening large populations for the presence of elevated cholesterol levels or for primary prevention in those known to have high cholesterol. On the other hand, there is mounting evidence to support vigorous intervention in those with known coronary disease. Further study is needed to determine whether a subset of patients with one or more well-defined risk factors would benefit from primary prevention. PMID:8690811

  12. Effects of Elevated Radon Levels on Kanne Tritium Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, W.E.

    2003-11-24

    The Savannah River Site has used Kanne ionization chambers since the late 1950's to monitor for airborne tritium in reactor facilities. Two Kanne monitors indicated elevated airborne tritium levels while monitoring a non-ventilated room used to store tritiated liquid moderator. Subsequent air sample analysis failed to reveal the presence of airborne tritium. It was suspected that elevated radon levels caused the Kanne monitors to falsely indicate tritium activity. Two commercially available monitoring systems were used to quantify radon levels in the storage room. Measurements performed during this evaluation found that radon caused the Kanne monitors in the storage room to falsely indicate the presence of airborne tritium. A side-by-side comparison of a filtered versus an unfiltered Kanne monitor found that a high efficiency particulate filter reduced monitor response to near background under high radon conditions. It was recommended that a high efficiency filter be installed on the dedicated storage room Kanne monitor and that the room be de-posted as an Airborne Radioactivity Area. It was also found that the Kanne monitors would detect a spill from a single drum of moderator within minutes and the dose rate due to tritium exposure at 20 hours following this spill would be 4.56 rem/hour.

  13. Testosterone substitution normalizes elevated serum leptin levels in hypogonadal men.

    PubMed

    Jockenhövel, F; Blum, W F; Vogel, E; Englaro, P; Müller-Wieland, D; Reinwein, D; Rascher, W; Krone, W

    1997-08-01

    The ob gene product leptin (OB) is a feedback signal from the adipocyte to the hypothalamus and is involved in regulation of food intake and energy expenditure in rodents. A major determinant of serum OB levels is fat mass. Several studies suggest that men have lower OB levels than women even after adjustment for percent body fat. We, therefore, investigated the influence of testosterone (T) substitution in hypogonadal men on serum OB levels. Hypogonadal men with T levels of 3.6 nmol/L or less and off substitution therapy for at least 3 months were assigned to two treatment groups: testosterone enanthate (TE; 250 mg, i.m., every 21 days; n = 10) or a single s.c. implantation of 1200 mg crystalline T (TPEL; n = 12). Blood samples for determination of T, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), sex hormone-binding globulin, and 17 beta-estradiol were obtained before therapy and then every 21 days until day 189 and at follow-up visits on days 246 and 300. Serum OB levels were assessed on days 0, 42, 84, 126, 168, and 300. OB levels were referred to a normal range for men based on the analysis of OB levels in 393 adult men. Substitution with T led to a large rise in T and DHT in both groups compared to baseline values (average T, days 21-189: TE, 14.33 +/- 2.63 nmol/L; TPEL, 24.98 +/- 1.64; average DHT, days 21-189: TE, 4.20 +/- 0.57 nmol/L; TPEL, 5.11 +/- 0.56; P < or = 0.05). Concomitantly, 17 beta-estradiol increased in both groups, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were significantly decreased. At baseline, serum OB levels in hypogonadal men were 3-fold elevated compared to those in normal men (12.39 +/- 2.93 micrograms/L vs. 4.28 +/- 0.52; P < 0.01) and not different between groups (TE, 13.7 +/- 5.6; TPEL, 11.3 +/- 2.9 micrograms/L). This elevation was retained after adjustment for body mass index in the normal control group [TE, 1.45 +/- 0.51 SD score (P < 0.0001); TPEL, 0.98 +/- 0.35 SD score (P < 0.0008)]. During T substitution serum OB was completely

  14. Elevated systemic galectin-1 levels characterize HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Annegret; Blois, Sandra M; Meint, Peter; Freitag, Nancy; Ernst, Wolfgang; Barrientos, Gabriela; Conrad, Melanie L; Rose, Matthias; Seelbach-Göbel, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    Galectin-1 (gal-1), a member of a family of conserved β-galactoside-binding proteins, has been shown to exert a key role during gestation. Though gal-1 is expressed at higher levels in the placenta from HELLP patients, it is still poorly understood whether systemic gal-1 levels also differ in HELLP patients. In the present study, we evaluated the systemic expression of gal-1, together with the angiogenic factors, placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) in conjunction with HELLP syndrome severity. Systemic levels of gal-1 and sFlt-1 were elevated in patients with both early- and late-onset HELLP syndrome as compared to healthy controls. In contrast, peripheral PlGF levels were decreased in early- and late-onset HELLP. A positive correlation between systemic gal-1 levels and sFlt-1/PlGF ratios was found in early onset HELLP patients. Our results show that HELLP syndrome is associated with increased circulating levels of gal-1; integrating systemic gal-1 measurements into the diagnostic analyses of pregnant women may provide more effective prediction of HELLP syndrome development.

  15. Elevated blood lead levels from exposure via a radiator workshop.

    PubMed

    Treble, R G; Thompson, T S; Morton, D N

    1998-04-01

    Elevated lead levels were discovered in blood samples collected from family members where both the father and the mother worked in a radiator repair workshop. The father and mother were found to have blood lead levels of 2.0 and 0.5 mumol/L (41.7 and 10.4 micrograms/dL), respectively. The father's blood lead level was just below the Canadian occupational health and safety intervention level (2.5 mumol/L or 52.1 micrograms/dL). The two children had blood lead levels of 1.0 and 0.8 mumol/L (20.8 and 16.7 micrograms/dL), both of which are in excess of the recommended guideline for intervention in the case of children (0.5 mumol/L or 10.4 micrograms/dL). The exposure of the two children was possibly due to a combination of pathways including exposure at the workshop itself during visits and also the transportation of lead-containing dust to the home environment.

  16. Elevated serum levels of Chromogranin A in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the past three decades, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States has tripled. The neuroendocrine character has been observed in some tumor cells within some hepatocellular carcinoma nodules and elevated serum chromogranin A also been reported in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of serum concentration of chromogranin A in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at different stages. Methods The study population consisted of 96 patients (63 males and 33 females age range 52-84) at their first hospital admission for hepatocellular carcinoma. The control group consisted of 35 volunteers (20 males and 15 females age range 50-80). The hepatocellular carcinoma patients were stratified according the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer classification. Venous blood samples were collected before treatment from each patients before surgery, centrifuged to obtain serum samples and stored at -80° C until assayed. Results The chromogranin A serum levels were elevated (> 100 ng/ml) in 72/96 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The serum levels of chromogranin A were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with alpha-fetoprotein. In comparison with controls, the hepatocellular carcinoma patients showed a significant increase (p<0.001) vs controls. The chromogranin A levels in the Barcelona staging of hepatocellular carcinoma was higher in stage D compared to stage C (p<0.01), to stage B (p<0.001), and to stage A (p<0.001). Conclusions Molecular markers, such as chromogranin A, could be very useful tools for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. However the molecular classification should be incorporated into a staging scheme, which effectively separated patients into groups with homogeneous prognosis and response to treatment, and thus serves to aid in the selection of appropriate therapy. PMID:23173843

  17. Nitro-Oleic Acid Reduces J774A.1 Macrophage Oxidative Status and Triglyceride Mass: Involvement of Paraoxonase2 and Triglyceride Metabolizing Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Rosenblat, Mira; Rom, Oren; Volkova, Nina; Aviram, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Nitro-fatty acids possess anti-atherogenic properties, but their effects on macrophage oxidative status and lipid metabolism that play important roles in atherosclerosis development are unclear. This study compared the effects of nitro-oleic acid (OLA-NO2) with those of native oleic acid (OLA) on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, anti-oxidants and metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol in J774A.1 macrophages. Upon incubating the cells with physiological concentrations of OLA-NO2 (0-1 µM) or with equivalent levels of OLA, ROS levels measured by 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, decreased dose-dependently, but the anti-oxidative effects of OLA-NO2 were significantly augmented. Copper ion addition increased ROS generation in OLA treated macrophages without affecting OLA-NO2 treated cells. These effects could be attributed to elevated glutathione levels and to increased activity and expression of paraoxonase2 that were observed in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated cells. Beneficial effects on triglyceride metabolism were noted in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated macrophages in which cellular triglycerides were reduced due to attenuated biosynthesis and accelerated hydrolysis of triglycerides. Accordingly, OLA-NO2 treated cells demonstrated down-regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1, the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis, and increased expression of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase that regulate triglyceride hydrolysis. Finally, OLA-NO2 vs OLA treatment resulted in modest but significant beneficial effects on macrophage cholesterol metabolism, reducing cholesterol biosynthesis rate and low density lipoprotein influx into the cells, while increasing high density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux from the macrophages. Collectively, compared with OLA, OLA-NO2 modestly but significantly reduces macrophage oxidative status and cellular triglyceride content via modulation of cellular anti-oxidants and triglyceride

  18. Nitro-Oleic Acid Reduces J774A.1 Macrophage Oxidative Status and Triglyceride Mass: Involvement of Paraoxonase2 and Triglyceride Metabolizing Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Rosenblat, Mira; Rom, Oren; Volkova, Nina; Aviram, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Nitro-fatty acids possess anti-atherogenic properties, but their effects on macrophage oxidative status and lipid metabolism that play important roles in atherosclerosis development are unclear. This study compared the effects of nitro-oleic acid (OLA-NO2) with those of native oleic acid (OLA) on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, anti-oxidants and metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol in J774A.1 macrophages. Upon incubating the cells with physiological concentrations of OLA-NO2 (0-1 µM) or with equivalent levels of OLA, ROS levels measured by 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, decreased dose-dependently, but the anti-oxidative effects of OLA-NO2 were significantly augmented. Copper ion addition increased ROS generation in OLA treated macrophages without affecting OLA-NO2 treated cells. These effects could be attributed to elevated glutathione levels and to increased activity and expression of paraoxonase2 that were observed in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated cells. Beneficial effects on triglyceride metabolism were noted in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated macrophages in which cellular triglycerides were reduced due to attenuated biosynthesis and accelerated hydrolysis of triglycerides. Accordingly, OLA-NO2 treated cells demonstrated down-regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1, the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis, and increased expression of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase that regulate triglyceride hydrolysis. Finally, OLA-NO2 vs OLA treatment resulted in modest but significant beneficial effects on macrophage cholesterol metabolism, reducing cholesterol biosynthesis rate and low density lipoprotein influx into the cells, while increasing high density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux from the macrophages. Collectively, compared with OLA, OLA-NO2 modestly but significantly reduces macrophage oxidative status and cellular triglyceride content via modulation of cellular anti-oxidants and triglyceride

  19. Two teenage males with hypocalcemia and elevated parathyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Ashley H; Bremer, Andrew A

    2012-04-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is not a rare disorder, particularly in minority groups. The Institute of Medicine recommends serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (OH)D levels >20 ng/mL and The Endocrine Society recommends levels >30 ng/mL for good health. In contrast, the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reported average total 25-(OH)D concentrations of 25.6 ± 0.4 ng/mL in whites, 19.5 ± 0.5 ng/mL in Mexican Americans, and 14.8 ± 0.4 ng/mL in blacks. Pediatric patients with vitamin D deficiency may be asymptomatic or may present either with rickets, hypocalcemia, or seizures. Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a rare disorder characterized by parathyroid hormone (PTH) resistance with (type 1a) or without (type 1b) the Albright Hereditary Os-teodystrophy (AHO) phenotype of short stature, brachydactyly, and mental retardation. Patients with PHP have elevated PTH levels and may have hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia. However, the same laboratory values can be seen in children with vitamin D deficiency, and diagnostic confusion is common. We report two cases of vitamin D deficiency with presentations suggestive of PHP.

  20. Enzymes involved in triglyceride hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Taskinen, M R; Kuusi, T

    1987-08-01

    The lipolytic enzymes LPL and HL play important roles in the metabolism of lipoproteins and participate in lipoprotein interconversions. LPL was originally recognized to be the key enzyme in the hydrolysis of chylomicrons and triglyceride, but it also turned out to be one determinant of HDL concentration in plasma. When LPL activity is high, chylomicrons and VLDL are rapidly removed from circulation and a concomitant rise of the HDL2 occurs. In contrast, low LPL activity impedes the removal of triglyceride-rich particles, resulting in the elevation of serum triglycerides and a decrease of HDL (HDL2). Concordant changes of this kind in LPL and HDL2 are induced by many physiological and pathological perturbations. Finally, the operation of LPL is also essential for the conversion of VLDL to LDL. This apparently clear-cut role of LPL in lipoprotein interconversions is contrasted with the enigmatic actions of HL. The enzyme was originally thought to participate in the catalyses of chylomicron and VLDL remnants generated in the LPL reaction. However, substantial in vitro and in vivo data indicate that HL is a key enzyme in the degradation of plasma HDL (HDL2) in a manner which opposes LPL. A scheme is presented for the complementary actions of the two enzymes in plasma HDL metabolism. In addition, recent studies have attributed a role to HL in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, particularly those containing apo E. However, this function becomes clinically important only under conditions where the capacity of the LPL-mediated removal system is exceeded. Such a situation may arise when the input of triglyceride-rich particles (chylomicrons and/or VLDL) is excessive or LPL activity is decreased or absent.

  1. Improvement of Triglyceride Levels through the Intake of Enriched-β-Conglycinin Soybean (Nanahomare) Revealed in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Yuji; Satoh, Hiroki; Takahashi, Yoko; Hajika, Makita; Nishihira, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is recognized as a beneficial food with various functional components, such as β-conglycinin, which improves lipid metabolism. We evaluated the effects of the β-conglycinin-rich soybean Nanahomare on triglyceride (TG) levels. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we divided 134 adult subjects into test and placebo groups that consumed processed food containing enriched-β-conglycinin soybean or low-β-conglycinin soybean. Hematological tests and body composition measurements were performed at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, and 12 of the study period. TG levels significantly decreased in the test group compared with the placebo group at weeks 4 (change from baseline to week 4, placebo: 0.27 ± 44.13 mg/dL, test: -20.31 ± 43.74 mg/dL, p = 0.035) and 12 (change from baseline to week 12, placebo: -0.14 ± 65.83 mg/dL, test: -21.30 ± 46.21 mg/dL, p = 0.041). In addition, among subjects whose baseline TG levels were ≥100 mg/dL, the levels significantly improved in the test group at weeks 4 (p = 0.010) and 12 (p = 0.030), whereas the levels were not different between the test and placebo groups among those whose baseline levels were <100 mg/dL. These results suggest that the ingestion of enriched-β-conglycinin soybean improves serum TG levels. PMID:27529274

  2. Confirmation of elevated arsenic levels in groundwater of Myanmar.

    PubMed

    van Geen, Alexander; Win, Kyi Htut; Zaw, Than; Naing, Win; Mey, Jacob L; Mailloux, Brian

    2014-04-15

    Millions of villagers across South and Southeast Asia are exposed to toxic levels of arsenic (As) by drinking well water. In order to confirm the field-kit results that Myanmar is also affected, a total of 55 wells were tested in the field in January 2013 and sampled for laboratory analysis across seven villages spanning a range of As contamination in the lower Ayeyarwady basin. Elevated concentrations of As (50-630 μg/L) were measured in wells up to 60 m deep and associated with high levels of Fe (up to 21 mg/L) and low concentrations of SO4 (<0.05 mg/L). Concentrations of As <10 μg/L were measured in some shallow (<30 m) grey sands and in both shallow and deep orange sands. These results indicate that the main mechanism of As release to groundwater in Myanmar is the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides, as in the neighboring Bengal, Mekong, and Red River basins. Concentrations of As in groundwater of Myanmar are therefore unlikely to change rapidly over time and switching to existing low-As wells is a viable way of reducing exposure in the short term. However, only 17 of the 55 well owners interviewed correctly recalled the status of their well despite extensive testing in the region. A renewed effort is thus needed to test existing wells and new wells that continue to be installed and to communicate the health risks of exposure to As for infants, children, and adults.

  3. Cholesterol, oxysterol, triglyceride, and coenzyme Q homeostasis in ALS. Evidence against the hypothesis that elevated 27-hydroxycholesterol is a pathogenic factor.

    PubMed

    Wuolikainen, Anna; Acimovic, Jure; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Parini, Paolo; Andersen, Peter M; Björkhem, Ingemar

    2014-01-01

    High plasma levels of cholesterol have been suggested to be neuroprotective for the degenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to be associated with increased survival time. The gene encoding cholesterol 27-hydroxylase, CYP27A1, was recently identified as a susceptibility gene for sporadic ALS. A product of this enzyme is 27-hydroxycholesterol. We investigated plasma samples from 52 ALS patients and 40 control subjects (spouses) regarding cholesterol homeostasis, lipid profiles, and coenzyme Q. Eleven of the patients carried mutations in C9orf72 and seven in SOD1. Plasma levels of 27-hydroxycholesterol were significantly lower in male patients with ALS than in controls. It was not possible to link the reduced levels to any specific mutation, and there was no significant correlation between 27-hydroxycholesterol and survival. With normalization for diet using the spouses, a correlation was found between survival and total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and coenzyme Q. We conclude that cholesterol, 24S-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, 27-hydroxycholesterol and lipid profiles in plasma are of limited prognostic value in individual ALS patients. PMID:25415378

  4. Elevated levels of procoagulant plasma microvesicles in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Burton, James O; Hamali, Hassan A; Singh, Ruchir; Abbasian, Nima; Parsons, Ruth; Patel, Amit K; Goodall, Alison H; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs) are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD), 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144(+ ve)) and PMVs (CD42b(+ ve)) were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p<0.05). MVs from HD and PD patients were able to generate more thrombin than the controls, with higher peak thrombin, and endogenous thrombin potential levels (p<0.02). However there were no differences in either the relative quantity or activity of MVs between the two patient groups (p>0.3). Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients. PMID:23936542

  5. Elevated Levels of Procoagulant Plasma Microvesicles in Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Burton, James O.; Hamali, Hassan A.; Singh, Ruchir; Abbasian, Nima; Parsons, Ruth; Patel, Amit K.; Goodall, Alison H.; Brunskill, Nigel J.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs) are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD), 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144+ ve) and PMVs (CD42b+ ve) were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p<0.05). MVs from HD and PD patients were able to generate more thrombin than the controls, with higher peak thrombin, and endogenous thrombin potential levels (p<0.02). However there were no differences in either the relative quantity or activity of MVs between the two patient groups (p>0.3). Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients. PMID:23936542

  6. Confirmation of elevated arsenic levels in groundwater of Myanmar.

    PubMed

    van Geen, Alexander; Win, Kyi Htut; Zaw, Than; Naing, Win; Mey, Jacob L; Mailloux, Brian

    2014-04-15

    Millions of villagers across South and Southeast Asia are exposed to toxic levels of arsenic (As) by drinking well water. In order to confirm the field-kit results that Myanmar is also affected, a total of 55 wells were tested in the field in January 2013 and sampled for laboratory analysis across seven villages spanning a range of As contamination in the lower Ayeyarwady basin. Elevated concentrations of As (50-630 μg/L) were measured in wells up to 60 m deep and associated with high levels of Fe (up to 21 mg/L) and low concentrations of SO4 (<0.05 mg/L). Concentrations of As <10 μg/L were measured in some shallow (<30 m) grey sands and in both shallow and deep orange sands. These results indicate that the main mechanism of As release to groundwater in Myanmar is the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides, as in the neighboring Bengal, Mekong, and Red River basins. Concentrations of As in groundwater of Myanmar are therefore unlikely to change rapidly over time and switching to existing low-As wells is a viable way of reducing exposure in the short term. However, only 17 of the 55 well owners interviewed correctly recalled the status of their well despite extensive testing in the region. A renewed effort is thus needed to test existing wells and new wells that continue to be installed and to communicate the health risks of exposure to As for infants, children, and adults. PMID:24530581

  7. Triglyceride-increasing alleles associated with protection against type-2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are an established risk factor for type-2 diabetes (T2D). However, recent studies have hinted at the possibility that genetic risk for TG may paradoxically protect against T2D. In this study, we examined the association of genetic risk for TG with incident T2...

  8. Fenofibrate Effect on Triglyceride and Postprandial Response of Apolipoprotein A5 Variants: The GOLDN Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (hypertriglyceridemia), one of the characteristic features of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS), have been recognized as an independent risk factor of coronary heart disease (CHD). Lowering TG concentration by dietary or drug intervention reduces CHD risk. Fenofibr...

  9. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 is upregulated in epicardial fat from type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and correlates with glucose and triglyceride plasma levels.

    PubMed

    Nasarre, L; Juan-Babot, O; Gastelurrutia, P; Llucia-Valldeperas, A; Badimon, L; Bayes-Genis, A; Llorente-Cortés, V

    2014-02-01

    Lipoprotein receptor expression plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of adipose tissue in in vivo models of diabetes. However, there are no studies in diabetic patients. The aims of this study were to analyze (a) low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) expression in epicardial and subcutaneous fat from type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with nondiabetic patients and (b) the possible correlation between the expression of these receptors and plasmatic parameters. Adipose tissue biopsy samples were obtained from diabetic (n = 54) and nondiabetic patients (n = 22) undergoing cardiac surgery before the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass. Adipose LRP1 and VLDLR expression was analyzed at mRNA level by real-time PCR and at protein level by Western blot analysis. Adipose samples were also subjected to lipid extraction, and fat cholesterol ester, triglyceride, and free cholesterol contents were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. LRP1 expression was higher in epicardial fat from diabetic compared with nondiabetic patients (mRNA 17.63 ± 11.37 versus 7.01 ± 4.86; P = 0.02; protein 11.23 ± 7.23 versus 6.75 ± 5.02, P = 0.04). VLDLR expression was also higher in epicardial fat from diabetic patients but only at mRNA level (231.25 ± 207.57 versus 56.64 ± 45.64, P = 0.02). No differences were found in the expression of LRP1 or VLDLR in the subcutaneous fat from diabetic compared with nondiabetic patients. Epicardial LRP1 and VLDLR mRNA overexpression positively correlated with plasma triglyceride levels (R(2) = 0.50, P = 0.01 and R(2) = 0.44, P = 0.03, respectively) and epicardial LRP1 also correlated with plasma glucose levels (R(2) = 0.33, P = 0.03). These results suggest that epicardial overexpression of certain lipoprotein receptors such as LRP1 and VLDLR expression may play a key role in the alterations of lipid metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Improvement of Triglyceride Levels through the Intake of Enriched-β-Conglycinin Soybean (Nanahomare) Revealed in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Yuji; Satoh, Hiroki; Takahashi, Yoko; Hajika, Makita; Nishihira, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is recognized as a beneficial food with various functional components, such as β-conglycinin, which improves lipid metabolism. We evaluated the effects of the β-conglycinin-rich soybean Nanahomare on triglyceride (TG) levels. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we divided 134 adult subjects into test and placebo groups that consumed processed food containing enriched-β-conglycinin soybean or low-β-conglycinin soybean. Hematological tests and body composition measurements were performed at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, and 12 of the study period. TG levels significantly decreased in the test group compared with the placebo group at weeks 4 (change from baseline to week 4, placebo: 0.27 ± 44.13 mg/dL, test: −20.31 ± 43.74 mg/dL, p = 0.035) and 12 (change from baseline to week 12, placebo: −0.14 ± 65.83 mg/dL, test: −21.30 ± 46.21 mg/dL, p = 0.041). In addition, among subjects whose baseline TG levels were ≥100 mg/dL, the levels significantly improved in the test group at weeks 4 (p = 0.010) and 12 (p = 0.030), whereas the levels were not different between the test and placebo groups among those whose baseline levels were <100 mg/dL. These results suggest that the ingestion of enriched-β-conglycinin soybean improves serum TG levels. PMID:27529274

  11. Common variants in the LAMA5 gene associate with fasting plasma glucose and serum triglyceride levels in a cohort of pre- and early pubertal children.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Maria; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Wiener, Howard; Fernandez, Jose R

    2012-12-01

    Laminins are glycoproteins found in basement membranes where they play a vital role in tissue architecture and cell behavior. Previously, we reported the association of two polymorphisms (rs659822 and rs944895) in the laminin alpha5 (LAMA5) gene with anthropometric traits, fasting lipid profile, and glucose levels in pre-menopausal women and elderly subjects. Furthermore, studies in mice showed that Lama5 is involved in organogenesis and placental function during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether rs659822 and/or rs944895 are associated with inter-individual variability in birth weight as well as anthropometric traits and metabolic phenotypes in children. Two hundred and eighty nine healthy children aged 7-12 yr of European, Hispanic, and African-American ancestry were studied. Co-dominant models adjusted for genetic admixture, age, gender, and stages of puberty were used to test for the association of the polymorphisms with each trait. Our analysis showed significant associations of rs659822 with fasting plasma glucose levels (P = 0.0004) and of rs944895 with fasting serum triglycerides (P = 0.004) after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Our results corroborate our previous findings that genetic variants in LAMA5 contribute to variation in metabolic phenotypes and provide evidence that this may occur early in life. PMID:27625828

  12. Common variants in the LAMA5 gene associate with fasting plasma glucose and serum triglyceride levels in a cohort of pre- and early pubertal children

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Maria; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Wiener, Howard; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2012-01-01

    Laminins are glycoproteins found in basement membranes where they play a vital role in tissue architecture and cell behavior. Previously, we reported the association of two polymorphisms (rs659822 and rs944895) in the laminin alpha5 (LAMA5) gene with anthropometric traits, fasting lipid profile, and glucose levels in pre-menopausal women and elderly subjects. Furthermore, studies in mice showed that Lama5 is involved in organogenesis and placental function during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether rs659822 and/or rs944895 are associated with inter-individual variability in birth weight as well as anthropometric traits and metabolic phenotypes in children. Two hundred and eighty nine healthy children aged 7–12 yr of European, Hispanic, and African-American ancestry were studied. Co-dominant models adjusted for genetic admixture, age, gender, and stages of puberty were used to test for the association of the polymorphisms with each trait. Our analysis showed significant associations of rs659822 with fasting plasma glucose levels (P = 0.0004) and of rs944895 with fasting serum triglycerides (P = 0.004) after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Our results corroborate our previous findings that genetic variants in LAMA5 contribute to variation in metabolic phenotypes and provide evidence that this may occur early in life.

  13. Why do premature newborn infants display elevated blood adenosine levels?

    PubMed

    Panfoli, Isabella; Cassanello, Michela; Bruschettini, Matteo; Colella, Marina; Cerone, Roberto; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Candiano, Giovanni; Ramenghi, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary data show high levels of adenosine in the blood of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, positively correlating to their prematurity (i.e. body weight class). This prompted us to look for a mechanism promoting such impressive adenosine increase. We hypothesized a correlation with oxygen challenge. In fact, it is recognized that either oxygen lack or its excess contribute to the pathogenesis of the injuries of prematurity, such as retinopathy (ROP) and periventricular white matter lesions (PWMI). The optimal concentration of oxygen for resuscitation of VLBW infants is currently under revision. We propose that the elevated adenosine blood concentrations of VLBW infants recognizes two sources. The first could be its activity-dependent release from unmyelinated brain axons. Adenosine in this respect would be an end-product of the hypometabolic VLBW newborn unmyelinated axon intensely firing in response to the environmental stimuli consequent to premature birth. Adenosine would be eventually found in the blood due to blood-brain barrier immaturity. In fact, adenosine is the primary activity-dependent signal promoting differentiation of premyelinating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) into myelinating cells in the Central Nervous System, while inhibiting their proliferation and inhibiting synaptic function. The second, would be the ecto-cellular ATP synthesized by the endothelial cell plasmalemma exposed to ambient oxygen concentrations due to premature breathing, especially in lung. ATP would be rapidly transformed into adenosine by the ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase I (CD39), and NT5E (CD73). An ectopic extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP synthetic ability was reported in many cell plasma-membranes, among which endothelial cells. The potential implications of the cited hypotheses for the neonatology area would be great. The amount of oxygen administration for reviving of newborns would find a molecular basis for its assessment. VLBW

  14. Elevated free thyroxine levels detected by a neonatal screening system.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Toshihiro; Jo, Wakako; Fujikura, Kaori; Fukushi, Masaru; Fujieda, Kenji

    2009-09-01

    In Sapporo city of Japan, neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism has used the measurement of free thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the filter-paper blood spot. This system has enabled us to identify hyperthyroxinemic diseases. Filter papers were collected from neonatal infants born at 4-6 d of age and neonates who showed elevated free T4 (>4.0 ng/dL, 4 SD above the mean) were studied. Between January 2000 and December 2006, 83,232 newborns were screened. Eleven infants demonstrated persistent hyperthyroxinemia. One patient with slightly elevated free T4 and normal TSH was diagnosed as having familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia (FDH). The other two patients with elevated free T4 without suppressed TSH were considered as having resistance of thyroid hormone (RTH), and analysis of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta gene confirmed the diagnosis. The remaining eight patients were diagnosed as having neonatal Graves' disease (NGD). Seven of eight pregnant women were treated with antithyroid drug and thus only one unrecognized NGD during pregnancy was detected by screening. Our screening system enables for early awareness of RTH and FDH. Regarding Graves' disease, the benefit of elevated free T4 screening is small, because most pregnant women with Graves' disease were managed.

  15. Association of APOA5 Gene Promoter Region -1131T>C Polymorphism (rs662799) to Plasma Triglyceride Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Mahrooz, Abdolkarim; Ansari, Vahid; Makhlough, Atieh; Hashemi-Sooteh, Mohammad-Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetic Nephropathy (DN), a serious complication of Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus (T2DM), is progressive and susceptibility to DN varies among T2DM patients. ApoA5-1131T>C polymorphism revealed that is strongly associated with triglyceride levels and proposed as a predisposing factor for DN. Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate the association -1131T>C ApoA5 gene polymorphism with serum lipids levels in Type 2 diabetic (DM) patients with or without DN in north of Iran (Mazandaran province). Materials and Methods This study comprised patients with established T2DM (n=161) and controls (n=58). Genotyping of APOA5 -1131T>C polymorphisms was performed by PCR–RFLP. Diabetic patients were divided into two groups: with nephropathy (DN+, n = 90) and without nephropathy (DN-, n = 71). Lipids and lipoproteins were assessed by enzymatic methods. Results The genotype frequencies were 63.8 % TT, 31 % TC, 5.2 % CC in controls, 33.8% TT, 52.1 % TC, 14.1 % CC in DN- and 44.4 % TT, 36.7 % TC, 18.9 % CC in DN+ patients. The TC genotype and the CC genotype were overexpressed among DN+ and DN-population in comparison to the control group. The highest and the lowest TG levels in both diabetic patients and controls belonged to CC+TC and TT genotypes, respectively. Furthermore in both patients TG increased with this order: TT< TCC polymorphisms influence lipid levels in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:27437205

  16. Patient Guide to the Assessment and Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia (High Triglycerides)

    MedlinePlus

    Assessment and Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia (High Triglycerides) A Patient’s Guide Having high levels of triglycerides, or hypertriglyceridemia , is a common problem. Triglycerides are fats in the blood (also called ...

  17. DNA methylations of MC4R and HNF4α are associated with increased triglyceride levels in cord blood of preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Eun Jin; Lee, Hye Ah; You, Young-Ah; Park, Hyesook; Cho, Su Jin; Ha, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The association of preterm birth with obesity and metabolic syndrome later in life is well established. Although the biological mechanism for this association is poorly understood, epigenetic alterations of metabolic-related genes in early life may have important roles in metabolic dysfunction. Thus, we investigated the associations of DNA methylations of melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) with metabolic profiles in cord blood of term and preterm infants. We measured metabolic profiles in cord blood samples of 85 term and 85 preterm infants. DNA methylation and mRNA expression levels of MC4R and HNF4α in cord blood cells were quantified using pyrosequencing and real-time PCR. Triglyceride (TG) levels were grouped by percentile as low (<10th percentile), mid (11th–89th percentiles), and high (>90th percentile). A multiple linear regression model was used to assess the differential effects of DNA methylation on metabolic indices in cord blood between term and preterm infants. The beta-coefficients for associations between TG levels and methylation statuses of MC4R-CpG3 and HNF4α-CpG2 in the P1 promoter differed significantly between term and preterm infants (P = 0.04 and P = 0.003, respectively). DNA methylation statuses of MC4R-CpG3 and HNF4α–CpG2 in the P1 promoter were significantly lower in preterm infants in the high-TG group compared with those in the mid- and low-TG groups (P = 0.01). Notably, preterm infants in the high-TG group had higher TG levels in cord blood than term infants in the high-TG group (60.49 vs 54.57 mg/dL). In addition, MC4R and HNF4α expression levels were higher in preterm infants than in term infants (P < 0.05). Epigenetic alterations of the newly identified genes MC4R and HNF4α in early life might contribute to metabolic profile changes, especially increased TG levels, in the cord blood of preterm infants. PMID:27583872

  18. DNA methylations of MC4R and HNF4α are associated with increased triglyceride levels in cord blood of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eun Jin; Lee, Hye Ah; You, Young-Ah; Park, Hyesook; Cho, Su Jin; Ha, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-08-01

    The association of preterm birth with obesity and metabolic syndrome later in life is well established. Although the biological mechanism for this association is poorly understood, epigenetic alterations of metabolic-related genes in early life may have important roles in metabolic dysfunction. Thus, we investigated the associations of DNA methylations of melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) with metabolic profiles in cord blood of term and preterm infants.We measured metabolic profiles in cord blood samples of 85 term and 85 preterm infants. DNA methylation and mRNA expression levels of MC4R and HNF4α in cord blood cells were quantified using pyrosequencing and real-time PCR. Triglyceride (TG) levels were grouped by percentile as low (<10th percentile), mid (11th-89th percentiles), and high (>90th percentile). A multiple linear regression model was used to assess the differential effects of DNA methylation on metabolic indices in cord blood between term and preterm infants.The beta-coefficients for associations between TG levels and methylation statuses of MC4R-CpG3 and HNF4α-CpG2 in the P1 promoter differed significantly between term and preterm infants (P = 0.04 and P = 0.003, respectively). DNA methylation statuses of MC4R-CpG3 and HNF4α-CpG2 in the P1 promoter were significantly lower in preterm infants in the high-TG group compared with those in the mid- and low-TG groups (P = 0.01). Notably, preterm infants in the high-TG group had higher TG levels in cord blood than term infants in the high-TG group (60.49 vs 54.57 mg/dL). In addition, MC4R and HNF4α expression levels were higher in preterm infants than in term infants (P < 0.05).Epigenetic alterations of the newly identified genes MC4R and HNF4α in early life might contribute to metabolic profile changes, especially increased TG levels, in the cord blood of preterm infants. PMID:27583872

  19. Association of hyperhomocysteinemia in Alzheimer disease with elevated neopterin levels.

    PubMed

    Schroecksnadel, Katharina; Leblhuber, Friedrich; Frick, Barbara; Wirleitner, Barbara; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2004-01-01

    In patients with dementias including Alzheimer disease (AD), elevated blood concentrations of homocysteine are common, often going along with low normal folate and vitamin B12. Immune activation leading to oxidative stress also seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. To find out a possible relationship between immune activation and the development of moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, we determined serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and immune activation markers 75 kD soluble TNF receptor (sTNF-R75) and neopterin in 38 patients with clinically diagnosed AD. A subgroup of patients (45%) presented with increased homocysteine concentrations in comparison to reference ranges in healthy controls of similar age. Also, concentrations of immune activation markers were elevated in a significant proportion of patients. In 17 patients with moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, concentrations of neopterin were higher than in those with lower homocysteine (p < 0.001). Homocysteine correlated with folate (rs= -0.43; p < 0.01) and neopterin (rs= 0.506; p < 0.001). The data suggest that immune activation and concomitant production of reactive oxygen species in patients with AD could be involved in the development of hyperhomocysteinemia via an enhanced decomposition of folate.

  20. Polymerized and functionalized triglycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant oils are useful sustainable raw materials for the development of new chemical products. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a new method for polymerizing epoxidized triglycerides with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the ...

  1. Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: New Insights From Epidemiology, Genetics, and Biology.

    PubMed

    Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-02-19

    Scientific interest in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins has fluctuated over the past many years, ranging from beliefs that these lipoproteins cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) to being innocent bystanders. Correspondingly, clinical recommendations have fluctuated from a need to reduce levels to no advice on treatment. New insight in epidemiology now suggests that these lipoproteins, marked by high triglycerides, are strong and independent predictors of ASCVD and all-cause mortality, and that their cholesterol content or remnant cholesterol likewise are strong predictors of ASCVD. Of all adults, 27% have triglycerides >2 mmol/L (176 mg/dL), and 21% have remnant cholesterol >1 mmol/L (39 mg/dL). For individuals in the general population with nonfasting triglycerides of 6.6 mmol/L (580 mg/dL) compared with individuals with levels of 0.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL), the risks were 5.1-fold for myocardial infarction, 3.2-fold for ischemic heart disease, 3.2-fold for ischemic stroke, and 2.2-fold for all-cause mortality. Also, genetic studies using the Mendelian randomization design, an approach that minimizes problems with confounding and reverse causation, now demonstrate that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are causally associated with ASCVD and all-cause mortality. Finally, genetic evidence also demonstrates that high concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are causally associated with low-grade inflammation. This suggests that an important part of inflammation in atherosclerosis and ASCVD is because of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein degradation and uptake into macrophage foam cells in the arterial intima. Taken together, new insights now strongly suggest that elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins represent causal risk factors for low-grade inflammation, ASCVD, and all-cause mortality. PMID:26892957

  2. Association of serum uric acid level with mortality and morbidity of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Reza; Ghaffari, Samad; Salehi, Rezvanieh; Mazani, Sarvin; Aghavali, Sharmin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Investigating the clinical impact of serum uric acid (UA) and its lowering agents on the complications and mortality of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) can open a new era in STEMI treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of on admission serum UA level on the mortality and morbidity of patients admitted with STEMI. Methods: A number of 608 patients with STEMI were enrolled in this study from December 21, 2012 until February 19, 2014. Patients were followed for 20 months. Male to female ratio was 2.53, and the mean age of patients was 62.6±13.4. The relationship between the level of UA and patients’ mortality and morbidity, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), atrial and ventricular arrhythmia was analyzed. Results: Patients with high serum UA level had higher Killip class after STEMI (P=0.001). Mean LVEF was measured to be 39.5±9.6 in normal UA group and 34.6±11.6 in high UA group (P=0.001). In comparison with normal UA group, high UA group had significantly higher cTnI (2.68±0.09 vs 4.09±0.42, respectively, P=0.001), increased blood pressure (P=0.009), and higher atrial fibrillation (AF) occurrence (P=0.03), but no association was seen between ventricular tachycardia and serum UA level. Short term and midterm mortality were not different in two groups (P=0.44 and 0.31, respectively). Conclusion: In the current study, high serum UA level in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) was not associated with higher in-hospital or midterm mortality, but it was associated with lower LVEF, higher Killip class, elevated cTnI, creatinine, triglyceride, and higher AF. PMID:27489597

  3. Bilateral Renal Vein Thrombosis due to Elevated Factor VIII Levels.

    PubMed

    Patole, Shalom; Ramya, I

    2015-08-01

    Recent evidence has shown that high level of factor VIII is associated with increased risk of thromboembolism. High factor VIII levels are associated with a seven-fold increase in the risk of venous thrombosis. Renal vein thrombosis is usually associated with nephrotic syndrome, procoagulant state or oral contraceptive pills. We report a case of a lady who presented with bilateral renal vein thrombosis due to high factor VIII levels and oral contraceptive pills (OCP) use. PMID:27604446

  4. Ethanol Extract of Peanut Sprout Lowers Blood Triglyceride Levels, Possibly Through a Pathway Involving SREBP-1c in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kang, Nam E; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2015-08-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that peanut sprout extracts (PSE) could reduce fat accumulation through activating the transcription of SREBP-1c genes. Sprague-Dawley (SD) were randomly assigned into two groups and fed the following diet for 4 weeks; 10 normal fat (NF, 7 g of fat/100 g diet) and 30 high fat (HF, 20 g of fat/100 g diet). After 4 weeks, the HF group was divided into three groups; HF, HF with 15 mg of PSE/kg diet (HF+low PSE, 0.025% resveratrol), and HF with 30 mg of PSE/kg diet (HF+high PSE, 0.05% resveratrol) and fed for an additional 5 weeks. The HF+high PSE group had significantly lower weight gain than the HF group. Plasma triglyceride (TG) level and the hepatic total lipid level were significantly lower in the HF+high PSE group compared to the HF group. Fecal excretions of total lipids, cholesterol, and TG in the HF+high PSE group tended to be higher than in the HF group, but these differences were not significant. The mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-c (SREBP-1c) were significantly lower in the HF+high PSE group than in the HF group. The mRNA expressions of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase were significantly lower in the HF+high PSE groups compared to the HF group. The mRNA expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase1 was significantly higher than the HF group in both the HF+low PSE and HF+high PSE groups, with much greater increase observed in the HF+high PSE group. In conclusion, consumption of PSE was effective for improving blood lipid levels, possibly by suppressing the expression of SREBP-1c, in rats fed a high-fat diet.

  5. Gut triglyceride production.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoyue; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2012-05-01

    Our knowledge of how the body absorbs triacylglycerols (TAG) from the diet and how this process is regulated has increased at a rapid rate in recent years. Dietary TAG are hydrolyzed in the intestinal lumen to free fatty acids (FFA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG), which are taken up by enterocytes from their apical side, transported to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and resynthesized into TAG. TAG are assembled into chylomicrons (CM) in the ER, transported to the Golgi via pre-chylomicron transport vesicles and secreted towards the basolateral side. In this review, we mainly focus on the roles of key proteins involved in uptake and intracellular transport of fatty acids, their conversion to TAG and packaging into CM. We will also discuss intracellular transport and secretion of CM. Moreover, we will bring to light few factors that regulate gut triglyceride production. Furthermore, we briefly summarize pathways involved in cholesterol absorption. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease.

  6. Elevated glucose levels in early puerperium, and association with high cortisol levels during parturition.

    PubMed

    Risberg, Anitha; Sjöquist, Mats; Wedenberg, Kaj; Larsson, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Background Gestational diabetes is one of the commonest metabolic problems associated with pregnancy and an accurate diagnosis is critical for the care. Research has shown that pregnant women have high levels of cortisol during the last stage of parturition. As cortisol is a diabetogenic hormone causing increased glucose levels, we wanted to study the association between cortisol and glucose levels during parturition. Materials and methods Glucose and cortisol were analyzed during parturition in 50 females divided according to slow (n = 11) and normal labors (n = 39). Blood samples were analyzed three times during the parturition and four times in the first day after delivery. Glucose levels were also measured once in each trimester. Results In the normal group, the glucose concentration increased from 6.2 (IQR 5.6-8.0) mmol/L in the latency phase to 11.6 (10.0-13.3) mmol/L at aftercare (p < 0.05). After parturition the glucose concentrations decreased gradually. There were significant Spearman rank correlations between glucose and cortisol values. Conclusions The changes associated with birth cause significant elevations of cortisol and glucose around parturition.

  7. Elevated blood lead levels in children of construction workers.

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, E A; Piacitelli, G M; Gerwel, B; Schnorr, T M; Mueller, C A; Gittleman, J; Matte, T D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether children of lead-exposed construction workers had higher blood lead levels than neighborhood control children. METHODS: Twenty-nine construction workers were identified from the New Jersey Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) registry. Eighteen control families were referred by workers. Venous blood samples were collected from 50 children (31 exposed, 19 control subjects) under age 6. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of workers children had blood lead levels at or over the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention action level of 0.48 mumol/L (10 micrograms/dL), compared with 5% of control children (unadjusted odds ratio = 6.1; 95% confidence interval = 0.9, 147.2). CONCLUSIONS: Children of construction workers may be at risk for excessive lead exposure. Health care providers should assess parental occupation as a possible pathway for lead exposure of young children. PMID:9279275

  8. Response of tomato to defoliation and elevated CO[sub 2]level

    SciTech Connect

    Freidus, D. )

    1993-06-01

    Increased resources are expected to result in increased plant productivity and to increase a plant's ability to replace tissue lost to defoliation. This hypothesis was tested by growing tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in a phytotron greenhouse at ambient (355 ppm) and elevated (710 ppm) levels of CO[sub 2]. The experiment was fully factorial for CO[sub 2] level and two manual defoliation treatments, the first during vegetative growth and the second during fruiting. Elevated CO[sub 2] level did not alter total biomass, but did alter allocation: total fruit biomass and fruit number decreased. This is contrary to the expected result. Only the first defoliation treatment lowered total vegetative and reproductive biomass produced. There was no interaction between response to defoliation and response to elevated CO[sub 2] level. Thus, both the main effect of elevated CO[sub 2] and the interaction of defoliation and elevated CO[sub 2] were inconsistent with my hypothesis.

  9. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…

  10. Elevated tryptophan levels in post-withdrawal alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Farren, C K; Dinan, T G

    1996-12-01

    Changes in serotonin function and disturbances in tryptophan availability have been implicated in many psychiatric disorders, including alcoholism. In the present study we took serum free tryptophan samples from 31 healthy volunteer controls and from 42 DSM-III-R alcohol-dependent subjects who had abstained from alcohol for at least 2.5 weeks (range 2.5-104 weeks). We also measured the basal serum cortisol level at 09.00 hours for the same subjects and controls. There was a significant increase in the serum tryptophan level of the alcoholic subjects, by 43.7 mumol l-1 (range 29-63 mumol l-1), regardless of age of onset of alcoholism, family history of alcoholism or sociopathic traits, compared to the controls (33.0 mumol l-1, range 19-60 mumol l-1). There was also an increase in the basal serum cortisol level in the alcoholic subjects compared to the controls, but this was not related to the increase in tryptophan levels. These findings indicate a disturbance in serotonin precursor availability in post-withdrawal alcoholics, and contribute to the evidence for involvement of the serotonin system in alcoholism. PMID:9021001

  11. Additive effects of LPL, APOA5 and APOE variant combinations on triglyceride levels and hypertriglyceridemia: results of the ICARIA genetic sub-study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a well-established independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the influence of several genetic variants in genes related with triglyceride (TG) metabolism has been described, including LPL, APOA5 and APOE. The combined analysis of these polymorphisms could produce clinically meaningful complementary information. Methods A subgroup of the ICARIA study comprising 1825 Spanish subjects (80% men, mean age 36 years) was genotyped for the LPL-HindIII (rs320), S447X (rs328), D9N (rs1801177) and N291S (rs268) polymorphisms, the APOA5-S19W (rs3135506) and -1131T/C (rs662799) variants, and the APOE polymorphism (rs429358; rs7412) using PCR and restriction analysis and TaqMan assays. We used regression analyses to examine their combined effects on TG levels (with the log-transformed variable) and the association of variant combinations with TG levels and hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1.69 mmol/L), including the covariates: gender, age, waist circumference, blood glucose, blood pressure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Results We found a significant lowering effect of the LPL-HindIII and S447X polymorphisms (p < 0.0001). In addition, the D9N, N291S, S19W and -1131T/C variants and the APOE-ε4 allele were significantly associated with an independent additive TG-raising effect (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Grouping individuals according to the presence of TG-lowering or TG-raising polymorphisms showed significant differences in TG levels (p < 0.0001), with the lowest levels exhibited by carriers of two lowering variants (10.2% reduction in TG geometric mean with respect to individuals who were homozygous for the frequent alleles of all the variants), and the highest levels in carriers of raising combinations (25.1% mean TG increase). Thus, carrying two lowering variants was protective against HTG (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39-0.98; p = 0.042) and having one single raising polymorphism (OR

  12. Elevated tritium levels at the World Trade Center

    SciTech Connect

    Semkow, Thomas M.; Hafner, Ronald S.; Parekh, Pravin P.; Wozniak, Gordon J.; Haines, Douglas K.; Husain, Liaquat; Rabun, Robert L.; Williams, Philip G.

    2002-05-14

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at [the]World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174 plus or minus 0.074 (2s) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 plus or minus 0.17 and 2.83 plus or minus 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure.

  13. 4th level of 1913 elevator indicating sacking scale, part of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4th level of 1913 elevator indicating sacking scale, part of the bagging system and nate to the sewing machine. Discharge spout for the grain bin to the left - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  14. MONOTERPENE LEVELS IN NEEDLES OF DOUGLAS-FIR EXPOSED TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of monoterpenes in current year needles of douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were measured at the conclusion of four years of exposure to ambient or elevated CO2 (+ 179 mmol.mol-1), and ambient or elevated temperature (+ 3.5 C). Eleven monoterpen...

  15. Towards quantitative ecological risk assessment of elevated carbon dioxide levels in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Pepijn; Tamis, Jacqueline E; Foekema, Edwin M; Klok, Chris; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-08-30

    The environmental impact of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels has become of more interest in recent years. This, in relation to globally rising CO2 levels and related considerations of geological CO2 storage as a mitigating measure. In the present study effect data from literature were collected in order to conduct a marine ecological risk assessment of elevated CO2 levels, using a Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD). It became evident that information currently available from the literature is mostly insufficient for such a quantitative approach. Most studies focus on effects of expected future CO2 levels, testing only one or two elevated concentrations. A full dose-response relationship, a uniform measure of exposure, and standardized test protocols are essential for conducting a proper quantitative risk assessment of elevated CO2 levels. Improvements are proposed to make future tests more valuable and usable for quantitative risk assessment.

  16. Elevated levels of measles antibodies in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijendra K; Jensen, Ryan L

    2003-04-01

    Virus-induced autoimmunity may play a causal role in autism. To examine the etiologic link of viruses in this brain disorder, we conducted a serologic study of measles virus, mumps virus, and rubella virus. Viral antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serum of autistic children, normal children, and siblings of autistic children. The level of measles antibody, but not mumps or rubella antibodies, was significantly higher in autistic children as compared with normal children (P = 0.003) or siblings of autistic children (P

  17. Arctic microbial community dynamics influenced by elevated CO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brussaard, C. P. D.; Noordeloos, A. A. M.; Witte, H.; Collenteur, M. C. J.; Schulz, K.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2012-09-01

    The Arctic Ocean ecosystem is particular vulnerable for ocean acidification (OA) related alterations due to the relatively high CO2 solubility and low carbonate saturation states of its cold surface waters. Thus far, however, there is only little known about the consequences of OA on the base of the food web. In a mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (overall CO2 levels ranged from ∼180 to 1100 μatm) in the Kongsfjord off Svalbard, we studied the consequences of OA on a natural pelagic microbial community. The most prominent finding of our study is the profound effect of OA on the composition and growth of the Arctic phytoplankton community, i.e. the picoeukaryotic photoautotrophs and to a lesser extent the nanophytoplankton prospered. A shift towards the smallest phytoplankton as a result of OA will have direct consequences for the structure and functioning of the pelagic food web and thus for the biogeochemical cycles. Furthermore, the dominant pico- and nanophytoplankton groups were found prone to viral lysis, thereby shunting the carbon accumulation in living organisms into the dissolved pools of organic carbon and subsequently affecting the efficiency of the biological pump in these Arctic waters.

  18. Arctic microbial community dynamics influenced by elevated CO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brussaard, C. P. D.; Noordeloos, A. A. M.; Witte, H.; Collenteur, M. C. J.; Schulz, K.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2013-02-01

    The Arctic Ocean ecosystem is particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA) related alterations due to the relatively high CO2 solubility and low carbonate saturation states of its cold surface waters. Thus far, however, there is only little known about the consequences of OA on the base of the food web. In a mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (overall CO2 levels ranged from ~ 180 to 1100 μatm) in Kongsfjorden off Svalbard, we studied the consequences of OA on a natural pelagic microbial community. OA distinctly affected the composition and growth of the Arctic phytoplankton community, i.e. the picoeukaryotic photoautotrophs and to a lesser extent the nanophytoplankton thrived. A shift towards the smallest phytoplankton as a result of OA will have direct consequences for the structure and functioning of the pelagic food web and thus for the biogeochemical cycles. Besides being grazed, the dominant pico- and nanophytoplankton groups were found prone to viral lysis, thereby shunting the carbon accumulation in living organisms into the dissolved pools of organic carbon and subsequently affecting the efficiency of the biological pump in these Arctic waters.

  19. Summertime elevation of sup 222 Rn levels in Huntsville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.L.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Saultz, R.J. )

    1991-02-01

    Indoor Rn concentrations and Rn in adjacent karst terrains were studied at four houses with crawlspaces in Huntsville, AL. In warm summertime weather, Rn-rich air may vent through limestone solution cavities exposed as holes at the surface of the properties. A probable interrelated-finding is that the indoor levels of {sup 222}Rn are distinctly higher in the summer than winter. The karst underlying the homes is structurally faulted and, in all probability, facilitates Rn transport from the solution cavities to the crawlspaces. Abrupt day-to-day changes in indoor Rn concentrations were recorded in addition to large seasonal changes. If the owners or residents of these particular homes had attempted to make, and interpret, short-term screening measurements for Rn during the fall season, problems, including false negatives, could have arisen because of order-of-magnitude changes in Rn concentration occurring over a few days. The best time of year to make screening measurements would be during the summer when indoor Rn concentrations are more likely to reach their maximum values.

  20. Elevations of nucleus accumbens dopamine and DOPAC levels during intravenous heroin self-administration.

    PubMed

    Wise, R A; Leone, P; Rivest, R; Leeb, K

    1995-10-01

    Extracellular dopamine and DOPAC (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) levels in nucleus accumbens were sampled by microdialysis and quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography during intravenous heroin self-administration sessions in rats. Dopamine levels in 10 and 20 min samples were elevated following the first injection of each session, reaching a plateau of elevation within the first two or three injections and falling back toward baseline only when drug access was terminated. Elevations were in the range of 150-300% when unit dosages of 0.05-0.2 mg/kg were given. Increasing the work requirement from FR-1 to FR-10 did not appear to alter the degree of elevation of dopamine levels, and dopamine levels fell during extinction while lever-pressing rates increased 20-fold. While animals compensated for unit dose changes between 0.05 and 0.2 mg/kg/injection, adjusting their response rate such that the same hourly drug intake and the same asymptotic dopamine levels were maintained across these conditions, at 0.4 mg/kg/injection hourly drug intake and asymptotic dopamine levels were elevated beyond the levels sustained by the lower doses. These findings confirm that self-administered doses of intravenous heroin are sufficient to activate the mesolimbic dopamine system and suggest that significant heroin "craving" can emerge when dopamine levels are still moderately elevated, long before the development of dopamine depletion associated with opiate withdrawal.

  1. Elevated Social Stress Levels and Depressive Symptoms in Primary Hyperhidrosis

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Katharina M.; Schote, Andrea B.; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst

    2014-01-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress (‘Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress’: TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants. PMID:24647796

  2. Elevated social stress levels and depressive symptoms in primary hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Gross, Katharina M; Schote, Andrea B; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst

    2014-01-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress ('Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress': TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants.

  3. Flowering responses of insect-pollinated plants to elevated CO{sub 2} levels

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, J.H.; Koch, G.W.; Chiariello, N.R. ||

    1995-06-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations have been predicted or shown to substantially influence plants, communities and ecosystems in a variety of ways. Here, we examined the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} levels on the timing and magnitude of flowering for two insect-pollinated annual plant species in a serpentine grassland. We focused on Lasthenia californica and Linanthus parviflorus and addressed three questions: (1) Do elevated CO{sub 2} levels influence flowering phenologies and is this species specific? (2) Do elevated CO{sub 2} levels affect flower production and is this due to altered numbers of individuals, flowers per plant, or both? and (3) Are effects on flowering due to elevated CO{sub 2} levels per se or changes in environmental conditions associated with methods used to manipulate CO{sub 2} levels? To address these questions, we used the ecosystem experiment at Stanford University`s Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (San Mateo Co., CA). This system consists of 20 open-topped chambers - half receiving ambient CO{sub 2} (360 ppm) and half receiving elevated CO{sub 2} (720 ppm) - and 10 untreated plots serving as chamber controls. Results from the 1994 season demonstrated that there were species-specific responses to elevated CO{sub 2} levels and the field chambers. For Lasthenia californica, elevated CO{sub 2} per se did not affect relative abundance, inflorescence production, or phenology, but chambers did significantly increase inflorescence production and extend the duration of flowering. For Linanthus parviflorus, elevated CO{sub 2} levels significantly increased relative abundance and flower production, and extended the flowering period slightly, while the chambers significantly decreased flower production early in the season and increased it later in the season.

  4. A case of renal infarction associated with elevated factor VIII level.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, O Asif; Al-Absi, A; Showkat, A

    2011-09-01

    Elevated factor VIII level has recently been shown to be associated with increased risk of thrombosis. We report here a case of renal infarction in association with elevated factor VIII level. The patient presented with a three-day history of flank pain. Laboratory studies on presentation showed an elevated serum creatinine concentration and microscopic hematuria. He was found to have bilateral pulmonary emboli and left common femoral vein thrombosis; imaging studies showed evidence of renal arterial thrombosis with infarction. Hypercoagulability assessment showed an elevated factor VIII level. He was treated with heparin and warfarin with significant improvement in his renal function. Consideration should be given to measurement of factor VIII level as a part of the workup of unexplained thrombo-embolic events.

  5. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  6. Triglycerides: how much credit do they deserve?

    PubMed

    Kohli, Payal; Cannon, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    In the modern era of statin therapy, major advances have been made in treating coronary heart disease. However, despite intensive treatment with statin therapy, residual cardiovascular risk persists and has been attributed to the persistence of atherogenic dyslipidemia and, in part, elevated triglycerides (TGs). In this review, the authors focus on the mechanism of elevated TGs and provide a discussion of the challenges of measuring TGs as a biomarker, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic heart disease, and results of several recent studies that have elucidated the relationship between TGs and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  7. Elevated indoor radon levels and elevated incidence of lung cancer in Columbus and Franklin County, Ohio: Cause or coincidence?

    SciTech Connect

    Grafton, H.E.; West, D.R.

    1992-12-31

    Columbus, and Franklin County, Ohio, have been identified as having elevated residential radon levels. Research by the Columbus Health Department, the Ohio Department of Health, and the US Environmental Protection Agency has shown that average screening measurements for the county range from 63% to 73% above 148 Bq m{sup {minus}3}, 23% to 27% above 370 Bq m{sup {minus}3}, and 1% above 1850 Bq m{sup {minus}3}, for both males and females, respectively. The observed cancer rate per 100,000 persons for the period 1979-1986 for the City of Columbus was 62.8 and for the State of Ohio, 49.3, for the bronchi, lungs, and trachea. The reliability of residential radon data, the effect of smoking, mobility of residents, and other confounding factors are referenced. We suggest that while current evidence is insufficient to demonstrate a causal or coincidental relationship between elevated radon levels and higher-than-average rates of lung cancer, the measurement data suggest that Franklin County, Ohio, is an appropriate site for such research.

  8. Inhibition of hepatic triglyceride formation by clofibrate

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Larry L.; Webb, William W.; Fallon, Harold J.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of clofibrate (CPIB) on hepatic glycerolipid formation has been studied in vivo and in vitro in the rat. Feeding 0.25% CPIB in laboratory chow significantly reduced serum triglyceride levels by 6 hr and concomitantly decreased the rate of glycerol-14C incorporation into hepatic and serum glycerides, in vivo. These changes persisted for at least 14 days. A similar decrease in serum triglyceride and glycerol incorporation into hepatic glycerides was observed in rats fed high glucose diets containing 0.25% CPIB. Serum glycerol was reduced by feeding CPIB for 14 days. The formation of diglyceride and triglyceride from 14C-sn-glycerol-3-P by rat liver homogenates was inhibited by addition of 1-40 mM CPIB to the reaction mixture. These results suggest that CPIB reduces hepatic glycerolipid synthesis, possibly by inhibition of one or more reactions in the esterification of sn-glycerol-3-P. This change may account for the early fall in serum triglyceride. At later time periods, serum glycerol levels fall and in some experiments, hepatic triglyceride content increases. Therefore, it is likely that additional metabolic alterations may contribute to the sustained hypotriglyceridemic effects of CPIB. PMID:5096518

  9. Elevated voltage level I.sub.DDQ failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Righter, Alan W.

    1996-01-01

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC's is eliminated by I.sub.DDQ testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip.

  10. Elevated voltage level I{sub DDQ} failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Righter, A.W.

    1996-05-21

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC`s is eliminated by I{sub DDQ} testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip. 4 figs.

  11. [Plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and transmission to other trophic levels]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.E.

    1995-10-01

    This program investigated how host plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide may be transmitted to other trophic levels, especially leaf eating insects, and alter consumption of leaves and impare their function. Study results included the following findings: increased carbon dioxide to plants alters feeding by insect herbivores; leaves produced under higher carbon conditions contain proportionally less nitrogen; insect herbivores may have decreased reproduction under elevated carbon dioxide.

  12. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Fernanda Adame, Maria; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  13. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Adame, Maria Fernanda; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-02-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  14. Low levels of high density lipoproteins in Turks, a population with elevated hepatic lipase. High density lipoprotein characterization and gender-specific effects of apolipoprotein e genotype.

    PubMed

    Mahley, R W; Pépin, J; Palaoğlu, K E; Malloy, M J; Kane, J P; Bersot, T P

    2000-08-01

    Turks have strikingly low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (10-15 mg/dL lower than those of Americans or Western Europeans) associated with elevated hepatic lipase mass and activity. Here we report that Turks have low levels of high density lipoprotein subclass 2 (HDL(2)), apoA-I-containing lipoproteins (LpA-I), and pre-beta-1 HDL and increased levels of HDL(3) and LpA-I/A-II particles (potentially an atherogenic lipid profile). The frequency distributions of HDL-C and LpA-I levels were skewed toward bimodality in Turkish women but were unimodal in Turkish men. The apoE genotype affected HDL-C and LpA-I levels in women only. In women, but not men, the varepsilon2 allele was strikingly more prevalent in those with the highest levels of HDL-C and LpA-I than in those with the lowest levels. The higher prevalence of the epsilon2 allele in these subgroups of women was not explained by plasma triglyceride levels, total cholesterol levels, age, or body mass index. The modulating effects of apoE isoforms on lipolytic hydrolysis of HDL by hepatic lipase (apoE2 preventing efficient hydrolysis) or on lipoprotein receptor binding (apoE2 interacting poorly with the low density lipoprotein receptors) may account for differences in HDL-C levels in Turkish women (the epsilon2 allele being associated with higher HDL levels). In Turkish men, who have substantially higher levels of hepatic lipase activity than women, the modulating effect of apoE may be overwhelmed. The gender-specific impact of the apoE genotype on HDL-C and LpA-I levels in association with elevated levels of hepatic lipase provides new insights into the metabolism of HDL.

  15. Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

  16. Elevated CO2, nitrogen availability and marsh tolerance for sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langley, J. A.; Cahoon, D. R.; Megonigal, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of sea-level rise that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors such as elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen eutrophication. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. We manipulated atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen availability (2 x 2 factorial) in a highly organic tidal marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr-1, an effect caused primarily by stimulating belowground plant productivity. Nitrogen additions, despite increasing aboveground productivity, tended to reverse elevation gains, perhaps by reducing root productivity and stimulating soil decomposition. Therefore, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas, but nitrogen pollution may negate this effect regionally. These effects on the organic mechanisms of marsh elevation gain may help explain patterns marsh formation and disappearance worldwide.

  17. Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels affect community structure of rice root-associated bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Takashi; Liu, Dongyan; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Ikeda, Seishi; Asakawa, Susumu; Tokida, Takeshi; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Aoki, Naohiro; Ishimaru, Ken; Ujiie, Kazuhiro; Usui, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Hayashi, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) affects rice yields and grain quality. However, the responses of root-associated bacteria to [CO2] elevation have not been characterized in a large-scale field study. We conducted a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment (ambient + 200 μmol.mol−1) using three rice cultivars (Akita 63, Takanari, and Koshihikari) and two experimental lines of Koshihikari [chromosome segment substitution and near-isogenic lines (NILs)] to determine the effects of [CO2] elevation on the community structure of rice root-associated bacteria. Microbial DNA was extracted from rice roots at the panicle formation stage and analyzed by pyrosequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize the members of the bacterial community. Principal coordinate analysis of a weighted UniFrac distance matrix revealed that the community structure was clearly affected by elevated [CO2]. The predominant community members at class level were Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria in the control (ambient) and FACE plots. The relative abundance of Methylocystaceae, the major methane-oxidizing bacteria in rice roots, tended to decrease with increasing [CO2] levels. Quantitative PCR revealed a decreased copy number of the methane monooxygenase (pmoA) gene and increased methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) in elevated [CO2]. These results suggest elevated [CO2] suppresses methane oxidation and promotes methanogenesis in rice roots; this process affects the carbon cycle in rice paddy fields. PMID:25750640

  18. CT brain findings in a patient with elevated brain cesium levels.

    PubMed

    Khangure, Simon R; Williams, Eric S; Welman, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    We describe the CT findings in the brain of a woman with pathologically proven elevated levels of blood and tissue cesium. The 42-year-old woman had been receiving cesium chloride as a non-mainstream treatment for metastatic breast carcinoma. She presented to hospital following a seizure, and died 48 hours after admission. A brain CT performed on hospital admission showed a diffuse increase in attenuation of brain parenchyma. Autopsy revealed elevated levels of cesium in blood and solid organs including the brain. We hypothesize that the imaging findings are attributable to the abnormally elevated level of brain cesium at the time of the CT scan. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this imaging finding.

  19. Methyl protodioscin increases ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux while inhibiting gene expressions for synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides by suppressing SREBP transcription and microRNA 33a/b levels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weilie; Ding, Hang; Gong, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhen; Lin, Yalin; Zhang, Zhizhen; Lin, Guorong

    2015-04-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) regulate homeostasis of LDL, HDL and triglycerides. This study was aimed to determine if inhibition of SREBPs by methyl protodioscin (MPD) regulates downstream gene and protein expressions of lipid metabolisms. In THP-1 macrophages, MPD increases levels of ABCA1 mRNA and protein in dose- and time-dependent manners, and apoA-1-mediated cholesterol efflux. The underlying mechanisms for the effects is that MPD inhibits the transcription of SREBP1c and SREBP2, and decreases levels of microRNA 33a/b hosted in the introns of SREBPs, which leads to reciprocally increase ABCA1 levels. In HepG2 cells, MPD shows the same effects as these observed in THP-1 macrophages. MPD also decreases the gene expressions of HMGCR, FAS and ACC for cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis. MPD further promotes LDL receptor through reducing the PCSK9 level. Collectively, the study demonstrates that MPD potentially increase HDL cholesterol while reducing LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. PMID:25733328

  20. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical

  1. The progressive effects of a high-fat diet on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, growth performance and serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels in Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) and Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata).

    PubMed

    Donaldson, J; Dangarembizi, R; Mtetwa, B; Madziva, M T; Erlwanger, K H

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the progressive effects of a high-fat diet on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, growth performance and serum lipid concentrations in Guinea fowl and Muscovy ducks, 36 Guinea fowl and 36 Muscovy ducks were divided into two groups, for each species, and fed either a standard (STD = commercial poultry feed) or high-fat diet (HFD = commercial poultry feed with 20% palm oil and 2% lard) for up to 12 weeks. After 4, 8 and 12 weeks on the diets, six birds from each group were euthanized and blood samples collected. Osmotic fragility was assessed by measuring the haemoglobin released by erythrocytes placed in serially diluted solutions of phosphate-buffered saline, spectrophotometrically. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were also determined. Fragiligrams from erythrocytes from both species of birds on the HFD were not different to those on the STD. However, Muscovy duck erythrocytes were more resistant to haemolysis compared with Guinea fowl erythrocytes. Final body mass and serum triglyceride levels were not significantly different (p > 0.05, anova) between the birds in the HFD and STD groups, for both species of birds. In contrast, serum cholesterol levels were significantly higher in birds on the HFD compared with those on the STD, after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of feeding, for both species of birds. Feeding Guinea fowl and Muscovy ducks a high-fat diet for up to 12 weeks resulted in hypercholesterolaemia but had no effect on final body mass, erythrocyte osmotic fragility or serum triglyceride concentrations in either bird species.

  2. Acute Cholecystitis with Significantly Elevated Levels of Serum Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9

    PubMed Central

    Akimoto, Shuji; Banshodani, Masataka; Nishihara, Masahiro; Nambu, Junko; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Shimamoto, Fumio; Dohi, Kiyohiko; Sugino, Keizo; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), a marker of malignant tumors, is generally slightly elevated in benign conditions. We report a case of acute cholecystitis with a significantly elevated level of serum CA 19-9 based on positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) findings. A 65-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain and fever. A CT image revealed an enlarged gallbladder without tumor shadows. The C-reactive protein (CRP) level was elevated to 7.66 mg/dl. Moreover, the serum CA 19-9 level was significantly elevated to 19,392 U/ml. We started antibiotic treatment, because we suspected acute cholecystitis, but still, we could not ignore the possible presence of malignant tumors. After 11 days of antibiotic treatment, serum CRP and CA 19-9 levels decreased to 0.11 mg/dl and 1,049 U/ml, respectively. There was an accumulation of fluorine 18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (maximum standardized uptake value, 9.3) without tumor shadows in the liver, near the gallbladder, on the PET-CT examination. We considered the possibility that the inflammation had spread from the gallbladder to the liver, made a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, and performed a cholecystectomy 33 days after treatment initiation. The serum CA 19-9 level decreased to 45 U/ml after the surgery. One year after the surgery, the patient was alive, and the serum CA 19-9 level was 34 U/ml. Acute cholecystitis with a significantly high elevation of the serum CA 19-9 level is rare. In such cases, it is important to confirm the change in the serum CA 19-9 level over time after antibiotic treatment and perform imaging studies to distinguish between inflammation and malignancy. PMID:27721726

  3. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and

  4. Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

    2013-05-01

    Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse. PMID:23504873

  5. Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

    2013-05-01

    Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse.

  6. Clinical significance of elevated serum and urine amylase levels in patients with appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Swensson, E E; Maull, K I

    1981-12-01

    During the 45 month period beginning January 1977, 251 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of acute appendicitis underwent celiotomy at the Medical College of Virginia Hospital. A preoperative serum or urine amylase determination was recorded in 155 of the patients (62 percent). Of this group, 15 patients (10 percent) had elevation of serum amylase or 2 hour urine amylase. Hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria directly led to misdiagnosis or treatment delay in 5 of the 15 patients. Appendiceal rupture occurred in three patients, two of whom had prolonged (greater than 1 month) hospitalizations directly attributable to the misdiagnosis. As a result of this study, we conclude that (1) acute appendicitis and elevated amylase levels may occur concurrently, (2) hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria should not dissuade the surgeon from early operation if other clinical features suggest appendicitis, and (3) abdominal pain and elevation of amylase level define significant intraabdominal disease, not specifically pancreatic disease.

  7. Transgenic overexpression of the presynaptic choline transporter elevates acetylcholine levels and augments motor endurance

    PubMed Central

    Holmstrand, Ericka C.; Lund, David; Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Wright, Jane; Martin, Rolicia F.; Ennis, Elizabeth A.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Sarter, Martin; Blakely, Randy D.

    2014-01-01

    The hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) sensitive, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) sustains cholinergic signaling via the presynaptic uptake of choline derived from dietary sources or from acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-mediated hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh). Loss of cholinergic signaling capacity is associated with cognitive and motor deficits in humans and in animal models. Whereas genetic elimination of CHT has revealed the critical nature of CHT in maintaining ACh stores and sustaining cholinergic signaling, the consequences of elevating CHT expression have yet to be studied. Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated transgenic methods, we generated mice with integrated additional copies of the mouse Slc5a7 gene. BAC–CHT mice are viable, appear to develop normally, and breed at wild-type (WT) rates. Biochemical studies revealed a 2 to 3-fold elevation in CHT protein levels in the CNS and periphery, paralleled by significant increases in [3H]HC-3 binding and synaptosomal choline transport activity. Elevations of ACh in the BAC–CHT mice occurred without compensatory changes in the activity of either choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or AChE. Immunohistochemistry for CHT in BAC–CHT brain sections revealed markedly elevated CHT expression in the cell bodies of cholinergic neurons and in axons projecting to regions known to receive cholinergic innervation. Behaviorally, BAC–CHT mice exhibited diminished fatigue and increased speeds on the treadmill test without evidence of increased strength. Finally, BAC–CHT mice displayed elevated horizontal activity in the open field test, diminished spontaneous alteration in the Y-maze, and reduced time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. Together, these studies provide biochemical, pharmacological and behavioral evidence that CHT protein expression and activity can be elevated beyond that seen in wild-type animals. BAC–CHT mice thus represent a novel tool to examine both the positive and negative

  8. SAFETY AND SECURITY BUILDING, TRA614. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. TWO ROOF LEVELS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SAFETY AND SECURITY BUILDING, TRA-614. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. TWO ROOF LEVELS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-814-2, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0614-00-098-100703, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Elevated ground-level O3 negatively influences paddy methanogenic archaeal community.

    PubMed

    Feng, Youzhi; Lin, Xiangui; Yu, Yongchang; Zhang, Huayong; Chu, Haiyan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    The current knowledge regarding the effect of global climate change on rice-paddy methane (CH4) emissions is incomplete, partly because information is limited concerning the mechanism of the microbial response to elevated ground-level ozone (O3). A field experiment was conducted in the China Ozone Free-Air Concentration Enrichment facility in a rice-wheat rotation system to investigate the responses of methanogenic archaeal communities to elevated ground-level O3 by culture-independent and -reliant approaches. We found that elevated ground-level O3 inhibited methanogenic activity and influenced the composition of paddy methanogenic communities, reducing the abundance and diversity of paddy methanogens by adversely affecting dominant groups, such as aceticlastic Methanosaeta, especially at the rice tillering stage. Our results indicated that continuously elevated ground-level O3 would negatively influence paddy methanogenic archaeal communities and its critical ecological function. These findings will contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the responses and feedbacks of paddy ecosystems to global climate change. PMID:24217205

  10. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of coastal wetlands to sea level rise in Liaohe Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guo-dong; Wang, Ming; Lu, Xian-guo; Jiang, Ming

    2016-10-01

    The Liaohe Delta in China is an ecologically and commercially important wetland system under threat from sea level rise and marsh subsidence. Sediments deposited in coastal marshes could offer wetlands a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level, yet coastal wetland stability in Liaohe Delta is not well understood due to limited data from long-term experiments. In this study, wetland surface elevation and vertical accretion were measured from 2011 to 2015 using a surface elevation table (SET) and feldspar marker horizons in two Phragmites and two Suaeda marshes receiving Liaohe River water. The analysis shows that the Phragmites marshes exhibited higher rates of marsh accretion and elevation change than the Suaeda marshes. The two Phragmites marsh sites had average surface elevation change rates at 8.8 and 9.3 mm yr-1, vertical accretion at 17.4 and 17.6 mm yr-1, and shallow subsidence at 8.6 and 8.3 mm yr-1. The average rates of elevation change, vertical accretion, and shallow subsidence at two Suaeda marsh sites were 5.8 and 6.3 mm yr-1, 13.6 and 14.8 mm yr-1, and 7.8 and 8.5 mm yr-1, respectively. The trends suggest that coastal marshes in Liaohe Delta are experiencing changes in average soil elevation that range from a net increase of 0.3 mm y-1 to 6.9 mm y-1 relative to averaged sea level rise in Bohai Sea reported by the 2016 State Oceanic Administration People's Republic of China projection (2.4-5.5 mm y-1), which indicated that the four wetland sites would adjust to the sea level rise and even continue to gain elevation, especially for the Phragmites sites. Nevertheless, the vulnerability of coastal wetlands in Liaohe Delta need further assessment considering the accelerated sea level rise, the high rate of subsidence, and the declining sediment delivery owing to anthropogenic activities such as dam constructions in the river basin.

  11. [Studies on the mechanism of elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in alcoholic liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Sakizono, Kenji; Oita, Tatsuo; Eto, Masaaki; Bito, Sanae; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Kasakura, Shinpei

    2002-03-01

    We measured serum PIVKA-II concentrations in 18 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease was diagnosed by the history of ethanol intake of more than 900 ml/day for over 10 years. Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed histologically. Infections with hepatitis B and C viruses were ruled out by assaying serum virus markers. No tumor was detected in liver by ultrasonography and computed tomography during observation period. None of the patients studied were positive for alpafetoprotein (AFP). Eight out of 18 (44.4%) patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis showed elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. In contrast, only eight out of 93 (8.6%) patients with nonalcholic liver cirrhosis had elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. PIVKA-II is well known as a tumor marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The rates of positive PIVKA-II found in alcoholic liver cirrhosis approached its rates in HCC. However, the time course for the elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels was different each other in alcoholic liver cirrhosis and HCC. In HCC, serum PIVKA-II "levels" continued to elevate until therapy. In contrast, its elevation was transient and its levels returned to baseline in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The values of ALT (GPT), gamma-GTP, and ALP correlated poorly with serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. To investigate the mechanism by which elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis occurred, we studied the effect of vitamin K on production of PIVKA-II and AFP by hepatocytes. Hepatocytes(Alexander PLC/PRF/F cell line) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of vitamin K (Kaytwo, Eisai, Tokyo). Vitamin K had no effect on AFP production. In contrast, PIVKA-II production was inhibited by addition of vitamin K in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was suppressed by administration of vitamin K (Kaytwo) to these patients. Taken

  12. Elevation of intracellular calcium levels in spiral ganglion cells by trimethyltin.

    PubMed

    Fechter, L D; Liu, Y

    1995-11-01

    The neurotoxicant, trimethyltin (TMT) produces cochlear impairment at far lower dose levels and far more rapidly than it does central nervous system effects. The initial effects of TMT in the cochlea, in vivo, are consistent with disruption of the inner hair cell type-1 spiral ganglion cell synapse although it is uncertain whether the effect is on presynaptic and/or postsynaptic units. This synapse is believed to be an excitatory glutamatergic one, providing the possibility that TMT could induce an excitotoxic process resulting in elevations in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). The objective of this study was to determine whether TMT had direct toxic effects on the postsynaptic spiral ganglion cells studied in primary culture and to identify the role of extracellular calcium in such an effect. The marker of interest was the effect of this agent on [Ca2+]i levels as determined using quantitation of the fluorescent calcium dye, Fura-2. TMT did induce a marked and sustained elevation in [Ca2+]i level in the spiral ganglion cells that appeared to have a rapid initial phase and a slower saturating phase. Studies performed using calcium-free medium showed that elevation of [Ca2+]i in spiral ganglion cells by TMT was attenuated but not entirely blocked. Further, the L-type calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, was able to inhibit the initial increase in [Ca2+]i, suggesting that at least this phase of the TMT effect was mediated by calcium channels, although nifedipine had no significant effect on the time to reach the maximal [Ca2+]i level. Parallel control experiments performed using application of exogenous glutamate and depolarizing K+ concentrations also produced elevation in [Ca2+]i levels. The data indicate that TMT elevates [Ca2+]i in isolated spiral ganglion cells both by increasing extracellular uptake via Ca2+ channels and also by releasing Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Thus TMT ototoxicity appears to include a direct postsynaptic toxic event. PMID:8647712

  13. Evidence-based medicine in obstetrics: can levels B and C recommendations be elevated to level A recommendations?

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Suneet P; Chang, Eugene; Brost, Brian; Assel, Barbara; Baxter, Jason; Smith, James A; Grobman, Robert; Berghella, Vincenzo; Scardo, James A; Magann, Everett F; Morrison, John C

    2009-06-01

    In this study, 65% (132/195) of level B/C obstetric recommendations are amenable to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and seven were identified as most needed. The purpose of the survey was to evaluate levels B and C recommendations in obstetric practice bulletins (PBs) regarding the feasibility of performing RCT to elevate each subject to level A evidence. Eleven geographically dispersed physicians with experience in research reviewed levels B and C recommendations for the ethical and logistical feasibility of performing an RCT. In the 35 obstetric PBs, 195 level B/C recommendations were reviewed. The majority considered 47 (24%) topics unethical for an RCT and thought 16 (11%) did not need an RCT, thus leaving 132 (67%) levels B and C recommendations available for an RCT. Two-thirds of levels B and C recommendations in obstetric PB are amenable to RCTs and potentially becoming level A evidence. PMID:27582813

  14. Amyloid beta protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid are elevated in early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Shoji, M; Harigaya, Y; Watanabe, M; Hosoda, K; Cheung, T T; Shaffer, L M; Golde, T E; Younkin, L H; Younkin, S G

    1994-12-01

    The 4-kd amyloid beta protein (A beta) deposited as amyloid in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is produced and released by normal proteolytic processing of the amyloid beta protein precursor (beta APP) and is readily detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Here, we present the levels of A beta in CSF from a total of 95 subjects, including 38 patients with AD, 14 with early-onset AD and 24 with late-onset AD, 25 normal control subjects, and 32 patients with other neurological diseases. The level of A beta decreased with normal aging, and there was a significant elevation in the level of A beta in the CSF of early-onset AD patients (4.14 +/- 1.37 pmol/ml, p < 0.01). Neither Mini-Mental State nor Functional Assessment Staging were correlated with the amount of A beta in the CSF. The A beta/secreted form of beta APP ratio was elevated, but the level of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin in the CSF did not correlate with the level of CSF A beta in early-onset AD patients. Thus, the level of A beta in the CSF is elevated in early-onset AD patients and is suggested to be correlated with the pathology in the brain that characterizes AD. PMID:7998778

  15. Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Lee S. . E-mail: lfriedman@tspri.org; Lukyanova, Elena M.; Kundiev, Yuri I.; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava A.; Chislovska, Nataliya V.; Mucha, Amy; Zvinchuk, Alexander V.; Oliynyk, Irene; Hryhorczuk, Daniel

    2006-09-15

    No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25{mu}g/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21{mu}g/L (range=0.11-0.42{mu}g/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21{mu}g/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries.

  16. Isoprene synthase expression and protein levels are reduced under elevated O3 but not under elevated CO2 (FACE) in field-grown aspen trees.

    PubMed

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Wiberley, Amy E; Falbel, Tanya G; Linskey, Autumn R; Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia; Karnosky, David F; Loreto, Francesco; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2007-05-01

    Emission of hydrocarbons by trees has a crucial role in the oxidizing potential of the atmosphere. In particular, isoprene oxidation leads to the formation of tropospheric ozone and other secondary pollutants. It is expected that changes in the composition of the atmosphere will influence the emission rate of isoprene, which may in turn feedback on the accumulation of pollutants and greenhouse gases. We investigated the isoprene synthase (ISPS) gene expression and the ISPS protein levels in aspen trees exposed to elevated ozone (O(3)) and/or elevated carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in field-grown trees at the Aspen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experimental site. Elevated O(3) reduced ISPS mRNA and the amount of ISPS protein in aspen leaves, whereas elevated CO(2) had no significant effect. Aspen clones with different O(3) sensitivity showed different levels of inhibition under elevated O(3) conditions. The drop in ISPS protein levels induced a drop in the isoprene emission rate under elevated O(3). However, the data indicated that other mechanisms also contributed to the observed strong inhibition of isoprene emission under elevated O(3). PMID:17407542

  17. The relevance of an elevation in the plasma vasopressin levels to the pathogenesis of Meniere's attack.

    PubMed

    Aoki, M; Asai, M; Nishihori, T; Mizuta, K; Ito, Y; Ando, K

    2007-11-01

    An elevation of plasma vasopressin levels has been frequently observed in Meniere's disease patients. However, little is known regarding the mechanism behind this elevation. The plasma vasopressin levels and plasma osmolality were therefore determined in 18 diagnosed Meniere's disease patients and 20 patients with other types of vertigo, who required admission for severe vertigo attacks. All participants were given questionnaires regarding their clinical and psychological status, including their stress levels and depression status, to evaluate environmental stress events. The plasma vasopressin levels of Meniere's disease patients in the acute phase (4.1 +/- 1.37 pg/ml) were significantly higher compared with with those of other vertigo patients in the acute phase (2.1 +/- 0.41 pg/ml) (P < 0.01). The average plasma osmolality of the Meniere's disease group was higher than that of the other vertigo patients group (P < 0.05). No significant difference in reported stress levels, depression status and prevalence of primary headache between the groups was observed. The plasma vasopressin showed no significant correlation with the patients' clinical data (occurrence of emesis or nausea, prevalence of primary headache, depression status and stress). No correlation between the plasma vasopressin and the plasma osmolarity was observed in the Meniere's disease group. These results suggest that the elevation of plasma vasopressin in the acute phase of Meniere's disease is therefore related to the pathogenesis of Meniere's attacks, and the results obtained may provide helpful information for distinguishing between Meniere's disease and other various inner ear diseases.

  18. Impact of elevated CO2 background levels on the host-seeking behaviour of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Shahid; Hill, Sharon Rose; Ignell, Rickard

    2014-02-15

    Mosquitoes rely on carbon dioxide (CO2) to detect and orient towards their blood hosts. However, the variable and rapid fluctuations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations may have an impact on the host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes. In this study, we analysed the effect of transient elevated background levels of CO2 on the host-seeking behaviour and the physiological characteristics of the CO2-sensitive olfactory receptor neurones (ORNs) in female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. We show that the take-off and source contact behaviour of A. aegypti is impeded at elevated background levels of CO2 as a result of masking of the stimulus signal. The mechanism underlying this masking during take-off behaviour is one of sensory constraint. We show that the net response of the CO2-ORNs regulates this CO2-related behaviour. Since these neurones themselves are not habituated or fatigued by the transient elevation of background CO2, we propose that habituation of second-order neurones in response to the elevated CO2-ORN activity could be one mechanism by which the net response is transduced by the olfactory system. The findings from this study may help to predict future shifts in mosquito-host interactions and consequently to predict vectorial capacity in the light of climate change.

  19. Atherogenicity of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Krauss, R M

    1998-02-26

    There is increasing evidence that alterations in metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are of importance in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its clinical consequences. Particles with the characteristics of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnants have been related to the extent and severity of atherosclerosis in humans and in animal models. These particles can be identified using ultracentrifugal procedures as small, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) with Svedberg flotation rates (Sf) of 12-60. Postprandial triglyceride levels also have been related to risk of coronary artery disease, consistent with a pathologic role for remnant lipoproteins. In studies in which measurements of lipoprotein subfractions have been carried out, levels of IDL have been more predictive than low-density lipoprotein (LDL) of atherosclerosis progression as assessed by coronary artery angiography or carotid artery ultrasonography. These findings suggest that a considerable portion of the coronary disease risk attributed to LDL may be accounted for by the IDL particles included in standard LDL measurements. Other metabolic changes associated with increased levels of plasma triglyceride may also adversely affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include reductions in HDL-cholesterol and apoprotein A1, increased levels of small dense LDL particles, redistribution of apoC-III from HDL to apoB-containing lipoproteins, diminished insulin sensitivity, and procoagulant changes, including increased levels of the fibrinolysis inhibitor, plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). A predominance of small dense LDL (subclass pattern B) is a discrete marker for this cluster of interrelated abnormalities and is found in 40-50% of patients with coronary artery disease. Therapeutic interventions with favorable effects on components of this dysmetabolic profile appear to be of value in decreasing atherosclerosis risk in a substantial proportion of

  20. Elevated Progesterone Levels on the Day of Oocyte Maturation May Affect Top Quality Embryo IVF Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; Ren, Xinling; Wu, Li; Zhu, Lixia; Xu, Bei; Li, Yufeng; Ai, Jihui; Jin, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the impact of elevated progesterone on endometrial receptivity, the data on whether increased progesterone levels affects the quality of embryos is still limited. This study retrospectively enrolled 4,236 fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and sought to determine whether increased progesterone is associated with adverse outcomes with regard to top quality embryos (TQE). The results showed that the TQE rate significantly correlated with progesterone levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger (P = 0.009). Multivariate linear regression analysis of factors related to the TQE rate, in conventional IVF cycles, showed that the TQE rate was negatively associated with progesterone concentration on the day of hCG (OR was -1.658, 95% CI: -2.806 to -0.510, P = 0.005). When the serum progesterone level was within the interval 2.0–2.5 ng/ml, the TQE rate was significantly lower (P <0.05) than when the progesterone level was < 1.0 ng/ml; similar results were obtained for serum progesterone levels >2.5 ng/ml. Then, we choose a progesterone level at 1.5ng/ml, 2.0 ng/ml and 2.5 ng/ml as cut-off points to verify this result. We found that the TQE rate was significantly different (P <0.05) between serum progesterone levels < 2.0 ng/ml and >2.0 ng/ml. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly demonstrated a negative effect of elevated progesterone levels on the day of hCG trigger, on TQE rate, regardless of the basal FSH, the total gonadotropin, the age of the woman, or the time of ovarian stimulation. These data demonstrate that elevated progesterone levels (>2.0 ng/ml) before oocyte maturation were consistently detrimental to the oocyte. PMID:26745711

  1. Plasma TGF-β1 Levels Are Elevated in Down Syndrome Infants with Transient Abnormal Myelopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hajime; Go, Hayato; Imamura, Takashi; Sato, Maki; Momoi, Nobuo; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are at risk of developing a transient myeloproliferative disorder during the neonatal period, known as transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM). It is characterized by clonal myeloproliferation and is typically self-limiting. However, TAM can be a life-threatening disorder, when complicated by liver fibrosis. Here, we evaluated cytokine profiles in two male DS infants having TAM with or without liver dysfunction. The first patient, Patient 1, had hyperleukocytosis with cholestatic liver dysfunction, coagulopathy, and increased counts of blasts and was treated with exchange transfusion (ExT) due to the serious general condition. In Patient 1, serum interleukin (IL)-8 and plasma transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels were markedly elevated before ExT (1,518.2 pg/mL and 17,635 pg/mL, respectively). After ExT, serum IL-8 and plasma TGF-β1 levels decreased to 40.7 pg/mL and 6,847 pg/mL, respectively. However, Patient 1 died on day 56 due to cholestatic liver dysfunction; namely, this patient represents fatal TAM. The second patient, Patient 2, had hyperleukocytosis with increased counts of blasts without liver dysfunction and was treated with cytarabine. In Patient 2, plasma TGF-β1 levels, but not plasma IL-8, were elevated (9,068 pg/mL and 28 pg/mL, respectively). Patient 2 was discharged on day 47. In summary, plasma TGF-β1 levels were elevated in the two DS infants with TAM, regardless of the presence or absence of hepatic fibrosis. Importantly, fatal TAM is assoicated with the elevated serum level of IL-8. We thus propose that IL-8 may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. PMID:27546516

  2. Adult Kawasaki's disease with myocarditis, splenomegaly, and highly elevated serum ferritin levels.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Pherez, Francisco M; Alexiadis, Varvara; Gagos, Marios; Strollo, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    erythema. We present a case of adult Kawasaki's disease with myocarditis and splenomegaly. The patient's myocarditis rapidly resolved, and he did not develop coronary artery aneurysms. In addition to splenomegaly, this case of adult Kawasaki's disease is remarkable because the patient had highly elevated serum ferritin levels of 944-1303 ng/mL; (normal<189 ng/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of adult Kawasaki's disease with highly elevated serum ferritin levels. This is also the first report of splenomegaly in adult Kawasaki's disease. We conclude that Kawasaki's disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in adult patients with rash/fever for> or =5 days with conjunctival suffusion, cervical adenopathy, swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet, thrombocytosis and otherwise unexplained highly elevated ferritin levels.

  3. Effect of Elevated Intracellular cAMP Levels on Actomyosin Contraction in Bovine Trabecular Meshwork Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Charanya; Patil, Rajkumar V.; Sharif, Najam A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Elevated cAMP in the trabecular meshwork (TM) cells increases the aqueous humor outflow facility. The authors investigated the mechanisms by which elevated cAMP opposes the RhoA-Rho kinase pathway, leading to the relaxation of the actomyosin system in bovine TM cells. Methods. Forskolin (Fsk) and rolipram were used to elevate cAMP levels. Changes in the phosphorylation of RhoA at Ser188 (a putative inhibitory site), the regulatory light chain of myosin (pMLC), and the regulatory subunit of myosin phosphatase (MYPT1) were determined by Western blot analysis. The actomyosin contraction was measured by collagen gel contraction (CGC) assay. The impact of cAMP on cell-matrix adhesion was followed by immunostaining of focal adhesion proteins and by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. Results. Elevated cAMP led to an increase in the phosphorylation of RhoA at Ser188, to the inhibition of endothelin-1 (ET-1)–induced activation of RhoA, and to the formation of stress fibers. The loss of pMLC along the stress fibers was comparable to that induced by Y-27632 (Rho kinase inhibitor). A concomitant reduction in both MYPT1 phosphorylation and pMLC was observed. Elevated cAMP also reduced (ET-1)–induced CGC and the cell-substrate resistance by >50%. Conclusions. In TM cells, elevated cAMP leads to the phosphorylation of RhoA at Ser188. Consequent inhibition of RhoA activity reduces the phosphorylation of MYPT1 at Thr853, leading to a reduction in MLC phosphorylation and actomyosin contraction. These actions, similar to those of the Rho kinase inhibitors, possibly underlie the reported increase in outflow facility in response to Fsk perfusion ex vivo. PMID:21071747

  4. Indoor firing ranges and elevated blood lead levels - United States, 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Beaucham, Catherine; Page, Elena; Alarcon, Walter A; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Methner, Mark; Schoonover, Todd M

    2014-04-25

    Indoor firing ranges are a source of lead exposure and elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) among employees, their families, and customers, despite public health outreach efforts and comprehensive guidelines for controlling occupational lead exposure. There are approximately 16,000-18,000 indoor firing ranges in the United States, with tens of thousands of employees. Approximately 1 million law enforcement officers train on indoor ranges. To estimate how many adults had elevated BLLs (≥10 µg/dL) as a result of exposure to lead from shooting firearms, data on elevated BLLs from the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program managed by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) were examined by source of lead exposure. During 2002-2012, a total of 2,056 persons employed in the categories "police protection" and "other amusement and recreation industries (including firing ranges)" had elevated BLLs reported to ABLES; an additional 2,673 persons had non-work-related BLLs likely attributable to target shooting. To identify deficiencies at two indoor firing ranges linked to elevated BLLs, the Washington State Division of Occupational Safety and Health (WaDOSH) and NIOSH conducted investigations in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The WaDOSH investigation found a failure to conduct personal exposure and biologic monitoring for lead and also found dry sweeping of lead-containing dust. The NIOSH investigation found serious deficiencies in ventilation, housekeeping, and medical surveillance. Public health officials and clinicians should ask about occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating findings of elevated BLLs. Interventions for reducing lead exposure in firing ranges include using lead-free bullets, improving ventilation, and using wet mopping or high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) vacuuming to clean. PMID:24759656

  5. Plasma levels of the chemokines monocyte chemotactic proteins-1 and -2 are elevated in human sepsis.

    PubMed

    Bossink, A W; Paemen, L; Jansen, P M; Hack, C E; Thijs, L G; Van Damme, J

    1995-11-15

    Because of their effects on monocytes, monocyte chemotactic proteins-1 and -2 (MCP-1 and MCP-2) may participate in the pathophysiology of sepsis. We measured circulating MCP-1 and MCP-2 levels in 42 septic patients having positive local or blood cultures. MCP-1 and MCP-2 levels were elevated in 24 (57%) and 25 (59%) of 42 septic patients, respectively, compared with healthy volunteers. Both patients with gram-positive and gram-negative infections had elevated MCP-1 plasma levels (P = .0001) and P < .0001), respectively; Mann-Whitney-U test), whereas patients with gram-positive infection, but not those with gram-negative infection, had increased MCP-2 plasma levels (P= .0182). No relative differences in MCP-1 and MCP-2 plasma levels were observed between several subgroups of patients (sepsis v septic shock; survivors v nonsurvivors), although levels of MCP-1 were the highest in patients with the more severe forms of sepsis, ie, those with shock or a lethal outcome. Serial observations showed that MCP-1 and MCP-2 plasma levels remained elevated for at least 48 hours. MCP-1 correlated weakly with interleukin-8 and MCP-2, the correlations for which were most pronounced in patients with septic shock. MCP-2 correlated with interleukin-8, and surprisingly, with the complement activation product C3a; these correlations further improved when analyzing patients with septic shock or when applying gram-positive infections. Thus, our results not only show increased MCP-1 and MCP-2 levels in patients with sepsis, but also suggest that the synthesis and release of MCP-1 and MCP-2 in sepsis are differently regulated in part.

  6. Autistic children display elevated urine levels of bovine casomorphin-7 immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Oleg; Kost, Natalya; Andreeva, Olga; Korneeva, Ekaterina; Meshavkin, Viktor; Tarakanova, Yulia; Dadayan, Aleksander; Zolotarev, Yurii; Grachev, Sergei; Mikheeva, Inna; Varlamov, Oleg; Zozulya, Andrey

    2014-06-01

    Elevated concentrations of circulating casomorphins (CM), the exogenous opioid peptides from milk casein, may contribute to the pathogenesis of autism in children. Because several mass spectrometry studies failed to detect casomorphins in autistic children, it was questioned whether these peptides can be detected in body fluids by mass spec. Here we demonstrated, using a novel high sensitivity ELISA method, that autistic children have significantly higher levels of urine CM-7 than control children. The severity of autistic symptoms correlated with concentrations of CM-7 in the urine. Because CMs interact with opioid and serotonin receptors, the known modulators of synaptogenesis, we suggest that chronic exposure to elevated levels of bovine CMs may impair early child development, setting the stage for autistic disorders. PMID:24657283

  7. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants

    PubMed Central

    Moya-Alvarez, Violeta; Mireku, Michael Osei; Ayotte, Pierre; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elevated blood lead levels (BLL) and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far. Materials and Methods Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed. Results At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83), and 128 infants (63%) had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%). Twenty-five infants (12.5%) had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L). Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048) and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03) in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators. Conclusion Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs) according to the

  8. Elevated Level of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Search for a Malignancy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Asad-Ur-Rahman, Fnu; Saif, Muhammad W

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been shown to be associated with tumor burden in patients with colorectal cancer. However, it is also elevated to a significant degree in a number of other malignant and non-malignant conditions. We report a case of reversible CEA elevation in a patient using lithium for bipolar disorder. A 58-year-old female with a longstanding smoking history and a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bipolar illness, hypothyroidism, and obesity was found to have an elevated CEA level of 11.2 ng/ml (normal level <5 ng/ml) in the workup for postmenopausal bleeding. Her history was not positive for malignancy of colorectum, ovaries, thyroid, or breast.  She underwent a large number of imaging and endoscopic studies to evaluate for colorectal, breast, ovarian, and lung cancer; however, it did not reveal any evidence of malignancy. Upon review of her medications, she reported that she had recently started lithium for her bipolar illness. We followed up her CEA level while her dose of lithium was reduced from 450 to 300 mg per day. Her CEA level decreased from 25 mg/dl to 6.1 mg/dl and remained stable over the course of the next eight months. Our case is the first case report that identifies lithium as a potential cause of reversible CEA elevation. The underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated, but it underscores the importance of investigating the medications as part of the workup. PMID:27446768

  9. Elevated Level of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Search for a Malignancy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Muhammad W

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been shown to be associated with tumor burden in patients with colorectal cancer. However, it is also elevated to a significant degree in a number of other malignant and non-malignant conditions. We report a case of reversible CEA elevation in a patient using lithium for bipolar disorder. A 58-year-old female with a longstanding smoking history and a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bipolar illness, hypothyroidism, and obesity was found to have an elevated CEA level of 11.2 ng/ml (normal level <5 ng/ml) in the workup for postmenopausal bleeding. Her history was not positive for malignancy of colorectum, ovaries, thyroid, or breast.  She underwent a large number of imaging and endoscopic studies to evaluate for colorectal, breast, ovarian, and lung cancer; however, it did not reveal any evidence of malignancy. Upon review of her medications, she reported that she had recently started lithium for her bipolar illness. We followed up her CEA level while her dose of lithium was reduced from 450 to 300 mg per day. Her CEA level decreased from 25 mg/dl to 6.1 mg/dl and remained stable over the course of the next eight months. Our case is the first case report that identifies lithium as a potential cause of reversible CEA elevation. The underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated, but it underscores the importance of investigating the medications as part of the workup. PMID:27446768

  10. Decreased body fat, elevated plasma transforming growth factor-β levels, and impaired BMP4-like signaling in biglycan-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tao; Thompson, Joel C.; Wilson, Patricia G.; Nelson, Christina; Williams, Kevin Jon; Tannock, Lisa R.

    2015-01-01

    Biglycan (BGN), a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, binds the pro-fibrotic cytokine TGFβ and inhibits its bioactivity in vitro. Nevertheless, it is controversial whether BGN plays an inhibitory role in vivo. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of BGN deficiency on TGFβ activity in vivo by studying one-year-old Bgn null and wildtype mice on an Ldlr-null background. Phenotypic and metabolic characterization showed that the Bgn null mice had lower body weight, shorter body length and shorter femur length (all p<0.05). Surprisingly, the Bgn null mice also exhibited a striking reduction in percent body fat compared to wildtype mice (p=0.006), but no changes were observed in plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, or glycohemoglobin. Both total and bioactive TGFβ1 concentrations in plasma were markedly elevated in Bgn null mice compared to wildtype mice (4-fold and 11-fold increase, respectively, both p<0.001), but no changes were found in hepatic levels of mRNA for Tgfβ1 or its receptors. Bgn null mice exhibited elevated expression of hepatic fibronectin protein (p=0.034) without changes in hepatic or renal histology, and Bgn null mice had decreased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (p=0.01). Two key downstream targets of bone morphorgenic protein (BMP) 4 signaling, SMAD1/3/5 phosphorylation and Id2 gene expression, were found dramatically reduced in Bgn null livers (p=0.034). Thus, BGN deficiency decreases body fat in this hyperlipidemic mouse model without changing liver or kidney histology. Overall, we propose that this unexpected phenotype arises from effects of BGN deficiency in vivo to elevate TGFβ levels while decreasing BMP4-like signaling. PMID:22834985

  11. Decreased body fat, elevated plasma transforming growth factor-β levels, and impaired BMP4-like signaling in biglycan-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tao; Thompson, Joel C; Wilson, Patricia G; Nelson, Christina; Williams, Kevin Jon; Tannock, Lisa R

    2013-01-01

    Biglycan (BGN), a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, binds the pro-fibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and inhibits its bioactivity in vitro. Nevertheless, it is controversial whether BGN plays an inhibitory role in vivo. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of BGN deficiency on TGFβ activity in vivo by studying 1-year-old Bgn null and wild-type (WT) mice on an Ldlr-null background. Phenotypic and metabolic characterization showed that the Bgn null mice had lower body weight, shorter body length, and shorter femur length (all p < 0.05). Surprisingly, the Bgn null mice also exhibited a striking reduction in percent body fat compared to WT mice (p == 0.006), but no changes were observed in plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, or glycohemoglobin. Both total and bioactive TGFβ1 concentrations in plasma were markedly elevated in Bgn null mice compared to WT mice (4-fold and 11-fold increase, respectively, both p < 0.001), but no changes were found in hepatic levels of mRNA for Tgfβ1 or its receptors. Bgn null mice exhibited elevated expression of hepatic fibronectin protein (p = 0.034) without changes in hepatic or renal histology, and Bgn null mice had decreased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (p = 0.01). Two key downstream targets of bone morphogenetic protein 4-like signaling, SMAD1/3/5 phosphorylation and Id2 gene expression, were found dramatically reduced in Bgn null livers (p = 0.034). Thus, BGN deficiency decreases body fat in this hyperlipidemic mouse model without changing liver or kidney histology. Overall, we propose that this unexpected phenotype arises from the effects of BGN deficiency in vivo to elevate TGFβ levels while decreasing bone morphogenetic protein 4-like signaling.

  12. Serum levels of the homeostatic B cell chemokine, CXCL13, are elevated during HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Widney, Daniel P; Breen, Elizabeth C; Boscardin, W John; Kitchen, Scott G; Alcantar, Juan M; Smith, Jeffrey B; Zack, Jerome A; Detels, Roger; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel

    2005-11-01

    HIV infection is associated with B cell dysfunction, which includes B cell hyperactivation, hypergammaglobulinemia, impaired production of antibodies against specific antigens, and a loss of B cell memory. Because lymph node architecture is progressively destroyed during HIV infection, it is possible that normal B cell trafficking is impaired as well, which could be a cause or a result of these abnormalities. Because the homeostatic chemokine, CXCL13 (BLC, BCA-1), is a major regulator of B cell trafficking, we assessed circulating levels of this molecule in HIV infection. Serum levels of CXCL13 were seen to be progressively elevated in HIV disease. Serum levels of CXCL13 correlated strongly with those of the inflammation-associated chemokine, inducible protein-10 (IP-10), in subjects who had advanced HIV disease, and more moderately with levels of soluble CD30 (sCD30), sCD27, and sCD23. CXCL13 levels also correlated moderately with viral load and showed a significant decline after use of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Elevated levels of CXCL13 could cause impaired or altered trafficking of B cells during HIV infection and could contribute to the previously reported loss of CXCR5, the receptor for CXCL13, from the surface of circulating B cells in HIV infection. PMID:16318584

  13. Differential diagnosis of elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels: a rheumatology perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bitik, Berivan; Mercan, Rıdvan; Tufan, Abdurrahman; Tezcan, Engin; Küçük, Hamit; İlhan, Mustafa; Öztürk, Mehmet Akif; Haznedaroğlu, Seminur; Göker, Berna

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the case of high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, the diagnosis of the underlying disease can be challenging especially in serologically unrevealing patients who have nonspecific clinical findings. We aimed to investigate the final distribution of definitive diagnoses in patients who initially presented with nonspecific clinical findings and sustained elevations in serum ESR/CRP levels. Material and Methods The medical records of patients hospitalized in a rheumatology clinic between January 2010 and January 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were classified into two main groups: those with previously diagnosed underlying rheumatic disease (RD) and those without. The groups were analyzed for the final distribution of definitive diagnoses. Results Out of 112 patients in the general study population, 47 had a previous RD and 65 had no previous history of RD. In these 65 patients, the most common etiology of nonspecific elevations in ESR/CRP levels was new onset RD (52.3%). Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) was the most common new onset RD (38% of all new onset RD) followed by seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. The incidences of infections and malignancies were 24.6% and 9.2%, respectively. CRP levels were significantly higher in infections when compared with new onset RD or malignancies (p<0.05). In patients with previous RD, the flare of the underlying disease was the most common etiology of nonspecific elevations in ESR/CRP levels (n=39, 83%, 20 female/19 male). Conclusion Extraordinarily high levels of serum CRP in a patient with nonspecific clinical findings should raise suspicion for non-rheumatic diagnoses, such as infection and malignancy, even in the presence of a previously diagnosed RD. Advanced radiological investigation is justified in these cases to rule out malignancy.

  14. Prader-Willi syndrome with elevated follicle stimulating hormone levels and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nagai, T; Mimura, N; Tomizawa, T; Monden, T; Mori, M

    1998-12-01

    A 21 -year-old man with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) was hospitalized due to hyperglycemia. After diet therapy and transient insulin administration, his blood glucose levels improved. Based on the fact that his urinary C-peptide levels increased, the diabetes mellitus may have been due to insulin resistance with obesity. In addition, his testes had become atrophied. Testosterone levels remained low even after human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administration. Luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were also low after LH releasing hormone (LHRH) administration. The LH response increased slightly after daily LHRH administration, indicating hypothalamic hypogonadism. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were, however, high and increased after LHRH administration. The selective FSH elevation may have been due to the accompanying idiopathic oligospermia. PMID:9932637

  15. Effects of intermittent flow and irradiance level on back reef Porites corals at elevated seawater temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.W.; Birkeland, C.

    2007-01-01

    Corals inhabiting shallow back reef habitats are often simultaneously exposed to elevated seawater temperatures and high irradiance levels, conditions known to cause coral bleaching. Water flow in many tropical back reef systems is tidally influenced, resulting in semi-diurnal or diurnal flow patterns. Controlled experiments were conducted to test effects of semi-diurnally intermittent water flow on photoinhibition and bleaching of the corals Porites lobata and P. cylindrica kept at elevated seawater temperatures and different irradiance levels. All coral colonies were collected from a shallow back reef pool on Ofu Island, American Samoa. In the high irradiance experiments, photoinhibition and bleaching were less for both species in the intermittent high-low flow treatment than in the constant low flow treatment. In the low irradiance experiments, there were no differences in photoinhibition or bleaching for either species between the flow treatments, despite continuously elevated seawater temperatures. These results suggest that intermittent flow associated with semi-diurnal tides, and low irradiances caused by turbidity or shading, may reduce photoinhibition and bleaching of back reef corals during warming events. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Persistent elevation of CA 19-9 levels in a patient with an extended retroperitoneal dermoid.

    PubMed

    Micke, O; Schafer, U; Willich, N

    1999-01-01

    CA 19-9 has been established as sensitive tumor marker in a variety of malignant diseases, especially in carcinomas of the exocrine pancreas. The specificity of CA 19-9 is limited by many benign diseases causing abnormal values. A case of a patient with a retroperitoneal dermoid showing high serum levels of CA 19-9 will be described. The patient suffered from a large retroperitoneal mass (7 x 6 x 9 cm). A CT-guided fine needle biopsy of the tumor was performed and the histology was compatible with a benign dermoid. The CT-scans of the abdomen showed also the typical features of a dermoid. Tumor markers and lab counts stayed in the normal range except CA 19-9, which was constantly elevated with value between 131 and 329 U/ml. A benign or malignant disorder was excluded. An immunoscintigraphy and a SPECT with a I-131-labeled monoclonal antibody against CA 19-9 revealed the retroperitoneal mass as the source of the CA 19-9 elevation. This is the first case described in English scientific literature of a retroperitoneal dermoid (benign teratoma) as a source of a persistently elevated level of CA 19-9.

  17. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common va...

  18. Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrell, J. R.; Zuber, M. T.

    2000-08-01

    Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation of the northern polar cap. Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) provide comprehensive, high-accuracy topographical information required to precisely determine polar insolation. In this study, we employ a geodetic elevation model to quantify the north polar insolation and consider implications for seasonal and climatic changes. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  19. Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrell, J. R.; Zuber, M. T.

    2000-01-01

    Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation of the northern polar cap. Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) provide comprehensive, high-accuracy topographical information required to precisely determine polar insolation. In this study, we employ a geodetic elevation model to quantify the north polar insolation and consider implications for seasonal and climatic changes. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  20. Measures for the reduction of the noise and vibration level of apartment house elevators. [changes in construction and insulation measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enescu, N.; Munteanu, M.; Stan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The reduction of the level of elevator noise and vibrations in apartment buildings was studied. By improving the mounting and gearing conditions of the winch and soundproofing the winch chamber, as well as by covering the elevator's control panel, the noise and vibration level was appreciably reduced.

  1. Surface Elevation, Carbon Sequestration Potential and Rising sea Levels in Estuarine Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, J. F.; Howe, A.; Saco, P. M.

    2007-12-01

    Estuarine wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth, providing habitat for commercially important fish species and migratory shorebirds, serving as nurseries for many other marine organisms and supporting the productivity of adjacent coastal waters. Typically, these wetlands are driven by tidal hydrodynamics and are net sinks for sediment and soil carbon. Their distribution in the tidal frame depends on a delicate balance between topographic gradient, the rate of vertical soil development, and the rate of sea level change. The complex interactions between hydrodynamics, ecology and soil processes that govern this balance produce positive feedbacks and system self-organization. As complex systems, these wetlands demonstrate resilience under a wide range of conditions but they have been observed to collapse or move to another equilibrium state above certain thresholds. Research at a wetland in the Hunter estuary, southeast Australia has tracked changes in relative sea level and surface elevation in mangrove and saltmarsh wetlands over a five year period (2002- 2006) and soil carbon over a two year period (2005-2006). Mangrove surface elevation was strongly correlated with relative sea level (R2=0.715, p=0.004) but there was no correlation between relative sea level and saltmarsh surface elevation (R2=0.093, p=0.424). Soil carbon levels were high in both vegetation types (% loss on ignition of 16.2% and 18.8% for mangrove and saltmarsh soils, respectively) and not significantly different (ANOVA F=1.36, p=0.270). A 16% increase in soil carbon was recorded in each vegetation type over the period 2005-2006. Mean annual sea level rose by 55 mm and net annual precipitation (rainfall minus evaporation) fell by 189 mm over the same period. The ability of mangrove to respond rapidly to changes in relative sea level and the indicative positive trend between soil carbon and relative sea level suggest that this wetland type is both resilient to future sea level

  2. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj

    2014-09-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3 were measured in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of BDNF and NT-3 were evaluated in various affective states in bipolar disorder patients during a 6-12 months period and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Careful attention was given to standardization of all procedures and adjustment for potential confounders of BDNF and NT-3. In linear mixed models, adjusting for demographical and lifestyle factors, levels of BDNF were significantly elevated in bipolar disorder patients in euthymic- (p<0.05), depressed- (p<0.005) and manic/hypomanic (p<0.005) states compared with healthy control subjects. Within bipolar disorder patients, adjusting for medication, there was no significant difference in BDNF levels between affective states, with equally elevated levels present in euthymic-, depressive- and manic/hypomanic patients. Levels of BDNF were higher in patients with longer duration of illness compared with patients with shorter duration of illness. We found no difference in NT-3 levels between bipolar disorder patients in any affective state compared with healthy control subjects and no difference in NT-3 levels between affective states in bipolar disorder patients. The results suggest that

  3. Barrier island response to an elevated sea-level anomaly: Onslow Beach, North Carolina, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, E. J.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Fegley, S. R.; Luettich, R.

    2012-12-01

    Variations in sea level over time scales ranging from hours to millennia influence coastal processes and evolution. At annual time scales, elevated sea-level anomalies produce coastal flooding and promote beach erosion. This study examines the coastal response of Onslow Beach, North Carolina to the summer 2009 East Coast sea-level anomaly. Onslow Beach is a 12-km-long wave-dominated barrier island with highly variable along-barrier morphology. The transgressive southern portion of the island is characterized by a narrow beach, low dunes, and multiple washover fans, while the regressive northern portion is characterized by a wide beach and continuous tall dunes. Hourly tide gauge data from adjacent NOAA stations (Beaufort and Wrightsville Beach) are used to determine the timing and extent of elevated water levels. The seasonal and longer term trends (relative sea level rise) are removed from both of the water level series and the sea-level anomaly is represented by a large residual between the observed and predicted water levels. Beach response is quantified using terrestrial laser scanning for morphology and from geoprobe cores to determine the maximum depth of erosion (MDOE). The mean high water (MHW) shoreline and dune toe are digitized from digital elevation models derived from the laser scans and analyzed using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS). Landward (negative) movement of these contacts indicates erosion. Wave data collected from an Acoustic Wave and Current Meter (AWAC) located offshore of the southern end of Onslow Beach is used to characterize the wave regime throughout the study. Water level is elevated in the tide gauge data from June 2009 to March 2010. This sea-level anomaly corresponds with an increase in the maximum depth of erosion between 2009 and 2010. Landward movement of the MHW shoreline and the dunetoe increased during the period between September 2009 and May 2010 indicating an increase in beach erosion during the sea-level

  4. Novel polymeric materials from triglycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triglycerides are good platforms for new polymeric products that can substitute for petroleum-based materials. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a number of reactions in efforts to produce a wide range of value-added products. In this ...

  5. The Effects of Dietary Iron and Capsaicin on Hemoglobin, Blood Glucose, Insulin Tolerance, Cholesterol, and Triglycerides, in Healthy and Diabetic Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Villalpando-Hernández, Salvador; Ríos-Silva, Mónica; Díaz-Reval, María I.; Cruzblanca, Humberto; Mancilla, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to assess the effects of dietary iron, and the compound capsaicin, on hemoglobin as well as metabolic indicators including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Materials and Methods Our animal model was the Wistar rat, fed a chow diet, with or without experimentally induced diabetes. Diabetic males were fed control, low, or high-iron diets, the latter, with or without capsaicin. Healthy rats were fed identical diets, but without the capsaicin supplement. We then measured the parameters listed above, using the Student t-test and ANOVA, to compare groups. Results Healthy rats fed a low-iron diet exhibited significantly reduced total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, compared with rats fed a control diet. Significantly reduced blood lipid was also provoked by low dietary iron in diabetic rats, compared with those fed a control diet. Insulin, and glucose tolerance was only improved in healthy rats fed the low-iron diet. Significant increases in total cholesterol were found in diabetic rats fed a high-iron diet, compared with healthy rats fed the same diet, although no statistical differences were found for triglycerides. Hemoglobin levels, which were not statistically different in diabetic versus healthy rats fed the high-iron diet, fell when capsaicin was added. Capsaicin also provoked a fall in the level of cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetic animals, versus diabetics fed with the high iron diet alone. In conclusion, low levels of dietary iron reduced levels of serum triglycerides, hemoglobin, and cholesterol, and significantly improved insulin, and glucose tolerance in healthy rats. In contrast, a high-iron diet increased cholesterol significantly, with no significant changes to triglyceride concentrations. The addition of capsaicin to the high-iron diet (for diabetic rats) further reduced levels of hemoglobin, cholesterol, and triglycerides. These results suggest that capsaicin, may be suitable

  6. Elevated circulating levels of betatrophin are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Calan, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Ozgur; Kume, Tuncay; Unal Kocabas, Gokcen; Yesil Senses, Pinar; Senses, Yasar Mehmet; Temur, Muzaffer; Gursoy Calan, Ozlem

    2016-07-01

    Betatrophin is a newly identified hormone determined to be a potent inducer of pancreatic beta cell proliferation in response to insulin resistance in mice. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an inflammatory-based metabolic disease associated with insulin resistance. However, no evidence is available indicating whether betatrophin is involved in women with PCOS. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether betatrophin levels are altered in women with PCOS. This study was conducted in secondary referral center. This cross-sectional study included 164 women with PCOS and 164 age- and BMI-matched female controls. Circulating betatrophin levels were measured using ELISA. Metabolic and hormonal parameters were also determined. Circulating betatrophin levels were significantly elevated in women with PCOS compared with controls (367.09 ± 55.78 vs. 295.65 ± 48.97 pg/ml, P < 0.001). Betatrophin levels were positively correlated with insulin resistance marker homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), free-testosterone, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), atherogenic lipid profiles, and BMI in PCOS. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the odds ratio for PCOS was 2.51 for patients in the highest quartile of betatrophin compared with those in the lowest quartile (95 % CI 1.31-4.81, P = 0.006). Multivariate regression analyses showed that HOMA-IR, hs-CRP, and free-testosterone were independent factors influencing serum betatrophin levels. Betatrophin levels were increased in women with PCOS and were associated with insulin resistance, hs-CRP, and free-testosterone in these patients. Elevated betatrophin levels were found to increase the odds of having PCOS. Further research is needed to elucidate the physiologic and pathologic significance of our findings. PMID:26832343

  7. Effects of elevated CO(2) levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan; Tang, Shi-rong; Ju, Xue-hai; Shu, Li-na; Tu, Shu-xing; Feng, Ren-wei; Giusti, Lorenzino

    2011-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO(2) levels and cadmium (Cd) on the root morphological traits and Cd accumulation in Lolium multiflorum Lam. and Lolium perenne L. exposed to two CO(2) levels (360 and 1 000 μl/L) and three Cd levels (0, 4, and 16 mg/L) under hydroponic conditions. The results show that elevated levels of CO(2) increased shoot biomass more, compared to root biomass, but decreased Cd concentrations in all plant tissues. Cd exposure caused toxicity to both Lolium species, as shown by the restrictions of the root morphological parameters including root length, surface area, volume, and tip numbers. These parameters were significantly higher under elevated levels of CO(2) than under ambient CO(2), especially for the number of fine roots. The increases in magnitudes of those parameters triggered by elevated levels of CO(2) under Cd stress were more than those under non-Cd stress, suggesting an ameliorated Cd stress under elevated levels of CO(2). The total Cd uptake per pot, calculated on the basis of biomass, was significantly greater under elevated levels of CO(2) than under ambient CO(2). Ameliorated Cd toxicity, decreased Cd concentration, and altered root morphological traits in both Lolium species under elevated levels of CO(2) may have implications in food safety and phytoremediation.

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress*

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yan; Tang, Shi-rong; Ju, Xue-hai; Shu, Li-na; Tu, Shu-xing; Feng, Ren-wei; Giusti, Lorenzino

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO2 levels and cadmium (Cd) on the root morphological traits and Cd accumulation in Lolium multiflorum Lam. and Lolium perenne L. exposed to two CO2 levels (360 and 1000 μl/L) and three Cd levels (0, 4, and 16 mg/L) under hydroponic conditions. The results show that elevated levels of CO2 increased shoot biomass more, compared to root biomass, but decreased Cd concentrations in all plant tissues. Cd exposure caused toxicity to both Lolium species, as shown by the restrictions of the root morphological parameters including root length, surface area, volume, and tip numbers. These parameters were significantly higher under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2, especially for the number of fine roots. The increases in magnitudes of those parameters triggered by elevated levels of CO2 under Cd stress were more than those under non-Cd stress, suggesting an ameliorated Cd stress under elevated levels of CO2. The total Cd uptake per pot, calculated on the basis of biomass, was significantly greater under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2. Ameliorated Cd toxicity, decreased Cd concentration, and altered root morphological traits in both Lolium species under elevated levels of CO2 may have implications in food safety and phytoremediation. PMID:21462388

  9. Identification of the source of elevated hepatocyte growth factor levels in multiple myeloma patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine which can lead to cancer cell proliferation, migration and metastasis. In multiple myeloma (MM) patients it is an abundant component of the bone marrow. HGF levels are elevated in 50% of patients and associated with poor prognosis. Here we aim to investigate its source in myeloma. Methods HGF mRNA levels in bone marrow core biopsies from healthy individuals and myeloma patients were quantified by real-time PCR. HGF gene expression profiling in CD138+ cells isolated from bone marrow aspirates of healthy individuals and MM patients was performed by microarray analysis. HGF protein concentrations present in peripheral blood of MM patients were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cytogenetic status of CD138+ cells was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA sequencing of the HGF gene promoter. HGF secretion in co-cultures of human myeloma cell lines and bone marrow stromal cells was measured by ELISA. Results HGF gene expression profiling in both bone marrow core biopsies and CD138+ cells showed elevated HGF mRNA levels in myeloma patients. HGF mRNA levels in biopsies and in myeloma cells correlated. Quantification of HGF protein levels in serum also correlated with HGF mRNA levels in CD138+ cells from corresponding patients. Cytogenetic analysis showed myeloma cell clones with HGF copy numbers between 1 and 3 copies. There was no correlation between HGF copy number and HGF mRNA levels. Co-cultivation of the human myeloma cell lines ANBL-6 and JJN3 with bone marrow stromal cells or the HS-5 cell line resulted in a significant increase in secreted HGF. Conclusions We here show that in myeloma patients HGF is primarily produced by malignant plasma cells, and that HGF production by these cells might be supported by the bone marrow microenvironment. Considering the fact that elevated HGF serum and plasma levels predict poor prognosis, these findings are of

  10. Nitrate retention in riparian ground water at natural and elevated nitrate levels in north central Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Duff, John H; Jackman, Alan P; Triska, Frank J; Sheibley, Richard W; Avanzino, Ronald J

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between local ground water flows and NO(3)(-) transport to the channel was examined in three well transects from a natural, wooded riparian zone adjacent to the Shingobee River, MN. The hillslope ground water originated as recharge from intermittently grazed pasture up slope of the site. In the hillslope transect perpendicular to the stream, ground water NO(3)(-) concentrations decreased from approximately 3 mg N L(-1) beneath the ridge (80 m from the channel) to 0.01 to 1.0 mg N L(-1) at wells 1 to 3 m from the channel. The Cl(-) concentrations and NO(3)/Cl ratios decreased toward the channel indicating NO(3)(-) dilution and biotic retention. In the bankside well transect parallel to the stream, two distinct ground water environments were observed: an alluvial environment upstream of a relict beaver dam influenced by stream water and a hillslope environment downstream of the relict beaver dam. Nitrate was elevated to levels representative of agricultural runoff in a third well transect located approximately 5 m from the stream to assess the effectiveness of the riparian zone as a NO(3)(-) sink. Subsurface NO(3)(-) injections revealed transport of up to 15 mg N L(-1) was nearly conservative in the alluvial riparian environment. Addition of glucose stimulated dissolved oxygen uptake and promoted NO(3)(-) retention under both background and elevated NO(3)(-) levels in summer and winter. Disappearance of added NO(3)(-) was followed by transient NO(2)(-) formation and, in the presence of C(2)H(2), by N(2)O formation, demonstrating potential denitrification. Under current land use, most NO(3)(-) associated with local ground water is biotically retained or diluted before reaching the channel. However, elevating NO(3)(-) levels through agricultural cultivation would likely result in increased NO(3)(-) transport to the channel.

  11. Nitrate retention in riparian ground water at natural and elevated nitrate levels in North Central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duff, J.H.; Jackman, A.P.; Triska, F.J.; Sheibley, R.W.; Avanzino, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between local ground water flows and NO3- transport to the channel was examined in three well transects from a natural, wooded riparian zone adjacent to the Shingobee River, MN. The hillslope ground water originated as recharge from intermittently grazed pasture up slope of the site. In the hillslope transect perpendicular to the stream, ground water NO3- concentrations decreased from ???3 mg N L-1 beneath the ridge (80 m from the channel) to 0.01 to 1.0 mg N L-1 at wells 1 to 3 m from the channel. The Cl- concentrations and NO3/Cl ratios decreased toward the channel indicating NO3- dilution and biotic retention. In the bankside well transect parallel to the stream, two distinct ground water environments were observed: an alluvial environment upstream of a relict beaver dam influenced by stream water and a hillslope environment downstream of the relict beaver dam. Nitrate was elevated to levels representative of agricultural runoff in a third well transect looted ???5 m from the stream to assess the effectiveness of the riparian zone as a NO3- sink. Subsurface NO3- injections revealed transport of up to 15 mg N L-1 was nearly conservative in the alluvial riparian environment. Addition of glucose stimulated dissolved oxygen uptake and promoted NO3- retention under both background and elevated NO 3- levels in summer and winter. Disappearance of added NO3- was followed by transient NO2- formation and, in the presence of C2H2, by N2O formation, demonstrating potential denitrification. Under current land use, most NO3- associated with local ground water is biotically retained or diluted before reaching the channel. However, elevating NO 3- levels through agricultural cultivation would likely result in increased NO3- transport to the channel. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  12. The ontogeny of individual vs. stand-level responses to elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1994-06-01

    Plant species appear to differ widely in terms of growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2]; however, most existing comparative data are limited to observations made early in the ontogeny on plants grown an isolated individuals. We examined growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2] in nine species of herbaceous plants, including three erect annuals (genera included Abutilon, Ambrosia, and Cassia) three grasses (Dactylis, Lolium, Panicum), and three rosette species (Plantago, Rumex, and Taraxacum), each grown as isolated individuals and as dense monocultures in ambient (350 ppm) and 2X ambient (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] atmospheres in a glasshouse over 5-6 mo. Soil texture, depth, and nutrient conditions matched those of waste areas in western Massachusetts. On the basis of non-destructive estimates of leaf area index (LAI), all species exhibited large early growth responses to CO[sub 2], ranging up to 50-120%. However, later in stand ontogeny LAI consistently converged between CO[sub 2] treatments, eventually becoming lower at ambient than at elevated CO[sub 2] in most species. Final total biomass effects at the stand level were in the range of 0-10% enhancements, with no consistent differences among growth forms. Reproductive output was significantly reduced by elevated CO[sub 2] in several species, including some with very high early growth enhancements. Our results strongly suggest that CO[sub 2] effects on early growth of individual plants greatly overestimate longer term effects on species performance and net ecosystem carbon gain.

  13. Effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein A-V levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein (apo A-V) levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism. Methods We genotyped the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism in 203 Korean individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes for the TT (n = 91), TC (n = 98), and CC (n = 14) alleles. Plasma apo A-V and triglyceride levels were evaluated at baseline and after a 3-year dietary intervention. Results Our results showed that HDL, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR index, free fatty acids, and apo A-V decreased and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased at the 3-year follow-up visit compared with baseline. Plasma apo A-V levels were reduced in subjects with the C allele (TC or CC) (P = 0.036) and triglyceride levels were reduced in subjects with the TT allele (P = 0.047). Subjects with the C allele showed lower post-treatment apo A-V and higher post-treatment fasting triglyceride levels than subjects with the TT allele. Changes in apo A-V and triglyceride levels were negatively correlated in subjects with the TT allele and positively correlated in subjects with the C allele. Conclusions This study showed that the dietary intervention prevented an age-related increase in triglyceride levels in individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes who possess the TT allele, but not the CT or CC allele, of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism. PMID:24775272

  14. Elevated serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Young; Jang, Sun Hee; Kim, Song Yee; Chung, Kyung Soo; Song, Joo Han; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kang, Young Ae

    2016-01-01

    Increased serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with nonmalignant diseases have been investigated in previous reports. This study evaluates the clinical significance of serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease and pulmonary tuberculosis. The median CA 19-9 level was higher in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease than in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease: 13.80, tuberculosis: 5.85, p<0.001). A multivariate logistic regression analysis performed in this study showed that Mycobacterium abscessus (OR 9.97, 95% CI: 1.58, 62.80; p=0.014) and active phase of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease (OR 12.18, 95% CI: 1.07, 138.36, p=0.044) were found to be risk factors for serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. The serum CA 19-9 levels showed a tendency to decrease during successful treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease but not in pulmonary tuberculosis. These findings suggest that CA 19-9 may be a useful marker for monitoring therapeutic responses in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, although it is not pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease-specific marker.

  15. Role of transport in elevated CO levels over Delhi during onset phase of monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Reka; Beig, Gufran; Peshin, Sunil K.

    2016-09-01

    While local anthropogenic emission sources contribute significantly to pollutant levels in a megacity Delhi, meteorology can significantly modulate carbon monoxide (CO) levels. We hereby demonstrate that the concentration of CO during the unusual onset of monsoon 2013 was dramatically elevated and crossed the permissible limit (1.7 ppmv) for about a month long-period as against normal onset of monsoon where CO concentration generally drops down significantly. We compare level of CO in 2013 with normal monsoon year 2012. We provide a hypothesis to interpret this long lasting high concentration CO episode and validate using interactive high resolution WRF-Chem model. The model indicates that the high CO episode was caused by an unusually active Bay of Bengal branch of monsoon which bounces off from the east and transports CO rich air from the eastern part of the Indo Gangetic Plains to Delhi.

  16. Lake Levels in Northeastern South Dakota Reach Historical Maximum Elevations in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. T.; Driscoll, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    The hydroclimatic conditions in the winter and spring of 2011 in eastern South Dakota combined to raise lake levels to historical maximums in northeastern South Dakota. The high lake levels caused extensive damage to lakeside homes and the transportation grid of rural, county, and State roads. These lake levels are one more manifestation of long-term upward trends of precipitation and streamflow conditions for the area. For example, upward trends are evident in the annual streamflow records for the James and Big Sioux Rivers in eastern South Dakota (Anderson and others, 2008). Levels in Waubay Lake in Day County reached an elevation of 1805.36 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 on July 18, 2011, exceeding the previous maximum level that occurred in 1999 by 1.36 feet. Anecdotal evidence and measurements indicate that many other lakes also reached maximum levels in 2011, such as Bitter Lake (1802.98 feet), Blue Dog Lake (1805.80), and Rush Lake (1805.75). These lakes are within a closed basin, with Bitter Lake being the terminal lake. At an estimated elevation of about 1811 feet, water in the Waubay-Bitter Lake system would begin to flow into the Big Sioux River. Some areas of the glaciated terrain of eastern South Dakota have such low topographic relief, that comparatively small increases in lake levels can inundate large land areas. The valuable historical archive of freely available satellite imagery from the U.S. Geological Survey permits analysis of the areal extent of flooding. Landsat and France's SPOT (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre) imagery are coupled with lake-level hydrographs to clearly depict change in land-surface inundation over time. Image analysis will present the change in flooded acreage from minimum lake levels in 1976 to maximum levels in July 2011 for Day County. The hydroclimatic trends are indicating wetter conditions, which leaves open the possibility that lake levels may continue to rise in future years.

  17. Elevated prolactin levels immediately precede decisions to babysit by male meerkat helpers.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Russell, Andrew F; Young, Andrew J; Jordan, Neil R; McNeilly, Alan S; Parlow, Al F; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2006-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that decisions to care for the offspring of others in societies of cooperative vertebrates may have a hormonal basis. The crucial question of whether changes in hormone levels immediately precede or merely follow bouts of offspring care, however, remains largely unanswered. Here, we show that in wild groups of cooperatively breeding meerkats, male helpers that decided to babysit for the day had significantly higher levels of prolactin, coupled with lower levels of cortisol, before initiating a babysitting session compared with similarly aged individuals that decided to forage. In addition, these hormonal differences disappeared over the course of the day, suggesting that hormone levels changed in a fundamentally different way in meerkats that babysat versus those that foraged. In contrast, long-term contributions to babysitting were not significantly associated with plasma levels of prolactin, cortisol, or testosterone in individual male helpers. Our results show, for the first time, that elevated levels of prolactin may immediately precede bouts of helping behavior but differ from recent findings on the same study population in which plasma levels of cortisol, but not prolactin, were significantly and positively associated with rates of pup feeding by male helpers. Together, these results lend significant weight to the idea that decisions to help in cooperative vertebrates have a hormonal basis, although different hormones appear to be associated with different types of care.

  18. Elevated prolactin levels immediately precede decisions to babysit by male meerkat helpers.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Russell, Andrew F; Young, Andrew J; Jordan, Neil R; McNeilly, Alan S; Parlow, Al F; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2006-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that decisions to care for the offspring of others in societies of cooperative vertebrates may have a hormonal basis. The crucial question of whether changes in hormone levels immediately precede or merely follow bouts of offspring care, however, remains largely unanswered. Here, we show that in wild groups of cooperatively breeding meerkats, male helpers that decided to babysit for the day had significantly higher levels of prolactin, coupled with lower levels of cortisol, before initiating a babysitting session compared with similarly aged individuals that decided to forage. In addition, these hormonal differences disappeared over the course of the day, suggesting that hormone levels changed in a fundamentally different way in meerkats that babysat versus those that foraged. In contrast, long-term contributions to babysitting were not significantly associated with plasma levels of prolactin, cortisol, or testosterone in individual male helpers. Our results show, for the first time, that elevated levels of prolactin may immediately precede bouts of helping behavior but differ from recent findings on the same study population in which plasma levels of cortisol, but not prolactin, were significantly and positively associated with rates of pup feeding by male helpers. Together, these results lend significant weight to the idea that decisions to help in cooperative vertebrates have a hormonal basis, although different hormones appear to be associated with different types of care. PMID:16527276

  19. Elevated Cerebral Spinal Fluid Cytokine Levels in Boys with Cerebral Adrenoleukodystrophy Correlates with MRI Severity

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Troy C.; Stadem, Paul S.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Raymond, Gerald; Miller, Weston P.; Tolar, Jakub; Orchard, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Background X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a metabolic, peroxisomal disease that results from a mutation in the ABCD1 gene. The most severe course of ALD progression is the cerebral inflammatory and demyelinating form of the disease, cALD. To date there is very little information on the cytokine mediators in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of these boys. Methodology/Principal Findings Measurement of 23 different cytokines was performed on CSF and serum of boys with cerebral ALD and patients without ALD. Significant elevations in CSF IL-8 (29.3±2.2 vs 12.8±1.1 pg/ml, p = 0.0001), IL-1ra (166±30 vs 8.6±6.5 pg/ml, p = 0.005), MCP-1 (610±47 vs 328±34 pg/ml, p = 0.002), and MIP-1b (14.2±1.3 vs 2.0±1.4 pg/ml, p<0.0001) were found in boys with cALD versus the control group. The only serum cytokine showing an elevation in the ALD group was SDF-1 (2124±155 vs 1175±125 pg/ml, p = 0.0001). The CSF cytokines of IL-8 and MCP-1b correlated with the Loes MRI severity score (p = 0.04 and p = 0.008 respectively), as well as the serum SDF-1 level (p = 0.002). Finally, CSF total protein was also significantly elevated in boys with cALD and correlated with both IL-8, MCP-1b (p = 0.0001 for both), as well as Loes MRI severity score (p = 0.0007). Conclusions/Significance IL-8, IL-1ra, MCP-1, MIP-1b and CSF total protein were significantly elevated in patients with cALD; IL-8, MCP-1b, and CSF total protein levels correlated with disease severity determined by MRI. This is the largest report of CSF cytokine levels in cALD to date, and identification of these key cytokines will provide further insight into disease progression and perhaps lead to improved targeted therapies. PMID:22359672

  20. Monocyte subset distribution in patients with stable atherosclerosis and elevated levels of lipoprotein(a)

    PubMed Central

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A.; Kastl, Stefan P.; Hofbauer, Sebastian L.; Wonnerth, Anna; Goliasch, Georg; Ozsvar-Kozma, Maria; Katsaros, Katharina M.; Maurer, Gerald; Huber, Kurt; Dostal, Elisabeth; Binder, Christoph J.; Pfaffenberger, Stefan; Oravec, Stanislav; Wojta, Johann; Speidl, Walter S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a proatherogenic plasma lipoprotein currently established as an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic disease and as a predictor for acute thrombotic complications. In addition, Lp(a) is the major carrier of proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids (OxPL). Today, atherosclerosis is considered to be an inflammatory disease of the vessel wall in which monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages are crucially involved. Circulating monocytes can be divided according to their surface expression pattern of CD14 and CD16 into at least 3 subsets with distinct inflammatory and atherogenic potential. Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether elevated levels of Lp(a) and OxPL on apolipoprotein B-100–containing lipoproteins (OxPL/apoB) are associated with changes in monocyte subset distribution. Methods We included 90 patients with stable coronary artery disease. Lp(a) and OxPL/apoB were measured, and monocyte subsets were identified as classical monocytes (CMs; CD14++CD16−), intermediate monocytes (IMs; CD14++CD16+), and nonclassical monocytes (NCMs; CD14+CD16++) by flow cytometry. Results In patients with elevated levels of Lp(a) (>50 mg/dL), monocyte subset distribution was skewed toward an increase in the proportion of IM (7.0 ± 3.8% vs 5.2 ± 3.0%; P = .026), whereas CM (82.6 ± 6.5% vs 82.0 ± 6.8%; P = .73) and NCM (10.5 ± 5.3 vs 12.8 ± 6.0; P = .10) were not significantly different. This association was independent of clinical risk factors, choice of statin treatment regime, and inflammatory markers. In addition, OxPL/apoB was higher in patients with elevated Lp(a) and correlated with IM but not CM and NCM. Conclusions In conclusion, we provide a potential link between elevated levels of Lp(a) and a proatherogenic distribution of monocyte subtypes in patients with stable atherosclerotic disease. PMID:26228671

  1. Slow intestinal transit contributes to elevate urinary p-cresol level in Italian autistic children.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Altieri, Laura; Neri, Cristina; Urbani, Andrea; Bravaccio, Carmela; Riccio, Maria Pia; Iovene, Maria Rosaria; Bombace, Francesca; De Magistris, Laura; Persico, Antonio M

    2016-07-01

    The uremic toxin p-cresol (4-methylphenol) is either of environmental origin or can be synthetized from tyrosine by cresol-producing bacteria present in the gut lumen. Elevated p-cresol amounts have been previously found in the urines of Italian and French autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children up until 8 years of age, and may be associated with autism severity or with the intensity of abnormal behaviors. This study aims to investigate the mechanism producing elevated urinary p-cresol in ASD. Urinary p-cresol levels were thus measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in a sample of 53 Italian ASD children assessed for (a) presence of Clostridium spp. strains in the gut by means of an in vitro fecal stool test and of Clostridium difficile-derived toxin A/B in the feces, (b) intestinal permeability using the lactulose/mannitol (LA/MA) test, (c) frequent use of antibiotics due to recurrent infections during the first 2 years of postnatal life, and (d) stool habits with the Bristol Stool Form Scale. Chronic constipation was the only variable significantly associated with total urinary p-cresol concentration (P < 0.05). No association was found with presence of Clostridium spp. in the gut flora (P = 0.92), augmented intestinal permeability (P = 0.18), or frequent use of antibiotics in early infancy (P = 0.47). No ASD child was found to carry C. difficile in the gut or to release toxin A/B in the feces. In conclusion, urinary p-cresol levels are elevated in young ASD children with increased intestinal transit time and chronic constipation. Autism Res 2016, 9: 752-759. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Origin of elevated water levels encountered in Pahute Mesa emplacement boreholes: Preliminary investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Brikowski, T.; Chapman, J.; Lyles, B.; Hokett, S.

    1993-11-01

    The presence of standing water well above the predicted water table in emplacement boreholes on Pahute Mesa has been a recurring phenomenon at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). If these levels represent naturally perched aquifers, they may indicate a radionuclide migration hazard. In any case, they can pose engineering problems in the performance of underground nuclear tests. The origin of these elevated waters is uncertain. Large volumes of water are introduced during emplacement drilling, providing ample source for artificially perched water, yet elevated water levels can remain constant for years, suggesting a natural origin instead. In an effort to address the issue of unexpected standing water in emplacement boreholes, three different sites were investigated in Area 19 on Pahute Mesa by Desert Research Institute (DRI) staff from 1990-93. These sites were U-19az, U-19ba, and U-19bh. As of this writing, U-19bh remains available for access; however, nuclear tests were conducted at the former two locations subsequent to this investigations. The experiments are discussed in chronological order. Taken together, the experiments indicate that standing water in Pahute Mesa emplacement holes originates from the drainage of small-volume naturally perched zones. In the final study, the fluids used during drilling of the bottom 100 m of emplacement borehole U-19bh were labeled with a chemical tracer. After hole completion, water level rose in the borehole, while tracer concentration decreased. In fact, total mass of tracer in the borehole remained constant, while water levels rose. After water levels stabilized in this hole, no change in tracer mass was observed over two years, indicating that no movement of water out of the borehole is taking place (as at U- 19ba). Continued labeling tests of standing water are recommended to confirm the conclusions made here, and to establish their validity throughout Pahute Mesa.

  3. Investigation of potential sea level rise impact on the Nile Delta, Egypt using digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Emad; Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Hong, Yang

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the future impact of Sea Level Rise (SLR) on the Nile Delta region in Egypt is assessed by evaluating the elevations of two freely available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs): the SRTM and the ASTER-GDEM-V2. The SLR is a significant worldwide dilemma that has been triggered by recent climatic changes. In Egypt, the Nile Delta is projected to face SLR of 1 m by the end of the 21th century. In order to provide a more accurate assessment of the future SLR impact on Nile Delta's land and population, this study corrected the DEM's elevations by using linear regression model with ground elevations from GPS survey. The information for the land cover types and future population numbers were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and the Gridded Population of the Worlds (GPWv3) datasets respectively. The DEM's vertical accuracies were assessed using GPS measurements and the uncertainty analysis revealed that the SRTM-DEM has positive bias of 2.5 m, while the ASTER-GDEM-V2 showed a positive bias of 0.8 m. The future inundated land cover areas and the affected population were illustrated based on two SLR scenarios of 0.5 m and 1 m. The SRTM DEM data indicated that 1 m SLR will affect about 3900 km(2) of cropland, 1280 km(2) of vegetation, 205 km(2) of wetland, 146 km(2) of urban areas and cause more than 6 million people to lose their houses. The overall vulnerability assessment using ASTER-GDEM-V2 indicated that the influence of SLR will be intense and confined along the coastal areas. For instance, the data indicated that 1 m SLR will inundate about 580 Km(2) (6%) of the total land cover areas and approximately 887 thousand people will be relocated. Accordingly, the uncertainty analysis of the DEM's elevations revealed that the ASTER-GDEM-V2 dataset product was considered the best to determine the future impact of SLR on the Nile Delta region. PMID:26410824

  4. Investigation of potential sea level rise impact on the Nile Delta, Egypt using digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Emad; Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Hong, Yang

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the future impact of Sea Level Rise (SLR) on the Nile Delta region in Egypt is assessed by evaluating the elevations of two freely available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs): the SRTM and the ASTER-GDEM-V2. The SLR is a significant worldwide dilemma that has been triggered by recent climatic changes. In Egypt, the Nile Delta is projected to face SLR of 1 m by the end of the 21th century. In order to provide a more accurate assessment of the future SLR impact on Nile Delta's land and population, this study corrected the DEM's elevations by using linear regression model with ground elevations from GPS survey. The information for the land cover types and future population numbers were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and the Gridded Population of the Worlds (GPWv3) datasets respectively. The DEM's vertical accuracies were assessed using GPS measurements and the uncertainty analysis revealed that the SRTM-DEM has positive bias of 2.5 m, while the ASTER-GDEM-V2 showed a positive bias of 0.8 m. The future inundated land cover areas and the affected population were illustrated based on two SLR scenarios of 0.5 m and 1 m. The SRTM DEM data indicated that 1 m SLR will affect about 3900 km(2) of cropland, 1280 km(2) of vegetation, 205 km(2) of wetland, 146 km(2) of urban areas and cause more than 6 million people to lose their houses. The overall vulnerability assessment using ASTER-GDEM-V2 indicated that the influence of SLR will be intense and confined along the coastal areas. For instance, the data indicated that 1 m SLR will inundate about 580 Km(2) (6%) of the total land cover areas and approximately 887 thousand people will be relocated. Accordingly, the uncertainty analysis of the DEM's elevations revealed that the ASTER-GDEM-V2 dataset product was considered the best to determine the future impact of SLR on the Nile Delta region.

  5. Indium 111 ZCE-025 immunoscintigraphy in occult recurrent colorectal cancer with elevated carcinoembryonic antigen level

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.J.; Abdel-Nabi, H.; Merchant, B. )

    1990-02-01

    We investigated the utility of scanning with indium 111 labeled to monoclonal antibody in 13 patients after curative resection of colorectal cancer who had elevated carcinoembryonic antigen levels and negative results of clinical workup. Each patient received 1 mg of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody type ZCE 025 labeled with 5.5 mCi of {sup 111}In, plus 9 to 39 mg of the same antibody unlabeled. Patients underwent scanning 3 to 7 days after infusion by planar and emission computed tomography. ZCE-025 monoclonal antibody imaging detected tumor recurrence or metastasis in 11 of 13 patients. In one patient the monoclonal antibody scan gave a true-negative result, and in one patient the monoclonal antibody scan failed to disclose a metachronous cecal primary. Tumor sites identified were the pelvis (2 patients), abdominal wall (2), retroperitoneum (1), lymph nodes (3); liver (2), bone (2), and lung (1). The accurate localization of colorectal carcinoma recurrences by means of {sup 111}In ZCE-025 monoclonal antibody demonstrates the usefulness of this diagnostic agent in the setting of elevated carcinoembryonic antigen level and negative results of clinical and radiologic workup.

  6. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Luying

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of the preoperative plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A total of 168 consecutive locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Plasma D-dimer levels were measured by a latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Of the 168 patients enrolled, 106 patients were males and 62 patients were females. There was significant difference between plasma D-dimer levels and clinical responses (P=0.001). The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year cumulative overall survival rates were 50.6%, 15.0%, and 4.9%, respectively. Plasma D-dimer levels (P<0.001) and platelet counts (P=0.010) were significantly related with overall survival in univariate analysis. The Cox proportional hazards regression indicated that plasma D-dimer levels (P=0.028), platelet counts (P=0.004), and treatment response (P<0.001) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:26082650

  7. Elevation of serum carcinoembryonic antigen level in a patient with hypothyroidism after radiation therapy for cervical esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Gen; Abe, Eisuke; Sasamoto, Ryuta; Sasai, Keisuke

    2010-02-01

    We report the case of a 51-year-old woman who showed elevation of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level 14 months after chemoradiation therapy for her cervical esophageal cancer. Close examination demonstrated that the patient was suffering from hypothyroidism probably due to the chemoradiation therapy. The serum CEA level decreased after starting supplementary treatment with oral levothyroxine. The exact mechanism underlying the elevated level of CEA observed in a patient with hypothyroidism is unclear. However, we should be aware of the possibility of transient elevation of CEA affected by thyroid function in patients after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer.

  8. Elevated urinary level of vitamin D-binding protein as a novel biomarker for diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, XIAO-QIN; ZHAO, LI-MIN; GE, JIA-PU; ZHANG, YAN; XU, YAN-CHENG

    2014-01-01

    Improving the early prediction and detection of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains a great challenge in disease management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early detection power of urinary vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) for the diagnosis of DN. Urine samples were obtained from 45 healthy volunteers and 105 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (DM group), microalbuminuria (DN1 group) and macroalbuminuria (DN2 group) (n=35 per group). The VDBP expression patterns in urine from patients and controls were quantified by western blot analysis. The excretion levels of urinary VDBP were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The quantification results were obtained by correcting for creatinine expression and showed that urinary VDBP levels were significantly elevated in the patients of the DN1 and DN2 groups compared with those of the DM group and normal controls (1,011.33±325.30 and 1,406.34±239.66 compared with 466.54±213.63 and 125.48±98.27 ng/mg, respectively) (P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis of urinary VDBP levels for the diagnosis of DN rendered an optimum cut-off value of 552.243 ng/mg corresponding to 92.86% sensitivity and 85.00% specificity, which also showed an area under the ROC curve of 0.966. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that urinary VDBP may be a potential biomarker for the early detection and prevention of DN. Further studies are required to examine the pathogenic mechanisms of elevated VDBP levels and their role in the diagnosis of DN. PMID:24396416

  9. Interactive effects of salinity and elevated CO2 levels on juvenile eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Gary H; Ivanina, Anna V; Matoo, Omera B; Pörtner, Hans O; Lannig, Gisela; Bock, Christian; Beniash, Elia; Sokolova, Inna M

    2012-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) lead to acidification of the ocean and alter seawater carbonate chemistry, which can negatively impact calcifying organisms, including mollusks. In estuaries, exposure to elevated CO(2) levels often co-occurs with other stressors, such as reduced salinity, which enhances the acidification trend, affects ion and acid-base regulation of estuarine calcifiers and modifies their response to ocean acidification. We studied the interactive effects of salinity and partial pressure of CO(2) (P(CO2)) on biomineralization and energy homeostasis in juveniles of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, a common estuarine bivalve. Juveniles were exposed for 11 weeks to one of two environmentally relevant salinities (30 or 15 PSU) either at current atmospheric P(CO2) (∼400 μatm, normocapnia) or P(CO2) projected by moderate IPCC scenarios for the year 2100 (∼700-800 μatm, hypercapnia). Exposure of the juvenile oysters to elevated P(CO2) and/or low salinity led to a significant increase in mortality, reduction of tissue energy stores (glycogen and lipid) and negative soft tissue growth, indicating energy deficiency. Interestingly, tissue ATP levels were not affected by exposure to changing salinity and P(CO2), suggesting that juvenile oysters maintain their cellular energy status at the expense of lipid and glycogen stores. At the same time, no compensatory upregulation of carbonic anhydrase activity was found under the conditions of low salinity and high P(CO2). Metabolic profiling using magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed altered metabolite status following low salinity exposure; specifically, acetate levels were lower in hypercapnic than in normocapnic individuals at low salinity. Combined exposure to hypercapnia and low salinity negatively affected mechanical properties of shells of the juveniles, resulting in reduced hardness and fracture resistance. Thus, our data suggest that the combined effects of elevated P(CO2) and

  10. Lichens as indicators of elevated levels of environmental lead in Utah Valley, Utah. [Rhizoplaca melanophthalma

    SciTech Connect

    St. Clair, L.L.; Rushforth, S.R.; Newberry, C.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Utah Valley, Utah is a high elevation mountain valley with a moderate population and a large aged integrated steel mill. Fine particulate pollution (PM{sub 10}) levels in the valley are among the highest din the US, particularly during winter inversion periods. Utah Valley also has high levels of carbon monoxide. The local bureau of air quality monitored ambient air lead in Utah Valley for several years through the 1980s. Values as high as 1.35 g/m{sup 3} were noted from this monitoring. Such levels are 90% of the federal ambient air standard of 1.5 g/m{sup 3}. Lichens have long been recognized as bioindicators for heavy metals. Reports of high concentrations of lead in lichen thalli were common prior to the development and use of unleaded fuels. Since that time, lead concentrations in lichen thalli have generally decreased. Recent studies indicate lichen lead levels from clean air areas in the western US range from 10 to 25 ppm. Studies of the umbilicate saxicolous lichen Rhizoplaca melanophthalma in Utah Valley indicate lead levels between 188 and 200 ppm. Excess lead in Utah Valley likely originates from the steel mill and from the high number of vehicles still using leaded fuels.

  11. Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead workers with iron- sufficient microcytosis.

    SciTech Connect

    Ronin, D.; Strehl, F.; Human Resources

    1998-05-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) measurement is a required test under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's lead standard. However, there is no mention of the influence of hemoglobinopathy on the ZPP test value. We undertook a retrospective laboratory review of 382 employees at the Argonne National Laboratory who had been subjects in a lead surveillance program since 1982. A total of 321 samples were analyzed, after female subjects and samples with abnormally high bilirubin levels were excluded. A group with low mean red blood cell volume (MCV; less than 80.0 fL) was compared with a group with normal MCV (greater or equal to 80.0 fL). A statistically significant difference was noted in ZPP (P < 0.007) and total bilirubin (P< 0.0003) values of two groups. There was no statistically significant difference noted in age, lead levels, or iron levels between the two groups. Abnormally high ZPP levels may occur in individuals with hemoglobinopathies. Only a minor part of this elevation could be explained by the higher bilirubin levels.

  12. Elevated plasma tissue factor levels in neonates with umbilical arterial catheter-associated thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Tay, S P; Cheong, S K; Boo, N Y

    2006-06-01

    Catheterization of the umbilical artery has been a useful aid in the management of sick neonates for the past few decades. However, it is associated with various complications. Reported studies strongly suggest a significant role of intravascular catheterization in the development of aortic thrombi. Increase in thrombosis of large vessels is believed to be related to mechanical injury in the catheterized vessels, which provide direct exposure of blood to tissue factor (TF), the primary cellular initiator of the extrinsic coagulation pathway. This study was conducted to determine the levels of plasma TF, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and D-dimer (DD) in infants with umbilical arterial catheter (UAC)-associated thrombosis. Quantification of TF was carried out using an in-house sandwich ELISA, whereas TFPI and DD levels were measured with commercial immunoassay kits. Infants with UAC inserted were found to have significantly higher levels of plasma TF (p < 0.001) than baseline levels. However, there were no significantly elevated levels of TFPI or DD. Infants with UAC-associated thrombosis demonstrated a greater increase of TF level (median: 414.5 pg/mL; range: -76.0, 6667.0) than infants without UAC-associated thrombosis (105.0 pg/mL; -976.0, 9480.0; p = 0.009) following UAC insertion. Our findings indicate that quantification and monitoring of TF levels could predict thrombus formation in infants with indwelling UAC. Following umbilical arterial catheterisation, infants with an approximately 3-fold rise in plasma TF levels were most at risk of developing abdominal aorta thrombosis as confirmed by real-time abdominal ultrasonography.

  13. Elevated Viral Restriction Factor Levels in Cortical Blood Vessels in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Benjamin I.; Sengupta, Elizabeth J.; Edelson, Jessica R.; Lewis, David A.; Volk, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Higher tissue transcript levels of immune-related markers, including the recently discovered viral restriction factor interferon-induced transmembrane protein (IFITM) which inhibits viral entry and replication, have been reported in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Interestingly, mouse models of neuroinflammation have higher IFITM levels and deficits in GABA-related markers that are similar to findings in schizophrenia, suggesting that a shared pathogenetic process may underlie diverse cortical pathology in the disorder. However, the cell types that overexpress IFITM mRNA in schizophrenia are unknown, and it is unclear whether higher IFITM mRNA levels are associated with lower GABA-related marker levels in the same schizophrenia subjects. Methods We used quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization with film and grain counting analyses to quantify IFITM mRNA levels in prefrontal cortex area 9 of 57 schizophrenia and 57 healthy comparison subjects and in antipsychotic-exposed monkeys. Results Quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization film analysis revealed markedly elevated IFITM mRNA levels (+114% and +117%, respectively) in prefrontal gray matter in schizophrenia. Interestingly, emulsion-dipped, Nissl-stained sections from schizophrenia and comparison subjects revealed IFITM mRNA expression in pia mater and blood vessels. IFITM grain density over blood vessels was 71% higher in schizophrenia. IFITM mRNA levels were negatively correlated with GABA-related mRNAs in the same schizophrenia subjects. Conclusions The finding that schizophrenia subjects with higher IFITM mRNA levels in cortical blood vessels have greater disturbances in cortical GABA neurons suggests that these cell-type distinct pathological disturbances may be influenced by a shared upstream insult that involves immune activation. PMID:24209773

  14. Low cardiorespiratory fitness levels and elevated blood pressure: what is the contribution of visceral adiposity?

    PubMed

    Rhéaume, Caroline; Arsenault, Benoit J; Bélanger, Stéphane; Pérusse, Louis; Tremblay, Angelo; Bouchard, Claude; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Individuals with poor cardiorespiratory fitness have higher blood pressure than fit individuals. Individuals with low fitness levels also tend to be characterized by higher visceral adiposity compared with physically fit individuals. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship between low fitness and elevated blood pressure could be related, at least in part, to the higher level of visceral adipose tissue often found among unfit individuals. This study included 407 asymptomatic, nondiabetic participants. Visceral adipose tissue was assessed by computed tomography, and fitness was measured by a progressive submaximal physical working capacity test. Participants in the highest visceral adipose tissue tertile showed the highest systolic and diastolic blood pressures, whereas participants in the highest fitness tertile had the lowest blood pressure values (P<0.001). When participants were classified into fitness tertiles and then subdivided on the basis of visceral adipose tissue (high versus low), participants with a high visceral adipose tissue had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure values (P=0.01), independent of their fitness category. Linear regression analyses showed that age and visceral adipose tissue, but not fitness, predicted systolic blood pressure (r(2)=0.11 [P<0.001], 0.12 [P<0.001], and 0.01 [P value nonsignificant], for age, visceral adipose tissue, and fitness, respectively) and diastolic blood pressure (r(2)=0.17 [P<0.001], 0.14 [P<0.001], and 0.01 [P value nonsignificant], for age, visceral adipose tissue, and fitness, respectively). Individuals with high visceral adipose tissue levels have higher blood pressure, independent of their fitness. Visceral adipose tissue may represent an important clinical target in the management of elevated blood pressure. PMID:19470873

  15. Mineral nutrition and plant responses to elevated levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, A.

    1996-08-01

    The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a radiatively-active ({open_quotes}green-house{close_quotes}) gas, is increasing. This increase is considered a post-industrial phenomenon attributable to increasing rates of fossil fuel combustion and changing land use practices, particularly deforestation. Climate changes resulting from such elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, in addition to the direct effects of increased CO{sub 2}, are expected to modify the productivity of forests and alter species distributions. Elevated levels of CO{sub 2} have been shown, in some cases, to lead to enhanced growth rates in plants, particularly those with C{sub 3} metabolism - indicating that plant growth is CO{sub 2}-limited in these situations. Since the major process underlying growth is CO{sub 2} assimilation via photosynthesis in leaves, plant growth represents a potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon into biomass, but this potential could be hampered by plant carbon sink size. Carbon sinks are utilization sites for assimilated carbon, enabling carbon assimilation to proceed without potential inhibition from the accumulation of assimilate (photosynthate). Plant growth provides new sinks for assimilated carbon which permits greater uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, sinks are, on the whole, reduced in size by stress events due to the adverse effects of stress on photosynthetic rates and therefore growth. This document reviews some of the literature on plant responses to increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and to inadequate nutrient supply rates, and with this background, the potential for nutrient-limited plants to respond to increasing carbon dioxide is addressed. Conclusions from the literature review are then tested experimentally by means of a case study exploring carbon-nitrogen interactions in seedlings of loblolly pine.

  16. Highly elevated atmospheric levels of volatile organic compounds in the Uintah Basin, Utah.

    PubMed

    Helmig, D; Thompson, C R; Evans, J; Boylan, P; Hueber, J; Park, J-H

    2014-05-01

    Oil and natural gas production in the Western United States has grown rapidly in recent years, and with this industrial expansion, growing environmental concerns have arisen regarding impacts on water supplies and air quality. Recent studies have revealed highly enhanced atmospheric levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from primary emissions in regions of heavy oil and gas development and associated rapid photochemical production of ozone during winter. Here, we present surface and vertical profile observations of VOC from the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies conducted in January-February of 2012 and 2013. These measurements identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric alkane hydrocarbons with enhanced rates of C2-C5 nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) mean mole fractions during temperature inversion events in 2013 at 200-300 times above the regional and seasonal background. Elevated atmospheric NMHC mole fractions coincided with build-up of ambient 1-h ozone to levels exceeding 150 ppbv (parts per billion by volume). The total annual mass flux of C2-C7 VOC was estimated at 194 ± 56 × 10(6) kg yr(-1), equivalent to the annual VOC emissions of a fleet of ∼100 million automobiles. Total annual fugitive emission of the aromatic compounds benzene and toluene, considered air toxics, were estimated at 1.6 ± 0.4 × 10(6) and 2.0 ± 0.5 × 10(6) kg yr(-1), respectively. These observations reveal a strong causal link between oil and gas emissions, accumulation of air toxics, and significant production of ozone in the atmospheric surface layer.

  17. Changes in wetland sediment elevation following major storms: implications for estimating trends in relative sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Hurricanes can be important agents of geomorphic change in coastal marshes and mangrove forests. Hurricanes can cause large-scale redistribution of sediments within the coastal environment resulting in sedimentation, erosion, disruption of vegetated substrates, or some combination of these processes in coastal wetlands. It has been proposed that such sediment pulsing events are important at maintaining wetland sediment elevations in sediment-poor settings with high rates of relative sea-level rise, such as the Mississippi River Delta. But do these pulsing events result in a net gain in sediment elevation even when substantial amounts of sediment are deposited? Clearly sediment erosion and scour would result in a loss of elevation. But will a substantial sediment deposit on poorly consolidated sediments always result in a net gain in elevation? If the wetland vegetation is killed by wind, tidal surge, or the introduction of saline water, will there be a collapse of sediment elevation in the absence of root production and ongoing decomposition of root matter? During the past decade several wetlands where my colleagues and I have monitored sedimentation and elevation change have been struck by one to several hurricanes. This paper describes the range of sediment elevation responses to hurricane strikes, the suggested mechanisms driving those responses, the implications for estimating long-term trends in relative sea-level rise, and future research needs for improving our understanding of the role that major storms play in wetland sediment elevation dynamics. For many wetlands the change in sediment elevation was directly proportional to the amount of sediment deposited by the storm. But surprisingly, there was a loss of elevation in some wetlands with substantial sediment deposits. In these wetlands, the impact of the storm was either direct (sedimentation and compaction) or indirect (vegetation death), and the effect on sediment elevation was either permanent or

  18. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Fire Assay Workers and Their Children in Alaska, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Porter, Kimberly A; Kirk, Cassandra; Fearey, Donna; Castrodale, Louisa J; Verbrugge, David; McLaughlin, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, an employee at Facility A in Alaska that performs fire assay analysis, an industrial technique that uses lead-containing flux to obtain metals from pulverized rocks, was reported to the Alaska Section of Epidemiology (SOE) with an elevated blood lead level (BLL) ≥10 micrograms per deciliter (μg/dL). The SOE initiated an investigation; investigators interviewed employees, offered blood lead screening to employees and their families, and observed a visit to the industrial facility by the Alaska Occupational Safety and Health Section (AKOSH). Among the 15 employees with known work responsibilities, 12 had an elevated BLL at least once from October 2010 through February 2011. Of these 12 employees, 10 reported working in the fire assay room. Four children of employees had BLLs ≥5 μg/dL. Employees working in Facility A's fire assay room were likely exposed to lead at work and could have brought lead home. AKOSH inspectors reported that they could not share their consultative report with SOE investigators because of the confidentiality requirements of a federal regulation, which hampered Alaska SOE investigators from fully characterizing the lead exposure standards. PMID:26327721

  19. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Fire Assay Workers and Their Children in Alaska, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Porter, Kimberly A; Kirk, Cassandra; Fearey, Donna; Castrodale, Louisa J; Verbrugge, David; McLaughlin, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, an employee at Facility A in Alaska that performs fire assay analysis, an industrial technique that uses lead-containing flux to obtain metals from pulverized rocks, was reported to the Alaska Section of Epidemiology (SOE) with an elevated blood lead level (BLL) ≥10 micrograms per deciliter (μg/dL). The SOE initiated an investigation; investigators interviewed employees, offered blood lead screening to employees and their families, and observed a visit to the industrial facility by the Alaska Occupational Safety and Health Section (AKOSH). Among the 15 employees with known work responsibilities, 12 had an elevated BLL at least once from October 2010 through February 2011. Of these 12 employees, 10 reported working in the fire assay room. Four children of employees had BLLs ≥5 μg/dL. Employees working in Facility A's fire assay room were likely exposed to lead at work and could have brought lead home. AKOSH inspectors reported that they could not share their consultative report with SOE investigators because of the confidentiality requirements of a federal regulation, which hampered Alaska SOE investigators from fully characterizing the lead exposure standards.

  20. Exposures to environmental phenols in Southern California firefighters and findings of elevated urinary benzophenone-3 levels.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Jed M; Gavin, Qi; Anderson, Meredith; Hoover, Sara; Alvaran, Josephine; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Fenster, Laura; Wu, Nerissa T; Krowech, Gail; Plummer, Laurel; Israel, Leslie; Das, Rupali; She, Jianwen

    2016-03-01

    Firefighters are at increased risk for exposure to toxic chemicals compared to the general population, but few studies of this occupational group have included biomonitoring. We measured selected phenolic chemicals in urine collected from 101 Southern California firefighters. The analytes included bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, benzophenone-3 (BP-3), and parabens, which are common ingredients in a range of consumer products. BP-3, BPA, triclosan, and methyl paraben were detected in almost all study subjects (94-100%). The BP-3 geometric mean for firefighters was approximately five times higher than for a comparable National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) subgroup. Demographic and exposure data were collected from medical records and via a questionnaire, and covariates were examined to assess associations with BP-3 levels. BP-3 levels were elevated across all firefighter age groups, with the highest levels observed in the 35 to 39year old group. Body fat percentage had a significant inverse association with BP-3 concentrations. Our results indicate pervasive exposure to BP-3, BPA, triclosan, and methyl paraben in this population of firefighters, consistent with studies of other populations. Further research is needed to investigate possible explanations for the higher observed BP-3 levels, such as occupational or California-specific exposures. PMID:26821331

  1. ELEVATED LEVELS OF SOLUBLE ST2 PROTEIN IN DENGUE VIRUS INFECTED PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Aniuska; Warke, Rajas V.; de Bosch, Norma; Rothman, Alan L.; Bosch, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Levels of the soluble form of the interleukin-1 receptor like 1 protein (IL-1RL-1 / ST2) are elevated in the serum of patients with diseases characterized by an inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of soluble ST2 (sST2) in dengue infected patients during the course of the disease. Twenty four patients with confirmed dengue infection, classified as dengue fever, and eleven patients with other febrile illness (OFI) were evaluated. Levels of sST2 in serum and laboratory variables usually altered during dengue infections were measured. Dengue infected patients had higher serum sST2 levels than OFI at the end of the febrile stage and at defervescence (p=0.0088 and p=0.0004 respectively). Patients with secondary dengue infections had higher serum sST2 levels compared with patients with primary dengue infections (p=0.047 at last day of fever and p=0.030 at defervescence). Furthermore, in dengue infected patients, we found a significant negative correlation of sST2 with platelet and WBC counts, and positive correlation with thrombin time and transaminases activity. We suggest that sST2 could be a potential marker of dengue infection, could be associated with severity or could play a role in the immune response in secondary dengue virus infection. PMID:18226917

  2. Polioencephalomalacia in cattle consuming water with elevated sodium sulfate levels: A herd investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hamlen, Heidi; Clark, Edward; Janzen, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), hereafter used to refer to the specific lesion of cerebrocortical necrosis, developed in 11 of 110 mature cattle on pasture in central Saskatchewan. The primary water source contained a markedly elevated level of sodium sulfate (7200 ppm). The significant clinical findings of the herd investigation included depression, ataxia, cortical blindness, dysphagia, and death. Diagnosis of PEM was confirmed by histopathological evidence of cerebrocortical and subcortical necrosis with microvascular fibrinoid necrosis predominantly in the thalamic region of three affected cattle. The histopathology of sulfate-associated PEM observed in this herd appears to be unique and its features are presented and discussed. Mean levels for serum transketolase, copper, red blood cell transketolase activity, and thiamine (vitamin B1) in all exposed young (n = 100) and mature (n = 99) animals did not reveal evidence of deficiencies. Although the blood thiamine status of the seven surviving, affected animals was not evaluated before treatment with exogenous thiamine, 199 members of the herd had blood thiamine levels within the reference range at the time of the outbreak. The outbreak resolved after cattle were moved to a water source containing acceptable levels of sodium sulfate. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17424182

  3. Elevated plasma levels of the long pentraxin, pentraxin 3, in severe dengue virus infections.

    PubMed

    Mairuhu, Albert T A; Peri, Giuseppe; Setiati, Tatty E; Hack, C Erik; Koraka, Penelopie; Soemantri, Augustinus; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Brandjes, Dees P M; van der Meer, Jos W M; Mantovani, Alberto; van Gorp, Eric C M

    2005-08-01

    C-reactive protein is one of the most widely used indicators of the response of acute-phase proteins. The measurement of C-reactive protein in dengue, however, is clinically not useful, because of marginally elevated levels and absent association with disease severity. The prototypic long pentraxin, pentraxin 3, is an acute phase protein that is structurally related but distinct from C-reactive protein which has proven to correlate with the severity of bacterial infection in critically ill patients. The potential involvement of pentraxin 3 in dengue and its aptitude to predict more severe disease or poor clinical outcome has not been studied previously. We therefore measured pentraxin 3 plasma levels in 44 dengue virus infected patients. Pentraxin 3 levels were strikingly higher when compared to C-reactive protein levels, with highest pentraxin 3 values observed in the first 7 days after the onset of symptoms. Median pentraxin 3 levels at admission and peak levels during follow up were higher in patients suffering from dengue shock syndrome (at admission: 119.3 ng/ml [interquartile range 61.8--188.7], peak values during follow up: 147.9 ng/ml [interquartile range 85.7--204.3]) compared to levels found in patients with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever (at admission: 59.0 ng/ml [interquartile range 28.6--100.3], P=0.040; peak values during follow up: 80.8 ng/ml [interquartile range 36.1--168.1], P=0.020). Our results indicate that pentraxin 3 seems to be a marker of infection better than C-reactive protein in dengue. The role of pentraxin 3 in the pathogenesis of dengue and its potential as an early prognostic indicator of disease severity needs further assessment.

  4. Plasma Free H2S Levels are Elevated in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Elvis A.; Shen, Xinggui; Shah, Shivang H.; Pardue, Sibile; Glawe, John D.; Zhang, Wayne W.; Reddy, Pratap; Akkus, Nuri I.; Varma, Jai; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been implicated in regulating cardiovascular pathophysiology in experimental models. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the levels of H2S in health and cardiovascular disease. In this study we examine the levels of H2S in patients with cardiovascular disease as well as bioavailability of nitric oxide and inflammatory indicators. Methods and Results Patients over the age of 40 undergoing coronary or peripheral angiography were enrolled in the study. Ankle brachial index (ABI) measurement, measurement of plasma‐free H2S and total nitric oxide (NO), thrombospondin‐1 (TSP‐1), Interleukin‐6 (IL‐6), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule‐1 (sICAM‐1) levels were performed. Patients with either coronary artery disease alone (n=66), peripheral arterial disease (PAD) alone (n=13), or any vascular disease (n=140) had higher plasma‐free H2S levels compared to patients without vascular disease (n=53). Plasma‐free H2S did not distinguish between disease in different vascular beds; however, total NO levels were significantly reduced in PAD patients and the ratio of plasma free H2S to NO was significantly greater in patients with PAD. Lastly, plasma IL‐6, ICAM‐1, and TSP‐1 levels did not correlate with H2S or NO bioavailability in either vascular disease condition. Conclusions Findings reported in this study reveal that plasma‐free H2S levels are significantly elevated in vascular disease and identify a novel inverse relationship with NO bioavailability in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01407172. PMID:24152982

  5. The fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mutation: Developmentally related alterations in hepatic triglyceride metabolism and protein expression

    SciTech Connect

    Reue, K.; Rehnmark, S.; Cohen, R.D.; Leete, T.H.; Doolittle, M.H. |; Giometti, C.S.; Mishler, K.; Slavin, B.G.

    1997-07-01

    Fatty liver dystrophy (fld) is an autosomal recessive mutation in mice characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and development of a fatty liver in the early neonatal period. Also associated with the fld phenotype is a tissue-specific deficiency in the expression of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase, as well as elevations in hepatic apolipoprotein A-IV and apolipoprotein C-II mRNA levels. Although these lipid abnormalities resolve at the age of weaning, adult mutant mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy associated with abnormal myelin formation. The fatty liver in fld/fld neonates is characterized by the accumulation of large triglyceride droplets within the parenchymal cells, and these droplets persist within isolated hepatocytes maintained in culture for several days. To identify the metabolic defect that leads to lipid accumulation, the authors investigated several aspects of cellular triglyceride metabolism. The mutant mice exhibited normal activity of acid triacylglycerol lipase, an enzyme thought to be responsible for hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides in the liver. Metabolic labeling studies performed with oleic acid revealed that free fatty acids accumulate in the liver of 3 day old fld/fld mice, but not in adults. This accumulation in liver was mirrored by elevated free fatty acid levels in plasma of fld/fld neonates, with levels highest in very young mice and returning to normal by the age of one month. Quantitation of fatty acid oxidation in cells isolated from fld/fld neonates revealed that oxidation rate is reduced 60% in hepatocytes and 40% in fibroblasts; hepatocytes from adult fld/fld mice exhibited an oxidation rate similar to those from wild-type mice.

  6. Graphene-Based Fluorescence-Quenching-Related Fermi Level Elevation and Electron-Concentration Surge.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiyi; Tian, Bo; Zhuang, Pingping; Yin, Jun; Zhang, Cankun; Li, Qiongyu; Shih, Tien-Mo; Cai, Weiwei

    2016-09-14

    Intermolecular p-orbital overlaps in unsaturated π-conjugated systems, such as graphene and fluorescent molecules with aromatic structure, serve as the electron-exchanged path. Using Raman-mapping measurements, we observe that the fluorescence intensity of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) is quenched by graphene, whereas it persists in graphene-absent substrates (SiO2). After identifying a mechanism related to photon-induced electron transfer (PET) that contributes to this fluorescence quenching phenomenon, we validate this mechanism by conducting analyses on Dirac point shifts of FITC-coated graphene. From these shifts, Fermi level elevation and the electron-concentration surge in graphene upon visible-light impingements are acquired. Finally, according to this mechanism, graphene-based biosensors are fabricated to show the sensing capability of measuring fluorescently labeled-biomolecule concentrations. PMID:27513317

  7. Retrorectal epidermoid cyst with unusually elevated serum SCC level, initially diagnosed as an ovarian tumor.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaru; Tomita, Shigeki; Fujimori, Takahiro; Nagata, Hitoshi; Kubota, Keiichi; Shoda, Akiko; Tada, Kazumi; Kosaka, Nobuaki; Fukasawa, Ichio; Inaba, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    Retrorectal epidermoid cyst is one of the developmental cysts which arise from remnants of embryonic tissues. We report a rare case of retrorectal epidermoid cyst, initially diagnosed as an ovarian tumor. Serum SCC value as tumor marker was elevated to the high level. Laparoscopy revealed ovaries, uterus and other pelvic organs were all normal. This tumor existed in the retroperitoneal cavity and compressed the rectum. Later, complete tumor resection was performed by laparotomy. Histological study revealed the epithelium of this tumor consisted of only squamous cells without atypia, and the diagnosis of this tumor was retrorectal epidermoid cyst. Retrorectal epidermoid cyst is very rare, and difficult to diagnose before surgery. However, if we have-knowledge of developmental cysts, and by careful digital examination and image diagnosis, a differential diagnosis can be made.

  8. Exposure to Elevated Carbon Monoxide Levels at an Indoor Ice Arena--Wisconsin, 2014.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Paul D; Meiman, Jon G; Nehls-Lowe, Henry; Vogt, Christy; Wozniak, Ryan J; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry

    2015-11-20

    On December 13, 2014, the emergency management system in Lake Delton, Wisconsin, was notified when a male hockey player aged 20 years lost consciousness after participation in an indoor hockey tournament that included approximately 50 hockey players and 100 other attendees. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) (range = 45 ppm-165 ppm) were detected by the fire department inside the arena. The emergency management system encouraged all players and attendees to seek medical evaluation for possible CO poisoning. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine what caused the exposure and to recommend preventive strategies. Investigators abstracted medical records from area emergency departments (EDs) for patients who sought care for CO exposure during December 13-14, 2014, conducted a follow-up survey of ED patients approximately 2 months after the event, and conducted informant interviews. Ninety-two persons sought ED evaluation for possible CO exposure, all of whom were tested for CO poisoning. Seventy-four (80%) patients had blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels consistent with CO poisoning; 32 (43%) CO poisoning cases were among hockey players. On December 15, the CO emissions from the propane-fueled ice resurfacer were demonstrated to be 4.8% of total emissions when actively resurfacing and 2.3% when idling, both above the optimal range of 0.5%-1.0%. Incomplete fuel combustion by the ice resurfacer was the most likely source of elevated CO. CO poisonings in ice arenas can be prevented through regular maintenance of ice resurfacers, installation of CO detectors, and provision of adequate ventilation. PMID:26583915

  9. [The elevated level of anti-thyroid antibodies aTPO in chronic spontaneous urticaria].

    PubMed

    Chaykivska, Zlata; Antoszczyk, Grazyna; Czarnobilska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of chronic urticaria (CU - Chronic Urticaria) is one of the most difficult issues in allergy practice. Studies on the etiopathogenesis of chronic urticaria suggest that environmental factors, immune, genetic and hormonal are involved in triggering and maintaining the reaction of hives. In practice, despite detailed diagnosis is usually not possible to determine the real cause of the disease. For this reason, the use of causal treatment for patients suffering from chronic urticaria is not possible and supportive treatment is often ineffective. 0.1% of the population suffers from chronic spontaneous urticaria, which main cause has not been detected. Very often CU coexists with autoimmune thyroid dysfunction. Studies confirm higher incidence of thyroid antibodies in patients with chronic urticaria than in the general population. We analyzed 100 patients who met the criteria for chronic urticaria according to the WHO, in Allergology Clinic of the University Hospital Jagiellonian University Medical College. According to our study 17.4% of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria occurred elevated titer of anti-TPO antibodies. In patients with non-spontaneous type of CU, elevated titer of anti-TPO antibodies only occurred in 8.3% of patients, and this difference was statistically significant p = < 0.003. All the patients had thyroid levels normal and there were no clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. Our research indicates a link with autoimmune thyroid diseases, especially Hashimoto's disease, with a prevalence of CU. It is necessary to conduct further studies to confirm the relationship of pathogenic autoimmune thyroid disorders with the occurrence of CU, which will help to provide the causal treatment of spontaneous CU coexisting with high levels of anti-TPO antibodies in patients with euthyroid status.

  10. Elevated Blood Lead Levels of Children in Guiyu, an Electronic Waste Recycling Town in China

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xia; Peng, Lin; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Liangkai; Qiu, Bo; Qi, Zongli; Zhang, Bao; Han, Dai; Piao, Zhongxian

    2007-01-01

    Background Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has remained primitive in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) in children living in the local environment. Objectives We compared the BLLs in children living in the e-waste recycling town of Guiyu with those living in the neighboring town of Chendian. Methods We observed the processing of e-waste recycling in Guiyu and studied BLLs in a cluster sample of 226 children < 6 years of age who lived in Guiyu and Chendian. BLLs were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Hemoglobin (Hgb) and physical indexes (height and weight, head and chest circumferences) were also measured. Results BLLs in 165 children of Guiyu ranged from 4.40 to 32.67 μg/dL with a mean of 15.3 μg/dL, whereas BLLs in 61 children of Chendian were from 4.09 to 23.10 μg/dL with a mean of 9.94 μg/dL. Statistical analyses showed that children living in Guiyu had significantly higher BLLs compared with those living in Chendian (p < 0.01). Of children in Guiyu, 81.8% (135 of 165) had BLLs > 10 μg/dL, compared with 37.7% of children (23 of 61) in Chendian (p < 0.01). In addition, we observed a significant increasing trend in BLLs with increasing age in Guiyu (p < 0.01). It appeared that there was correlation between the BLLs in children and numbers of e-waste workshops. However, no significant difference in Hgb level or physical indexes was found between the two towns. Conclusions The primitive e-waste recycling activities may contribute to the elevated BLLs in children living in Guiyu. PMID:17637931

  11. Exposure to Elevated Carbon Monoxide Levels at an Indoor Ice Arena--Wisconsin, 2014.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Paul D; Meiman, Jon G; Nehls-Lowe, Henry; Vogt, Christy; Wozniak, Ryan J; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry

    2015-11-20

    On December 13, 2014, the emergency management system in Lake Delton, Wisconsin, was notified when a male hockey player aged 20 years lost consciousness after participation in an indoor hockey tournament that included approximately 50 hockey players and 100 other attendees. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) (range = 45 ppm-165 ppm) were detected by the fire department inside the arena. The emergency management system encouraged all players and attendees to seek medical evaluation for possible CO poisoning. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine what caused the exposure and to recommend preventive strategies. Investigators abstracted medical records from area emergency departments (EDs) for patients who sought care for CO exposure during December 13-14, 2014, conducted a follow-up survey of ED patients approximately 2 months after the event, and conducted informant interviews. Ninety-two persons sought ED evaluation for possible CO exposure, all of whom were tested for CO poisoning. Seventy-four (80%) patients had blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels consistent with CO poisoning; 32 (43%) CO poisoning cases were among hockey players. On December 15, the CO emissions from the propane-fueled ice resurfacer were demonstrated to be 4.8% of total emissions when actively resurfacing and 2.3% when idling, both above the optimal range of 0.5%-1.0%. Incomplete fuel combustion by the ice resurfacer was the most likely source of elevated CO. CO poisonings in ice arenas can be prevented through regular maintenance of ice resurfacers, installation of CO detectors, and provision of adequate ventilation.

  12. Litterfall dynamics and nutrient deposition at different elevation and land use levels on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Joscha; Pabst, Holger; Mnyonga, James; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    One of the major pathways that connect above- and belowground nutrient and carbon stocks in forest ecosystems is litterfall. Depending on climate, tree species composition and stand structure it varies considerably between different ecosystems. Another driving factor that is known to affect ecosystem cycles is the level of anthropogenic disturbance such as land use. In case of tropical regions this is often present as the transformation from rainforests to plantation economy and sustainable agroforestry. The objective of this study was to quantify and determine patterns of carbon and nutrient deposition via tree litterfall in natural and anthropogenically affected forest ecosystems along an elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Tree litter of three natural (lower montane forest), two sustainably used (home gardens) and one intensively managed (shaded coffee plantation) ecosystem was collected on a biweekly basis from May 2012 to July 2013. Samples were separated into leaves, branches and remaining residues, dried and weighted. Carbon and nutrient content were measured in leave samples. We found that the overall annual pattern of litterfall was closely related to rainfall exhibiting a large peak during the dry season. Albeit visible on all plots, this characteristic decreased with elevation. No consistent patterns were found for other components than leaves. Total annual litter mainly consisted of leaf litter and ranges from 4639 kg/ha to 10673 kg/ha for all vegetation types. Flowers, fruits, etc. make up roughly 20% of total litter. Highest and lowest values occurred at home gardens and could not be significantly related to land use or elevation levels. Chemistry though differed between natural and used forest plots. N, P and K contents increased significantly with usage intensity while Mn decreased and C is more or less unaffected. We conclude that on the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, short term variations in litterfall are related to seasonal climatic

  13. Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured spatial learning and memory, the time of normal rats was shortened by GEN treatment compared to the vehicle group, but only in the early stages of testing. In the glucose-loaded group, GEN treatment improved performance as mazes were advanced. In the open-field test, GEN treatment delayed habituation to the new environment in normal rats, and increased the exploratory behaviors of glucose-loaded rats. There were no significant differences observed for emotionality or fear-motivated learning and memory. Together, these results indicate that GEN treatment improved spatial learning and memory only in the early stages of testing in the normal state, but improved spatial learning and memory when glucose levels increased during memory consolidation.

  14. Large-eddy simulation of dispersion: comparison between elevated and ground-level sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhengtong; Hayden, Paul; Voke, Peter R.; Robins, Alan G.

    2004-08-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to calculate the concentration fluctuations of passive plumes from an elevated source (ES) and a ground-level source (GLS) in a turbulent boundary layer over a rough wall. The mean concentration, relative fluctuations and spectra are found to be in good agreement with the wind-tunnel measurements for both ES and GLS. In particular, the calculated relative fluctuation level for GLS is quite satisfactory, suggesting that the LES is reliable and the calculated instantaneous data can be used for further post-processing. Animations are shown of the meandering of the plumes, which is one of the main features to the numerical simulations. Extreme value theory (EVT), in the form of the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), is applied to model the upper tail of the probability density function of the concentration time series collected at many typical locations for GLS and ES from both LES and experiments. The relative maxima (defined as maximum concentration normalized by the local mean concentration) and return levels estimated from the numerical data are in good agreement with those from the experimental data. The relative maxima can be larger than 50. The success of the comparisons suggests that we can achieve significant insight into the physics of dispersion in turbulent flows by combining LES and EVT.

  15. Retroperitoneal Leiomyosarcoma Associated with an Elevated β-HCG Serum Level Mimicking Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Hans-Juergen; Manseck, Andreas; Oehlschlaeger, Sven; Wirth, Manfred P.

    2000-01-01

    Patient. A 65-year-old man was admitted with a large primary retroperitoneal tumor and an increased β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) serum level. A germ cell tumor was suspected; however, a computed tomography-guided biopsy failed to enable tumor classification. After two courses of chemotherapy, the β-HCG serum level had returned to the normal level and a diagnostic laparotomy with incisional biopsy was performed. The immunohistochemical examination of the specimen identified the tumor as a retroperitoneal pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. Discussion. Tumor markers play only a marginal role in the work-up of patients with soft tissue sarcomas. In men with suspected retroperitoneal sarcomas, however, the determination of germ cell tumor markers occasionally enables a preoperative distinguishing of primary retroperitoneal germ cell tumors with considerable consequences for management. In this setting, a retroperitoneal tumor associated with a moderately elevated β-HCG is a diagnostic dilemma, and surgeons should be aware of the pitfall of a β-HCG-producing leiomyosarcoma in the differential diagnosis. PMID:18521299

  16. A National Assessment of Sea Level Rise Exposure Using Lidar Elevation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, B.; Kulp, S. A.; Tebaldi, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Third National Climate Assessment addressed sea level rise and aggravated coastal flood exposure in all regions, but was completed before high quality lidar-based elevation data became available throughout the entire coastal United States (excluding Alaska). Here we present what we believe to be the first full national assessment incorporating these data. The assessment includes tabulation of land less than 1-6 m above the local high tide line, and of a wide range of features sitting on that land, including total population, socially vulnerable population, housing, property value, road miles, power plants, schools, hospitals, and a wide range of other infrastructure and critical facilities, as well as EPA-listed facilities that are potential sources of contamination during floods or permanent inundation. Tabulations span from zip code to national levels. Notable patterns include the strong concentration of exposure across multiple scales, with a small number of states accounting for most of the total national exposure; and a small number of zip codes accounting for a large proportion of the exposure within many states. Additionally, different features show different exposure patterns; in one example, land and road miles have relatively high exposure but population and property have relatively low exposure in North Carolina. The assessment further places this exposure analysis in the context of localized sea level rise projections integrated with coastal flood risk.

  17. Elevated levels of NO are localized to distal airways in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John T.; Zeng, Meiqin; Li, Qian; Stapley, Ryan; Moore, Doyle Ray; Chenna, Balachandra; Fineberg, Naomi; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Siegal, Gene P.; Gaggar, Amit; Barnes, Stephen; Velu, Sadanandan E.; Thannickal, Victor J.; Abraham, Edward; Patel, Rakesh P.; Lancaster, Jack R.; Chaplin, David D.; Dransfield, Mark T.; Deshane, Jessy S.

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of nitric oxide (NO) to the pathophysiology of asthma remains incompletely defined despite its established pro- and anti-inflammatory effects. Induction of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase and superoxide pathways is correlated with increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in asthmatic subjects. To determine the contributions of these pathways in proximal and distal airways, we compared bronchial wash (BW) to traditional bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for measurements of reactive nitrogen/oxygen species, arginase activation, and cytokine/chemokine levels in asthmatic and normal subjects. Levels of NO were preferentially elevated in the BAL, demonstrating higher-level NOS activation in the distal airway compartment of asthmatic subjects. In contrast, DHE+ cells which have the potential to generate reactive oxygen species were found to be increased in both proximal and distal airway compartments of asthmatics compared to controls. Different patterns of cytokines and chemokines were observed, with a predominance of epithelial cell-associated mediators in the BW as compared to macrophage/monocyte-derived mediators in the BAL of asthmatic subjects. Our study demonstrates differential production of reactive species and soluble mediators within the distal airways as compared to the proximal airways in asthma. These results indicate that cellular mechanisms are activated in the distal airways of asthmatics and must be considered in the development of therapeutic strategies for this chronic inflammatory disorder. PMID:21419218

  18. Direct Effects of Elevated CO2 Levels on the Fitness Performance of Asian Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) for Multigenerations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haicui; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Qunfang; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai

    2015-08-01

    Understanding direct response of insects to elevated CO2 should help to elucidate the mechanistic bases of the effects of elevated CO2 on interactions of insects with plants. This should improve our ability to predict shifts in insect population dynamics and community interactions under the conditions of climate change. Effects of elevated CO2 levels on the fitness-related parameters were examined for multigenerations in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). The larvae were allowed to feed on artificial diet, and reared in the closed-dynamic environment chambers with three CO2 levels (ambient, 550 μl/liter, and 750 μl/liter) for six generations. In comparison with the ambient CO2 level, mean larval survival rate decreased 9.9% in 750 μl/liter CO2 level, across O. furnacalis generations, and larval and pupal development times increased 7.5-16.4% and 4.5-13.4%, respectively, in two elevated CO2 levels. Pupal weight was reduced more than 12.2% in 750 μl/liter CO2 level. Across O. furnacalis generations, mean food consumption per larva increased 2.7, 7.0% and frass excretion per larva increased 14.4, 22.5% in the two elevated CO2 levels, respectively, compared with ambient CO2 level. Elevated CO2 levels resulted in the decline mean across O. furnacalis generations in mean relative growth rate, but increased in relative consumption rate. These results suggested that elevated CO2 would reduce the fitness-related parameters such as higher mortality, lower pupal weight, and longer development times in long term. It also reduced the larval food digestibility and utilizing efficiency; in turn, this would result in increase of food consumption. PMID:26314071

  19. Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-09-01

    Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in α-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of α-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol.

  20. Elevated Levels of Circulating DNA in Cardiovascular Disease Patients: Metagenomic Profiling of Microbiome in the Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Dinakaran, Vasudevan; Rathinavel, Andiappan; Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Sivakumar, Ramamoorthy; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. An expanding body of evidence supports the role of human microbiome in the establishment of CVDs and, this has gained much attention recently. This work was aimed to study the circulating human microbiome in CVD patients and healthy subjects. The levels of circulating cell free DNA (circDNA) was higher in CVD patients (n = 80) than in healthy controls (n = 40). More specifically, the relative levels of circulating bacterial DNA and the ratio of 16S rRNA/β-globin gene copy numbers were higher in the circulation of CVD patients than healthy individuals. In addition, we found a higher circulating microbial diversity in CVD patients (n = 3) in comparison to healthy individuals (n = 3) by deep shotgun sequencing. At the phylum level, we observed a dominance of Actinobacteria in CVD patients, followed by Proteobacteria, in contrast to that in healthy controls, where Proteobacteria was predominantly enriched, followed by Actinobacteria. The circulating virome in CVD patients was enriched with bacteriophages with a preponderance of Propionibacterium phages, followed by Pseudomonas phages and Rhizobium phages in contrast to that in healthy individuals, where a relatively greater abundance of eukaryotic viruses dominated by Lymphocystis virus (LCV) and Torque Teno viruses (TTV) was observed. Thus, the release of bacterial and viral DNA elements in the circulation could play a major role leading to elevated circDNA levels in CVD patients. The increased circDNA levels could be either the cause or consequence of CVD incidence, which needs to be explored further. PMID:25133738

  1. Application of plastic polymers in remediating wine with elevated alkyl-methoxypyrazine levels.

    PubMed

    Botezatu, Andreea; Pickering, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    3-Alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines (MPs) are odour-active compounds that elicit atypical green aromas and flavours in some wines, and are resilient to removal using traditional wine-making approaches. They originate either as contaminants from Coccinellidae beetles inadvertently introduced during wine processing ("ladybug taint") or as grape-derived constituents that are undesirable at elevated levels. In this study we investigated the capacity of a selection of plastic polymers to reduce concentrations of three MPs: isopropyl methoxypyrazine (IPMP), secbutyl methoxypyrazine (SBMP) and isobutyl methoxypyrazine (IBMP). In Trial 1, red wine was spiked with IPMP (20 ng/l), SBMP (20 ng/l) and IBMP (20 ng/l), then separately treated with 13 plastic polymers (surface area 350 cm(2)/l). Three polymers were then identified for further testing based on the results from Trial 1: silicone, ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA) and a poly-lactic acid-based biodegradable polymer. In Trial 2, the efficacy of these selected polymers to reduce MP levels in red wine was tested as a function of contact time. Solid-phase micro-extraction multi-dimensional GC-MS was used to measure MP levels before and after treatment with the polymers. Results showed significant reductions in all target odorants after 24 h treatment: silicone reduced IPMP and IBMP by 96% and 100%, respectively, while the biodegradable polymer decreased IPMP and IBMP concentrations by 52% and 36%, respectively. EVA was less effective in lowering MP levels (7% IPMP and 23% IBMP after 24 h). Taken overall, the data suggest the potential for the use of poly-lactic acid and silicone in treating wines contaminated by ladybug taint, as well as in reducing high levels of grape-derived MPs.

  2. Application of plastic polymers in remediating wine with elevated alkyl-methoxypyrazine levels.

    PubMed

    Botezatu, Andreea; Pickering, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    3-Alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines (MPs) are odour-active compounds that elicit atypical green aromas and flavours in some wines, and are resilient to removal using traditional wine-making approaches. They originate either as contaminants from Coccinellidae beetles inadvertently introduced during wine processing ("ladybug taint") or as grape-derived constituents that are undesirable at elevated levels. In this study we investigated the capacity of a selection of plastic polymers to reduce concentrations of three MPs: isopropyl methoxypyrazine (IPMP), secbutyl methoxypyrazine (SBMP) and isobutyl methoxypyrazine (IBMP). In Trial 1, red wine was spiked with IPMP (20 ng/l), SBMP (20 ng/l) and IBMP (20 ng/l), then separately treated with 13 plastic polymers (surface area 350 cm(2)/l). Three polymers were then identified for further testing based on the results from Trial 1: silicone, ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA) and a poly-lactic acid-based biodegradable polymer. In Trial 2, the efficacy of these selected polymers to reduce MP levels in red wine was tested as a function of contact time. Solid-phase micro-extraction multi-dimensional GC-MS was used to measure MP levels before and after treatment with the polymers. Results showed significant reductions in all target odorants after 24 h treatment: silicone reduced IPMP and IBMP by 96% and 100%, respectively, while the biodegradable polymer decreased IPMP and IBMP concentrations by 52% and 36%, respectively. EVA was less effective in lowering MP levels (7% IPMP and 23% IBMP after 24 h). Taken overall, the data suggest the potential for the use of poly-lactic acid and silicone in treating wines contaminated by ladybug taint, as well as in reducing high levels of grape-derived MPs. PMID:25895134

  3. Elevated circulating levels and tissue expression of pentraxin 3 in uremia: a reflection of endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Witasp, Anna; Rydén, Mikael; Carrero, Juan Jesús; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Nordfors, Louise; Näslund, Erik; Hammarqvist, Folke; Arefin, Samsul; Kublickiene, Karolina; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Elevated systemic pentraxin 3 (PTX3) levels appear to be a powerful marker of inflammatory status and a superior outcome predictor in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). As previous data imply that PTX3 is involved in vascular pathology and that adipose tissue mass may influence circulating PTX3 levels, we aimed to study the importance of adipose tissue expression of PTX3 in the uremic milieu and its relation to endothelial dysfunction parameters. Plasma PTX3 and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) PTX3 mRNA levels were quantified in 56 stage 5 CKD patients (median age 57 [range 25-75] years, 30 males) and 40 age and gender matched controls (median age 58 [range 20-79] years, 27 males). Associations between PTX3 measures and an extensive panel of clinical parameters, including surrogate markers of endothelial function, were assessed. Functional ex vivo studies on endothelial status and immunohistochemical staining for PTX3 were conducted in resistance subcutaneous arteries isolated from SAT. SAT PTX3 mRNA expression correlated with plasma PTX3 concentrations (rho = 0.54, p = 0.0001) and was increased (3.7 [0.4-70.3] vs. 1.2 [0.2-49.3] RQ, p = 0.02) in CKD patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but was not significantly different between patients and controls. The association to CVD was lost after adjustments. SAT PTX3 mRNA levels were independently correlated to asymmetric dimethylarginine and basal resistance artery tone developed after inhibition with nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase (rho = -0.58, p = 0.002). Apparent positive PTX3 immunoreactivity was observed in both patient and control arteries. In conclusion, fat PTX3 mRNA levels are associated with measures of endothelial cell function in patients with CKD. PTX3 may be involved in adipose tissue-orchestrated mechanisms that are restricted to the uremic milieu and modify inflammation and vascular complications in CKD patients.

  4. Elevated fluoride levels and periostitis in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients receiving long-term voriconazole.

    PubMed

    Tarlock, Katherine; Johnson, Darren; Cornell, Cathy; Parnell, Shawn; Meshinchi, Soheil; Baker, K Scott; Englund, Janet A

    2015-05-01

    Azole therapy is widely utilized in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients for the treatment of aspergillus. Complications of voriconazole treatment related to its elevated fluoride content have been described in adults, including reports of symptomatic skeletal fluorosis. We review fluoride levels, clinical, and laboratory data in five pediatric HCT recipients on long-term voriconazole therapy, all found to have elevated serum fluoride levels. Two patients had toxic fluoride levels, one infant had symptoms of significant pain with movement and radiographs confirmed skeletal fluorosis. Monitoring fluoride levels in children, especially with skeletal symptoms, should be considered in patients on long-term voriconazole.

  5. Elevated levels of antibodies against xenobiotics in a subgroup of healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Aristo; Kharrazian, Datis; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2015-01-01

    In spite of numerous research efforts, the exact etiology of autoimmune diseases remains largely unknown. Genetics and environmental factors, including xenobiotics, are believed to be involved in the induction of autoimmune disease. Some environmental chemicals, acting as haptens, can bind to a high-molecular-weight carrier protein such as human serum albumin (HSA), causing the immune system to misidentify self-tissue as an invader and launch an immune response against it, leading to autoimmunity. This study aimed to examine the percentage of blood samples from healthy donors in which chemical agents mounted immune challenges and produced antibodies against HSA-bound chemicals. The levels of specific antibodies against 12 different chemicals bound to HSA were measured by ELISA in serum from 400 blood donors. We found that 10% (IgG) and 17% (IgM) of tested individuals showed significant antibody elevation against aflatoxin-HSA adduct. The percentage of elevation against the other 11 chemicals ranged from 8% to 22% (IgG) and 13% to 18% (IgM). Performance of serial dilution and inhibition of the chemical–antibody reaction by specific antigens but not by non-specific antigens were indicative of the specificity of these antibodies. Although we lack information about chemical exposure in the tested individuals, detection of antibodies against various protein adducts may indicate chronic exposure to these chemical haptens in about 20% of the tested individuals. Currently the pathological significance of these antibodies in human blood is still unclear, and this protein adduct formation could be one of the mechanisms by which environmental chemicals induce autoimmune reactivity in a significant percentage of the population. PMID:25042713

  6. Consideration of vertical uncertainty in elevation-based sea-level rise assessments: Mobile Bay, Alabama case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, Dean B.

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy with which coastal topography has been mapped directly affects the reliability and usefulness of elevationbased sea-level rise vulnerability assessments. Recent research has shown that the qualities of the elevation data must be well understood to properly model potential impacts. The cumulative vertical uncertainty has contributions from elevation data error, water level data uncertainties, and vertical datum and transformation uncertainties. The concepts of minimum sealevel rise increment and minimum planning timeline, important parameters for an elevation-based sea-level rise assessment, are used in recognition of the inherent vertical uncertainty of the underlying data. These concepts were applied to conduct a sea-level rise vulnerability assessment of the Mobile Bay, Alabama, region based on high-quality lidar-derived elevation data. The results that detail the area and associated resources (land cover, population, and infrastructure) vulnerable to a 1.18-m sea-level rise by the year 2100 are reported as a range of values (at the 95% confidence level) to account for the vertical uncertainty in the base data. Examination of the tabulated statistics about land cover, population, and infrastructure in the minimum and maximum vulnerable areas shows that these resources are not uniformly distributed throughout the overall vulnerable zone. The methods demonstrated in the Mobile Bay analysis provide an example of how to consider and properly account for vertical uncertainty in elevation-based sea-level rise vulnerability assessments, and the advantages of doing so.

  7. The Role of Triglycerides in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Talayero, Beatriz G.; Sacks, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and increasingly important in the setting of current obesity and insulin resistance epidemics. High triglyceride (TG) levels are markers for several types of atherogenic lipoproteins. Patients who have hypertriglyceridemia may be at significant risk for CVD even if low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are at goal, and therefore warrant treatment that optimizes diet, reduces overweight, and promotes regular exercise. High-risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia, such as those with diabetes, CVD, or metabolic syndrome, may benefit from additional drug treatment aside from a statin to address other lipid abnormalities. In this discussion, we review the role of hypertriglyceridemia and its associated atherogenic lipoproteins in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the relevance of a high TG level as a predictor of CVD, the cardiovascular outcomes from TG-lowering intervention trials, and the current guidelines for treating hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:21968696

  8. Elevated plasma oxytocin levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome compared with healthy unrelated siblings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lisa; Manzardo, Ann M; Miller, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Daniel J; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder associated with distinct abnormal behaviors including hyperphagia, profound social deficits, and obsessive-compulsive tendencies. PWS males showed reduced oxytocin receptor (OTR) gene expression and density in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus that may play a role in PWS psychopathology. Oxytocin is an anorexigenic neuropeptide similar to vasopressin that is associated with social cognition and obsessive-compulsive behavior. To evaluate oxytocin biology in PWS, we examined overnight fasting plasma oxytocin levels in 23 children with PWS (mean ± SD age: 8.2 ± 2.0 year) having genetic confirmation and 18 age matched healthy unrelated siblings without PWS (mean ± SD age: 8.2 ± 2.3 year) and a similar gender ratio under the same clinical assessments, specimen processing and laboratory conditions. Multiplex immune assays were carried out using the Milliplex Human Neuropeptide Magnetic panel and the Luminex system. Natural log-transformed oxytocin levels were analyzed using general linear model adjusting for diagnosis, gender, age and body mass index (BMI). Oxytocin plasma levels were significantly elevated in children with PWS (168 ± 121 pg/ml) compared with unrelated and unaffected siblings without the diagnosis of PWS (64.8 ± 83.8 pg/ml, F = 8.8, P < 0.01) and the diagnosis of PWS predicted oxytocin level (F = 9.5, P < 0.003) in controlled regression analysis with an overall model fit R(2) = 0.33 (P < 0.01). The symptoms of hyperphagia, anxiety and repetitive behaviors classically seen in PWS may be related to the disruption of oxytocin responsivity or feedback in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus possibly influencing vasopressin signaling. Further study is needed to characterize oxytocin function in PWS. PMID:26615966

  9. RABEX-5 overexpression in gastric cancer is correlated with elevated MMP-9 level

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Lili; Hao, Xuwen; Tang, Yanping; Wei, Xiaodong; Gong, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate mRNA and protein expression levels of RABEX-5 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), their mutual correlation, and biological behavior in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Methods: The expression levels of RABEX-5 and MMP-9 were determined by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting in cell lines, GC tissues, and adjacent normal tissues. In addition, RABEX-5 and MMP-9 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed tissues from 113 GC patients. Results: The mRNA and protein expression levels of RABEX-5 and MMP-9 in GC cell lines and GC tissues were higher than those in normal gastric mucosa cell line and adjacent normal tissues. RABEX-5 expression and MMP-9 expression in GC tissues were significantly and positively correlated. In addition, the size of tumor (p<0.001), Lauren’s classification (p=0.009), and N stage (p<0.001) were identified as the relative factors of RABEX-5 expression, whereas the expression of MMP-9 was correlated with N stage (p=0.003). The results of the multivariate analysis revealed that the independent predictive factors of overall survival were T stage (hazard ratio (HR)=2.382; p=0.028), N stage (HR=1.755; p<0.001), RABEX-5 expression (HR=0.452; p=0.004), and MMP-9 expression (HR=0.561; p=0.032). Conclusions: RABEX-5 and MMP-9 expression levels were elevated in GC tissues and were associated with tumor invasion, metastasis, and prognosis. Therefore, they may be promising prognostic indicators of survival in GC patients. PMID:27347344

  10. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    PubMed Central

    Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

  11. Elevated serum aluminum levels in hemodialysis patients associated with use of electric pumps--Wyoming, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-06-27

    Aluminum toxicity can cause osteomalacia, anemia, and dementia in hemodialysis patients and has historically been associated with exposure to contaminated water or dialysate preparations or ingestion of aluminum-containing phosphate binders. Since 2002, improvements in water treatment methods and use of non-aluminum-containing phosphate binders have resulted in low prevalence (<1%) of aluminum toxicity among hemodialysis patients. In the United States, reported cases of aluminum toxicosis are rare, and no outbreak has been reported since 1992. This report describes 10 patients treated at a hemodialysis unit in a Wyoming hospital (hospital A) in 2007 who had elevated serum aluminum levels that were detected through routine serum aluminum screening. An investigation was conducted by the Wyoming Department of Health, which determined that the source of exposure was dialysate acid concentrate that became contaminated with aluminum as it passed through two electric drum pumps. The drum pumps had been used to transfer dialysate acid concentrate from 55-gallon storage drums to 1-gallon jugs for use on individual hemodialysis machines. Removal of the pumps from service resulted in a rapid reduction in patient serum aluminum levels. The findings suggest that regular assessment of machine compatibility with dialysate fluid is needed.

  12. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population. PMID:26466436

  13. Elevated levels of oxidative DNA damage in lymphocytes from patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mórocz, Mónika; Kálmán, János; Juhász, Anna; Sinkó, Ildikó; McGlynn, Angela P; Downes, C Stephen; Janka, Zoltán; Raskó, István

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have provided evidence of the involvement of oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the role of oxidative stress in the aetiology of the disease is still not clear, the detection of an increased damage status in the cells of patients could have important therapeutic implications. The level of oxidative damage and repair capacity in peripheral lymphocytes of AD patients and of age-matched controls was determined by the Comet assay applied to freshly isolated blood samples with oxidative lesion-specific DNA repair endonucleases. This is less prone to errors arising from oxidative artifacts than chemical analytical methods; and is therefore a relatively reliable, as well as rapid method for assay of oxidative DNA damage in cells. Statistically significant elevations (P < 0.05) of oxidized purines were observed in nuclear DNA of peripheral lymphocytes from AD patients, compared to age matched control subjects, both at basal level and after oxidative stress induced by H(2)O(2.) AD patients also showed a diminished repair of H(2)O(2) -induced oxidized purines.

  14. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  15. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  16. Compared to Intermittant Claudication Critical Limb Ischemia Is Associated with Elevated Levels of Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Maksimow, Mikael; Hollmén, Maija; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Hakovirta, Harri

    2016-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the advanced stage of peripheral artery disease (PAD) and associated with an extremely poor clinical outcome. In order to understand the possible role of circulating cytokines and poor outcome associated with CLI we compared the circulating cytokine profile of patients with CLI against patients with intermittent claudication (IC). The levels of 48 circulating cytokines were examined in 226 consecutive patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) admitted for elective, non-urgent, invasive treatment of IC or CLI. The PAD patient cohort was evenly distributed between subjects with IC (46.5%) and CLI (53.5%). As accustomed in PAD, CLI was associated with higher age, chronic kidney disease and diabetes when compared to IC (P < 0.01 for all). In multivariable linear regression modeling taking into account the baseline differences between IC and CLI groups CLI was independently associated with elevated levels of a large number of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2Rα, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, G-CSF (P < 0.01 for all), and IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, bFGF, VEGF, SCGF-β (P < 0.05 for all). The current findings indicate that CLI is associated with a circulating cytokine profile, which resembles serious medical conditions such as severe pancreatitis, sepsis, or even cancer. Compared to IC, CLI is a systemic inflammatory condition, which may explain the extremely poor outcome associated with it. PMID:27611073

  17. Compared to Intermittant Claudication Critical Limb Ischemia Is Associated with Elevated Levels of Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Jalkanen, Juho; Maksimow, Mikael; Hollmén, Maija; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Hakovirta, Harri

    2016-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the advanced stage of peripheral artery disease (PAD) and associated with an extremely poor clinical outcome. In order to understand the possible role of circulating cytokines and poor outcome associated with CLI we compared the circulating cytokine profile of patients with CLI against patients with intermittent claudication (IC). The levels of 48 circulating cytokines were examined in 226 consecutive patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) admitted for elective, non-urgent, invasive treatment of IC or CLI. The PAD patient cohort was evenly distributed between subjects with IC (46.5%) and CLI (53.5%). As accustomed in PAD, CLI was associated with higher age, chronic kidney disease and diabetes when compared to IC (P < 0.01 for all). In multivariable linear regression modeling taking into account the baseline differences between IC and CLI groups CLI was independently associated with elevated levels of a large number of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2Rα, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, G-CSF (P < 0.01 for all), and IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, bFGF, VEGF, SCGF-β (P < 0.05 for all). The current findings indicate that CLI is associated with a circulating cytokine profile, which resembles serious medical conditions such as severe pancreatitis, sepsis, or even cancer. Compared to IC, CLI is a systemic inflammatory condition, which may explain the extremely poor outcome associated with it. PMID:27611073

  18. Overexpression of Sly41 suppresses COPII vesicle–tethering deficiencies by elevating intracellular calcium levels

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Indrani; Barlowe, Charles

    2016-01-01

    SLY41 was identified as a multicopy suppressor of loss of Ypt1, a Rab GTPase essential for COPII vesicle tethering at the Golgi complex. SLY41 encodes a polytopic membrane protein with homology to a class of solute transporter proteins, but how overexpression suppresses vesicle-tethering deficiencies is not known. Here we show that Sly41 is efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles and actively cycles between the ER and Golgi compartments. SLY41 displays synthetic negative genetic interactions with PMR1, which encodes the major Golgi-localized Ca2+/Mn2+ transporter and suggests that Sly41 influences cellular Ca2+ and Mn2+ homeostasis. Experiments using the calcium probe aequorin to measure intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in live cells reveal that Sly41 overexpression significantly increases cytosolic calcium levels. Although specific substrates of the Sly41 transporter were not identified, our findings indicate that localized overexpression of Sly41 to the early secretory pathway elevates cytosolic calcium levels to suppress vesicle-tethering mutants. In vitro SNARE cross-linking assays were used to directly monitor the influence of Ca2+ on tethering and fusion of COPII vesicles with Golgi membranes. Strikingly, calcium at suppressive concentrations stimulated SNARE-dependent membrane fusion when vesicle-tethering activity was reduced. These results show that calcium positively regulates the SNARE-dependent fusion stage of ER–Golgi transport. PMID:27030673

  19. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  20. Urinary soluble urokinase receptor levels are elevated and pathogenic in patients with primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease. Recent studies have proposed that plasma soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) might be a causative circulating factor but this proposal has caused controversy. This study aimed to measure urinary suPAR levels in patients with primary FSGS and its significance in the pathogenesis of FSGS. Methods Sixty-two patients with primary FSGS, diagnosed between January 2006 and January 2012, with complete clinical and pathologic data were enrolled, together with disease and normal controls. Urinary suPAR levels were measured using commercial ELISA kits and were corrected by urinary creatinine (Cr). The associations between urinary suPAR levels and clinical data at presentation and during follow up were analyzed. Conditionally immortalized human podocytes were used to study the effect of urinary suPAR on activating β3 integrin detected by AP5 staining. Results The urinary suPAR level of patients with primary FSGS (500.56, IQR 262.78 to 1,059.44 pg/μmol Cr) was significantly higher than that of patients with minimal change disease (307.86, IQR 216.54 to 480.18 pg/μmol Cr, P = 0.033), membranous nephropathy (250.23, IQR 170.37 to 357.59 pg/μmol Cr, P <0.001), secondary FSGS (220.45, IQR 149.38 to 335.54 pg/μmol Cr, P <0.001) and normal subjects (183.59, IQR 103.92 to 228.78 pg/μmol Cr, P <0.001). The urinary suPAR level of patients with cellular variant was significantly higher than that of patients with tip variant. The urinary suPAR level in the patients with primary FSGS was positively correlated with 24-hour urine protein (r = 0.287, P = 0.024). During follow up, the urinary suPAR level of patients with complete remission decreased significantly (661.19, IQR 224.32 to 1,115.29 pg/μmol Cr versus 217.68, IQR 121.77 to 415.55 pg/μmol Cr, P = 0.017). The AP5 signal was strongly induced along the cell membrane when human differentiated podocytes were incubated

  1. Experimental Study of Vane Heat Transfer and Aerodynamics at Elevated Levels of Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Forrest E.

    1994-01-01

    A four vane subsonic cascade was used to investigate how free stream turbulence influences pressure surface heat transfer. A simulated combustor turbulence generator was built to generate high level (13 percent) large scale (Lu approximately 44 percent inlet span) turbulence. The mock combustor was also moved upstream to generate a moderate level (8.3 percent) of turbulence for comparison to smaller scale grid generated turbulence (7.8 percent). The high level combustor turbulence caused an average pressure surface heat transfer augmentation of 56 percent above the low turbulence baseline. The smaller scale grid turbulence produced the next greatest effect on heat transfer and demonstrated the importance of scale on heat transfer augmentation. In general, the heat transfer scaling parameter U(sub infinity) TU(sub infinity) LU(sub infinity)(exp -1/3) was found to hold for the turbulence. Heat transfer augmentation was also found to scale approximately on Re(sub ex)(exp 1/3) at constant turbulence conditions. Some evidence of turbulence intensification in terms of elevated dissipation rates was found along the pressure surface outside the boundary layer. However, based on the level of dissipation and the resulting heat transfer augmentation, the amplification of turbulence has only a moderate effect on pressure surface heat transfer. The flow field turbulence does drive turbulent production within the boundary layer which in turn causes the high levels of heat transfer augmentation. Unlike heat transfer, the flow field straining was found to have a significant effect on turbulence isotropy. On examination of the one dimensional spectra for u' and v', the effect to isotropy was largely limited to lower wavenumber spectra. The higher wavenumber spectra showed little or no change. The high level large scale turbulence was found to have a strong influence on wake development. The free stream turbulence significantly enhanced mixing resulting in broader and shallower

  2. Plasma Levels of Biotin Metabolites Are Elevated in Hemodialysis Patients with Cramps.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Masako; Ando, Itiro; Yagi, Shigeaki; Nishizawa, Manabu; Oguma, Shiro; Satoh, Keisuke; Sato, Hiroshi; Imai, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Patients with renal failure undergoing hemodialysis (HD) are susceptible to muscle cramps during and after HD. Muscle cramps are defined as the sudden onset of a prolonged involuntary muscle contraction accompanied by severe pain. Through HD, water-soluble vitamins are drawn out with water. Since biotin, a water-soluble vitamin, plays an essential role as one of the coenzymes in producing energy, we have hypothesized that deficiency of biotin may be responsible for HD-associated cramps. We previously reported that biotin administration ameliorated the muscle cramps, despite the elevated plasma biotin levels before HD and biotin administration, as judged by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, the ELISA measures not only biotin but also total avidin-binding substances (TABS) including biotin metabolites. In the present study, we determined biotin in HD patients as well as healthy controls, using a newly developed method with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The plasma samples were collected from 28 HD patients (16 patients with cramps and 12 patients without cramps) before HD and biotin administration and from 11 controls. The results showed that the accumulation of biotin and TABS in plasma of HD patients compared to controls. Importantly, the levels of biotin metabolites, i.e. TABS subtracted by biotin, increased significantly in patients with cramps over those without cramps. Moreover, the levels of biotin metabolites were significantly higher in patients with a poor response to administered biotin, compared to those with a good response. We propose that accumulated biotin metabolites impair biotin's functions as a coenzyme. PMID:27466017

  3. Elevated Circulating Interleukin 33 Levels in Stable Renal Transplant Recipients at High Risk for Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Mansell, Holly; Soliman, Mahmoud; Elmoselhi, Hamdi; Shoker, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    . Diminished eGFR, age, diabetes, serum phosphorus and microalbuminurea demonstrate significant relationship with elevated IL-33 levels, supporting the possible pathognomonic role of IL-33 in the cardiovascular burden in RTR. PMID:26544186

  4. Northeastern Salt Marshes: Elevation Capital and Resilience to Sea Level Rise

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable tidal salt marshes exist at an elevation that is supra-optimal relative to peak biomass production, which for Spartina alterniflora, and other marsh macrophytes, follows a parabolic distribution as a function of elevation, as a surrogate for inundation frequency. In order...

  5. Elevated ground-level O(3) changes the diversity of anoxygenic purple phototrophic bacteria in paddy field.

    PubMed

    Feng, Youzhi; Lin, Xiangui; Yu, Yongchang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2011-11-01

    The knowledge of the impact of elevated ground-level O(3) below ground the agro-ecosystem is limited. A field experiment in China Ozone Free-Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE-O(3)) facility on a rice-wheat rotation system was carried out to investigate responses of anoxygenic phototrophic purple bacteria (AnPPB) to elevated ground-level O(3). AnPPB community structures and sizes in paddy soil were monitored by molecular approaches including PCR-DGGE and real-time quantitative PCR based upon the pufM gene on three typical rice growth stages. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) in combination with culture-reliant method was conducted to reveal changes in genotypic diversity. Elevated ground-level O(3) statistically reduce AnPPB abundance and percentage in total bacterial community in flooded rice soil via decreasing their genotypic diversity and metabolic versatility. Concomitantly, their community composition changed after rice anthesis stage under elevated ground-level O(3). Our results from AnPPB potential responses imply that continuously elevated ground-level O(3) in the future would eventually harm the health of paddy ecosystem through negative effect on soil microorganisms. PMID:21698401

  6. Elevated Circulating Levels and Tissue Expression of Pentraxin 3 in Uremia: A Reflection of Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Witasp, Anna; Rydén, Mikael; Carrero, Juan Jesús; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Nordfors, Louise; Näslund, Erik; Hammarqvist, Folke; Arefin, Samsul; Kublickiene, Karolina; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Elevated systemic pentraxin 3 (PTX3) levels appear to be a powerful marker of inflammatory status and a superior outcome predictor in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). As previous data imply that PTX3 is involved in vascular pathology and that adipose tissue mass may influence circulating PTX3 levels, we aimed to study the importance of adipose tissue expression of PTX3 in the uremic milieu and its relation to endothelial dysfunction parameters. Plasma PTX3 and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) PTX3 mRNA levels were quantified in 56 stage 5 CKD patients (median age 57 [range 25–75] years, 30 males) and 40 age and gender matched controls (median age 58 [range 20–79] years, 27 males). Associations between PTX3 measures and an extensive panel of clinical parameters, including surrogate markers of endothelial function, were assessed. Functional ex vivo studies on endothelial status and immunohistochemical staining for PTX3 were conducted in resistance subcutaneous arteries isolated from SAT. SAT PTX3 mRNA expression correlated with plasma PTX3 concentrations (rho = 0.54, p = 0.0001) and was increased (3.7 [0.4–70.3] vs. 1.2 [0.2–49.3] RQ, p = 0.02) in CKD patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but was not significantly different between patients and controls. The association to CVD was lost after adjustments. SAT PTX3 mRNA levels were independently correlated to asymmetric dimethylarginine and basal resistance artery tone developed after inhibition with nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase (rho = −0.58, p = 0.002). Apparent positive PTX3 immunoreactivity was observed in both patient and control arteries. In conclusion, fat PTX3 mRNA levels are associated with measures of endothelial cell function in patients with CKD. PTX3 may be involved in adipose tissue-orchestrated mechanisms that are restricted to the uremic milieu and modify inflammation and vascular complications in CKD patients. PMID:23658833

  7. Elevated Nicotianamine Levels in Arabidopsis halleri Roots Play a Key Role in Zinc Hyperaccumulation[W

    PubMed Central

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Weber, Michael; Schmidt, Holger; Rensch, Stefan; Trampczynska, Aleksandra; Hansen, Thomas H.; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Talke, Ina N.; Krämer, Ute; Clemens, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Zn deficiency is among the leading health risk factors in developing countries. Breeding of Zn-enriched crops is expected to be facilitated by molecular dissection of plant Zn hyperaccumulation (i.e., the ability of certain plants to accumulate Zn to levels >100-fold higher than normal plants). The model hyperaccumulators Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens share elevated nicotianamine synthase (NAS) expression relative to nonaccumulators among a core of alterations in metal homeostasis. Suppression of Ah-NAS2 by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in strongly reduced root nicotianamine (NA) accumulation and a concomitant decrease in root-to-shoot translocation of Zn. Speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed that the dominating Zn ligands in roots were NA and thiols. In NAS2-RNAi plants, a marked increase in Zn-thiol species was observed. Wild-type A. halleri plants cultivated on their native soil showed elemental profiles very similar to those found in field samples. Leaf Zn concentrations in NAS2-RNAi lines, however, did not reach the Zn hyperaccumulation threshold. Leaf Cd accumulation was also significantly reduced. These results demonstrate a role for NAS2 in Zn hyperaccumulation also under near-natural conditions. We propose that NA forms complexes with Zn(II) in root cells and facilitates symplastic passage of Zn(II) toward the xylem. PMID:22374395

  8. Amino Acid Change in the Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein is associated with lower triglycerides and myocardial infarction incidence depending on level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the PREDIMED trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variant (rs3812316, C771G, and Gln241His) in the MLXIPL (Max-like protein X interacting protein-like) gene encoding the carbohydrate response element binding protein has been associated with lower triglycerides. However, its association with cardiovascular diseases and gene-diet interactions modul...

  9. Plasma L5 levels are elevated in ischemic stroke patients and enhance platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ming-Yi; Chen, Fang-Yu; Hsu, Jing-Fang; Fu, Ru-Huei; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Wu, Jia-Rong; Lee, An-Sheng; Chan, Hua-Chen; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Chang, Kuan-Cheng; Hsu, Chung Y; Chen, Chu-Huang

    2016-03-10

    L5, the most electronegative and atherogenic subfraction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), induces platelet activation. We hypothesized that plasma L5 levels are increased in acute ischemic stroke patients and examined whether lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), the receptor for L5 on endothelial cells and platelets, plays a critical role in stroke. Because amyloid β (Aβ) stimulates platelet aggregation, we studied whether L5 and Aβ function synergistically to induce prothrombotic pathways leading to stroke. Levels of plasma L5, serum Aβ, and platelet LOX-1 expression were significantly higher in acute ischemic stroke patients than in controls without metabolic syndrome (P < .01). In mice subjected to focal cerebral ischemia, L5 treatment resulted in larger infarction volumes than did phosphate-buffered saline treatment. Deficiency or neutralizing of LOX-1 reduced infarct volume up to threefold after focal cerebral ischemia in mice, illustrating the importance of LOX-1 in stroke injury. In human platelets, L5 but not L1 (the least electronegative LDL subfraction) induced Aβ release via IκB kinase 2 (IKK2). Furthermore, L5+Aβ synergistically induced glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor activation; phosphorylation of IKK2, IκBα, p65, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1; and platelet aggregation. These effects were blocked by inhibiting IKK2, LOX-1, or nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Injecting L5+Aβ shortened tail-bleeding time by 50% (n = 12; P < .05 vs L1-injected mice), which was prevented by the IKK2 inhibitor. Our findings suggest that, through LOX-1, atherogenic L5 potentiates Aβ-mediated platelet activation, platelet aggregation, and hemostasis via IKK2/NF-κB signaling. L5 elevation may be a risk factor for cerebral atherothrombosis, and downregulating LOX-1 and inhibiting IKK2 may be novel antithrombotic strategies. PMID:26679863

  10. Plasma L5 levels are elevated in ischemic stroke patients and enhance platelet aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ming-Yi; Chen, Fang-Yu; Hsu, Jing-Fang; Fu, Ru-Huei; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Wu, Jia-Rong; Lee, An-Sheng; Chan, Hua-Chen; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Chang, Kuan-Cheng; Hsu, Chung Y.

    2016-01-01

    L5, the most electronegative and atherogenic subfraction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), induces platelet activation. We hypothesized that plasma L5 levels are increased in acute ischemic stroke patients and examined whether lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), the receptor for L5 on endothelial cells and platelets, plays a critical role in stroke. Because amyloid β (Aβ) stimulates platelet aggregation, we studied whether L5 and Aβ function synergistically to induce prothrombotic pathways leading to stroke. Levels of plasma L5, serum Aβ, and platelet LOX-1 expression were significantly higher in acute ischemic stroke patients than in controls without metabolic syndrome (P < .01). In mice subjected to focal cerebral ischemia, L5 treatment resulted in larger infarction volumes than did phosphate-buffered saline treatment. Deficiency or neutralizing of LOX-1 reduced infarct volume up to threefold after focal cerebral ischemia in mice, illustrating the importance of LOX-1 in stroke injury. In human platelets, L5 but not L1 (the least electronegative LDL subfraction) induced Aβ release via IκB kinase 2 (IKK2). Furthermore, L5+Aβ synergistically induced glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor activation; phosphorylation of IKK2, IκBα, p65, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1; and platelet aggregation. These effects were blocked by inhibiting IKK2, LOX-1, or nuclear factor–κB (NF-κB). Injecting L5+Aβ shortened tail-bleeding time by 50% (n = 12; P < .05 vs L1-injected mice), which was prevented by the IKK2 inhibitor. Our findings suggest that, through LOX-1, atherogenic L5 potentiates Aβ-mediated platelet activation, platelet aggregation, and hemostasis via IKK2/NF-κB signaling. L5 elevation may be a risk factor for cerebral atherothrombosis, and downregulating LOX-1 and inhibiting IKK2 may be novel antithrombotic strategies. PMID:26679863

  11. Photosynthesis and antioxidant defense system of Gynura Bicolor DC grown at different elevated CO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO _{2}] will increase in the future and will affect global climate and ecosystem productivity. However, this is not clearly an area that requires further study on the most appropriate [CO _{2}] selection for plant growth and quality in a closed, controlled environment. The aim of this study was to determine the variation of photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant status under five CO _{2} concentration (400, 800, 1200, 2000 and 3000 umol mol (-1) ) on the leaf of Gynura bicolor DC. Here the results show that net photosynthetic rate(Pn), Chl content, edible biomass(EB), leaf blade width(LBW), root weight(RW), fructose(Fru) and sucrose(Suc) of Gynura bicolor DC increased under elevated [CO _{2}] of 800 umol mol (-1) , 1200 umol mol (-1) and 2000 umol mol (-1) . On the contrary, photosynthesis and biomass production declined significantly at 3000 umol mol (-1) CO _{2}, While Lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H _{2}O _{2}) achieved the highest levels. Furthermore, the contents of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C (VC), and vitamin E (VE), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) reached the highest level at 2000 umol mol ({-1) }CO _{2}. Results imply that a significant increase in growth and antioxidant defense system of Gynura bicolor DC occurred under 800-2000 umol mol (-1) of CO _{2} concentration provided a theoretical basis for the application for plants selection in Bioregeneration Life Support System (BLSS) and a closed controlled environment.

  12. Transmural triglycerides in acute myocardial ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Jesmok, G J; Warltier, D C; Gross, G J; Hardman, H F

    1978-11-01

    The effect of coronary artery occlusion on endogenous triglycerides of left ventricular subepicardium and subendocardium was studied in the open-chest anaesthetised dog. Under control conditions, the subepicardium was found to have a greater concentration of triglycerides than the subendocardium. Thirty minutes after acute coronary artery occlusion there was a decrease followed by a steady increase at 60, 120, and 240 min in subepicardial triglycerides of the ischaemic region. No change in triglycerides in the subendocardium of normal or ischaemic regions was observed. The initial decrease of subepicardial triglycerides in the ischaemic region was blocked by administration of propranolol or bevantolol (CI-775; a specific beta 1 antagonist) given 30 min before occlusion. It is concluded that the effect of coronary artery ligation on transmural endogenous triglycerides is biphasic with an initial period of increased mobilisation followed by a period of increased deposition.

  13. Triglyceride accumulation and altered composition of triglyceride-associated fatty acids in the skin of tenascin-X-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichi; Sato, Takashige; Oka, Seiko; Orba, Yasuko; Sawa, Hirofumi; Kabayama, Kazuya; Inokuchi, Jin-ichi; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2004-08-01

    Tenascin-X (TNX) is a member of the tenascin family of glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix. Here, we observed abnormalities in the skin of TNX-deficient mice in comparison with that of wild-type mice. Histological analysis with Oil Red O staining demonstrated that there was considerable accumulation of lipid in the skin of TNX-deficient (TNX-/-) mice. By thin-layer chromatography of total lipids, it was found that the level of triglyceride was significantly increased in TNX-/- mice. The mRNA levels of most of the lipogenic enzyme genes examined were remarkably increased in TNX-/- mice. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of triglyceride-associated fatty acids in the skin, saturated fatty acid palmitoic acid was decreased, whereas unsaturated fatty acids palmitoleic acid and oleic acid were increased in TNX-/- mice compared with those in wild-type mice. Conversely, fibroblast cell lines transfected with TNX showed a significant decrease in the amount of triglyceride. An increase in the saturated fatty acid stearic acid and decreases in the unsaturated fatty acids palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid, compared to those in mock-transfected cells were also caused by over-expression of TNX. These results indicate that TNX is involved in the regulation of triglyceride synthesis and the regulation of composition of triglyceride-associated fatty acids.

  14. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands of Micronesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, K.W.; Cahoon, D.R.; Allen, J.A.; Ewel, K.C.; Lynch, J.C.; Cormier, N.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marine communities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer mangroves a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level. In this study, we investigated sedimentation and elevation dynamics of mangrove forests in three hydrogeomorphic settings on the islands of Kosrae and Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Surface accretion rates ranged from 2.9 to 20.8 mm y-1, and are high for naturally occurring mangroves. Although mangrove forests in Micronesian high islands appear to have a strong capacity to offset elevation losses by way of sedimentation, elevation change over 61/2 years ranged from -3.2 to 4.1 mm y-1, depending on the location. Mangrove surface elevation change also varied by hydrogeomorphic setting and river, and suggested differential, and not uniformly bleak, susceptibilities among Pacific high island mangroves to sea-level rise. Fringe, riverine, and interior settings registered elevation changes of -1.30, 0.46, and 1.56 mm y-1, respectively, with the greatest elevation deficit (-3.2 mm y-1) from a fringe zone on Pohnpei and the highest rate of elevation gain (4.1 mm y-1) from an interior zone on Kosrae. Relative to sea-level rise estimates for FSM (0.8-1.8 mm y-1) and assuming a consistent linear trend in these estimates, soil elevations in mangroves on Kosrae and Pohnpei are experiencing between an annual deficit of 4.95 mm and an annual surplus of 3.28 mm. Although natural disturbances are important in mediating elevation gain in some situations, constant allochthonous sediment deposition probably matters most on these Pacific high islands, and is especially helpful in certain hydrogeomorphic zones

  15. Coxsackie B5 infection in an adult with fever, truncal rash, diarrhea and splenomegaly with highly elevated ferritin levels.

    PubMed

    Valestra, Paul K; Fornos, Scarlet Herrarte; Gian, John; Cunha, Burke A

    2016-01-01

    Coxsackie viruses are enteroviruses most common in children. Coxsackie B viral infections often present with biphasic fever, headache, pharyngitis, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea and a maculopapular rash that spares the palms and soles. These clinical features may be present in other viral infections. We present a case of a hospitalized adult with rash and fever with highly elevated ferritin levels later found to be due to Coxsackie B5. We believe this is the first case of Coxsackie B infection with otherwise unexplained highly elevated ferritin levels. PMID:27617209

  16. Elevated levels of selenium in the typical diet of Amazonian riverside populations.

    PubMed

    Lemire, Mélanie; Fillion, Myriam; Barbosa, Fernando; Guimarães, Jean Rémy Davée; Mergler, Donna

    2010-09-01

    Selenium (Se) intake is generally from food, whose Se content depends on soil Se and plant accumulation. For humans, adequate Se intake is essential for several selenoenzymes. In the Lower Tapajós region of the Brazilian Amazon, Se status is elevated with large inter-community variability. Se intake in this region, where Hg exposure is among the highest in the world, may be important to counteract mercury (Hg) toxicity. The present study was conducted in 2006 with 155 persons from four communities of the Lower Tapajós. The objectives were: i) to evaluate Se content in their typical diet and drinking water; ii) to compare food Se concentrations with respect to geographic location; and iii) to examine the contribution of consumption of different food items to blood Se. More than 400 local foods and 40 drinking water samples were collected. Participants responded to an interview-administered food frequency questionnaire and provided blood samples. Food, water and blood Se levels were assessed by ICP-MS. Since Brazil nuts may also contain significant levels of barium (Ba) and strontium (Sr), these elements were likewise analyzed in nuts. The highest Se concentrations were found in Brazil nuts, but concentrations were highly variable (median: 13.9 microg/g; range: 0.4-158.4 microg/g). Chicken, game meat, eggs and beef also contained considerable levels of Se, with median concentrations from 0.3 to 1.4 microg/g. There was no particular geographic distribution of food Se. Se concentration in drinking water was very low (< 1.4 microg/L). Blood Se covered a (103-1500 microg/L), and was positively related to regular consumption of Brazil nuts, domestic chicken and game meat. Brazil nuts were found to contain highly variable and often very high concentrations of Ba (88.0 microg/g, 1.9-1437 microg/g) and Sr (38.7 microg/g, 3.3-173 microg/g). PMID:20646739

  17. Characterization of Wafer-Level Au-In-Bonded Samples at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Thi-Thuy; Hoivik, Nils; Wang, Kaiying; Aasmundtveit, Knut E.; Vardøy, Astrid-Sofie B.

    2015-06-01

    Wafer-level bonding using Au-In solid liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding is a promising approach to enable low-temperature assembly and MEMS packaging/encapsulation. Due to the low-melting point of In, wafer-level bonding can be performed at considerably lower temperatures than Sn-based bonding; this work treats bonds performed at 453 K (180 °C). Following bonding, the die shear strength at elevated temperatures was investigated from room temperature to 573 K (300 °C), revealing excellent mechanical integrity at these temperatures well above the bonding temperature. For shear test temperatures from room temperature to 473 K (200 °C), the measured shear strength was stable at 30 MPa, whereas it increased to 40 MPa at shear test temperature of 573 K (300 °C). The fracture surfaces of Au-In-bonded samples revealed brittle fracture modes (at the original bond interface and at the adhesion layers) for shear test temperatures up to 473 K (200 °C), but ductile fracture mode for shear test temperature of 573 K (300 °C). The as-bonded samples have a layered structure consisting of the two intermetallic phases AuIn and γ', as shown by cross section microscopy and predicted from the phase diagram. The change in behavior for the tests at 573 K (300 °C) is attributed to a solid-state phase transition occurring at 497 K (224 °C), where the phase diagram predicts a AuIn/ψ structure and a phase boundary moving across the initial bond interface. The associated interdiffusion of Au and In will strengthen the initial bond interface and, as a consequence, the measured shear strength. This work provides experimental evidence for the high-temperature stability of wafer-level, low-temperature bonded, Au-In SLID bonds. The high bond strength obtained is limited by the strength at the initial bond interface and at the adhesion layers, showing that the Au-In SLID system itself is capable of even higher bond strength.

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has diminished capacity to counteract redox stress induced by elevated levels of endogenous superoxide

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T.; Bhaskar, Ashima; Chakrapani, Harinath; Singh, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved protective and detoxification mechanisms to maintain cytoplasmic redox balance in response to exogenous oxidative stress encountered inside host phagocytes. In contrast, little is known about the dynamic response of this pathogen to endogenous oxidative stress generated within Mtb. Using a noninvasive and specific biosensor of cytoplasmic redox state of Mtb, we for first time discovered a surprisingly high sensitivity of this pathogen to perturbation in redox homeostasis induced by elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). We synthesized a series of hydroquinone-based small molecule ROS generators and found that ATD-3169 permeated mycobacteria to reliably enhance endogenous ROS including superoxide radicals. When Mtb strains including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) patient isolates were exposed to this compound, a dose-dependent, long-lasting, and irreversible oxidative shift in intramycobacterial redox potential was detected. Dynamic redox potential measurements revealed that Mtb had diminished capacity to restore cytoplasmic redox balance in comparison with Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), a fast growing nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Accordingly, Mtb strains were extremely susceptible to inhibition by ATD-3169 but not Msm, suggesting a functional linkage between dynamic redox changes and survival. Microarray analysis showed major realignment of pathways involved in redox homeostasis, central metabolism, DNA repair, and cell wall lipid biosynthesis in response to ATD-3169, all consistent with enhanced endogenous ROS contributing to lethality induced by this compound. This work provides empirical evidence that the cytoplasmic redox poise of Mtb is uniquely sensitive to manipulation in steady-state endogenous ROS levels, thus revealing the importance of targeting intramycobacterial redox metabolism for controlling TB infection. PMID:25819161

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has diminished capacity to counteract redox stress induced by elevated levels of endogenous superoxide.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T; Bhaskar, Ashima; Chakrapani, Harinath; Singh, Amit

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved protective and detoxification mechanisms to maintain cytoplasmic redox balance in response to exogenous oxidative stress encountered inside host phagocytes. In contrast, little is known about the dynamic response of this pathogen to endogenous oxidative stress generated within Mtb. Using a noninvasive and specific biosensor of cytoplasmic redox state of Mtb, we for first time discovered a surprisingly high sensitivity of this pathogen to perturbation in redox homeostasis induced by elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). We synthesized a series of hydroquinone-based small molecule ROS generators and found that ATD-3169 permeated mycobacteria to reliably enhance endogenous ROS including superoxide radicals. When Mtb strains including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) patient isolates were exposed to this compound, a dose-dependent, long-lasting, and irreversible oxidative shift in intramycobacterial redox potential was detected. Dynamic redox potential measurements revealed that Mtb had diminished capacity to restore cytoplasmic redox balance in comparison with Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), a fast growing nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Accordingly, Mtb strains were extremely susceptible to inhibition by ATD-3169 but not Msm, suggesting a functional linkage between dynamic redox changes and survival. Microarray analysis showed major realignment of pathways involved in redox homeostasis, central metabolism, DNA repair, and cell wall lipid biosynthesis in response to ATD-3169, all consistent with enhanced endogenous ROS contributing to lethality induced by this compound. This work provides empirical evidence that the cytoplasmic redox poise of Mtb is uniquely sensitive to manipulation in steady-state endogenous ROS levels, thus revealing the importance of targeting intramycobacterial redox metabolism for controlling TB infection.

  20. Decreased glutathione and elevated hair mercury levels are associated with nutritional deficiency-based autism in Oman.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Farsi, Omar; Ali, Amanat; Ouhtit, Allal; Zang, Tianzhu; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Deth, Richard C

    2014-06-01

    Genetic, nutrition, and environmental factors have each been implicated as sources of risk for autism. Oxidative stress, including low plasma levels of the antioxidant glutathione, has been reported by numerous autism studies, which can disrupt methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation of gene expression with neurodevelopmental consequences. We investigated the status of redox and methylation metabolites, as well as the level of protein homocysteinylation and hair mercury levels, in autistic and neurotypical control Omani children, who were previously shown to exhibit significant nutritional deficiencies in serum folate and vitamin B₁₂. The serum level of glutathione in autistic subjects was significantly below control levels, while levels of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were elevated, indicative of oxidative stress and decreased methionine synthase activity. Autistic males had lower glutathione and higher homocysteine levels than females, while homocysteinylation of serum proteins was increased in autistic males but not females. Mercury levels were markedly elevated in the hair of autistic subjects vs. control subjects, consistent with the importance of glutathione for its elimination. Thus, autism in Oman is associated with decreased antioxidant resources and decreased methylation capacity, in conjunction with elevated hair levels of mercury.

  1. Comparison of a potentiometric and a micromechanical triglyceride biosensor.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Renny Edwin; Hareesh, Vemulachedu; Bhattacharya, Enakshi; Chadha, Anju

    2009-01-01

    Sensitive biosensors for detection of triglyceride concentration are important. In this paper we report on two types of silicon based triglyceride sensors: an electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor capacitor (EISCAP) which is a potentiometric device and a polysilicon microcantilever. The detection principle for both sensors is based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of triglyceride though the sensing mechanisms are different: electronic for the EISCAP and mechanical for the microcantilever. The characteristics and performances of the two sensors are critically compared. The EISCAP sensor necessitates the presence of a buffer for stable measurements which limits the sensitivity of the sensor at low concentrations of the bioanalyte to 1mM. The cantilever sensor works without a buffer which improves the lower level of sensitivity to 10 microm. Both sensors are found to give reproducible and reliable results.

  2. Effects of elevated circulating cortisol levels on hydromineral status and gill tight junction protein abundance in the stenohaline goldfish.

    PubMed

    Chasiotis, Helen; Kelly, Scott P

    2012-01-15

    A role for cortisol in the regulation of hydromineral balance and gill tight junction (TJ) protein transcript abundance in the stenohaline freshwater goldfish was investigated. Intraperitoneal cortisol implants (50, 100, 200, 400 μg cortisol/g body weight) were used to dose-dependently elevate circulating cortisol levels over a 4 day period. Elevated cortisol did not significantly alter serum osmolality, serum Na(+) or muscle water content, however serum glucose and gill Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity were significantly increased and serum Cl(-) levels were significantly reduced when compared to control groups. Transcript levels for glucocorticoid receptor 1 (GR1) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the gill remained unchanged by cortisol treatment, however glucocorticoid receptor 2 (GR2) mRNA abundance was significantly down-regulated. Conversely, cortisol treatment significantly increased transcript and protein abundance of the TJ protein occludin in goldfish gill tissue, as well as mRNA abundance for claudin e, 7 and 8d. Goldfish tissue expression profiles demonstrated that transcripts encoding for these claudins are particularly abundant in the gill. Overall, results suggest a 'tightened' gill epithelium in response to elevated cortisol levels in goldfish. However, negative autoregulation of gill GR2 transcript suggests a lessened capacity to respond to cortisol and thus a potentially 'dampened' corticosteroid-mediated effect in the gill. Reduced systemic Cl(-) levels also suggest that sustained cortisol elevation in goldfish may have a detrimental effect on other ionoregulatory tissues.

  3. Prognostic Value of Elevated Homocysteine Levels in Korean Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Sung Woo; Kim, Jong-Youn; Suh, Young Ju; Lee, Dae Hyung; Yoon, Young Won; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Jung, Young-Hak; Choi, Eui-Young; Hong, Bum-Kee; Rim, Se-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We sought to determine whether an elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level is associated with a worse prognosis in Korean patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Subjects and Methods A total of 5839 patients (60.4% male, mean age 61.3±11.2 years) with CAD were enrolled from 2000 to 2010 at Gangnam Severance Hospital. CAD was diagnosed by invasive coronary angiography. Laboratory values including Hcy level were obtained on the day of coronary angiography and analyses were performed shortly after sampling. Patients were divided into two groups according to their Hcy levels. Baseline risk factors, coronary angiographic findings, length of follow-up, and composite endpoints including cardiac death (CD) and non-fatal myocardial infarction (NFMI) were recorded. 1:1 propensity score matched analysis was also performed. Results Over a mean follow-up period of 4.4±2.5 years, there were 132 composite endpoints (75 CD and 57 NFMI) with an event rate of 2.3%. Mean Hcy level was 9.9±4.3 µmol/L (normal Hcy 7.9±1.5 µmol/L and elevated Hcy 13.9±5.1 µmol/L). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed an association of elevated Hcy level with worse prognosis (p<0.0001). In addition, a multivariate Cox regression analysis showed an association of elevated Hcy level with worse prognosis for both the entire cohort (hazard ratio [HR] 2.077, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.467-2.941, p<0.0001) and the propensity score matched cohort (HR 1.982, 95% CI 1.305-3.009, p=0.001). Conclusion Elevated Hcy level is associated with worse outcomes in Korean patients with CAD. PMID:27014345

  4. Radon measurements and analysis for central Pennsylvania counties having elevated radon levels.

    PubMed

    Distenfeld, C; Distenfeld, J; Distenfeld, L

    2001-05-01

    The U.S. EPA identified South Central Pennsylvania as a region having elevated radon levels. The thnist of this paper is to examine in some detail the TCS Industries, Inc., data base for eight Central Pennsylvania counties having a combined population of about 1.7 million people, which is 14% of the state population. TCS has been making and analyzing radon measurements since 1986. During the period 1986 to 1999 more than 125,000 measurements were recorded in the TCS data base. The data consisted of analyzed results from four subsets. Results were from mail order charcoal canisters, bulk orders from RMP certified companies for their placement, wholesales to retail vendors, and also direct home placement of canisters, track detectors, and continuous radon monitors. The data base for the eight South Central Pennsylvania counties for tile 13-y period consists of more than 27,000 screening measurements from non-duplicated addresses. The results were assembled into three studies. The locations of tile measurements were converted into individual latitude and longitude values. The data were divided into four blocks of concentrations from 740 Bq m(-3) to over 4,440 Bq m(-3). The data were plotted on computer generated maps for South Central Pennsylvania. The plots indicated both hot spots and regions of relatively uniform chronic levels of 740 to 1,480 Bq m(-3). An average value of the basement to first floor concentrations ratio was constructed from measurements made by TCS for real estate purposes. The ratio represents 1,608 sets of simultaneous measurements of basements and first floor radon values above 37 Bq m(-3). The measurements were made by trained personnel performed under tile EPA protocol for closed house conditions. The ratio was 2.3 at 1 standard deviation of 0.05 of the mean. A third study assembled all of the data into first floor radon concentrations and separately for addresses with only basement values. The average concentration data within each of the

  5. Resistance of endothelium-dependent relaxation to elevation of O(-)(2) levels in rabbit carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Pagano, P J; Griswold, M C; Najibi, S; Marklund, S L; Cohen, R A

    1999-11-01

    Endogenous superoxide anion (O(-)(2)) interferes with the bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO) in endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation (EDR). Using the lucigenin chemiluminescence assay, we measured O(-)(2) in the thoracic and abdominal aortas and the carotid artery of rabbits to determine whether ambient O(-)(2) varies among the three arteries and differentially diminishes the effect of NO. Basal levels of O(-)(2) were significantly higher in carotid arteries than in the thoracic aorta [23 +/- 6.1 vs. 3.9 +/- 1.4 chemiluminescence units (CU); P < 0.05], whereas EDR in response to ACh (10(-8)-10(-5) M) was not significantly different on ANOVA. After treatment with the superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC; 10 mM), O(-)(2) levels were significantly elevated, becoming greater in the carotid artery and abdominal aorta than in the thoracic aorta (185 +/- 31.2 and 202 +/- 40.3 vs. 89 +/- 18 CU; P < 0.05). DDC significantly reversed EDR in the thoracic aorta but not in the carotid artery; at 10(-6) M ACh, the decrease seen with DDC was 48 +/- 6.2 vs. 6.8 +/- 8.0% of maximal relaxation in the thoracic aorta and carotid artery, respectively. In the thoracic aorta, exogenous SOD reversed the inhibition of EDR caused by DDC. Moreover, DDC/O(-)(2)-resistant EDR in the carotid artery was ablated by the addition of nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (300 microM; P < 0.05), an NO synthase inhibitor, consistent with peroxynitrite or an O(-)(2)-resistant NO donor being involved in carotid relaxation. Indeed, exogenous peroxynitrite caused similar relaxation of the carotid artery and thoracic aorta, which was unaffected by DDC. Our studies show a greater production of nitrite and O(-)(2) per unit area by the carotid artery, suggesting a greater amount of their product peroxynitrite. These findings support the hypothesis that peroxynitrite is the relaxing agent that resists high O(-)(2) in the carotid artery. PMID:10564167

  6. Metabolic abnormalities: triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Ronald M; Siri, Patty W

    2004-06-01

    Increased plasma triglyceride and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are key features of the metabolic syndrome. Although elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is not an integral characteristic of this syndrome, there is commonly an increase in the proportion of small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles. Together, these abnormalities constitute the atherogenic dyslipidemia of the metabolic syndrome. This article reviews the pathophysiology of altered triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein metabolism in the metabolic syndrome, outlines the relationship of these lipoprotein abnormalities to increased risk of coronary heart disease,and highlights the application of this information to clinical practice. The role of reduced high-density lipoprotein in the metabolic syndrome is discussed elsewhere in this issue.

  7. Analysis of lidar elevation data for improved identification and delineation of lands vulnerable to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of sea-level rise in shaping coastal landscapes is well recognized within the earth science community, but as with many natural hazards, communicating the risks associated with sea-level rise remains a challenge. Topography is a key parameter that influences many of the processes involved in coastal change, and thus, up-to-date, high-resolution, high-accuracy elevation data are required to model the coastal environment. Maps of areas subject to potential inundation have great utility to planners and managers concerned with the effects of sea-level rise. However, most of the maps produced to date are simplistic representations derived from older, coarse elevation data. In the last several years, vast amounts of high quality elevation data derived from lidar have become available. Because of their high vertical accuracy and spatial resolution, these lidar data are an excellent source of up-to-date information from which to improve identification and delineation of vulnerable lands. Four elevation datasets of varying resolution and accuracy were processed to demonstrate that the improved quality of lidar data leads to more precise delineation of coastal lands vulnerable to inundation. A key component of the comparison was to calculate and account for the vertical uncertainty of the elevation datasets. This comparison shows that lidar allows for a much more detailed delineation of the potential inundation zone when compared to other types of elevation models. It also shows how the certainty of the delineation of lands vulnerable to a given sea-level rise scenario is much improved when derived from higher resolution lidar data. ?? 2009 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

  8. ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

  9. Differences in responses of summer and winter spinach to elevated UV-B at varying soil NPK levels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, S B

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal variations in response of spinach to elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) during summer and winter were assessed with respect to growth, biomass, yield, NPK uptake and NPK use efficiencies at varying NPK levels. The nutrient amendments were recommended NPK (RNPK) and 1.5 times recommended NPK (1.5 RNPK). Season significantly affected the measured parameters except the number of leaves. Under ambient UV-B, the growth performance of summer spinach was better in both the NPK levels, higher being at 1.5 RNPK leading to higher nutrient uptake. However, more reduction in biomass under elevated UV-B in 1.5 RNPK was recorded during summer, while during winter in RNPK. Reduction in biomass under elevated UV-B was accompanied by the modification in its partitioning with more biomass allocation to root during summer compared to winter at both the NPK levels. NPK uptake was higher in summer, while NPK use efficiencies were higher during winter. At higher than recommended NPK level, better NPK use efficiencies were displayed during both the seasons. Increased NPK supply during winter enabled spinach to capitalize light more efficiently and hence increased biomass accumulation. Strategies for surviving elevated UV-B in winter differ from those that provided protection from the same stress when it occurs in summer.

  10. Elevated nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 levels in cerebrospinal fluid of children with hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Hochhaus, Frederike; Koehne, Petra; Schäper, Christoph; Butenandt, Otfrid; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Ring-Mrozik, Elfride; Obladen, Michael; Bührer, Christoph

    2001-01-01

    Background Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) resulting from impaired drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) causes hydrocephalus with damage to the central nervous system. Clinical symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in infants may be difficult to diagnose, leading to delayed treatment by shunt placement. Until now, no biochemical marker of elevated ICP has been available for clinical diagnosis and monitoring. In experimental animal models, nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) have been shown to be produced by glial cells as an adaptive response to hypoxia. We investigated whether concentrations of NGF and NT-3 are increased in the CSF of children with hydrocephalus. Methods NGF was determined in CSF samples collected from 42 hydrocephalic children on 65 occasions (taps or shunt placement surgery). CSF samples obtained by lumbar puncture from 22 children with suspected, but unconfirmed bacterial infection served as controls. Analysis was performed using ELISA techniques. Results NGF concentrations in hydrocephalic children were over 50-fold increased compared to controls (median 225 vs 4 pg/mL, p < 0.0001). NT-3 was detectable (> 1 pg/mL) in 14/31 hydrocephalus samples at 2–51 pg/mL but in none of 11 control samples (p = 0.007). Conclusion NGF and NT-3 concentrations are increased in children with hydrocephalus. This may represent an adaptive response of the brain to elevated ICP. PMID:11580868

  11. Alpinia zerumbet potentially elevates high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Yun; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Liang, Yu-Jing; Yeh, Wan-Ting; Wang, Hui-Er; Yu, Tung-Hsi; Peng, Robert Y

    2008-06-25

    In folkloric plant medicines, Alpinia zerumbet (AZ) has been popularly recognized as an exellent hepatoprotector. To search for a good high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) elevating herbal preparation, we examined AZ for its antioxidant and hypolipidaemic bioactivities, especially its HDL-C elevating activity. AZ seeds contain 0.51% essential oils (SO), which are comprised of monoterpenoids, oxygenated monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids, aldehydes, acid, and esters. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis indicated that most of the monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were recoverable in pentane eluent, whilst the oxygenated monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids remained in ether eluent. The high contents of rutin, quercetin, and polyphenolics in ethanolic extract of AZ seeds exhibit moderate antilipoperoxidative but potent DPPH free radical scavenging bioactivities. Conclusively, both seed powder (SP) and SO are effective hypolipidaemics with amazingly potent HDL-C elevating capabilities. On the basis of hepatoprotectivity, SP is a more feasible hypolipidemic agent as well as a promising HDL-C elevating plant medicine.

  12. Cardiac Reactivity and Elevated Blood Pressure Levels among Young African Americans: The Importance of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Ivor Lensworth; Marshall, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the racial differences in elevated arterial blood pressure between African American youth, especially adolescents, and their White counterparts. Argues that African American adolescents' perception of day-to-day stress is an important contributor to this condition. Considers a conceptual model of the sociopsychophysiological stress…

  13. Elevated Preoperative Serum CA19-9 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Is Associated with Poor Prognosis after Resection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Hung; Hu, Rey-Heng; Ho, Ming-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Serum levels of the tumor marker CA19-9 have been reported to be elevated in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its clinicopathologic significance is still unknown. A cohort of 304 patients undergoing surgical resection for HCC and having preoperative CA19-9 data was enrolled in this study. Serum CA19-9 levels were correlated with clinicopathologic factors. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the predictors of patient survival. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cut off value of CA19-9 was determined to be 27 U/mL. One hundred and six patients had preoperative CA19-9 values >27 U/mL. High serum CA19-9 levels did not correlate with patient age, sex, viral status, α-fetoprotein level, tumor size, tumor grade, tumor stage, multiplicity, and vascular invasion. Patients with elevated preoperative CA19-9 levels had lower 10-year survival than those without CA19-9 elevation. Multivariate analysis revealed that CA19-9 level, tumor grade, and tumor size are independent prognostic factors for long-term survival. In conclusion, a preoperative CA19-9 value >27 U/mL is associated with poor prognosis after resection for HCC. PMID:23843733

  14. Competitive interactions between established grasses and woody plant seedlings under elevated CO₂ levels are mediated by soil water availability.

    PubMed

    Manea, A; Leishman, M R

    2015-02-01

    The expansion of woody plants into grasslands has been observed worldwide and is likely to have widespread ecological consequences. One proposal is that woody plant expansion into grasslands is driven in part by the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We have examined the effect of CO2 concentration on the competitive interactions between established C4 grasses and woody plant seedlings in a model grassland system. Woody plant seedlings were grown in mesocosms together with established C4 grasses in three competition treatments (root competition, shoot competition and root + shoot competition) under ambient and elevated CO2 levels. We found that the growth of the woody plant seedlings was suppressed by competition from grasses, with root and shoot competition having similar competitive effects on growth. In contrast to expectations, woody plant seedling growth was reduced at elevated CO2 levels compared to that at the ambient CO2 level across all competition treatments, with the most plausible explanation being reduced light and soil water availability in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Reduced light and soil water availability in the elevated CO2 mesocosms was associated with an increased leaf area index of the grasses which offset the reductions in stomatal conductance and increased rainfall interception. The woody plant seedlings also had reduced 'escapability' (stem biomass and stem height) under elevated compared to ambient CO2 levels. Our results suggest that the expansion of woody plants into grasslands in the future will likely be context-dependent, with the establishment success of woody plant seedlings being strongly coupled to the CO2 response of competing grasses and to soil water availability.

  15. The conservation value of elevation data accuracy and model sophistication in reserve design under sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingjian; Hoctor, Tom; Volk, Mike; Frank, Kathryn; Linhoss, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Many studies have explored the value of using more sophisticated coastal impact models and higher resolution elevation data in sea-level rise (SLR) adaptation planning. However, we know little about to what extent the improved models and data could actually lead to better conservation outcomes under SLR. This is important to know because high-resolution data are likely to not be available in some data-poor coastal areas in the world and running more complicated coastal impact models is relatively time-consuming, expensive, and requires assistance by qualified experts and technicians. We address this research question in the context of identifying conservation priorities in response to SLR. Specifically, we investigated the conservation value of using more accurate light detection and ranging (Lidar)-based digital elevation data and process-based coastal land-cover change models (Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model, SLAMM) to identify conservation priorities versus simple "bathtub" models based on the relatively coarse National Elevation Dataset (NED) in a coastal region of northeast Florida. We compared conservation outcomes identified by reserve design software (Zonation) using three different model dataset combinations (Bathtub-NED, Bathtub-Lidar, and SLAMM-Lidar). The comparisons show that the conservation priorities are significantly different with different combinations of coastal impact models and elevation dataset inputs. The research suggests that it is valuable to invest in more accurate coastal impact models and elevation datasets in SLR adaptive conservation planning because this model-dataset combination could improve conservation outcomes under SLR. Less accurate coastal impact models, including ones created using coarser Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data can still be useful when better data and models are not available or feasible, but results need to be appropriately assessed and communicated. A future research priority is to investigate how

  16. The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, G.G.; Brikowski, T.H.

    1993-12-01

    The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes at Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, is uncertain. If the water is from naturally perched aquifers, then presumed ``above water table`` weapons tests may directly impact the groundwater quality. The purpose of this study is to determine the probable source of the elevated water in boreholes by comparing modeled seepage of infiltrated drilling fluids, and the seepage from a simulated naturally perched aquifer with the observed water level history. In the model, large volumes of water are infiltrated, yet return flow of fluids back into the hole stops within three days after the end of drilling and is insufficient to produce observed standing water. Return flow is limited for two reasons: (1) the volume of the saturated rock next to the borehole is small; (2) pressure head gradient direct unsaturated flow away from the borehole. Simulation of seepage from a naturally perched aquifer readily reproduces the observed water levels.

  17. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide - sorghum at elevated levels of CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, R.B.; Chaudhuri, U.N.; Kanemasu, E.T.; Kirkham, M.B.

    1985-12-31

    Enhancement of plant growth is an important effect of the rising concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Crops vary in response to elevated CO{sub 2}. Growth often appears greater in C{sub 3} plants than in C{sub 4} plants. But relatively little work has been done with C{sub 4} plants, and most of it has been with corn. The few existing C{sub 4} data conflict. Some studies indicate that the yield of C{sub 4} plants at elevated CO{sub 2} is about one-fourth that of C{sub 3} crops, but other studies show that C{sub 4} plants with increased CO{sub 2} yield at a rate the average for all crops.

  18. Sputum proteomics identifies elevated PIGR levels in smokers and mild-to-moderate COPD.

    PubMed

    Ohlmeier, Steffen; Mazur, Witold; Linja-Aho, Anna; Louhelainen, Noora; Rönty, Mikko; Toljamo, Tuula; Bergmann, Ulrich; Kinnula, Vuokko L

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. However, the exact mechanisms leading to COPD and its progression are still poorly understood. In this study, induced sputum was analyzed by cysteine-specific two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry to identify proteins involved in COPD pathogenesis. The comparison of nonsmokers, smokers, and smokers with moderate COPD revealed 15 changed proteins with the majority, including polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIGR), being elevated in smokers and subjects with COPD. PIGR, which is involved in specific immune defense and inflammation, was further studied in sputum, lung tissue, and plasma by Western blot, immunohistochemistry/image analysis, and/or ELISA. Sputum PIGR was characterized as glycosylated secretory component (SC). Lung PIGR was significantly elevated in the bronchial and alveolar epithelium of smokers and further increased in the alveolar area in mild to moderate COPD. Plasma PIGR was elevated in smokers and smokers with COPD compared to nonsmokers with significant correlation to obstruction. In conclusion, new proteins in smoking-related chronic inflammation and COPD could be identified, with SC/PIGR being one of the most prominent not only in the lung but also in circulating blood.

  19. Effectiveness of different corticosterone administration methods to elevate corticosterone serum levels, induce depressive-like behavior, and affect neurogenesis levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kott, J M; Mooney-Leber, S M; Shoubah, F A; Brummelte, S

    2016-01-15

    High levels of chronic stress or stress hormones are associated with depressive-like behavior in animal models. However, slight elevations in corticosterone (CORT) - the major stress hormone in rodents - have also been associated with improved performances, albeit in a sex-dependent manner. Some of the discrepancies in the literature regarding the effects of high CORT levels may be due to different administrations methods. The current study aims to compare the effects of ∼40mg/kg given either via subcutaneous injection, through an implanted pellet, or in the drinking water, for ∼21days on CORT serum levels, depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST), and neurogenesis levels in the dentate gyrus (DG) in adult female rats. We found that animals exposed to the daily injections showed elevated CORT levels throughout the administration period, while the pellet animals showed only a transient increase, and drinking water animals revealed no elevation in CORT in serum. In addition, only the injection group exhibited higher levels of immobility in the FST. Interestingly, animals receiving CORT via injection or drinking water had lower numbers of doublecortin-positive cells in the ventral DG one week after the last CORT administration compared to animals implanted with a CORT pellet. These results will contribute to the growing literature on the effects of chronic CORT exposure and may help to clarify some of the discrepancies among previous studies, particularly in females.

  20. Identification of a small molecule that stabilizes lipoprotein lipase in vitro and lowers triglycerides in vivo.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Mikael; Caraballo, Rémi; Ericsson, Madelene; Lookene, Aivar; Enquist, Per-Anders; Elofsson, Mikael; Nilsson, Stefan K; Olivecrona, Gunilla

    2014-07-25

    Patients at increased cardiovascular risk commonly display high levels of plasma triglycerides (TGs), elevated LDL cholesterol, small dense LDL particles and low levels of HDL-cholesterol. Many remain at high risk even after successful statin therapy, presumably because TG levels remain high. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) maintains TG homeostasis in blood by hydrolysis of TG-rich lipoproteins. Efficient clearance of TGs is accompanied by increased levels of HDL-cholesterol and decreased levels of small dense LDL. Given the central role of LPL in lipid metabolism we sought to find small molecules that could increase LPL activity and serve as starting points for drug development efforts against cardiovascular disease. Using a small molecule screening approach we have identified small molecules that can protect LPL from inactivation by the controller protein angiopoietin-like protein 4 during incubations in vitro. One of the selected compounds, 50F10, was directly shown to preserve the active homodimer structure of LPL, as demonstrated by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. On injection to hypertriglyceridemic apolipoprotein A-V deficient mice the compound ameliorated the postprandial response after an olive oil gavage. This is a potential lead compound for the development of drugs that could reduce the residual risk associated with elevated plasma TGs in dyslipidemia. PMID:24984153

  1. Identification of a small molecule that stabilizes lipoprotein lipase in vitro and lowers triglycerides in vivo.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Mikael; Caraballo, Rémi; Ericsson, Madelene; Lookene, Aivar; Enquist, Per-Anders; Elofsson, Mikael; Nilsson, Stefan K; Olivecrona, Gunilla

    2014-07-25

    Patients at increased cardiovascular risk commonly display high levels of plasma triglycerides (TGs), elevated LDL cholesterol, small dense LDL particles and low levels of HDL-cholesterol. Many remain at high risk even after successful statin therapy, presumably because TG levels remain high. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) maintains TG homeostasis in blood by hydrolysis of TG-rich lipoproteins. Efficient clearance of TGs is accompanied by increased levels of HDL-cholesterol and decreased levels of small dense LDL. Given the central role of LPL in lipid metabolism we sought to find small molecules that could increase LPL activity and serve as starting points for drug development efforts against cardiovascular disease. Using a small molecule screening approach we have identified small molecules that can protect LPL from inactivation by the controller protein angiopoietin-like protein 4 during incubations in vitro. One of the selected compounds, 50F10, was directly shown to preserve the active homodimer structure of LPL, as demonstrated by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. On injection to hypertriglyceridemic apolipoprotein A-V deficient mice the compound ameliorated the postprandial response after an olive oil gavage. This is a potential lead compound for the development of drugs that could reduce the residual risk associated with elevated plasma TGs in dyslipidemia.

  2. Mutations of the microsomal triglyceride-transfer-protein gene in abetalipoproteinemia.

    PubMed

    Narcisi, T M; Shoulders, C C; Chester, S A; Read, J; Brett, D J; Harrison, G B; Grantham, T T; Fox, M F; Povey, S; de Bruin, T W

    1995-12-01

    Elevated plasma levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins constitute a major risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. In the rare recessively inherited disorder abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) the production of apoB-containing lipoproteins is abolished, despite no abnormality of the apoB gene. In the current study we have characterized the gene encoding a microsomal triglyceride-transfer protein (MTP), localized to chromosome 4q22-24, and have identified a mutation of the MTP gene in both alleles of all individuals in a cohort of eight patients with classical ABL. Each mutant allele is predicted to encode a truncated form of MTP with a variable number of aberrant amino acids at its C-terminal end. Expression of genetically engineered forms of MTP in Cos-1 cells indicates that the C-terminal portion of MTP is necessary for triglyceride-transfer activity. Deletion of 20 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus of the 894-amino-acid protein and a missense mutation of cysteine 878 to serine both abolished activity. These results establish that defects of the MTP gene are the predominant, if not sole, cause of hereditary ABL and that an intact carboxyl terminus is necessary for activity. PMID:8533758

  3. Catabolite control of the elevation of PGK mRNA levels by heat shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Piper, P W; Curran, B; Davies, M W; Hirst, K; Lockheart, A; Seward, K

    1988-05-01

    Heat shock enhances the very high level of transcription of the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) gene in fermentative cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This response of PGK mRNA levels was not found on gluconeogenic carbon sources, and could be switched on or off subject to availability of fermentable carbon source. The addition of glucose to yeast growing on glycerol resulted in acquisition, within 30-60 min, of the ability to elevate PGK mRNA levels after heat shock. In addition, in aerobic cultures growing on glucose the exhaustion of the medium glucose coincided with a loss of the heat-shock effect on PGK mRNA and a switch-over to slower growth by aerobic respiration. Levels of hsp26 mRNA were analysed during these experiments. Contrasting with this requirement for fermentable catabolite for manifestation of a heat-shock response of PGK mRNA levels, the PGK enzyme was not synthesized at a greater level in heat-shocked fermentative than in gluconeogenic cultures. PGK is one of only a few proteins made efficiently after mild heat shock of yeast. Thus, heat-stress-induced elevation of PGK mRNA levels does not appreciably increase PGK synthesis during exposure to high temperatures and so its role may be to assist cells repressed in mitochondrial function during recovery following a heat shock.

  4. Elevated amylase creatinine clearance ratio and normal serum amylase levels in chronic relapsing pancreatitis after partial pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Cattau, E L; Garcia-Torres, F

    1980-12-01

    A 29-year-old woman admitted for alcohol detoxification five years after a 90% distal pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis had abdominal pain similar to that associated with preoperative pancreatitis. Although her clinical course was consistent with recurrent pancreatitis, the serum amylase level remained normal, but the amylase creatinine clearance ratio became elevated and then returned to normal, paralleling her clinical course. The ACCR may be a useful laboratory method in diagnosing chronic recurrent pancreatitis in patients with decreased functional pancreatic tissue.

  5. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre; Andreotti, Felicita; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L; Descamps, Olivier S; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Ray, Kausik K; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F

    2011-06-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (≥ 1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (<1.0 mmol/L or 40 mg/dL) may provide further benefit. The first step should be lifestyle interventions together with consideration of compliance with pharmacotherapy and secondary causes of dyslipidaemia. If inadequately corrected, adding niacin or a fibrate, or intensifying LDL-C lowering therapy may be considered. Treatment decisions regarding statin combination therapy should take into account relevant safety concerns, i.e. the risk of elevation of blood glucose, uric acid or liver enzymes with niacin, and myopathy, increased serum creatinine and cholelithiasis with fibrates. These recommendations will facilitate reduction in the substantial cardiovascular risk that persists in patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities at LDL-C goal. PMID:21531743

  6. Elevated vitamin D receptor levels in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats are associated with downregulation of Snail.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shaochun; Wang, Hongwei; Shen, Jikun; Zhou, Randal; Bushinsky, David A; Favus, Murray J

    2010-04-01

    Patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) and genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats, an animal model of IH, are both characterized by normal serum Ca, hypercalciuria, Ca nephrolithiasis, reduced renal Ca reabsorption, and increased bone resorption. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] levels are elevated or normal in IH and are normal in GHS rats. In GHS rats, vitamin D receptor (VDR) protein levels are elevated in intestinal, kidney, and bone cells, and in IH, peripheral blood monocyte VDR levels are high. The high VDR is thought to amplify the target-tissue actions of normal circulating 1,25(OH)(2)D levels to increase Ca transport. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms whereby Snail may contribute to the high VDR levels in GHS rats. In the study, Snail gene expression and protein levels were lower in GHS rat tissues and inversely correlated with VDR gene expression and protein levels in intestine and kidney cells. In human kidney and colon cell lines, ChIP assays revealed endogenous Snail binding close to specific E-box sequences within the human VDR promoter region, whereas only one E-box specifically bound Snail in the rat promoter. Snail binding to rat VDR promoter E-box regions was reduced in GHS compared with normal control intestine and was accompanied by hyperacetylation of histone H(3). These results provide evidence that elevated VDR in GHS rats likely occurs because of derepression resulting from reduced Snail binding to the VDR promoter and hyperacetylation of histone H(3).

  7. Elevated Plasma Soluble CD14 Levels Correlate with the Monocyte Response Status During Hantaan Virus Infection in Humans.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kang; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhang, Yusi; Zhang, Yun; Zhuang, Ran; Jin, Boquan; Ma, Ying

    2015-10-01

    Hantaan virus (HTNV) infection can cause severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. CD14, a pattern recognition receptor recognizing lipopolysaccharide, is highly expressed on monocytes and can be shed as soluble CD14 (sCD14) upon monocyte activation. To understand the role of sCD14 in HFRS, the sCD14 plasma concentrations from 45 HFRS patients were quantified, and the relationships between the plasma sCD14 level and the monocyte response status and clinical parameters were analyzed. The plasma sCD14 levels were significantly higher in the HFRS patients and they correlated with monocyte expansion and activation, which were characterized by increased blood monocyte counts, the proportion of CD14(++)CD16(+) intermediate monocytes, as well as elevated plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble CD163 (sCD163) levels. Additionally, the high plasma sCD14 levels positively correlated with white blood cell counts and blood urea nitrogen levels and negatively correlated with platelet counts in the HFRS patients. Taken together, our data indicate that elevated plasma sCD14 levels are associated with the monocyte response status during HTNV infection in humans.

  8. Analytical model of sea level elevation during a storm: Support for coastal flood risk assessment associated with cyclone passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, Natan Zambroni; Calliari, Lauro Julio; Nicolodi, João Luiz

    2016-08-01

    Sea level oscillations are a result of continuous astronomic, oceanographic, and atmospheric interactions on different time and intensity scales. Thus, the collective action of forcing factors such as tide, wind, atmospheric pressure, and wave action may lead to elevated sea levels during cyclone events over the continental shelf, abruptly impacting adjacent coasts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential risks of sea level rise and coastal flooding associated with the passage of cyclones in southern Brazil. An analytical model was developed based on extreme storm events from 1997 to 2008. The model identifies the impact of each forcing factor during temporary sea level rise. Through the development of a digital terrain model, it was possible to identify the areas most vulnerable to flooding by superimposing the terrain model onto calculated sea levels. During storm events, sea level elevations ranged from 2 to 5 m and show wind as the major forcing factor, followed by swells waves, astronomical tide and finally atmospheric pressure.

  9. Elevated plasma homocysteine level is possibly associated with skin sclerosis in a series of Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Toki, Sayaka; Yamada, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2014-11-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid that is derived from dietary methionine, and there has been increasing evidence that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including carotid, coronary and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The association of plasma homocysteine levels with peripheral vascular involvements, such as Raynaud phenomenon (RP), digital ulcers (DU) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to examine plasma homocysteine levels and their clinical associations in patients with SSc. Plasma homocysteine levels in 151 Japanese patients with SSc and 20 healthy controls were examined. No significant differences were observed in plasma homocysteine levels between SSc patients and healthy individuals. Demographic and clinical features of the SSc patients revealed that severe skin sclerosis, anti-topoisomerase I antibody positivity, complications of DU, acro-osteolysis (AO) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were significantly more prevalent among the patients with elevated plasma homocysteine levels. The plasma homocysteine levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. The plasma homocysteine levels in the SSc patients with DU, AO and ILD were significantly higher than those in the SSc without DU, AO and ILD, respectively. Plasma homocysteine levels did not correlate with either the mean or max intima-media thickness (IMT) or plaque score, suggesting that plasma homocysteine levels might not be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in SSc patients. The measurement of plasma homocysteine levels in SSc patients might be useful for the risk stratifications of severe skin sclerosis, DU and AO.

  10. Orexin-A level elevation in recently abstinent male methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Yin; Kao, Chung-Feng; Chen, Po-Yu; Lin, Shih-Ku; Huang, Ming-Chyi

    2016-05-30

    Research has suggested that methamphetamine (METH) use influences orexin regulation. We examined the difference in orexin-A levels between METH abusers and healthy controls. Fasting serum orexin-A levels were measured in 35 participants who used METH in the preceding 3 weeks and 36 healthy controls. We found METH abusers had significantly higher orexin-A levels. No association was observed between orexin-A levels and METH use variables. Our results, consistent with prior preclinical evidence, showed that recent METH exposure is associated with increased orexin-A expression. Further investigation is required to determine whether orexin-A levels normalize after a longer term of abstinence. PMID:27137956

  11. Chronic estrogen exposure maintains elevated levels of progesterone receptor mRNA in guinea pig hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, D A; Millhorn, D E

    1991-05-01

    We performed in situ hybridization on hypothalamic sections from ovariectomized guinea pig using a cocktail of three 35S-labeled oligonucleotides complementary to mammalian progesterone receptor (PR) cDNA. PR mRNA was readily detected in hypothalamic neurons from guinea pigs pretreated with 17 beta-estradiol benzoate (E2B), but not from animals which did not receive supplemental E2B. The distribution of PR mRNA-containing cells corresponded well with previous localizations of PR in guinea pig. In contrast to earlier reports of E2B regulation of PR mRNA in rat hypothalamus, however, we found that PR mRNA remained elevated during chronic exposure to E2B (up to 10 days) in guinea pig. PMID:2072827

  12. Gravity stress elevates the nociceptive threshold level with immunohistochemical changes in the rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumei, Yasuhiro; Shimokawa, Reiko; Kimoto, Mari; Kawauchi, Yasuko; Shimokawa, Hitoyata; Makita, Koshi; Ohya, Keiichi; Toda, Kazuo

    2001-08-01

    Young Wistar male rats were exposed to 2G hypergravity by continuous centrifugation for 15 minutes. The nociceptive threshold was measured by using the von Frey type filament on the rat skin surfaces after hypergravity exposure. Following the hypergravity exposure, rats were sacrificed with anesthesia, then perfused and fixed for immunohistochemical examination. The 2G hypergravity elevated the nociceptive threshold up to 2-fold and induced analgesic effects on rats that remained for 2 hours after termination of centrifugation. Expression of Fos-immunoreactive proteins was prominently induced by 2G hypergravity in the arcuate nucleas and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. The 15-minute flash exposure to 2G hypergravity induced pain suppression in rats, which might be attributed to change of neuronal activity in rat hypothalamus.

  13. Health Impact of Elevated Levels of Lead Encountered in the Manufacture of Crystal Glass.

    PubMed

    Bilban, Marjan

    2015-12-01

    Lead is known to cause harmful effects in the haematopoietic, nervous, digestive, renal, and other organ systems, inhibiting a number of enzymes in the biosynthesis of haem, as well as other enzymes with haematological significance. Our study involved 151 employees involved with the cutting of crystal, i.e. leaded glass, who had been found using eco-monitoring to have been exposed to above normal levels of lead. Our bio-monitoring process followed the values of lead, delta-ALAD and EPP.The highest level of lead detected was 276 µg/L, the lowest level of delta-ALAD was 99 nkat/L), and the highest level of EPP was 14.2 nmol/gHb). We had found that contrary to expectations, lead levels were not correlated to haemoglobin levels, or to gender or age, but were instead based only on the post of the employee and their time spent working at the glassworks. The levels of haematopoiesis were directly proportional to the levels of lead, however, the correlation was not statistically significant or had perhaps been masked by the exposure due to the employee's post and gender. We had also found a significant correlation of lead levels to the levels of renal function. The study had indicated some health impacts of lead on the exposed glass workers, but also at least partly diverged from the results of previous studies, prompting us to continue our research.

  14. A computational model for exploratory activity of rats with different anxiety levels in elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ariadne A; Morato, Silvio; Roque, Antonio C; Tinós, Renato

    2014-10-30

    The elevated plus-maze is an apparatus widely used to study the level of anxiety in rodents. The maze is plus-shaped, with two enclosed arms and two open arms, and elevated 50cm from the floor. During a test, which usually lasts for 5min, the animal is initially put at the center and is free to move and explore the entire maze. The level of anxiety is measured by variables such as the percentage of time spent and the number of entries in the enclosed arms. High percentage of time spent at and number of entries in the enclosed arms indicate anxiety. Here we propose a computational model of rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze based on an artificial neural network trained by a genetic algorithm. The fitness function of the genetic algorithm is composed of reward (positive) and punishment (negative) terms, which are incremented as the computational agent (virtual rat) moves in the maze. The punishment term is modulated by a parameter that simulates the effects of different drugs. Unlike other computational models, the virtual rat is built independently of prior known experimental data. The exploratory behaviors generated by the model for different simulated pharmacological conditions are in good agreement with data from real rats.

  15. A computational model for exploratory activity of rats with different anxiety levels in elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ariadne A; Morato, Silvio; Roque, Antonio C; Tinós, Renato

    2014-10-30

    The elevated plus-maze is an apparatus widely used to study the level of anxiety in rodents. The maze is plus-shaped, with two enclosed arms and two open arms, and elevated 50cm from the floor. During a test, which usually lasts for 5min, the animal is initially put at the center and is free to move and explore the entire maze. The level of anxiety is measured by variables such as the percentage of time spent and the number of entries in the enclosed arms. High percentage of time spent at and number of entries in the enclosed arms indicate anxiety. Here we propose a computational model of rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze based on an artificial neural network trained by a genetic algorithm. The fitness function of the genetic algorithm is composed of reward (positive) and punishment (negative) terms, which are incremented as the computational agent (virtual rat) moves in the maze. The punishment term is modulated by a parameter that simulates the effects of different drugs. Unlike other computational models, the virtual rat is built independently of prior known experimental data. The exploratory behaviors generated by the model for different simulated pharmacological conditions are in good agreement with data from real rats. PMID:25128721

  16. Can seal eating explain elevated levels of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in walrus blubber from eastern Hudson Bay (Canada)?

    PubMed

    Muir, D C; Segstro, M D; Hobson, K A; Ford, C A; Stewart, R E; Olpinski, S

    1995-01-01

    Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber samples from Inukjuak and Akulivik (East Hudson Bay), Foxe Basin (Igloolik and Hall Beach) and Loks Land (East Baffin Island) were analysed for PCB congeners (ortho and non-ortho substituted) and other persistent organochlorines (DDT, toxaphene, chlordanes, dieldrin, mirex), as well as chlorinated dioxins/furans, to document spatial trends in contaminants in Canadian Arctic marine biota. Samples from 19 of 53 individuals had concentrations of SigmaPCBs greater than 1000 ng g(-1) (wet wt); the remaining individuals had much lower concentrations (50-600 ng g(-1)). Highest concentrations were found in samples from Inukjuak where average concentrations in blubber of females (N = 9) were 1450 +/- 954 ng g(-1) toxaphene, 2750 +/- 1780 ng g(-1) SigmaCHLOR, 2160 +/- 925 ng g(-1) SigmaDDT and 4790 +/- 2380 ng g(-1) SigmaPCB. SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT concentrations greater than 1000 ng g(-1) were unexpected based on previous studies of walrus from Greenland and Alaska. Local contamination was ruled out because levels of all organochlorines were elevated in each animal from Inukjuak, and elevated levels were also found in animals from Akulivik and Loks Land. Walrus from Inukjuak had sigma13C and sigma15N values in muscle intermediate between those of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and those of walrus from Akulivik with low organochlorine levels. There was a weak but significant correlation between and sigma15N and (log)SigmaPCB. The Inukjuak walrus also had higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCB congeners, and higher DDE/SigmaDDT ratios than walrus from Igloolik or Akulivik. The results suggest that the walrus with elevated organochlorines are feeding at a higher trophic level than those with low levels and are probably utilizing ringed seals for a portion of their diet.

  17. Association of Blood Lead level with Elevated Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Alghasham, Abdullah A.; Meki, Abdel-Raheim M.A.; Ismail, Hisham A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead is a metal with many important industrial uses. The relationship between lead exposure and the rise of blood pressure has received a great deal of attention as it was implicated that the mortality from cardiovascular diseases might be reduced by lowering lead levels in the environment. Objectives: The study was to investigate the correlation between the blood lead (B-Pb) levels and the values of blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Moreover, the plasma activities of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), total antioxidants (TAOX) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated to investigate the correlations between the measured parameters and B-Pb levels in hypertensive patients. Methods: Fifty-five hypertensive patients were compared with fifty-three age and sex matched control group. The B-Pb levels were detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The plasma levels of ACE activities, NO, TAOX and MDA were measured by colorimetric methods. Results: In the hypertensive patients, B-Pb levels were significantly higher than controls. Concomitantly, the plasma levels of ACE activities and MDA were significantly increased while the plasma levels of NO and TAOX were significantly reduced in the hypertensive patients in comparison with controls. There were significant positive correlations between B-Pb and each of MDA, and systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure. Conversely, a significant negative correlation was found between B-Pb and NO. Conclusions: Our study indicated that a positive relationship exists between blood pressure and B-Pb levels. The increased B-Pb levels were associated with oxidative stress. Moreover, The B-Pb level was negatively correlated with NO and this may clarify the implication of Pb as leading risk factor for the cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. These findings provide support for continued efforts to reduce lead concentration in the population at Qassim region. PMID:22489226

  18. An elevated level of physical activity is associated with normal lipoprotein(a) levels in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Aparicio, Daniel; Rojas, Edward; Peñaranda, Lianny; Finol, Freddy; Acosta, Luis; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Joselyn; Arráiz, Nailet; Toledo, Alexandra; Colmenares, Carlos; Urribarí, Jesica; Sanchez, Wireynis; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Dalia; Faria, Judith; Añez, Roberto; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Sorell, Luis; Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in which concentrations are genetically regulated. Contradictory results have been published about physical activity influence on Lp(a) concentration. This research aimed to determine associations between different physical activity levels and Lp(a) concentration. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in 1340 randomly selected subjects (males = 598; females = 712) to whom a complete clinical history, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Lp(a) level determination were made. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess qualitative variables relationship by chi2 and differences between means by one-way analysis of variance considering a P value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results are shown as absolute frequencies, percentages, and mean +/- standard deviation according to case. Physical activity levels were ordinal classified as follows: low activity with 24.3% (n = 318), moderate activity with 35.0% (n = 458), and high physical activity with 40.8% (n = 534). Lp(a) concentration in the studied sample was 26.28 +/- 12.64 (IC: 25.59-26.96) mg/dL. Lp(a) concentration according to low, moderate, and high physical activity levels were 29.22 +/- 13.74, 26.27 +/- 12.91, and 24.53 +/- 11.35 mg/dL, respectively, observing statistically significant differences between low and moderate level (P = 0.004) and low and high level (P < 0.001). A strong association (chi2 = 9.771; P = 0.002) was observed among a high physical activity level and a normal concentration of Lp(a) (less than 30 mg/dL). A lifestyle characterized by high physical activity is associated with normal Lp(a) levels.

  19. Elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in women with postadolescent acne.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, H; Niimura, M

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the serum levels of IGF-1 in women with postadolescent acne compared to normal controls, and evaluate the relationship of these levels to the levels of androgens, in order to investigate the possible role of IGF-1 in the pathogenesis of acne. Eighty-two female patients with acne between 20 and 25 years of age and thirty-one age-matched control women were studied. We measured the serum levels of total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). The levels of IGF-1 in patients with acne (1.26 +/- 0.52 U/ml) were significantly (p < 0.001) increased over those of controls (0.96 +/- 0.32 U/ml). Of 82 acne patients, six (7%) had IGF-1 levels which exceeded the normal range, but there were no significant correlations between IGF-1 and T, FT, DHT or DHEA-S levels or between IGF-1 and acne severity. Since the measurement of serum IGF-1 levels is a convenient indicator of GH secretion, the increase of serum IGF-1 levels seen in some acne patients might reflect an increase of GH. PMID:7608381

  20. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition aggravates fasting-induced triglyceride accumulation in the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Kaai; Ando, Midori; Kamei, Hiroyasu; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2014-01-01

    Although fasting induces hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in both rodents and humans, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Because parasympathetic nervous system activity tends to attenuate the secretion of very-low-density-lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) and increase TG stores in the liver, and serum cholinesterase activity is elevated in fatty liver disease, the inhibition of the parasympathetic neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase (AChE) may have some influence on hepatic lipid metabolism. To assess the influence of AChE inhibition on lipid metabolism, the effect of physostigmine, an AChE inhibitor, on fasting-induced increase in liver TG was investigated in mice. In comparison with ad libitum-fed mice, 30 h fasting increased liver TG accumulation accompanied by a downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and liver-fatty acid binding-protein (L-FABP). Physostigmine promoted the 30 h fasting-induced increase in liver TG levels in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by a significant fall in plasma insulin levels, without a fall in plasma TG. Furthermore, physostigmine significantly attenuated the fasting-induced decrease of both mRNA and protein levels of SREBP-1 and L-FABP, and increased IRS-2 protein levels in the liver. The muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine blocked these effects of physostigmine on liver TG, serum insulin, and hepatic protein levels of SREBP-1 and L-FABP. These results demonstrate that AChE inhibition facilitated fasting-induced TG accumulation with up regulation of the hepatic L-FABP and SREBP-1 in mice, at least in part via the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Our studies highlight the crucial role of parasympathetic regulation in fasting-induced TG accumulation, and may be an important source of information on the mechanism of hepatic disorders of lipid metabolism. PMID:25383314

  1. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide. Field studies of plant responses to elevated carbon dioxide levels 1984

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    In the present study, CO{sub 2} enrichment has been applied to sweet potatoes and cowpeas in order to investigate its effect on their growth, physiology, and yield under field condition. Objectives were: (1) to establish at Tuskegee Institute the facilities for growing crops in the field under enriched CO{sub 2} atmospheric conditions; (2) to obtain field data on the morphological, physiological, biochemical, growth and yield responses of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to elevated levels of CO{sub 2}; (3) to determine the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} in the rate of nitrogen fixation of cowpeas; (4) to provide data for a generalized crop growth model for predicting yield of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas as a function of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment.

  2. A case of adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the gallbladder with markedly elevated PTHrP and G-CSF levels.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kaoru; Kinoshita, Akiyoshi; Akasu, Takafumi; Hagiwara, Noriko; Yokota, Takeharu; Imai, Nami; Iwaku, Akira; Fushiya, Nao; Koike, Kazuhiko; Nishino, Hirokazu

    2016-09-01

    A 76-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with anorexia. Computed tomography revealed a tumor lesion measuring 110mm in the liver at S4/5 with calcification and swelling of a paraaortic lymph node. The gallbladder was not visualized. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen from the liver tumor revealed squamous cell and undifferentiated carcinomas, and several tumor markers were elevated. Therefore, we diagnosed the patient with gallbladder adenosquamous cell carcinoma T3N2M0 stage III. Because the serum parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels were significantly elevated, we suspected that PTHrP and G-CSF production occurred because of adenosquamous cell carcinoma in the gallbladder. We initiated chemotherapy with S-1. PMID:27593366

  3. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J.; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M.; Donnelly, Louise A.; Ehret, Georg B.; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U.; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E.; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S.F.; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E.; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J.P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V.M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J.; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Pelt, L. Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S.; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B.; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B.; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Franks, Paul W.; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Rich, Stephen S.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Mohlke, Karen L.; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Daly, Mark J.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2013-01-01

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiologic studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P<5×10−8 for each) to examine the role of triglycerides on risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides, and show that the direction and magnitude of both are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong magnitude of association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a polymorphism's strength of effect on triglycerides is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD. PMID:24097064

  4. Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

  5. Elevated Homocysteine Level Related to Poor Outcome After Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Yao, En-Sheng; Tang, Yan; Xie, Min-Jie; Wang, Ming-Huan; Wang, Hong; Luo, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a well-known risk factor for ischemic stroke. However, whether HHcy can influence the treatment outcome of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients has yet to be fully determined. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum homocysteine (Hcy) level and prognosis in AIS patients who received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients were recruited according to the research criteria and grouped by their serum Hcy levels. Neurological outcome was evaluated by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score system before and 1 week after treatment, and functional outcome was evaluated by modified Rankin Scale (MRS) score system after 3 months. All patients took CT/MRI examination to detect cerebral hemorrhage in 24 hours after tPA treatment. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was employed to assess if serum homocysteine level can be used as an index to predict the outcome after tPA treatment. RESULTS The mean (±SD) serum Hcy level of 194 patients was 22.62±21.23 μmol/L. After 1-week tPA treatment, the NIHSS scores of high Hcy level group were significantly higher than those of low level group (p<0.05), meantime the high Hcy group showed obvious symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage risk after 24 hours (p<0.05). Poor outcome was presented in mRS score results after 3 months in high Hcy level group, which compared with low Hcy level group (p<0.01). The ROC showed that Hcy level was a moderately sensitive and specific index to predict the prognosis with an optimal cut-off value at 19.95 µmol/L (sensitivity [58.2%], specificity [80.3%]). CONCLUSIONS High serum homocysteine level could potentially predict poor prognosis in acute ischemic stroke patients after tPA treatment. PMID:27629768

  6. Elevated Homocysteine Level Related to Poor Outcome After Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yao, En-Sheng; Tang, Yan; Xie, Min-Jie; Wang, Ming-Huan; Wang, Hong; Luo, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a well-known risk factor for ischemic stroke. However, whether HHcy can influence the treatment outcome of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients has yet to be fully determined. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum homocysteine (Hcy) level and prognosis in AIS patients who received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment. Material/Methods Patients were recruited according to the research criteria and grouped by their serum Hcy levels. Neurological outcome was evaluated by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score system before and 1 week after treatment, and functional outcome was evaluated by modified Rankin Scale (MRS) score system after 3 months. All patients took CT/MRI examination to detect cerebral hemorrhage in 24 hours after tPA treatment. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was employed to assess if serum homocysteine level can be used as an index to predict the outcome after tPA treatment. Results The mean (±SD) serum Hcy level of 194 patients was 22.62±21.23 μmol/L. After 1-week tPA treatment, the NIHSS scores of high Hcy level group were significantly higher than those of low level group (p<0.05), meantime the high Hcy group showed obvious symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage risk after 24 hours (p<0.05). Poor outcome was presented in mRS score results after 3 months in high Hcy level group, which compared with low Hcy level group (p<0.01). The ROC showed that Hcy level was a moderately sensitive and specific index to predict the prognosis with an optimal cut-off value at 19.95 μmol/L (sensitivity [58.2%], specificity [80.3%]). Conclusions High serum homocysteine level could potentially predict poor prognosis in acute ischemic stroke patients after tPA treatment. PMID:27629768

  7. Acromegalic gigantism with low serum level of growth hormone and elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-I.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, R; Yoshida, T; Sakane, N; Yasuda, T; Umekawa, T; Kondo, M; Shimatsu, A; Hizuka, N; Sano, T

    1995-03-01

    In a case of acromegalic gigantism with hyperprolactinemia is reported, the basal serum growth hormone (GH) levels ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 ng/ml. Serum GH response to either insulin-induced hypoglycemia or GH-releasing hormone was blunted. Frequent blood sampling showed non-pulsatile GH secretion. Serum prolactin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were elevated. After unsuccessful surgery, bromocriptine treatment normalized serum prolactin without affecting serum GH and IGF-I levels. Combined administration of octreotide with bromocriptine reduced serum GH and IGF-I levels. In this case, non-pulsatile GH secretion and enhanced tissue sensitivity to GH may induce hypersecretion of IGF-I and cause clinical acromegalic gigantism. PMID:7787324

  8. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, Nazmul; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Islam, Khairul; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md. Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-11-15

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose–response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. - Highlights: • PUA levels were higher in arsenic-endemic subjects than in non-endemic subjects. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed significant associations with PUA levels. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed dose–response relationships with

  9. Resistance of human erythrocytes containing elevated levels of vitamin E to radiation-induced hemolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    Human erythrocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy donors and then incubated in the presence of suspensions of alpha-tocopherol for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Unabsorbed tocopherol was removed by centrifugation using several washes of isotonic phosphate-buffered saline. Washed erythrocytes were resuspended to 0.05%. Hct and exposed to hemolyzing doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation, and hemolysis was monitored continuously by light scattering at 700 nm in a recording spectrophotometer. The extent of hemolysis with time was sigmoid and data analysis was carried out on the time taken for 50% hemolysis to occur (t50%). The vitamin E content of erythrocytes was significantly elevated by the incubation procedure and resulted in the cells exhibiting a significantly increased resistance to hemolysis as reflected by the extended t50% values. Oral supplementation of 500 IU of vitamin E per day to eight normal human subjects for a period of 16 days also resulted in their washed erythrocytes exhibiting a significant increase in resistance to radiation-induced hemolysis. When comparing vitamin E incubated cells with control cells, both the dose-reducing factor (DRF) and the time for 50% hemolysis quotient (Qt50%) were observed to increase with increasing radiation dose.

  10. Resistance of human erythrocytes containing elevated levels of vitamin E to radiation-induced hemolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    Human erythrocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy donors and then incubated in the presence of suspensions of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol for 30 min at 37/sup 0/C. Unabsorbed tocopherol was removed by centrifugation using several washes of isotonic phosphate-buffered saline. Washed erythrocytes were resuspended to 0.05% Hct and exposed to hemolyzing doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation, and hemolysis was monitored continuously by light scattering at 700 nm in a recording spectrophotometer. The extent of hemolysis with time was sigmoid and data analysis was carried out on the time taken for 50% hemolysis to occur (t/sub 50%/). The vitamin E content of erythrocytes was significantly elevated by the incubation procedure and resulted in the cells exhibiting a significantly increased resistance to hemolysis as reflected by the extended t/sub 50%/ values. Oral supplementation of 500 IU of vitamin E per day to eight normal human subjects for a period of 16 days also resulted in their washed erythrocytes exhibiting a significant increase in resistance to radiation-induced hemolysis. When comparing vitamin E incubated cells with control cells, both the dose-reducing factor (DRF) and the time for 50% hemolysis quotient (Qt/sub 50%/) were observed to increase with increasing radiation dose.

  11. Elevated Serum Levels of the Antiapoptotic Protein Decoy-Receptor 3 Are Associated with Advanced Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Bamias, Giorgos; Gizis, Michalis; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Laoudi, Eyfrosyni; Siakavellas, Spyros I; Koutsounas, Ioannis; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Vlachogiannakos, John; Vafiadis-Zouboulis, Irene; Daikos, George L; Papatheodoridis, George V; Ladas, Spiros D

    2016-01-01

    Background. Decoy-receptor 3 (DcR3) exerts antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory function and is overexpressed in neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Serum DcR3 (sDcR3) levels during the chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) sequence have not been explored. Objective. To assess the levels and significance of sDcR3 protein in various stages of chronic liver disease. Methods. We compared sDcR3 levels between healthy controls and patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH), decompensated cirrhosis (DC), and HCC. Correlations between sDcR3 levels and various patient- and disease-related factors were analyzed. Results. sDcR3 levels were significantly higher in patients with CVH than in controls (P < 0.01). sDcR3 levels were elevated in DC and HCC, being significantly higher compared not only to controls (P < 0.001 for both) but to CVH patients as well (P < 0.001 for both). In addition, DcR3 protein was detected in large quantities in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotics. In patients with CVH, sDcR3 significantly correlated to fibrosis severity, as estimated by Ishak score (P = 0.019) or by liver stiffness measured with elastography (Spearman r = 0.698, P < 0.001). In cirrhotic patients, significant positive correlations were observed between sDcR3 levels and markers of severity of hepatic impairment, including MELD score (r = 0.653, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Circulating levels of DcR3 are elevated during chronic liver disease and correlate with severity of liver damage. sDcR3 may serve as marker for liver fibrosis severity and progression to end-stage liver disease. PMID:27595094

  12. Elevated Serum Levels of the Antiapoptotic Protein Decoy-Receptor 3 Are Associated with Advanced Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gizis, Michalis; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Laoudi, Eyfrosyni; Siakavellas, Spyros I.; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Vlachogiannakos, John; Vafiadis-Zouboulis, Irene; Daikos, George L.; Papatheodoridis, George V.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Decoy-receptor 3 (DcR3) exerts antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory function and is overexpressed in neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Serum DcR3 (sDcR3) levels during the chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) sequence have not been explored. Objective. To assess the levels and significance of sDcR3 protein in various stages of chronic liver disease. Methods. We compared sDcR3 levels between healthy controls and patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH), decompensated cirrhosis (DC), and HCC. Correlations between sDcR3 levels and various patient- and disease-related factors were analyzed. Results. sDcR3 levels were significantly higher in patients with CVH than in controls (P < 0.01). sDcR3 levels were elevated in DC and HCC, being significantly higher compared not only to controls (P < 0.001 for both) but to CVH patients as well (P < 0.001 for both). In addition, DcR3 protein was detected in large quantities in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotics. In patients with CVH, sDcR3 significantly correlated to fibrosis severity, as estimated by Ishak score (P = 0.019) or by liver stiffness measured with elastography (Spearman r = 0.698, P < 0.001). In cirrhotic patients, significant positive correlations were observed between sDcR3 levels and markers of severity of hepatic impairment, including MELD score (r = 0.653, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Circulating levels of DcR3 are elevated during chronic liver disease and correlate with severity of liver damage. sDcR3 may serve as marker for liver fibrosis severity and progression to end-stage liver disease. PMID:27595094

  13. Elevated guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate level inhibits bacterial growth and interferes with FtsZ assembly.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takayoshi; Iida, Ken-Ichiro; Shiota, Susumu; Nakayama, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shin-Ichi

    2015-12-01

    FtsZ, a protein essential for prokaryotic cell division, forms a ring structure known as the Z-ring at the division site. FtsZ has a GTP binding site and is assembled into linear structures in a GTP-dependent manner in vitro. We assessed whether guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), a global regulator of gene expression in starved bacteria, affects cell division in Salmonella Paratyphi A. Elevation of intracellular ppGpp levels by using the relA expression vector induced repression of bacterial growth and incorrect FtsZ assembly. We found that FtsZ forms helical structures in the presence of ppGpp by using the GTP binding site; however, ppGpp levels required to form helical structures were at least 20-fold higher than the required GTP levels in vitro. Furthermore, once formed, helical structures did not change to the straight form even after GTP addition. Our data indicate that elevation of the ppGpp level leads to inhibition of bacterial growth and interferes with FtsZ assembly.

  14. Elevated blood-lead levels in first nation people of Northern Ontario Canada: policy implications.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Martin, I D; Weber, J-P; Sutherland, C; Liberda, E N; Nieboer, E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian "non-toxic" shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds, by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds was immediately effective, we would expect that blood-lead levels would be typical of a geographic area remote from industrialization. Our findings present some concern in that approximately 18% of the 196 First Nations people examined had blood-lead levels > or =100 microg/L.

  15. Rhode Island Salt Marshes: Elevation Capital and Resilience to Sea Level Rise

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tidal salt marsh is especially sensitive to deterioration due to the effects of accelerated sea level rise when combined with other anthropogenically linked stressors, including crab herbivory, changes in tidal hydrology, nutrient loading, dam construction, changes in temperature...

  16. Elevated neurofilament light chain (NFL) mRNA levels in prediabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Celikbilek, Asuman; Tanik, Nermin; Sabah, Seda; Borekci, Elif; Akyol, Lutfi; Ak, Hakan; Adam, Mehmet; Suher, Murat; Yilmaz, Neziha

    2014-06-01

    Evidence suggests that peripheral nerve injury occurs during the early stages of disease with mild glycemic dysregulation. Two proteins, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and neurofilament light chain (NFL), have been examined previously as possible markers of neuronal damage in the pathophysiology of neuropathies. Herein, we aimed to determine the potential value of circulatory NSE and NFL mRNA levels in prediabetic patients and in those with peripheral neuropathy. This prospective clinical study included 45 prediabetic patients and 30 age- and sex-matched controls. All prediabetic patients were assessed with respect to diabetes-related microvascular complications, such as peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy. mRNA levels of NSE and NFL were determined in the blood by real-time polymerase chain reaction. NSE mRNA levels were similar between prediabetic and control groups (p > 0.05), whereas NFL mRNA levels were significantly higher in prediabetics than in controls (p < 0.001). NSE mRNA levels did not significantly differ between prediabetic patients with and without peripheral neuropathy (p > 0.05), while NFL mRNA levels were significantly higher in prediabetics with peripheral neuropathy than in those without (p = 0.038). According to correlation analysis, NFL mRNA levels were positively correlated with the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire score in prediabetic patients (r = 0.302, p = 0.044). This is the first study to suggest blood NFL mRNA as a surrogate marker for early prediction of prediabetic peripheral neuropathy, while NSE mRNA levels may be of no diagnostic value in prediabetic patients.

  17. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan

    2015-11-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS.

  18. Environmental salinity modulates the effects of elevated CO2 levels on juvenile hard-shell clams, Mercenaria mercenaria.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Gary H; Matoo, Omera B; Tourek, Robert T; Sokolova, Inna M; Beniash, Elia

    2013-07-15

    Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations results in a decrease in seawater pH and shifts in the carbonate chemistry that can negatively affect marine organisms. Marine bivalves such as the hard-shell clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, serve as ecosystem engineers in estuaries and coastal zones of the western Atlantic and, as for many marine calcifiers, are sensitive to the impacts of ocean acidification. In estuaries, the effects of ocean acidification can be exacerbated by low buffering capacity of brackish waters, acidic inputs from freshwaters and land, and/or the negative effects of salinity on the physiology of organisms. We determined the interactive effects of 21 weeks of exposure to different levels of CO2 (~395, 800 and 1500 μatm corresponding to pH of 8.2, 8.1 and 7.7, respectively) and salinity (32 versus 16) on biomineralization, shell properties and energy metabolism of juvenile hard-shell clams. Low salinity had profound effects on survival, energy metabolism and biomineralization of hard-shell clams and modulated their responses to elevated PCO2. Negative effects of low salinity in juvenile clams were mostly due to the strongly elevated basal energy demand, indicating energy deficiency, that led to reduced growth, elevated mortality and impaired shell maintenance (evidenced by the extensive damage to the periostracum). The effects of elevated PCO2 on physiology and biomineralization of hard-shell clams were more complex. Elevated PCO2 (~800-1500 μatm) had no significant effects on standard metabolic rates (indicative of the basal energy demand), but affected growth and shell mechanical properties in juvenile clams. Moderate hypercapnia (~800 μatm PCO2) increased shell and tissue growth and reduced mortality of juvenile clams in high salinity exposures; however, these effects were abolished under the low salinity conditions or at high PCO2 (~1500 μatm). Mechanical properties of the shell (measured as microhardness and

  19. Elevated temperature causes metabolic trade-offs at the whole-organism level in the Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii.

    PubMed

    Sandersfeld, Tina; Davison, William; Lamare, Miles D; Knust, Rainer; Richter, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    As a response to ocean warming, shifts in fish species distribution and changes in production have been reported that have been partly attributed to temperature effects on the physiology of animals. The Southern Ocean hosts some of the most rapidly warming regions on earth and Antarctic organisms are reported to be especially temperature sensitive. While cellular and molecular organismic levels appear, at least partially, to compensate for elevated temperatures, the consequences of acclimation to elevated temperature for the whole organism are often less clear. Growth and reproduction are the driving factors for population structure and abundance. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term acclimation to elevated temperature on energy budget parameters in the high-Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii. Our results show a complete temperature compensation for routine metabolic costs after 9 weeks of acclimation to 4°C. However, an up to 84% reduction in mass growth was measured at 2 and 4°C compared with the control group at 0°C, which is best explained by reduced food assimilation rates at warmer temperatures. With regard to a predicted temperature increase of up to 1.4°C in the Ross Sea by 2200, such a significant reduction in growth is likely to affect population structures in nature, for example by delaying sexual maturity and reducing production, with severe impacts on Antarctic fish communities and ecosystems.

  20. Elevated glial fibrillary acidic protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Feneberg, Emily; Steinacker, Petra; Lehnert, Stefan; Böhm, Bernhard; Mayer, Geert; Otto, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an established indicator of astrogliosis. Therefore, variable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of this protein might reflect disease-specific pathologic profiles. In patients with narcolepsy, a loss of hypocretin-1 (hcrt-1) neurons in the brain and low concentrations of hcrt-1 in CSF have been reported. We performed a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to investigate if GFAP also is altered in the CSF of these patients. Here we detected significantly higher CSF levels of GFAP in patients with low hcrt-1 levels, of which the majority had a diagnosis of narcolepsy and cataplexy (NC); however, this finding was not observed in patients with hcrt-1 levels that were within reference range. In conclusion, GFAP may be useful as an additional disease biomarker in patients with narcolepsy, and this hypothesis should be investigated in larger studies.

  1. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I.; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  2. Independent effects of apolipoprotein AV and apolipoprotein CIII on plasma triglyceride concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Baroukh, Nadine N.; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-08-15

    Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered triglycerides. To overcome these confounding factors and address their relationship, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed (''double transgenic'') or completely lacked (''double knockout'') both apolipoprotein genes. We report that both ''double transgenic'' and ''double knockout'' mice display intermedia tetriglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Furthermore, we find that human ApoAV plasma protein levels in the ''double transgenic'' mice are approximately 500-fold lower than human ApoCIII levels, supporting ApoAV is a potent triglyceride modulator despite its low concentration. Together, these data indicate

  3. The earliest stages of ecosystem succession in high-elevation (5000 metres above sea level), recently deglaciated soils

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, S.K; Reed, Sasha C; Nemergut, Diana R; Stuart Grandy, A; Cleveland, Cory C; Weintraub, Michael N; Hill, Andrew W; Costello, Elizabeth K; Meyer, A.F; Neff, J.C; Martin, A.M

    2008-01-01

    Global climate change has accelerated the pace of glacial retreat in high-latitude and high-elevation environments, exposing lands that remain devoid of vegetation for many years. The exposure of ‘new’ soil is particularly apparent at high elevations (5000 metres above sea level) in the Peruvian Andes, where extreme environmental conditions hinder plant colonization. Nonetheless, these seemingly barren soils contain a diverse microbial community; yet the biogeochemical role of micro-organisms at these extreme elevations remains unknown. Using biogeochemical and molecular techniques, we investigated the biological community structure and ecosystem functioning of the pre-plant stages of primary succession in soils along a high-Andean chronosequence. We found that recently glaciated soils were colonized by a diverse community of cyanobacteria during the first 4–5 years following glacial retreat. This significant increase in cyanobacterial diversity corresponded with equally dramatic increases in soil stability, heterotrophic microbial biomass, soil enzyme activity and the presence and abundance of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments. Furthermore, we found that soil nitrogen-fixation rates increased almost two orders of magnitude during the first 4–5 years of succession, many years before the establishment of mosses, lichens or vascular plants. Carbon analyses (pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy) of soil organic matter suggested that soil carbon along the chronosequence was of microbial origin. This indicates that inputs of nutrients and organic matter during early ecosystem development at these sites are dominated by microbial carbon and nitrogen fixation. Overall, our results indicate that photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixing bacteria play important roles in acquiring nutrients and facilitating ecological succession in soils near some of the highest elevation receding glaciers on the Earth. PMID:18755677

  4. Persistently Elevated C-Reactive Protein Level in the First Year of Antiretroviral Therapy, Despite Virologic Suppression, Is Associated With HIV Disease Progression in Resource-Constrained Settings.

    PubMed

    Shivakoti, Rupak; Yang, Wei-Teng; Berendes, Sima; Mwelase, Noluthando; Kanyama, Cecilia; Pillay, Sandy; Samaneka, Wadzanai; Santos, Breno; Poongulali, Selvamuthu; Tripathy, Srikanth; Riviere, Cynthia; Lama, Javier R; Cardoso, Sandra W; Sugandhavesa, Patcharaphan; Balagopal, Ashwin; Gupte, Nikhil; Semba, Richard D; Campbell, Thomas B; Bollinger, Robert C; Gupta, Amita

    2016-04-01

    A case-cohort analysis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was performed within a multicountry randomized trial (PEARLS) to assess the prevalence of persistently elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, based on serial measurements of CRP levels, and their association with HIV clinical failure. A persistently elevated CRP level in plasma (defined as ≥ 5 mg/L at both baseline and 24 weeks after ART initiation) was observed in 50 of 205 individuals (24%). A persistently elevated CRP level but not an elevated CRP level only at a single time point was independently associated with increased clinical failure, compared with a persistently low CRP level, despite achievement of virologic suppression. Serial monitoring of CRP levels could identify individuals who are at highest risk of HIV progression and may benefit from future adjunct antiinflammatory therapies. PMID:26621909

  5. The effect of atorvastatin and atorvastatin-ezetimibe combination therapy on androgen production in hyperandrogenic women with elevated cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, R; Okopien, B

    2015-02-01

    Statins decreased serum androgen levels in hyperandrogenemic women with polycystic ovary syndrome. No previous study has investigated whether this effect is dose-dependent and observed in patients simultaneously treated with other hypolipidemic agents. The study included 23 premenopausal women with elevated total testosterone levels coexisting with hypercholesterolemia, unsuccessfully treated for at least 6 months with atorvastatin (20 mg daily). These patients were then treated with either an increased dose of atorvastatin (40 mg daily, n=11) or atorvastatin (20 mg daily) plus ezetimibe (10 mg daily) (n=12). Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers and serum levels of androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin and gonadotropins were assessed at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. Although both treatments decreased plasma levels of total and LDL-cholesterol levels, only high-dose atorvastatin reduced serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone and androstendione. The effect of high-dose atorvastatin on serum androgen levels did not differ between insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive subjects. The obtained results suggest that atorvastatin reduces serum androgen levels in a dose-dependent manner and that its administration in a higher dose is associated with a more pronounced effect on serum androgens than combination therapy with low-dose atorvastatin and ezetimibe.

  6. Elevated morning cortisol is a stratified population-level biomarker for major depression in boys only with high depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Matthew; Herbert, Joe; Jones, Peter B.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Wilkinson, Paul O.; Dunn, Valerie J.; Croudace, Timothy J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MD) is a debilitating public mental health problem with severe societal and personal costs attached. Around one in six people will suffer from this complex disorder at some point in their lives, which has shown considerable etiological and clinical heterogeneity. Overall there remain no validated biomarkers in the youth population at large that can aid the detection of at-risk groups for depression in general and for boys and young men in particular. Using repeated measurements of two well-known correlates of MD (self-reported current depressive symptoms and early-morning cortisol), we undertook a population-based investigation to ascertain subtypes of adolescents that represent separate longitudinal phenotypes. Subsequently, we tested for differential risks for MD and other mental illnesses and cognitive differences between subtypes. Through the use of latent class analysis, we revealed a high-risk subtype (17% of the sample) demarcated by both high depressive symptoms and elevated cortisol levels. Membership of this class of individuals was associated with increased levels of impaired autobiographical memory recall in both sexes and the greatest likelihood of experiencing MD in boys only. These previously unidentified findings demonstrate at the population level a class of adolescents with a common physiological biomarker specifically for MD in boys and for a mnemonic vulnerability in both sexes. We suggest that the biobehavioral combination of high depressive symptoms and elevated morning cortisol is particularly hazardous for adolescent boys. PMID:24550453

  7. Elevated serum levels of a biliary glycoprotein (BGP I) in patients with liver or biliary tract disease.

    PubMed

    Svenberg, T; Wahren, B; Hammarström, S

    1979-05-01

    Human hepatic bile contains a glycoprotein (biliary glycoprotein I, BGP I) which cross-reacts with the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). A radioimmunoassay for BGP I was developed. The interference of CEA or 'non-specific cross-reacting antigen' (NCA) in the assay was small. The serum levels of BGP I were determined in healthy subjects, in patients with hepato-biliary diseases and in patients with various infectious or inflammatory disorders. Healthy individuals, including pregnant women, had a serum BGP I concentration of about 0.5-1 mg/l. Diseases of the liver or biliary tract (e.g. hepatitis A or B, cytomegalovirus hepatitis, obstructive jaundice or primary biliary cirrhosis) were associated with elevated serum levels of BGP I, as opposed to infectious diseases not affecting the liver mostly showing values within the normal range. Raised levels of serum BGP I activity may reflect biliary obstruction as a result of interference with normal BGP I secretion to the bile.

  8. Tuna fish diet influences cat behavior. [Elevated levels of selenium and mercury in commercial tuna fish cat food

    SciTech Connect

    Houpt, K.A.; Essick, L.A.; Shaw, E.B.; Alo, D.K.; Gilmartin, J.E.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    When observed in their home cages, cats fed commercial tuna fish cat food were less active, vocalized less, and spent more time on the floor and more time eating than cats fed commercial beef cat food. There were no differences in response to human handling between the two groups. There were no differences in learning ability on a two-choice point maze or in reversal learning in the same maze between beef- and tuna-fed cats. The behavior of the groups differed in a 15-min open field test only in the number of toys contacted. Cats fed the tuna had elevated tissue levels of mercury and selenium.

  9. Elevated amylase creatinine clearance ratio and normal serum amylase levels in chronic relapsing pancreatitis after partial pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Cattau, E L; Garcia-Torres, F

    1980-12-01

    A 29-year-old woman admitted for alcohol detoxification five years after a 90% distal pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis had abdominal pain similar to that associated with preoperative pancreatitis. Although her clinical course was consistent with recurrent pancreatitis, the serum amylase level remained normal, but the amylase creatinine clearance ratio became elevated and then returned to normal, paralleling her clinical course. The ACCR may be a useful laboratory method in diagnosing chronic recurrent pancreatitis in patients with decreased functional pancreatic tissue. PMID:6160621

  10. Decreased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in transgenic skinny mice overexpressing leptin.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, N; Ogawa, Y; Masuzaki, H; Ebihara, K; Aizawa-Abe, M; Satoh, N; Ishikawa, E; Fujisawa, Y; Kosaki, A; Yamada, K; Kuzuya, H; Nakao, K

    2001-02-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived circulating satiety factor with a variety of biological effects. Evidence has accumulated suggesting that leptin may modulate glucose and lipid metabolism. In the present study, we examined lipid metabolism in transgenic skinny mice with elevated plasma leptin concentrations. The plasma concentrations of triglycerides and free fatty acids in transgenic skinny mice were 71.5 (P < 0.01) and 89.1% (P < 0.05) of those in their nontransgenic littermates, respectively. Separation of plasma into lipoprotein classes by ultracentrifugation revealed that very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride concentrations were markedly reduced in transgenic skinny mice relative to the controls. The clearance of triglycerides estimated by a fat-loading test was enhanced in transgenic skinny mice; the triglyceride concentration in transgenic skinny mice 3 h after fat loading was 39.7% (P < 0.05) of that of their nontransgenic littermates. Postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase activity increased 1.4-fold (P < 0.05) in transgenic skinny mice. Our data demonstrated a significant reduction in plasma triglyceride concentrations, accompanied by increased lipoprotein lipase activity in transgenic skinny mice overexpressing leptin, suggesting that leptin plays a role in long-term triglyceride metabolism.

  11. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl substances in estuarine sediments of Charleston, SC.

    PubMed

    White, Natasha D; Balthis, Len; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; De Silva, Amila O; Wu, Qian; French, Katherine M; Daugomah, James; Spencer, Christine; Fair, Patricia A

    2015-07-15

    Urban areas are sources of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the environment, although little is known about specific point sources and distribution of PFASs. Sentinel species, like bottlenose dolphins, are important indicators of environmental perturbations. The high PFAS levels found in dolphins inhabiting Charleston, South Carolina prompted investigation of these chemicals in this area. This study provides further evidence on the extent of contamination and potential sources of PFASs. In this study, concentrations of 11 PFASs measured in estuarine sediments collected in 2012 from the Charleston Harbor and the Ashley and Cooper Rivers (n=36) in South Carolina revealed higher levels than those reported in any other U.S. urban areas. Detectable levels were found in all sample locations with mean total PFAS concentrations of 3.79ngg(-1) (range 0.22 to 19.2ngg(-1) d.w.). Dominant compounds were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (mean 1.52ngg(-1); range 0.09-7.37ngg(-1) d.w.), followed by perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) (mean 0.83ngg(-1); range 0.06-4.76ngg(-1) d.w.) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (mean 0.42ngg(-1); range 0.02-2.52ngg(-1) d.w.). PFOS levels in sediments at 19 of 36 sites (representing 52% of the study area) exceeded the published global median PFOS sediment concentration of 0.54ngg(-1).

  12. Effects of elevated peroxidase levels and corn earworm feeding on gene expression in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato gene arrays were used to investigate how high levels of transgenic peroxidase expression and feeding by the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, affected expression of defensive and other genes. High peroxidase activity significantly upregulated proteinase inhibitors and a few other defensive gene...

  13. Elevated levels of immunoglobulin A to Giardia lamblia during a waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Birkhead, G; Janoff, E N; Vogt, R L; Smith, P D

    1989-01-01

    During an outbreak of diarrheal illness among residents of a trailer park in rural Vermont, 37 (30%) of 122 residents met the case definition of outbreak-related giardiasis. Convalescent-phase sera from 24 residents and 20 nonresident control subjects were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies to Giardia lamblia. Residents showed higher levels of parasite-specific antibody than did nonresident controls for IgG and IgA but not IgM. Nine residents with giardiasis had a higher median level of G. lamblia-specific IgA but not IgG or IgM than 15 healthy residents (0.61 versus 0.16 optical density units; P = 0.004). Moreover, parasite-specific IgA levels were higher in those consuming tap water than in those who did not (0.31 versus 0.08 optical density units; P = 0.03) and increased with increasing water consumption. Levels of serum antibody to G. lamblia, particularly IgA, may be useful in determining exposure to G. lamblia-contaminated water and illness from G. lamblia during waterborne outbreaks of diarrheal illness. PMID:2768460

  14. Mothers Do Not Show Increased Offspring Avoidance and Elevated Corticosterone Levels during Weaning Conflict in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Charlotte; Hager, Reinmar

    2016-01-01

    Parent-offspring conflict is predicted to occur because offspring will demand more parental investment than is optimal for the parent, and is said to be strongest during weaning when parents reduce nursing while offspring continue to demand parental care. While weaning conflict has been shown to be stressful in offspring, little is known about the effects of weaning conflict on mothers. We hypothesized that during weaning mothers have higher levels of stress hormone (corticosterone) compared to early lactation because of increased offspring demand. Further, we predicted that if mothers are given the option to avoid offspring solicitation they would do so and show lower corticosterone levels. We tested our hypotheses in an experimental population of rats in which one group of females was given the opportunity to avoid offspring solicitation. We measured faecal corticosterone metabolite levels using a non-invasive approach, and maternal and offspring behaviours during weaning. In contrast to our predictions, we detected lower levels of corticosterone metabolites during weaning than before, irrespective of cage type. Further, during weaning mothers did not show increased offspring avoidance behaviour although offspring solicitation increased significantly. Our results therefore cast doubt on the generally accepted notion of weaning conflict as a stressful period for mothers characterized by overt offspring solicitation. PMID:27662366

  15. D-Dimer Levels Predict Myocardial Injury in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young Bin; Lima, Joao A. C.; Guallar, Eliseo; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Hwang, Jin Kyung; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Hahn, Joo-Yong; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Chol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Elevated D-dimer levels on admission predict prognosis in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), but the association of D-dimer levels with structural markers of myocardial injury in these patients is unknown. Methods We performed cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in 208 patients treated with primary PCI for STEMI. CMR was performed a median of 3 days after the index procedure. Of the 208 patients studied, 75 patients had D-dimer levels above the normal range on admission (>0.5 μg/mL; high D-dimer group) while 133 had normal levels (≤0.5 μg/mL; low D-dimer group). The primary outcome was myocardial infarct size assessed by CMR. Secondary outcomes included area at risk (AAR), microvascular obstruction (MVO) area, and myocardial salvage index (MSI). Results In CMR analysis, myocardial infarct size was larger in the high D-dimer group than in the low D-dimer group (22.3% [16.2–30.5] versus 18.8% [10.7–26.7]; p = 0.02). Compared to the low D-dimer group, the high D-dimer group also had a larger AAR (38.1% [31.7–46.9] versus 35.8% [24.2–45.3]; p = 0.04) and a smaller MSI (37.7 [28.2–46.9] versus 47.1 [33.2–57.0]; p = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, high D-dimer levels were significantly associated with larger myocardial infarct (OR 2.59; 95% CI 1.37–4.87; p<0.01) and lower MSI (OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.44–4.78; p<0.01). Conclusions In STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI, high D-dimer levels on admission were associated with a larger myocardial infarct size, a greater extent of AAR, and lower MSI, as assessed by CMR data. Elevated initial D-dimer level may be a marker of advanced myocardial injury in patients treated with primary PCI for STEMI. PMID:27513758

  16. Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) levels are elevated in patients with chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Iris J.; Hilliard, Brendan; Swami, Abhishek; Madara, John C.; Rao, Swati; Patel, Tapan; Gaughan, John P.; Lee, Jean; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Choi, Eric T.; Cohen, Philip L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The TAM receptors (tyro3, axl and mer) and their ligands (vitamin K-dependent proteins—Gas6 and Protein S) are crucial modulators of inflammation, which may be relevant in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Gas6 and axl have multiple roles in mediating vascular atherosclerosis and injury, thrombosis and inflammation, yet nothing is known about the Gas6–axl pathway in humans with CKD. Given the prevalence of chronic inflammation and vascular disease in this population, we measured TAM ligands in patients with various levels of renal function. Methods Gas6 and protein S were quantified in the plasma by ELISA in three patient groups: end-stage renal disease on chronic hemodialysis (HD), CKD and normal controls. Results Significantly increased levels of Gas6 and protein S were found in CKD patients compared with normal controls (P < 0.01 and <0.001, respectively). In HD patients, Gas6 levels were elevated compared with controls (P < 0.001) and positively associated with low albumin (r= 0.33; P = 0.01), dialysis vintage (r= 0.36; P = 0.008) and IV iron administration (r= 0.33; P = 0.01). The levels of Gas6 rose with CKD stage and were inversely associated with estimated GFR (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Dysregulation of circulating Gas6 is associated with renal disease and inversely proportional to renal function. Low albumin and higher IV iron administration were associated with higher Gas6 levels, suggesting a possible connection between inflammation and oxidative stress mediated by iron. Protein S levels were also elevated in CKD patients, but the relevance of this finding needs to be further investigated. PMID:22907951

  17. Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels predict cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 10-year prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Tae-Seok; Yun, Jae-Seung; Cha, Seon-Ah; Song, Ki-Ho; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) level is known to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the data that has been reported on the association between the Lp(a) level and CVD in type 2 diabetes has been limited and incoherent. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the Lp(a) concentration and new onset CVD in type 2 diabetes. Methods From March 2003 to December 2004, patients with type 2 diabetes without a prior history of CVD were consecutively enrolled. CVD was defined as the occurrence of coronary artery disease or ischemic stroke. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify the associations between the Lp(a) and CVD after adjusting for confounding variables. Results Of the 1,183 patients who were enrolled, 833 participants were evaluated with a median follow-up time of 11.1 years. A total of 202 participants were diagnosed with CVD (24.2%). The median Lp(a) level for 1st and 4th quartile group was 5.4 (3.5 to 7.1) and 55.7 mg/dL (43.1 to 75.3). Compared with patients without CVD, those with CVD were older, had a longer duration of diabetes and hypertension, and used more insulin and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers at baseline. A Cox hazard regression analysis revealed that the development of CVD was significantly associated with serum Lp(a) level (hazard ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26 to 2.92; p < 0.001, comparing the 4th vs. 1st quartile of Lp[a]). Conclusions Elevated Lp(a) level was an independent predictable risk factor for CVD in type 2 diabetes. Other cardiovascular risk factors should be treated more intensively in type 2 diabetic patients with high Lp(a) levels. PMID:27756118

  18. Prognostic Value of Elevated Serum Ceruloplasmin Levels in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Hammadah, Muhammad; Fan, Yiying; Wu, Yuping; Hazen, Stanley L.; Wilson Tang, W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is a copper-binding acute-phase protein that is increased in inflammatory states and deficient in Wilson’s disease. Recent studies demonstrate increased levels of Cp are associated with increased risk of developing heart failure. Our objective is to test the hypothesis that serum Cp provides incremental and independent prediction of survival in stable patients with heart failure. Methods and Results We measured serum Cp levels in 890 patients with stable heart failure undergoing elective cardiac evaluation that included coronary angiography. We examine the role of Cp levels in predicting survival over 5-years of follow-up. Mean Cp level was 26.6±6.9 mg/dL, and demonstrated relatively weak correlation with BNP (r=0.187, p<0.001). Increased Cp levels were associated with increased 5 year all-cause mortality (Q4 vs Q1 HR 1.9, 95%CI 1.4–2.8, p<0.001). When controlled for coronary disease traditional risk factors, creatinine clearance, dialysis, body mass index, medications, history of myocardial infarction, BNP, LVEF, heart rate, QRS duration, left bundle branch blockage and ICD, higher Cp remained an independent predictor of increased mortality (Q4 vs Q1 HR1.7, 95%CI 1.1 – 2.6, p<0.05). Model quality was improved with addition of Cp to aforementioned co-variables (NRI of 9.3%, p<0.001) Conclusions Ceruloplasmin is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure. Use of Cp may help to identify patients at heightened mortality risk. PMID:25128745

  19. Neighborhood level health risk assessment of lead paint removal activities from elevated steel bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, R.F.; Cohen, J.T.; Bowers, T.

    1999-07-01

    The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) has adopted strict containment and monitoring procedures during paint removal activities on its bridges because of the increasing awareness about lead poisoning in children in urban environments and the potential risk of lead-based paint releases during those activities. NYCDOT owns nearly 800 bridges scattered throughout New York City. Before undertaking paint removal activities as part of its ongoing preventive maintenance and rehabilitation program, NYCDOT recently conducted an analysis to determine the public health risk posed to children living near them. The analysis the first of its kind to assess the actual public health risk potential during both routine operations and upset conditions, or accidental releases evaluated the total and incremental blood lead levels from paint removal activities on more than 5,000 children from 6 months to 6 years old. Increases in baseline blood lead levels were estimated using several models, including EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model. This model estimates steady-state blood lead levels in children, reflecting exposure to lead in multiple media over an extended period of time. Increases in lead exposure from paint removal activities in the area surrounding the bridges was estimated using EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model to calculate ambient air and deposition levels. Potential releases from the containment and ancillary equipment used in the paint removal process were modeled based on different release scenarios ranging from routine operations to complete failure of containment. To estimate the paint removal activities' contribution to long-term exterior dust lead levels (and its related interior component), a stochastic simulation model was developed for each block in the study area.

  20. Effect of elevated total CoA levels on metabolic pathways in cultured hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, C.A.; Smith, C.M.

    1987-05-01

    Livers from fasted rats have 30% higher total CoA levels than fed rats. To determine whether this increase of total CoA influences metabolism, the rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis were measured in hepatocytes with cyanamide (CYM) or pantothenate (PA) deficient medium used to vary total CoA levels independently of hormonal status. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were incubated 14 hrs with Bt/sub 2/ cAMP, dexamethasone + theophylline in PA deficient medium or with CYM (500 ..mu..M) + PA, rinsed and preincubated 0.5 hr to remove the CYM. Hepatocytes treated with CYM had total CoA levels 10-24% higher than PA deficient cells and lower rates of glucose production from lactate + pyruvate (L/P) or from alanine (0.23 +/- 0.05 and 0.089 +/- 0.02 ..mu..m/mg protein, respectively in CYM treated cells compared to 0.33 +/- 0.06 and 0.130 +/- 0.006 in PA deficient cells). This decrease was not due to CYM per se, as the direct addition of CYM stimulated glucose production from L/P. CYM treated cells with 15-40% higher total CoA and 30% higher fatty acyl-CoA levels had the same rates of (/sup 14/C)-palmitate oxidation as PA deficient cells. However, rates of ketogenesis were lower in CYM treated cells (163 +/- 11 nm/mg compared to 217 +/- 14 nm/mg protein). These results suggest that physiological alterations of hepatic total CoA levels are not necessary for fasting rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis.

  1. Elevated C-reactive protein levels and metabolic syndrome in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Zuliani, Giovanni; Volpato, Stefano; Galvani, Matteo; Blè, Alessandro; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Guralnik, Jack M.; Fellin, Renato; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) and “low grade” systemic inflammation (LGSI) are very common findings in the older population. Although MS and LGSI have been associated in adults, it is not known what is the real contribution of MS, and its single components, to LGSI in older persons, due to the potential confounding effect of comorbidity and aging. We investigated the relationship between increased C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels, a marker of LGSI, and MS in 1044 older (≥65 years) community dwelling Italian individuals enrolled the InChianti study. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the NCEP-ATP III-AHA/NHLBI criteria. High sensitivity CRP (hs.CRP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and defined as high when >3 mg/L. The overall prevalence of MS was 31%. The prevalence of high hs.CRP was 54.5% in subjects with, and 41.3% in those without MS (p < 0.001). MS was associated with high hs.CRP levels after adjustment for age, gender, and comorbidity (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.46-2.55). Compared to subjects with MS and no LGSI, individuals with MS and LGSI were characterized by higher waist circumference, BMI, and HOMA score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between waist circumference and high hs.CRP levels in subjects with MS (waist circumference III vs. I tertile OR: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.79-3.77) independent of age, gender, and important confounding variables including comorbidity. Additional analyses, conducted with and without dichotomization of hs.CRP levels, confirmed the central role of waist circumference in the LGSI phenomenon, independent of gender and diagnosis of MS. We conclude that in older individuals, MS is associated with LGSI, but the association is mainly supported by a strong independent correlation between waist circumference and high hs.CRP levels. In the absence of this specific MS component, it seems that the contribution of MS to LGSI would be modest at best. PMID:18845301

  2. Do triglycerides modulate the effectiveness of clozapine?

    PubMed

    Pande, S; Procyshyn, R M; Nazerali, M; Attwood, D; Chow, K

    2002-07-01

    We describe a case in which a patient's clinical response to clozapine appears to correlate positively with his serum triglyceride concentrations. We propose that the observed clinical response may partly be the result of the physical interaction of clozapine with the very low-density lipoproteins. We base this supposition on our previous in-vitro study showing that the plasma distribution of clozapine is significantly altered by increases in plasma triglyceride concentrations. Although this case only represents one patient, it highlights the possibility that serum lipids may be potential contributors to the clinical effectiveness of clozapine. PMID:12131604

  3. Reduction of elevated IGF-1 levels in coincident amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Turner, Martin R; Wass, John A H; Talbot, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient presenting with ALS in whom acromegaly was later confirmed. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been tried in the treatment of ALS and despite equivocal results from clinical trials, efforts have continued to try to harness the significant positive effects on motor neuron growth observed in vitro and in survival of mouse models of the disease. One subsequent study has reported an association between higher circulating serum IGF-1 levels and longer disease duration in ALS patients. Concern therefore arose in our case that treatment of the acromegaly with a somatostatin analogue might adversely affect the natural course of his ALS through lowering of potentially beneficial IGF-1 levels. Through clinical observation and prognostic modelling we suggest that this concern was unfounded. The potential interaction of these two rarely coincident disorders in our patient is discussed.

  4. Elevated CA 19-9 levels observed in association with a pulmonary neuroendocrine tumour and amyloid.

    PubMed

    Faruqi, Shoaib; Gumparthy, Krishna; Wahbi, Zaroug

    2013-01-01

    Investigations completed in a 77-year-old ex-smoker presenting with weight loss showed raised CA 19-9 levels. The findings of chest radiograph, abdominal computed tomography (CT) and gastrointestinal endoscopic examinations were all normal. On follow-up, the patient developed left upper lobe collapse on chest radiograph with increasing CA 19-9 levels. Chest CT findings suggested the presence of a left upper lobe tumour. The results of a biopsy of the left upper lobe nodule seen on bronchoscopy suggested a diagnosis of amyloidosis; however, this was not the only diagnosis. The left upper lobe mass comprised a neuroendocrine tumour with amyloid deposition just beneath the bronchial epithelium and focally between the nests of the tumour cells. We report and discuss this uncommon association and presentation.

  5. Responses to Elevated c-di-GMP Levels in Mutualistic and Pathogenic Plant-Interacting Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Aragón, Isabel M.; Prada-Ramírez, Harold A.; Romero-Jiménez, Lorena; Ramos, Cayo; Gallegos, María-Trinidad; Sanjuán, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Despite a recent burst of research, knowledge on c-di-GMP signaling pathways remains largely fragmentary and molecular mechanisms of regulation and even c-di-GMP targets are yet unknown for most bacteria. Besides genomics or bioinformatics, accompanying alternative approaches are necessary to reveal c-di-GMP regulation in bacteria with complex lifestyles. We have approached this study by artificially altering the c-di-GMP economy of diverse pathogenic and mutualistic plant-interacting bacteria and examining the effects on the interaction with their respective host plants. Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas and symbiotic Rhizobium strains with enhanced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP displayed common free-living responses: reduction of motility, increased production of extracellular polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation. Regarding the interaction with the host plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi cells containing high c-di-GMP levels formed larger knots on olive plants which, however, displayed reduced necrosis. In contrast, development of disease symptoms in P. syringae-tomato or P. syringae-bean interactions did not seem significantly affected by high c-di-GMP. On the other hand, increasing c-di-GMP levels in symbiotic R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains favoured the early stages of the interaction since enhanced adhesion to plant roots, but decreased symbiotic efficiency as plant growth and nitrogen contents were reduced. Our results remark the importance of c-di-GMP economy for plant-interacting bacteria and show the usefulness of our approach to reveal particular stages during plant-bacteria associations which are sensitive to changes in c-di-GMP levels. PMID:24626229

  6. Responses to elevated c-di-GMP levels in mutualistic and pathogenic plant-interacting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Aragón, Isabel M; Prada-Ramírez, Harold A; Romero-Jiménez, Lorena; Ramos, Cayo; Gallegos, María-Trinidad; Sanjuán, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Despite a recent burst of research, knowledge on c-di-GMP signaling pathways remains largely fragmentary and molecular mechanisms of regulation and even c-di-GMP targets are yet unknown for most bacteria. Besides genomics or bioinformatics, accompanying alternative approaches are necessary to reveal c-di-GMP regulation in bacteria with complex lifestyles. We have approached this study by artificially altering the c-di-GMP economy of diverse pathogenic and mutualistic plant-interacting bacteria and examining the effects on the interaction with their respective host plants. Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas and symbiotic Rhizobium strains with enhanced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP displayed common free-living responses: reduction of motility, increased production of extracellular polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation. Regarding the interaction with the host plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi cells containing high c-di-GMP levels formed larger knots on olive plants which, however, displayed reduced necrosis. In contrast, development of disease symptoms in P. syringae-tomato or P. syringae-bean interactions did not seem significantly affected by high c-di-GMP. On the other hand, increasing c-di-GMP levels in symbiotic R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains favoured the early stages of the interaction since enhanced adhesion to plant roots, but decreased symbiotic efficiency as plant growth and nitrogen contents were reduced. Our results remark the importance of c-di-GMP economy for plant-interacting bacteria and show the usefulness of our approach to reveal particular stages during plant-bacteria associations which are sensitive to changes in c-di-GMP levels. PMID:24626229

  7. Effects of pH and elevated glucose levels on the electrochemical behavior of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Tamam, Evsen; Turkyilmaz, Ilser

    2014-04-01

    Implant failure is more likely to occur in persons with medically compromising systemic conditions, such as diabetes related to high blood glucose levels and inflammatory diseases related to pH levels lower than those in healthy people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lower pH level and simulated- hyperglycemia on implant corrosion as these effects are critical to biocompatibility and osseointegration. The electrochemical corrosion properties of titanium implants were studied in four different solutions: Ringer's physiological solution at pH = 7.0 and pH = 5.5 and Ringer's physiological solution containing 15 mM dextrose at pH = 7 and pH = 5.5. Corrosion behaviors of dental implants were determined by cyclic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Surface alterations were studied using a scanning electron microscope. All test electrolytes led to apparent differences in corrosion behavior of the implants. The implants under conditions of test exhibited statistically significant increases in I(corr) from 0.2372 to 1.007 μAcm(-2), corrosion rates from 1.904 to 8.085 mpy, and a decrease in polarization resistances from 304 to 74 Ω. Implants in dextrose-containing solutions were more prone to corrosion than those in Ringer's solutions alone. Increasing the acidity also yielded greater corrosion rates for the dextrose-containing solutions and the solutions without dextrose.

  8. Dose assessment of population groups exposed to elevated radon levels in radioactive Italian spas

    SciTech Connect

    Sciocchetti, G.; Tosti, S.; Baldassini, P.G.; Sarao, R.; Soldano, E.

    1992-12-31

    The natural spring waters on the Isle of Ischia are among the most radioactive in the world. Therapeutic application of these waters, which contain very high radon concentrations, increases the radon exposure of people treated with them. People who live and work at radioactive spas may be good subjects for testing to evaluate detectable biological effects, especially because their exposures will be less influenced by synergistic factors than those of underground miners. The aim of our investigation was to characterize radon exposure for population groups exposed to high radon levels. Our approach takes into account some peculiar requirements of our epidemiological investigations. To obtain representative dose values, workers were classified into groups to obtain significant results suitable for epidemiological pilot studies. Investigations were carried out on the geological aspects of radon sources, environmental parameters, physical and dosimetric factors which influence radon levels, and related exposures in therapeutic facilities in order to model patterns of radon exposures for the various population groups. We inventoried hyper-radioactive springs on the island. We identified workers in radon spas who were exposed to radiation from inhaled radon daughters and retrospectively assessed their radon exposures. Results showed that, under some conditions, spa employees may have been exposed to much higher than usual levels of radon, which produced up to about 60 mSv y{sup -1} effective dose equivalent.

  9. Experimental Study of Vane Heat Transfer and Film Cooling at Elevated Levels of Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Forrest E.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the results of an experimental study on the influence of high level turbulence on vane film cooling and the influence of film cooling on vane heat transfer. Three different cooling configurations were investigated which included one row of film cooling on both pressure and suction surfaces, two staggered rows of film cooling on both suction and pressure surfaces, and a shower-head cooling array. The turbulence had a strong influence on film cooling effectiveness, particularly on the pressure surface where local turbulence levels were the highest. For the single row of holes, the spanwise mixing quickly reduced centerline effectiveness levels while mixing in the normal direction was more gradual. The film cooling had a strong influence on the heat transfer in the laminar regions of the vane. The effect of film cooling on heat transfer was noticeable in the turbulent regions but augmentation ratios were significantly lower. In addition to heat transfer and film cooling, velocity profiles were taken downstream of the film cooling rows at three spanwise locations. These profile comparisons documented the strong spanwise mixing due to the high turbulence. Total pressure exit measurements were also documented for the three configurations.

  10. Elevated levels of TRF2 induce telomeric ultrafine anaphase bridges and rapid telomere deletions

    PubMed Central

    Nera, Bernadette; Huang, Hui-Shun; Lai, Thao; Xu, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    The shelterin protein TRF2 is essential for chromosome-end protection. Depletion of TRF2 causes chromosome end-to-end fusions, initiating genomic instability that can be cancer promoting. Paradoxically, significant increased levels of TRF2 are observed in a subset of human cancers. Experimental overexpression of TRF2 has also been shown to induce telomere shortening, through an unknown mechanism. Here we report that TRF2 overexpression results in replication stalling in duplex telomeric repeat tracts and the subsequent formation of telomeric ultrafine anaphase bridges (UFBs), ultimately leading to stochastic loss of telomeric sequences. These TRF2 overexpression-induced telomere deletions generate chromosome fusions resembling those detected in human cancers and in mammalian cells containing critically shortened telomeres. Therefore, our findings have uncovered a second pathway by which altered TRF2 protein levels can induce end-to-end fusions. The observations also provide mechanistic insight into the molecular basis of genomic instability in tumour cells containing significantly increased TRF2 levels. PMID:26640040

  11. Effects of pH and elevated glucose levels on the electrochemical behavior of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Tamam, Evsen; Turkyilmaz, Ilser

    2014-04-01

    Implant failure is more likely to occur in persons with medically compromising systemic conditions, such as diabetes related to high blood glucose levels and inflammatory diseases related to pH levels lower than those in healthy people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lower pH level and simulated- hyperglycemia on implant corrosion as these effects are critical to biocompatibility and osseointegration. The electrochemical corrosion properties of titanium implants were studied in four different solutions: Ringer's physiological solution at pH = 7.0 and pH = 5.5 and Ringer's physiological solution containing 15 mM dextrose at pH = 7 and pH = 5.5. Corrosion behaviors of dental implants were determined by cyclic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Surface alterations were studied using a scanning electron microscope. All test electrolytes led to apparent differences in corrosion behavior of the implants. The implants under conditions of test exhibited statistically significant increases in I(corr) from 0.2372 to 1.007 μAcm(-2), corrosion rates from 1.904 to 8.085 mpy, and a decrease in polarization resistances from 304 to 74 Ω. Implants in dextrose-containing solutions were more prone to corrosion than those in Ringer's solutions alone. Increasing the acidity also yielded greater corrosion rates for the dextrose-containing solutions and the solutions without dextrose. PMID:24779948

  12. Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 on Primary Metabolite Levels in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 Leaves: An Examination of Metabolome Data.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Ko; Watanabe, Chihiro K; Terashima, Ichiro

    2015-11-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentrations ([CO(2)]) affect primary metabolite levels because CO(2) is a direct substrate for photosynthesis. In several studies, the responses of primary metabolite levels have been examined using Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, but these results have not been comprehensively discussed. Here, we examined metabolome data for A. thaliana accession Col-0 leaves that were grown at elevated [CO(2)] with sufficient nitrogen (N) nutrition. At elevated [CO(2)], starch, monosaccharides and several major amino acids accumulated in leaves. The degree of accumulation depended on whether the rooting medium contained NH(4) (+) or only NO(3) (-). Because low N conditions induce an increase in carbohydrates similar to that of elevated [CO(2)], we compared the responses of primary metabolite levels between elevated [CO(2)] and low N conditions. Levels of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-associated organic acids and major amino acids decreased with low N, but not with elevated [CO(2)]. Even at elevated [CO(2)], the low N induced the decreases in the levels of organic acids and major amino acids. A small sink size also affects the primary metabolite response patterns in leaves under elevated [CO(2)] conditions. Thus, care is necessary when interpreting primary metabolite changes in leaves of field-grown plants.

  13. Wound fluids from human pressure ulcers contain elevated matrix metalloproteinase levels and activity compared to surgical wound fluids.

    PubMed

    Yager, D R; Zhang, L Y; Liang, H X; Diegelmann, R F; Cohen, I K

    1996-11-01

    Fluid from acute surgical wounds and from nonhealing pressure ulcers was examined for the presence of several matrix metalloproteinases. Gelatin zymography demonstrated the presence of two major gelatinases with apparent molecular masses of 72 kDa and 92 kDa and two minor gelatinases with apparent mobilities of 68 kDa and 125 kDa. Antigen-specific sera identified the 72-kDa protein as matrix melloproteinase-2. The same sera also reacted with the 68-kDa protein, which is consistent with it being an activated form of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Antigen-specific sera identified the 92-kDa and 125-kDa proteins as matrix metalloproteinase-9. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were elevated more than 10-fold and 25-fold, respectively, in fluids from pressure ulcers compared with fluids from healing wounds. Examination of total potential and actual collagenolytic activity revealed that fluid from pressure ulcers contained significantly greater levels of both total and active collagenase compared with that of acute surgical wounds. In addition, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that fluids from pressure ulcers contained significantly more collagenase complexed with the inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases. Together, these observations suggest that an imbalance exists between levels of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in the fluids of pressure ulcers and that this is primarily the result of elevated levels of the matrix metalloproteinases. The presence of excessive levels of activated forms of matrix-degrading enzymes at the wound surface of pressure ulcers may impede the healing of these wounds and may be relevant to the development of new rationales for treatment.

  14. Prognostic Value of Plasma Intermedin Level in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengyang; Shi, Lin; Han, Yalei; Zhao, Yuntao; Qi, Yongfen; Wang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Intermedin (IMD), an autocrine/paracrine biologically active peptide, plays a critical role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Recent research has shown that high plasma levels of IMD are associated with poor outcomes for patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. However, the prognostic utility of IMD levels in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) has not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that the level of plasma IMD would have prognostic value in patients with NSTE-ACS. Plasma IMD was determined by radioimmunoassay in 132 NSTE-ACS patients on admission to hospital and 132 sex- and age-matched healthy-control subjects. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including death, heart failure, hospitalization, and acute myocardial infarction, were noted during follow-up. In total, 23 patients suffered MACEs during the follow-up period (mean 227 ± 118 days, range 2-421 days). Median IMD levels were higher in NSTE-ACS patients than control [320.0 (250.9/384.6) vs. 227.2 (179.7/286.9) pg/mL, P <0.001]. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for IMD and N-terminal pro-B-type brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) did not significantly differ (0.73 and 0.79, both P <0.001, respectively; P = 0.946). ROC curve analysis revealed a cut-off value for IMD at 340.7 pg/mL. Cox regression analysis with cardiovascular risk variables and NT-proBNP showed that the risk of MACEs increased by a factor of 12.96 (95% CI, 3.26-49.42; P <0.001) with high IMD levels (at the cut-off value). IMD has potential as a prognostic biomarker for predicting MACEs in patients with NSTE-ACS. PMID:27100434

  15. Prognostic Value of Plasma Intermedin Level in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengyang; Shi, Lin; Han, Yalei; Zhao, Yuntao; Qi, Yongfen; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Intermedin (IMD), an autocrine/paracrine biologically active peptide, plays a critical role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Recent research has shown that high plasma levels of IMD are associated with poor outcomes for patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. However, the prognostic utility of IMD levels in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) has not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that the level of plasma IMD would have prognostic value in patients with NSTE-ACS. Plasma IMD was determined by radioimmunoassay in 132 NSTE-ACS patients on admission to hospital and 132 sex- and age-matched healthy-control subjects. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including death, heart failure, hospitalization, and acute myocardial infarction, were noted during follow-up. In total, 23 patients suffered MACEs during the follow-up period (mean 227 ± 118 days, range 2–421 days). Median IMD levels were higher in NSTE-ACS patients than control [320.0 (250.9/384.6) vs. 227.2 (179.7/286.9) pg/mL, P <0.001]. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for IMD and N-terminal pro-B-type brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) did not significantly differ (0.73 and 0.79, both P <0.001, respectively; P = 0.946). ROC curve analysis revealed a cut-off value for IMD at 340.7 pg/mL. Cox regression analysis with cardiovascular risk variables and NT-proBNP showed that the risk of MACEs increased by a factor of 12.96 (95% CI, 3.26–49.42; P <0.001) with high IMD levels (at the cut-off value). IMD has potential as a prognostic biomarker for predicting MACEs in patients with NSTE-ACS. PMID:27100434

  16. A Lead ANRIL Polymorphism Is Associated with Elevated CRP Levels in Periodontitis: A Pilot Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Teeuw, Wijnand J.; Laine, Marja L.; Bizzarro, Sergio; Loos, Bruno G.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a marker for systemic inflammation and a risk marker for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), and has also been associated with periodontitis. Inter-individual variation for hsCRP in periodontitis has been shown. ANRIL is the strongest genetic susceptibility locus for both periodontitis and ACVD, and it is speculated that genetic variation in ANRIL may modulate inflammatory processes. Therefore, we explored the possible association between hsCRP plasma levels and a leading ANRIL single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in periodontitis patients and controls. 171 healthy subjects with North European descent (115 periodontitis and 56 controls) were included in this case-control study. hsCRP levels were determined and subjects were genotyped for the leading ANRIL SNP rs1333048. In a multivariate analysis, periodontitis, female gender, increasing BMI and homozygosity for the major allele (AA-genotype) of rs1333048 were significantly associated with elevated hsCRP plasma levels (p = 0.012, p = 0.004, p = 0.007 and p = 0.003, respectively). Periodontitis patients with rs1333048 AA-genotype showed higher levels of hsCRP than those carrying the minor C allele (median: 4.5 mg/L vs. 1.6 mg/L, padjusted = 0.007). This study is the first to show that, in addition to gender and BMI, also a leading SNP in ANRIL is explanatory for inter-individual variation in hsCRP levels in periodontitis patients of North European descent. PMID:26348353

  17. A Lead ANRIL Polymorphism Is Associated with Elevated CRP Levels in Periodontitis: A Pilot Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Teeuw, Wijnand J; Laine, Marja L; Bizzarro, Sergio; Loos, Bruno G

    2015-01-01

    Elevated high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a marker for systemic inflammation and a risk marker for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), and has also been associated with periodontitis. Inter-individual variation for hsCRP in periodontitis has been shown. ANRIL is the strongest genetic susceptibility locus for both periodontitis and ACVD, and it is speculated that genetic variation in ANRIL may modulate inflammatory processes. Therefore, we explored the possible association between hsCRP plasma levels and a leading ANRIL single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in periodontitis patients and controls. 171 healthy subjects with North European descent (115 periodontitis and 56 controls) were included in this case-control study. hsCRP levels were determined and subjects were genotyped for the leading ANRIL SNP rs1333048. In a multivariate analysis, periodontitis, female gender, increasing BMI and homozygosity for the major allele (AA-genotype) of rs1333048 were significantly associated with elevated hsCRP plasma levels (p = 0.012, p = 0.004, p = 0.007 and p = 0.003, respectively). Periodontitis patients with rs1333048 AA-genotype showed higher levels of hsCRP than those carrying the minor C allele (median: 4.5 mg/L vs. 1.6 mg/L, padjusted = 0.007). This study is the first to show that, in addition to gender and BMI, also a leading SNP in ANRIL is explanatory for inter-individual variation in hsCRP levels in periodontitis patients of North European descent. PMID:26348353

  18. Low serum LDL cholesterol levels are associated with elevated mortality from liver cancer in Japan: the Ibaraki Prefectural health study.

    PubMed

    Saito, Nobue; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Irie, Fujiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Iimura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Muto, Takashi; Ota, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Liver cancer a global public health concern and well known for poor prognosis. The association between low total cholesterol level and liver cancer has been reported. However, the association between low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and liver cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between LDL cholesterol level and liver cancer mortality. A total of 16,217 persons (5,551 men and 10,666 women) aged 40-79 years in 1993 were followed until 2008. LDL cholesterol levels were divided into four categories (<80 mg/dl, 80-99 mg/dl, 100-119 mg/dl, and ≥120 mg/dl). Hazard ratio of LDL cholesterol level for liver cancer mortality was calculated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Covariates were age, sex, alanine transaminase, body mass index, alcohol intake and smoking status, all of which were correlated with LDL cholesterol levels. There were 51 deaths (32 men and 19 women) from liver cancer. Multivariable hazard ratios of liver cancer deaths for LDL cholesterol levels of <80 mg/dl was 4.33 (95% confident interval [CI]: 1.94, 9.68), for LDL cholesterol levels of 80-99 mg/dl was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.42, 2.53), and for LDL cholesterol levels of ≥120 mg/dl was 0.43 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.92) compared with LDL cholesterol levels of 100-199 mg/dl (p for trend<0.01). Therefore, low LDL cholesterol levels are associated with elevated risk of liver cancer mortality. Low LDL cholesterol may be a predictive marker for death due to liver cancer.

  19. Prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters for the treatment of very high triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Sadovsky, Richard; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2009-07-01

    Triglyceride (TG) levels can increase for numerous reasons, including a sedentary lifestyle, an unhealthy diet, especially one rich in refined carbohydrates, and comorbidities. According to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), the normal TG level is < 150 mg/dL. Patients with very high TG (VHTG) levels (> or = 500 mg/dL) should be promptly managed and treated to reach lipid treatment goals, as determined by the NCEP. Lowering TG levels is the primary management goal in these patients, while lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are secondary goals. Therapeutic lifestyle changes are often recommended initially for patients with elevated TGs; however, concomitant drug therapy is often required. Data show that intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can significantly decrease serum TGs, along with plasma concentrations of certain lipoproteins. Omega-3-acid ethyl esters are available by prescription or as dietary supplements. Clinical trials in adult patients with VHTGs show that four 1 g capsules of prescription omega-3 fatty acids, which contain 465 mg of EPA and 375 mg of DHA per capsule, can effectively decrease TG levels by up to 45%, and is generally well tolerated. PMID:19641280

  20. Elevated Urinary T Helper 1 Chemokine Levels in Newly Diagnosed Hypertensive Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Övünç Hacıhamdioğlu, Duygu; Zeybek, Cengiz; Gök, Faysal; Pekel, Aysel; Muşabak, Uğur

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Increasing evidence suggests that T helper (Th) cells play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of obesity and anti-hypertensive treatment on urinary Th1 chemokines. Methods: The study groups consisted of three types of patients: hypertensive obese, healthy, and non-hypertensive obese. Pre-treatment and post-treatment samples of the hypertensive obese group and one sample from the other two groups were evaluated for urinary chemokine: regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP10), and monokine induced by interferon-gamma (MIG). In the hypertensive obese group, urine microalbumin: creatinine ratio was examined before and after treatment. We recommended lifestyle changes to all patients. Captopril was started in those who could not be controlled with lifestyle changes and those who had stage 2 hypertension. Results: Twenty-four hypertensive obese (mean age 13.1), 27 healthy (mean age 11.2) and 22 non-hypertensive obese (mean age 11.5) children were investigated. The pre-treatment urine albumin: creatinine ratio was positively correlated with pre-treatment MIG levels (r=0.41, p<0.05). RANTES was significantly higher in the pre-treatment hypertensive and non-hypertensive obese group than in the controls. The urinary IP10 and MIG levels were higher in the pre-treatment hypertensive obese group than in the non-hypertensive obese. Comparison of the pre- and post-treatment values indicated significant decreases in RANTES, IP10, and MIG levels in the hypertensive obese group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Th1 cells could be activated in obese hypertensive children before the onset of clinical indicators of target organ damage. Urinary RANTES seemed to be affected by both hypertension and obesity, and urinary IP10 and MIG seemed to be affected predominantly by hypertension. PMID:26831550

  1. Serum Levels of Neurofilament-H are Elevated in Patients Suffering From Severe Burns.

    PubMed

    Gatson, Joshua W; Liu, Ming-Mei; Rivera-Chavez, Fernando A; Minei, Joseph P; Wolf, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, after injury, burn patients experienced an increase in neuro-inflammation, edema, and neuronal cell death. As demonstrated in other brain injury models, fluid-based biomarkers such as phosphorylated neurofilament-H (pNFL-H) have been shown to correlate with injury severity. In this study the authors hypothesized that burn-injured patients have an increase in pNFL-H in the blood during the acute and chronic time-points after injury. In this prospective clinical study, blood (8 cc) was collected from burn patients (n = 36; TBSA 10-60%) at Parkland hospital, Dallas, Texas, on days 1, 7, and 14 after injury. The serum levels of pNFL-H were measured using the enzyme-linked immunoassay. Compared to noninjured controls, the burn patients exhibited a significant increase in the serum levels of pNFL-H on days 7 (P < .0001) and 14 (P < .0001) after burn injury. No significant increase was observed on day 1 (P < .07) after injury. A positive correlation between TBSA and pNFL-H levels was observed for day 14 (r = .55; P < .03). Additionally, using the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the authors determined the area under the curve was 98% for both day 7 and 14. In conclusion, this study describes the serum profile of pNFL-H in patients suffering from severe burns during the acute (day 1) and chronic (days 7 and 14) time-points. These results suggest that detection of pNFL-H may be useful in determining which individuals suffer from nerve cell degeneration after burn.

  2. [Therapeutic and clinical implications of elevated levels of vitamin B12].

    PubMed

    Rochat, M Cosma; Vollenweider, P; Waeber, G

    2012-10-31

    In general practice, vitamin B12 levels are measured when searching an origin for an anemic status (usually megaloblastic anemia), for various neurological disorders (usually polyneuropathy) or for neurocognitive disorders. Although the pathologies associated with vitamin B12 deficiency are well known, hypervitaminemic B12 status is often fortuitous and frequent finding. The aim of this article is to present the disease entities associated with hypervitaminemia B12, the clinical implications of this dysvitaminosis and a practical approach when this laboratory abnormality is found. PMID:23185929

  3. Diver with decompression injury, elevation of serum transaminase levels, and rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Shank, E S; Muth, C M

    2001-05-01

    A 43-year-old female recreational scuba diver presented to the emergency department 1 hour after a rapid, uncontrolled ascent. Her presentation included progressing confusion, slow and slurred speech, and complaints of headache and hypesthesia over her forearms and anterior thighs bilaterally. Differential diagnosis included arterial gas embolism and decompression sickness. She underwent recompression therapy with US Navy Table 6 within 120 minutes of her ascent. After recompression therapy, the patient had signs and symptoms consistent with severe rhabdomyolysis, including creatine kinase levels of 36,000 U/L and myoglobinuria.

  4. Proteins altered by elevated levels of palmitate or glucose implicated in impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Sol, E-ri M; Hovsepyan, Meri; Bergsten, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by aberrant insulin secretory patterns, where elevated insulin levels at non-stimulatory basal conditions and reduced hormonal levels at stimulatory conditions are major components. To delineate mechanisms responsible for these alterations we cultured INS-1E cells for 48 hours at 20 mM glucose in absence or presence of 0.5 mM palmitate, when stimulatory secretion of insulin was reduced or basal secretion was elevated, respectively. Results After culture, cells were protein profiled by SELDI-TOF-MS and 2D-PAGE. Differentially expressed proteins were discovered and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Complimentary protein profiles were obtained by the two approaches with SELDI-TOF-MS being more efficient in separating proteins in the low molecular range and 2D-PAGE in the high molecular range. Identified proteins included alpha glucosidase, calmodulin, gars, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3, lon peptidase, nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, proteasome p45, rab2, pyruvate kinase and t-complex protein. The observed glucose-induced differential protein expression pattern indicates enhanced glucose metabolism, defense against reactive oxygen species, enhanced protein translation, folding and degradation and decreased insulin granular formation and trafficking. Palmitate-induced changes could be related to altered exocytosis. Conclusion The identified altered proteins indicate mechanism important for altered β-cell function in T2DM. PMID:19607692

  5. Statins in the treatment of dyslipidemia in the presence of elevated liver aminotransferase levels: a therapeutic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Rossana M; Cubeddu, Luigi X; Goldberg, Ronald B; Schiff, Eugene R

    2010-04-01

    The beneficial role of statins in primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease has resulted in their frequent use in clinical practice. However, safety concerns, especially regarding hepatotoxicity, have driven multiple trials, which have demonstrated the low incidence of statin-related hepatic adverse effects. The most commonly reported hepatic adverse effect is the phenomenon known as transaminitis, in which liver enzyme levels are elevated in the absence of proven hepatotoxicity. This class effect is usually asymptomatic, reversible, and dose-related. However, the increasing incidence of chronic liver diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatitis C, has created a new challenge when initiating statin treatment in patients with high cardiovascular risk. These diseases result in abnormally high liver biochemistry values, discouraging statin use by clinicians, fostering treatment discontinuation, and leaving a large number of at-risk patients untreated. A PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature regarding statin safety (January 1, 1994-December 31, 2008) was performed, using the following search terms: statin safety, statin-related hepatotoxicity, and chronic liver disease and statin use, as well as the specific names of different statins and different liver diseases. Relevant clinical trials, review articles, panel discussions, and guideline recommendations were selected. This review supports the use of statin treatment in patients with high cardiovascular risk whose elevated aminotransferase levels have no clinical relevance or are attributable to known stable chronic liver conditions. For each patient, the decision should be based on an individual assessment of risks and benefits. PMID:20360293

  6. Elevated blood lead levels among children living in a fishing community, Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hozhabri, Siroos; White, Franklin; Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Luby, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Lead is a widespread environmental contaminant worldwide and is associated with adverse outcomes in children, including impaired neurobehavioral development and learning difficulties. A cross-sectional survey of 53 young children was conducted in a fishing village on an island adjacent to Karachi, Pakistan. Whole blood from each individual was tested for lead levels. Also tested were samples of cooked food, house dust, and drinking water from 36 households. Laboratory determinations were made by the Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research with quality control by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fifty-two subjects (98%) had blood lead levels above 10 microg/dl (mean 21.60 microg/dl), an internationally recognized threshold for potential neurotoxicity. The mean concentration was 3.90 microg/g in cooked food, 4.02 microg/l in drinking water, and 91.30 microg/g in house dust. These findings indicate possible major health concerns and suggest significant environmental contamination in this community as well as the need to identify locally relevant early childhood exposures.

  7. Evidence that monochloramine disinfectant could lead to elevated Pb levels in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Jay A; Rajasekharan, Vishnu V; Boonsalee, Sansanee; Kulp, Elizabeth A; Bohannan, Eric W

    2006-05-15

    Many water districts have recently shifted from free chlorine (in the form of HOCl/OCl-) to monochloramine (NH2-Cl) as a disinfectant for drinking water to lower the concentration of chlorinated hydrocarbon byproducts in the water. There is concern that the use of NH2Cl disinfectant may lead to higher Pb levels in drinking water. In this study, the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance is used to compare the effects of these two disinfectants on the dissolution of Pb films. A 0.5 microm thick Pb film nearly completely dissolves in a NH2Cl solution, but it is passivated in a HOCl/OCl- solution. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the NH2Cl oxidizes Pb to Pb(II) species such as Pb3-(OH)2(CO3)2, whereas the stronger oxidant, HOCl/OCl-, oxidizes Pb to Pb(IV) as an insoluble PbO2 conversion coating. Although NH2Cl may produce less halogenated organic byproducts than HOCl/OCl- when used as a disinfectant, it may lead to increased Pb levels in drinking water.

  8. Elevated blood lead levels among adults in Massachusetts, 1991-1995.

    PubMed Central

    Tumpowsky, C M; Davis, L K; Rabin, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lead poisoning, the oldest recognized occupational disease, remains a danger for children and adults. Data collected for 664 cases reported to the Massachusetts Occupational Lead Registry in 1991-1995 were summarized in a 1998 state report. Here, the authors present some of the key findings from that report for a wider audience. METHODS: The authors summarize key findings of the 1998 state report. FINDINGS: Construction workers, in particular licensed deleaders and house painters, accounted for almost 70% of occupational cases involving blood lead levels > or = 40 micrograms of lead per deciliter (mcg/dl) of blood. Among 100 workers with the highest blood lead levels (> or = 60 mcg/dl), 29% were house painters. Hispanic workers were over-represented in the Registry. A small proportion of cases were non-occupational, typically associated with recreational use of firing ranges or do-it-yourself home renovations. CONCLUSION: Lead poisoning is a preventable disease, yet these data indicate that additional prevention efforts are warranted. PMID:11059431

  9. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity. PMID:27010803

  10. Elevated PCDD/F levels and distinctive PCDD/F congener profiles in free range eggs.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jing-Fang; Chen, Chun; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2010-07-14

    Chicken eggs are one of the most important foods in the human diet all over the world, and the demand for eggs from free range hens has steadily increased. Congener-specific analyses of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were performed on 6 free range and 12 caged chicken egg samples collected in Taiwan. The mean level of PCDD/Fs in the free range egg samples was 5.7 (1.79/0.314) times higher than those in the caged egg samples. Principle component analysis revealed that at least three characteristic patterns of PCDD/F congener were observed among the 18 egg samples. The different PCDD/F congener patterns between free range and caged egg samples may reflect distinctive exposure scenarios among the free range and caged hens. We suggest that the differences of PCDD/F levels and congener patterns between free range and caged egg samples give rise to the issues related to the safety of eating free range chicken eggs. The present data may provide useful information for further investigation of the possible PCDD/F sources in the contaminated free range eggs.

  11. Elevated serum levels of neopterin in adult patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Samsonov, M Y; Nassonov, E L; Tilz, G P; Geht, B M; Demel, U; Gurkina, G T; Shtutman, V Z; Guseva, A G; Wachter, H; Fuchs, D

    1997-06-01

    We determined serum concentrations of neopterin, soluble tumour necrosis factor (55 kDa) receptor (sTNF-R) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) in plasma of 44 patients with polymyositis (PM)/dermatomyositis (DM), including 15 patients with primary PM, 13 patients with primary DM, and 16 patients with myositis and systemic sclerosis in overlap. Concentrations of neopterin, sTNF-R and sIL-2R were measured using commercially available immunoassays. Serum neopterin was increased in 35 of 44 PM/DM patients (80%), sTNF-R in 14 (32%) and sIL-2R in 18 (41%) patients, respectively. There were significant correlations between serum neopterin and sTNF-R, sIL-2R and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (all P < 0.001). Neopterin, as well as sTNF-R and sIL-2R, did not correlate with clinical (neuromuscular and activities of daily living scores) and laboratory (creatine kinase levels) manifestations of myositis. Increased serum levels of neopterin were associated with non-muscular manifestations of PM/DM. In conclusion, serum neopterin appears to be a useful laboratory marker for ongoing immune activation and global disease activity in PM/DM.

  12. Retroviral vectors elevate coexpressed protein levels in trans through cap-dependent translation

    PubMed Central

    Gou, Yongqiang; Byun, Hyewon; Zook, Adam E.; B. Singh, Gurvani; Nash, Andrea K.; Lozano, Mary M.; Dudley, Jaquelin P.

    2015-01-01

    Retroviruses cause immunodeficiency and cancer but also are used as vectors for the expression of heterologous genes. Nevertheless, optimal translation of introduced genes often is not achieved. Here we show that transfection into mammalian cells of lentiviral or gammaretroviral vectors, including those with specific shRNAs, increased expression of a cotransfected gene relative to standard plasmid vectors. Levels of most endogenous cellular proteins were unchanged. Transfer of lentiviral vector sequences into a standard plasmid conferred the ability to give increased expression of cotransfected genes (superinduction). Superinduction by the retroviral vector was not dependent on the cell type or species, the type of reporter gene, or the method of transfection. No differences were detected in the IFN, unfolded protein, or stress responses in the presence of retroviral vectors. RT-PCRs revealed that RNA levels of cotransfected genes were unchanged during superinduction, yet Western blotting, pulse labeling, and the use of bicistronic vectors showed increased cap-dependent translation of cointroduced genes. Expression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase target 4E-BP1, but not the mTOR inhibitor Torin 1, preferentially inhibited superinduction relative to basal protein expression. Furthermore, transcription of lentiviral vector sequences from a doxycycline-inducible promoter eliminated superinduction, consistent with a DNA-triggered event. Thus, retroviral DNA increased translation of cointroduced genes in trans by an mTOR-independent signaling mechanism. Our experiments have broad applications for the design of retroviral vectors for transfections, DNA vaccines, and gene therapy. PMID:25737543

  13. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-03-11

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2-85.0) and 46.6 (36.5-60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring's consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children's BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children's BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure.

  14. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity.

  15. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0) and 46.6 (36.5–60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure. PMID:26978384

  16. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity. PMID:27010803

  17. Geochemical and γ ray characterization of Pennsylvanian black shales: Implications for elevated home radon levels in Vanderburgh County, Indiana.

    PubMed

    Scheller, Kent W; Elliott, William S

    2015-10-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) is a radioactive gas that results from the decay of uranium ((238)U) in the Earth's crust. This study characterizes the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in the Pennsylvanian black shales of southwest Indiana. Cores were drilled on the campus of the University of Southern Indiana to a depth of 237.7 m (780 ft) during exploration for coal-bed methane. Gamma ray logs were taken to measure radioactive activity as a function of depth in the bore hole. Activity readings of 270, 467, 555, and 388 GAPI (American Petroleum Institute γ ray units) were measured at depths of 124.3 m (408 ft), 154.0 m (505 ft), 187.1 m (614 ft) and 214.0 m (702 ft) in four separate shale layers of the Pennsylvanian stratigraphic column. GAPI units are used in the petroleum industry when drilling to represent the relative intensities of γ radiation from (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U in bore holes (Belknap et al., 1959). For purposes of this study, the high activity readings on the gamma ray logs were used only to identify at which depths further gamma ray spectroscopy of the cores would be completed in the laboratory. Gamma ray spectroscopic studies of these cores were conducted with a large volume NaI crystal detector to observe γ rays of specific energies. Characteristic γ rays from various isotopes were identified confirming the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in core samples. Geochemical analysis of cores was also conducted to measure presence and quantity of trace metals and radon precursors. Of 744 homes tested in Vanderburgh County from 2007 to 2013, 169 homes (22.7 percent) had elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L(-1) (4.0 pCi L(-1)). Additionally, 246 homes (33.1 percent) had measured radon levels of 74-145 mBq L(-1) (2.0-3.9 pCi L(-1)). About 80 percent of elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L(-1) (4.0 pCi L(-1)) are located in proximity to depositional contacts between the Dugger and Shelburn formations, or the

  18. Geochemical and γ ray characterization of Pennsylvanian black shales: Implications for elevated home radon levels in Vanderburgh County, Indiana.

    PubMed

    Scheller, Kent W; Elliott, William S

    2015-10-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) is a radioactive gas that results from the decay of uranium ((238)U) in the Earth's crust. This study characterizes the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in the Pennsylvanian black shales of southwest Indiana. Cores were drilled on the campus of the University of Southern Indiana to a depth of 237.7 m (780 ft) during exploration for coal-bed methane. Gamma ray logs were taken to measure radioactive activity as a function of depth in the bore hole. Activity readings of 270, 467, 555, and 388 GAPI (American Petroleum Institute γ ray units) were measured at depths of 124.3 m (408 ft), 154.0 m (505 ft), 187.1 m (614 ft) and 214.0 m (702 ft) in four separate shale layers of the Pennsylvanian stratigraphic column. GAPI units are used in the petroleum industry when drilling to represent the relative intensities of γ radiation from (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U in bore holes (Belknap et al., 1959). For purposes of this study, the high activity readings on the gamma ray logs were used only to identify at which depths further gamma ray spectroscopy of the cores would be completed in the laboratory. Gamma ray spectroscopic studies of these cores were conducted with a large volume NaI crystal detector to observe γ rays of specific energies. Characteristic γ rays from various isotopes were identified confirming the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in core samples. Geochemical analysis of cores was also conducted to measure presence and quantity of trace metals and radon precursors. Of 744 homes tested in Vanderburgh County from 2007 to 2013, 169 homes (22.7 percent) had elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L(-1) (4.0 pCi L(-1)). Additionally, 246 homes (33.1 percent) had measured radon levels of 74-145 mBq L(-1) (2.0-3.9 pCi L(-1)). About 80 percent of elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L(-1) (4.0 pCi L(-1)) are located in proximity to depositional contacts between the Dugger and Shelburn formations, or the

  19. Elevation of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity Induced by Amplified Insulin Response in Low Glutathione Levels in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Misako; Mori, Nobuko; Iramina, Chizuru

    2016-01-01

    Weanling male Wistar rats were fed on a 10% soybean protein isolate (SPI) diet for 3 weeks with or without supplementing 0.3% sulfur-containing amino acids (SAA; methionine or cystine) to examine relationship between glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of NADPH-producing enzymes, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (ME), in the liver. Of rats on the 10% SPI diet, GSH levels were lower and the enzyme activities were higher than of those fed on an SAA-supplemented diet. Despite the lower GSH level, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) activity was higher in the 10% SPI group than other groups. Examination of mRNAs of G6PD and ME suggested that the GSH-suppressing effect on enzyme induction occurred prior to and/or at transcriptional levels. Gel electrophoresis of G6PD indicated that low GSH status caused a decrease in reduced form and an increase in oxidized form of the enzyme, suggesting an accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme. In primary cultured hepatocytes, insulin response to induce G6PD activity was augmented in low GSH levels manipulated in the presence of buthionine sulfoximine. These findings indicated that elevation of the G6PD activity in low GSH levels was caused by amplified insulin response for expression of the enzyme and accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme molecule. PMID:27597985

  20. Elevation of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity Induced by Amplified Insulin Response in Low Glutathione Levels in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Misako; Mori, Nobuko; Iramina, Chizuru

    2016-01-01

    Weanling male Wistar rats were fed on a 10% soybean protein isolate (SPI) diet for 3 weeks with or without supplementing 0.3% sulfur-containing amino acids (SAA; methionine or cystine) to examine relationship between glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of NADPH-producing enzymes, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (ME), in the liver. Of rats on the 10% SPI diet, GSH levels were lower and the enzyme activities were higher than of those fed on an SAA-supplemented diet. Despite the lower GSH level, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) activity was higher in the 10% SPI group than other groups. Examination of mRNAs of G6PD and ME suggested that the GSH-suppressing effect on enzyme induction occurred prior to and/or at transcriptional levels. Gel electrophoresis of G6PD indicated that low GSH status caused a decrease in reduced form and an increase in oxidized form of the enzyme, suggesting an accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme. In primary cultured hepatocytes, insulin response to induce G6PD activity was augmented in low GSH levels manipulated in the presence of buthionine sulfoximine. These findings indicated that elevation of the G6PD activity in low GSH levels was caused by amplified insulin response for expression of the enzyme and accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme molecule.

  1. The impact of low technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Aschengrau, A.; Hardy, S.; Mackey, P.; Pultinas, D.

    1998-10-01

    This prospective environmental intervention study was conducted to determine the impact of low-technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. Children whose homes had severe lead hazards were automatically assigned to the intervention group. Children whose homes had lesser hazards were randomly assigned to the intervention group or comparison group. The one-time intervention focused mainly on cleaning and repainting window areas and educating caregivers to maintain effective housekeeping techniques. Changes in blood lead and dust lead loading levels were observed following the interventions. Analysis of covariance was used to adjust comparisons of postintervention levels for preintervention levels and other variables. The lead hazard reduction activities were associated with a modest decline in blood lead levels among children with severe hazards. The magnitude of the decline depended on the confounder that was controlled; the majority ranged from {minus}1.1 to {minus}1.6 {micro}g/dL. A moderate reduction in window well dust lead loading levels was also observed. While low-technology lead hazard reduction measures appeared to be an effective secondary prevention strategy among children with severe household lead hazards, larger studies are needed to confirm these results.

  2. Elevation of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity Induced by Amplified Insulin Response in Low Glutathione Levels in Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Misako; Mori, Nobuko; Iramina, Chizuru; Yasutake, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Weanling male Wistar rats were fed on a 10% soybean protein isolate (SPI) diet for 3 weeks with or without supplementing 0.3% sulfur-containing amino acids (SAA; methionine or cystine) to examine relationship between glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of NADPH-producing enzymes, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (ME), in the liver. Of rats on the 10% SPI diet, GSH levels were lower and the enzyme activities were higher than of those fed on an SAA-supplemented diet. Despite the lower GSH level, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) activity was higher in the 10% SPI group than other groups. Examination of mRNAs of G6PD and ME suggested that the GSH-suppressing effect on enzyme induction occurred prior to and/or at transcriptional levels. Gel electrophoresis of G6PD indicated that low GSH status caused a decrease in reduced form and an increase in oxidized form of the enzyme, suggesting an accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme. In primary cultured hepatocytes, insulin response to induce G6PD activity was augmented in low GSH levels manipulated in the presence of buthionine sulfoximine. These findings indicated that elevation of the G6PD activity in low GSH levels was caused by amplified insulin response for expression of the enzyme and accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme molecule. PMID:27597985

  3. Elevated lead levels and adverse effects on natural killer cells in children from an electronic waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Huo, Xia; Cao, Junjun; Yang, Tian; Xu, Long; Xu, Xijin

    2016-06-01

    Lead (Pb) has been proved to exert immunotoxicity to influence immune homeostasis in humans. To monitor the internal Pb level and evaluate its effect on natural killer (NK) cells and cytokine/chemokine concentrations, we recruited 285 preschool children from Guiyu, one of the largest electronic waste (e-waste) destinations and recycling areas in the world, and known to have high concentrations of Pb in the air, soil, water, sediment and plants. A total of 126 preschool children were selected from Haojiang as a reference group. Results showed that children in Guiyu, the exposed area, had higher blood Pb levels and lower percentages of NK cells than children from the reference area. A significantly negative association was found between the percentage of NK cells and increasing Pb levels. Moreover, children in Guiyu area had higher platelet counts and IL-1β concentrations, and lower levels of IL-2, IL-27, MIP-1α and MIP-1β were observed in the exposed children. These changes might not be conducive to the development and differentiation of NK cells. Taken together, the elevated Pb levels result in the lower percentages of NK cells, but also alter the levels of platelets, IL-1β and IL-27, which might be unconducive to the activity and function of NK cells.

  4. Elevated lead levels and adverse effects on natural killer cells in children from an electronic waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Huo, Xia; Cao, Junjun; Yang, Tian; Xu, Long; Xu, Xijin

    2016-06-01

    Lead (Pb) has been proved to exert immunotoxicity to influence immune homeostasis in humans. To monitor the internal Pb level and evaluate its effect on natural killer (NK) cells and cytokine/chemokine concentrations, we recruited 285 preschool children from Guiyu, one of the largest electronic waste (e-waste) destinations and recycling areas in the world, and known to have high concentrations of Pb in the air, soil, water, sediment and plants. A total of 126 preschool children were selected from Haojiang as a reference group. Results showed that children in Guiyu, the exposed area, had higher blood Pb levels and lower percentages of NK cells than children from the reference area. A significantly negative association was found between the percentage of NK cells and increasing Pb levels. Moreover, children in Guiyu area had higher platelet counts and IL-1β concentrations, and lower levels of IL-2, IL-27, MIP-1α and MIP-1β were observed in the exposed children. These changes might not be conducive to the development and differentiation of NK cells. Taken together, the elevated Pb levels result in the lower percentages of NK cells, but also alter the levels of platelets, IL-1β and IL-27, which might be unconducive to the activity and function of NK cells. PMID:26895538

  5. Elevated levels of GABA+ in migraine detected using (1) H-MRS.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Maria-Eliza R; Lagopoulos, Jim; Leaver, Andrew M; Rebbeck, Trudy; Hübscher, Markus; Brennan, Patrick C; Refshauge, Kathryn M

    2015-07-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been implicated in several pain conditions, yet no study has systematically evaluated GABA levels in migraine using (1) H-MRS. The accurate detection, separation and quantification of GABA in individuals with migraine could elucidate the role of this neurotransmitter in migraine pathophysiology. Such information may eventually be useful in the diagnosis and development of more effective treatments for migraine. The aims of this study were therefore to compare the concentration of GABA+ in individuals with migraine with that in asymptomatic individuals, and to determine the diagnostic potential of GABA+ in the classification of those with or without migraine. In this case-control study, GABA+ levels in the brain were determined in 19 participants with migraine and 19 matched controls by (1) H-MRS using Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy (MEGA-PRESS) sequence. The diagnostic accuracy of GABA+ for the detection of migraine and the optimal cut-off value were determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. GABA+ levels were significantly higher (p = 0.002) in those with migraine [median, 1.41 institutional units (IU); interquartile range, 1.31-1.50 IU] than in controls (median, 1.18 IU; interquartile range, 1.12-1.35 IU). The GABA+ concentration appears to have good accuracy for the classification of individuals with or without migraine [area under the curve (95% confidence interval), 0.837 (0.71-0.96); p < 0.001]. The optimal GABA+ cut-off value for migraine was 1.30 IU, with a sensitivity of 84.2%, specificity of 68.4% and positive likelihood ratio of +2.67. The outcomes of this study suggest altered GABA metabolism in migraine. These results add to the scarce evidence on the putative role of GABA in migraine and provide a basis to further explore the causal relationship between GABA+ and the pathophysiology of migraine. This study also demonstrates that GABA+ concentration has good diagnostic accuracy for migraine

  6. Elevated levels of radium-226 and radium-228 in marine sediments of the Norwegian Trench ("Norskrenna") and Skagerrak.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, M; Lepland, Aivo

    2012-10-01

    Oil and gas extraction activities discharge waters bearing radium isotopes which may potentially be transported to locations distant from the discharge point. Sediment cores from the Norwegian Trench and Skagerrak, potential sinks for North Sea discharges, were analyzed for the contents of these isotopes. All cores were such that data could be obtained from periods prior to and during extensive operations in the North Sea. Results indicate elevated levels of radium isotopes in upper sedimentary layers when compared to data for the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. Although diagenetic processes involving manganese cycling may be responsible for these enrichments, the data support previous work indicating a possible influence of North Sea discharges on sediments of the area. The results highlight the need for further work on elaborating background levels of these isotopes in the North Sea and related areas such that possible impacts of these discharges can be properly evaluated.

  7. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  8. Elevated repetitive behaviors are associated with lower diurnal salivary cortisol levels in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Gabriels, Robin L; Agnew, John A; Pan, Zhaoxing; Holt, Katherine D; Reynolds, Ann; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2013-05-01

    Previously, we reported a subgroup of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) had consistently high rates of repetitive behaviors (RBs) with abnormal sensory sensitivity. Given evidence of lower cortisol levels in response to stress and associated sensory sensitivity in the ASD population, this pilot study evaluates whether the presence of RBs reflects an underlying pathophysiology related to cortisol regulation. Diurnal salivary cortisol from 21 children with ASD and high versus low occurrence RBs were collected at four time points over three consecutive days. Although a typical decline in salivary cortisol was observed, participants in the high RB group showed 36% lower diurnal salivary cortisol than the low RB group. Age, IQ, RB type, and sleep quality were unrelated to observed differences. These findings suggest that RBs may serve to mitigate distress or that the glucocorticoid system has been down regulated in association with prolonged distress in this sample population.

  9. Enhanced epithelial proliferation due to elevated levels of interleukin-1 receptors in middle ear cholesteatomas.

    PubMed

    Bujia, J; Kim, C; Ostos-Aumente, P; Lopez-Villarejo, J; Kastenbauer, E

    1997-01-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma epithelium is a rich source of interleukin-1-alpha (IL-1-alpha), being involved in both keratinocyte hyperproliferation and bone destruction. IL-1-alpha exerts its effects by binding to two distinct IL-1 receptors (IL-1-R). In this study, we have examined the expression of IL-1-R type II (IL-1-R-II) in cholesteatoma samples and have quantified these levels with computer-assisted image analysis. Normal aural skin was used as control. Immunostaining demonstrated the presence of IL-1-R-II in both epidermis and cholesteatoma keratinocytes. The receptors were 3 times higher than those in normal epidermis. The presence of IL-1-alpha in cholesteatoma epithelium coupled with the induced expression of IL-1-R-II indicates the existence of a highly regulated system of autocrine stimulation of cholesteatoma keratinocytes by IL-1.

  10. Elevated fat skatole levels in immunocastrated, surgically castrated and entire male pigs with acute dysentery.

    PubMed

    Skrlep, Martin; Batorek, Nina; Bonneau, Michel; Fazarinc, Gregor; Segula, Blaž; Candek-Potokar, Marjeta

    2012-12-01

    Boar taint is due to androstenone and skatole (3-methyl-indole) accumulation in fat tissues. During a study to investigate the effect of immunocastration on fattening pigs, an outbreak of acute dysentery occurred caused by Lawsonia intracellularis and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and resulted in cachexia and high mortality. Low androstenone levels in the immunocastrates (0.25 ± 0.04 μg/g liquid fat) suggested that the immunocastration had been effective, but unusually high skatole concentrations in fat tissues were found not only in entire males, but also in surgical castrates and immunocastrates (0.22 ± 0.15, 0.14 ± 0.08 and 0.18 ± 0.14 μg/g liquid fat, respectively). The findings suggest that boar taint can arise in cases of intestinal infections, even in castrated pigs.

  11. [A retroperitoneal cyst with elevated level of CA19-9 in its content].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, M; Furugen, N; Suzuki, H; Kawaguchi, Y; Ohishi, Y

    1995-10-01

    A 52-year-old man, who had been treated for left mega-hydronephrosis (5.6L) 25 years ago in our hospital, recently complained of left lumbago and fever. An abdominal CT scan revealed a cystic mass partially surrounded by calcification in the retroperitoneal space, which appeared to be a hydronephrosis. Percutaneous puncture of the cystic mass was performed and 670 ml, brownish-yellow purulent fluid containing a high level of CA19-9 (over 10,000 U/ml) was obtained. Cytologic diagnosis of the fluid revealed class II cells. Within 7 months after the puncture, recurrence developed twice. Percutaneous instillation of 95% ethanol or Minocycline hydrochloride was instilled, but neither of them prevented recurrence. Ultimately, excision of the cystic mass was performed. Histopathological findings of the cystic mass showed no evidence of malignancy. The patient is follow-up with periodic CT scan showed no evidence of recurrence for more than 3 years.

  12. Elevated Systemic Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Older Women with Persistent Cervical HPV Infection1234

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Troy J.; Hildesheim, Allan; García-Piñeres, Alfonso; Williams, Marcus C.; Shearer, Gene M.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Burk, Robert; Freer, Enrique; Bonilla, Jose; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Defects in lymphoproliferative responses to mitogen/antigens in women >45 years old ith a persistent type-specific HPV infection have been reported. Methods To determine whether these defects were associated with altered cytokine profiles, plasma and PBMC culture supernatants from 50 cases (persistent HPV infection and weak lymphoproliferative responses) and 50 uninfected controls were examined for 24 cytokines using multiplexed bead-based immunoassays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The following plasma cytokines were significantly increased from cases relative to controls: (cases vs. controls (median pg/ml); IL-6: 393.1 vs. 14.5, IL-8: 1128.5 vs. 43.9, TNF-α: 164.1 vs. 9.2, MIP-1α: 1368.9 vs. 25.5, GM-CSF: 13.8 vs. 7.3, IL-1β: 8.3 vs. 1.6, all p<0.0001, and IL-1α: 218.2 vs. 169.5, p=0.02). We focused our analysis on the following cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and MIP-1α due to high fold change (>10) and highly statistically significant difference between cases and controls. Moreover, length of persistence or type of infection (high risk and low risk) did not affect these differences. IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α levels were increased in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants from cases compared to controls (p <0.05), except for IL-8 (p=0.09). However, the cytokine levels from PHA-stimulated PBMC culture supernatants were significantly lower in the cases (p<0.0001). Conclusions Persistent HPV infection in older women with evidence of immune deficit is associated with an increase in systemic inflammatory cytokines. Impact Future studies are needed to determine whether the inflammatory profile is age dependent and to examine the role inflammatory cytokines play in HPV-induced progression from infection to cervical cancer. PMID:20647411

  13. Adult granulosa cell tumor presenting with massive ascites, elevated CA-125 level, and low 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tak, Ji Young; Park, Ji Y.; Lee, Seung Jeong; Lee, Yoon Hee; Hong, Dae Gy

    2015-01-01

    Adult granulosa cell tumors (AGCTs) presenting with massive ascites and elevated serum CA-125 levels have rarely been described in the literature. An ovarian mass, massive ascites, and elevated serum CA-125 levels in postmenopausal women generally suggest a malignant ovarian tumor, particularly advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. AGCT has low 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography due to its low metabolic activity. In the present report, we describe a case of an AGCT with massive ascites, elevated serum CA-125 level, and low 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography. PMID:26430671

  14. Modified triglyceride oil through reactions with phenyltriazolinedione

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of a modified triglyceride oil was achieved through the reactions with 4-phenyl-1,2-4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD). 1H NMR was used for structure determination and to monitor the reactions. Several reaction products were produced, and their relative yields depended on the stoichiometry ...

  15. Polymerization of epoxidized triglycerides with fluorosulfonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of triglycerides as agri-based renewable raw materials for the development of new products is highly desirable in view of uncertain future petroleum prices. A new method of polymerizing epoxidized soybean oil has been devised with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the reaction con...

  16. Elevated urinary D-lactate levels in patients with diabetes and microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chu-Kuang; Lee, Ya-Ting; Chen, Shih-Ming; Hsieh, Chi-Wen; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Li, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Jen-Ai

    2015-12-10

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become the major cause of end-stage renal disease. Early detection of disease risk, to enable intervention before advanced renal damage occurs, is an important goal. Microalbuminuria has been used to monitor renal damage in clinical settings for years. In this study, we divided patients with diabetes into different groups based on their microalbumin values to elucidate the relationship between urinary D-lactate and corresponding microalbumin values. Group DM1 comprised of patients with an albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) of less than 30 μg albumin/mg creatinine (normal range); Group DM2 comprised of patients with an ACR of 30-299 μg albumin/mg creatinine (microalbuminuria); and Group DM3 comprised of patients with an ACR of ≥300 μg albumin/mg creatinine (macroalbuminuria). The urinary D-lactate concentration of patients with diabetes was determined by pre-column fluorescence derivatization with 4-nitro-7-piperazino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-PZ), and the accuracy (recovery) and precision (relative standard deviation; RSD) were validated. The measured values showed an accuracy that was in the acceptable range (91.59-112.96%), with an RSD in the range of 3.13-13.21%. The urinary D-lactate levels of the 3 diabetic groups (groups DM1, DM2, and DM3) were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects (78.31 ± 22.13, 92.47 ± 21.98, and 47.29 ± 17.51 vs. 6.28 ± 2.39 nmol/mg creatinine, respectively; p<0.05), with urinary D-lactate levels in the DM2 group being the highest. This modified fluorescence-based, high-performance liquid chromatography method to quantify D-lactate concentrations in the urine of patients with diabetes was established. Also, measuring the new risk marker identified in this study (D-lactate) in combination with microalbumin may facilitate the prevention of DN. PMID:26166004

  17. Predictors of thromboxane levels in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes on chronic aspirin therapy.

    PubMed

    Niccoli, Giampaolo; Giubilato, Simona; Leo, Andrea; Cosentino, Nicola; Fracassi, Francesco; Cataneo, Leonardo; Porto, Italo; Leone, Antonio Maria; Burzotta, Francesco; Trani, Carlo; Biasucci, Luigi Marzio; Narducci, Maria Lucia; Pulcinelli, Fabio Maria; Crea, Filippo

    2012-07-01

    High levels of thromboxane A2 (TxA2), a key mediator of platelet activation and aggregation, are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. We aimed at assessing the predictors of higher plasma levels of TxB2, the stable metabolite of TxA2, in consecutive patients presenting with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) on previous aspirin (ASA) treatment undergoing coronary angiography. Ninety-eight consecutive patients (age 61 ± 11, 75% males) with NSTE-ACS, on previous chronic ASA treatment, were prospectively enrolled in this study. Coronary disease extent was assessed by angiography according to the Bogaty score. In all patients, admission plasma levels of TxB2 (pg/ml) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and patients showing TxB2 levels in the fourth quartile were compared to patients showing TxB2 levels in the lower quartiles. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that platelet count (odds ratio [OR] 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.63, p=0.04), multivessel coronary disease (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.13-3.67, p=0.03), and coronary atherosclerosis extent index (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.45-6.79, p=0.001) were independent predictors of TxB2 level upper quartile. Of note, C-reactive protein serum levels were similar in patients with TxB2 levels in the upper quartile as compared to those in the lower quartiles (p=0.49). In conclusion, NSTE-ACS patients with severe coronary atherosclerosis may have incomplete suppression of TxA2 production despite chronic ASA therapy. This finding suggests that additional efforts should be made to lower TxA2 levels in patients with widespread coronary artery disease. PMID:22535468

  18. Antiherbivore defense mutualism under elevated carbon dioxide level: A fungal endophyte and grass

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.; Lincoln, D.E.

    1996-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that insects commonly consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO{sub 2} enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. However, lepidoteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which product toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but also suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to understand how these 2 factors may interact to affect larval consumption and growth in fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb., were grown under CO{sub 2} concentrations, but was not influenced by infection. As expected, larvae had significantly reduced efficiency of conversion of ingested food. These 2 factors also interacted so that the lowest efficiency of conversion of ingested food was seen when both infection and an enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} environment were present. As global atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels continue to increase, it appears that fungal endophytes will continue to be important in turfgrasses as protection against insect herbivores and may lead to increased fitness for infected plant genotypes. 47 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. An anti-herbivore defense mutualism under elevated CO2 levels

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.; Lincoln, D.E. )

    1994-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that insects typically consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO2 enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. On the other hand, Lepidopteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which produce toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to see how these two factors would interact to affect consumption and growth of Fall Armyworm larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were grown under CO2 concentrations of 400 and 700 ul/L. Larvae had increased relative growth in the high CO2 treatment, but decreased growth when fed infected tissue. Relative consumption of leaf tissue was greater in the high CO2 treatment, but was not effected by infection. CO2 level, infection, and their interaction all significantly reduced the efficiency of conversion of food ingested (ECI). It appears that tall fescue may not be as well defended against herbivores under CO2 enrichment, although insects may still avoid and be negatively effected by endophyte infected plants.

  20. Protective value of elevated levels of gamma interferon in serum against exoerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Deloron, P; Chougnet, C; Lepers, J P; Tallet, S; Coulanges, P

    1991-09-01

    In vitro experiments suggested that gamma interferon, CD8+ T cells, and anticircumsporozoite antibodies inhibited the exoerythrocytic stages of malaria parasites. To assess the role played in vivo by these factors, we conducted a prospective study in Madagascar. Forty individuals with a negative blood smear were followed for 8 weeks to detect the appearance of parasites in blood. Nineteen subjects remained negative for malaria, whereas 21 individuals became positive during follow-up. Among these, seven presented with blood parasites within the first 2 weeks and were excluded, as they probably were infected by sporozoites at enrollment. When measured at enrollment, antibodies to the synthetic peptide (NANP)5, lymphocyte proliferation with (NANP)5, and various lymphocytes subsets were similar among individuals that later presented with a Plasmodium falciparum blood infection or were not infected. Conversely, the level of gamma interferon in serum was higher in individuals that did not present with a P. falciparum infection during follow-up. These data suggest that gamma interferon may inhibit the malaria exoerythrocytic stages of development under in vivo conditions, as it does in vitro.

  1. Protective value of elevated levels of gamma interferon in serum against exoerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Deloron, P; Chougnet, C; Lepers, J P; Tallet, S; Coulanges, P

    1991-01-01

    In vitro experiments suggested that gamma interferon, CD8+ T cells, and anticircumsporozoite antibodies inhibited the exoerythrocytic stages of malaria parasites. To assess the role played in vivo by these factors, we conducted a prospective study in Madagascar. Forty individuals with a negative blood smear were followed for 8 weeks to detect the appearance of parasites in blood. Nineteen subjects remained negative for malaria, whereas 21 individuals became positive during follow-up. Among these, seven presented with blood parasites within the first 2 weeks and were excluded, as they probably were infected by sporozoites at enrollment. When measured at enrollment, antibodies to the synthetic peptide (NANP)5, lymphocyte proliferation with (NANP)5, and various lymphocytes subsets were similar among individuals that later presented with a Plasmodium falciparum blood infection or were not infected. Conversely, the level of gamma interferon in serum was higher in individuals that did not present with a P. falciparum infection during follow-up. These data suggest that gamma interferon may inhibit the malaria exoerythrocytic stages of development under in vivo conditions, as it does in vitro. PMID:1774292

  2. The transcriptome and proteome are altered in marine polychaetes (Annelida) exposed to elevated metal levels.

    PubMed

    Neave, Matthew J; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Nouwens, Amanda S; Glasby, Chris J; McGuinness, Keith A; Parry, David L; Gibb, Karen S

    2012-05-17

    Polychaetes are often used in toxicological studies to understand mechanisms of resistance and for biomarker detection, however, we know of only a few genetic pathways involved in resistance. We found the marine polychaete Ophelina sp.1 (Opheliidae) in sediment containing high copper levels and investigated this phenomenon by measuring metal accumulation in the worms and changes in gene and protein expression. We sequenced the transcriptome of Ophelina sp.1 from both the impacted and reference sediments using 454-sequencing and analysed their proteomes using differential in gel electrophoresis (DIGE). We used the sequenced transcriptome to guide protein identification. Transcripts coding for the copper chaperone, Atox1, were up-regulated in the worms inhabiting the high copper sediment. In addition, genes coding for respiratory proteins, detoxification proteins and cytoskeletal proteins were significantly altered in metal-exposed worms; many of these changes were also detected in the proteome. This dual approach has provided a better understanding of heavy metal resistance in polychaetes and we now have a wider range of suitable indicator genes and proteins for future biomarker development.

  3. Elevated stress hormone levels relate to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress and spaceflight on levels of neuroendocrine hormones and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in astronauts. METHODS: Antiviral antibody titers and stress hormones were measured in plasma samples collected from 28 astronauts at their annual medical exam (baseline), 10 days before launch (L-10), landing day (R+0), and 3 days after landing (R+3). Urinary stress hormones were also measured at L-10 and R+0. RESULTS: Significant increases (p <.01) in EBV virus capsid antigen antibodies were found at all three time points (L-10, R+0, and R+3) as compared with baseline samples. Anti-EBV nuclear antigen antibodies were significantly decreased at L-10 (p <.05) and continued to decrease after spaceflight (R+0 and R+3, p <.01). No changes were found in antibodies to the nonlatent measles virus. The 11 astronauts who showed evidence of EBV reactivation had significant increases in urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine as compared with astronauts without EBV reactivation. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that physical and psychological stresses associated with spaceflight resulted in decreased virus-specific T-cell immunity and reactivation of EBV.

  4. Emergence of elevated levels of multiple infections in spatial host-virus dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Bradford; Penington, Catherine; Weitz, Joshua

    Bacteria are subject to infection and potentially to multiple simultaneous infections by viruses. Multiply infected hosts have altered life-history traits (e.g., viral burst size) and evolutionary rates (e.g., viral recombination). Yet our understanding of multiple infections of microbes is limited to lab settings where the ratio of inoculant viruses to hosts is controlled. In contrast, rates of multiple infection in natural environments are unknown. Here, we develop an individual based model to quantify rates of multiple infections by a single viral type. We explore different dispersal regimes by varying the viral adsorption rate. High dispersal regimes lead to spatial dynamics and rates of multiple infection equivalent to predictions from mean field models. Local clustering of bacterial hosts occurs for low dispersal. Comparing to mean field, the clustering leads to increased rates of multiple infection and fatter tails in the distribution of the number of internal viruses. The emergence of increased colocalization of viruses with infected hosts leads to these deviations. We show these deviations result from the wave-like spread of viruses when invading clusters of bacteria. Our work represents a key step in understanding the population-level effects of multiple infections.

  5. Effects of elevated temperatures and rising sea level on Arctic Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    Ice is a major agent on the inner shelf, gouging the bottom, increasing hydraulic scour, transporting sediment, and influencing river flood patterns. Rapid coastal retreat is common and low barrier islands and beaches are constantly changing due to the influence of permafrost, ice-push, waves, and currents. Coastal processes are presently a balance between the influence of ice and the action of waves and currents. Quantitative values for processes are poorly known, however our qualitative understanding is nearly complete. Climatic warming and rising sea levels would decrease the temporal and aerial extent of coastal ice thereby expanding the role of waves and currents. As a result, shoreline retreat rates would increase, producing a transgressive erosional surface on the low coastal plain. With increased wave activity, beaches and barrier islands presently nourished by ice push processes would decay and disappear. Increased sediment supply from a deeply thawed, active layer would release more sediments to rivers and coasts. Additional research should be focused on permafrost and sea ice processes active during freeze up and breakup; the two seasons of most vigorous activity and change.

  6. Contextualization of Holocene beach ridge systems for relative sea-level reconstruction using the SRTM elevation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Lasse; Raniolo, Luís Ariel; Alberdi, Ernesto; Pejrup, Morten

    2014-05-01

    Beach ridge plains are a common feature of prograding coastlines and they have in the past been widely used as geomorphological archives for the reconstruction of past coastal dynamics, event chronologies or late quaternary sea-level change. The most critical parameters for sea-level related research are the consistent definition and confidence of information on surface elevation of the beach ridge deposits. In most parts of the world, the availability of high-resolution geodata is very limited. The measurement of e.g. high-precision GPS (Global Positioning System) data is costly, time-consuming and essentially of limited spatial coverage. The SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) dataset is a freely-available digital surface model covering landmasses between approximately 60° N and 56° S at a 90 m (3 arc seconds) resolution. The model elevations are indicated without decimals (integer) and are projected for the WGS84 ellipsoid. On a beach ridge plain at Caleta de los Loros, Río Negro, Argentina, we observed a good correlation of GPS-RTK (GPS-Real Time Kinematic) measurements (estimated vertical accuracy: <0,1 m) with the SRTM elevation model along a cross-ridge transect. An average vertical deviation of 0,96 m (SD: 0,48m) between the SRTM and the GPS-RTK-based elevations was determined for mostof the beach ridge transect (79% of length). Larger errors (maximum average error: 2,78 m, SD: 1,88 m) can be explained by eolian deposition and dune migration during the approx. 13 years between the date of SRTM data acquisition and our GPS measurement. This interpretation is supported by a multi-decadal sequence of Landsat false-color composites. Vegetation cover and rounding errors are further possible factors in explaining vertical deviation. The consistency of data quality was confirmed by a comparison study using a LiDAR (Light detection and ranging)-based digital elevation model (vertical accuracy: <0,1 m) to extract surface elevations on an extensive beach ridge

  7. The usefulness of point-of-care (POC) tests in screening elevated glucose and ketone body levels postmortem.

    PubMed

    Walta, Anna-Mari; Keltanen, Terhi; Lindroos, Katarina; Sajantila, Antti

    2016-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the performance of point-of-care (POC) tests in detecting glucose and ketone bodies in postmortem (PM) samples and to assess the usefulness of POC tests in sample screening for more precise analyses. Glucose and ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), were measured from vitreous humor (VH) in 52 autopsy cases with a POC blood glucose monitoring device (BGMD). In addition glucose and ketone bodies, acetone (Ac) and acetoacetate (AcAc), were measured from urine samples in another set of 59 cases with semi-quantitative stick tests. The results were compared to the concentration in VH measured with validated methods (values ≥ 7mmol/l indicate possible hyperglycemia and total ketone body levels ≥ 3mmol/l ketoacidosis). The sensitivity for glucose with the BGMD was 1.0 and specificity 0.94 when the threshold value for the meter to predict elevated glucose was set to ≥ 10mmol/l. The correlation between the BGMD and the validated method was strong (R(2)=0.89). For detecting ketoacidosis, the BGMD had a sensitivity of 1.0 and specificity of 0.73, when the threshold value was set to 2.5mmol/l. The urine stick test presented a sensitivity of 0.89 and specificity of 0.90 for detecting elevated VH glucose concentration. The sensitivity and specificity for the stick test to detect cases with possible ketoacidosis were 0.84 and 0.68, respectively. According to the results, BGMD can be reliably applied for sample screening, although more samples need to be analyzed for delineating the correct threshold values. In the case of glucose, the urine stick tests could be indicative in detecting cases with VH glucose ≥ 10mmol/l. For predicting possible ketoacidosis with elevated VH total ketone bodies, the stick test is not reliable as the test presented both false-positive and -negative results. PMID:27348467

  8. Benign Hydronephrosis and Elevated of Serum Levels of Carbohydrate Antigen CA 19-9: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Filipovic, Branka; Milinić, Nikola; Gacic, Jasna; Markovic, Olivera; Djokovic, Aleksandra; Filipovic, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 58 Final Diagnosis: Hydronephrosis Symptoms: Blunt abdominal pain • constipation • constipation Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrostolithotomy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Carbohydrate tumor-associated antigen (CA 19-9) has been shown to be upregulated in other malignant tumors including gastric, ovarian, hepatocellular, and colorectal carcinoma as well as benign diseases of the biliary track such as pancreatitis, cholangitis, and choledocholithiasis. According to the available literature, in several cases of benign hydronephrosis and in a few cases of benign renal diseases, elevated CA 19-9 has been noted. Case Report: A 58-year-old Caucasian male patient was admitted in our clinic with complaints about blunt abdominal pain in the past two-month period localized in the right lumbar region and irradiating into the right inguinal area, constipation, abdominal bloating, and intermittent hematuria. The concentration of serum CA 19-9 was 3500 U/mL. Urine cytology provided no signs of abnormality. Intravenous urography visualized right-sided pyelon and ureter duplex with the defect in contrast shade of the pyelon, caused by a stag horn calculus. Contrast added computerized axial tomography of the abdomen and pelvis visualized the pyelon casted concretion spreading throughout the right pyelon, with ureterohydronephrosis with the distal block for passage of the contrast to the distal part of the ureter. Conclusions: There is no doubt that CA 19-9 level is occasionally elevated in patients with obstructive urolithiasis as it was in our case. In the routine medical praxis, urolithiasis should not be neglected in the differential diagnosis of elevated concentrations of CA 19-9 marker. PMID:27287959

  9. Plants on constant alert: elevated levels of jasmonic acid and jasmonate-induced transcripts in caterpillar-resistant maize.

    PubMed

    Shivaji, Renuka; Camas, Alberto; Ankala, Arunkanth; Engelberth, Jurgen; Tumlinson, James H; Williams, W Paul; Wilkinson, Jeff R; Luthe, Dawn Sywassink

    2010-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine if constitutive levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and other octadecanoid compounds were elevated prior to herbivory in a maize genotype with documented resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and other lepidopteran pests. The resistant inbred Mp708 had approximately 3-fold higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA) prior to herbivore feeding than the susceptible inbred Tx601. Constitutive levels of cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) also were higher in Mp708 than Tx601. In addition, the constitutive expression of JA-inducible genes, including those in the JA biosynthetic pathway, was higher in Mp708 than Tx601. In response to herbivory, Mp708 generated comparatively higher levels of hydrogen peroxide, and had a greater abundance of NADPH oxidase transcripts before and after caterpillar feeding. Before herbivore feeding, low levels of transcripts encoding the maize insect resistance cysteine protease (Mir1-CP) and the Mir1-CP protein were detected consistently. Thus, Mp708 appears to have a portion of its defense pathway primed, which results in constitutive defenses and the ability to mount a stronger defense when caterpillars attack. Although the molecular mechanisms that regulate the constitutive accumulation of JA in Mp708 are unknown, it might account for its enhanced resistance to lepidopteran pests. This genotype could be valuable in studying the signaling pathways that maize uses to response to insect herbivores.

  10. Elevated matrix metalloprotease and angiostatin levels in integrin α1 knockout mice cause reduced tumor vascularization

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, Ambra; Moberg, Philip E.; Miles, Lindsey A.; Wagner, Simone; Soloway, Paul; Gardner, Humphrey A.

    2000-01-01

    Integrin α1β1 is a collagen receptor abundantly expressed on microvascular endothelial cells. As well as being the only collagen receptor able to activate the Ras/Shc/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway promoting fibroblast cell proliferation, it also acts to inhibit collagen and metalloproteinase (MMP) synthesis. We have observed that in integrin α1-null mice synthesis of MMP7 and MMP9 was markedly increased compared with that of their wild-type counterparts. As MMP7 and MMP9 have been shown to generate angiostatin from circulating plasminogen, and angiostatin acts as a potent inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation, we determined whether tumor vascularization was altered in the α1-null mice. Tumors implanted into α1-null mice showed markedly decreased vascularization, with a reduction in capillary number and size, which was accompanied by an increase in plasma levels of angiostatin due to the action of MMP7 and MMP9 on circulating plasminogen. In vitro analysis of α1-null endothelial cells revealed a marked reduction of their proliferation on both integrin α1-dependent (collagenous) and independent (noncollagenous) substrata. This reduction was prevented by culturing α1-null cells with plasma derived from plasminogen-null animals, thus omitting the source from which to generate angiostatin. Plasma from tumor-bearing α1-null animals uniquely inhibited endothelial cell growth, and this inhibition was relieved by the coaddition of either MMP inhibitors, or antibody to angiostatin. Integrin α1-deficient mice thus provide a genetically characterized model for enhanced angiostatin production and serve to reveal an unwanted potential side effect of MMP inhibition, increased tumor angiogenesis. PMID:10681423

  11. Elevated hsa-miR-99a levels in maternal plasma may indicate congenital heart defects

    PubMed Central

    KEHLER, LARS; BIRO, ORSOLYA; LAZAR, LEVENTE; RIGO, JANOS; NAGY, BALINT

    2015-01-01

    The current standard for prenatal screening is mostly based on biochemical marker tests and the use of ultrasonography. There is no secure stand-alone screening marker for congenital heart defects (CHDs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) that are associated with cardiogenesis enter the maternal peripheral bloodstream during pregnancy and allow non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). The present study investigated the plasma expression profile of fetal hsa-miR-99a in maternal blood. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 39 pregnant patients, comprising 22 with CHD-positive fetuses and 17 with CHD-free controls. miRNAs were isolated from the maternal serum and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was carried out to determine the expression of hsa-miR-99a. While the miRNA concentrations were almost identical among the affected and control groups (5.54 vs. 6.40 ng/µl), significantly upregulated hsa-miR-99a levels were identified in the affected group (1.78×10−2±3.53×10−2 vs. 1.09×10−3±3.55×10−3 ng/µl, P=0.038). In conclusion, according to the present study, hsa-miR-99a is involved in cardiac malformation and may serve as a biomarker during fetal development, and therefore presents as a candidate for monitoring cardiomyogenesis and potential use as a NIPT-biomarker for fetal CHD. PMID:26623032

  12. Anthropogenic land uses elevate metal levels in stream water in an urbanizing watershed.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shen; Wu, Qian; Li, Qingliang; Gao, Jinbo; Lin, Qiaoying; Ma, Jun; Xu, Qiufang; Wu, Shengchun

    2014-08-01

    Land use/cover change is a dominant factor affecting surface water quality in rapidly developing areas of Asia. In this study we examined relationships between land use and instream metal loadings in a rapidly developing mixed land use watershed in southeastern China. Five developing subwatersheds and one forested reference site (head water) were instrumented with timing- and rainfall-triggered autosampler and instream loadings of anthropogenic metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Mn) were monitored from March 2012 to December 2013. Farm land and urban land were positively, and forest and green land were negatively associated with metal loadings (except Cr) in stream water. All developing sites had higher loadings than the reference head water site. Assessed by Chinese surface water quality standard (GB3830-2002), instream loadings of Cu and Zn occasionally exceeded the Class I thresholds at monitoring points within farmland dominated subwatersheds while Mn loadings were greater than the limit for drinking water sources at all monitoring points. Farm land use highly and positively contributed to statistical models of instream loadings of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Mn while urban land use was the dominant contributor to models of Pb and Cd loadings. Rainfall played a crucial role in metal loadings in stream water as a direct source (there were significant levels of Cu and Zn in rain water) and as a driver of watershed processes (loadings were higher in wet years and seasons). Urbanization effects on metal loadings in this watershed are likely to change rapidly with development in future years. Further monitoring to characterize these changes is clearly warranted and should help to develop plans to avoid conflicts between economic development and water quality degradation in this watershed and in watersheds throughout rapidly developing areas of Asia.

  13. Critical exposure level of cadmium for elevated urinary metallothionein-An occupational population study in China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liang; Jin Taiyi . E-mail: tyjin@shmu.edu.cn; Huang, Bo; Nordberg, Gunnar; Nordberg, Monica

    2006-08-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxic agent with extremely long biological half-time of 15-30 years in humans. To prevent nephrotoxicity induced by cadmium, it is necessary to identify specific and sensitive biomarkers of cadmium exposure and renal damage, and to define critical exposure levels related to minimal nephrotoxicity in humans. In this study, urinary cadmium (UCd) and blood cadmium (BCd) were used as cadmium exposure indicators, urinary {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin (UB2M), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG) and albumin (UALB) were applied as the effect biomarkers of tubular and glomerular dysfunction. The relationship between urinary metallothionein (UMT) and cadmium exposure biomarkers as well as effect biomarkers was examined. Significant correlations were found between the UMT and BCd, and UCd. At the same time, UB2M, UALB and UNAG showed positive correlation with UMT as well. According to this result, cadmium-exposed individuals with renal dysfunction excreted more metallothionein than those without. Dose-response relationships between UCd and urinary indicators of renal dysfunction were studied. The critical concentration of UCd was quantitatively estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The lower confidence limit of the BMD-10 (BMDL) of UCd (3.1 {mu}g/g Cr) related to increased excretion of urinary metallothionein was slightly higher than that for UNAG (2.7 {mu}g/g Cr), but lower than those of UB2M (3.4 {mu}g/g Cr) and UALB (4.2 {mu}g/g Cr). The results demonstrate that UMT may be used as a sensitive biomarker of renal tubular dysfunction in cadmium-exposed populations.

  14. Catfish consumption as a contributor to elevated PCB levels in a non-Hispanic black subpopulation.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Max; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2008-07-01

    The human body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) sharply declined after production was banned in the US in 1979. For the 10% of the US population that remains most exposed to PCBs, fish consumption is the primary source. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data indicates that the highest remaining PCB levels exist in a non-Hispanic black subpopulation. Our review suggests that catfish consumption may be a significant PCB source for the one million non-Hispanic black anglers who fish for catfish. In comparison to non-Hispanic white anglers, non-Hispanic black anglers consume more catfish, are more likely to eat the whole fish rather than just the fillets that contain less PCBs, and are more likely to fish in watersheds with high PCB contamination. Efforts to diminish potential racial disparities in PCB exposure are challenged by geographic, economic, cultural, and educational barriers. In response, we propose that a fish consumption survey be performed that identifies the extent of subsistence fishing by non-Hispanic black anglers for catfish in watersheds with PCB contamination, the type and quantity of catfish subsistence fishing provides, and what actions would help moderate PCB exposure due to subsistence fishing for catfish in such areas. Understanding the contamination and consumption factors that contribute to higher PCB body burdens will help identify and offer solutions to racial disparities in exposure to PCBs due to subsistence fishing while providing a model to prevent similar disparities in exposure to toxics ranging from mercury to polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:18407261

  15. Elevated levels of soluble CD14 in serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Nockher, W A; Wigand, R; Schoeppe, W; Scherberich, J E

    1994-01-01

    A soluble form of CD14 (sCD14) was assessed with an ELISA assay in the serum of the following three clinical groups: 35 patients with an inactive phase of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 17 patients with SLE relapses, and 65 normal healthy volunteers. Increased levels of sCD14 were observed in all patients suffering from SLE compared with normal controls. In addition, patients with active SLE revealed higher serum concentrations of sCD14 (median 6.9 mg/l) than patients under remission (4.1 mg/l; P < 0.0001). Serum values of sCD14 correlated neither with the number of peripheral blood monocytes bearing the CD14 membrane antigen, nor with serum concentrations of IL-1 beta. Serum sCD14 was compared with other clinical parameters used to monitor the clinical course of patients with SLE, among them complement C3, anti-dsDNA antibodies and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R). A good correlation emerged between sCD14 and C3 as well as sIL-2R concentrations, but sCD14 and anti-dsDNA titres disclosed no significant correlation in both groups of patients with SLE. Serial studies in patients with severe SLE showed that serum sCD14 closely parallels the clinical course as defined by an activity score. Our data suggest that serum sCD14 represents a promising parameter to monitor disease activity in patients with SLE. PMID:7512005

  16. Triple oxygen isotope evidence for elevated CO2 levels after a Neoproterozoic glaciation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Huiming; Lyons, J R; Zhou, Chuanming

    2008-05-22

    Understanding the composition of the atmosphere over geological time is critical to understanding the history of the Earth system, as the atmosphere is closely linked to the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Although much of the history of the lithosphere and hydrosphere is contained in rock and mineral records, corresponding information about the atmosphere is scarce and elusive owing to the lack of direct records. Geologists have used sedimentary minerals, fossils and geochemical models to place constraints on the concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen or methane in the past. Here we show that the triple oxygen isotope composition of sulphate from ancient evaporites and barites shows variable negative oxygen-17 isotope anomalies over the past 750 million years. We propose that these anomalies track those of atmospheric oxygen and in turn reflect the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P(CO2)) in the past through a photochemical reaction network linking stratospheric ozone to carbon dioxide and to oxygen. Our results suggest that P(CO2) was much higher in the early Cambrian than in younger eras, agreeing with previous modelling results. We also find that the (17)O isotope anomalies of barites from Marinoan (approximately 635 million years ago) cap carbonates display a distinct negative spike (around -0.70 per thousand), suggesting that by the time barite was precipitating in the immediate aftermath of a Neoproterozoic global glaciation, the P(CO2) was at its highest level in the past 750 million years. Our finding is consistent with the 'snowball Earth' hypothesis and/or a massive methane release after the Marinoan glaciation. PMID:18497821

  17. Triple oxygen isotope evidence for elevated CO2 levels after a Neoproterozoic glaciation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Huiming; Lyons, J R; Zhou, Chuanming

    2008-05-22

    Understanding the composition of the atmosphere over geological time is critical to understanding the history of the Earth system, as the atmosphere is closely linked to the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Although much of the history of the lithosphere and hydrosphere is contained in rock and mineral records, corresponding information about the atmosphere is scarce and elusive owing to the lack of direct records. Geologists have used sedimentary minerals, fossils and geochemical models to place constraints on the concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen or methane in the past. Here we show that the triple oxygen