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  1. Elevated Progesterone Levels on the Day of Oocyte Maturation May Affect Top Quality Embryo IVF Cycles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo; Ren, Xinling; Wu, Li; Zhu, Lixia; Xu, Bei; Li, Yufeng; Ai, Jihui; Jin, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the impact of elevated progesterone on endometrial receptivity, the data on whether increased progesterone levels affects the quality of embryos is still limited. This study retrospectively enrolled 4,236 fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and sought to determine whether increased progesterone is associated with adverse outcomes with regard to top quality embryos (TQE). The results showed that the TQE rate significantly correlated with progesterone levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger (P = 0.009). Multivariate linear regression analysis of factors related to the TQE rate, in conventional IVF cycles, showed that the TQE rate was negatively associated with progesterone concentration on the day of hCG (OR was -1.658, 95% CI: -2.806 to -0.510, P = 0.005). When the serum progesterone level was within the interval 2.0-2.5 ng/ml, the TQE rate was significantly lower (P <0.05) than when the progesterone level was < 1.0 ng/ml; similar results were obtained for serum progesterone levels >2.5 ng/ml. Then, we choose a progesterone level at 1.5ng/ml, 2.0 ng/ml and 2.5 ng/ml as cut-off points to verify this result. We found that the TQE rate was significantly different (P <0.05) between serum progesterone levels < 2.0 ng/ml and >2.0 ng/ml. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly demonstrated a negative effect of elevated progesterone levels on the day of hCG trigger, on TQE rate, regardless of the basal FSH, the total gonadotropin, the age of the woman, or the time of ovarian stimulation. These data demonstrate that elevated progesterone levels (>2.0 ng/ml) before oocyte maturation were consistently detrimental to the oocyte.

  2. Elevated Progesterone Levels on the Day of Oocyte Maturation May Affect Top Quality Embryo IVF Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; Ren, Xinling; Wu, Li; Zhu, Lixia; Xu, Bei; Li, Yufeng; Ai, Jihui; Jin, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the impact of elevated progesterone on endometrial receptivity, the data on whether increased progesterone levels affects the quality of embryos is still limited. This study retrospectively enrolled 4,236 fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and sought to determine whether increased progesterone is associated with adverse outcomes with regard to top quality embryos (TQE). The results showed that the TQE rate significantly correlated with progesterone levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger (P = 0.009). Multivariate linear regression analysis of factors related to the TQE rate, in conventional IVF cycles, showed that the TQE rate was negatively associated with progesterone concentration on the day of hCG (OR was -1.658, 95% CI: -2.806 to -0.510, P = 0.005). When the serum progesterone level was within the interval 2.0–2.5 ng/ml, the TQE rate was significantly lower (P <0.05) than when the progesterone level was < 1.0 ng/ml; similar results were obtained for serum progesterone levels >2.5 ng/ml. Then, we choose a progesterone level at 1.5ng/ml, 2.0 ng/ml and 2.5 ng/ml as cut-off points to verify this result. We found that the TQE rate was significantly different (P <0.05) between serum progesterone levels < 2.0 ng/ml and >2.0 ng/ml. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly demonstrated a negative effect of elevated progesterone levels on the day of hCG trigger, on TQE rate, regardless of the basal FSH, the total gonadotropin, the age of the woman, or the time of ovarian stimulation. These data demonstrate that elevated progesterone levels (>2.0 ng/ml) before oocyte maturation were consistently detrimental to the oocyte. PMID:26745711

  3. Blastocyst transfer does not improve cycle outcome as compared to D3 transfer in antagonist cycles with an elevated progesterone level on the day of hCG.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Cem; Aydoğdu, Serkan; Özdemir, Arzu İlknur; Keskin, Gülşah; Baştu, Ercan; Buyru, Faruk

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the association between progesterone elevation on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration and clinical pregnancy rates of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles with the transfer of embryos at different developmental stages (day-3 versus day-5 ETs). This is a retrospective analysis of fresh IVF/ICSI; 194 cycles out of 2676 conducted in a single center. A total of 2676 cycles were analyzed, of which 386 had no progesterone measurements available. Two hundred eighteen cycles had progesterone elevation (p>1.5 ng/mL) giving an overall incidence of 9.5%. Twenty-four cycles were excluded from further analysis. Of the remaining 194 cycles, 151 had day-3 transfers and 43 had blastocyst transfers. There was no statistically significant difference in pregnancy and clinical pregnancy rates per transfer between the D3-ET and D5-ET groups (46% vs. 49%, and 39% vs. 35%, respectively). The results of this study suggest that blastocyst transfer does not improve cycle outcomes compared with D3 transfer in GnRH antagonist cycles with an elevated progesterone level on the day of hCG.

  4. Osteopontin and Integrin αvβ3 Expression during the Implantation Window in IVF Patients with Elevated Serum Progesterone and Oestradiol Level

    PubMed Central

    He, Z.; Ma, Y.; Li, L.; Liu, J.; Yang, H.; Chen, C.; Lin, N.; Bai, Y.; Ma, R.; Li, R.; Wu, Z.; Qiao, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To explore whether endometrial receptivity is determined by osteopontin (OPN) and integrin αvβ3 expression in women with elevated serum progesterone (P) and/or oestradiol (E2) who are undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Methods: According to serum hormone levels on the day of HCG administration, 33 infertile women were divided into 3 groups: the high E2, high P, and high E2 and P groups. The control group included 11 fertile, healthy women. Endometrial biopsy was performed on ovulation day + 7 to + 8 for all study participants, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of OPN and integrin αvβ3 were analyzed. Result: No statistically significant differences regarding OPN and integrin αvβ3 expression were found between infertile patients in the high P, high E2, high E2 and P and control groups. There was no significant correlation between OPN and integrin αvβ3 staining intensity during the implantation window biopsy in any of the groups studied. Conclusion: Endometrial OPN and integrant αvβ3 expression/co-expression is not impaired during the window of implantation in patients with high P, high E2, or high E2 and P levels. The clinical value of assessing endometrial receptivity with OPN and integrin αvβ3 seems to be uncertain. PMID:27365542

  5. Effect of progesterone elevation in follicular phase of IVF-cycles on the endometrial receptivity.

    PubMed

    Lawrenz, B; Fatemi, H M

    2017-04-01

    The premature rise of progesterone during the late follicular phase in stimulated IVF cycles is a frequent event, and emerging evidence shows that premature progesterone rise does negatively affect the outcome of assisted reproductive techniques. The effect of elevated peripheral progesterone levels in the late follicular phase seems to be on the endometrium and the window of implantation, which may lead to asynchrony between the endometrium and the developing embryo. In stimulated cycles, endometrial maturation is advanced on the day of oocyte retrieval, and patients with a progesterone level above 1.5 ng/ml on the day of final oocyte maturation have different endometrial gene expression profiles. This progesterone level seems to represent the critical threshold, at which a negative effect on the ongoing pregnancy rate in fresh IVF cycles can be observed. Moreover, no association exists between progesterone elevation in the fresh cycle, and the probability of pregnancy after transfer of frozen-thawed embryos, originating from that cycle. The causes of premature progesterone elevation during ovarian stimulation are still unclear; however, recent studies point towards enhanced FSH-stimulation as a cause for progesterone elevation.

  6. Progesterone and estradiol plasma levels in neonatally irradiated cycling rats

    SciTech Connect

    Freud, A.; Sod-Moriah, U.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Female rats which were exposed to a single low dose of gamma irradiation (6R or 15R) at the age of 8 days produce smaller litters when mature than untreated controls. The possibility that the impaired fertility resulted from altered ovarian activity as reflected by changes in plasma levels of progesterone or estardiol was investigated. Plasma levels of both steroids were determined throughout the day of proestrus. Progesterone level was also determined in 6R animals on the day of weaning. The maturity of such irradiated rats was assessed by observing the time of vaginal opening. The results indicated that the preovulatory peak of progesterone was delayed in the 6R rats whereas in the 15R group its levels were significantly lower. On the other hand no differences in estradiol plasma levels were noticed between the groups. The higher level of progesterone in the 6R animals was not evident on the day of weaning and was even in both groups, but vaginal opening in the irradiated rats was significantly delayed. The elevated level of progesterone might be responsible, among other endocrine changes, for the lower fertility of neonatally irradiated mature female rats.

  7. Endometrial receptivity profile in patients with premature progesterone elevation on the day of HCG administration.

    PubMed

    Haouzi, Delphine; Bissonnette, Laurence; Gala, Anna; Assou, Said; Entezami, Frida; Perrochia, Hélène; Dechaud, Hervé; Hugues, Jean-Noel; Hamamah, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a premature elevation of serum progesterone level, the day of hCG administration in patients under controlled ovarian stimulation during IVF procedure, on human endometrial receptivity is still debated. In the present study, we investigated the endometrial gene expression profile shifts during the prereceptive and receptive secretory stage in patients with normal and elevated serum progesterone level on the day of hCG administration in fifteen patients under stimulated cycles. Then, specific biomarkers of endometrial receptivity in these two groups of patients were tested. Endometrial biopsies were performed on oocyte retrieval day and on day 3 of embryo transfer, respectively, for each patient. Samples were analysed using DNA microarrays and qRT-PCR. The endometrial gene expression shift from the prereceptive to the receptive stage was altered in patients with high serum progesterone level (>1.5 ng/mL) on hCG day, suggesting accelerated endometrial maturation during the periovulation period. This was confirmed by the functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes as it showed downregulation of cell cycle-related genes. Conversely, the profile of endometrial receptivity was comparable in both groups. Premature progesterone rise alters the endometrial gene expression shift between the prereceptive and the receptive stage but does not affect endometrial receptivity.

  8. Increased yolk progesterone interferes with prenatal auditory learning and elevates emotional reactivity in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Herrington, Joshua; Vallin, Claudia; Lickliter, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Avian eggs contain maternally derived hormones, including testosterone and progesterone. Little is currently known about the effects of these hormones on early behavioral development. We assessed the effects of elevated levels of progesterone levels on prenatal perceptual learning and postnatal emotional reactivity in Northern bobwhite quail. Prior to incubation, eggs received an injection of either progesterone (P) or oil vehicle (V). In P eggs, levels of progesterone were elevated two standard deviations above the mean based on ELISA analysis of progesterone yolk concentrations from a previous study. A third group of eggs served as controls and received no injection (C). Chicks hatched from P eggs displayed elevated levels of emotional reactivity compared to V and C chicks in a tonic immobility task and a hole-in-the-wall emergence task. Chicks from P eggs also failed to demonstrate a preference for a familiarized bobwhite maternal call that had been presented prenatally. In contrast, the V and C chicks demonstrated a significant preference for the familiarized maternal call following hatching, indicating prenatal auditory learning. Our results are consistent with previous findings from precocial birds demonstrating that hormones of maternal origin can influence prenatal perceptual learning as well as emotional reactivity in the period following hatching.. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Plasma progesterone levels in the pregnant female rat-kangaroo (Bettongia gaimardi).

    PubMed

    Jones, S M; Rose, R W

    1992-08-01

    Plasma progesterone levels were measured in female bettongs (small macropodid marsupials) under two natural regimes: (1) during "delayed" gestation (initiated by removal of pouch young, RPY) and (2) during the pregnancy prior to pouch vacation when a young still occupies the pouch (i.e., during lactation). Basal levels of progesterone were 0.15-0.5 ng/ml. There was a transient peak of progesterone (0.7 ng/ml) early in gestation at Day 4 RPY. After Day 6 RPY, progesterone levels remained elevated (1.2-1.5 ng/ml) until they dropped sharply to basal levels on the day of birth. This pattern of progesterone secretion during delayed gestation is similar to that seen in other marsupials, such as the tammar wallaby. There was no significant difference between the progesterone profiles of the two experimental groups. We deduce, then, that lactation had no effect on corpus luteum function (as assessed by plasma progesterone levels) in the pregnant bettong.

  10. Use of serum progesterone levels to detect pregnancy in elk

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, B.J.; Wolfe, M.L.; White, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the realibility of serum progesterone assays as a means for detecting pregnancy in elk (Cervus elaphus). The elk were trapped during February through April in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico. Blood samples were set to Bio-Science Laboratories for projesterone analysis by radioimmunoassay. Levels of progesteron were highly variable within the pregnant and nonpregnant elk. (RJC)

  11. Does elevated progesterone on day of oocyte maturation play a role in the racial disparities in IVF outcomes?

    PubMed

    Hill, Micah J; Royster, G Donald; Taneja, Mansi; Healy, Mae Wu; Zarek, Shvetha M; Christy, Alicia Y; DeCherney, Alan H; Widra, Eric; Devine, Kate

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if premature progesterone elevation on the last day of assisted reproduction technique stimulation contributes to racial disparities in IVF outcome. A total of 3289 assisted reproduction technique cycles were evaluated in Latino, Asian, African American, and white women. Live birth was more likely in white women (42.6%) compared with Asian (34.8%) and African American women (36.3%), but was similar to Latino women (40.7%). In all racial groups, progesterone was negatively associated with live birth and the negative effect of progesterone persisted when adjusting for confounders. Although the effect of elevated progesterone was similar in all racial groups, the prevalence of elevated progesterone differed. Progesterone > 1.5 ng/ml occurred in only 10.6% of cycles in white women compared with 18.0% in Latino and 20.2% in Asian women. Progesterone > 2 ng/ml occurred in only 2.3% of cycles in white women compared with 6.3% in Latino, 5.9% in Asian and 4.4% in African American women. The increased prevalence of premature elevated progesterone persisted when controlling for IVF stimulation parameters. In conclusion, premature progesterone elevation had a negative effect on live birth in all racial groups studied. The prevalence of elevated progesterone was higher in racial minorities. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effect of preovulatory progesterone elevation and duration of progesterone elevation on the pregnancy rate of frozen-thawed embryo transfer in natural cycles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Li, Raymond Hang Wun; Chai, Joyce; Yeung, Tracy Wing Yee; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Ho, Pak Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2014-05-01

    To assess the incidence of P elevation (PE) in natural cycles and evaluate its effect on frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles performed in natural cycles (FET-NC). Retrospective analysis. A tertiary assisted reproductive unit. Subfertile woman who did not conceive in their stimulated IVF cycle and underwent the first FET-NC cycle. Achieved serum samples were assayed for P concentrations from the day of LH surge up to 3 days before the surge. The cutoff level of PE was defined as 5 nmol/L. Clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates. The incidence of PE in natural cycles was 173 of 610 (28.4%). There were no significant differences in both clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates (39.0% vs. 37.3% and 32.5% vs. 31.7%) between those with vs. without PE on the day of LH surge. If PE lasted for 2 days or more, there was a significant reduction in the clinical pregnancy rate (39.4% vs. 20.7%). Using multivariate logistic regression, women's age, PE for 2 days or more, and the number of top-quality embryos were the significant factors for clinical pregnancy rates in FET-NC. The incidence of PE in FET-NC was similar to that in stimulated cycles. Progesterone elevation for 2 days or more before the LH surge impaired the clinical pregnancy rate of FET-NC, whereas PE on the day of LH surge only did not have such an adverse effect. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of Sugammadex on Progesterone Levels in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Et, Tayfun; Topal, Ahmet; Erol, Atilla; Tavlan, Aybars; Kılıçaslan, Alper; Uzun, Sema Tuncer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sugammadex has been shown to decrease the efficiency of progesterone-containing oral contraceptive drugs which possess a steroid structure. Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on progesterone levels in pregnant rats as well as on the physiological course of the pregnancy. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: This study was approved by the Selçuk University Ethical Committee for Experimental Animal Research. Pregnant Winster Albino rats (n=26) were divided into three groups and administered with various intravenous injections on the 7th day of pregnancy. The control group (Group K, n=6) received 1.5 mL serum physiologic, the sugammadex group (Group S, n=10) received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and the sugammadex + rocuronium group (Group SR, n=10) received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and 3.5 mg/kg rocuronium. Progesterone levels were measured and the offspring were monitored for morphologic status. Results: Mean progesterone levels were 94.16±15.54 ng/mL in Group K, 87.86±12.48 ng/mL in Group S, and 94.53±16.10 ng/mL in Group SR (p>0.05). No stillbirth or miscarriage was observed in the rats. The mean number of offspring was 6.8±1.47 in Group K, 6.5±1.35 in Group S, and 6.4±1.17 in Group SR. The offspring appeared macroscopically normal. Conclusion: Sugammadex does not appear to affect the progesterone levels in pregnant rats in the first trimester and the clinical course. Successful completion of pregnancy and the absence of stillbirth or miscarriage will guide future studies about the use of sugammadex, particularly in the first trimester of the pregnancy. PMID:26167346

  14. The Effects of Sugammadex on Progesterone Levels in Pregnant Rats.

    PubMed

    Et, Tayfun; Topal, Ahmet; Erol, Atilla; Tavlan, Aybars; Kılıçaslan, Alper; Uzun, Sema Tuncer

    2015-04-01

    Sugammadex has been shown to decrease the efficiency of progesterone-containing oral contraceptive drugs which possess a steroid structure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on progesterone levels in pregnant rats as well as on the physiological course of the pregnancy. Animal experiment. This study was approved by the Selçuk University Ethical Committee for Experimental Animal Research. Pregnant Winster Albino rats (n=26) were divided into three groups and administered with various intravenous injections on the 7(th) day of pregnancy. The control group (Group K, n=6) received 1.5 mL serum physiologic, the sugammadex group (Group S, n=10) received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and the sugammadex + rocuronium group (Group SR, n=10) received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and 3.5 mg/kg rocuronium. Progesterone levels were measured and the offspring were monitored for morphologic status. Mean progesterone levels were 94.16±15.54 ng/mL in Group K, 87.86±12.48 ng/mL in Group S, and 94.53±16.10 ng/mL in Group SR (p>0.05). No stillbirth or miscarriage was observed in the rats. The mean number of offspring was 6.8±1.47 in Group K, 6.5±1.35 in Group S, and 6.4±1.17 in Group SR. The offspring appeared macroscopically normal. Sugammadex does not appear to affect the progesterone levels in pregnant rats in the first trimester and the clinical course. Successful completion of pregnancy and the absence of stillbirth or miscarriage will guide future studies about the use of sugammadex, particularly in the first trimester of the pregnancy.

  15. Detecting Elevated Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, H.L.; Elford, R.W.; Shumak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Reflotron dry chemistry reflectance photometer was studied as a case-finding method in physicians' offices. A total of 713 adult patients had their risk factor profiles determined along with fingerprick blood cholesterol measurements. Blood cholesterol levels were classified into three categories, (<5.2 mmol/L), 51%; borderline high (5.2 to 6.1 mmol/L), 28%; and high (≥6.2 mmol/L), 21%. The physicians' predictions from clinical risk factor profiles of which patients had elevated serum cholesterol levels were inaccurate. PMID:21229051

  16. Significantly lower pregnancy rates in the presence of progesterone elevation in patients treated with GnRH antagonists and gonadotrophins: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kolibianakis, E M; Venetis, C A; Bontis, J; Tarlatzis, B C

    2012-03-01

    The current meta-analysis aimed to answer the following research question: is progesterone elevation on the day of hCG administration associated with the probability of clinical pregnancy in women undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF using GnRH antagonists? A literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL electronic databases followed by extensive hand-searching from two independent reviewers was performed to identify relevant studies. Eventually five eligible studies (n=585 patients) were identified. No significant differences were present between patients with and those without progesterone elevation regarding female age, duration of stimulation and total dose of gonadotrophins required. However, patients with progesterone elevation were characterized by higher serum estradiol levels on the day of hCG administration (+956 pg/ml, 95% +248 to +1664, random effects model, p=0.008) and more COCs retrieved (+2.9, 95% CI +1.5 to +4.4, fixed effects model, p < 0.001). Progesterone elevation on the day of hCG administration was associated with a significantly decreased probability of clinical pregnancy per cycle (-9%, 95% CI -17 to -2, fixed model effects, p). In conclusion, in patients treated with GnRH antagonists and gonadotrophins, progesterone elevation on the day of hCG administration is significantly associated with a lower probability of clinical pregnancy.

  17. High progesterone levels in women with high ovarian response do not affect clinical outcomes: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potentially detrimental role of progesterone during the follicular phase has been a matter of controversy for several years; however, few studies have analyzed the effects of combined raised estradiol and progesterone levels on pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of high progesterone levels on clinical outcomes in the context of high ovarian response. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study that included 2850 women classified as high responders. The women were subdivided into six groups depending on their progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration: <0.5 ng/ml (1.81 ng/ml (>p90). Ovarian response was classified as high when > =20 oocytes were retrieved or when estradiol was > =3000 pg/ml. Clinical outcomes of each subgroup were analyzed. We also examined data from frozen-thawed embryo transfers. Results were analyzed with Student’s t- test to compare continuous variables and chi-squared test to compare proportions. A p-value of < =0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The progesterone concentration increased with ovarian response, and elevated progesterone did not show a significant clinical impact on implantation rate and pregnancy rates. These data provide evidence that progesterone levels higher than 1.8 ng/ml do not have detrimental effect on oocyte quality or endometrial receptivity. Conclusions These data allow us to conclude that high progesterone levels correlate significantly with high estradiol levels and that in high responder women; progesterone levels do not show a significant clinical impact on results. PMID:25064138

  18. Differential expression of vascular endothelial growth factor angiogenic factors in different endometrial compartments in women who have an elevated progesterone level before oocyte retrieval, during in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Jin, Xiaoying; Liu, Liu; Man, Chi Wai; Huang, Jin; Wang, Chi Chiu; Zhang, Songying; Li, Tin Chiu

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between endometrial expressions of angiogenic factors around the time of embryo implantation and P level before oocyte retrieval during IVF-ET treatment. Retrospective study. University Assisted Reproductive Unit. Forty patients were recruited, 20 women with an elevated P level, and 20 women with a normal P level, into cancelled embryo transfer (ET) cycles. Endometrial biopsy samples were obtained from women who had an elevated or normal P level 7 days after human chorionic gonadotropin administration. The protein expression levels of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and PLGF were examined using immunohistochemistry. A semiquantitative analysis was performed using histochemical-score analysis of staining intensity in the luminal epithelium, glandular epithelium, and stroma, separately. Luminal epithelial expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C, and PLGF did not significantly differ in women with elevated or normal P levels before oocyte retrieval. Glandular epithelial expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and PLGF was higher in women with elevated P levels, compared with those with normal P levels. A significantly higher stromal expression of VEGF-A and PLGF was found in women with elevated P levels. A high P level before oocyte retrieval was associated with expression of VEGF angiogenic factors in glandular epithelium and stromal compartment around the time of embryo implantation. Our findings suggest that the lower implantation rates observed in this group of women may relate to decreased endometrial receptivity arising from altered expression of angiogenic factors. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Body temperature and circulating progesterone levels before and after parturition in killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Etsuko; Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Konno, Seiki; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2006-02-01

    Killer whales were used to evaluate peripartum changes and interactions between body temperature and circulating progesterone concentration. Daily body temperature was measured between 0800 h and 0830 h before activity. Body temperature clearly increased during the first phase of pregnancy, and this was followed by a gradual decline until full term. The initial increase was paralleled by circulating levels of progesterone. A decrease in body temperature was first detected on day 5 (p < 0.01) before parturition, and body temperature decreased significantly every 2 days until delivery. Five days before delivery, body temperature was 0.3 C lower than the mean value during the pregnancy period, and the decrease was more marked on day 1 before delivery (0.8 C). Serum progesterone levels during pregnancy showed a general pattern of initial rapid elevation (increasing phase), followed by a gradual decline (decreasing phase) throughout the remainder of pregnancy. However, statistically significant correlations between body temperature and progesterone pattern were only found only during the increasing phase. These results suggest that monitoring body temperature variation can be considered valuable for predicting impending parturition in killer whales.

  20. Impact of gonadotropin type on progesterone elevation during ovarian stimulation in GnRH antagonist cycles.

    PubMed

    Lawrenz, B; Beligotti, F; Engelmann, N; Gates, D; Fatemi, H M

    2016-11-01

    Does hormonal stimulation with corifollitropin alpha (CFA) only, mimicking a step down protocol, result in lower incidence of progesterone elevation on the day of hCGtrigger as compared to sustained stimulation with recombinant FSH (rFSH)? The current findings support the concept that sustained FSH stimulus contributes to premature progesterone elevation in stimulated IVF cycles. Serum progesterone rise during the follicular phase of ovarian stimulation for IVF treatment seems to be related to a poorer reproductive outcome. However, the mechanism by which the rise in progesterone is caused is not yet fully understood. This study was a post hoc analysis of data from two multi-center, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, non-inferiority trials, ENGAGE and PURSUE, conducted from June 2006 to January 2008 and from July 2010 to October 2012 respectively. In the ENGAGE-study, 1506 women, aged 18-36 years, were allocated to either a single injection of 150 mg CFA or daily injections of 200 IU rFSH in the first week of stimulation, using a standard GnRH antagonist protocol. In the PURSUE-study, a total of 1390 women, aged 35-42 years, were allocated to either a single injection of 150 mg of CFA or daily 300 IU of rFSH for the first week, again using a standard GnRH antagonist protocol. In both trials, daily rFSH was continued until three follicles reached >17 mm in size. All women had a body weight of between 50 and 90 kg, regular menstrual cycles and an indication for ovarian stimulation before IVF. The incidence of progesterone elevation on day of hCG-trigger in patients with CFA only or rFSH stimulation, and triggered on Day 8 of stimulation, was analyzed. Of patients with CFA only stimulation, 5.4% (13/239 patients) showed a progesterone elevation above 1.5 ng/ml on day of hCG-trigger, whereas patients with rFSH stimulation had a significant higher incidence of progesterone elevation (18.3%; 62/339 patients) (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis of

  1. Elevated Resistin Gene Expression in African American Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vallega, Karin A; Liu, NingNing; Myers, Jennifer S; Yu, Kaixian; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2016-01-01

    African American (AA) women diagnosed with breast cancer are more likely to have aggressive subtypes. Investigating differentially expressed genes between patient populations may help explain racial health disparities. Resistin, one such gene, is linked to inflammation, obesity, and breast cancer risk. Previous studies indicated that resistin expression is higher in serum and tissue of AA breast cancer patients compared to Caucasian American (CA) patients. However, resistin expression levels have not been compared between AA and CA patients in a stage- and subtype-specific context. Breast cancer prognosis and treatments vary by subtype. This work investigates differential resistin gene expression in human breast cancer tissues of specific stages, receptor subtypes, and menopause statuses in AA and CA women. Differential gene expression analysis was performed using human breast cancer gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We performed inter-race resistin gene expression level comparisons looking at receptor status and stage-specific data between AA and CA samples. DESeq was run to test for differentially expressed resistin values. Resistin RNA was higher in AA women overall, with highest values in receptor negative subtypes. Estrogen-, progesterone-, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- negative groups showed statistically significant elevated resistin levels in Stage I and II AA women compared to CA women. In inter-racial comparisons, AA women had significantly higher levels of resistin regardless of menopause status. In whole population comparisons, resistin expression was higher among Stage I and III estrogen receptor negative cases. In comparisons of molecular subtypes, resistin levels were significant higher in triple negative than in luminal A breast cancer. Resistin gene expression levels were significantly higher in receptor negative subtypes, especially estrogen receptor negative cases in AA women. Resistin may serve as an early breast

  2. Does a frozen embryo transfer ameliorate the effect of elevated progesterone seen in fresh transfer cycles?

    PubMed

    Healy, Mae Wu; Patounakis, George; Connell, Matt T; Devine, Kate; DeCherney, Alan H; Levy, Michael J; Hill, Micah J

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effect of progesterone (P) on the day of trigger in fresh assisted reproduction technology (ART) transfer cycles versus its effect on subsequent frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Large private ART practice. Fresh autologous and FET cycles from 2011-2013. None. Live birth. A paired analysis of patients who underwent both a fresh transfer and subsequent FET cycle and an unpaired analysis of data from all fresh transfer cycles and all FET cycles were performed. We analyzed 1,216 paired and 4,124 unpaired cycles, and P was negatively associated with birth in fresh but not FET cycles in all analyses. Interaction testing of P and cycle type indicated P had a different association with birth in fresh versus FET cycles. When P was ≥ 2 ng/mL at the time of trigger, live birth was more likely in FET versus fresh cycles in the paired analysis (47% vs. 10%), in the unpaired analysis (51% vs. 14%), and in unpaired, good blastocyst only transfer subgroup (51% vs. 29%). Live birth was similar in FET cycles, with P ≥ 2 ng/mL versus P < 2 ng/mL (51% vs. 49%). Conversely, live birth was lower in fresh cycles, with P ≥ 2 ng/mL versus P <2 ng/mL (15% vs. 45%). Elevated P levels on the day of trigger during the initial fresh cycle were negatively associated with live birth in the fresh transfer cycles but not in subsequent FET cycles. Freezing embryos and performing a subsequent FET cycle ameliorates the effect of elevated P on live-birth rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Elevated Plasma Corticosterone Decreases Yolk Testosterone and Progesterone in Chickens: Linking Maternal Stress and Hormone-Mediated Maternal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Rie

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress reproduction by downregulating gonadal hormones. Using the chicken as a model species, we therefore tested whether elevated levels of plasma corticosterone in female birds influence the production of gonadal steroids by the ovarian follicles and thus the amount of reproductive hormones in the egg yolk. Adult laying hens of two different strains (ISA brown and white Leghorn) were implanted subcutaneously with corticosterone pellets that elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations over a period of nine days. Steroid hormones were subsequently quantified in plasma and yolk. Corticosterone-implanted hens of both strains had lower plasma progesterone and testosterone levels and their yolks contained less progesterone and testosterone. The treatment also reduced egg and yolk mass. Plasma estrogen concentrations decreased in white Leghorns only whereas in both strains yolk estrogens were unaffected. Our results demonstrate for the first time that maternal plasma corticosterone levels influence reproductive hormone concentrations in the yolk. Maternal corticosterone could therefore mediate environmentally induced changes in yolk gonadal hormone concentrations. In addition, stressful situations experienced by the bird mother might affect the offspring via reduced amounts of reproductive hormones present in the egg as well as available nutrients for the embryo. PMID:21886826

  4. Comparative study of pregnancy outcomes between day 3 embryo transfer and day 5 blastocyst transfer in patients with progesterone elevation.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-Rui; Dong, Yue-Zhi; Guo, Yi-Hong; Sun, Ying-Pu; Su, Ying-Chun; Chen, Fan

    2013-08-01

    To explore the effects of progesterone (P) elevation on pregnancy outcomes of day 3 embryo and day 5 blastocyst transfer. Clinical outcomes (pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy rates) following day 3 embryo and day 5 blastocyst transfer cycles were retrospectively analysed. Day 3 embryo and day 5 blastocyst transfer cycles were divided into normal P level (P ≤ 1.5 ng/ml) and P elevation group (P > 1.5 ng/ml), based on the serum P level on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration. A total of 2868 cycles were analysed. In day 3 embryo transfer cycles (n = 2345), the clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the normal P level group compared with the P elevation group (55.4% versus 46.7%, respectively) and the ectopic pregnancy rate was significantly lower in the normal P level group compared with the P elevation group (2.8% versus 7.9%, respectively). In day 5 blastocyst transfer cycles (n = 523), there were no significant differences in the clinical pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy rates between the two groups, based on the P level. These preliminary findings suggest that day 5 blastocyst transfer should be adopted for patients with P elevation on the day of hCG administration.

  5. Evaluation of progesterone levels in feces of captive reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).

    PubMed

    Dumonceaux, Genevieve A; Bauman, Joan E; Camilo, Gerardo R

    2006-09-01

    Fresh fecal samples were collected from seven adult female reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Samples were collected for several weeks before, during, and for a few weeks after gestation. Fecal samples were analyzed for progesterone levels by radioimmunoassay. There were significant differences in progesterone levels between pregestational and gestational samples and between gestational and postgestational samples. These results demonstrate that fecal progesterone levels are useful in determining pregnant versus nonpregnant reticulated giraffe.

  6. Progesterone Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... of infertility . Since progesterone levels vary throughout the menstrual cycle, multiple (serial) measurements can be used for this ... be ordered a few times during a woman's menstrual cycle to evaluate the change in progesterone concentrations. When ...

  7. Preliminary results on plasma progesterone levels during pregnancy and superfetation in the hare, Lepus Europaeus.

    PubMed

    Caillol, M; Martinet, L

    1976-01-01

    Peripheral plasma progesterone levels were studied in pregnant hares. A rise occurred at the beginning of pregnancy, followed by a plateau from Days 10 to 35, and then a drop during the days just before parturition. No significant differences were noted between progesterone levels in pregnancies initiated at the pre-partum oestrus and those from other oestrous periods.

  8. Basal serum progesterone and history of elevated progesterone on the day of hCG administration are significant predictors of late follicular progesterone elevation in GnRH antagonist IVF cycles.

    PubMed

    Venetis, Christos A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Bosdou, Julia K; Lainas, George T; Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Lainas, Tryfon G

    2016-08-01

    Are there any baseline predictors of progesterone elevation (PE) on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) which are not associated with the intensity of ovarian stimulation in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) using follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists? Basal (Day 2 of the menstrual cycle) serum progesterone concentration and history of PE are baseline variables that can predict the occurrence of PE on the day of hCG independently of the intensity of ovarian stimulation. PE on the day of hCG is associated with the magnitude of the ovarian response to stimulation. For this reason, it has been hypothesized that milder ovarian stimulation might reduce the probability of PE. However, given the fact that the number of oocytes retrieved is associated with the probability of live birth, such a strategy should be considered only in patients that are at high risk of PE on the day of hCG. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of fresh IVF/ICSI cycles (n = 1702) performed in a single IVF centre during the period 2001-2015. Patients in whom ovarian stimulation was performed with FSH and GnRH antagonists and with basal FSH <14.0 mIU/ml, progesterone (P) ≤1.6 ng/ml and estradiol (E2) ≤80 pg/ml on the same day (prior to the initiation of stimulation) were considered eligible. PE was defined as serum progesterone concentration >1.5 ng/ml. Pre-stimulation characteristics of patients and basal hormonal profile were assessed for their ability to predict the occurrence of PE after ovarian stimulation through generalized estimating equation univariable and multivariable regression analyses, controlling for the effect of ovarian stimulation. Furthermore, a secondary analysis in a subset of patients with multiple IVF cycles explored whether the occurrence of PE in one of the previous cycles included in this study is associated with a significantly higher occurrence of PE elevation in subsequent cycles

  9. Ongoing pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination are affected by late follicular-phase progesterone levels.

    PubMed

    Requena, Antonio; Cruz, María; Pacheco, Alberto; García-Velasco, Juan Antonio

    2015-10-01

    To determine the relationship between serum P levels on the day of hCG administration and ongoing pregnancy rates. Retrospective study. University-affiliated private IVF. A total of 2,458 couples undergoing IUI. Ovarian stimulation with human recombinant FSH. Ongoing pregnancy and miscarriage rates. Progesterone concentrations were significantly higher given that the E2 concentration increased. Ongoing pregnancy rates were significantly decreased in women with P levels higher than 1.1 ng/mL; similar results were obtained in relation to miscarriage rates. Significant differences in ongoing pregnancy rates when P levels were elevated on the day of hCG administration may help clinicians to counsel patients about the reduced success rates with IUI and manage the timing of insemination to optimize implantation. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Top quality blastocyst formation rates in relation to progesterone levels on the day of oocyte maturation in GnRH antagonist IVF/ICSI cycles.

    PubMed

    Vanni, V S; Somigliana, E; Reschini, M; Pagliardini, L; Marotta, E; Faulisi, S; Paffoni, A; Vigano', P; Vegetti, W; Candiani, M; Papaleo, E

    2017-01-01

    Cycles with progesterone elevation during controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) for IVF/ICSI are commonly managed with a "freeze-all" strategy, due to a well-recognized detrimental effect of high progesterone levels on endometrial receptivity. However, also a detrimental effect of elevated progesterone on day-3 embryo quality has recently been found with regards to top quality embryo formation rate. Because blastocyst culture and cryopreservation are largely adopted, we deemed relevant to determine whether this detrimental effect is also seen on blastocyst quality on day 5-6. This issue was investigated through a large two-center retrospective study including 986 GnRH antagonist IVF/ICSI cycles and using top quality blastocyst formation rate as the main outcome. Results showed that on multivariate analysis sperm motility (p<0.01) and progesterone levels at ovulation triggering (p = 0.01) were the only two variables that significantly predicted top quality blastocyst formation rate after adjusting for relevant factors including female age, BMI, basal AMH and total dose of FSH used for COS. More specifically, progesterone levels at induction showed an inverse relation with top quality blastocyst formation (correlation coefficient B = -1.08, 95% CI -1.9 to -0.02) and ROC curve analysis identified P level >1.49 ng/ml as the best cut-off for identification of patients at risk for the absence of top quality blastocysts (AUC 0.55, p<0.01). Our study is the first to investigate the top quality blastocyst formation rate in relation to progesterone levels in IVF/ICSI cycles, showing that increasing progesterone is associated with lower rates of top quality blastocyst. Hence, the advantages of prolonging COS to maximize the number of collected oocytes might eventually be hindered by a decrease in top quality blastocysts available for transfer, if increasing progesterone levels are observed. This observation extends the results of two recent studies focused on day-3 embryos and

  11. Maternal obesity is associated with a low serum progesterone level in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Goh, Jia Ying; He, Song; Allen, John Carson; Malhotra, Rahul; Tan, Thiam Chye

    2016-09-01

    Progesterone is an important biomarker of early pregnancy failure. However, literature is limited regarding factors that influence progesterone levels in early pregnancy. Maternal obesity has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriages. We investigated the association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and serum progesterone level in first trimester singleton pregnancies for 194 women at a tertiary maternity hospital in Singapore, from January 2012 to February 2014. Maternal characteristics and study outcomes were retrieved from clinical records. Multivariate analysis demonstrated an inverse relationship between first trimester maternal BMI category and serum progesterone level (p=0.012). Obesity (maternal BMI ≥30 kg/m2), relative to normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), conferred an increased risk for serum progesterone <35 nmol/L (adjusted OR: 9.14; 95% CI: 2.12 - 39.5; p=0.003). The overall miscarriage rate in our study population was 13.9%. This study indicates that maternal obesity is associated with low first trimester serum progesterone. Pre-pregnancy weight optimization may be beneficial in regulation of serum progesterone level and maintenance of healthy pregnancy.

  12. Progesterone levels before and after laparoscopic tubal sterilization using endotherm coagulation.

    PubMed

    Helm, G; Sjöberg, N O

    1983-01-01

    Tubal sterilization can be performed by several surgical methods. It has often been reported that menstrual disorders appear after the operations, probably caused by hormonal disturbance. However, there is no published systematic study of the ovarian hormonal status after sterilization. In the present prospective study therefore, the plasma progesterone level has been determined during one menstrual cycle before and one after endotherm tubal laparoscopic coagulation. Plasma progesterone was chosen as normal levels of this hormone during the luteal phase reflect ovulation and an adequate corpus luteum. The endotherm coagulation method does not appear to cause any progesterone malfunction in the ovary.

  13. The effects of estrogen and progesterone on blood glutamate levels during normal pregnancy in women.

    PubMed

    Tsesis, Svetlana; Gruenbaum, Benjamin Fredrick; Ohayon, Sharon; Boyko, Matthew; Gruenbaum, Shaun Even; Shapira, Yoram; Weintraub, Adi; Zlotnik, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in estrogen and progesterone levels observed during normal pregnancy influence blood glutamate levels. One-hundred and sixteen pregnant women were divided into three groups based on gestational age: group 1 included women in their first trimester, group 2 included women in their second trimester, and group 3 included women in their third trimester. A single venous blood sample was collected and analyzed for concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and glutamate. Concentrations of blood glutamate were significantly lower during the second trimester (p < 0.001) and third trimester (p < 0.001). Blood glutamate levels were inversely correlated with levels of estrogen and progesterone throughout pregnancy (p < 0.001). Levels of GOT and GPT remained stable during the course of pregnancy, apart from a moderate reduction in GPT during the third trimester. Increases in estrogen and progesterone levels during advanced stages of pregnancy were inversely correlated with maternal blood glutamate concentrations. Once a maximal blood glutamate-reducing effect was achieved, any additional estrogen and progesterone had a negligible effect on blood glutamate. This study demonstrates the glutamate-reducing effects of estrogen and progesterone, which is most likely not mediated by a GOT/GPT conversion mechanism.

  14. Elevated progesterone on the trigger day does not impair the outcome of Human Menotrophins Gonadotrophin and Medroxyprogesterone acetate treatment cycles

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xuefeng; Chen, Qiuju; Fu, Yonglun; Ai, Ai; Lyu, Qifeng; Kuang, Yan Ping

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate the incidence and effects of elevated progesterone (P) on the trigger day on the outcome of in-vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles using Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) co-treated with Human Menotrophins Gonadotrophin (hMG + MPA), we performed a retrospective analysis including 4106 IVF/ICSI cycles. The cycles were grouped according to the P level on the trigger day: <1 ng/mL, between 1–1.5 ng/ml (including 1), between 1.5–2 ng/mL (including 1.5), and ≥2 ng/mL. The primary outcome measure was live birth rate. The prevalence of P level categories was 12.93% (531/4106), 2.92% (120/4106), and 1.92% (79/4106) in women with P between 1–1.5 ng/mL, between 1.5–2 ng/mL, and ≥2 ng/mL, respectively. The mean stimulation duration, total hMG dose, serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen(E2) on the trigger day and the number of oocytes in patients with elevated P were significantly higher than patients with P < 1 ng/mL (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the oocyte retrieval rates, fertilization rates, implantation rates, clinical pregnancy rates and live birth rates between the groups based on frozen embryo transfer (FET). We concluded that elevated P on the trigger day had no negative effect on the final outcome of the hMG + MPA treatment cycles based on FET. PMID:27498612

  15. Elevated progesterone on the trigger day does not impair the outcome of Human Menotrophins Gonadotrophin and Medroxyprogesterone acetate treatment cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xuefeng; Chen, Qiuju; Fu, Yonglun; Ai, Ai; Lyu, Qifeng; Kuang, Yan Ping

    2016-08-01

    To demonstrate the incidence and effects of elevated progesterone (P) on the trigger day on the outcome of in-vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles using Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) co-treated with Human Menotrophins Gonadotrophin (hMG + MPA), we performed a retrospective analysis including 4106 IVF/ICSI cycles. The cycles were grouped according to the P level on the trigger day: <1 ng/mL, between 1–1.5 ng/ml (including 1), between 1.5–2 ng/mL (including 1.5), and ≥2 ng/mL. The primary outcome measure was live birth rate. The prevalence of P level categories was 12.93% (531/4106), 2.92% (120/4106), and 1.92% (79/4106) in women with P between 1–1.5 ng/mL, between 1.5–2 ng/mL, and ≥2 ng/mL, respectively. The mean stimulation duration, total hMG dose, serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen(E2) on the trigger day and the number of oocytes in patients with elevated P were significantly higher than patients with P < 1 ng/mL (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the oocyte retrieval rates, fertilization rates, implantation rates, clinical pregnancy rates and live birth rates between the groups based on frozen embryo transfer (FET). We concluded that elevated P on the trigger day had no negative effect on the final outcome of the hMG + MPA treatment cycles based on FET.

  16. Elevated progesterone on the trigger day does not impair the outcome of Human Menotrophins Gonadotrophin and Medroxyprogesterone acetate treatment cycles.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuefeng; Chen, Qiuju; Fu, Yonglun; Ai, Ai; Lyu, Qifeng; Kuang, Yan Ping

    2016-08-08

    To demonstrate the incidence and effects of elevated progesterone (P) on the trigger day on the outcome of in-vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles using Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) co-treated with Human Menotrophins Gonadotrophin (hMG + MPA), we performed a retrospective analysis including 4106 IVF/ICSI cycles. The cycles were grouped according to the P level on the trigger day: <1 ng/mL, between 1-1.5 ng/ml (including 1), between 1.5-2 ng/mL (including 1.5), and ≥2 ng/mL. The primary outcome measure was live birth rate. The prevalence of P level categories was 12.93% (531/4106), 2.92% (120/4106), and 1.92% (79/4106) in women with P between 1-1.5 ng/mL, between 1.5-2 ng/mL, and ≥2 ng/mL, respectively. The mean stimulation duration, total hMG dose, serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen(E2) on the trigger day and the number of oocytes in patients with elevated P were significantly higher than patients with P < 1 ng/mL (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the oocyte retrieval rates, fertilization rates, implantation rates, clinical pregnancy rates and live birth rates between the groups based on frozen embryo transfer (FET). We concluded that elevated P on the trigger day had no negative effect on the final outcome of the hMG + MPA treatment cycles based on FET.

  17. Correlation between endometrial biopsy and serum progesterone level in prediction of corpus luteum function.

    PubMed

    El-hefnawi, N; Abou-gabal, A; El-etriby, A; Maged, M; Wafa, G; Ragab, I

    1987-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the correlation between endometrial biopsy and serum progesterone level in prediction of corpus luteum function in regularly menstruating women. Endometrial biopsy specimens were obtained from 40 women 20-25 years old with unproven fertility 2-3 days before the anticipated onset of menses. A simultaneous blood sample was obtained for measurement of serum progesterone levels using a radioimmunoassay technique. 27 biopsies were considered to be in-phase (IP) by histologic criteria, and the remaining 13 were out-of-phase (OOP). The mean serum progesterone level obtained from women with OOP biopsies 3-4 days before onset of menses was significantly lower than that obtained 1-2 days before the onset of menses. Menstruation occurred in women with OOP biopsies at a time when serum progesterone level was apparently rising. On the other hand, values were too small to identify any significant difference between groups of women with IP and OOP biopsies when these biopsies were performed very late in the cycle. The author states the importance of evaluating both serum progesterone and endometrial biopsy dating in the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Serum progesterone was easy to perform, while endometrial biopsy showed the end result.

  18. Low Prolactin and High 20-α-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Levels Contribute to Lower Progesterone Levels in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Exposed to Protease Inhibitor–Based Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Eszter; Balogun, Kayode; Banko, Nicole; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona; Yudin, Mark H.; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Murphy, Kellie E.; Walmsley, Sharon L.; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Background. It has been reported that pregnant women receiving protease inhibitor (PI)–based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have lower levels of progesterone, which put them at risk of adverse birth outcomes, such as low birth weight. We sought to understand the mechanisms involved in this decline in progesterone level. Methods. We assessed plasma levels of progesterone, prolactin, and lipids and placental expression of genes involved in progesterone metabolism in 42 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and 31 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. In vitro studies and a mouse pregnancy model were used to delineate the effect of HIV from that of PI-based cART on progesterone metabolism. Results. HIV-infected pregnant women receiving PI-based cART showed a reduction in plasma progesterone levels (P = .026) and an elevation in placental expression of the progesterone inactivating enzyme 20-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20α-HSD; median, 2.5 arbitrary units [AU]; interquartile range [IQR], 1.00–4.10 AU), compared with controls (median, 0.89 AU; IQR, 0.66–1.26 AU; P = .002). Prolactin, a key regulator of 20α-HSD, was lower (P = .012) in HIV-infected pregnant women. We observed similar data in pregnant mice exposed to PI-based cART. In vitro inhibition of 20α-HSD activity in trophoblast cells reversed PI-based cART–induced decreases in progesterone levels. Conclusions. Our data suggest that the decrease in progesterone levels observed in HIV-infected pregnant women exposed to PI-based cART is caused, at least in part, by an increase in placental expression of 20α-HSD, which may be due to lower prolactin levels observed in these women. PMID:26740274

  19. Low Prolactin and High 20-α-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Levels Contribute to Lower Progesterone Levels in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Exposed to Protease Inhibitor-Based Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Papp, Eszter; Balogun, Kayode; Banko, Nicole; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona; Yudin, Mark H; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Murphy, Kellie E; Walmsley, Sharon L; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2016-05-15

    It has been reported that pregnant women receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have lower levels of progesterone, which put them at risk of adverse birth outcomes, such as low birth weight. We sought to understand the mechanisms involved in this decline in progesterone level. We assessed plasma levels of progesterone, prolactin, and lipids and placental expression of genes involved in progesterone metabolism in 42 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and 31 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. In vitro studies and a mouse pregnancy model were used to delineate the effect of HIV from that of PI-based cART on progesterone metabolism. HIV-infected pregnant women receiving PI-based cART showed a reduction in plasma progesterone levels (P= .026) and an elevation in placental expression of the progesterone inactivating enzyme 20-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20α-HSD; median, 2.5 arbitrary units [AU]; interquartile range [IQR], 1.00-4.10 AU), compared with controls (median, 0.89 AU; IQR, 0.66-1.26 AU;P= .002). Prolactin, a key regulator of 20α-HSD, was lower (P= .012) in HIV-infected pregnant women. We observed similar data in pregnant mice exposed to PI-based cART. In vitro inhibition of 20α-HSD activity in trophoblast cells reversed PI-based cART-induced decreases in progesterone levels. Our data suggest that the decrease in progesterone levels observed in HIV-infected pregnant women exposed to PI-based cART is caused, at least in part, by an increase in placental expression of 20α-HSD, which may be due to lower prolactin levels observed in these women. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The slow growing embryo and premature progesterone elevation: compounding factors for embryo-endometrial asynchrony.

    PubMed

    Healy, Mae Wu; Yamasaki, Meghan; Patounakis, George; Richter, Kevin S; Devine, Kate; DeCherney, Alan H; Hill, Micah J

    2017-02-01

    Is there an association of progesterone (P4) on the day of trigger with live birth in autologous ART transfer cycles on day 5 versus day 6? P4 had a greater negative effect on live birth in day 6 fresh transfers compared to day 5 fresh transfers. Premature P4 elevation is associated with lower live birth rates in fresh autologous ART cycles, likely due to worsened endometrial-embryo asynchrony. Few studies have evaluated whether the effect of an elevated P4 on the day of trigger is different on live birth rates with a day 5 compared to a day 6 embryo transfer. This was a retrospective cohort study with autologous IVF cycles with fresh embryo transfers on day 5 and day 6 from 2011 to 2014. A total of 4120 day 5 and 230 day 6 fresh autologous embryo transfers were included. The primary outcome was live birth, defined as a live born baby at 24 weeks gestation or later. Patients from a large private ART practice were included. Analysis was performed with generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeling and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Day 6 transfers were less likely to have good quality embryos (73% versus 83%, P < 0.001) but the cohorts had similar rates of blastocyst stage transfer (92% versus 91%, P = 0.92). Live birth was less likely in fresh day 6 versus day 5 embryo transfers (34% versus 46%, P = 0.01) even when controlling for embryo confounders. In adjusted GEE models, the effect of P4 as a continuous variable on live birth was more pronounced on day 6 (P < 0.001). Similarly, the effect of P4 > 1.5 ng/ml on day of trigger was more pronounced on day 6 than day 5 (P < 0.001). Day 6 live birth rates were 8% lower than day 5 when P4 was in the normal range (P = 0.04), but became 17% lower when P4 was > 1.5 ng/ml (P < 0.01). ROC curves for P4 predicting live birth demonstrated a greater AUC in day 6 transfers (AUC 0.59, 95% CI 0.51-0.66) than day 5 (AUC 0.54, 95% CI 0.52-0.55). Interaction testing of P4 × day of embryo transfer was highly

  1. Space elevator systems level analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  2. The Impact of Serum Progesterone Levels on the Results of In Vitro Fertilization Treatments: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jaime Larach Del; Bousamra, Maroun; Fuente, Laura De La; Ruiz-Balda, Jose A; Palomo, Marissa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this review is to analyze the relationship between preovulatory progesterone (P) rise and in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy outcomes. It also investigates the sources and effects of rises in progesterone levels, including the underlying mechanisms and potential strategies in preventing its elevation during ovarian stimulation. Progesterone is produced in the early follicular phase in the adrenal gland, which shifts toward the ovaries prior to ovulation. Several factors contribute to the etiology of P level increase including the number of multiple follicles, the overdose of gonadotropins and poor ovarian response. Nowadays, the influence of the preovulatory P rise on IVF outcome remains controversial. Several authors have failed to demonstrate any negative impact, while others reported a detrimental effect associated with the rise of P. It seems that P rise (1.5 ng/ml or 4.77 nmol/l) may have deleterious effects on endometrial receptivity, namely, accelerating the endometrial maturation process that subsequently narrows the period for implantation and thus decreases pregnancy rates. Recent studies have proposed different cutoffs according to the ovarian response, which may be a little high in patients with high response in relation to those of normal response or low response. To prevent a P rise, it might be preferable to use milder stimulation protocols, earlier trigger of ovulation, cryopreservation of all embryos and transfer in the natural cycle.

  3. Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis induces decreased prolificacy and increased progesterone levels in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Orihuela-Trujillo, Agustín; Togno-Peirce, Cristián; Murcia-Mejía, Clara; Bielli, Alejandro; Hoffman, Kurt L; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván

    2016-10-15

    Reproductive alterations in hosts infected by parasites have been recognized in several phyla, especially in arthropods and mollusks, but it has been less studied in higher vertebrates, particularly in mammals. In the present study, ten eight week-old female New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were either infected with Taenia pisiformis eggs or uninfected, and 7 weeks later they were mated. We found that serum progesterone levels were increased during pregnancy in infected does. At birth, litter size of infected does was reduced by half as compared to the control group, and, at weaning, the number of kits and the weight of litters was lower. Since serum progesterone levels have a key role in the maintenance of pregnancy and implantation, we propose that the observed prolificacy alterations in does infected with T. pisiformis infection were due to changes in the levels of circulating progesterone during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy levels of sulfated progesterone metabolites inhibit farnesoid X receptor resulting in a cholestatic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Abu-Hayyeh, Shadi; Papacleovoulou, Georgia; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Tahir, Mehreen; Oduwole, Olayiwola; Jamaludin, Nurul Akmal; Ravat, Sabiha; Nikolova, Vanya; Chambers, Jenny; Selden, Clare; Rees, Myrddin; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Parker, Malcolm G; Williamson, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most prevalent pregnancy-specific liver disease and is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including preterm labor and intrauterine death. The endocrine signals that cause cholestasis are not known but 3α-sulfated progesterone metabolites have been shown to be elevated in ICP, leading us to study the impact of sulfated progesterone metabolites on farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-mediated bile acid homeostasis pathways. Here we report that the 3β-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate is supraphysiologically raised in the serum of ICP patients. Mice challenged with cholic acid developed hypercholanemia and a hepatic gene expression profile indicative of FXR activation. However, coadministration of epiallopregnanolone sulfate with cholic acid exacerbated the hypercholanemia and resulted in aberrant gene expression profiles for hepatic bile acid-responsive genes consistent with cholestasis. We demonstrate that levels of epiallopregnanolone sulfate found in ICP can function as a partial agonist for FXR, resulting in the aberrant expression of bile acid homeostasis genes in hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes. Furthermore, epiallopregnanolone sulfate inhibition of FXR results in reduced FXR-mediated bile acid efflux and secreted FGF19. Using cofactor recruitment assays, we show that epiallopregnanolone sulfate competitively inhibits bile acid-mediated recruitment of cofactor motifs to the FXR-ligand binding domain. Our results reveal a novel molecular interaction between ICP-associated levels of the 3β-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate and FXR that couples the endocrine component of pregnancy in ICP to abnormal bile acid homeostasis. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  5. Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy Levels of Sulfated Progesterone Metabolites Inhibit Farnesoid X Receptor Resulting in a Cholestatic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Hayyeh, Shadi; Papacleovoulou, Georgia; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Tahir, Mehreen; Oduwole, Olayiwola; Jamaludin, Nurul Akmal; Ravat, Sabiha; Nikolova, Vanya; Chambers, Jenny; Selden, Clare; Rees, Myrddin; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Parker, Malcolm G; Williamson, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most prevalent pregnancy-specific liver disease and is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including preterm labor and intrauterine death. The endocrine signals that cause cholestasis are not known but 3α-sulfated progesterone metabolites have been shown to be elevated in ICP, leading us to study the impact of sulfated progesterone metabolites on farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-mediated bile acid homeostasis pathways. Here we report that the 3β-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate is supraphysiologically raised in the serum of ICP patients. Mice challenged with cholic acid developed hypercholanemia and a hepatic gene expression profile indicative of FXR activation. However, coadministration of epiallopregnanolone sulfate with cholic acid exacerbated the hypercholanemia and resulted in aberrant gene expression profiles for hepatic bile acid-responsive genes consistent with cholestasis. We demonstrate that levels of epiallopregnanolone sulfate found in ICP can function as a partial agonist for FXR, resulting in the aberrant expression of bile acid homeostasis genes in hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes. Furthermore, epiallopregnanolone sulfate inhibition of FXR results in reduced FXR-mediated bile acid efflux and secreted FGF19. Using cofactor recruitment assays, we show that epiallopregnanolone sulfate competitively inhibits bile acid-mediated recruitment of cofactor motifs to the FXR-ligand binding domain. Conclusion: Our results reveal a novel molecular interaction between ICP-associated levels of the 3β-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate and FXR that couples the endocrine component of pregnancy in ICP to abnormal bile acid homeostasis. (Hepatology 2013;) PMID:22961653

  6. Maternal serum progesterone, estradiol and estriol levels in successful dinoprostone-induced labor

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, C.K.; Morais, E.N.; Naidon, D.; Pereira, A.M.; Rubin, M.A.; Oliveira, J.F.; Mello, C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Hormone-mediated quiescence involves the maintenance of a decreased inflammatory responsiveness. However, no study has investigated whether labor induction with prostanoids is associated with changes in the levels of maternal serum hormones. The objective of this study was to determine whether labor induction with dinoprostone is associated with changes in maternal serum progesterone, estradiol, and estriol levels. Blood samples were obtained from 81 pregnant women at term. Sixteen patients had vaginal birth after spontaneous labor, 12 required cesarean section after spontaneous labor and 16 underwent elective cesarean. Thirty-seven patients had labor induction with dinoprostone. Eligible patients received a vaginal insert of dinoprostone (10 mg) and were followed until delivery. Serum progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3) levels and changes in P4/E2, P4/E3 and E3/E2 ratios were monitored from admission to immediately before birth, and the association of these measures with the resulting clinical classification outcome (route of delivery and induction responsiveness) was assessed. Progesterone levels decreased from admission to birth in patients who underwent successful labor induction with dinoprostone [vaginal and cesarean birth after induced labor: 23% (P < 0.001) and 18% (P < 0.025) decrease, respectively], but not in those whose induction failed (6.4% decrease, P > 0.05). Estriol and estradiol levels, P4/E2, P4/E3 and E3/E2 ratios did not differ between groups. Successful dinoprostone-induced labor was associated with reduced maternal progesterone levels from induction to birth. While a causal relationship between progesterone decrease and effective dinoprostone-induced labor cannot be established, it is tempting to propose that dinoprostone may contribute to progesterone withdrawal and favor labor induction in humans. PMID:23314338

  7. Factors influencing serum progesterone level on triggering day in stimulated in vitro fertilization cycles.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Hee; Jee, Byung Chul; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Elevated serum progesterone (P) levels on triggering day have been known to affect the pregnancy rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study aimed to identify the possible factors influencing serum P levels on triggering day in stimulated IVF cycles. Three hundred and thirty consecutive fresh IVF cycles were included in the study. All cycles were first attempts and were performed in a single infertility center. The indications for IVF were male factor infertility (n=114), ovulatory infertility (n=84), endometriosis (n=61), tubal infertility (n=59), unexplained infertility (n=41), and uterine factor infertility (n=39). A luteal long protocol of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (n=184) or a GnRH antagonist protocol (n=146) was used for pituitary suppression. Ovarian sensitivity was defined as the serum estradiol level on triggering day per 500 IU of administered gonadotropins (OS[a]) or the retrieved oocyte number per 500 IU of administered gonadotropins (OS[b]). Univariate analysis revealed that the serum P level on triggering day was associated with the serum estradiol level on triggering day (r=0.379, p<0.001), the number of follicles ≥14 mm (r=0.247, p<0.001), the number of retrieved oocytes (r=0.384, p<0.001), and ovarian sensitivity (OS[a]: r=0.245, p<0.001; OS[b]: r=0.170, p=0.002). The woman's age, body mass index, antral follicle count, and basal serum follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol levels were not associated with serum P level on triggering day. The serum P level on triggering day did not show significant variation depending on the type or cause of infertility, pituitary suppression protocol, or the type of gonadotropins used. The serum P level on triggering day was closely related to the response to ovarian stimulation.

  8. Factors influencing serum progesterone level on triggering day in stimulated in vitro fertilization cycles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju Hee; Jee, Byung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated serum progesterone (P) levels on triggering day have been known to affect the pregnancy rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study aimed to identify the possible factors influencing serum P levels on triggering day in stimulated IVF cycles. Methods Three hundred and thirty consecutive fresh IVF cycles were included in the study. All cycles were first attempts and were performed in a single infertility center. The indications for IVF were male factor infertility (n=114), ovulatory infertility (n=84), endometriosis (n=61), tubal infertility (n=59), unexplained infertility (n=41), and uterine factor infertility (n=39). A luteal long protocol of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (n=184) or a GnRH antagonist protocol (n=146) was used for pituitary suppression. Ovarian sensitivity was defined as the serum estradiol level on triggering day per 500 IU of administered gonadotropins (OS[a]) or the retrieved oocyte number per 500 IU of administered gonadotropins (OS[b]). Results Univariate analysis revealed that the serum P level on triggering day was associated with the serum estradiol level on triggering day (r=0.379, p<0.001), the number of follicles ≥14 mm (r=0.247, p<0.001), the number of retrieved oocytes (r=0.384, p<0.001), and ovarian sensitivity (OS[a]: r=0.245, p<0.001; OS[b]: r=0.170, p=0.002). The woman's age, body mass index, antral follicle count, and basal serum follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol levels were not associated with serum P level on triggering day. The serum P level on triggering day did not show significant variation depending on the type or cause of infertility, pituitary suppression protocol, or the type of gonadotropins used. Conclusion The serum P level on triggering day was closely related to the response to ovarian stimulation. PMID:26161336

  9. Low progesterone levels and ovulation by ultrasound assessment in infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Eliane G M; Giviziez, Christiane R; Sanchez, Hugo M; Agostinho, Patrícia L S; Barros, Patrícia S; Approbato, Mário S

    2016-03-01

    To assess the correlation between low levels of progesterone and ovulation by ultrasound monitoring in infertile patients with regular menstrual cycles. Case-control study. The sample consisted of 302 women aged 20-40 years, treated from 2000 to 2014 in the Human Reproduction Laboratory of the University Hospital of the Federal University of Goiás and in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Goiânia, Goiás. Data collection was performed by analysis of physical records (Medical Records and Health Information Services) and electronic ones (Sisfert©, 2004) after approval by a Human Research Ethics Committee. Patients were classified according to their ovulatory status, evaluated by progesterone levels and ultrasound monitoring and divided into two groups: Group I (anovulatory cycle patients, n=74) and Group II (ovulatory patients, n=228). In both groups associations were made between the percentage of patients with normal progesterone (≥ 10 ng/ml) and percentage of patients with low progesterone (5.65 - 9.9 ng/ml). The groups were paired for comparisons related to age, body mass index, duration of infertility, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E2). There was a significant association between the percentage of ovulation by ultrasound monitoring and the percentages of patients who presented low levels of progesterone. The study suggests that low serum levels of progesterone are associated with low percentage of ovulation in infertile women with regular menstrual cycles and women with unexplained infertility.

  10. Serum progesterone

    MedlinePlus

    ... progesterone levels start to rise midway through the menstrual cycle. It continues to rise for about 6 to ... normal ranges based upon certain phases of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy: Female (pre-ovulation): less than 1 ...

  11. Does premature elevated progesterone on the day of trigger increase spontaneous abortion rates in fresh and subsequent frozen embryo transfers?

    PubMed

    Healy, Mae; Patounakis, George; Zanelotti, Austin; Devine, Kate; DeCherney, Alan; Levy, Michael; Hill, Micah J

    2017-03-02

    Recent evidence has shown elevated progesterone (P) advances the endometrium in fresh ART cycles, creating asynchrony with the embryo and thus implantation failure and decreased live birth rates. If the window of implantation is closing as the embryo attempts to implant, there may be difficulty with trophoblastic invasion, leading to failure of early pregnancies. Our objective was to evaluate if P on the day of trigger was associated with spontaneous abortion (SAB) rates in fresh ART transfers. This was a retrospective cohort study involving fresh autologous and FET cycles from 2011 to 2013. The main outcome was spontaneous abortion rates. About 4123 fresh and FET transfer cycles were included which resulted in 1547 fresh and 491 FET pregnancies. The overall SAB rate was 20% among fresh cycles and 19% in FET cycles. P on the day of trigger, as a continuous variable or when > 2 ng/mL, was not associated with SAB in fresh cycles. Similar results were found after adjusting for age, embryo quality, and embryo stage. Despite elevated P likely advancing the window of implantation, once implantation occurs, pregnancies were no longer negatively impacted by progesterone.

  12. Interactive Effects of Dopamine Baseline Levels and Cycle Phase on Executive Functions: The Role of Progesterone.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Lopez, Esmeralda; Pletzer, Belinda

    2017-01-01

    Estradiol and progesterone levels vary along the menstrual cycle and have multiple neuroactive effects, including on the dopaminergic system. Dopamine relates to executive functions in an "inverted U-shaped" manner and its levels are increased by estradiol. Accordingly, dopamine dependent changes in executive functions along the menstrual cycle have been previously studied in the pre-ovulatory phase, when estradiol levels peak. Specifically it has been demonstrated that working memory is enhanced during the pre-ovulatory phase in women with low dopamine baseline levels, but impaired in women with high dopamine baseline levels. However, the role of progesterone, which peaks in the luteal cycle phase, has not been taken into account previously. Therefore, the main goals of the present study were to extend these findings (i) to the luteal cycle phase and (ii) to other executive functions. Furthermore, the usefulness of the eye blink rate (EBR) as an indicator of dopamine baseline levels in menstrual cycle research was explored. 36 naturally cycling women were tested during three cycle phases (menses-low sex hormones; pre-ovulatory-high estradiol; luteal-high progesterone and estradiol). During each session, women performed a verbal N-back task, as measure of working memory, and a single trial version of the Stroop task, as measure of response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Hormone levels were assessed from saliva samples and spontaneous eye blink rate was recorded during menses. In the N-back task, women were faster during the luteal phase the higher their progesterone levels, irrespective of their dopamine baseline levels. In the Stroop task, we found a dopamine-cycle interaction, which was also driven by the luteal phase and progesterone levels. For women with higher EBR performance decreased during the luteal phase, whereas for women with lower EBR performance improved during the luteal phase. These findings suggest an important role of progesterone in

  13. Uterine involution and progesterone level during the postpartum period in Barbary ewes in north Libya

    PubMed Central

    Medan, M.S.; EL-Daek, T.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the time of uterine involution and ovarian activity using ultrasound examination and progesterone assay. Weekly progesterone levels were measured starting one week postpartum until two weeks after the 1st postpartum estrus in Barbary ewes lambed during winter in AL-Bayda city, north of Libya. A total of 15 Barbary ewes were used in the present study distributed in three groups according to the month of lambing as group 1 (lambed in January), group 2 (lambed in February) and group 3 (lambed in March). Ewes were examined weekly by trans-rectal ultrasound to check involution of the uterus starting one week after lambing until complete uterine involution. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, and serum was separated and stored at -20 °C until measuring progesterone using ELISA. Results showed that uterine involution completed at day 35 postpartum in groups 1 and 2, while it occurred at day 28 in group 3. The mean progesterone level was basal (less than 1 ng/ml) for a long period and started to increase at days 119, 99 and 77 postpartum in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. One ewe did not show estrus at all during the period of study in group 2 and there were no growing follicles on their ovaries. The obtained results indicate that, uterine involution as determined by ultrasound completed earlier in ewes lambed in March than those lambed in February or January. Also, progesterone level and ultrasound examination showed that there was no ovarian activity for a longtime after parturition indicating that reproduction in Barbary ewes tends to be seasonal in AL-Bayda city, north Libya. PMID:26623357

  14. [Indirect detection of ovulation and fertilization in the dog by progesterone level testing].

    PubMed

    Arbeiter, K; Dobretsberger, M; Müller, E; Holzmann, A

    1991-11-01

    In addition to already published data (Arbeiter et al., 1990) we could achieve important facts concerning the estimation of mating time of the bitch by measuring the progesterone (P4) level continuously and observing the clinical signs on a collective of 106 ambulant patients. We found that a P4-concentration of 5 ng/ml plasma and above is signaling ovulation or ova fertilisation; a sudden rise of the progesterone over 10 ng (Ovucheck), reflecting 19.2 ng/ml (Serozyme-Progesterone), turned out to be a diagnostic mark for determination of mating time. Copulation took place between the 9th and 19th day of heat. 89% of the controllable bitches (n = 79) conceive and birth occurred 61.4 days (mean) later. The litter size and the loss of dead born puppies (4.7%) was normal with regard to the pertinent races. Because of their easy handling the P4-test kits (Ovucheck; Serozyme-Progesterone) are of good use for the practitioner.

  15. The progesterone level, leukocyte count and disgust sensitivity across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Żelaźniewicz, Agnieszka; Borkowska, Barbara; Nowak, Judyta; Pawłowski, Bogusław

    2016-07-01

    According to the compensatory prophylaxis hypothesis, women in the luteal phase, characterized by a high progesterone level, which suppresses various mechanisms of immune response, should exhibit higher disgust sensitivity, compared to the follicular phase. In this study we test the hypothesis on the compensatory role of disgust sensitivity at the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, when immune functions are expected to change due to a rise in progesterone level. Disgust sensitivity, progesterone level (P) and white blood cell count (WBC), a general marker of immunocompetence, were measured in 30 healthy women of reproductive age. Disgust sensitivity was evaluated with: 1) Disgust Scale Revised (DS-R) containing three subscales: Core Disgust, Animal Reminder and Contamination Disgust, 2) Pathogen Disgust and Moral Disgust domains of the Three-Domain Disgust Scale. Measurements were conducted twice - in menstruation (the lowest P) and in the mid-luteal phase (the highest P). The results were analyzed longitudinally and using cross-sectional comparisons. Progesterone level, WBC count, and the level of disgust sensitivity in Animal Domain were higher in the mid-luteal phase comparing to menstruation. The level of disgust sensitivity (DS-R score, Animal, Contamination, Pathogen Disgust) correlated only with P (not WBC) and only in the mid-luteal phase (not in menstruation) in between-subjects comparisons. On the base of these results, we hypothesize that the level of disgust sensitivity in the whole menstrual cycle of a woman is "adjusted" to the luteal phase with the highest P level i.e. when immunosuppression is the greatest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum levels of gonadotropins, prolactin, and progesterone in infertile female Africans.

    PubMed

    Kuku, S F; Akinyanju, P A; Ojeifo, J O

    1987-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of hormonal abnormalities in infertile African women, serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, and progesterone were estimated using radioimmunoassay techniques during the midluteal phase in 2,047 female partners of infertile relationships. Of the patients investigated, 1,085 (53%) had abnormal serum levels of one or more of the hormones studied. Hyperprolactinemia, found in 537 (26.2%) of the patients, was the commonest hormonal abnormality. Serum progesterone level of 3 ng/mL or below which is indicative of anovulation was found in 235 (11.5%) patients, while the value of 5 ng/mL or below, suggestive of inadequate luteal functions, was found in another 121 (5.9%) patients. Since hyperprolactinemia, anovulation, and defective luteal function are treatable endocrine disorders, routine endocrine evaluation of infertile females in African societies is suggested.

  17. Seasonal changes in serum progesterone levels in Thoroughbred racehorses in training

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Yuji; AKAI, Makoto; MURASE, Harutaka; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to verify the seasonal luteal activity of racehorses in training in Japan from March to August. We allocated 102 horses into a luteal activity group and non-luteal activity group. The luteal activity group included horses with serum progesterone levels that were consistently >1 ng/ml and changed by ± 1 ng/ml. In contrast, the progesterone levels of the non-luteal activity group were consistently <1 ng/ml. In late spring (from May 1 to June 30) and summer (from July 1 to August 31), the percentage of horses in the luteal activity group was significantly higher than in early spring (from March 1 to April 30, P<0.01). These findings demonstrate clear seasonal variations in ovarian activity. The present study also suggest that training for a race may not affect ovarian activity in female racehorses. PMID:26858579

  18. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and progesterone plasma levels association with the onset and progression of labor.

    PubMed

    Stamatelou, F; Deligeoroglou, E; Vrachnis, N; Iliodromiti, S; Iliodromiti, Z; Sifakis, S; Farmakides, G; Creatsas, G

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF LNVESTIGATION: To examine the relationship between maternal plasma progesterone along with corticotropin- releasing hormone (CRH) plasma levels and the progression of labor. Maternal serum CRH and progesterone were measured during the latent phase of labor, active labor, and 24 hours postpartum in women who went into spontaneous labor and delivered vaginally at term. Progesterone (P) levels in women delivered by an elective cesarean section at term were also measured as baseline. Mean maternal plasma P was 18% higher in the active phase than in the latent phase of labor (p < 0.01), and declined significantly by 24 hours postpartum (p < 0.001). Mean level of serum CRH was 24% higher in the active phase than in the latent phase of labor (p < 0.01), and subsequently declined significantly by 24 hours postpartum (p < 0.001). As labor progresses, P and CRH increase and subsequently decrease precipitously in the immediate postpartal period. P levels tend to drop in women who are in early labor compared with non-laboring full-term women.

  19. Correlation of brain levels of progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone with neurological recovery after traumatic brain injury in female mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Acaz-Fonseca, Estefania; Giatti, Silvia; Caruso, Donatella; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Melcangi, Roberto C; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of disability in humans. Neuroactive steroids, such as progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), are neuroprotective in TBI models. However in order to design potential neuroprotective strategies based on neuroactive steroids it is important to determine whether its brain levels are altered by TBI. In this study we have used a weight-drop model of TBI in young adult female mice to determine the levels of neuroactive steroids in the brain and plasma at 24h, 72 h and 2 weeks after injury. We have also analyzed whether the levels of neuroactive steroids after TBI correlated with the neurological score of the animals. TBI caused neurological deficit detectable at 24 and 72 h, which recovered by 2 weeks after injury. Brain levels of progesterone, tetrahydroprogesterone (THP), isopregnanolone and 17β-estradiol were decreased 24h, 72 h and 2 weeks after TBI. DHEA and brain testosterone levels presented a transient decrease at 24h after lesion. Brain levels of progesterone and DHEA showed a positive correlation with neurological recovery. Plasma analyses showed that progesterone was decreased 72 h after lesion but, in contrast with brain progesterone, its levels did not correlate with neurological deficit. These findings indicate that TBI alters the levels of neuroactive steroids in the brain with independence of its plasma levels and suggest that the pharmacological increase in the brain of the levels of progesterone and DHEA may result in the improvement of neurological recovery after TBI.

  20. The hyperventilation of cirrhosis: progesterone and estradiol effects.

    PubMed

    Lustik, S J; Chhibber, A K; Kolano, J W; Hilmi, I A; Henson, L C; Morris, M C; Bronsther, O

    1997-01-01

    Progesterone and estradiol are metabolized in the liver and are elevated in patients with cirrhosis. Progesterone stimulates ventilation by activating progesterone receptors in the central nervous system; estradiol may facilitate progesterone's actions by increasing progesterone receptors. This study evaluated whether progesterone and estradiol contribute to the respiratory alkalosis common in cirrhotic patients. Arterial blood gases and progesterone and estradiol levels were obtained in 50 patients with cirrhosis. Multiple linear regression revealed a statistically significant correlation between PaCO2 and progesterone and estradiol (r = .54, P < .05). Patients with severe hyperventilation (PaCO2 < or = 30 mm Hg) had statistically higher levels of progesterone and estradiol than did patients with mild hyperventilation (30 < PaCO2 < or = 35) or normal ventilation (PaCO2 > 35) (P < .05). Although the progesterone levels were two orders of magnitude lower than those associated with hyperventilation in pregnant patients, the increased ventilatory effect may be because of the altered blood-brain barrier (BBB) present in cirrhotic patients. Progesterone and estradiol appear to contribute to the hyperventilation in cirrhotic patients.

  1. Exercise lowers estrogen and progesterone levels in premenopausal women at high risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kossman, D A; Williams, N I; Domchek, S M; Kurzer, M S; Stopfer, J E; Schmitz, K H

    2011-12-01

    Experimental and clinical data support a role for estrogens in the development and growth of breast cancer, and lowered estrogen exposure reduces breast cancer recurrence and new diagnoses in high-risk women. There is varied evidence that increased physical activity is associated with breast cancer risk reduction in both pre- and postmenopausal women, perhaps via lowered estrogen levels. The purpose of this study was to assess whether exercise intervention in premenopausal women at increased breast cancer risk reduces estrogen or progesterone levels. Seven healthy premenopausal women at high risk for breast cancer completed a seven-menstrual-cycle study. The study began with two preintervention cycles of baseline measurement of hormone levels via daily first-morning urine collection, allowing calculation of average area under the curve (AUC) hormone exposure across the menstrual cycle. Participants then began five cycles of exercise training to a maintenance level of 300 min per week at 80-85% of maximal aerobic capacity. During the last two exercise cycles, urinary estradiol and progesterone levels were again measured daily. Total estrogen exposure declined by 18.9% and total progesterone exposure by 23.7%. The declines were mostly due to decreased luteal phase levels, although menstrual cycle and luteal phase lengths were unchanged. The study demonstrated the feasibility of daily urine samples and AUC measurement to assess hormone exposure in experimental studies of the impact of interventions on ovarian hormones. The results suggest value in exercise interventions to reduce hormone levels in high-risk women with few side effects and the potential for incremental benefits to surgical or pharmacologic interventions.

  2. [Effect of adrenocorticotropin on the progesterone level in the peripheral blood and on adrenal progesterone production in vitro in female silver foxes].

    PubMed

    Osadchuk, L V

    1988-07-01

    The plasma progesterone increased following a single injection of ACTH (3 ME/kg). The progesterone production was also increased by ACTH after incubation of adrenals in vitro. The data suggest that the adrenal glands of female silver foxes are capable not only of secreting progesterone, but also of responding to ACTH with a further increase in the progesterone secretion.

  3. Increasing progesterone levels are associated with smoking abstinence among free-cycling women smokers who receive brief pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Michael E; McClure, Erin A; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Hartwell, Karen J; Gray, Kevin M

    2015-04-01

    Preclinical and human laboratory research suggests that (a) progesterone may decrease drug reward, craving, and smoking behavior, and (b) estradiol may enhance drug reward and smoking behavior. A modest majority of treatment research examining the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and outcomes suggests that the luteal menstrual phase, with its uniquely higher progesterone levels, is associated with better cessation outcomes. However, no studies to date have examined the effects of naturally occurring variation in progesterone and estradiol levels on medication-assisted smoking cessation. The present study sought to fill this notable gap in the treatment literature. Weekly plasma progesterone and estradiol levels were obtained from nicotine-dependent female smokers enrolled in a 4-week cessation trial. Participants (N = 108) were randomized to receive a 4-week course of either varenicline (VAR) tablets and placebo patches or placebo tablets and nicotine patches. Plasma samples were obtained 1 week before their cessation attempt and weekly during medication administration. Abstinence was assessed weekly. Weekly hormone data replicated commonly observed menstrual cycle patterns of progesterone and estradiol levels. Importantly, increases in progesterone level were associated with a 23% increase in the odds for being abstinent within each week of treatment. This effect was driven primarily by nicotine patch-treated versus VAR-treated females. This study was the first to identify an association between progesterone level (increasing) and abstinence outcomes in free-cycling women smokers who participated in a medication-based treatment. Furthermore, the potential benefits of progesterone may vary across different pharmacotherapies. Implications of these findings for smoking cessation intervention are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For

  4. Increasing Progesterone Levels Are Associated With Smoking Abstinence Among Free-Cycling Women Smokers Who Receive Brief Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Hartwell, Karen J.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Preclinical and human laboratory research suggests that (a) progesterone may decrease drug reward, craving, and smoking behavior, and (b) estradiol may enhance drug reward and smoking behavior. A modest majority of treatment research examining the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and outcomes suggests that the luteal menstrual phase, with its uniquely higher progesterone levels, is associated with better cessation outcomes. However, no studies to date have examined the effects of naturally occurring variation in progesterone and estradiol levels on medication-assisted smoking cessation. The present study sought to fill this notable gap in the treatment literature. Methods: Weekly plasma progesterone and estradiol levels were obtained from nicotine-dependent female smokers enrolled in a 4-week cessation trial. Participants (N = 108) were randomized to receive a 4-week course of either varenicline (VAR) tablets and placebo patches or placebo tablets and nicotine patches. Plasma samples were obtained 1 week before their cessation attempt and weekly during medication administration. Abstinence was assessed weekly. Results: Weekly hormone data replicated commonly observed menstrual cycle patterns of progesterone and estradiol levels. Importantly, increases in progesterone level were associated with a 23% increase in the odds for being abstinent within each week of treatment. This effect was driven primarily by nicotine patch–treated versus VAR-treated females. Conclusions: This study was the first to identify an association between progesterone level (increasing) and abstinence outcomes in free-cycling women smokers who participated in a medication-based treatment. Furthermore, the potential benefits of progesterone may vary across different pharmacotherapies. Implications of these findings for smoking cessation intervention are discussed. PMID:25762749

  5. Effect of feeding level on luteal function and progesterone concentration in the vena cava during early pregnancy in gilts.

    PubMed

    Athorn, R Z; Stott, P; Bouwman, E G; Chen, T Y; Kennaway, D J; Langendijk, P

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of feeding level on progesterone concentration in the caudal vena cava during early pregnancy in gilts. Twenty-four Landrace gilts were allocated to either a high (2.8±0.02) or a low (1.5±0.01 kg day⁻¹) feeding level at Day 0 of pregnancy. Serial blood samples were collected every 15 min for 3 h before and 3 h after feeding on Days 6 and 9 of pregnancy. Embryo survival and development as well as in vitro luteal progesterone production were assessed at Day 10 of pregnancy. Progesterone concentration in the vena cava was pulsatile with gilts on the high feeding level having more pulses compared with Low gilts on Day 9 of pregnancy (P<0.05). On Day 6 the number of pulses did not differ significantly between treatments; however, the average progesterone concentration in the vena cava tended to be higher in the gilts on the high feeding level (P<0.10). Embryo survival at Day 10 was 92±3% for High gilts compared with 77±3% for Low gilts (P<0.05). No difference in embryo development between the treatments was seen. There was no difference between treatments in in vitro secretion of progesterone by luteal tissue. In conclusion, a high plane of nutrition positively affects progesterone secretion by the ovaries in early pregnancy.

  6. Correlation of Serum CA-125 and Progesterone Levels with Ultrasound Markers in The Prediction of Pregnancy Outcome in Threatened Miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Al Mohamady, Maged; Fattah, Ghada Abdel; Elkattan, Eman; Bayoumy, Rasha; Hamed, Dalia Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ultrasonographic findings and serum progesterone and cancer antigen-125 (CA-125) levels in threatened miscarriage and to predict pregnancy outcome. Materials and Methods In a prospective comparative case-control study, serum CA-125 and progesterone levels were measured for 100 pregnant women with threatened miscarriage who attended the outpatient clinic or the causality department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Kasr El-Aini Hospital, Giza, Egypt, during the period from March 2013 to October 2013. Ultrasound was performed for fetal viability, crown-rump length (CRL), gestational sac diameter (GSD) and fetal heart rate (FHR). The patients were followed up and divided into two groups based on the outcome: 20 women who miscarried (group 1), and 80 women who continued pregnancy (group 2). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and overall accuracy were tested for CA-125 and progesterone levels in prediction of the pregnancy outcome. Correlation of these chemical markers with the ultrasound markers was also examined. Results In the group that miscarried, CA-125 level was significantly higher (P<0.001) and serum progesterone level was significantly lower (P<0.001). For prediction of the outcome of pregnancy, the cut-off limit of 31.2 IU/ml for CA-125 level yielded sensitivity, specificity and an overall accuracy of 96.2, 100 and 99.4% respectively. The cut-off limit of 11.5 ng/ml for progesterone level yielded sensitivity, specificity and an overall accuracy of 97.5, 100 and 99.8% respectively. CA-125 level had a negative correlation with progesterone level and FHR levels (r=-0.716, P<0.001) and (r=-0.414, P<0.001) respectively. Serum progesterone level correlated with GSD (r=0.521, P<0.001) and with CRL (r=0.407, P<0.001) and FHR (r=0.363, P<0.001). CA-125 level was significantly higher in the group that showed hematoma as compared with the

  7. Seminal plasma hormone concentration after oral application of progesterone.

    PubMed

    Feuring, M; Bertsch, T; Tran, B M; Rossol-Haseroth, K; Losel, R; Tillmann, H C; Schultz, A; Weigel, M; Wehling, M

    2002-02-01

    Previous studies have revealed beneficial in vitro effects of progesterone on sperm function. The aim of this pilot study was to prove if orally given micronized progesterone leads to elevations in progesterone and/or 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone levels in seminal plasma, since higher seminal plasma levels of these hormones could possibly have a beneficial effect on sperm function as seen in in vitro investigations. Multiple application of micronized progesterone given over 4 days (daily dose 400 mg) to 6 healthy subjects resulted in elevated seminal plasma levels of progesterone (10.90 +/- 9.02 nmol/l vs. 1.43 +/- 0.56 nmol/l, p = 0.04) and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (3.09 +/- 1.72 nmol/l vs. 1.62 +/- 1.26 nmol/l, p = 0.04) whereas no significant difference could be found in testosterone levels (34.82 +/- 13.00 vs. 30.91 +/- 8.56 nmol/l, p = 0.43). In contrast, androstendione levels in seminal plasma were reduced (2.68 1.28 nmol/l vs. 3.65 +/- 1.36 nmol/l, p = 0.01). Although micronized progesterone is rapidly metabolized, oral application resulted in pronounced elevations of progesterone and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in seminal plasma. Further studies will show if oral application of micronized progesterone can induce beneficial effects on sperm function such as those seen in in vitro investigations.

  8. HIV protease inhibitor use during pregnancy is associated with decreased progesterone levels, suggesting a potential mechanism contributing to fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Papp, Eszter; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona R; Yudin, Mark H; Murphy, Kellie E; Walmsley, Sharon L; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Protease inhibitor (PI)-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is administered during pregnancy to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, PI use has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are unknown. We hypothesized that PIs contribute to these adverse events by altering progesterone levels. PI effects on trophoblast progesterone production were assessed in vitro. A mouse pregnancy model was used to assess the impact of PI-based cART on pregnancy outcomes and progesterone levels in vivo. Progesterone levels were assessed in plasma specimens from 27 HIV-infected and 17 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. PIs (ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir) but not nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors reduced trophoblast progesterone production in vitro. In pregnant mice, PI-based cART but not dual-NRTI therapy was associated with significantly lower progesterone levels that directly correlated with fetal weight. Progesterone supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in fetal weight. We observed lower progesterone levels and smaller infants in HIV-infected women receiving PI-based cART, compared with the control group. In HIV-infected women, progesterone levels correlated significantly with birth weight percentile. Our data suggest that PI use in pregnancy may lead to lower progesterone levels that could contribute to adverse birth outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. HIV Protease Inhibitor Use During Pregnancy Is Associated With Decreased Progesterone Levels, Suggesting a Potential Mechanism Contributing to Fetal Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Eszter; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona R.; Yudin, Mark H.; Murphy, Kellie E.; Walmsley, Sharon L.; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Background. Protease inhibitor (PI)–based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is administered during pregnancy to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, PI use has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are unknown. We hypothesized that PIs contribute to these adverse events by altering progesterone levels. Methods. PI effects on trophoblast progesterone production were assessed in vitro. A mouse pregnancy model was used to assess the impact of PI-based cART on pregnancy outcomes and progesterone levels in vivo. Progesterone levels were assessed in plasma specimens from 27 HIV-infected and 17 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. Results. PIs (ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir) but not nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors reduced trophoblast progesterone production in vitro. In pregnant mice, PI-based cART but not dual-NRTI therapy was associated with significantly lower progesterone levels that directly correlated with fetal weight. Progesterone supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in fetal weight. We observed lower progesterone levels and smaller infants in HIV-infected women receiving PI-based cART, compared with the control group. In HIV-infected women, progesterone levels correlated significantly with birth weight percentile. Conclusions. Our data suggest that PI use in pregnancy may lead to lower progesterone levels that could contribute to adverse birth outcomes. PMID:25030058

  10. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation leads to high progesterone and estradiol levels during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Järvelä, Ilkka Y; Pelkonen, Sari; Uimari, Outi; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Puukka, Katri; Ruokonen, Aimo; Tekay, Aydin; Martikainen, Hannu

    2014-11-01

    Are there differences in estrogen and progesterone secretion in singleton pregnancies, up to Week 11, between spontaneous pregnancies, after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and fresh embryo transfer (COH + ET) and after frozen embryo transfer in a spontaneous cycle (FET)? Serum progesterone and estradiol (E2) concentrations after COH + ET were higher in early pregnancy, lasting up to Week 7-8, than FET and spontaneous pregnancies, while hormone levels after FET did not differ from spontaneous pregnancies. The risk of adverse perinatal outcomes after COH + ET seems to be increased when compared with spontaneous pregnancies. One of the reasons suggested for this is related to ovarian hyperstimulation. This was a prospective cohort study consisting of three different groups of pregnant women which were followed-up weekly until Week 11 of their pregnancies. The spontaneous pregnancy group consisted of 41 women, the COH + ET group consisted of 39 and the FET group consisted of 30 women. Women in the control group with spontaneous conception were recruited from local prenatal clinics. Women in the COH + ET and FET groups were recruited from the Reproductive Unit of Oulu University Hospital. At each visit, a three-dimensional ultrasonography was performed to examine the ovarian volumes and vascularization. A blood sample was drawn to analyse progesterone and E2 levels. The pregnancy outcome was included in the analysis. At pregnancy Week 5, the serum progesterone levels were higher after the COH + ET (median 312, inter-quartile range 183-480 nmol/l), when compared with the spontaneous (63, 52-80 nmol/l; P < 0.001) and FET (74, 48-96 nmol/l; P < 0.001) pregnancies. At Week 11, the P (189, 124-260 nmol/l) was still higher in the COH + ET group (FET 101, 78-120 nmol/l, P < 0.001; spontaneous 115, 80-139 nmol/l, P < 0.01) than the other two groups. The E2 levels at Week 5 were also significantly higher after COH + ET (4.1, 2.2-6.6 nmol/l) than in the spontaneous

  11. The sensitivity and specificity of postbreeding plasma progesterone levels as a pregnancy test for dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, M E; Leslie, K E; Martin, S W

    1985-01-01

    Plasma progesterone levels on day 4 and day 8 postbreeding were measured for one hundred and eighty-four dairy cows. These two parameters (PPD4, PPD8), their absolute difference (PPDIFF) and their ratio (PPRATIO) were assessed for their ability to identify cows not conceiving, using the principles of sensitivity and specificity. PPD4 was significantly higher (p less than 0.10) and PPD8, PPDIFF and PPRATIO were significantly lower (p less than 0.01) in cows remaining open than in pregnant cows. Evaluating each parameter separately, PPDIFF greater than 3.00 units had the highest specificity, 85.7%, but a low sensitivity (27.0%). Combining two parameters using series interpretation to increase specificity resulted in the best combination of specificity (87%) and sensitivity (27%). Maximum specificity was 97% for PPD4 less than or equal to 1.00 units and PPD8 greater than 4.00 units, and also for PPD4 less than or equal to 1.00 units and PPDIFF greater than 3.00 units, but sensitivity was very low (7% and 10% respectively). Predictive values of the test results with the best specificity were evaluated; given the population pregnancy rate of 54%, none exceeded 50%, indicating that the plasma progesterone parameters were not very useful for identifying open dairy cows. PMID:4041979

  12. Progesterone elevation and probability of pregnancy after IVF: a systematic review and meta-analysis of over 60 000 cycles.

    PubMed

    Venetis, C A; Kolibianakis, E M; Bosdou, J K; Tarlatzis, B C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association of progesterone elevation (PE) on the day of hCG administration with the probability of pregnancy in fresh, frozen-thawed and donor/recipient IVF cycles. METHODS A literature search in MEDLINE, SCOPUS, COCHRANE CENTRAL and ISI Web of Science was performed aiming to identify studies comparing the probability of pregnancy in patients with or without PE after ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophins and GnRH analogues. Standard meta-analytic methodology was used for the synthesis of results and meta-regression for exploration of heterogeneity. RESULTS Sixty-three eligible studies were identified evaluating 55 199 fresh IVF cycles, nine studies evaluating 7229 frozen-thawed cycles and eight studies evaluating 1330 donor/recipient cycles. In fresh IVF cycles, a decreased probability of pregnancy achievement was present in women with PE (when PE was defined using a threshold ≥ 0.8 ng/ml) when compared with those without PE. The pooled effect sizes were 0.8-1.1 ng/ml: odds ratio (OR) = 0.79; 1.2-1.4 ng/ml: OR = 0.67; 1.5-1.75 ng/ml: OR = 0.64; 1.9-3.0 ng/ml: OR: 0.68 (P < 0.05 in all cases). No adverse effect of PE on achieving pregnancy was observed in the frozen-thawed and the donor/recipient cycles. CONCLUSIONS Based on the analysis of more than 60 000 cycles, it can be supported that PE on the day of hCG administration is associated with a decreased probability of pregnancy achievement in fresh IVF cycles in women undergoing ovarian stimulation using GnRH analogues and gonadotrophins. On the other hand, an adverse effect of PE does not seem to be present in frozen-thawed and donor/recipient cycles.

  13. Is the effect of premature elevated progesterone augmented by human chorionic gonadotropin versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger?

    PubMed

    Connell, Matthew T; Patounakis, George; Healy, Mae Wu; DeCherney, Alan H; Devine, Kate; Widra, Eric; Levy, Michael J; Hill, Micah J

    2016-09-01

    To compare the effect of P on live birth rate between hCG and GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) trigger cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Large private assisted reproductive technology (ART) practice. A total of 3,326 fresh autologous ART cycles. None. Live birth. A total of 647 GnRH-a trigger cycles were compared with 2,679 hCG trigger cycles. Live birth was negatively associated with P in both the hCG trigger (odds ratio [OR] 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.52-0.76) and the agonist trigger cohorts (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.45-0.69). Interaction testing evaluating P and trigger medication was not significant, indicating that P had a similar negative effect on live birth rates in both cohorts. Progesterone ≥2 ng/mL occurred more commonly in GnRH-a trigger cycles compared with hCG trigger cycles (5.5% vs. 3.1%) and was negatively associated with live birth in both the hCG trigger (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.73) and agonist trigger cohorts (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.14-0.90). When P ≥2 ng/mL, the live birth rates were poor and similar in the hCG and GnRH-a cohorts (5.9% vs. 14.2%), indicating that P ≥2 ng/mL had a similar negative effect on live birth in both cohorts. Elevated serum P on the day of hCG was negatively associated with live birth rates in both hCG and GnRH-a trigger cycles. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on mourning dove reproduction and circulating progesterone levels

    SciTech Connect

    Koval, P.J.; Peterle, T.J.; Harder, J.D.

    1987-10-01

    PCBs acquired in sublethal doses increase activation of the liver's microsomal action and hepatic mixed function oxidase (MFO) enzymes. Physiological effects of increase in the MFO system may delay, if not eliminate, avian reproductive behavior and nesting success. No evidence is yet available to clearly link PCBs to lowered levels of circulating steroids in birds. However, data concerning the effects of PCBs on avian reproduction are abundant. Increased degradation of circulating steroids might alter essential hormone dynamics associated with nesting behavior and ovulation. Alternatively, normal feedback regulation by the pituitary-gonadal axis might lead to a full compensatory response to increased MFO such that hormone profiles remain unaltered, suggesting alternative modes of action for PCBs in reproductive disorders. Therefore, the authors investigated the effect of dietary PCBs on circulating progesterone levels prior to and during egg laying in wild-trapped mourning doves (Zenaida macroura).

  15. [Effect of long-term selection for behavior on progesterone level in blood and its level in adrenal glands of silver fox embryos].

    PubMed

    Osadchuk, L V

    1997-12-01

    The level of progesterone in blood serum and its concentration in adrenals and gonads have been assayed in male and female silver fox embryos, starting from day 35 of pregnancy for every five days. Pregnant females from an experimental population, selected for the domestic type of behavior and, as a control group, females from a commercial population, were used. At the end of prenatal development (days 45-50) the concentration of progesterone in adrenals was show to be significantly lower in embryos from mothers of the selected population, than in the unselected control group. On the contrary, the domesticated and wild animals did not differ in the level of progesterone in blood. The results suggest that selection of animals for domestic behavior decreases the synthesis of progesterone by embryonic adrenal glands.

  16. Reduced progesterone levels explain the reduced risk of breast cancer in obese premenopausal women: a new hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, Mitch; Folkerd, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the complex relationship between obesity and breast cancer is fundamental to our knowledge of the etiology of this malignancy; changes in the composition of the hormonal milieu are implicit in this process. Estrogens are synthesized from androgens by aromatase in the gonads and in peripheral tissues, principally, adipose tissue. Obesity in women, regardless of their age, leads to more aromatase and more extra-glandular estrogen production. In postmenopausal women, in whom ovarian estrogen production is absent, the increased incidence of breast cancer in women with high body mass index has been attributed to the relatively high plasma levels of estradiol from subcutaneous fat. In contrast, obesity in premenopausal women is associated with a previously unexplained reduced incidence of breast cancer. In obese premenopausal women, the cumulative effect of higher levels of estrogens synthesized in the peripheral tissues, together with ovarian estrogen production, results in a negative feedback on the hypothalamic pituitary controlled release of gonadotrophins and a resultant diminution in ovarian steroid production. As a consequence, the normal balance of estrogen and progesterone levels is disrupted: while estrogen levels are normalized, progesterone production is markedly decreased. Progesterone is a promoter of proliferation in the breast. The low levels of progesterone in obese premenopausal women are consistent with, and we propose, are responsible for, the reduction in breast cancer incidence in these women.

  17. Progesterone levels and days to luteolysis in mares treated with intrauterine fractionated coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Diel de Amorim, Mariana; Nielsen, Kayla; Cruz, Raissa Karolliny Salgueiro; Card, Claire

    2016-07-15

    Intrauterine plant oil infusion, including fractionated coconut oil, has been previously found to be a safe, inexpensive, and reversible method of prolonging the luteal phase in mares when administered on Day 10 of the estrous cycle. Our objective was to understand the uteroovarian response to the administration of fractionated coconut oil infusion in the uterus of diestrous mares. We hypothesized that intrauterine coconut oil administration on Day 10 would prolong luteal life span in a dose-dependent fashion and would result in higher serum progesterone levels than untreated mares at the expected time of luteolysis. Light-horse mares (n = 18) were examined using transrectal palpation and ultrasonography to determine if they had a normal interovulatory interval and were then examined daily in estrus until the day of ovulation (Day 0) and then every other day during an estrous cycle. Jugular blood was drawn on Day 11, Day 13, Day 15, and Day 17, centrifuged, and serum stored until assayed for progesterone (P4; Siemens Coat-a-Count Progesterone RIA, Los Angeles, CA, USA). Mares were randomly assigned to treatment and studied over one to two estrous cycles with a rest cycle after each treatment cycle. Groups were: control (n = 5), fractionated coconut oil 1.0 mL (Miglyol 810; Sasol Oil, Witten, Germany) infused in the uterus with an artificial insemination pipette on Day 10 (Group 1; n = 5) and fractionated coconut oil 0.5 mL infused in the uterus with an embryo transfer gun, on Day 10 (Group 2; n = 5). All statistical analyses were performed using analytical software (Stata SE, version 13.1, College Station, TX, USA) at P < 0.05. Data were first evaluated using the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality. Differences between groups in days to luteolysis (DTL) were examined using analysis of variance and Bonferroni, and the effect of day and treatment on P4 levels were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's all pairwise test. There was a significant

  18. Effect of a povidone-iodine intrauterine infusion on progesterone levels and endometrial steroid receptor expression in mares

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intrauterine infusions have been widely used for the treatment of endometritis in the mare. Nevertheless, their consequences on endocrine and endometrial molecular aspects are unknown. We studied the effect of a 1% povidone-iodine solution intrauterine infusion on progesterone levels, endometrial histology and estrogen (ERα) and progesterone (PR) receptor distribution by immunohistochemistry. Methods Fourteen healthy mares were used in this study. Estruses were synchronized and seven mares were treated with intrauterine infusions at days 0 and 2 post ovulation of two consecutive estrous cycles. Uterine biopsy samples were taken on days 6 and 15 post ovulation. Results The treatment did not induce an inflammatory response indicating endometritis, neither affected the ERα. However, it reduced the percentage of PR positive cells (PPC) on day 6 (deep glandular epithelium, control: 95.7 vs. infused: 61.5, P < 0.05). Treated mares tended to have lower progesterone levels on day 2 (3.9 ng/ml vs. 6.6 ng/ml, P = 0.07), and higher levels on day 15 compared with controls (4.4 ng/ml vs. 1.3 ng/ml, P = 0.07). Conclusion a 1% povidone-iodine infusion during days 0 and 2 post ovulation in healthy mares did not induce histological changes indicating endometritis, but altered progesterone concentrations and reduced the expression of endometrial PR at day 6 without affecting the ERα. These changes could reduce embryo survival. PMID:21162724

  19. Effect of oral micronized progesterone on androgen levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Woods, Keslie S; Reyna, Rosario; Azziz, Ricardo

    2002-06-01

    To determine whether the use of oral micronized progesterone (OMP) to induce withdrawal bleeding in women suspected of having polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) alters circulating androgen levels. Prospective clinical trial. Academic medical center. Eight reproductive-aged women with PCOS. Blood was sampled before (week 0) and weekly after (weeks 1 to 4) the administration of OMP (Prometrium, Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Marietta, GA), 100 mg in the morning and 200 mg before bedtime for 7 days. The levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and androstenedione (A4) were determined in the blood samples. In seven of the eight women studied, menstrual cycle intervals were >3 months, while one was eumenorrheic; six of the eight women had hirsutism (modified Ferriman-Gallwey score >7). Mean age was 28.9 +/- 10.4 years and mean body mass index was 33.9 +/- 4.7 kg/m2. The mean values of TT, FT, SHBG, DHEAS, A4, and 17-OHP did not change with OMP administration. However, a higher 17-OHP level was observable at the completion of OMP administration (week 2). We conclude that the administration of OMP (100 mg in the morning and 200 mg before bedtime for 7 days) to induce withdrawal bleeding in women with PCOS does not significantly alter circulating androgen or 17-OHP levels, and can be used to time blood sampling in these patients.

  20. Fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolite levels in the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Mühlbauer, M; Duarte, D P F; Gilmore, D P; Costa, C P da

    2006-02-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the possibility of measuring fecal steroid hormone metabolites as a noninvasive technique for monitoring reproductive function in the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus. Levels of the estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) metabolites were measured by radioimmunoassay in fecal samples collected over 12 weeks from 4 captive female B. variegatus sloths. The validation of the radioimmunoassay for evaluation of fecal steroid metabolites was carried out by collecting 10 blood samples on the same day as defecation. There was a significant direct correlation between the plasma and fecal E2 and P4 levels (P < 0.05, Pearson's test), thereby validating this noninvasive technique for the study of the estrous cycle in these animals. Ovulation was detected in two sloths (SL03 and SL04) whose E2 levels reached 2237.43 and 6713.26 pg/g wet feces weight, respectively, for over four weeks, followed by an increase in P4 metabolites reaching 33.54 and 3242.68 ng/g wet feces weight, respectively. Interestingly, SL04, which presented higher levels of E2 and P4 metabolites, later gave birth to a healthy baby sloth. The results obtained indicate that this is a reliable technique for recording gonadal steroid secretion and thereby reproduction in sloths.

  1. Relationship between variations in estradiol and progesterone levels across the menstrual cycle and human performance.

    PubMed

    Mumenthaler, M S; O'Hara, R; Taylor, J L; Friedman, L; Yesavage, J A

    2001-05-01

    Studies about whether or not the cognitive performance of women is influenced by changes in levels of sex steroid hormones across the menstrual cycle have produced ambiguous results. This study tested whether flight simulator performance differs significantly between the menstrual and the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In a within-subjects design, 24 female pilots were tested twice during their menstrual cycle: once during the menstrual and once during the luteal phase. On both test days they performed a 75-min simulator flight in a Frasca 141, a popular pilot training device. Despite highly significant differences in estradiol (E2) as well as progesterone (P) levels on the 2 test days, and despite excluding subjects with anovulatory cycles from the analyses, there were no significant differences in overall flight performance between the menstrual and luteal phases. We found no significant correlations between E2 or P levels and flight performance. We found no evidence that the tested menstrual cycle phases and their associated E2 and P levels significantly influence flight simulator performance. We consider these negative findings based on 24 subjects meaningful because previous studies on the influence of menstrual cycle on cognitive performance have not involved complex "real world" tasks such as piloting an aircraft and they obtained inconsistent results.

  2. Serum estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, FSH and LH levels in postmenopausal women with Alzheimer's dementia.

    PubMed

    Tsolaki, Magdalini; Grammaticos, Philip; Karanasou, Chrysanthi; Balaris, Vassilios; Kapoukranidou, Dorothea; Kalpidis, Ioannis; Petsanis, Kostas; Dedousi, Eleni

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that estrogen replacement therapy lowers the risk of Alzheimer's dementia (AD) among postmenopausal women. Other studies have evaluated serum levels of sex hormones and gonadotropins in women with AD. Estrogens (E(1) and E(2)), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), dihydroepiandrosterone and sex hormone binding albumin, which normally responds to circulating testosterone, have been investigated by others using the same protocol in postmenopausal women with AD, older than 65 years. Others have studied in elderly women with AD, also using one protocol, fewer sex hormones and/or gonadotropins. We have studied the serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, LH and FSH in the same serum sample of postmenopausal women with AD and other dementias and compared them to a group of controls. We are not aware of a similar study in the literature. All patients were diagnosed on clinical grounds and screened by the mini mental score examination (MMSE). Forty eight women had AD (Group A), mean age 72 years and age range 60-84 years, s even had other types of dementia (Group B), mean age 63.5 years and age range 53-74 years and 33 women had no cognitive impairment and were studied as controls (Group C). Group C women had mean age of 65 years and their age ranged between 55-73 years. Estradiol, progesterone and testosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA), while FSH and LH by radioimmunometric assay (IRMA). Our results showed that estradiol was significantly lower in Group A as compared to Group C (P=0.04). There was no significant difference in the levels of the other four hormones in the three Groups as studied by the Mann-Whitney U and the Pearson's statistical test. Our results were not influenced by differences due to sex, age, ethnic group or education since these factors were either similar or comparable in all Groups studied. All but two of the subjects, with mild alcoholism, smoking, increased

  3. Circulating levels of prolactin and progesterone in a wild population of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) Marsupialia: Macropodidae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Hinds, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Circulating progesterone and prolactin levels were measured in shot and live-caught wild red kangaroos using radioimmunoassays validated for the red kangaroo. The objective of the study was to correlate hormone profiles with reproductive status and determine if red kangaroos follow the general pattern elucidated for other macropodids. During Phase 2a lactation (<70 days) plasma progesterone concentrations were <189 pg/ml (n= 41). This value increased to >600 pg/ml (n= 32) during the transition to Phase 3 lactation (181 to 235 days) when the quiescent corpus luteum and embryo were reactivated. Progesterone concentrations then decreased to <300 pg/ml (n= 29) during dual lactation when females were suckling a neonate and a young at foot. Concentrations of prolactin during Phase 2a were <6 ng/ml (n= 17). Coincident with the period of reactivation of the diapausing blastocyst (181 to 235 days), plasma prolactin concentrations increased to 15 ng/ml (n= 32), then decreased and remained low through the subsequent stage of dual lactation. These results indicate that progesterone and prolactin profiles in wild red kangaroos follow patterns found previously in other macropodid species, the tammar and Bennett's wallabies.

  4. Reduced levels of maternal progesterone during pregnancy increase the risk for allergic airway diseases in females only.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Isabel R V; Bruenahl, Christian A; Ramisch, Katherina; Keil, Thomas; Inman, Mark; Arck, Petra C; Pincus, Maike

    2014-10-01

    Observational as well as experimental studies support that prenatal challenges seemed to be associated with an increased risk for allergic airway diseases in the offspring. However, insights into biomarkers involved in mediating this risk are largely elusive. We here aimed to test the association between endogenous and exogenous factors documented in pregnant women, including psychosocial, endocrine, and life style parameters, and the risk for allergic airway diseases in the children later in life. We further pursued to functionally test identified factors in a mouse model of an allergic airway response. In a prospectively designed pregnancy cohort (n = 409 families), women were recruited between the 4th and 12th week of pregnancy. To investigate an association between exposures during pregnancy and the incidence of allergic airway disease in children between 3 and 5 years of age, multiple logistic regression analyses were applied. Further, in prenatally stressed adult offspring of BALB/c-mated BALB/c female mice, asthma was experimentally induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization. In addition to the prenatal stress challenge, some pregnant females were treated with the progesterone derivative dihydrodydrogesterone (DHD). In humans, we observed that high levels of maternal progesterone in early human pregnancies were associated with a decreased risk for an allergic airway disease (asthma or allergic rhinitis) in daughters (adjusted OR 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84 to 1.00) but not sons (aOR 1.02, 95% CI 0.94-1.10). In mice, prenatal DHD supplementation of stress-challenged dams attenuated prenatal stress-induced airway hyperresponsiveness exclusively in female offspring. Reduced levels of maternal progesterone during pregnancy-which can result from high stress perception-increase the risk for allergic airway diseases in females but not in males. Key messages: Lower maternal progesterone during pregnancy increases the risk for allergic airway disease

  5. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation results in supraphysiologic DHEA-S serum levels and progesterone assay interference that may impact clinical management in IVF.

    PubMed

    Franasiak, Jason M; Thomas, Semara; Ng, Susan; Fano, Maria; Ruiz, Andrew; Scott, Richard T; Forman, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is often prescribed for poor responders in IVF in an effort to improve response to ovarian stimulation. The effect of DHEA supplementation and resultant supraphysiologic DHEA-S serum levels on sex steroid assays has not been evaluated in this population. This study seeks to determine the relationship between DHEA supplementation and progesterone measurements to characterize the degree of interference with particular immunoassays. Characterization was accomplished in two phases. First, DHEA-S standard control reagents with no progesterone present were assayed for both DHEA-S and progesterone levels. Second, serum pools from 60 unique IVF patients' serum were used to create six pooled serum samples: three from patients on DHEA supplementation and three from patients not on DHEA supplementation. The three pools were composed of patients whose serum fell into low, medium, and high progesterone ranges. Baseline DHEA-S and progesterone were measured, and the mean level of DHEA-S in the mid-range progesterone pool was used as the mid-point for addition of DHEA-S standard to the serum pools from patients without DHEA supplementation. Progesterone from these pools was then measured on three commercially available immunoassay systems. The first experiment revealed a linear increase in progesterone when analyzing the DHEA-S standard ranging from 0.5 ng/mL in the blank control (no DHEA-S) to up to 2.0 ng/mL in the high control (DHEA-S >700 μg/mL), indicating that the DHEA-S cross-reacts with the progesterone assays. In the second experiment, patients' serum DHEA-S and progesterone were measured from pooled serum samples of those taking DHEA and those not taking DHEA. Adding DHEA-S to the pooled serum of those not taking DHEA resulted in a linear increase in progesterone levels on two of three commercially available immunoassays (p < 0.05). DHEA-S can interfere with standard progesterone immunoassays used in clinical ART programs, and thus serum

  6. Effects of different supplemental soya bean oil levels on the performance of prepubertal Saanen goats: Oestrogen and progesterone release.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, G F; Merighe, G K F; de Oliveira, S A; Rodrigues, A D; Augusto, L; Teixeira, I A M A; de Resende, K T; Negrao, J A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soya bean oil in the total diet on the growth rate, metabolic changes, and oestrogen and progesterone release in Saanen goats. After dietary adaptation, 21 prepubertal goats (weight of 29.12 ± 0.91 kg, 230 days old) were randomly distributed among three diets of D2: inclusion of 2% soya bean oil in the total diet; D3: basal diet - inclusion of 3% soya bean oil in the total diet; and D4: inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the total diet. The basal diet (D3) was formulated to promote a daily gain of 0.140 kg. The goats were weighed, and their blood samples were collected weekly. Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, oestrogen and progesterone in the plasma were measured. Prepubertal goats that were fed D4 exhibited a significantly lower dry matter intake, urea and cholesterol levels compared with the goats that were fed D2 and D3. Indeed, goats that were fed D4 displayed a significantly lower final weight than goats that were fed D2 and D3. In contrast, the inclusion of soya bean oil in the diet increased the progesterone and oestrogen concentrations, and goats that were fed D4 released a significantly higher concentration of progesterone than those that were fed D2 and D3. Furthermore, the percentage of goats with a progesterone level greater than 1 ng/ml (functional Corpus luteum) was significantly higher among the goats that were fed D3 and D4 than among those that were fed D2. In this study, although the inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the diet decreased dry matter intake and growth rate, it increased progesterone concentration and the percentage of goats with a functional Corpus luteum, suggesting that the inclusion of soya bean oil accelerated puberty in prepubertal goats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Progesterone treatment normalizes the levels of cell proliferation and cell death in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Barha, Cindy K.; Ishrat, Tauheed; Epp, Jonathan R.; Galea, Liisa A. M.; Stein, Donald G.

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases cell death in the hippocampus and impairs hippocampus-dependent cognition. The hippocampus is also the site of ongoing neurogenesis throughout the lifespan. Progesterone treatment improves behavioral recovery and reduces inflammation, apoptosis, lesion volume, and edema, when given after TBI. The aim of the present study was to determine whether progesterone altered cell proliferation and short-term survival in the dentate gyrus after TBI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with bilateral contusions of the frontal cortex or sham operations received progesterone or vehicle at 1 and 6 hours post-surgery and daily through post-surgery Day 7, and a single injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) 48 hours after injury. Brains were then processed for Ki67 (endogenous marker of cell proliferation), BrdU (short-term cell survival), doublecortin (endogenous marker of immature neurons), and Fluoro-Jade B (marker of degenerating neurons). TBI increased cell proliferation compared to shams and progesterone normalized cell proliferation in injured rats. Progesterone alone increased cell proliferation in intact rats. Interestingly, injury and/or progesterone treatment did not influence short-term cell survival of BrdU-ir cells. All treatments increased the percentage of BrdU-ir cells that were co-labeled with doublecortin (an immature neuronal marker in this case labelling new neurons that survived 5 days), indicating that cell fate is influenced independently by TBI and progesterone treatment. The number of immature neurons that survived 5 days was increased following TBI, but progesterone treatment reduced this effect. Furthermore, injury increased cell death and progesterone treatment reduced cell death to levels seen in intact rats. Together these findings suggest that progesterone treatment after TBI normalizes the levels of cell proliferation and cell death in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. PMID:21684276

  8. Luteal development and progesterone levels during pregnancy of the viviparous temperate lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata (Reptilia: Anguidae).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Torres, Martín; Elena Hernández-Caballero, Marta; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Carmen; Alba Luis-Díaz, Juana; Ortíz-López, Guadalupe

    2003-06-01

    The relationship between plasma progesterone (P(4)) levels and the formation and degeneration of the corpus luteum (CL) was assessed monthly during gestation of the viviparous lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata. Histochemical activity of the delta(5-4) isomerase 3 beta-hydroxysteroide dehydrogenase (delta(5-4)3beta-HSD) in the luteal tissue and embryonic development were also observed. Females were gravid throughout winter and great part of spring (late November or early December until late May or early June). Corpus luteum development occurred in the first third of gestation (December and January) when the embryo reached developmental stage 27. Four sequential stages were identified during development and three stages during regression of the CL. The follicular and thecal tissue participated in the formation of the luteal cell mass. According to Xavier's classification, the CL of B. i. imbricata is a subtype from Type III. The activity of delta(5-4)3beta-HSD was observed mainly in the luteal cell mass. The first degenerative changes in the CL were observed in the early second third of the gestation and continued gradually until parturition. Progesterone levels increased in early pregnancy and reached its highest level during January (3.07+/-1.04 ng/ml) when mature corpora lutea were present. Gradual diminution in progesterone concentrations occurred in the second and last third of pregnancy and coincided with advanced degenerative changes and diminution in histochemical activity of delta(5-4)3beta-HSD in the luteal tissue. These observations suggest that the CL is the major source of progesterone during pregnancy of B. i. imbricata.

  9. Effects of ACTH on corticosteroid and progesterone levels in female baboons depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Todua, T.N.; Goncharov, N.P.; Katsiya, G.V.; Lapin, B.A.; Vorontsov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effect of ACTH on the endocrine function of steroid producing glands depending on the level of sex hormones in the body, a comparative study of the dynamics of steroid hormones in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in response to a standard does of ACTH was undertaken in experiments on hamadryad baboons. Concentrations of corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and progesterone were determined in duplicate samples of plasma by radioimmunoassay. It is shown that the sensitivity of the adrenals to a single injection of ACTH is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and the inhibitory effects of ACTH on progesterone secretion is exhibited only in the presence of an actively functioning corpus luteus of the ovary.

  10. Effects of selenium-rich yeast supplementation on the plasma progesterone levels of postpartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Kamada, Hachiro

    2017-01-01

    Objective The effects of the pre- and postpartum supplementation of cows with Se on their plasma P4 concentrations after calving were investigated. Methods Thirty-four Holstein cows were used to investigate the effects of dietary selenium supplementation on the postpartum recovery of the luteal function in cows. Selenium-rich yeast (containing 300 ppm selenium) was mixed with total mixed ration fed to 17 pregnant cows from 30 days before they were due to calve (10 g yeast daily) to 100 days after calving (20 g yeast daily). The control cows (n = 17) were fed the same amount of ordinary yeast. The cows’ plasma progesterone concentrations were determined every two days using an enzyme immunoassay after calving. Results Feed intake (total digestive nutrient, crude protein), milk production, body weight and the biochemical properties of blood plasma did not differ between the two groups; however, the plasma selenium concentrations of the supplemented animals were significantly greater than those of the controls at and after calving. The postpartum plasma progesterone concentrations of the selenium-yeast-supplemented group increased earlier than those of the control group. Moreover, during the estrus cycle after the 3rd ovulation or ovulation with estrus between 60 to 80 days after calving, the selenium-supplemented cows exhibited greater progesterone concentrations than the control cows. Conclusion Selenium supplementation promotes the postpartum progesterone production of cows. PMID:27492347

  11. Intra-Clutch Ratio of Yolk Progesterone Level Changes with Laying Date in Rockhopper Penguins: A Strategy to Influence Brood Reduction?

    PubMed Central

    Poisbleau, Maud; Demongin, Laurent; Parenteau, Charline; Eens, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Hatching asynchrony in avian species generally leads to a size hierarchy among siblings, favouring the first-hatched chicks. Maternally deposited hormones affect the embryo and chick's physiology and behaviour. It has been observed that progesterone, a hormone present at higher levels than other steroid hormones in egg yolks, is negatively related to body mass in embryos, chicks and adults. A differential within-clutch progesterone deposition could therefore be linked to the size hierarchy between siblings and to the resulting brood reduction. We tested whether yolk progesterone levels differed between eggs according to future parental ability to feed the entire clutch in wild rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome. This species presents a unique reversed egg-size dimorphism and hatching asynchrony, with the larger second-laid egg (B-egg) hatching before the smaller first-laid egg (A-egg). Yolk progesterone levels increased only slightly with female body mass at laying. However, intra-clutch ratios were not related to female body mass. On the other hand, yolk progesterone levels increased significantly with the date of laying onset for A-eggs while they decreased for B-eggs. Early clutches therefore had proportionally more progesterone in the B-egg compared to the A-egg while late clutches had proportionally less progesterone in the B-egg. We propose that females could strategically regulate yolk progesterone deposition within clutches according to the expected food availability during chick growth, an adaptive strategy to adjust brood reduction to conditions. We also discuss these results, relating to yolk progesterone, in the broader context of other yolk steroids. PMID:22110758

  12. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  13. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  14. Enhanced food intake by progesterone-treated female rats is related to changes in neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Stelmańska, Ewa; Sucajtys-Szulc, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone-treated females eat more food, but the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of progesterone on neuropeptide genes expression in rat hypothalamus. Experiments were carried out on female and male Wistar rats. Animals were treated with progesterone (100 mg per rat) for 28 days. NPY and CART mRNA levels in hypothalamus were quantified by real-time PCR. The serum progesterone concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay. Progesterone administration to females caused an increase in food intake, body mass, and white adipose tissue mass. Elevated circulating progesterone concentration up-regulated NPY and down-regulated CART genes expression in hypothalamus of females. In males, elevated blood progesterone concentration had no effect on food intake, body and fat mass and on the neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus. Moreover, administration of progesterone in females resulted in decrease of PR mRNA level in hypothalamus. No effect of progesterone administration on PR mRNA level in hypothalamus of males was found. The changes in neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus may lead to stimulation of appetite and might explain the observed increase in food intake, body and adipose tissue mass in progesterone-treated females.

  15. View of book shop on elevator reboarding level Washington ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of book shop on elevator reboarding level - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. 3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level 11. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  17. Elevated levels of serum creatine kinase induced by hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, I; Jonas, M; Thaler, M; Grossman, E

    1997-08-01

    Elevated serum creatine kinase levels are one of the major criteria for the diagnosis of myocardial injury. Noncardiac causes such as muscular and brain damage may also be associated with elevated serum creatine kinase levels. Hyponatremia may induce increased serum creatine kinase in association with rhabdomyolysis or with hypothyroidism. A patient is described where three episodes of hyponatraemia not associated with rhabdomyolysis or hypothyroidism induced transient elevations of serum creatine kinase levels. The association between hyponatraemia and elevated creatine kinase levels should be emphasized to prevent erroneous diagnosis of myocardial injury.

  18. Glycogen Levels in Undiluted Genital Fluid and Their Relationship to Vaginal pH, Estrogen, and Progesterone.

    PubMed

    Mirmonsef, Paria; Hotton, Anna L; Gilbert, Douglas; Gioia, Casey J; Maric, Danijela; Hope, Thomas J; Landay, Alan L; Spear, Gregory T

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the female lower genital tract with Lactobacillus provides protection against STIs and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Growth of genital Lactobacillus is postulated to depend on epithelial cell-produced glycogen. However, the amount of cell-free glycogen in genital fluid available for utilization by Lactobacillus is not known. Eighty-five genital fluid samples from 7 pre-menopausal women taken over 4-6 weeks were obtained using the Instead SoftCup® (EvoFem, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) by consented donors. Cell-free glycogen and glucose in genital fluids and estrogen and progesterone in blood were quantified. Glycogen ranged from 0.1-32 μg/μl. There were significant differences between women in glycogen over the observation period. There was a strong negative correlation between glycogen and vaginal pH (r = -0.542, p<0.0001). In multivariable analysis, free glycogen levels were significantly negatively associated with both vaginal pH and progesterone (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively). Estrogen, glucose, age, sexual intercourse 24 hours prior to visit, and days after the initial visit were not significantly associated with free glycogen levels. Cell-free glycogen concentrations can be very high, up to 3% of genital fluid, and are strongly associated with acidic vaginal pH. However, the fluctuations in glycogen levels in individuals and differences between individuals do not appear to be associated with estrogen.

  19. The role of estradiol and progesterone in modulating the subjective effects of stimulants in humans.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzette M

    2007-10-01

    Although stimulant abuse is a growing problem among women, few studies have focused on factors that may be implicated in potential sex differences. Numerous preclinical studies have indicated that female rodents are more sensitive than male rodents to the behavioral effects of stimulants and that the hormone estradiol is involved in these sex differences. In humans, the subjective response to stimulants is greater in the follicular phase (characterized by moderate estradiol levels and minimal progesterone levels) than in the luteal phase (characterized by elevated estradiol levels and elevated progesterone levels). Differences between men and women emerge only when men are compared with women in the luteal phase; the subjective response to stimulants is similar in men and women in the follicular phase. In contrast to rodents, there is minimal evidence that estradiol enhances the subjective response to stimulants in humans. Rather, the hormone progesterone has been shown to attenuate the subjective response to stimulants, particularly in women. Recent preclinical data confirm that progesterone reduces the behavioral response to stimulants. In summary, there is converging evidence from studies in humans that (a) men and women do differ in their subjective response to stimulants; (b) these sex differences are evident when women are in the luteal phase, when progesterone levels are elevated; and (c) progesterone administration attenuates the subjective response to stimulants. Therefore, the menstrual cycle should be addressed in mixed-gender studies. Moreover, the modulatory effects of progesterone on reducing the positive effects of cocaine may have some clinical utility in treating stimulant abusers.

  20. [Effect of intrafollicular interleukin-6 levels on the secretion of estradiol and progesterone in patients treated with in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer].

    PubMed

    Barrón Vallejo, J; Corona de Lau, C; Méndez Espinosa, G; Diez Castillo, I; Karchmer Krivitzky, S; Kably Ambe, A

    2000-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the relationship between follicular fluid levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the seric concentrations of estradiol and progesterone during controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation. The levels of IL-6 were measured in follicular fluid of 15 patients undergone to in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and correlated with the values of seric estradiol and progesterone. There were a negative correlation between follicular levels of IL-6 and either estradiol and progesterone. Four patients achieved pregnancy following embryo transfer (pregnancy rate 26.6%), one of them aborted. As conclusion, the increased levels of IL-6 may be a reaction to controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation and probably a protective response. According to the reduction of estradiol, there may be a subtle reduction in aromatase action by effect of IL-6 and other cytokines.

  1. Exophthalmos and elevated thyroxine levels in association with lithium therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, P.L.; Evans, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Although goiter formation and hypothyroidism are not infrequent following lithium therapy, the association of exophthalmos and/or elevated thyroxine levels with lithium is uncommon. We describe a 62 year old man who rapidly developed exophthalmos, elevated circulating thyroxine, elevated TSH levels and elevated radioiodine uptake within six weeks of reexposure to lithium carbonate. When the medication was stopped, all indices of thyroid function returned to normal and the proptosis receded from 22 to 17mm. Lithium decreases secretion of preformed thyroid hormone and the secondary elevation of TSH levels usually restores euthyroid status. We propose that in our patient, because triiodothyronine levels remained normal, the pituitary was refractory to the normal inhibitory feedback effect of thyroxine and that continued hypersecretion of TSH resulted in hyperthyroidism

  2. Progesterone Deficiency and Premature Labour

    PubMed Central

    Csapo, A. I.; Pohanka, O.; Kaihola, H. L.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma oestradiol 17β and progesterone levels in 11 patients admitted to hospital for threatened premature labour of unknown aetiology were compared with those of women at similar stages of gestation whose pregnancy was normal. Oestradiol levels in the study group were slightly higher than in the normal controls but their progesterone levels were significantly lower. This progesterone deficiency increased the oestradiol/progesterone ratio in the study group patients, and it increased still more as the progesterone withdrawal continued during premature labour. Since uterine activity during pregnancy is regulated by a balanced action of several factors a deficiency in progesterone, an opponent of uterine activity, creates a regulatory imbalance which, if uncorrected, provokes premature labour. An increase in uterine volume stimulates uterine activity, and the present study reinforced our previous conclusion that the uterine-volume/plasma-progesterone ratio is a more accurate measure of the state of regulatory balance than the progesterone level alone. The cause of the progesterone deficiency in these cases remains unexplained, but we suggest that placental growth and function are contributory factors. We are investigating ways of correcting the resulting imbalance in the regulatory mechanism. PMID:4812406

  3. The induction of baboon glycodelin expression by progesterone is not through Sp1.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, R C; Donnelly, K M; Fazleabas, A T

    2003-01-01

    Glycodelin is a major secretory product of the uterine glandular epithelial cells of the human and non-human primate during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. Since progesterone levels are elevated during these periods we sought to determine how progesterone modulates glycodelin gene expression. Co-transfection of various deletions of the baboon glycodelin promoter with the progesterone receptor (PR) into Ishikawa cells, a human endometrial cell line, revealed that full progesterone responsiveness is retained within the region -119/+48. In COS-1 cells, a kidney cell line, progesterone failed to elevate luciferase levels when various deletion constructs and the PR were co-transfected. Mutation of the Sp1 site in the -67/+48 region lowered basal expression but did not affect the ability of progesterone to increase expression of the luciferase reporter in Ishikawa cells. These findings suggest that Sp1 sites are not involved in the progesterone regulation of the baboon glycodelin gene. We propose that progesterone induces a factor that regulates glycodelin gene expression in the uterus since we failed to obtain a similar response in a non-uterine cell line.

  4. Maternal Serum Lipid, Estradiol, and Progesterone Levels in Pregnancy, and the Impact of Placental and Hepatic Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Pecks, U.; Rath, W.; Kleine-Eggebrecht, N.; Maass, N.; Voigt, F.; Goecke, T. W.; Mohaupt, M. G.; Escher, G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lipids and steroid hormones are closely linked. While cholesterol is the substrate for (placental) steroid hormone synthesis, steroid hormones regulate hepatic lipid production. The aim of this study was to quantify circulating steroid hormones and lipid metabolites, and to characterize their interactions in normal and pathological pregnancies with a focus on hepatic and placental pathologies. Methods: A total of 216 serum samples were analyzed. Group A consisted of 32 patients with uncomplicated pregnancies who were analyzed at three different time-points in pregnancy (from the first through the third trimester) and once post partum. Group B consisted of 36 patients (24th to 42nd week of gestation) with pregnancy pathologies (IUGR n = 10, preeclampsia n = 13, HELLP n = 6, intrahepatic cholestasis n = 7) and 31 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Steroid profiles including estradiol, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured by GC-MS and compared with lipid concentrations. Results: In Group A, cholesterol and triglycerides correlated positively with estradiol (cholesterol ρ = 0.50, triglycerides ρ = 0.57) and progesterone (ρ = 0.49, ρ = 0.53) and negatively with dehydroepiandrosterone (ρ = − 0.47, ρ = − 0.38). Smoking during pregnancy affected estradiol concentrations, leading to lower levels in the third trimester compared to non-smoking patients (p < 0.05). In Group B, cholesterol levels were found to be lower in IUGR pregnancies and in patients with HELLP syndrome compared to controls (p < 0.05). Steroid hormone concentrations of estradiol (p < 0.05) and progesterone (p < 0.01) were lower in pregnancies with IUGR. Discussion: Lipid and steroid levels were affected most in IUGR pregnancies, while only minor changes in concentrations were observed for other pregnancy-related disorders. Each of the analyzed entities displayed specific changes. However, since the

  5. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone, Progesterone, Seminal Antisperm Antibody, and Fructose Levels among Jordanian Males with a History of Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghistani, Hala I.; Hamad, Abdul-Wahab R.; Abdel-Dayem, Muna; Al-Swaifi, Mohammad; Abu Zaid, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Due to the biochemical complexity of seminal fluid, we attempt to study the possible correlation between fructose, which is secreted under the effect of androgen hormone, and autoimmunity, which might play a role in varicocele associated infertility, in reducing sperm motility. Seminal fructose, antisperm antibodies (ASAs) and blood steroids hormones (testosterone and progesterone) levels were measured in 66 infertile males with varicocele and 84 without varicocele referred for fertility treatment. Seminal analysis was performed with biochemical measurements of seminal fructose and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR) for ASA. Serum levels of progesterone and testosterone were estimated using a competitive chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. The mean values for serum testosterone were 380.74 ± 24.331, 365.9 ± 16.55, and 367.5 ± 21.8 ng/dl, progesterone 0.325 ± 0.243, 0.341 ± 0.022, and 0.357 ± 0.0306 ng/ml, and seminal plasma fructose 359.6 ± 26.75, 315.6 ± 13.08, and 332.08 ± 24.38 mg/dl in males with varicocele, without varicocele, and fertile males, respectively. A significant high level of testosterone was observed within varicocele group (P = .001). This result showed that testosterone may play a role as an infertility determinant in subjects with varicocele. ASA was detected in 18 (26.47%) of cases with varicocele, 20 (38.46%) without varicocele, and in 16 (32.0%) fertile men. Cases with ASAs associated with low sperm motility morphology. An inverse correlation between sperm-bound antibodies and viscosity has been shown (P = .017). ASA showed some significant inverse relations with ages, durations of infertility, and viscosity (P < .05). In addition, a significant correlation was observed between ASA positive seminal plasma and testosterone concentration among infertile cases (with or without varicocele) and fertile (P < .05). Our results suggest a relationship between testicular steroid hormone levels with autoimmunity and sperm antibodies

  6. 6. ELEVATOR AT JUNCTION OF BUILDINGS 148 AND 162. LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ELEVATOR AT JUNCTION OF BUILDINGS 148 AND 162. LEVEL 1; OVERHEAD RAILS INSIDE ELEVATOR ALLOWED WORKERS TO TRANSFER CARCASSES BETWEEN FLOORS IN THE COOLER BUILDING - Rath Packing Company, Grease Interceptor Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  7. 7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW SHOWS VERTICAL LADDER AND CAGE ALONG ELEVATOR SHAFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Comparison of 2 protocols to increase circulating progesterone concentration before timed artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows with or without elevated body temperature.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M H C; Wiltbank, M C; Guida, T G; Lopes, F R; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2017-10-01

    Two treatments designed to increase circulating progesterone concentration (P4) during preovulatory follicle development were compared. One treatment used 2 intravaginal P4 implants (controlled internal drug-releasing inserts; CIDR) and the other used a GnRH treatment at beginning of the protocol. Lactating Holstein cows that had been diagnosed as nonpregnant were randomly assigned to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) following 1 of 2 treatments (n = 1,638 breedings): (1) GnRH: CIDR+ 2 mg of estradiol (E2) benzoate + 100 µg of GnRH on d -11, PGF2α on d -4, CIDR withdrawal + 1.0 mg of E2-cypionate + PGF2α) on d -2, and TAI on d 0; or (2) 2CIDR: 2 CIDR + 2 mg of E2-benzoate on d -11, 1 CIDR withdrawn + PGF2α on d -4, second CIDR withdrawn + 1.0 mg of E2-cypionate + PGF2α on d -2, and TAI on d 0. Milk yield was measured daily between d 0 and d 7. Rectal temperature was measured using a digital thermometer at d 0 and 7, and elevated body temperature was defined as an average rectal temperature ≥39.1°C. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed on d 32 and 60 after TAI. We detected no effect of treatments on pregnancy per AI or pregnancy loss regardless of elevated body temperature, body condition score, parity, milk yield, or presence or absence of a corpus luteum (CL) on d -11 or d -4. Pregnancy per AI at 60 d was reduced [elevated body temperature = 22.8% (162/709), no elevated body temperature 34.1% (279/817)] and pregnancy loss tended to increase [elevated body temperature = 20.2% (41/203), no elevated body temperature 14.4% (47/326)] in cows with elevated body temperature. Various physiological measurements associated with greater fertility were also reduced in cows with elevated body temperature, such as percentage of cows with a CL at PGF2α (decreased 7.9%), ovulatory follicle diameter (decreased 0.51 mm), expression of estrus (decreased 5.1%), and ovulation near TAI (decreased 2.8%) compared with cows without elevated body temperature. A greater

  9. Effect of ammonia-generating diet on ovine serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell functions.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Mondal, S; Pal, D T; Gupta, P S P

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of ammonia-generating diet on serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell growth and secretion parameters in ewes (Ovis aries). Ewes were fed with 14% CP diet (control) or ammonia-generating diet or ammonia-generating diet plus soluble sugar. The serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea level, serum oestrogen and progesterone levels and granulosa cell (obtained from ovaries of slaughtered ewes) growth parameters and secretory activities were estimated. Ammonia-generating diet (high-protein diet) increased the serum ammonia and urea concentration. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the ammonia concentration in serum with comparable levels as in control group; however, the urea level in the same group was higher than that observed in control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the follicular fluid ammonia concentration; however, the level was significantly higher compared to control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar brought down the follicular fluid urea level comparable to that observed in control group. Oestrogen and progesterone levels remained unchanged in ewes fed with different types of diet. Oestrogen and progesterone secretion were significantly lowered from granulosa cells recovered from ewes fed with high ammonia-generating diet. Low metabolic activity and high incidence of apoptosis were observed in granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of ewes fed with ammonia-generating diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Predictive value of serum progesterone level on β-hCG check day in women with previous repeated miscarriages after in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Jin; Shin, Jung Ho; Hur, Jun Yong; Kim, Hoon; Ku, Seung-Yup; Suh, Chang Suk

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of the progesterone level at the beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) check day for ongoing pregnancy maintenance in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles in women with previous unexplained repeated miscarriages. One hundred and forty-eight women, with visible gestational sac after IVF, were recruited in this observational study. All subjects had unexplained recurrent miscarriages in more than two previous IVF cycles. The progesterone level at the β-hCG check day (i.e. 14 days after oocyte retrieval) was assessed. The area under the curve (AUC) of the progesterone level was evaluated to predict the ongoing pregnancy or miscarriage outcomes. The overall ongoing pregnancy rate was 60.8% (90/148). The cut-off value with β-hCG levels higher than 126.5 mIU/mL and with progesterone levels higher than 25.2 ng/mL could be the predictive factors for ongoing pregnancy maintenance (AUC = 0.788 and 0.826; sensitivity = 0.788 and 0.723; specificity = 0.689 and 0.833; P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The miscarriage rates were 19.5% (15/77) in the women with β-hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL and 13.0% (10/77) in those with > 25.2 ng/mL. In the comparison of the ROC curves between both values, a similar significance was found. The subjects with β-hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL and progesterone > 25.2 ng/mL showed higher ongoing pregnancy rates [98.0% (49/50) vs. 41.8% (41/98)] than those with β-hCG ≤ 126.5 mIU/mL or progesterone ≤ 25.2 ng/mL. The progesterone level at 14 days after oocyte retrieval can be a good predictive marker for ongoing pregnancy maintenance in women with repeated IVF failure with miscarriage, together with the β-hCG level. The combined cut-off value of progesterone > 25.2 ng/mL and β-hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL may suggest a good prognosis.

  11. 6. Ground level elevation of emplacement no. 1, showing doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Ground level elevation of emplacement no. 1, showing doors to shot gallery and crane hoists for projectiles - Fort Wadsworth Battery Romeyn B. Ayers, South side of Ayers Road, Staten Island, Rosebank, Richmond County, NY

  12. NORTHWEST ELEVATION SHOWING THE THREE LEVEL EQUIPMENT AREA. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST ELEVATION SHOWING THE THREE LEVEL EQUIPMENT AREA. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Theater, Hornet Avenue between Enterprise & Pokomoke Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Plasma progesterone levels and luteal activity during gestation and prolonged oviductal egg retention in a tropical lizard, Calotes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, B A; Radder, R S; Saidapur, S K

    2001-07-01

    Plasma progesterone (P) levels and luteal and adrenal activities were studied during normal gestation and unusual prolonged period of oviductal egg retention in a polyautochronic, multiclutched lizard, Calotes versicolor. The normal gestation period (approximately 15 days) was categorized into four stages: stage I--a few hours following ovulation, stage II--eggs with shell and embryo at primitive streak, stage III--embryonic stages 16-20, and stage IV--prior to ovipostion (stages 26-27). The gravid lizards maintained in captivity retained eggs in their oviducts for 45 days. Plasma P levels were low in stage I, increased significantly during stage II, declined in stage III, and reached their lowest in stage IV of gestation. 3Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSDH) activity was greater in lutein cells at stage II and was present in traces in stage IV gestation. Interestingly, plasma P titers that were high in lizards with eggs retained longer though the corpora lutea (CL) showed a trace 3beta-HSDH activity. However, 3beta-HSDH activity was greater in the adrenocortical cells in these lizards than that in lizards during a normal gestation period. The present study on C. versicolor shows that the CL remains active and secretes P only during the early part of the gestation. The drop in P level during the later part of gestation might facilitate growth of a second set of vitellogenic follicles. During unfavorable conditions when the lizards are forced to retain eggs in the oviduct, the adrenal glands seem to secrete progesterone to help in egg retention and in inhibition of oviposition.

  14. Live birth rates after IVF are reduced by both low and high progesterone levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration.

    PubMed

    Santos-Ribeiro, S; Polyzos, N P; Haentjens, P; Smitz, J; Camus, M; Tournaye, H; Blockeel, C

    2014-08-01

    Are low serum progesterone levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration detrimental for live birth delivery rates during in vitro fertilization (IVF)? Progesterone levels ≤0.5 ng/ml on the day of hCG administration hinder live birth rates. Fundamental research has shown that the presence of late follicular phase progesterone is essential for follicular development, ovulation and endometrial receptivity. However, previous studies in patients undergoing ovarian stimulation have only assessed if progesterone levels in the higher range are detrimental for pregnancy or not. That said, information on the effect of the full range of late follicular progesterone on IVF outcomes is still lacking. This was a retrospective, single-centre cohort study with 2723 cycles performed in patients aged between 19 and 36 and undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation between January 2006 and March 2012 for their first or second attempt of IVF followed by a fresh embryo transfer (ET). All patients underwent ovarian stimulation using a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist for pituitary down-regulation. Final oocyte maturation was triggered with hCG 36 h before oocyte retrieval. On the day of hCG administration, serum progesterone evaluation was performed. Live birth delivery rates were compared amongst various ordinal and regular progesterone intervals (≤0.50, 0.50-0.75, 0.75-1.00, 1.00-1.25, 1.25-1.50, >1.50 ng/ml) using logistic regression. The average age of our sample was 30.5 years. Almost 82% of all embryo transfers were of a single embryo and 51.8% were performed with a Day 5 embryo. The average value (±standard deviation) of progesterone on the day of hCG administration was 1.02 ± 0.50 ng/ml and the live birth rate was 23.4%. The live birth rates (according to the above-described ordinal serum progesterone intervals) were 17.1, 25.1, 26.7, 25.5, 21.9 and 16.6%, respectively. The live birth rates were significantly lower in patients

  15. Serum levels of acute phase proteins: SAA, Hp and progesterone (P4) in mares with early embryonic death.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, L; Krawczyk, C H; Kostro, K; Stefaniak, T; Novotny, F; Obara, J

    2011-08-01

    The study involved 46 healthy purebred Arabian mares exhibiting regular oestrous cycles that underwent artificial insemination (AI). Pregnancy was detected ultrasonographically (US) in 40 mares. In 15 mares in foal, early embryonic death (EED) was observed during the pregnancy days 14-21. Blood for determinations of serum acute phase proteins (SAA and Hp) and progesterone (P4) was sampled 12-24 h before ovulation and the first insemination, at 12, 24, 72, 96 h and on day 7, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 55 after ovulation. The results revealed that in 25 mares without EED, the serum levels of P4, SAA and Hp were within physiological limits; in 15 mares with EED, the levels of SAA and Hp were significantly increased. In seven mares with EED, high levels of SAA and Hp were already found before ovulation and at 12, 24, 72, 96 h as well as on day 7 and 10 post-ovulation, whereas the level of P4 was normal for early pregnancy. In the remaining eight mares with EED, increased levels of SAA and Hp were found at 72 h after ovulation and maintained until day 55. In this group, the level of P4 decreased since 96 h after ovulation. Determinations of SAA, Hp and P4 in mares in early pregnancy (EP) are useful for monitoring normal development of pregnancy and for diagnosis of subclinical genital inflammations, which may lead to EED. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Premature Progesterone Elevation Does Not Affect Pregnancy Outcome in High-Responder Patients Undergoing Short-Interval Coasting in IVF Cycles.

    PubMed

    Acet, Mustafa; Aktün, Lebriz Hale; Başaranoğlu, Serdar; Yorgunlar, Betül; Acet, Tuba; Deregözü, Aysegul

    2015-11-30

    BACKGROUND We aimed to present the relationship between premature progesterone elevation (PPE) and clinical outcomes in high-responder patients who had a coasting period of <4 days in length due to their high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and who were treated with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-agonist) protocol in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study was conducted at the University Hospital Assisted Reproductive Technology Center. The outcomes of 101 patients undergoing IVF- intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles who showed a high response to COH (estradiol >4000 pg/ml and/or >20 follicles each ≥10 mm in diameter and at least 20% ≥15 mm) and who were coasted for <4 days were evaluated. Number of oocytes, 2 pronuclei (PN) embryos, implantation rate, and live birth rate were measured. RESULTS The incidence of PPE was 32.6%. Compared with those without PPE, patients with PPE had a higher number of oocytes retrieved. Total mature and fertilized oocytes and the mean number of embryos transferred were not significantly different between groups. Live birth rates (41.9% vs. 38.7%) and implantation rates (26.5% vs. 23%) were also not significantly divergent in the PPE and non-PPE groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS P concentrations ≥1.3 ng/ml on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration, designated in this study as PPE, does not appear to be related to adverse effects in terms of clinical outcomes in high-responder patients undergoing coasting <4 days due to their high risk of developing OHSS treated with a long-acting GnRH-a protocol in IVF-embryo transfer cycles.

  17. Relationship between progesterone level on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration with outcomes of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection in infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Hajishafiha, Mahsomeh; Shahbazi, Zahra; Pakniyat, AbdolGhader; Oshnouei, Sima; Kiarang, Nazila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists or antagonists are used in assisted reproductive technique cycles as premature luteinizing hormone secretion inhibition. Studies have been reported different and contradictory results on the serum progesterone effect on intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of serum progesterone level on the day of Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administration on the intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome in infertile women. Materials and Methods: 249 infertile couples candidated for ICSI were enrolled in the study. Their serum progesterone level on the day of HCG administration was measured and according to serum level, patients were divided into four groups of less than 0.9, 0.9-1.4, 1.5-1.9, and ≥2 ng/mL. The four groups were compared with each other regarding fertility outcomes. Results: Pregnancy rate was not significantly different among the four groups (p>0.05). Also, there was no significant difference among the groups regarding frequency of abortion and ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Serum progesterone level on the day of HCG administration does not have any significant effect on pregnancy outcomes, including abortion, ectopic pregnancy, and pregnancy rate in patients undergoing ICSI treatment. PMID:26494986

  18. Progesterone-induced stimulation of mammary tumorigenesis is due to the progesterone metabolite, 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP) and can be suppressed by the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, John P; Rivas, Martin A; Mercogliano, Maria F; Elizalde, Patricia V; Schillaci, Roxana

    2015-05-01

    the stimulation of C4HD tumor growth in BALB/c mice treated with progesterone is due to the progesterone metabolite 5αP formed at elevated levels in mammary cells as a result of the 5α-reductase action on progesterone. The results provide the first in vivo demonstration that stimulation of breast cell tumorigenesis and tumor growth accompanying progesterone treatment is due to the progesterone metabolite 5αP, and that breast tumorigenesis can be blocked with the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride.

  19. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Elevated Protein Level Increases Blacks' Risk of Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166903.html Elevated Protein Level Increases Blacks' Risk of Kidney Disease Scientists find enhanced protein level is required to trigger ...

  1. 46. MAIN WAREHOUSE SECOND LEVEL Two elevators, left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. MAIN WAREHOUSE - SECOND LEVEL Two elevators, left and center, and stairs, all lead to the third level. The finished produce of canned fish was stored here, awaiting shipment by either truck or train. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  2. The luteinizing hormone surge is preceded by an estrogen-induced increase of hypothalamic progesterone in ovariectomized and adrenalectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Micevych, Paul; Sinchak, Kevin; Mills, Richard H; Tao, Leslie; LaPolt, Philip; Lu, John K H

    2003-07-01

    As circulating estrogen levels rise on the afternoon of proestrus, they stimulate the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. This estrogen positive feedback is pivotal to stimulate the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge required for ovulation and luteinization of ovarian follicles. In addition to estrogen, pre-LH surge progesterone is critical for an LH surge as was demonstrated by blocking progesterone synthesis. In ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with trilostane, a blocker of the enzyme 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) that catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone, estrogen did not induce an LH surge. Further, estrogen induced an LH surge in OVX and adrenalectomized (ADX) rats, indicating that the source of progesterone was neither the ovary nor adrenal gland. This estrogen-only LH surge was inhibited by pretreatment with trilostane, indicating that although the adrenal gland and ovary were not necessary for positive feedback, progesterone synthesis was critical for estrogen-induced positive feedback in an OVX/ADX rat. This suggested that the LH surge is dependent on the pre-LH surge synthesis of progesterone. Estrogen-induced progesterone receptors in the hypothalamus are vital for the LH surge, so a potential location for progesterone synthesis is the hypothalamus. OVX/ADX female rats were treated with 17beta-estradiol (50 microg) and progesterone levels were assayed by RIA. Progesterone levels were elevated in hypothalamic tissue following estrogen treatment. No increases in tissue progesterone levels were found in parietal cortex, cerebellum, medulla, pituitary or plasma. Additionally, male rats that do not have an estrogen positive feedback-induced LH surge were examined. Castrated/ADX male rats had no increase in hypothalamic progesterone levels after estrogen treatment. Together, these data strongly suggest that estrogen enhances neuroprogesterone synthesis in the hypothalamus that is involved in the positive feedback regulating the LH

  3. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  4. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Langley, J Adam; McKee, Karen L; Cahoon, Donald R; Cherry, Julia A; Megonigal, J Patrick

    2009-04-14

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO(2)] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO(2) (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr(-1) in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO(2) effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO(2), may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  5. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    PubMed Central

    Langley, J. Adam; McKee, Karen L.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cherry, Julia A.; Megonigal, J. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas. PMID:19325121

  6. Nutritionally induced relationships between insulin levels during the weaning-to-ovulation interval and reproductive characteristics in multiparous sows: II. Luteal development, progesterone and conceptus development and uniformity.

    PubMed

    Wientjes, J G M; Soede, N M; van den Brand, H; Kemp, B

    2012-02-01

    Insulin-stimulating sow diets before mating improve piglet uniformity. We studied effects of nutritionally induced differences in insulin levels during the weaning-to-ovulation interval (WOI) on luteal development, progesterone secretion and pre-implantation conceptus development and uniformity (d10). To create insulin contrasts, 32 multiparous sows were fed either a dextrose plus lactose containing diet (each 150 g/day) at 4 h intervals (DL treatment) or an isocalorically control diet (containing soybean oil) at 12 h intervals (CTRL treatment) during the WOI. After ovulation, all sows received a standard gestation diet at 12 h intervals. Ovulation rate, plasma progesterone levels, pregnancy rate and embryo survival did not differ between treatments. CTRL sows had a higher total luteal weight (11.2 vs 9.7 g; p = 0.03) than DL sows. Conceptus diameter at d10 of pregnancy tended to be larger in CTRL sows (diameter: 7.1 vs 6.4 mm; p = 0.07). Conceptus uniformity was not influenced by treatment. Insulin area under the curve (AUC) and mean insulin during the WOI were positively related with mean progesterone (β values were 0.78 (ng/ml)/1000 μU and 0.14 (ng/ml)/(μU/ml) for AUC and mean, respectively; p < 0.05) and maximal progesterone (β values were 1.46 (ng/ml)/1000 μU and 0.27 (ng/ml)/(μU/ml) for AUC and mean, respectively; p < 0.05) levels during the first 10 days of pregnancy, but not with conceptus development and uniformity. In conclusion, high insulin levels during the WOI seem to be beneficial for progesterone secretion in sows, probably mediated through beneficial effects of insulin on follicle development.

  7. Intranasal delivery of progesterone after transient ischemic stroke decreases mortality and provides neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Fréchou, Magalie; Zhang, Shaodong; Liere, Philippe; Delespierre, Brigitte; Soyed, Nouha; Pianos, Antoine; Schumacher, Michael; Mattern, Claudia; Guennoun, Rachida

    2015-10-01

    Progesterone is a potential neuroprotective agent for cerebral stroke. One of the STAIR's recommendations is to test different routes of delivery of therapeutic agents. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective efficacy of intranasal delivery of progesterone in oleogel. Male mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral occlusion (MCAO) for 1 h. Mice received intranasal or intraperitoneal administrations of progesterone (8 mg/kg) at 1, 6, and 24 h post-MCAO. Plasma and brain levels of steroids were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry 2 and 24 h after the last administration of progesterone. Behavioral and histopathological analyzes were performed at 48 h post-MCAO. For blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability analysis, mice received one intranasal administration of progesterone or placebo at reperfusion and Evans Blue and sodium fluorescein extravasations were assessed at 4 h post-MCAO. Two hours after its nasal administration, progesterone reached elevated levels in brain and plasma and was bioconverted to its 5α-reduced metabolites and to 20α-dihydroprogesterone. However, brain levels of progesterone and its metabolites were about half those measured after intraperitoneal injections, whereas levels of 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone were 5-times lower. In contrast, after 24 h, higher levels of progesterone were measured in brain and plasma after intranasal than after intraperitoneal delivery. Intranasal progesterone decreased the mortality rate, improved motor functions, reduced infarct, attenuated neuronal loss, and decreased the early BBB disruption. This study demonstrates a good bioavailability, a prolonged absorption and a good neuroprotective efficacy of intranasal delivery of progesterone, thus potentially offering an efficient, safe, non-stressful and very easy mode of administration in stroke patients.

  8. Elevated serum zinc levels in metal fume fever

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, N.E.; Ruthman, J.C.

    1988-11-01

    Metal fume fever is not an uncommon syndrome among welders following exposure to oxidized metal fumes (usually zinc). The relationship of serum zinc level to the acute phase of this illness is not known. Two cases of metal fume fever, associated with elevated serum zinc levels, are presented. Further studies are necessary to determine the diagnostic usefulness of serum zinc levels in metal fume fever.

  9. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, R; Kindahl, H; Lagerstedt, A-S

    2006-01-01

    Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite), progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β) levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra. PMID:16722306

  10. Pyometra in bitches induces elevated plasma endotoxin and prostaglandin F2alpha metabolite levels.

    PubMed

    Hagman, R; Kindahl, H; Lagerstedt, A S

    2006-01-01

    Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2alpha metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha (PG-metabolite), progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17beta) levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The gamma-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra.

  11. Effect of chronic elevated asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels on granulopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Gernot; Perthel, Ronny; Suntharalingam, Mayuren; Bode-Böger, Stefanie M; Martens-Lobenhoffer, Jens; Kielstein, Jan T; Kielstein, Heike

    2013-04-01

    The endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is elevated in both animal models of chronic inflammatory disorders as well as in patients with chronic inflammatory disease. In vivo data suggest that ADMA can increase the number of circulating monocytes and possibly affect their adhesion potential in vitro. The aim of our study was to evaluate possible effects of chronically elevated levels of ADMA on white blood cell count (WBC), leukocyte subsets, and WBC distribution pattern using a model of chronic exogenous ADMA infusion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 20, 10 weeks of age) were randomized to receive either (1) isotonic saline or (2) ADMA applied by osmotic mini pumps. After 28 days of infusion, all animals were sacrificed for blood and tissue sampling. WBC count, flow cytometry for subtype assessment, and histological assessment were performed. Over a time period of 28 days, continuous ADMA infusion significantly increased mean plasma levels (1.26 ± 0.07 μmol/l) as compared to saline infusion (0.57 ± 0.02 μmol/l). Clinical side effects were not observed. Despite a physiologically relevant rise in ADMA plasma levels, measured by decrease of the L-arginine/AMDA ratio-a surrogate parameter of NO production capacity-there was no effect on WBC count or pattern of leukocyte subsets. Numbers and morphology of peripheral blood cells as well as number of NK-cells leveling liver and spleen were not affected by chronic ADMA infusion. Chronically elevated ADMA levels in otherwise healthy rats did not affect WBC counts or leukocyte subsets. Furthermore, anemia frequently found in patients with progressive renal failure and elevated ADMA levels, was not observed. In a chronic inflammatory state, elevated ADMA levels themselves are rather the result than the cause of the underlying inflammatory process.

  12. The effects of dietary omega fatty acids on pregnancy rate, plasma prostaglandin metabolite levels, serum progesterone levels, and milk fatty-acid profile in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Gavin F; McNiven, Mary A; Petit, Hélène V; Duynisveld, John L

    2013-10-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of feeding supplements rich in omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acids (FA) during the late gestation to the early postpartum and breeding periods on reproduction and milk FA profile in beef cows. For each of two years, at the beginning of period 1 (mid-December), 72 beef cows, calving in January or February, were assigned to diets supplemented with roasted flaxseed (Flax) or roasted soybean (Soybean). For each of two years, after 11 wk (end of period 1), 18 cows of 36 in the Flax group were switched to the soybean supplement and 18 cows of 36 in the Soybean group were switched to the flax supplement (start of Period 2). Cows were bred by timed artificial insemination (TAI) in week 5 of period 2. The FA composition of the milk reflected the FA profile of the oilseed supplements. There were no differences in pregnancy rates among the 4 groups. The treatments had no effect on plasma prostaglandin metabolite levels or ratios at 4 to 11 d postpartum. At 5 to 6 d post- TAI, pregnant cows fed Flax in period 1 had lower (P < 0.05) plasma prostaglandin F metabolite (PGFM) levels and PGFM to prostaglandin E metabolite (PGEM) ratio than cows fed Soybean, but there were no significant differences at 19 to 20 d post-TAI. Cows pregnant from TAI and fed Flax in period 2 had higher (P < 0.05) serum progesterone levels at 5 to 6 d post-TAI than cows fed Soybean, but there was no difference at 19 to 20 d post-TAI. The dietary treatments had no effect on pregnancy rates, but there were some effects on plasma PGFM levels, PGFM to PGEM ratios, and serum progesterone levels. The FA supplements influenced the FA composition of milk.

  13. The effects of dietary omega fatty acids on pregnancy rate, plasma prostaglandin metabolite levels, serum progesterone levels, and milk fatty-acid profile in beef cows

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Gavin F.; McNiven, Mary A.; Petit, Hélène V.; Duynisveld, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of feeding supplements rich in omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acids (FA) during the late gestation to the early postpartum and breeding periods on reproduction and milk FA profile in beef cows. For each of two years, at the beginning of period 1 (mid-December), 72 beef cows, calving in January or February, were assigned to diets supplemented with roasted flaxseed (Flax) or roasted soybean (Soybean). For each of two years, after 11 wk (end of period 1), 18 cows of 36 in the Flax group were switched to the soybean supplement and 18 cows of 36 in the Soybean group were switched to the flax supplement (start of Period 2). Cows were bred by timed artificial insemination (TAI) in week 5 of period 2. The FA composition of the milk reflected the FA profile of the oilseed supplements. There were no differences in pregnancy rates among the 4 groups. The treatments had no effect on plasma prostaglandin metabolite levels or ratios at 4 to 11 d postpartum. At 5 to 6 d post- TAI, pregnant cows fed Flax in period 1 had lower (P < 0.05) plasma prostaglandin F metabolite (PGFM) levels and PGFM to prostaglandin E metabolite (PGEM) ratio than cows fed Soybean, but there were no significant differences at 19 to 20 d post-TAI. Cows pregnant from TAI and fed Flax in period 2 had higher (P < 0.05) serum progesterone levels at 5 to 6 d post-TAI than cows fed Soybean, but there was no difference at 19 to 20 d post-TAI. The dietary treatments had no effect on pregnancy rates, but there were some effects on plasma PGFM levels, PGFM to PGEM ratios, and serum progesterone levels. The FA supplements influenced the FA composition of milk. PMID:24124276

  14. Progesterone is not responsible for the blood pressure fall in late-pregnant New Zealand genetically hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R M; Baer, P G

    1984-05-01

    In various models of experimental and genetic hypertension in rats, blood pressure is markedly reduced during late pregnancy. The period during which the blood pressure reduction occurs is also the period when plasma progesterone is maximally elevated, and administration of progesterone to renal hypertensive rats has been reported to reduce blood pressure (J. Armstrong, 1959, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 102:452-455). To test the possibility that elevated plasma progesterone is responsible for the blood pressure reduction in late pregnancy, on Day 14 of pregnancy a group of New Zealand genetically hypertensive (NZGH) rats was ovariectomized and implanted with progesterone-filled capsules, to maintain plasma progesterone at low levels just sufficient to maintain pregnancy, and compared with intact, pregnant NZGH. Ovariectomy did not alter the characteristic course of blood pressure reduction seen in late-pregnant intact NZGH rats. In addition, daily administration of progesterone (15 mg/kg, sc) for 14 days did not alter blood pressure of either nonpregnant NZGH rats or New Zealand normotensive rats with chronic 1-kidney, 1-clip hypertension. It is concluded that blood pressure of NZGH rats is reduced to near normotensive levels in late pregnancy, as reported for other models of rat hypertension, but that elevated plasma progesterone levels are not requisite for that reduction and do not reduce blood pressure of renal hypertensive rats.

  15. DETAIL VIEW ON THE MAIN ASSEMBLY LEVEL OF ELEVATOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW ON THE MAIN ASSEMBLY LEVEL OF ELEVATOR SHOWING THE DOUBLED COLUMN FOR THE BUILDING EXPANSION JOINT AT COLUMN LINE AA-18. - Offutt Air Force Base, Glenn L. Martin-Nebraska Bomber Plant, Building D, Peacekeeper Drive, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators and detail of aluminum and glass connection to brick from east side of 1946/1948 store for homes and parking garage. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  17. Elevation view of east wall from fifteenth level, west platform. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of east wall from fifteenth level, west platform. Two hoisting supports are nested on the test stand structure in the background center and foreground right. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. Estradiol, progesterone and genistein differentially regulate levels of aquaporin (AQP)-1, 2, 5 and 7 expression in the uteri of ovariectomized, sex-steroid deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Chinigarzadeh, Asma; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2016-11-01

    In this study, effects of estradiol, progesterone and genistein on uterine aquaporin (AQP)-1, 2, 5 and 7 expression were investigated in sex-steroid deficient state which could help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying uterine fluid volume changes that were reported under these hormone and hormone-like compound influences. Uteri from ovariectomized, female Sprague-Dawley rats receiving seven days estradiol, progesterone or genistein (25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day) were harvested and levels of AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 proteins and mRNAs were determined by Western blotting and Real-time PCR (qPCR) respectively. Distribution of these proteins in uterus was observed by immunohistochemistry. Genistein caused a dose-dependent increase in uterine AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 protein and mRNA expression, however at the levels lower than following estradiol or progesterone stimulations. Effects of genistein were antagonized by estradiol receptor blocker, ICI 182780. Estradiol caused the highest AQP-2 protein and mRNA expression while progesterone caused the highest AQP-1, 5 and 7 protein and mRNA expression in uterus. AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 protein were found to be distributed in the myometrium as well as in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia and endometrial blood vessels. In conclusion, the observed effects of estradiol, progesterone and genistein on uterine AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 expression could help to explain the differences in the amount of fluid accumulated in the uterus under these different conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Burden of asthma with elevated blood eosinophil levels.

    PubMed

    Casciano, Julian; Krishnan, Jerry A; Small, Mary Buatti; Buck, Philip O; Gopalan, Gokul; Li, Chenghui; Kemp, Robert; Dotiwala, Zenobia

    2016-07-13

    Asthma is a common chronic condition with an economic burden of almost $56 billion annually in the US. Biologic markers like blood eosinophils, that help predict the risk of exacerbation could help guide more optimal treatment plans and reduce cost. The purpose of this study was to determine whether healthcare resource use and expenditures vary by eosinophil level among patients with asthma. Patients with a diagnosis of asthma defined by ICD-9-CM code 493.xx between January 2004 and July 2011 were extracted from EMRClaims + database (eMAX Health, White Plains NY). Patients were classified as mild, moderate, or severe by medication use following diagnosis, based on recommendations of National Institutes of Health Expert Panel Report 3. Patients were classified as those with elevated eosinophils (≥400 cells/μL) and normal eosinophil level (<400 cells/μL). Patients were followed for resource use, defined as hospitalizations, ER visits and outpatient visit and associated costs were calculated to assess whether an economic difference exists between eosinophil groups. Non-parametric tests were used to compare resource use and associated cost between elevated and normal eosinophil groups. Multivariate modeling was performed to assess the contribution of eosinophil level on the likelihood of study outcomes among patients with severe asthma. Among the 2,164 patients meeting eligibility criteria, 1,144 had severity designations. Of these, 179(16 %) of patients had severe asthma of which 20 % (n = 35) had elevated eosinophils. Seventeen percent of patients with elevated eosinophils were admitted to the hospital during the follow-up period, significantly greater than patients with normal eosinophil levels (12 %; p = 0.011). Overall, compared to patients with normal eosinophil levels (n = 1734), patients with elevated eosinophil levels (n = 430) had significantly greater mean annual hospital admissions (0.51 vs. 0.21/year, p = 0.006) and hospital

  20. Plasma progesterone levels during the estrous cycle of Holstein and Brahman cows, Carora type and cross-bred heifers.

    PubMed

    Díaz, T; Manzo, M; Trocóniz, J; Benacchio, N; Verde, O

    1986-10-01

    Daily plasma progesterone (P(4)) was determined during one estrous cycle of 19 cows and 18 heifers of four different breeds: Holstein (H), Brahman (B), Carora-type (C) and crossbred (CB) females. Estrus detection was made by visual observation and using a teaser bull with a chin-ball marker. The P(4) profiles showed no differences among groups. In Group 1 (H), P(4) levels ranged from 0.5 ng/ml plasma on the day of estrus (Day 0) to 5.1 ng/ml at the luteal phase peak (Day 13). In Group 2 (B), P(4) levels ranged from 0.5 ng/ml on Day 0 to 9.2 ng/ml on Day 13. In Groups 3 (C) and 4 (CB), P(4) levels ranged from 0.5 ng/ml, on Day 0, to 13.7 ng/ml on Day 12 and 8.8 ng/ml on Day 13. These last two groups were moved to the same location and then compared. It was found that P(4) concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.025) in Group 3 between Days 7 and 14 of the estrous cycle. In all groups, P(4) levels were lower than 1 ng/ml one day before the next estrus, and levels of 0.4, 0.5, 0.4 and 0.4 ng/ml were obtained the day of estrus in Groups 1 to 4, respectively. Results indicated that the pattern of P(4) for each one of the groups was similar to those reported by other investigators.

  1. The effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy on serum estrogen, progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels in healthy post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Edlefsen, Kerstin L.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Prentice, Ross L.; Janssen, Imke; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Anderson, Garnet

    2010-01-01

    Objective Differences in disease outcomes between users and non-users of hormone therapy (HT) and between users of estrogen alone (ET) and users of estrogen plus progesterone therapy (EPT) may relate to differences in serum hormone concentrations between these populations. In this study, we examine the response of serum hormone levels in healthy post-menopausal women after one year of HT. Methods A representative sub-sample of 200 healthy adherent participants from the active and placebo groups of the Women's Health Initiative randomized, controlled clinical trials of ET (conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg daily) or EPT (ET plus medroxyprogesterone actetate 2.5 mg daily) were selected for determination of selected sex hormone levels at baseline and one year after randomization. Results In participants receiving active ET intervention compared to placebo, estrogenic hormone levels increased from baseline to year 1 by 3.6-fold for total estrone, 2.7-fold for total estradiol, and 1.8-fold for bioavailable and free estradiol concentrations. Serum SHBG concentrations also increased 2.5-fold. In contrast, progesterone levels decreased slightly in women taking exogenous EPT. The response of serum estrogens and SHBG did not differ substantially with the addition of progesterone. In subgroup analyses, hormone response varied by age, ethnicity, BMI, smoking, vasomotor symptoms, and baseline hormone levels. Conclusions These data provide a reference point for the serum hormone response to HT, and demonstrate that response of serum estrogens is similar for ET and EPT. The implications of the slight decrease in serum progesterone levels with EPT therapy are uncertain. Potential treatment interactions for estrogenic hormones were identified, which suggest a larger response to HT in women with low endogenous levels. PMID:20215977

  2. Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Stimulation Increase the Number of Luteinized Follicles and the Progesterone Level Compared with Cabergoline Stimulation in Anoestrus Bitches.

    PubMed

    Jurczak, A; Domosławska, A; Bukowska, B; Janowski, T

    2016-08-01

    In this study, ovarian morphologies and blood progesterone concentrations following oestrous induction in bitches were examined. Fifty-three clinically healthy anoestrus bitches received cabergoline at a daily dose of 5 μg/kg of body weight per os for 21 days (group I) or subcutaneous equine chorionic gonadotropin at a dose of 20 IU/kg of body weight for five consecutive days with an additional 500 IU s.c. per bitch of human chorionic gonadotropin on the last day of treatment (group II). Twenty bitches that spontaneously displayed oestrous signs were left untreated and served as controls (group III). The induced oestrous rates and ovulation rates in groups I and II were 60.0% vs 64.3% and 86.7% vs 83.3%, respectively. Morphological assessments of the ovarian structures after ovariohysterectomy revealed an increase in the number of luteinized follicles and cysts in group II compared with the two other groups (p < 0.001). In contrast, the numbers of corpora lutea and follicles were similar in all groups. In accordance with the above-mentioned alteration, the progesterone concentration in the gonadotropin group (II) was increased (p < 0.001) in the periovulatory period compared with the other two groups. During the entire sampling period, the progesterone profiles in the cabergoline (I) and control (III) groups were similar and typical of normally cycling bitches. In conclusion, gonadotropin treatment is associated with an increased progesterone level during the periovulatory period that probably originates from luteinized follicles, whereas cabergoline treatment induces cycles with both physiological progesterone concentrations and ovarian morphologies.

  3. Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and androstenedione levels during the breeding season and anestrus in Siberian tigers.

    PubMed

    Seal, U S; Plotka, E D; Smith, J D; Wright, F H; Reindl, N J; Taylor, R S; Seal, M F

    1985-03-01

    Seasonal analysis of 1239 captive births of Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) indicated a peak in April to June (P less than 0.001). Studies on seven animals in Minnesota indicated that behavioral heat cycles and ovarian follicular phase cycles began in late January and ceased in early June. Behavioral observation of 12 heat cycles in four tigers yielded an estrous length of 5.3 +/- 0.2 days and an interestrous interval of 25.0 +/- 1.3 days. Hormone assays on weekly blood samples (N = 180) from three female tigers indicated 16 cycles in two breeding seasons. Peak estradiol-17 beta levels were 46.7 +/- 6.0 pg/ml (N = 17) and interestrous concentrations were 8.7 +/- 0.66 pg/ml (N = 28) during the breeding season. Anestrous estradiol levels were 4.2 +/- 0.5 pg/ml (N = 70). The interestrous interval between estradiol peaks was 24.9 +/- 1.3 days (N = 9) with two outliers of 42 days. Serum progesterone concentrations from February to June were 1.2 +/- 0.15 ng/ml (N = 32), providing no evidence for ovulation or corpus luteum formation. Luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were 0.56 +/- 0.04 ng/ml (N = 180). Serum testosterone (r=0.71, P less than 0.001) and androstenedione levels (r=0.75, P less than 0.001) were correlated with estradiol during the breeding season. The duration of anestrus was 8 mo in two of these tigers. The interval was shortened in one tiger by exposure to a 16L:8D photoperiod. The Siberian tiger appears to be a polyestrous seasonal breeder and an induced ovulator whose breeding season may be synchronized by photoperiod.

  4. Progesterone receptor knockout mice have an improved glucose homeostasis secondary to -cell proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Frédéric; Wanatabe, Mitsuhiro; Schoonjans, Kristina; Lydon, John; O'Malley, Bert W.; Auwerx, Johan

    2002-11-01

    Gestational diabetes coincides with elevated circulating progesterone levels. We show that progesterone accelerates the progression of diabetes in female db/db mice. In contrast, RU486, an antagonist of the progesterone receptor (PR), reduces blood glucose levels in both female WT and db/db mice. Furthermore, female, but not male, PR-/- mice had lower fasting glycemia than PR+/+ mice and showed higher insulin levels on glucose injection. Pancreatic islets from female PR-/- mice were larger and secreted more insulin consequent to an increase in -cell mass due to an increase in -cell proliferation. These findings demonstrate an important role of progesterone signaling in insulin release and pancreatic function and suggest that it affects the susceptibility to diabetes.

  5. Progesterone alleviates acute brain injury via reducing apoptosis and oxidative stress in a rat experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage model.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Cao, Shenglong; Chen, Jingyin; Yan, Feng; Chen, Gao; Dai, Yuying

    2015-07-23

    This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of progesterone on acute brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=72) by endovascular perforation. Progesterone (8 mg/kg or 16 mg/kg) was administered to rats at 1, 6, and 12h after SAH. Mortality, neurologic deficits, cell apoptosis, expression of apoptotic markers, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assayed at 24h after experimental SAH. Mortality, cell apoptosis and the expression of caspase-3 were decreased, and improved neurological function was observed in the progesterone-treated SAH rats. Further, exploration demonstrated that progesterone significantly reduced the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and attenuated the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Progesterone also induced anti-oxidative effects by elevating the activity of SOD and decreasing MDA content after SAH. Furthermore, dose-response relationships for progesterone treatment were observed, and high doses of progesterone enhanced the neuroprotective effects. Progesterone treatment could alleviate acute brain injury after SAH by inhibiting cell apoptosis and decreasing damage due to oxidative stress. The mechanism involved in the anti-apoptotic effect was related to the mitochondrial pathway. These results indicate that progesterone possesses the potential to be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute brain injury after SAH.

  6. Papillary thyroid carcinoma shows elevated levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate.

    PubMed

    Rakheja, Dinesh; Boriack, Richard L; Mitui, Midori; Khokhar, Shama; Holt, Shelby A; Kapur, Payal

    2011-04-01

    Elevated levels of D: -2-hydroxyglutarate (D: -2-HG) occur in gliomas and myeloid leukemias associated with mutations of IDH1 and IDH2. L: -2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria, an inherited metabolic disorder, predisposes to brain tumors. Therefore, we asked whether sporadic cancers, without IDH1 or IDH2 hot-spot mutations, show elevated 2-hydroxyglutarate levels. We retrieved 15 pairs of frozen papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and adjacent non-neoplastic thyroid, and 14 pairs of hyperplastic nodule (HN) and adjacent non-hyperplastic thyroid. In all lesions, exon 4 sequencing confirmed the absence of known mutations of IDH1 and IDH2. We measured 2-hydroxyglutarate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Compared to normal thyroid, PTCs had significantly higher D: -2-HG and L: -2-hydroxyglutarate (L: -2-HG) levels, and compared to HNs, PTCs had significantly higher D: -2-HG levels. D: -2-HG/L: -2-HG levels were not significantly different between HNs and normal thyroid. Further studies should clarify if elevated 2-hydroxyglutarate in PTC may be useful as cancer biomarker and evaluate the role of 2-hydroxyglutarate in cancer biology.

  7. Elevated plasma ammonia level in hepatic cirrhosis: role of glucagon.

    PubMed

    Kabadi, U M; Eisenstein, A B; Konda, J

    1985-03-01

    Elevated plasma ammonia level in hepatic cirrhosis has been attributed to a lack of conversion of enteric ammonia into urea or to its entry into systemic circulation via portasystemic shunting, or to both. It is exaggerated by excessive protein intake. Because hyperglucagonemia is well documented in cirrhosis and a protein meal is an effective glucagon secretagogue, plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and ammonia levels were determined in 50 cirrhotic patients after an overnight fast. Effects of a protein meal were also assessed in 20 of these patients. Plasma glucose was normal and remained unaltered after a protein meal. Insulin, glucagon, and ammonia levels were elevated, but only in patients with advanced liver dysfunction. Ammonia levels correlated significantly with glucagon (r = 0.61, p less than 0.001), but not with insulin or glucose levels. Insulin and glucagon levels rose after a protein meal in all patients and controls; whereas a significant rise in the ammonia level occurred only in decompensated cirrhotics. Elevation of the ammonia level was significantly correlated with fasting glucagon (r = 0.54, p less than 0.05), as well as with glucagon response (r = 0.65, p less than 0.01), but not with basal insulin or insulin response. Furthermore, the rise in ammonia level occurred too early to be accounted for by enteric generation. Finally, direct effects of glucagon administration on plasma glucose and serum ammonia were examined in 15 cirrhotic patients. Glucose response was significantly blunted in cirrhotic patients as compared with normal subjects, whereas serum ammonia rose promptly but only in cirrhotics, with maximum rise being noted in cirrhotic patients with advanced liver dysfunction. This study, therefore, suggests that hyperglucagonemia may contribute significantly to hyperammonemia in hepatic cirrhosis.

  8. Elevated homocysteine level in siblings of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Geller, Vadim; Friger, Michael; Sela, Ben-Ami; Levine, Joseph

    2013-12-30

    Increased homocysteine plasma levels were reported in patients with schizophrenia and Levine et al. (2002) suggested that such increase characterizes mainly males. In the following study we examined whether such increased levels also characterize male siblings of schizophrenia patients. Forty-four pairs of schizophrenia patients and their corresponding healthy male siblings were recruited and sampled for homocysteine. We also had age-matched controls for each of the sibling. The median homocysteine plasma level for patients was 13.0 µMol/L and 11.7 µMol/L for their male siblings compared with a median of 10.9 µMol/L for the siblings' controls. There was no significant difference between homocysteine plasma level in patients and their siblings. Significant difference was found for homocysteine plasma level between the siblings' group and their matched controls. A partial correlation of Ln plasma homocysteine level between patients and their siblings was found to be close to a zero correlation of -0.089, p=0.57 for the whole study group and -0.15, p=0.38 in the male-male patient-sibling pairs. Our results show that elevated homocysteine plasma level may characterize schizophrenia patients' male siblings, a finding that seems to agree with previous studies suggesting elevated homocysteine level as a risk factor for developing schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cadmium levels in a North Carolina cohort: Identifying risk factors for elevated levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Sharon E.; Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine cadmium (Cd) levels and relationships to demographics in an observational, prospective pregnancy cohort study in Durham County, North Carolina. Multivariable models were used to compare blood Cd levels across demographic characteristics. The relative risk of having a blood Cd level that exceeds the US national median (0.32 μg/l) was estimated. Overall, >60% of the women had an elevated (>0.32 μg/l) blood Cd level. Controlling for confounding variables, smoking was associated with 21% (95% CI: 15–28%) increased risk for an elevated blood Cd level. High Cd levels were also observed in non-smokers and motivated smoking status-stratified models. Race, age, education, relationship status, insurance status and cotinine level were not associated with risk of elevated Cd levels among smokers; however, older age and higher cotinine levels were associated with elevated Cd levels among non-smokers. Taken together, more than half of pregnant women in this cohort had elevated blood Cd levels. Additionally, among non-smokers, 53% of the women had elevated levels of Cd, highlighting other potential sources of exposure. This study expands on the limited data describing Cd levels in pregnant populations and highlights the importance of understanding Cd exposures among non-smokers. Given the latent health risks of both smoking and Cd exposure, this study further highlights the need to biomonitor for exposure to toxic metals during pregnancy among all women of child-bearing age. PMID:25073434

  10. Cadmium levels in a North Carolina cohort: Identifying risk factors for elevated levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sharon E; Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Fry, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine cadmium (Cd) levels and relationships to demographics in an observational, prospective pregnancy cohort study in Durham County, North Carolina. Multivariable models were used to compare blood Cd levels across demographic characteristics. The relative risk of having a blood Cd level that exceeds the US national median (0.32 μg/l) was estimated. Overall, >60% of the women had an elevated (>0.32 μg/l) blood Cd level. Controlling for confounding variables, smoking was associated with 21% (95% CI: 15-28%) increased risk for an elevated blood Cd level. High Cd levels were also observed in non-smokers and motivated smoking status-stratified models. Race, age, education, relationship status, insurance status and cotinine level were not associated with risk of elevated Cd levels among smokers; however, older age and higher cotinine levels were associated with elevated Cd levels among non-smokers. Taken together, more than half of pregnant women in this cohort had elevated blood Cd levels. Additionally, among non-smokers, 53% of the women had elevated levels of Cd, highlighting other potential sources of exposure. This study expands on the limited data describing Cd levels in pregnant populations and highlights the importance of understanding Cd exposures among non-smokers. Given the latent health risks of both smoking and Cd exposure, this study further highlights the need to biomonitor for exposure to toxic metals during pregnancy among all women of child-bearing age.

  11. Predicting mass rapid transit noise levels on an elevated station.

    PubMed

    Pamanikabud, Pichai; Paoprayoon, Suwajchai

    2003-04-01

    This study developed a noise prediction model for elevated mass rapid transit (MRT) platforms. Relevant physical and operational parameters (e.g. cruise speed, acceleration and deceleration rates for trains, building façade setbacks and so on) were collected from the Bangkok mass transit system (BTS), the first elevated MRT system operated in Bangkok, Thailand. The equivalent continuous sound pressure levels (L(Aeq)) were collected from both sides of the MRT stations at the center of each platform. The relevant parameters were collected on both platforms and ground level, on both sides of MRT stations. These parameters were statistically tested to determine their correlation with MRT noise. The final model was built from highly correlated parameters using multiple regression analysis with a stepwise regression technique. Statistical evaluation showed a high degree of goodness-of-fit test for the model to the observed data. Therefore, it can be efficiently used for the projection of MRT noise in the affected areas.

  12. Progesterone attenuates cocaine-induced responses.

    PubMed

    Quinones-Jenab, Vanya; Jenab, Shirzad

    2010-06-01

    In this review, we summarize literature focused on how progesterone alters cocaine-induced psychomotor, reinforcement, and physiological responses. Clinical studies suggest that progesterone attenuates the subjective effects of cocaine. Similarly, preclinical studies have demonstrated that cocaine-induced reward and psychomotor responses are attenuated after progesterone administration. In rats progesterone also reduces the reinforcement effects of cocaine attenuates acquisition, escalation, reinstatement of cocaine self-administration, and cocaine-seeking behaviors. Progesterone also counteracts the facilitatory effects of estrogen on cocaine self-administration and psychomotor activation. These findings suggest that progesterone has a potential in clinical applications as a treatment for cocaine addiction. Constantly changing progesterone serum levels in female humans and rats affect the female's reinforcement responses to cocaine and may in part contribute to the known sex differences in cocaine responses.

  13. 48. MAIN WAREHOUSE THIRD LEVEL Elevator drive mechanism is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. MAIN WAREHOUSE - THIRD LEVEL Elevator drive mechanism is seen to the right, while drive wheels, belt wheels and chain drives are visible in the wooden wall framing. The horizontal metal conveyor (at the top of the wall Just under the inverted 'V' brace) is part of the empty can supply system connected to the external can conveyor. See Photo No. 28. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  14. Formation of corpora lutea and central luteal cavities and their relationship with plasma progesterone levels and other metabolic parameters in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Perez-Marin, C

    2009-06-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) may be looked upon as a compact or cavitary structure. A number of papers have addressed the relationship between CL type and parameters such as fertility or progesterone levels. The present study assessed the morphological and functional sequence observed in cows with different CL types, comparing pre-ovulatory follicle size, progesterone levels, luteal tissue formation and some blood biochemical parameters (calcium, albumin, inorganic phosphorus, glucose, magnesium, copper and zinc), oestrus cycle length and oestrus expression, as a function of CL type. Twenty-eight lactating dairy cows from two commercial dairy farms in southern Spain were studied. Oestrus detection was performed by monitoring daily oestrus behaviour, and artificial insemination (AI) was performed using the AM/PM rule. Ovaries and uterus were sonographically examined and blood samples were collected to measure progesterone and various biochemical parameters. There was a slight tendency towards the appearance of luteal cavities when pre-ovulatory follicles were larger (1.9 +/- 0.2 vs 1.7 +/- 03; p = 0.074). Fertility was not affected by cavity presence (cavity = 42.9% and compact = 57.1%; n.s.). Luteal tissue and function were not modified as a function of CL type. Cows with luteal cavities displayed significantly higher levels of albumin, suggesting a possible metabolic influence on the formation of these structures, although specific research is required to confirm this observation.

  15. 9. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS OF THE MILL CAN BE CLEARLY SEEN HERE. THE UPPER MOST LEVEL CONSISTS OF A CONVEORY THAT BROUGHT ORE TO A JAW CRUSHER. THE CRUSHED ORE WAS CHANNELED DIRECTLY INTO A LARGE ORE BIN LOCATED BEHIND THE COVERED WALL (CENTER). THE NEXT LEVEL SHOWS THE BULL (DRIVE) WHEEL ON THE UPPER PART OF THE STAMP BATTERIES. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (STAIRS) IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE STAMP BATTERIES WITH THE MORTAR BLOCKS AND APRONS. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (LOWER RIGHT) HELD CONCENTRATION (SHAKING) TABLES AND A CLASSIFIER. MOST EXTERIOR WALL COVERING, TIMBERS, AND ROOF IS MISSING FROM THE MILL. SEE CA-290-42 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. 42. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS OF THE MILL CAN BE CLEARLY SEEN HERE. THE UPPER MOST LEVEL CONSISTS OF A CONVEORY THAT BROUGHT ORE TO A JAW CRUSHER. THE CRUSHED ORE WAS CHANNELED DIRECTLY INTO A LARGE ORE BIN LOCATED BEHIND THE COVERED WALL (CENTER). THE NEXT LEVEL SHOWS THE BULL (DRIVE) WHEEL ON THE UPPER PART OF THE STAMP BATTERIES THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (STAIRS) IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE STAMP BATTERIES WITH MORTAR BLOCKS AND APRONS. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (LOWER RIGHT) HELD CONCENTRATION (SHAKING) TABLES AND A CLASSIFIER. MOST EXTERIOR WALL COVERING, TIMBERS, AND ROOF IS MISSING FROM THE MILL. SEE CA-290-9 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. Estimating the net effect of progesterone elevation on the day of hCG on live birth rates after IVF: a cohort analysis of 3296 IVF cycles.

    PubMed

    Venetis, Christos A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Bosdou, Julia K; Lainas, George T; Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Lainas, Tryfon G

    2015-03-01

    What is the proper way of assessing the effect of progesterone elevation (PE) on the day of hCG on live birth in women undergoing fresh embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization (IVF) using GnRH analogues and gonadotrophins? This study indicates that a multivariable approach, where the effect of the most important confounders is controlled for, can lead to markedly different results regarding the association between PE on the day of hCG and live birth rates after IVF when compared with the bivariate analysis that has been typically used in the relevant literature up to date. PE on the day of hCG is associated with decreased pregnancy rates in fresh IVF cycles. Evidence for this comes from observational studies that mostly failed to control for potential confounders. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of fresh IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles (n = 3296) performed in a single IVF centre during the period 2001-2013. Patients in whom ovarian stimulation was performed with gonadotrophins and GnRH analogues. Natural cycles and cycles where stimulation involved the administration of clomiphene were excluded. In order to reflect routine clinical practice, no other exclusion criteria were imposed on this dataset. The primary outcome measure for this study was live birth defined as the delivery of a live infant after 24 weeks of gestation. We compared the association between PE on the day of hCG (defined as P > 1.5 ng/ml) and live birth rates calculated by simple bivariate analyses with that derived from multivariable logistic regression. The multivariable analysis controlled for female age, number of oocytes retrieved, number of embryos transferred, developmental stage of embryos at transfer (cleavage versus blastocyst), whether at least one good-quality embryo was transferred, the woman's body mass index, the total dose of FSH administered during ovarian stimulation and the type of GnRH analogues used (agonists versus antagonists) during ovarian

  18. Is it the egg or the endometrium? Elevated progesterone on day of trigger is not associated with embryo ploidy nor decreased success rates in subsequent embryo transfer cycles.

    PubMed

    Kofinas, Jason D; Mehr, Holly; Ganguly, Nandita; Biley, Yelena; Bochkovsky, Svetlana; McCulloh, David; Grifo, Jamie

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine if progesterone (P4) values on day of trigger affect certain cycle outcome parameters, ploidy status of embryos, as well as pregnancy outcomes in the subsequent first frozen embryo transfer cycle. Two hundred thirty-eight patients undergoing pre-gestational screening and freeze all protocol at our fertility center from 2013 to 2014 were included. Excluded patients were those whom had cancelled cycles prior to egg retrieval as well as cycles utilizing donor eggs. Once patients were identified as eligible for this study, frozen serum from the day of trigger was identified and analyzed using the Siemens Immulite 2000. Number of eggs retrieved, number of available embryos for biopsy, and number of euploid/aneuploid embryos were analyzed. The first frozen embryo transfer cycle was linked to the initial egg retrieval and outcomes including pregnancy rates, and live birth/ongoing pregnancy rates were calculated and analyzed. A discriminatory P4 value of 1.5 ng/ml was set. Group A had P4 values of less than 1.5 ng/ml and group B had P4 values greater than or equal to 1.5 ng/ml. T tests and chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis. Group A had an average trigger P4 value of 0.87 +/- 0.3 and group B had an average trigger P4 of 2.1 +/- 0.8. Table 1 shows the baseline characteristics of both group A and group B. The only significant difference between the two groups was total gonadotropin dosage (IU) with a p value of 0.02 and estradiol (pg/ml) at trigger, also with a p value of 0.02 (Table 1). Number of eggs retrieved, number of embryos biopsied, number euploid/aneuploid, and non-diagnosis embryos were all non-significant. Chi-square analysis was used to compare pregnancy rates between the two groups after the first frozen embryo transfer cycle. Group A had a pregnancy rate of 72 % and Group B had a pregnancy rate of 66.7 %, which was not significant. Ongoing pregnancy/live birth rates were 65.6 % in group A and 66

  19. Elevated Serum Pesticide Levels and Risk for Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jason R.; Roy, Ananya; Shalat, Stuart L.; von Stein, Richard T.; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Buckley, Brian; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I.; German, Dwight C.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The causes of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) are not yet understood but likely include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Limited epidemiological studies suggest that occupational pesticide exposures are associated with AD. Previously, we reported that serum levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the metabolite of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were elevated in a small number of patients with AD (n=20). OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between serum levels of DDE and AD and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modifies the association. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A case-control study consisting of existing samples from patients with AD and control participants from the Emory University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School’s Alzheimer’s Disease Center. Serum levels of DDE were measured in 79 control and 86 AD cases. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Serum DDE levels, AD diagnosis, severity of AD measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination score, and interaction with APOE4 status. RESULTS Levels of DDE were 3.8-fold higher in the serum of those with AD (mean [SEM], 2.64 [0.35] ng/mg cholesterol) when compared with control participants (mean [SEM], 0.69 [0.1] ng/mg cholesterol; P < .001). The highest tertile of DDE levels was associated with an odds ratio of 4.18 for increased risk for AD (95% CI, 2.54–5.82; P < .001) and lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores (−1.605; range, −3.095 to −0.114; P < .0001). The Mini-Mental State Examination scores in the highest tertile of DDE were −1.753 points lower in the subpopulation carrying an APOE ε4 allele compared with those carrying an APOE ε3 allele (P interaction = .04). Serum levels of DDE were highly correlated with brain levels of DDE (ρ = 0.95). Exposure of human neuroblastoma cells to DDT or DDE increased levels of amyloid precursor protein. CONCLUSIONS

  20. Elevated serum pesticide levels and risk for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jason R; Roy, Ananya; Shalat, Stuart L; von Stein, Richard T; Hossain, Muhammad M; Buckley, Brian; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I; German, Dwight C

    2014-03-01

    The causes of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) are not yet understood but likely include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Limited epidemiological studies suggest that occupational pesticide exposures are associated with AD. Previously, we reported that serum levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the metabolite of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were elevated in a small number of patients with AD (n=20). To evaluate the association between serum levels of DDE and AD and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modifies the association. A case-control study consisting of existing samples from patients with AD and control participants from the Emory University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School's Alzheimer's Disease Center. Serum levels of DDE were measured in 79 control and 86 AD cases. Serum DDE levels, AD diagnosis, severity of AD measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination score, and interaction with APOE4 status. Levels of DDE were 3.8-fold higher in the serum of those with AD (mean [SEM], 2.64 [0.35] ng/mg cholesterol) when compared with control participants (mean [SEM], 0.69 [0.1] ng/mg cholesterol; P < .001). The highest tertile of DDE levels was associated with an odds ratio of 4.18 for increased risk for AD (95% CI, 2.54-5.82; P < .001) and lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores (-1.605; range, -3.095 to -0.114; P < .0001). The Mini-Mental State Examination scores in the highest tertile of DDE were -1.753 points lower in the subpopulation carrying an APOE ε4 allele compared with those carrying an APOE ε3 allele (P interaction = .04). Serum levels of DDE were highly correlated with brain levels of DDE (ρ = 0.95). Exposure of human neuroblastoma cells to DDT or DDE increased levels of amyloid precursor protein. Elevated serum DDE levels are associated with an increased risk for AD and carriers of an APOE4 ε4 allele may

  1. Interleukin-22 serum levels are elevated in active scleritis.

    PubMed

    Sainz-de-la-Maza, Maite; Molins, Blanca; Mesquida, Marina; Llorenç, Victor; Zarranz-Ventura, Javier; Sala-Puigdollers, Anna; Matas, Jessica; Adan, Alfredo; Foster, C Stephen

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate serum cytokine profile from patients with active scleritis in a two-centre prospective case-control study. The serum of 20 active scleritis patients not treated with any local, periocular, or systemic immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) was analysed with multiplex assay to determine the levels of 11 cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-5, TNF-α, and TNF-β, and with ELISA to determine the levels of TGF-β1, IL-22, and IL-23. Twenty-five age-matched healthy volunteers were used as controls. In a subgroup of 13 patients with active disease, a second serum sample was obtained when the disease was inactive and levels of IL-22 were determined. Serum IL-22 levels from patients with active scleritis were correlated with type of scleritis (non-necrotizing and necrotizing), degree of inflammation (0-4+ :≤2+ and >2+), and associated systemic disease. Serum levels of IL-22 were elevated in active scleritis patients compared to controls (6.41 ± 1.52 pg/ml versus 1.93 ± 0.39 pg/ml, p = 0.012) and significantly decreased after scleritis remission with the use of IMT (p = 0.005). There was no statistical association with scleritis type, degree of inflammation, or associated systemic disease. The serum levels of other cytokines were not significantly different from controls. In our study cohort, IL-22 serum levels were significantly elevated in active scleritis patients compared to controls and decreased significantly after remission. Our results suggest that IL-22, a T helper (Th) 17- and Th22- derived cytokine, may play a critical role in the physiopathology of scleritis. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The impact of progesterone on memory consolidation of threatening images in women.

    PubMed

    Felmingham, Kim L; Fong, Wing Chee; Bryant, Richard A

    2012-11-01

    Recent findings suggest that consolidation of emotional memories is influenced by menstrual phase in women. In contrast to other phases, in the mid-luteal phase when progesterone levels are elevated, cortisol levels are increased and correlated with emotional memory. This study examined the impact of progesterone on cortisol and memory consolidation of threatening stimuli under stressful conditions. Thirty women were recruited for the high progesterone group (in the mid-luteal phase) and 26 for the low progesterone group (in non-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle). Women were shown a series of 20 neutral or threatening images followed immediately by either a stressor (cold pressor task) or control condition. Participants returned two days later for a surprise free recall test of the images and salivary cortisol responses were monitored. High progesterone levels were associated with higher baseline and stress-evoked cortisol levels, and enhanced memory of negative images when stress was received. A positive correlation was found between stress-induced cortisol levels and memory recall of threatening images. These findings suggest that progesterone mediates cortisol responses to stress and subsequently predicts memory recall for emotionally arousing stimuli.

  3. Treating elevated cholesterol levels: the great Satan in perspective.

    PubMed

    Gibaldi, M; Kradjan, W

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide perspective on the developments leading to the recognition of high cholesterol levels as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Another objective is to consider the unfolding controversies regarding the relative value of cholesterol-lowering drug therapy in primary and secondary prevention. Should physicians use lipid-lowering drugs to treat patients with elevated cholesterol levels but no clinical evidence of coronary disease, or limit intervention to patients with a previous history of angina, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass surgery, or myocardial infarction? This review finds inadequate data to support a recommendation for screening large populations for the presence of elevated cholesterol levels or for primary prevention in those known to have high cholesterol. On the other hand, there is mounting evidence to support vigorous intervention in those with known coronary disease. Further study is needed to determine whether a subset of patients with one or more well-defined risk factors would benefit from primary prevention.

  4. Elevated Matrix Metalloproteinase Levels in Bronchi Infected with Periodontopathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bernasconi, Luca; Ramenzoni, Liza L.; Al-Majid, Ahmed; Tini, Gabrielo M.; Graber, Sereina M.; Schmidlin, Patrick R.; Irani, Sarosh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether bronchial colonisations/infections with periodontopathogenic bacteria are associated with elevated inflammatory markers such as MMPs, interleukins and Tumor necrosis factor alpha in the bronchial fluid. Methods Periodontal status was assessed in consecutive outpatients planned for elective bronchoscopies, and PCR for periodontopathogenic bacteria was performed from a protected specimen brush sample taken from the bronchial mucosa. Additionally, MMPs, interleukins and Tumor necrosis factor alpha were measured in the bronchial fluid. Results Out of the four species assessed, one species was found in 13 of 91 (14%) patients, and two in 12 (13%), three in 13 (14%) and all four in 1 (1%) patient, respectively. In multiple linear regression models the presence of Treponema denticola showed a consistent pattern of positive effects in bronchial fluid (Bonferroni adjusted p-values) on the levels of MMP9 (p adj.: 0.028) and MMP12 (p adj.: 0.029). Active smoking was independently associated with increased levels of aMMP8 (p adj.: 0.005) and MMP9 (p adj.: 0.009). Levels of IL-1 ß, IL-8 and Tumor necrosis factor alpha measured in the bronchial fluid were not affected by the presence of periodontopathogenic bacteria. Conclusions Bronchial colonisation/infection with Treponema denticola and smoking are independently associated with elevated MMPs (MMP9/MMP12 and MMP8/MMP9, respectively) in the bronchial fluid. PMID:26656474

  5. Regulation of uterine progesterone receptors by the nonsteroidal anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekhar, Y.; Armstrong, D.T. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors have recently reported that the anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide causes delayed implantation and exhibits antideciduogenic activity in the rat. The present experiments were conducted to examine whether hydroxyflutamide binds to the uterine progesterone receptors and/or alters the progesterone binding sites in the uterus. Cytosol and nuclear fractions from decidualized rat uterus were incubated with (3H)-R5020 without or with increasing concentrations of radioinert R5020, RU486, dihydrotestosterone, or hydroxyflutamide. From the log-dose inhibition curves, the relative binding affinity of both hydroxyflutamide and dihydrotestosterone was less than 0.1% and 2%, compared with R5020 (100%) for displacing (3H)-R5020 bound to uterine cytosol and nuclear fractions, respectively. Injection of estradiol-17 beta (1 microgram/rat) to ovariectomized prepubertal rats induced a 1.85-fold increase in uterine weight by 24 h. Hydroxyflutamide at 2.5 or 5.0 mg did not significantly alter the estrogen-induced increase in uterine weight. Compared to vehicle alone, estrogen induced an approximately 5-fold increase in uterine cytosolic progesterone binding sites. Hydroxyflutamide at both 2.5- and 5.0-mg doses significantly attenuated the estrogen-induced elevation in uterine progesterone binding sites. These studies demonstrate that hydroxyflutamide does not bind with high affinity to progesterone receptors, but suppresses the estrogen-induced elevation in progesterone receptor levels in the uterus.

  6. Effects of progesterone administered after MPTP on dopaminergic neurons of male mice.

    PubMed

    Litim, Nadhir; Morissette, Marc; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2017-05-01

    Progesterone neuroprotection of striatal dopamine (DA) in male mice lesioned with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was previously reported when administered before MPTP or an hour after. A dose of MPTP to induce a partial lesion was used to model early stages or prodromal Parkinson. We hypothesized that brain DA can be restored by progesterone administered early (24 h) or later (5 days) after MPTP. Male mice received 4 injections of MPTP (8 mg/kg) and progesterone (8 mg/kg) once daily for 5 days started 24 h or 5 days after MPTP. The lesion decreased striatal DA and its metabolites but not serotonin contents. MPTP mice treated with progesterone starting 24 h but not 5 days after MPTP had higher striatal DA and its metabolites content than vehicle-treated MPTP mice. Striatal DA transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) specific binding decreased in lesioned mice and were corrected with progesterone treatment starting 24 h but not 5 days after MPTP. Striatal glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels, a marker of activated astrocytes, were elevated by the MPTP lesion and were corrected with progesterone treatment starting 24 h after MPTP. Striatal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were decreased by the MPTP lesion and were prevented by progesterone treatments whereas no change of Akt, GSK3β, ERK1 and 2 and their phosphorylated forms were observed. Thus, progesterone administered after MPTP in mice protected dopaminergic neurons through modulation of neuroinflammation and BDNF. In humans, progesterone could possibly be used as a disease-modifying drug in prodromal Parkinson. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Elevated plasma interleukin-37 levels in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, G-C; Li, H-M; Wang, J-B; Leng, R-X; Wang, D-G; Ye, D-Q

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the plasma interleukin (IL)-37 levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, as well as its association with major clinical and laboratory features. Ninety consecutively selected SLE patients and 78 community-based healthy controls were recruited. Plasma IL-37 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The major clinical and laboratory data of SLE patients were also recorded. The results showed that IL-37 level was significantly higher in the plasma of patients with SLE compared with controls (p = 0.028). The correlation of plasma IL-37 levels with major clinical and laboratory data of SLE patients was also analyzed, and the results showed that anti-Sm and anti-RNP were negatively associated with plasma IL-37 levels of SLE patients, while C3 was positively associated with plasma IL-37 levels of SLE patients. No significant associations of IL-37 with other clinical and laboratory parameters were observed (all p > 0.05). In conclusion, elevated plasma IL-37 level and its associations with anti-Sm, anti-RNP and C3 in SLE patients suggest that IL-37 may be implicated in this disease. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Managing pregnancy of unknown location based on initial serum progesterone and serial serum hCG levels: development and validation of a two-step triage protocol.

    PubMed

    Van Calster, B; Bobdiwala, S; Guha, S; Van Hoorde, K; Al-Memar, M; Harvey, R; Farren, J; Kirk, E; Condous, G; Sur, S; Stalder, C; Timmerman, D; Bourne, T

    2016-11-01

    A uniform rationalized management protocol for pregnancies of unknown location (PUL) is lacking. We developed a two-step triage protocol to select PUL at high risk of ectopic pregnancy (EP), based on serum progesterone level at presentation (step 1) and the serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ratio, defined as the ratio of hCG at 48 h to hCG at presentation (step 2). This was a cohort study of 2753 PUL (301 EP), involving a secondary analysis of prospectively and consecutively collected PUL data from two London-based university teaching hospitals. Using a chronological split we used 1449 PUL for development and 1304 for validation. We aimed to assign PUL as low risk with high confidence (high negative predictive value (NPV)) while classifying most EP as high risk (high sensitivity). The first triage step assigned PUL as low risk using a threshold of serum progesterone at presentation. The remaining PUL were triaged using a novel logistic regression risk model based on hCG ratio and initial serum progesterone (second step), defining low risk as an estimated EP risk of < 5%. On validation, initial serum progesterone ≤ 2 nmol/L (step 1) classified 16.1% PUL as low risk. Second-step classification with the risk model selected an additional 46.0% of all PUL as low risk. Overall, the two-step protocol classified 62.1% of PUL as low risk, with an NPV of 98.6% and a sensitivity of 92.0%. When the risk model was used in isolation (i.e. without the first step), 60.5% of PUL were classified as low risk with 99.1% NPV and 94.9% sensitivity. PUL can be classified efficiently into being either high or low risk for complications using a two-step protocol involving initial progesterone and hCG levels and the hCG ratio. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Genetic variants influencing elevated myeloperoxidase levels increase risk of stroke.

    PubMed

    Phuah, Chia-Ling; Dave, Tushar; Malik, Rainer; Raffeld, Miriam R; Ayres, Alison M; Goldstein, Joshua N; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M; Jagiella, Jeremiasz M; Hansen, Björn M; Norrving, Bo; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Roquer, Jaume; Pichler, Alexander; Enzinger, Christian; Montaner, Joan; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel; Lindgren, Arne; Slowik, Agnieszka; Schmidt, Reinhold; Biffi, Alessandro; Rost, Natalia; Langefeld, Carl D; Markus, Hugh S; Mitchell, Braxton D; Worrall, Brad B; Kittner, Steven J; Woo, Daniel; Dichgans, Martin; Rosand, Jonathan; Anderson, Christopher D

    2017-10-01

    Primary intracerebral haemorrhage and lacunar ischaemic stroke are acute manifestations of progressive cerebral microvascular disease. Current paradigms suggest atherosclerosis is a chronic, dynamic, inflammatory condition precipitated in response to endothelial injury from various environmental challenges. Myeloperoxidase plays a central role in initiation and progression of vascular inflammation, but prior studies linking myeloperoxidase with stroke risk have been inconclusive. We hypothesized that genetic determinants of myeloperoxidase levels influence the development of vascular instability, leading to increased primary intracerebral haemorrhage and lacunar stroke risk. We used a discovery cohort of 1409 primary intracerebral haemorrhage cases and 1624 controls from three studies, an extension cohort of 12 577 ischaemic stroke cases and 25 643 controls from NINDS-SiGN, and a validation cohort of 10 307 ischaemic stroke cases and 29 326 controls from METASTROKE Consortium with genome-wide genotyping to test this hypothesis. A genetic risk score reflecting elevated myeloperoxidase levels was constructed from 15 common single nucleotide polymorphisms identified from prior genome-wide studies of circulating myeloperoxidase levels (P < 5 × 10-6). This genetic risk score was used as the independent variable in multivariable regression models for association with primary intracerebral haemorrhage and ischaemic stroke subtypes. We used fixed effects meta-analyses to pool estimates across studies. We also used Cox regression models in a prospective cohort of 174 primary intracerebral haemorrhage survivors for association with intracerebral haemorrhage recurrence. We present effects of myeloperoxidase elevating single nucleotide polymorphisms on stroke risk per risk allele, corresponding to a one allele increase in the myeloperoxidase increasing genetic risk score. Genetic determinants of elevated circulating myeloperoxidase levels were associated with both primary

  10. Elevated systemic galectin-1 levels characterize HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Annegret; Blois, Sandra M; Meint, Peter; Freitag, Nancy; Ernst, Wolfgang; Barrientos, Gabriela; Conrad, Melanie L; Rose, Matthias; Seelbach-Göbel, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    Galectin-1 (gal-1), a member of a family of conserved β-galactoside-binding proteins, has been shown to exert a key role during gestation. Though gal-1 is expressed at higher levels in the placenta from HELLP patients, it is still poorly understood whether systemic gal-1 levels also differ in HELLP patients. In the present study, we evaluated the systemic expression of gal-1, together with the angiogenic factors, placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) in conjunction with HELLP syndrome severity. Systemic levels of gal-1 and sFlt-1 were elevated in patients with both early- and late-onset HELLP syndrome as compared to healthy controls. In contrast, peripheral PlGF levels were decreased in early- and late-onset HELLP. A positive correlation between systemic gal-1 levels and sFlt-1/PlGF ratios was found in early onset HELLP patients. Our results show that HELLP syndrome is associated with increased circulating levels of gal-1; integrating systemic gal-1 measurements into the diagnostic analyses of pregnant women may provide more effective prediction of HELLP syndrome development.

  11. Elevated calprotectin levels reveal bowel inflammation in spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cypers, H; Varkas, G; Beeckman, S; Debusschere, K; Vogl, T; Roth, J; Drennan, M B; Lavric, M; Foell, D; Cuvelier, C A; De Vos, M; Delanghe, J; Van den Bosch, F; Elewaut, D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Microscopic bowel inflammation is present in up to 50% of patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) and is associated with more severe disease. Currently no reliable biomarkers exist to identify patients at risk. Calprotectin is a sensitive marker of neutrophilic inflammation, measurable in serum and stool. Objectives To assess whether serum and faecal calprotectin in addition to C-reactive protein (CRP) can be used to identify patients with SpA at risk of microscopic bowel inflammation. Methods Serum calprotectin and CRP were measured in 125 patients with SpA. In 44 of these patients, faecal samples were available for calprotectin measurement. All 125 patients underwent an ileocolonoscopy to assess the presence of microscopic bowel inflammation. Results Microscopic bowel inflammation was present in 53 (42.4%) patients with SpA. Elevated serum calprotectin and CRP were independently associated with microscopic bowel inflammation. Faecal calprotectin was also significantly higher in patients with microscopic bowel inflammation. Patients with CRP and serum calprotectin elevated had a frequency of bowel inflammation of 64% vs 25% in patients with low levels of both. When either CRP or serum calprotectin was elevated, the risk was intermediate (40%) and measuring faecal calprotectin provided further differentiation. Hence we suggest a screening approach where initially serum calprotectin and CRP are assessed and, if necessary, faecal calprotectin. The model using this scenario provided an area under the ROC curve of 74.4% for detection of bowel inflammation. Conclusions Calprotectin measurements in stool and serum, in addition to CRP, may provide a promising strategy to identify patients with SpA at risk of bowel inflammation and could play a role in overall patient stratification. PMID:26698844

  12. Elevated blood lead levels from exposure via a radiator workshop.

    PubMed

    Treble, R G; Thompson, T S; Morton, D N

    1998-04-01

    Elevated lead levels were discovered in blood samples collected from family members where both the father and the mother worked in a radiator repair workshop. The father and mother were found to have blood lead levels of 2.0 and 0.5 mumol/L (41.7 and 10.4 micrograms/dL), respectively. The father's blood lead level was just below the Canadian occupational health and safety intervention level (2.5 mumol/L or 52.1 micrograms/dL). The two children had blood lead levels of 1.0 and 0.8 mumol/L (20.8 and 16.7 micrograms/dL), both of which are in excess of the recommended guideline for intervention in the case of children (0.5 mumol/L or 10.4 micrograms/dL). The exposure of the two children was possibly due to a combination of pathways including exposure at the workshop itself during visits and also the transportation of lead-containing dust to the home environment.

  13. HCG, progesterone and 17-beta-estradiol levels during extra-amniotically induced early abortion by a new prostaglandin derivative (Sulprostone).

    PubMed

    Nilsson, S; Zador, G; Nygren, K G; Wide, L

    1981-01-01

    A new prostaglandin E2 derivative (Sulprostone) was given extra-amniotically to 17 healthy women, who were 7-8 weeks pregnant, in order to assess the plasma profile of HCG, 17 beta-estradiol (E2), and progesterone and to evaluate the effectiveness and overall acceptability of the method in relation to different dose levels. On the lowest dose level (5 micrograms) only 3 of 7 patients aborted within a 3-to 6-day period. At higher dose levels (10 and 15 micrograms, respectively) 9 out of 10 women exhibited clinical evidence of an abortion. In the group who aborted, E2, progesterone, and HCG decreased continuously, whereas in the nonabortion group decreased levels were found 3 and 6 h after administration of the drug, but already after 24 h the values had again increased. Practically all treated women experienced lower abdominal discomfort, 7 (41%) reported the pains being severe. Vomiting and/or diarrhea occurred in 4 patients (24%). Similarly to other hitherto tested prostaglandins in humans, this new analogue exhibits its effect primarily through direct stimulatory effect on the uterine smooth muscle, resulting in subsequent decline in the concentrations of HCG, E2, and progesterone. In the group of successful inductions the decrease of the HCG concentration was close the half-time of HCG, indicating a permanent damage to the placenta. Despite the high success rate at a dose of 10 micrograms or more, the side effects, mainly abdominal cramps. were too severe to make this method feasible for the induction of early abortion when comparing to the available routine procedure of rapid vacuum curettage used on an outpatients basis.

  14. [Dynamics of the sex hormone and progesterone level in the peripheral blood and their production by the gonads and adrenals in postnatal ontogeny in silver foxes].

    PubMed

    Krass, P M; Logvinenko, N S; Ivanova, L N

    1978-01-01

    The newborn males of silver-black foxes are characterized by the high specific production of testosterone by the testes and its relatively high level in the blood. These indices sharply decreased by the end of the first month of life and then increased, this increase being most expressed during the prepuberate period. The suprarenals do not play any important role in the production of sex hormones in males. The newborn females are characterized by the high provision of the organism with oestradiol and progesterone produced by the gonads and suprarenals. The production of hormones decreased by the end of the first month of life and then increased in the prepubertate period.

  15. Triaging pregnancies of unknown location: the performance of protocols based on single serum progesterone or repeated serum hCG levels.

    PubMed

    Guha, S; Ayim, F; Ludlow, J; Sayasneh, A; Condous, G; Kirk, E; Stalder, C; Timmerman, D; Bourne, T; Van Calster, B

    2014-05-01

    How does a protocol based on a single serum progesterone measurement perform as a triage tool in women with pregnancy of unknown location (PUL) in comparison to protocols based on serial hCG measurement? Triage based on the logistic regression model M4 (using initial hCG and hCG ratio (48 h/0 h)) classifies the majority of PUL into low and high risk groups, in contrast to a progesterone protocol based on a serum level threshold of 10 nmol/l. Low progesterone has been shown to identify failing pregnancies and those at low risk of complications. A prediction model (M4) based on the initial hCG and the hCG ratio at 0 and 48 h can successfully classify PUL into low and high risk groups. A multi-centre diagnostic accuracy study of 1271 women was performed retrospectively on data from women at St. George's Hospital (SGH, London, UK) between February 2005 and 2006, Queen Charlottes & Chelsea Hospital (QCCH, London, UK) between April 2009 and August 2012, and the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (RPAH, Sydney, Australia) between February 2008 and October 2011. The end-points were the final observed outcome for each pregnancy as a failed PUL (low risk), intrauterine pregnancy (IUP, low risk), or ectopic pregnancy (EP, high risk), and any interventions or complications for EP during the follow-up period. Complete data were available for initial progesterone, 0/48 h hCG and final outcome in 431 of 534 women (81%) at SGH, 396/585 (68%) at QCCH and 96/152 (63%) at RPAH. Missing values were handled using multiple imputation. Three diagnostic approaches were used to classify PUL as high risk: a range of serum progesterone levels were evaluated (>10, 16 and 20 nmol/l) for the progesterone protocol, risk of EP given by the M4 model ≥5% for the M4-based protocol, and hCG ratio was between 0.87 and 1.66 for hCG cut-offs as previously published. Results were analysed using random intercept models or stratified analysis to account for variability between centres. The progesterone

  16. Elevated Adiponectin Serum Levels in Women with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Toussirot, Éric; Gaugler, Béatrice; Bouhaddi, Malika; Nguyen, Nhu Uyen; Saas, Philippe; Dumoulin, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue produces a wide range of proteins that may influence the immune system. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, in association with the measurements of body composition, in 15 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, CREST syndrome, and polymyositis) and in 15 healthy female controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls with regard to serum leptin, serum ghrelin, global fat mass, adiposity, and fat mass in the android or gynoid regions, whereas serum adiponectin levels were higher in patients than controls (16.3 ± 1.6 μg/mL versus 9.7 ± 0.6 μg/mL; P = .01). As adiponectin is known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties, a high adiponectinemia in patients with systemic autoimmune disease may mitigate the inflammatory response. However, the precise consequences of these elevated serum adiponectin levels on the metabolic syndrome development and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in this patient population still needs to be determined. PMID:21234350

  17. Elevated serum galectin-9 levels in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Rina; Miyagaki, Tomomitsu; Oka, Tomonori; Nakao, Momoko; Kawaguchi, Makiko; Suga, Hiraku; Morimura, Sohshi; Kai, Hiromichi; Asano, Yoshihide; Tada, Yayoi; Kadono, Takafumi; Sato, Shinichi; Sugaya, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    Galectin-9 is a member of the galectin family that has a wide spectrum of biological functions. Among them, galectin-9 has been known mainly as a potent chemoattractant for eosinophils. In addition, galectin-9 alters the T-cell balance by negatively regulating T-helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, resulting in Th2 polarization. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a skin allergic disease characterized by peripheral eosinophilia, mast cell activation and predominance of Th2 cells. To investigate possible roles of galectin-9 in AD, we measured serum galectin-9 levels in AD patients and investigated galectin-9 expression in lesional skin by immunohistochemistry. Serum galectin-9 levels in patients with AD were significantly higher than those in healthy controls and correlated with the Eczema Area and Severity Index. Serum galectin-9 levels were decreased after treatment, accompanied by improvement of skin lesions. Immunohistochemical study revealed that galectin-9 was expressed on epidermal keratinocytes and mast cells in lesional skin of AD. Our results suggest that elevated galectin-9 expression is associated with progression of AD and that galectin-9 could be a therapeutic target in AD. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  18. Effect of predictive value of progesterone level on the day of HCG injection for IVF success in women with infertility due to tubal factor or polycystic ovarian syndrome referred to the women hospital, Tehran, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Ghaseminejad, Azizeh; Rezaee, Zahra; Forootan, Mitra; Hosseinipoor, Taraneh; Forghani, Forough; Nikuei, Pooneh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome is one of the most common causes of endocrine disorders and main reason of infertility due to anovulation and recurrent abortions. Progesterone has been shown to have an important role in fertilization of oocyte and fetal implantation. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive value of progesterone level on IVF success in women with infertility due to tubal factor or PCOS. Materials and Methods: In a stratified cohort study, we assigned 76 infertile women of 20-38 years old who referred to women hospital into two equal groups with fallopian tube factor infertility and PCOS. We measured the plasma levels of progesterone and estradiol on the day of HCG administration. The patients were divided into two groups based on progesterone level cut off point of 1.2ng/ml. Thereafter the incidence of pregnancy (chemical by β-HCG measurement and clinical by ultrasonography up to the 6 weeks after fetal transfer) was compared in these groups. Results: Total pregnancy rates were 15.8% in patients with tubal factor infertility and 26.3% in women with PCOS. In women with PCOS, the pregnancy rate was less in patients with progesterone level <1.2 ng/ml. However this difference was not statistically significant. Likewise, we did not observe any significant differences in pregnancy rate in patients with fallopian tube factor infertility. Conclusion: Serum progesterone level on the day of HCG administration is not well predictive of the IVF success in infertile women due to fallopian tube factor or PCOS. To obtain more uniform results, we recommend use of larger samples while the bias variable is taken into account and the ROC curve is used for determination of the unique serum progesterone level. PMID:25246897

  19. Progesterone in normal and pathological pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Giardina, Irene; Clerici, Graziano; Brillo, Eleonora; Gerli, Sandro

    2016-07-01

    Progesterone is an essential hormone in the process of reproduction. It is involved in the menstrual cycle, implantation and is essential for pregnancy maintenance. It has been proposed and extensively used in the treatment of different gynecological pathologies as well as in assisted reproductive technologies and in the maintenance of pregnancy. Called "the pregnancy hormone", natural progesterone is essential before pregnancy and has a crucial role in its maintenance based on different mechanisms such as: modulation of maternal immune response and suppression of inflammatory response (the presence of progesterone and its interaction with progesterone receptors at the decidua level appears to play a major role in the maternal defense strategy), reduction of uterine contractility (adequate progesterone concentrations in myometrium are able to counteract prostaglandin stimulatory activity as well as oxytocin), improvement of utero-placental circulation and luteal phase support (it has been demonstrated that progesterone may promote the invasion of extravillous trophoblasts to the decidua by inhibiting apoptosis of extravillous trophoblasts). Once the therapeutic need of progesterone is established, the key factor is the decision of the best route to administer the hormone and the optimal dosage determination. Progesterone can be administered by many different routes, but the most utilized are oral, the vaginal and intramuscular administration. The main uses of progesterone are represented by: threatened miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage and preterm birth (in the prevention strategy, as a tocolytic agent and also in the maintenance of uterine quiescence).

  20. Confirmation of elevated arsenic levels in groundwater of Myanmar.

    PubMed

    van Geen, Alexander; Win, Kyi Htut; Zaw, Than; Naing, Win; Mey, Jacob L; Mailloux, Brian

    2014-04-15

    Millions of villagers across South and Southeast Asia are exposed to toxic levels of arsenic (As) by drinking well water. In order to confirm the field-kit results that Myanmar is also affected, a total of 55 wells were tested in the field in January 2013 and sampled for laboratory analysis across seven villages spanning a range of As contamination in the lower Ayeyarwady basin. Elevated concentrations of As (50-630 μg/L) were measured in wells up to 60 m deep and associated with high levels of Fe (up to 21 mg/L) and low concentrations of SO4 (<0.05 mg/L). Concentrations of As <10 μg/L were measured in some shallow (<30 m) grey sands and in both shallow and deep orange sands. These results indicate that the main mechanism of As release to groundwater in Myanmar is the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides, as in the neighboring Bengal, Mekong, and Red River basins. Concentrations of As in groundwater of Myanmar are therefore unlikely to change rapidly over time and switching to existing low-As wells is a viable way of reducing exposure in the short term. However, only 17 of the 55 well owners interviewed correctly recalled the status of their well despite extensive testing in the region. A renewed effort is thus needed to test existing wells and new wells that continue to be installed and to communicate the health risks of exposure to As for infants, children, and adults.

  1. Exposure assessment of potash miners at elevated CO2 levels.

    PubMed

    Monsé, Christian; Broding, Horst Christoph; Sucker, Kirsten; Berresheim, Hans; Jettkant, Birger; Hoffmeyer, Frank; Merget, Rolf; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    In a potash mine in the center of Germany, stationary measurements 40 cm above ground level have revealed occasional increases in the carbon dioxide (CO2) levels that exceed the 0.5 vol.% German occupational exposure limit (OEL). This study, therefore, aimed to examine the individual exposures of potash miners to CO2 at their underground workplaces. 119 miners were equipped with personal CO2 detectors to log the individual CO2 exposures during underground work. We decided to use electrochemical monitors due to their compactness and minimal mass. Furthermore, generated CO2 measurements with precipitated overshooting and false positive CO2 values were studied using diverse CO2 test gases and different fumigation times. The personal detectors showed short-term CO2 peak exposures at very high concentrations in a limited number of workers. Twenty-two threshold limit value violations were observed according to the present OEL, and the personal CO2 monitoring allowed categorization into three exposure groups, low (n = 83), moderate (n = 26) and high burdens (n = 10) of CO2. The electrochemical sensors used have numerous properties that can potentially influence the assessment of exposures. The current findings suggest that assessing similar exposure scenarios, with respect to elevated and strongly fluctuating CO2 concentrations, the behavior of electrochemical sensors should be taken into consideration.

  2. Elevated Osteopontin Levels in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuan; Yin, Xue Song; Guo, Hong; Han, Rong Kun; He, Rui Dong; Chi, Li Jun

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators are closely associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Osteopontin (OPN) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been shown to play an important role in various neuroinflammatory diseases. However, the function of OPN in AD and MCI progression is not well defined. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples were obtained from 35 AD patients, 31 MCI patients, and 20 other noninflammatory neurologic diseases (OND). Concentrations of OPN in the CSF and plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. During a 3-year clinical followup, 13 MCI patients converted to AD (MCI converters), and 18 were clinically stable (MCI nonconverters). CSF OPN concentrations were significantly increased in AD and MCI converters compared to OND, and increased levels of OPN in AD were associated with MMSE score; OPN protein levels both in the CSF and plasma of newly diagnosed AD patients were higher than that of chronical patients. In MCI converters individuals tested longitudinally, both plasma and CSF OPN concentrations were significantly elevated when they received a diagnosis of AD during followup. Further wide-scale studies are necessary to confirm these results and to shed light on the etiopathogenic role of osteopontin in AD. PMID:23576854

  3. Selection of Progesterone Derivatives Specific to Membrane Progesterone Receptors.

    PubMed

    Polikarpova, A V; Maslakova, A A; Levina, I S; Kulikova, L E; Kuznetsov, Y V; Guseva, A A; Shchelkunova, T A; Zavarzin, I V; Smirnova, O V

    2017-02-01

    The search of selective agonists and antagonists of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) is a starting point for the study of progesterone signal transduction mechanisms mediated by mPRs, distinct from nuclear receptors. According to preliminary data, the ligand affinity for mPRs differs significantly from that for classical nuclear progesterone receptors (nPRs), which might indicate structural differences in the ligand-binding pocket of these proteins. In the present work, we analyzed the affinity of several progesterone derivatives for mPRs of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma BxPC3 cell line that is characterized by a high level of mPR mRNA expression and by the absence of expression of nPR mRNA. The values were compared with the affinity of these compounds for nPRs. All tested compounds showed almost no affinity for nPRs, whereas their selectivity towards mPRs was different. Derivatives with an additional 19-hydroxyl group and removed 3-keto group had the highest selectivity for mPRs. These results suggest these compounds as the most selective progesterone analogs for studying the mechanisms of progestin action via mPRs.

  4. Premature Progesterone Rise Positively Correlates with Clinical Pregnancy Rate in In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Patients with good Ovarian Response.

    PubMed

    Cui, Na; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yueming; Jiang, Lei; Yang, Aimin; Hao, Guimin

    2017-03-28

    Infertility affects millions of couples worldwide resulting in distress and depression. In the past several decades, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) have been developed with high efficiency and success rate. The possible effects of gonadotropin administration on follicular metabolism have been discussed but the outcomes remain controversial. The aim of this study was to identify whether serum progesterone on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration and the ratio of serum progesterone and the number of oocyte retrieved (P/O) had a predictive role for the outcomes of IVF/ICSI. Eight hundred and twenty-five patients were enrolled between January 2012 and December 2012. A positive correlation between progesterone and IVF/ICSI outcomes were found in patients with good ovarian response using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. We found that when progesterone level was higher than 1.04 ng/ml in good ovarian responses, the implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate were both reduced compared to the rates in patients exhibiting lower progesterone level (progesterone≤1.04 ng/ml). Moreover, the rise of serum progesterone on the day of hCG was negatively correlated with luteinizing hormone (LH) level. This study used 1.04 ng/ml as a definition of progesterone elevation and an adverse effect of serum progesterone rise was observed on clinical pregnancy rate.

  5. Systematic review of progesterone use by midlife and menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Spark, M Joy; Willis, Jon

    2012-07-01

    Progesterone treatment for menopausal symptoms is still controversial. Progesterone levels fall during menopause transition, therefore some menopausal women may benefit from progesterone therapy. A systematic review was conducted of studies published from 2001 reporting on progesterone use to treat symptoms associated with menopause or postmenopausal women. Fourteen data bases were searched using the search terms progesterone, menopause, aged, female and human; exclusions were breast cancer, animal and contraception. Thirteen studies were selected for inclusion (11 clinical trials, 1 cohort study and 1 qualitative study), evaluating progesterone effects on menopausal symptoms, bone, sleep, skin, cognition, plasma lipids and plaque progression. Most studies were of low methodological quality (GRADE low or very low). Progesterone improved vasomotor symptoms and sleep quality, with minimal risk. Large studies designed to identify confounders, such as hormone levels, menopausal status and metabolism are required to understand the place of progesterone in clinical practice.

  6. Progesterone Receptor Expression Declines in the Guinea Pig Uterus during Functional Progesterone Withdrawal and in Response to Prostaglandins

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Toni N.; Hirst, Jonathan J.; Palliser, Hannah; Zakar, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone withdrawal is essential for parturition, but the mechanism of this pivotal hormonal change is unclear in women and other mammals that give birth without a pre-labor drop in maternal progesterone levels. One possibility suggested by uterine tissue analyses and cell culture models is that progesterone receptor levels change at term decreasing the progesterone responsiveness of the myometrium, which causes progesterone withdrawal at the functional level and results in estrogen dominance enhancing uterine contractility. In this investigation we have explored whether receptor mediated functional progesterone withdrawal occurs during late pregnancy and labor in vivo. We have also determined whether prostaglandins that induce labor cause functional progesterone withdrawal by altering myometrial progesterone receptor expression. Pregnant guinea pigs were used, since this animal loses progesterone responsiveness at term and gives birth in the presence of high maternal progesterone level similarly to primates. We found that progesterone receptor mRNA and protein A and B expression decreased in the guinea pig uterus during the last third of gestation and in labor. Prostaglandin administration reduced while prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor treatment increased progesterone receptor A protein abundance. Estrogen receptor-1 protein levels remained unchanged during late gestation, in labor and after prostaglandin or prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor administration. Steroid receptor levels were higher in the non-pregnant than in the pregnant uterine horns. We conclude that the decreasing expression of both progesterone receptors A and B is a physiological mechanism of functional progesterone withdrawal in the guinea pig during late pregnancy and in labor. Further, prostaglandins administered exogenously or produced endogenously stimulate labor in part by suppressing uterine progesterone receptor A expression, which may cause functional progesterone withdrawal, promote

  7. Confirmation of elevated arsenic levels in groundwater of Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    van Geen, Alexander; Win, Kyi Htut; Zaw, Than; Naing, Win; Mey, Jacob L.; Mailloux, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Millions of villagers across South and Southeast Asia are exposed to toxic levels of arsenic (As) by drinking well water. In order to confirm field-kit results that Myanmar is also affected, a total of 55 wells were tested in the field in January 2013 and sampled for laboratory analysis across seven villages spanning a range of As contamination in the lower Ayeyarwady basin. Elevated concentrations of As (50–630 μg/L) were measured in wells up to 60 m deep and associated with high levels of Fe (up to 21 mg/L) and low concentrations of SO4 (<0.05 mg/L). Concentrations of As <10 μg/L were measured in some shallow (<30 m) grey sands and in both shallow and deep orange sands. These results indicate that the main mechanism of As release to groundwater in Myanmar is the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides, as in the neighboring Bengal, Mekong, and Red River basins. Concentrations of As in groundwater of Myanmar are therefore unlikely to change rapidly over time and switching to existing low-As wells is a viable way of reducing exposure in the short term. However, only 17 of the 55 well owners interviewed correctly recalled the status of their well despite extensive testing in the region. A renewed effort is thus needed to test existing wells and new wells that continue to be installed and to communicate the health risks of exposure to As for infants, children, and adults. PMID:24530581

  8. The effects of progesterone priming on reproductive performance of GnRH-PGF2alpha-treated anestrous goats.

    PubMed

    Husein, Mustafa Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M; Haddad, Serhan G

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of a 5-day progesterone priming prior to a GnRH-PGF2alpha treatment on reproductive performance of anestrous goats. Thirty-six Mountain Black goats were randomly assigned in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement and were administered intravaginally on day -12, either with 300 mg progesterone inserts (CGPE and CGP) or with 0 mg progesterone (GPE and GP) for 5 days. On day -6, the goats were injected with 100 microg GnRH, followed 6 days later by 15 mg PGF2alpha (day 0), the time at which the goats in the CGPE and GPE groups were administered 300 IU eCG injections and those in CGP and GP groups were administered the control solution. The goats were exposed to four fertile bucks at 0 h and were checked for breeding marks at 6-h intervals for 72 h. Blood samples were collected from all goats for progesterone analysis. Progesterone concentrations increased only in CGPE and CGP during the period of device insertion but remained low in GPE and GP groups (P < 0.001). Progesterone levels at the time of GnRH injection on day -6 were basal (0.2 +/- 0.04 ng.mL-1) among the groups and began to increase starting on day -2. Day 0 progesterone concentrations differed (P < 0.05) among groups and were significantly influenced by CIDR-G (P < 0.001). A similar proportion of goats expressed estrus and intervals to detected estrus were shorter (P < 0.05) in the CGPE and GPE groups than in GP with no difference between the CGPE, CGP and GPE or between CGP and GP groups. The number of goats ovulating based upon elevated progesterone levels on day 0 was significantly greater (P = 0.002) in CGPE (9/9) and CGP (9/9) than GPE (6/9) and GP (5/9) groups and was significantly influenced by CIDR-G (P = 0.03). All pregnant goats had elevated progesterone concentration on day 0 and none of the goats with basal progesterone levels became pregnant. Pregnancy and kidding rates, twinning percentage and the number of kids born per goat exposed were

  9. Influence of tissue homogenization techniques on levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors measured in calf uterus and human breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E D; Walker, W H

    1980-01-01

    We have investigated the solubilization of estrogen and progesterone receptors during homogenization of human breast tumor and calf uterus tissue. With chopped human breast tumor tissue, the maximum yield of binding proteins occurred after mechanical homogenization at 4 degrees C with a polytron PT-10 instrument running at setting 5 for 10-15 seconds. With frozen or lyophilised tissue powders the maximum yield of binding proteins occurred after intermittent vortex mixing with buffer over 60 min. at 4 degrees C. The solubilized receptor proteins were stable for at least 150 min. at 4 degrees C. Mechanical homogenization of the tissue powder suspensions resulted in rapid denaturation of the receptors. No improvement in stability was obtained by including 10 mM monothioglycerol and 10% glycerol in the homogenization buffer.

  10. Quantitative analysis of expression level of estrogen and progesterone receptors and VEGF genes in human endometrial stromal cells after treatment with nicotine.

    PubMed

    Totonchi, Hamidreza; Miladpour, Behnoosh; Mostafavi-Pour, Zohreh; Khademi, Fatemeh; Kasraeian, Maryam; Zal, Fatemeh

    2016-10-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of toxic chemicals, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, and several recognized carcinogens and mutagens. Nicotine has a direct disturbing influence on steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone), which are essential components of the female reproductive system, but the effect of nicotine on the hormone receptors is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of nicotine on the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in endometrial stromal cells. Expression levels of PR, ER, and VEGF in human endometrial stromal primary cells treated with nicotine (0, 10(-11), 10(-8), and 10(-6 )μM) for 24 h were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. MTT assay demonstrated that nicotine decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Real-time PCR data showed that despite decrease in ER expression in the nicotine-treated groups compared with the control, nicotine exerted an increased inhibitory effect on PR expression compared to that on ER expression. VEGF mRNA expression in nicotine-treated endometrial stromal cells was increased. The results from this study provide novel evidence for inhibitory effects of nicotine on steroid hormones receptor expression in human primary endometrial cells. Also, our data suggest that nicotine might have angiogenesis effects on these cells.

  11. Lowering oral contraceptive norethindrone dose increases estrogen and progesterone receptor levels with no reduction in proliferation of breast epithelium: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Taylor, DeShawn; Hawes, Debra; Spicer, Darcy V; Press, Michael F; Wu, Anna H; Pike, Malcolm C; Pearce, C Leigh

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to compare breast epithelial-cell proliferation and estrogen and progesterone receptor levels in women taking one of two oral contraceptives (OCs) containing the same dose of estrogen but different doses of the progestin norethindrone (NET). Thirty-three women were randomly assigned 1:1 to one of two OCs with 35-mcg ethinylestradiol (EE2) but different doses of NET - 1 or 0.4 mg. At the end of the active pill phase of the third OC cycle, a breast biopsy was performed and the percentages of epithelial cells of the terminal duct lobular units were measured for Ki67 (MIB1), progesterone receptors A and B (PRA and PRB, respectively), and estrogen receptor α (ERα). The biopsies from 27 women had sufficient epithelium for analysis. The percentages of cells positive for PRA, PRB and ERα were approximately double with the lower progestin dose (PRA: p=.041; PRB: p=.030; ERα: p=.056). The Ki67 percentage was not reduced with the lower progestin dose (12.5% for 0.4-mg NET vs. 7.8% for 1.0-mg NET). The increase in PRA-, PRB- and ERα-positive cells with the 60% lower progestin dose OC appears likely to account for its failure to decrease breast-cell proliferation. This breast-cell proliferation result is contrary to that predicted from the results of lowering the medroxyprogesterone acetate dose in menopausal hormone therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lowering oral contraceptive norethindrone dose increases estrogen and progesterone receptor levels with no reduction in proliferation of breast epithelium: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Taylor, DeShawn; Hawes, Debra; Spicer, Darcy V.; Press, Michael F.; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Pearce, C. Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to compare breast epithelial-cell proliferation and estrogen and progesterone receptor levels in women taking one of two oral contraceptives (OCs) containing the same dose of estrogen but different doses of the progestin norethindrone (NET). Study Design Thirty-three women were randomly assigned 1:1 to one of two OCs with 35-mcg ethinylestradiol (EE2) but different doses of NET - 1 mg or 0.4 mg. At the end of the active pill phase of the third OC cycle, a breast biopsy was performed and the percentages of epithelial cells of the terminal duct lobular units were measured for Ki67 (MIB1), progesterone receptors A and B (PRA and PRB), and estrogen receptor α (ERα). Results The biopsies from 27 women had sufficient epithelium for analysis. The percentage of cells positive for PRA, PRB, and ERα were approximately double with the lower progestin dose (PRA: p = 0.041; PRB: p = 0.030; ERα: p = 0.056). The Ki67 percentage was not reduced with the lower progestin dose (0.4-mg NET - 12.5% vs 1.0-mg NET - 7.8%). Conclusions The increase in PRA, PRB, and ERα positive cells with the 60% lower progestin dose OC appears likely to account for its failure to decrease breast-cell proliferation. This breast-cell proliferation result is contrary to that predicted from the results of lowering the medroxyprogesterone acetate dose in menopausal hormone therapy. PMID:22325110

  13. Aldosterone and progesterone-secreting adrenocortical adenocarcinoma in a cat with a concurrent meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Leshinsky, Jana; Beatty, Julia A; Fawcett, Anne; Voss, Katja; Makara, Mariano; Krockenberger, Mark B; Barrs, Vanessa R

    2016-01-01

    Case summary A 12-year-old, male neutered domestic shorthair cat was referred for investigation of suspected hyperaldosteronism due to persistent hypokalaemia, hindlimb ataxia, weakness of 1 month’s duration and a left adrenal mass that was detected on abdominal ultrasound. Neurological examination findings at referral were suggestive of a concurrent left forebrain lesion. Hyperaldosteronism and concurrent hyperprogesteronism were confirmed on endocrine testing. On computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and thorax there was no evidence of local vascular invasion by the adrenal mass or of metastatic disease. CT and magnetic resonance imaging featured a large, focal rim-enhancing extra-axial left forebrain lesion consistent with a meningioma. Surgical excision of the forebrain mass was followed by adrenalectomy 2 weeks later. The tumours were classified on histopathology as a psammomatous meningioma and an adrenocortical adenocarcinoma, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining of the meningioma confirmed the presence of progesterone receptors. The cat remains well 2 years later. Relevance and novel information In humans, elevated serum progesterone levels have been associated with rapid growth of meningiomas due to the presence of progesterone receptors on the tumour. This is the first report of a cat with a progesterone and aldosterone-secreting adrenocortical adenocarcinoma and a concurrent meningioma. Clinicians should be aware of the potential effect of elevated progesterone on meningiomas in cats. PMID:28491405

  14. Low levels of estradiol are associated with elevated conditioned responding during fear extinction and with intrusive memories in daily life

    PubMed Central

    Wegerer, Melanie; Kerschbaum, Hubert; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be conceptualized as a disorder of emotional memory showing strong (conditioned) responses to trauma reminders and intrusive memories among other symptoms. Women are at greater risk of developing PTSD than men. Recent studies have demonstrated an influence of ovarian steroid hormones in both fear conditioning and intrusive memory paradigms. However, although intrusive memories are considered non-extinguished emotional reactions to trauma reminders, none of the previous studies has investigated effects of ovarian hormones on fear conditioning mechanisms and intrusive memories in conjunction. This may have contributed to an overall inconsistent picture of the role of these hormones in emotional learning and memory. To remedy this, we exposed 37 healthy women with a natural menstrual cycle (during early follicular or luteal cycle phase) to a novel conditioned-intrusion paradigm designed to model real-life traumatic experiences. The paradigm included a differential fear conditioning procedure with short violent film clips as unconditioned stimuli. Intrusive memories about the film clips were assessed ambulatorily on subsequent days. Women with lower levels of estradiol displayed elevated differential conditioned skin conductance responding during fear extinction and showed stronger intrusive memories. The inverse relationship between estradiol and intrusive memories was at least partially accounted for by the conditioned responding observed during fear extinction. Progesterone levels were not associated with either fear acquisition/extinction or with intrusive memories. This suggests that lower levels of estradiol might promote stronger symptoms of PTSD through associative processes. PMID:25463649

  15. Elevated intraocular pressure increases melatonin levels in the aqueous humour.

    PubMed

    Alkozi, Hanan; Sánchez-Naves, Juan; de Lara, Maria Jesús Perez; Carracedo, Gonzalo; Fonseca, Begoña; Martinez-Aguila, Alejandro; Pintor, Jesús

    2017-05-01

    To study the levels of melatonin in the aqueous humour of normotensive and hypertensive intraocular pressure (IOP) patients and to compare them to an animal model of glaucoma. A total of 37 eyes of 37 patients who underwent cataract surgery were included in the study and were divided into normotensive patients, with IOP below 21 mmHg (n = 23), and hypertensive patients, with IOP > 21 mmHg (n = 14). Glaucomatous DBA/2J (n = 6) and control C57BL/6J (n = 6) mice presenting 3 and 12 months of age for each strain were also used. Human and mice aqueous humours were aspirated using a 30-gauge Rycroft cannula on a tuberculin syringe and further processed to quantify melatonin by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Melatonin levels in normotensive patients (IOP below 21 mmHg) presented values as medians (first quartile; third quartile) of 14.62 (5.38;37.99) ng/ml (n = 23), while hypertensive patients (IOP above 21 mmHg) showed melatonin concentrations of 46.63 (10.28; 167.28) ng/ml (n = 14; p < 0.039). Glaucoma mice presented melatonin values of 0.37 (0.34; 0.59) ng/ml (at 3 months of age, before the pathology starts), which increased to 1.55 (0.94; 1.88) ng/ml (at 12 months of age, when the pathology is fully developed and IOP is maximum; n = 6, p < 0.001). Control mice did not significantly modified melatonin concentrations between 3 and 12 months of age. Patients with high IOP present increased concentrations of melatonin in their aqueous humour compared to normotensive patients. This has been confirmed in a glaucomatous animal model in which it has been possible to see a correlation between the development of the pathology, with an increase in IOP, and a concomitant elevation of melatonin in the aqueous humour. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Elevated levels of natriuretic peptides in patients with pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Kiely, David G; Kennedy, Norman S; Pirzada, Omar; Batchelor, Sheila A; Struthers, Allan D; Lipworth, Brian J

    2005-10-01

    .2-19.3), respectively. PTE is associated with significantly elevated levels of the natriuretic peptides ANP, BNP and N-ANP. Increasing ventilation-perfusion mismatch on scintigraphy corresponds to incremental increases in the levels of ANP, BNP and N-ANP found. These peptides, and in particular BNP, may add to the diagnosis by rapidly providing a probability of PE before dedicated imaging studies can be performed. Natriuretic peptides require further study to establish their role in identifying a high-risk group who may benefit from early treatments such as thrombolysis.

  17. Atrazine-induced elevation or attenuation of the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estrogen-primed female rat: role of adrenal progesterone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine have been reported to suppress the surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) in both cycling female rats and those that are ovariectomized (OVX) and exogenously primed with steroids. Additional studies have also found elevations in both ...

  18. Atrazine-induced elevation or attenuation of the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estrogen-primed female rat: role of adrenal progesterone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine have been reported to suppress the surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) in both cycling female rats and those that are ovariectomized (OVX) and exogenously primed with steroids. Additional studies have also found elevations in both ...

  19. Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elevations in progesterone (P4) on the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estradiol (E2)-primed rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depe...

  20. Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elevations in progesterone (P4) on the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estradiol (E2)-primed rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depe...

  1. Why do premature newborn infants display elevated blood adenosine levels?

    PubMed

    Panfoli, Isabella; Cassanello, Michela; Bruschettini, Matteo; Colella, Marina; Cerone, Roberto; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Candiano, Giovanni; Ramenghi, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary data show high levels of adenosine in the blood of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, positively correlating to their prematurity (i.e. body weight class). This prompted us to look for a mechanism promoting such impressive adenosine increase. We hypothesized a correlation with oxygen challenge. In fact, it is recognized that either oxygen lack or its excess contribute to the pathogenesis of the injuries of prematurity, such as retinopathy (ROP) and periventricular white matter lesions (PWMI). The optimal concentration of oxygen for resuscitation of VLBW infants is currently under revision. We propose that the elevated adenosine blood concentrations of VLBW infants recognizes two sources. The first could be its activity-dependent release from unmyelinated brain axons. Adenosine in this respect would be an end-product of the hypometabolic VLBW newborn unmyelinated axon intensely firing in response to the environmental stimuli consequent to premature birth. Adenosine would be eventually found in the blood due to blood-brain barrier immaturity. In fact, adenosine is the primary activity-dependent signal promoting differentiation of premyelinating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) into myelinating cells in the Central Nervous System, while inhibiting their proliferation and inhibiting synaptic function. The second, would be the ecto-cellular ATP synthesized by the endothelial cell plasmalemma exposed to ambient oxygen concentrations due to premature breathing, especially in lung. ATP would be rapidly transformed into adenosine by the ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase I (CD39), and NT5E (CD73). An ectopic extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP synthetic ability was reported in many cell plasma-membranes, among which endothelial cells. The potential implications of the cited hypotheses for the neonatology area would be great. The amount of oxygen administration for reviving of newborns would find a molecular basis for its assessment. VLBW

  2. Serum progesterone levels greater than 20 ng/dl on day of embryo transfer are associated with lower live birth and higher pregnancy loss rates.

    PubMed

    Kofinas, Jason D; Blakemore, Jennifer; McCulloh, David H; Grifo, Jamie

    2015-09-01

    Progesterone (P4) is essential for support of the endometrium and implantation of an embryo in the normal menstrual cycle. In programed frozen embryo transfer cycles using exogenous P4 is necessary, as the endogenous production of P4 requires a functioning corpus luteum that is not present in programed cycles. To date, there is continuing debate about ideal serum estradiol and P4 values in frozen embryo transfer cycles. Patients underwent single euploid embryo frozen transfer cycles from 2010 to 2013 at a single large academic center. Patients using donor oocytes and patients with changes in progesterone dose during the cycles in question were excluded. All cycles were programed and intramuscular P4 was used exclusively. Only patients administering the same daily dose of P4 throughout the cycle were included (N = 213 patients). Main outcomes were ongoing pregnancy/live birth rates (OPR/LBR), clinical pregnancy rates (CPR), and spontaneous abortions/biochemical pregnancies. CPR was defined by the presence of a sac on 1st trimester ultrasound. Missed abortions were calculated per pregnancy with a sac. Receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC curves) and chi-squared tests were performed for statistical analysis. Two groups based on day 19 P4 levels were compared (group A, P4 < 20 ng/ml; group B, P4 > 20 ng/ml). OPR/LBRs were 65 vs. 49 %, group A vs. B, p value = 0.02, RR = 1.33 (1.1-1.7). Missed abortion and biochemical rates were higher in group B as opposed to group A, 27 vs. 12 %, p = 0.01, RR = 0.45(0.24-0.86). When P4 was stratified into five groups based on nanogram per milliliter of progesterone on day 19 (10-15, 15-20, 20-30, 30-40, and >40), there was a trend downward in OPR/LBR (70, 62, 52, 50, and 33 %, respectively). There was also an increase in missed abortion/biochemical rates (7, 15, 27, 32, and 20 %, respectively). Multiple logistic regression showed an increase in OPR/LBR when accounting for age, day 2 FSH

  3. Progesterone Levels Associate with a Novel Population of CCR5+CD38+ CD4 T Cells Resident in the Genital Mucosa with Lymphoid Trafficking Potential.

    PubMed

    Swaims-Kohlmeier, Alison; Haaland, Richard E; Haddad, Lisa B; Sheth, Anandi N; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Lupo, L Davis; Cordes, Sarah; Aguirre, Alfredo J; Lupoli, Kathryn A; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Ofotukun, Igho; Hart, Clyde E; Kohlmeier, Jacob E

    2016-07-01

    The female genital tract (FGT) provides a means of entry to pathogens, including HIV, yet immune cell populations at this barrier between host and environment are not well defined. We initiated a study of healthy women to characterize resident T cell populations in the lower FGT from lavage and patient-matched peripheral blood to investigate potential mechanisms of HIV sexual transmission. Surprisingly, we observed FGT CD4 T cell populations were primarily CCR7(hi), consistent with a central memory or recirculating memory T cell phenotype. In addition, roughly half of these CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells expressed CD69, consistent with resident memory T cells, whereas the remaining CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells lacked CD69 expression, consistent with recirculating memory CD4 T cells that traffic between peripheral tissues and lymphoid sites. HIV susceptibility markers CCR5 and CD38 were increased on FGT CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells compared with blood, yet migration to the lymphoid homing chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 was maintained. Infection with GFP-HIV showed that FGT CCR7(hi) memory CD4 T cells are susceptible HIV targets, and productive infection of CCR7(hi) memory T cells did not alter chemotaxis to CCL19 and CCL21. Variations of resident CCR7(hi) FGT CD4 T cell populations were detected during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and longitudinal analysis showed the frequency of this population positively correlated to progesterone levels. These data provide evidence women may acquire HIV through local infection of migratory CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells, and progesterone levels predict opportunities for HIV to access these novel target cells.

  4. Marine bacterial communities are resistant to elevated carbon dioxide levels.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Anna E; Newbold, Lindsay K; Whiteley, Andrew S; van der Gast, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    It is well established that the release of anthropogenic-derived CO2 into the atmosphere will be mainly absorbed by the oceans, with a concomitant drop in pH, a process termed ocean acidification. As such, there is considerable interest in how changes in increased CO2 and lower pH will affect marine biota, such as bacteria, which play central roles in oceanic biogeochemical processes. Set within an ecological framework, we investigated the direct effects of elevated CO2, contrasted with ambient conditions on the resistance and resilience of marine bacterial communities in a replicated temporal seawater mesocosm experiment. The results of the study strongly indicate that marine bacterial communities are highly resistant to the elevated CO2 and lower pH conditions imposed, as demonstrated from measures of turnover using taxa–time relationships and distance–decay relationships. In addition, no significant differences in community abundance, structure or composition were observed. Our results suggest that there are no direct effects on marine bacterial communities and that the bacterial fraction of microbial plankton holds enough flexibility and evolutionary capacity to withstand predicted future changes from elevated CO2 and subsequent ocean acidification.

  5. Gonadectomy and progesterone treatment induce protection in murine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Villavicencio, J A; Larralde, C; Morales-Montor, J

    2006-12-01

    The effects of progesterone on castrated mice of both sexes infected with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci were studied. Gonadectomy and treatment with progesterone before infection decreased parasite loads by 100% compared with intact uninfected mice. mRNA levels of IFN-gamma and IL-2 (typically associated to Th1-like profiles) were markedly decreased in infected gonadectomized (Gx) mice, whereas progesterone treatment of infected Gx mice did not affected its expression. mRNA levels of IL-4, and IL-10 (typically associated with Th2-like profiles) were reduced by gonadectomy, whereas restitution with progesterone did not affected this pattern in infected Gx progesterone-treated mice. Infection markedly induced expression of progesterone receptor isoform A in splenocytes of Gx mice (5-fold), whereas isoform B had no changes. Progesterone metabolism to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in Gx animals was increased 3-fold only in infected progesterone-treated uninfecteds of both sexes, but was not detectable in infected Gx progesterone-treated mice. Conversely, DHEA levels increased 100-fold in infected Gx progesterone-treated mice. However, androgen receptor expression in splenocytes of male mice showed a reduction by gonadectomy, and by infection, whereas in females AR expression showed no changes in the different mouse groups. These results suggest that progesterone, through its metabolism to DHEA, negatively affects the establishment, growth, and reproduction of Taenia crassiceps, by a mechanism that does not implicate a classic genomic pathway involving a nuclear androgen receptor.

  6. Elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, T.L. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. The author has discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with X-rays also elevates ZPP two- to three-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12 to 14 post-irradiation and peaks between days 18 to 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 to 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms which cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury.

  7. The elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, T.L.; Draganac, P.S.; Farkas, W.R.

    1984-05-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. We have discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with x-rays also elevates ZPP 2-3-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12-14 postirradiation and peaks between days 18 and 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 and 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP, but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms that cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation-induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury.

  8. Effect of prolonged in vivo administration of progesterone in pregnancy on myometrial gene expression, peripheral blood leukocyte activation, and circulating steroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Norman, Jane E; Yuan, Meifang; Anderson, Laurie; Howie, Forbes; Harold, Graham; Young, Anne; Jordan, Fiona; McInnes, Iain; Harnett, Margaret M

    2011-05-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of progesterone on gene expression and function of both myometrium and circulating leukocytes. We recruited women participating in a randomized clinical trial of progesterone to prevent preterm delivery. These participants had a twin pregnancy and were managed in 1 of 2 tertiary referral centers. Participants were treated with progesterone (90 mg vaginally) or placebo from 24 to 34 weeks of pregnancy. The outcome measures were myometrial and leukocyte gene expression and expression of cell surface markers in circulating leukocytes, all quantified ex vivo. Prolonged in vivo administration of progesterone inhibited myometrial expression of connexins 26 and 43, endothelial nitric acid synthase (eNOS), and the prostaglandin receptor EP2 ex vivo. Administration of progesterone also increased numbers of circulating neutrophils while decreasing lymphocyte proportions and decreasing neutrophil CD11b expression. The observed effects of prolonged in vivo administration of progesterone will minimize the ability of the uterus to contract as a synctium and the ability of peripheral blood leukocytes to migrate into the myometrium during parturition. We suggest that these are putative mechanisms by which progesterone might prevent preterm birth in women at high risk.

  9. Assessment of bioavailability of oral micronized progesterone using a salivary progesterone enzymeimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Bolaji, I I; Tallon, D F; O'Dwyer, E; Fottrell, P F

    1993-06-01

    Salivary progesterone was measured sequentially by enzymeimmunoassay following 1 month and 6 months of oral therapy with 100 mg of micronized progesterone (MOP) in 40 healthy estrogenized postmenopausal women (aged 40-68 years). MOP was administered for 23 days every month. There were striking differences in the absorption of MOP between various subjects. Significant increases occurred in salivary progesterone concentrations over baseline and pretreatment levels and persisted for at least 10 h. Levels of salivary progesterone remained higher than pretreatment levels for at least 24 h after administration of MOP. Maximum mean concentrations of salivary progesterone of 827.2 and 888 pmol/l in the 1st and 6th months of therapy, respectively, were achieved within 2 h of administration and were above the 95th percentile of a control corridor which corresponds to the range found in the luteal phase. The areas under the salivary progesterone curve (AUC0-24 h, pmol/l) were 7177.75 and 7388.20 respectively, in the 1st and 6th months of therapy but the difference was not statistically significant. Serum and salivary progesterone peaked simultaneously and there was a significant correlation between the concentrations measured concurrently (y = 233.08 + 35.575x; r = 0.89, p < 0.001) thus supporting the current concept of a relatively rapid diffusion of steroids from plasma to saliva. Results of this study confirm those of previous investigations which monitored the bioavailability of MOP with the use of serum progesterone measurements and showed that luteal phase progesterone concentrations can be attained easily. The use of non-invasive salivary sampling and a cost-effective, direct enzymeimmunoassay showed a considerable advantage in the present study, compared with previous ones. We conclude that 100 mg MOP should be given at least twice-daily to maintain a stable physiological luteal phase level of progesterone during clinical hormone replacement therapy.

  10. Levels of oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and αB-crystallin in eutopic endometrium in relation to pregnancy in women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Moberg, Christian; Bourlev, Vladimir; Ilyasova, Natalia; Olovsson, Matts

    2015-03-01

    Endometriosis affects fertility in many women and may partly be due to decreased endometrial receptivity. Several mechanisms have been suggested, notably, progesterone resistance for which a number of candidate biomarkers have been suggested. Here we demonstrate aberrant levels of steroid hormone receptors and the small heat shock protein αB-crystallin in eutopic endometrial epithelium from 38 women with peritoneal endometriosis diagnosed during investigation for secondary infertility. Spontaneous pregnancies within 1 year after medical and surgical treatment for endometriosis were recorded and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry data compared between women with endometriosis who did or did not become pregnant and healthy controls. Stronger immunostaining for ER-α was detected in luminal and glandular endometrial epithelium from women with endometriosis who did not become pregnant during the post-treatment observation period versus endometriosis patients who became pregnant and controls. Staining levels of PR and PR-B were lower in patients without subsequent pregnancies than in the two other groups. Endometrial levels of αB-crystallin in endometriosis patients similar to those in controls were strongly correlated with the chance of becoming pregnant, whereas higher or lower levels were not.

  11. Changes in stress-stimulated allopregnanolone levels induced by neonatal estradiol treatment are associated with enhanced dopamine release in adult female rats: reversal by progesterone administration.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Patrizia; Lallai, Valeria; Locci, Andrea; Catzeddu, Sandro; Serra, Valeria; Pisu, Maria Giuseppina; Serra, Mariangela; Dazzi, Laura; Concas, Alessandra

    2017-03-01

    Allopregnanolone plays a role in the stress response and homeostasis. Alterations in the estrogen milieu during the perinatal period influence brain development in a manner that persists into adulthood. Accordingly, we showed that a single administration of estradiol benzoate (EB) on the day of birth decreases brain allopregnanolone concentrations in adult female rats. We examined whether the persistent decrease in allopregnanolone concentrations, induced by neonatal EB treatment, might affect sensitivity to stress during adulthood. Female rats were treated with 10 μg of EB or vehicle on the day of birth. During adulthood, the response to acute foot shock stress was assessed by measuring changes in brain allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels, as well as extracellular dopamine output in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Neonatal EB treatment enhanced stress-stimulated allopregnanolone levels in the hypothalamus, as well as extracellular dopamine output in the mPFC; this latest effect is reverted by subchronic progesterone treatment. By contrast, neonatal EB treatment did not alter stress-induced corticosterone levels, sensitivity to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback, or abundance of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors. The persistent decrease in brain allopregnanolone concentrations, induced by neonatal EB treatment, enhances stress-stimulated allopregnanolone levels and extracellular dopamine output during adulthood. These effects are not associated to an impairment in HPA axis activity. Heightened sensitivity to stress is a risk factor for several neuropsychiatric disorders; these results suggest that exposure to estrogen during development may predispose individuals to such disorders.

  12. Strip-dried whole milk sampling technique for progesterone detection in cows by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Samsonova, J V; Osipov, A P; Kondakov, S E

    2017-12-01

    New sampling format of whole cows' milk in strip-dried form was proposed. Few methodological issues of whole milk progesterone ELISA using samples dried on a membrane carrier in a form of strip were investigated and optimized: width of a strip, shape of punched/cut-off part of membrane, sample application method. It was shown that distribution of the hormone along narrow strip was even except the initial part of a strip (the first 0.5 × 0.5cm piece) where recovered concentration of progesterone was higher. Storage stability of progesterone in strip-dried whole cows' milk samples at 4°C, ambient temperature, 37°C and 60°C was investigated. Rising of the detected progesterone concentration over storage period at elevated temperatures was observed predominantly in milk samples with low hormone concentration (from non-pregnant cows). Strip-dried whole milk samples can be used for collection, transportation, storage and ELISA analysis of progesterone level which is correlated with reproductive status of cows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Annual changes of urinary progesterone and estradiol-17beta of the Dugong (Dugong dugon) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Wakai, Yoshihito; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Shinji; Asano, Shiro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2002-06-01

    Levels of urinary progesterone and estradiol-17 beta were measured twice a week in a female dugong, Dugong dugon, in captivity for two years from April 1996 to April 1998. The dugong showed 14 ovarian cycles during the period of study. Concentrations of progesterone ranged from 0.01 ng/mg creatinine (Cr) to 1.94 ng/mg Cr and the length of estrous cycle was 53.6+/-8.6 (mean+/-SEM) days based on intervals of urinary progesterone peak-to-peak measurements. Concentrations of urinary estradiol-17 beta ranged from 0.9pg/mgCr to 23.7pg/mgCr, and tended to peak just prior to elevations of progesterone during the first year of study. This is the first report demonstrates that the ovulatory cycle of the dugong is about 50 days. The present findings suggest that measurement of urinary progesterone is a useful method to detect ovarian cycle of the dugong in captivity.

  14. Overview of progesterone profiles in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Blavy, P; Derks, M; Martin, O; Höglund, J K; Friggens, N C

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the variability in shape and features of all progesterone profiles during estrus cycles in cows and to create templates for cycle shapes and features as a base for further research. Milk progesterone data from 1418 estrus cycles, coming from 1009 lactations, was obtained from the Danish Cattle Research Centre in Foulum, Denmark. Milk samples were analyzed daily using a Ridgeway ELISA-kit. Estrus cycles with less than 10 data points or shorter than 4 days were discarded, after which 1006 cycles remained in the analysis. A median kernel of three data points was used to smooth the progesterone time series. The time between start of progesterone rise and end of progesterone decline was identified by fitting a simple model consisting of base length and a quadratic curve to progesterone data, and this luteal-like phase (LLP) was used for further analysis. The data set of 1006 LLP's was divided into five quantiles based on length. Within quantiles, a cluster analysis was performed on the basis of shape distance. Height, upward and downward slope, and progesterone level on Day 5 were compared between quantiles. Also, the ratio of typical versus atypical shapes was described, using a reference curve on the basis of data in Q1-Q4. The main results of this article were that (1) most of the progesterone profiles showed a typical profile, including the ones that exceeded the optimum cycle length of 24 days; (2) cycles in Q2 and Q3 had steeper slopes and higher peak progesterone levels than cycles in Q1 and Q4 but, when normalized, had a similar shape. Results were used to define differences between quantiles that can be used as templates. Compared to Q1, LLP's in Q2 had a shape that is 1.068 times steeper and 1.048 times higher. Luteal-like phases in Q3 were 1.053 times steeper and 1.018 times higher. Luteal-like phases in Q4 were 0.977 times steeper and 0.973 times higher than LLP's in Q1. This article adds to our

  15. Therapeutic administration of progesterone antagonist in a model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT-1A).

    PubMed

    Sereda, Michael W; Meyer zu Hörste, Gerd; Suter, Ueli; Uzma, Naureen; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2003-12-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited neuropathy. The predominant subtype, CMT-1A, accounts for more than 50% of all cases and is associated with an interstitial chromosomal duplication of 17p12 (refs. 2,3). We have generated a model of CMT-1A by introducing extra copies of the responsible disease gene, Pmp22 (encoding the peripheral myelin protein of 22 kDa), into transgenic rats. Here, we used this model to test whether progesterone, a regulator of the myelin genes Pmp22 and myelin protein zero (Mpz) in cultured Schwann cells, can modulate the progressive neuropathy caused by moderate overexpression of Pmp22. Male transgenic rats (n = 84) were randomly assigned into three treatment groups: progesterone, progesterone antagonist (onapristone) and placebo control. Daily administration of progesterone elevated the steady-state levels of Pmp22 and Mpz mRNA in the sciatic nerve, resulting in enhanced Schwann cell pathology and a more progressive clinical neuropathy. In contrast, administration of the selective progesterone receptor antagonist reduced overexpression of Pmp22 and improved the CMT phenotype, without obvious side effects, in wild-type or transgenic rats. Taken together, these data provide proof of principle that the progesterone receptor of myelin-forming Schwann cells is a promising pharmacological target for therapy of CMT-1A.

  16. [Elevated pleural copeptin levels can distinguish to exudate from transudates].

    PubMed

    Gümüş, Aziz; Çınarka, Halit; Karataş, Mevlüt; Kırbaş, Aynur; Kayhan, Servet; Şahin, Ünal

    2014-01-01

    Copeptin is released simultaneously along with arginine-vasopressine as a result of different stimuli from the neurohypophysis. Physiological function of copeptin is still unclear. Increased blood copeptin levels is associated with poor prognosis in many diseases. Pleural effusion is a common clinical condition. The most common causes of pleural effusions are heart failure, parapneumonic effusion, pulmonary embolism and malignacy.Tuberculosis is one of the other major causes of pleural effusion in developing countries. In this study, we aimed to assess whether pleural copeptin level may be a new discriminative biomarker for exudates and transudates pleural effusions. Research was done at Recep Tayyip Erdogan University School of Medicine in the Department of Chest Diseases. The concentrations of pleural copeptin and typical pleural and serum marker levels were measured in 76 subjects with pleural effusions including 22 transudates caused by congestive heart failure (CHF), and 54 exudates including 18 parapneumonic (PPE), 18 tuberculous pleural effusions (TBPEs), 18 malignant effusions (MPEs). Median pleural fluid copeptin levels were higher in exudates than in transudates (1936 ng/mL and 1313 pg/mL, p value < 0.001). There was no statistical significancy for pleural fluid copeptin levels with in-group exudates (n= 54). Pleural copeptin levels of exudates, with a cut off value of 1469 ng/mL, yielded a 79.6% sensitivity, 81.8% specificity, with an are a under the curve of 0.851. Pleural copeptin level is a new biomarker to separate exudates from transudates. Pleural effusion discriminative effect of copeptin is lower than plasma protein level and plasma lactat dehydrogenase (LDH). Pleural copeptin measurement is not recommended for routine clinical use. Pleural copeptin level is not contribute to different iate exudative pleural fluids from each other like PPE, TBPE and MPE.

  17. Elevated plasma tricyclic levels with therapeutic doses of imipramine.

    PubMed

    Garvey, M J; Tuason, V B; Johnson, R A; Valentine, R H; Cooper, T B

    1984-07-01

    Nine (15%) of 59 patients treated with imipramine at doses of 150 to 300 mg/day had steady-state plasma levels greater than 500 ng/ml. Low capacity for hydroxylation was found in all six patients for whom hydroxy metabolites were measured. Maximum tricyclic levels in the nine study patients were comparable to levels found in tricyclic antidepressant overdoses (651-2439 ng/ml). No study patient experienced any adverse effects: QRS durations were all less than 100 msec, and a mildly dry mouth was the most commonly reported side effect (five of nine patients). Depressive symptoms recurred in three patients when their imipramine dose was decreased.

  18. Focal myositis and elevated creatine kinase levels in a patient with phaeochromocytoma.

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, D.; Carey, P.; Pollard, A.

    1986-01-01

    A case of phaeochromocytoma with marked transient elevation of creatine kinase levels is presented. No obvious cause for the elevation was found in life, but on autopsy a non-specific focal myositis was discovered. Possible reasons for the raised creatine kinase levels and focal myositis are discussed. Images Figure 1 PMID:3714605

  19. Thermodynamics of a stochastic three level elevator model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicane, Giuseppe; Tsige, Mesfin; Aragie, Berhanu

    2015-11-01

    We study the thermodynamic properties of a single particle occupying one of three available energy levels in a non-equilibrium regime. The particle is thermally coupled to a classical Maxwell-Boltzmann thermal reservoir and can jump among the available levels by exchanging energy with the heat bath. The bottom and middle energy levels are simultaneously raised at a given rate regardless of particle occupation, but keeping the energy gaps among the three levels fixed. We explicitly calculate the work, heat and entropy production rates, and the classical efficiency. We also consider the case of a Bose-Einstein thermal reservoir and provide explicit expressions for the non-equilibrium, steady-state probabilities.

  20. Cerebrospinal Fluid Cortisol and Progesterone Profiles and Outcomes Prognostication after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Santarsieri, Martina; Niyonkuru, Christian; McCullough, Emily H.; Dobos, Julie A.; Dixon, C. Edward; Berga, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Despite significant advances in the management of head trauma, there remains a lack of pharmacological treatment options for traumatic brain injury (TBI). While progesterone clinical trials have shown promise, corticosteroid trials have failed. The purpose of this study was to (1) characterize endogenous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) progesterone and cortisol levels after TBI, (2) determine relationships between CSF and serum profiles, and (3) assess the utility of these hormones as predictors of long-term outcomes. We evaluated 130 adults with severe TBI. Serum samples (n=538) and CSF samples (n=746) were collected for 6 days post-injury, analyzed for cortisol and progesterone, and compared with healthy controls (n=13). Hormone data were linked with clinical data, including Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at 6 and 12 months. Group based trajectory (TRAJ) analysis was used to develop temporal hormone profiles delineating distinct subpopulations. Compared with controls, CSF cortisol levels were significantly and persistently elevated during the first week after TBI, and high CSF cortisol levels were associated with poor outcome. As a precursor to cortisol, progesterone mediated these effects. Serum and CSF levels for both cortisol and progesterone were strongly correlated after TBI relative to controls, possibly because of blood–brain barrier disruption. Also, differentially impaired hormone transport and metabolism mechanisms after TBI, potential de novo synthesis of steroids within the brain, and the complex interplay of cortisol and pro-inflammatory cytokines may explain these acute hormone profiles and, when taken together, may help shed light on why corticosteroid trials have previously failed and why progesterone treatment after TBI may be beneficial. PMID:24354775

  1. Progesterone and Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Meharvan; Su, Chang

    2012-01-01

    Summary Numerous studies aimed at identifying the role of estrogen on the brain have used the ovariectomized rodent as the experimental model. And while estrogen intervention in these animals have, at least partially, restored cholinergic, neurotrophin and cognitive deficits seen in the ovariectomized animal, it is worth considering that the removal of the ovaries results in the loss of not only circulating estrogen but of circulating progesterone as well. As such, the various deficits associated with ovariectomy may be attributed to the loss of progesterone as well. Similarly, one must also consider the fact that the human menopause results in the precipitous decline of not just circulating estrogens, but in circulating progesterone as well and as such, the increased risk for diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease during the postmenopausal period could also be contributed by this loss of progesterone. In fact, progesterone has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects, both in cell models, animal models and in humans. Here, we review the evidence that supports the neuroprotective effects of progesterone and discuss the various mechanisms that are thought to mediate these protective effects. We also discuss the receptor pharmacology of progesterone’s neuroprotective effects and present a conceptual model of progesterone action that supports the complementary effects of membrane-associated and classical intracellular progesterone receptors. In addition, we discuss fundamental differences in the neurobiology of progesterone and the clinically used, synthetic progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate that may offer an explanation for the negative findings of the combined estrogen/progestin arm of the Women’s Health Initiative-Memory Study (WHIMS) and suggest that the type of progestin used may dictate the outcome of either pre-clinical or clinical studies that addresses brain function. PMID:22732134

  2. Elevated glucose levels in early puerperium, and association with high cortisol levels during parturition.

    PubMed

    Risberg, Anitha; Sjöquist, Mats; Wedenberg, Kaj; Larsson, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Background Gestational diabetes is one of the commonest metabolic problems associated with pregnancy and an accurate diagnosis is critical for the care. Research has shown that pregnant women have high levels of cortisol during the last stage of parturition. As cortisol is a diabetogenic hormone causing increased glucose levels, we wanted to study the association between cortisol and glucose levels during parturition. Materials and methods Glucose and cortisol were analyzed during parturition in 50 females divided according to slow (n = 11) and normal labors (n = 39). Blood samples were analyzed three times during the parturition and four times in the first day after delivery. Glucose levels were also measured once in each trimester. Results In the normal group, the glucose concentration increased from 6.2 (IQR 5.6-8.0) mmol/L in the latency phase to 11.6 (10.0-13.3) mmol/L at aftercare (p < 0.05). After parturition the glucose concentrations decreased gradually. There were significant Spearman rank correlations between glucose and cortisol values. Conclusions The changes associated with birth cause significant elevations of cortisol and glucose around parturition.

  3. Elevated blood lead levels in children of construction workers.

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, E A; Piacitelli, G M; Gerwel, B; Schnorr, T M; Mueller, C A; Gittleman, J; Matte, T D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether children of lead-exposed construction workers had higher blood lead levels than neighborhood control children. METHODS: Twenty-nine construction workers were identified from the New Jersey Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) registry. Eighteen control families were referred by workers. Venous blood samples were collected from 50 children (31 exposed, 19 control subjects) under age 6. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of workers children had blood lead levels at or over the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention action level of 0.48 mumol/L (10 micrograms/dL), compared with 5% of control children (unadjusted odds ratio = 6.1; 95% confidence interval = 0.9, 147.2). CONCLUSIONS: Children of construction workers may be at risk for excessive lead exposure. Health care providers should assess parental occupation as a possible pathway for lead exposure of young children. PMID:9279275

  4. [Levels of progesterone, 17 beta-estradiol and 11-hydroxycorticosteroid in the blood in cows in different types of puerperal conditions].

    PubMed

    Zralý, Z; Kaláb, P; Canderle, J; Kummer, V; Raszyk, J

    1989-09-01

    Changes in progesterone (P4), 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and 11-hydroxycorticosteroid (11-OHCS) concentrations in blood plasma were determined in daily intervals from the day of parturition to day 15 post partum (p.p.) in cows with physiological puerperium (n = 8), with puerperal endometritis (n = 6), and with placenta retention (n = 6). Cows with puerperium disorders (endometritis, placenta retention) had significantly higher P4 levels in the period from day 3 to day 7 p.p. than cows with physiological puerperium. E2 concentrations decreased to basal values following the parturition in cows with spontaneous parturitions and subsequent expulsion of the placenta. A delayed decrease in E2 concentrations after parturition and a significant increase on day 5 and day 7 p.p. were recorded in the group of animals with placenta retention. Significantly higher levels of 11-OHCS in blood plasma were detected by day 5 or by day 8 p.p. in cows with placenta retention and puerperal endometritis. Extraovarial sources of sexual steroids resulting in endocrine malfunctions are discussed as well as likely consequences for puerperium.

  5. Effect of daily administration of 0.5 mg. of chlormadinone acetate on plasma levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and progesterone during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Saunders, D M; Marcus, S L; Saxena, B B; Beling, C G; Connell, E B

    1971-05-01

    Investigators at Cornell University Medical College and New York Medical College in New York City studied the effects of chlormadinone acetate administration on hormone levels in an effort to better understand the contraceptive mode of action of this drug. 9 healthy women had 2 consecutive cycles studied. While the first cycle was a control cycle, the second one involved chlormadinone acetate administration, .5 mg/day from Day 1 to Day 28 or until the occurrence of spontaneous menstruation if this delayed until after Day 28. Basal body temperature was recorded each morning. Chlormadinone tended to suppress the mean luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone peaks and the plasma progesterone levels. 3 patients are believed to have ovulated during the experimental cycle, but probably in 2 of them the luteal phase was less pronounced than a normal luteal phase. However, 1 of the remaining 6 patients had failed to ovulate in the control cycle. Though limitations exist in the study of the parameters investigated here, such study is necessary since direct evidence of ovulation (e.g., pregnancy, observation of corpus luteum) is usually unobtainable.

  6. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…

  7. Progesterone Modulates a Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valera, S.; Ballivet, M.; Bertrand, D.

    1992-10-01

    The major brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is assembled from two subunits termed α 4 and nα 1. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, these subunits reconstitute a functional acetylcholine receptor that is inhibited by progesterone levels similar to those found in serum. In this report, we show that the steroid interacts with a site located on the extracellular part of the protein, thus confirming that inhibition by progesterone is not due to a nonspecific perturbation of the membrane bilayer or to the activation of second messengers. Because inhibition by progesterone does not require the presence of agonist, is voltage-independent, and does not alter receptor desensitization, we conclude that the steroid is not an open channel blocker. In addition, we show that progesterone is not a competitive inhibitor but may interact with the acetylcholine binding site and that its effect is independent of the ionic permeability of the receptor.

  8. The relationship between elevated magnesium levels and coronary artery ectasia.

    PubMed

    Yolcu, Mustafa; Ipek, Emrah; Turkmen, Serdar; Ozen, Yücel; Yildirim, Erkan; Sertcelik, Alper; Ulusoy, Fatih Rifat

    Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) without specific symptoms is the localised or diffuse swelling of the epicardial coronary arteries. Magnessium (Mg) plays an important role in cardiac excitability, vascular tonus, contractibility, reactivity and vasodilatation. In our research, we aimed to study the vasodilatory effect of Mg in the aetiopathogenesis of ectasia. Patients identified during routine coronary angiograms in our clinic between January 2010 and 2013 were included in the study. Sixty-two patients with isolated CAE, 57 with normal coronary angiograms (NCA), 73 with severe coronary artery disease (CAD), and 95 with stenosis of at least one coronary artery and CAE (CAD + CAE) were included in the study. Serum Mg levels were measured in mg/dl after 12 hours of fasting. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of age, hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, family history of coronary artery disease and medications used. Serum glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), urea, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, sodium and potassium levels were similar in all groups. Serum Mg levels were 1.90 ± 0.19 mg/dl in patients with isolated CAE, 1.75 ± 0.19 mg/dl in those with CAD, 1.83 ± 0.20 mg/dl in those with CAD + CAE, and 1.80 ± 0.16 mg/dl in the NCA group. These results show that Mg levels were higher in ectasia patients with or without CAD. The histopathological characteristics of patients with CAE were similar to those with CAD. The specific mechanism of abnormal luminal dilatation seen in CAE however remains to be elucidated. Mg is a divalent cation with powerful vasodilatory effects. In our study, serum Mg levels were found to be statistically higher in ectasia patients with or without CAD.

  9. The relationship between elevated magnesium levels and coronary artery ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Yolcu; Emrah, Ipek; Erkan, Yıldırım; Fatih, Rifat Ulusoy; Serdar, Turkmen; Alper, Sertcelik; Yücel, Ozen

    2016-01-01

    Summary Backround Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) without specific symptoms is the localised or diffuse swelling of the epicardial coronary arteries. Magnessium (Mg) plays an important role in cardiac excitability, vascular tonus, contractibility, reactivity and vasodilatation. In our research, we aimed to study the vasodilatory effect of Mg in the aetiopathogenesis of ectasia. Methods Patients identified during routine coronary angiograms in our clinic between January 2010 and 2013 were included in the study. Sixty-two patients with isolated CAE, 57 with normal coronary angiograms (NCA), 73 with severe coronary artery disease (CAD), and 95 with stenosis of at least one coronary artery and CAE (CAD + CAE) were included in the study. Serum Mg levels were measured in mg/ dl after 12 hours of fasting. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of age, hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, family history of coronary artery disease and medications used. Serum glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), urea, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, sodium and potassium levels were similar in all groups. Serum Mg levels were 1.90 ± 0.19 mg/dl in patients with isolated CAE, 1.75 ± 0.19 mg/dl in those with CAD, 1.83 ± 0.20 mg/dl in those with CAD + CAE, and 1.80 ± 0.16 mg/dl in the NCA group. These results show that Mg levels were higher in ectasia patients with or without CAD. Conclusions The histopathological characteristics of patients with CAE were similar to those with CAD. The specific mechanism of abnormal luminal dilatation seen in CAE however remains to be elucidated. Mg is a divalent cation with powerful vasodilatory effects. In our study, serum Mg levels were found to be statistically higher in ectasia patients with or without CAD. PMID:27123953

  10. Progestogen levels, Progesterone Receptor Gene polymorphisms, and mammographic density changes: results from the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions Mammographic Density Study (PEPI-MDS)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunjung; Ingles, Sue A.; Van Den Berg, David; Wang, Wei; LaVallee, Chris; Huang, Mei-Hua; Crandall, Carolyn J.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Greendale, Gail A.; Ursin, Giske

    2015-01-01

    Objective Estrogen plus progestin therapy (EPT) in postmenopausal women increases breast cancer risk and mammographic density to a higher extent than does estrogen therapy (ET) alone. Data from the randomized placebo-controlled Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) trial showed that EPT-induced increases in serum estrone and estrone sulfate levels were positively correlated with increases in mammographic density. Here, after adjusting for serum estrone and estrone sulfate levels, we investigated the roles of post-treatment serum progestogen increase and of progesterone receptor gene (PGR) genetic variations on changes in mammographic density. Methods We measured percent mammographic density and serum progestogen levels in 280 PEPI participants randomized to EPT treatment. Analyses of genetic variations in PGR were limited to 260 white women for whom we successfully obtained PGR genotypes. We used linear regression analyses to determine how increase in progestogen levels and PGR genetic variations influenced mammographic density change following EPT. Results The increase in post-treatment serum progestogen level was positively associated with greater increases in mammographic density after adjustment for covariates (P-trend=0.044). Compared to women in the lowest quartile of serum progestogen, women in the highest quartile experienced a 3.5% greater increase in mammographic density (P=0.046). We did not find a strong indication that genetic variations in PGR were associated with mammographic density increase, or modified the association with serum progestogen, however confidence in these null findings is constrained by our small sample size. Conclusions Our results suggest that higher serum progestogen levels resulting from EPT treatment lead to greater increases in mammographic density. PMID:22105149

  11. Response of tomato to defoliation and elevated CO[sub 2]level

    SciTech Connect

    Freidus, D. )

    1993-06-01

    Increased resources are expected to result in increased plant productivity and to increase a plant's ability to replace tissue lost to defoliation. This hypothesis was tested by growing tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in a phytotron greenhouse at ambient (355 ppm) and elevated (710 ppm) levels of CO[sub 2]. The experiment was fully factorial for CO[sub 2] level and two manual defoliation treatments, the first during vegetative growth and the second during fruiting. Elevated CO[sub 2] level did not alter total biomass, but did alter allocation: total fruit biomass and fruit number decreased. This is contrary to the expected result. Only the first defoliation treatment lowered total vegetative and reproductive biomass produced. There was no interaction between response to defoliation and response to elevated CO[sub 2] level. Thus, both the main effect of elevated CO[sub 2] and the interaction of defoliation and elevated CO[sub 2] were inconsistent with my hypothesis.

  12. Neurosteroidogenesis and progesterone anti-inflammatory/ neuroprotective effects.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, Alejandro F; Garay, Laura I; Meyer, Maria; Guennoun, Rachida; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Schumacher, Michael; Gonzalez Deniselle, Maria Claudia

    2017-07-04

    Progesterone shows anti-inflammatory and promyelinating effects in mice with autoimmune experimental encephalomyelitis (EAE), a commonly used model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Since neurosteroids have been implicated as protective factors for MS and EAE, we analyzed the expression of neurosteroidogenic enzymes in the compromised spinal cord of EAE mice. EAE was induced in female C57Bl6 mice and killed on day 16 after induction. Progesterone was given by pellet implantation 1 week before EAE induction. Untreated EAE mice showed decreased mRNAs for the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (Star), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc), 5α-reductase, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSOR) and aromatase, whereas changes of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) were not significant. mRNA of 18 Kd translocator protein (TSPO) was elevated, concomitantly with a reactive microgliosis. EAE mice also showed abnormal mitochondrial ultrastructure in axons and neuronal bodies, and reduced expression of fission and fusion protein mRNAs. Progesterone pretreatment before EAE induction increased Star,VDAC, P450scc, 5α-reductase type I, 3α-HSOR and aromatase mRNAs and did not modify 3β-HSD. TSPO mRNA was decreased, possibly due to reversal of microgliosis. Progesterone pretreatment also improved mitochondrial ultrastructure and increased fission/fusion protein mRNAs. These mitochondrial effects may be part of progesterone recovery of neurosteroidogenesis. The enzymes 3β-HSD, 3α-HSOR and 5α-reductase are also responsible for the formation of androgens. Since MS patients and EAE rodents show changes of central androgen levels, it is likely that together with progestins and estrogens, neuroandrogens afford neuroprotection for EAE and MS. Data reviewed in this paper suggest that enhanced synthesis of neurosteroids contributes in an auto/paracrine manner to reinforce the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of

  13. Elevated immunoglobulin D levels in children with PFAPA syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Laszlo; Hlavatá, Anna; Baldovič, Marián; Paulovicova, Ema; Dallos, Tomas; Fehérvízyová, Zuzana; Kadasi, Ludovít

    2010-01-01

    The periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome appears to be more common than generally appreciated and should be differentiated from hereditary periodic fever syndromes, particularly from mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD). 14 unrelated patients (7 males, 7 females) met clinical criteria for both the PFAPA syndrome and MKD. Immunoglobulin D (IgD) levels, mevalonic aciduria and mevalonate kinase (MVK) genotype was determined in all patients. Children experienced their first febrile episode at the age of 24.5±5.9 months (mean±SD), the clinical diagnosis of PFAPA syndrome was established with delay at 42.7±11.7 months. The duration of febrile episodes was 3.4±0.2 days, the asymptomatic interval between them lasted 5.4±0.9 weeks. Accompanying symptoms included pharyngitis (92.8%), cervical lymphadenitis (85.7%), aphthous stomatitis (21.4%), arthralgia (14.3%) and skin erythema (35.7%). Neither mevalonic aciduria nor MVK gene mutations were found in any of the subjects, however, unexpectedly, increased plasma IgD (322.2±29.2 U/l) levels were detected in all patients. Raised IgD levels may represent a non-specific epiphenomenon, which frequently accompanies PFAPA syndrome as well as MKD. Because of the overlapping clinical and laboratory features, genetic testing of the MVK gene is indicated to differentiate these two conditions, if clinical criteria for both are fulfilled.

  14. Elevated serum level of human alkaline phosphatase in obesity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Rehman; Awan, Fazli Rabbi; Najam, Syeda Sadia; Islam, Mehboob; Siddique, Tehmina; Zain, Maryam

    2015-11-01

    To investigate a correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase level and body mass index in human subjects. The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from April 2012 to June 2013. Blood serum alkaline phosphatase levels were estimated and the subjects were divided into three sub-groups on the basis of their body mass. normal weight (<25kg/m2), overweight (25-27kg/m2) and obese (>27kg/m2) subjects. The serum samples were used for the estimation of clinically important biochemical parameters, using commercial kits on clinical chemistry analyser. Of the 197 subjects, 97(49%) were obese and 100(51%) were non-obese. The serum alkaline phosphatase level increased in obese (214±6.4 IU/L) compared to the non-obese subjects (184.5±5 IU/L). Furthermore, a significant linear relationship (r=0.3;p-0.0001) was found between serum alkaline phosphatase and body mass index. Other biochemical variables were not correlated to the body mass index. Over activity and higher amounts of alkaline phosphatase were linked to the development of obesity.

  15. Progesterone increases nitric oxide synthesis in human vascular endothelial cells through activation of membrane progesterone receptor-α.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yefei; Dong, Jing; Thomas, Peter

    2015-05-15

    Progesterone exerts beneficial effects on the human cardiovascular system by inducing rapid increases in nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular endothelial cells, but the receptors mediating these nongenomic progesterone actions remain unclear. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model, we show that progesterone binds to plasma membranes of HUVECs with the characteristics of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs). The selective mPR agonist Org OD 02-0 had high binding affinity for the progesterone receptor on HUVEC membranes, whereas nuclear PR (nPR) agonists R5020 and medroxyprogesterone acetate displayed low binding affinities. Immunocytochemical and Western blot analyses confirmed that mPRs are expressed in HUVECs and are localized on their plasma membranes. NO levels increased rapidly after treatment with 20 nM progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and a progesterone-BSA conjugate but not with R5020, suggesting that this progesterone action is at the cell surface and initiated through mPRs. Progesterone and Org OD 02-0 (20 nM) also significantly increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and eNOS phosphorylation. Knockdown of mPRα expression by treatment with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked the stimulatory effects of 20 nM progesterone on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of nPR was ineffective. Treatment with PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase inhibitors blocked the stimulatory effects of progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and progesterone-BSA on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation and also prevented progesterone- and Org OD 02-0-induced increases in Akt and ERK phosphorylation. The results suggest that progesterone stimulation of NO production in HUVECs is mediated by mPRα and involves signaling through PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways.

  16. Effects of placentophagy on serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations in rats after parturition or superovulation.

    PubMed

    Blank, M S; Friesen, H G

    1980-11-01

    In rats that were allowed to eat the placentae after parturition concentrations of serum prolactin were elevated on Day 1 but concentrations of serum progesterone were depressed on Days 6 and 8 post partum when compared to those of rats prevented from eating the placentae. In rats treated with PMSG to induce superovulation serum prolactin and progesterone values were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated on Days 3 and 5 respectively, after being fed 2 g rat placenta/day for 2 days. However, feeding each rat 4 g placenta/day significantly (P < 0.02) lowered serum progesterone on Day 5. Oestrogen injections or bovine or human placenta in the diet had no effect. The organic phase of a petroleum ether extract of rat placenta (2 g-equivalents/day) lowered peripheral concentrations of progesterone on Day 5, but other extracts were ineffective. We conclude that the rat placenta contains orally-active substance(s) which modify blood levels of pituitary and ovarian hormones.

  17. Optogenetic elevation of endogenous glucocorticoid level in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Yeh, Chen-Min; Castillo Ramírez, Luis A.; Ryu, Soojin

    2013-01-01

    The stress response is a suite of physiological and behavioral processes that help to maintain or reestablish homeostasis. Central to the stress response is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as it releases crucial hormones in response to stress. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the final effector hormones of the HPA axis, and exert a variety of actions under both basal and stress conditions. Despite their far-reaching importance for health, specific GC effects have been difficult to pin-down due to a lack of methods for selectively manipulating endogenous GC levels. Hence, in order to study stress-induced GC effects, we developed a novel optogenetic approach to selectively manipulate the rise of GCs triggered by stress. Using this approach, we could induce both transient hypercortisolic states and persistent forms of hypercortisolaemia in freely behaving larval zebrafish. Our results also established that transient hypercortisolism leads to enhanced locomotion shortly after stressor exposure. Altogether, we present a highly specific method for manipulating the gain of the stress axis with high temporal accuracy, altering endocrine and behavioral responses to stress as well as basal GC levels. Our study offers a powerful tool for the analysis of rapid (non-genomic) and delayed (genomic) GC effects on brain function and behavior, feedbacks within the stress axis and developmental programming by GCs. PMID:23653595

  18. Pregnancy without progesterone in horses defines a second endogenous biopotent progesterone receptor agonist, 5α-dihydroprogesterone

    PubMed Central

    Scholtz, Elizabeth L.; Krishnan, Shweta; Ball, Barry A.; Corbin, C. Jo; Moeller, Benjamin C.; Stanley, Scott D.; McDowell, Karen J.; Hughes, Austin L.; McDonnell, Donald P.; Conley, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most widely accepted axioms of mammalian reproductive biology is that pregnancy requires the (sole) support of progesterone, acting in large measure through nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) in uterine and cervical tissues, without which pregnancy cannot be established or maintained. However, mares lack detectable progesterone in the latter half of pregnancy. Instead of progesterone, several (mainly 5α-reduced) pregnanes are elevated and have long been speculated to provide progestational support in lieu of progesterone itself. To the authors' knowledge, evidence for the bioactivity of a second potent endogenously synthesized pregnane able to support pregnancy in the absence of progesterone has never before been reported. The 5α-reduced progesterone metabolite dihydroprogesterone (DHP) was shown in vivo to stimulate endometrial growth and progesterone-dependent gene expression in the horse at subphysiological concentrations and to maintain equine pregnancy in the absence of luteal progesterone in the third and fourth weeks postbreeding. Results of in vitro studies indicate that DHP is an equally potent and efficacious endogenous progestin in the horse but that the PR evolved with increased agonistic potency for DHP at the expense of potency toward progesterone based on comparisons with human PR responses. Sequence analysis and available literature indicate that the enzyme responsible for DHP synthesis, 5α-reductase type 1, also adapted primarily to metabolize progesterone and thereby to serve diverse roles in the physiology of pregnancy in mammals. Our confirmation that endogenously synthesized DHP is a biopotent progestin in the horse ends decades of speculation, explaining how equine pregnancies survive without measurable circulating progesterone in the last 4 to 5 mo of gestation. PMID:24550466

  19. Pregnancy without progesterone in horses defines a second endogenous biopotent progesterone receptor agonist, 5α-dihydroprogesterone.

    PubMed

    Scholtz, Elizabeth L; Krishnan, Shweta; Ball, Barry A; Corbin, C Jo; Moeller, Benjamin C; Stanley, Scott D; McDowell, Karen J; Hughes, Austin L; McDonnell, Donald P; Conley, Alan J

    2014-03-04

    One of the most widely accepted axioms of mammalian reproductive biology is that pregnancy requires the (sole) support of progesterone, acting in large measure through nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) in uterine and cervical tissues, without which pregnancy cannot be established or maintained. However, mares lack detectable progesterone in the latter half of pregnancy. Instead of progesterone, several (mainly 5α-reduced) pregnanes are elevated and have long been speculated to provide progestational support in lieu of progesterone itself. To the authors' knowledge, evidence for the bioactivity of a second potent endogenously synthesized pregnane able to support pregnancy in the absence of progesterone has never before been reported. The 5α-reduced progesterone metabolite dihydroprogesterone (DHP) was shown in vivo to stimulate endometrial growth and progesterone-dependent gene expression in the horse at subphysiological concentrations and to maintain equine pregnancy in the absence of luteal progesterone in the third and fourth weeks postbreeding. Results of in vitro studies indicate that DHP is an equally potent and efficacious endogenous progestin in the horse but that the PR evolved with increased agonistic potency for DHP at the expense of potency toward progesterone based on comparisons with human PR responses. Sequence analysis and available literature indicate that the enzyme responsible for DHP synthesis, 5α-reductase type 1, also adapted primarily to metabolize progesterone and thereby to serve diverse roles in the physiology of pregnancy in mammals. Our confirmation that endogenously synthesized DHP is a biopotent progestin in the horse ends decades of speculation, explaining how equine pregnancies survive without measurable circulating progesterone in the last 4 to 5 mo of gestation.

  20. Changes in the levels of progesterone receptor mRNA and protein in the bovine corpus luteum during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Vermehren, Margarete; Kenngott, Rebecca A-M; Okuda, Kiyoshi; Sinowatz, Fred

    2010-04-01

    Progesterone (P4) is synthesized in the luteal cells of many species. The objective of the present study was to determine the expression pattern of P4 receptor (PR) mRNA and the distribution of PR protein in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) during the estrous cycle. The gene expression of PR in the bovine CL throughout the estrous cycle was determined by real-time PCR analysis, and the PR protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Messenger RNA of PR was clearly expressed in the CL throughout the estrous cycle. The level of PR mRNA in the CL was highest at the early stage of the estrous cycle and was higher at the mid and late stages than at the regressed stage (P<0.01). In regard to the distribution of PR, the protein was expressed in both small and large luteal cells and in vascular endothelial cells throughout the estrous cycle. These results suggest that P4 has a role in regulating luteal and endothelial cell function in the bovine CL, especially at the early luteal stage as an autocrine/paracrine regulator.

  1. Elevated tritium levels at the World Trade Center

    SciTech Connect

    Semkow, Thomas M.; Hafner, Ronald S.; Parekh, Pravin P.; Wozniak, Gordon J.; Haines, Douglas K.; Husain, Liaquat; Rabun, Robert L.; Williams, Philip G.

    2002-05-14

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at [the]World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174 plus or minus 0.074 (2s) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 plus or minus 0.17 and 2.83 plus or minus 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure.

  2. High Level of Progesteron Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC 1) in Tissue of Breast Cancer Patients is Associated with Worse Response to Anthracycline-Based Neoadjuvant Therapy.

    PubMed

    Willibald, Marina; Wurster, Isabel; Meisner, Christoph; Vogel, Ulrich; Seeger, Harald; Mueck, Alfred O; Fehm, Tanja; Neubauer, Hans

    2017-08-01

    PGRMC1 is known to be highly expressed in breast cancer tissue and is associated with chemoresistance in breast cancer cells. However, its role in breast cancer signaling is not fully understood yet. In the present study, the expression status of PGRMC1 and its phosphorylated version (pPGRMC1) in breast cancer tissue and surrounding stroma before and after neoadjuvant therapy was examined to find a possible association to therapy response. Tissue biopsies of 69 breast cancer patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression levels of PGRMC1 and pPGRMC1. Expression status of PGRMC1 and pPGRMC1 in tumor tissue was compared with expression status of progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor α (ERα), total estrogen receptor β (ERβ), ERβ1, ERβ2, the proliferation marker Ki-67, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu). Correlations were calculated for expression of PGRMC1 and pPGRMC1 before and after neoadjuvant-therapy. PGRMC1 and pPGRMC1 were highly abundant in every breast cancer tissue sample. Considerably lower signals were detected in surrounding tissue. Further, PGRMC1 and pPGRMC1 abundance was found to correlate with ERβ expression. A lower level of pPGRMC1 could be found in post-therapy surgical specimens compared to specimens before treatment. Interestingly, patients with high PGRMC1 tumor levels showed worse response to anthracycline-based therapy as patients with lower PGRMC1 levels. These new findings demonstrate that PGRMC1 might play an important role in progression and therapy resistance of human breast tumors and could offer an interesting target for anticancer therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Elevated levels of measles antibodies in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijendra K; Jensen, Ryan L

    2003-04-01

    Virus-induced autoimmunity may play a causal role in autism. To examine the etiologic link of viruses in this brain disorder, we conducted a serologic study of measles virus, mumps virus, and rubella virus. Viral antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serum of autistic children, normal children, and siblings of autistic children. The level of measles antibody, but not mumps or rubella antibodies, was significantly higher in autistic children as compared with normal children (P = 0.003) or siblings of autistic children (P

  4. Summertime elevation of sup 222 Rn levels in Huntsville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.L.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Saultz, R.J. )

    1991-02-01

    Indoor Rn concentrations and Rn in adjacent karst terrains were studied at four houses with crawlspaces in Huntsville, AL. In warm summertime weather, Rn-rich air may vent through limestone solution cavities exposed as holes at the surface of the properties. A probable interrelated-finding is that the indoor levels of {sup 222}Rn are distinctly higher in the summer than winter. The karst underlying the homes is structurally faulted and, in all probability, facilitates Rn transport from the solution cavities to the crawlspaces. Abrupt day-to-day changes in indoor Rn concentrations were recorded in addition to large seasonal changes. If the owners or residents of these particular homes had attempted to make, and interpret, short-term screening measurements for Rn during the fall season, problems, including false negatives, could have arisen because of order-of-magnitude changes in Rn concentration occurring over a few days. The best time of year to make screening measurements would be during the summer when indoor Rn concentrations are more likely to reach their maximum values.

  5. Adenovirus infection elevates levels of cellular topoisomerase I.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, K C; Pearson, G D

    1985-01-01

    We have developed a specific, sensitive, and quantitative assay for topoisomerase I, which is based on the formation of a covalent enzyme-DNA intermediate. Our assay measures the quantitative transfer of 32P radioactivity from 32P-labeled DNA to topoisomerase I. Since 32P-labeled topoisomerase molecules are resolved by NaDodSO4/PAGE, HeLa topoisomerase I (100 kDa) and calf thymus topoisomerase I (82 kDa) can be quantitatively assayed in the same reaction mixture. The assay can detect at least 0.3 ng (3 fmol) of topoisomerase I. We have used our assay to measure the levels of topoisomerase I activity in crude extracts of nuclei prepared from uninfected, adenovirus-infected, and adenovirus-transformed human cells. The evidence suggests that an adenovirus early gene product, presumably a protein encoded in early region 1A (E1A), increases cellular topoisomerase I activity at least 10-fold. Immunoblotting analysis with antiserum against calf thymus topoisomerase I shows that the increase in activity is due to an increase in the amount of enzyme. Images PMID:2986107

  6. 4th level of 1913 elevator indicating sacking scale, part of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4th level of 1913 elevator indicating sacking scale, part of the bagging system and nate to the sewing machine. Discharge spout for the grain bin to the left - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  7. MONOTERPENE LEVELS IN NEEDLES OF DOUGLAS-FIR EXPOSED TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of monoterpenes in current year needles of douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were measured at the conclusion of four years of exposure to ambient or elevated CO2 (+ 179 mmol.mol-1), and ambient or elevated temperature (+ 3.5 C). Eleven monoterpen...

  8. Elevated social stress levels and depressive symptoms in primary hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Gross, Katharina M; Schote, Andrea B; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst

    2014-01-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress ('Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress': TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants.

  9. Towards quantitative ecological risk assessment of elevated carbon dioxide levels in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Pepijn; Tamis, Jacqueline E; Foekema, Edwin M; Klok, Chris; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-08-30

    The environmental impact of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels has become of more interest in recent years. This, in relation to globally rising CO2 levels and related considerations of geological CO2 storage as a mitigating measure. In the present study effect data from literature were collected in order to conduct a marine ecological risk assessment of elevated CO2 levels, using a Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD). It became evident that information currently available from the literature is mostly insufficient for such a quantitative approach. Most studies focus on effects of expected future CO2 levels, testing only one or two elevated concentrations. A full dose-response relationship, a uniform measure of exposure, and standardized test protocols are essential for conducting a proper quantitative risk assessment of elevated CO2 levels. Improvements are proposed to make future tests more valuable and usable for quantitative risk assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Progesterone, inflammation and preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Pařízek, Antonín; Koucký, Michal; Dušková, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    The initiation of human parturition is not fully understood to date. The data from animal experiments demonstrate that the primary impulse for the initiation of physiological labor arises from the fetal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). HPA is responsible for the stimulation of steroid synthesis and prostaglandin production and, in turn, the cervical dilation and the beginning of myometrial contractions. Animal experiments, however, are only partly suitable for understanding the mechanism of human labor due to substantial species-specificity. In human, the changing levels of placental CRH control the production of fetal and placental steroids. The fundamental pathogenic manifestation of spontaneous preterm labor is inflammation and similar processes also underlie the full term one. While in full term labor it is not yet precisely known what starts this process, in the preterm one, several factors have been discussed like infection, uteroplacental ischemia, and hormonal abnormalities (progesterone- or CRH-related). Inflammatory processes affect both the mother and the fetus. Fetal inflammatory response (FIRS), which can be expected for children born preterm, is frequently associated with long-term complications, in particular neurological and pulmonary. Research in this field is therefore aimed at predicting preterm labor, and on predicting the fetal inflammatory response. The role of progesterone and its receptors in the pathophysiology of preterm labor are likewise intensively studied. Clinical results on the use of additive doses of progesterone in secondary prevention of preterm labor and current experimental studies point to progesterone and its receptors playing a key role in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Pregnancy and Steroids'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of progesterone and norethindrone on female fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lene H; Hala, David; Carty, Dennis; Cantu, Mark; Martinović, Dalma; Huggett, Duane B

    2015-02-01

    As knowledge of contaminants capable of adversely modulating endocrine functions increases, attention is focused on the effects of synthetic progestins as environmental endocrine disrupters. In the present study, effects of exposure to a synthetic progestin (norethindrone, 168 ± 7.5 ng/L) and endogenous progestogen (progesterone, 34 ± 4.1 ng/L) on steroidogenesis in adult female fathead minnows were examined. In vivo exposure to either compound lowered expression (nonsignificant) of luteinizing hormone (LHβ) levels in the brain along with significantly down-regulating the beta isoform of membrane progesterone receptor (mPRβ) in ovary tissue. The correspondence between lowered LHβ levels in the brain and mPRβ in the ovary is suggestive of a possible functional association as positive correlations between LHβ and mPR levels have been demonstrated in other fish species. In vitro exposure of ovary tissue to progesterone resulted in significantly elevated progestogen (pregnenolone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, and 17α,20β-dihydroxypregnenone) and androgen (testosterone) production. Whereas in vitro exposure to norethindrone did not significantly impact steroid hormone production but showed decreased testosterone production relative to solvent control (however this was not significant). Overall, this study showed that exposure to a natural progestogen (progesterone) and synthetic progestin (norethindrone), was capable of modulating LHβ (in brain) and mPRβ expression (in ovary). © 2014 SETAC.

  12. Flowering responses of insect-pollinated plants to elevated CO{sub 2} levels

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, J.H.; Koch, G.W.; Chiariello, N.R. ||

    1995-06-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations have been predicted or shown to substantially influence plants, communities and ecosystems in a variety of ways. Here, we examined the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} levels on the timing and magnitude of flowering for two insect-pollinated annual plant species in a serpentine grassland. We focused on Lasthenia californica and Linanthus parviflorus and addressed three questions: (1) Do elevated CO{sub 2} levels influence flowering phenologies and is this species specific? (2) Do elevated CO{sub 2} levels affect flower production and is this due to altered numbers of individuals, flowers per plant, or both? and (3) Are effects on flowering due to elevated CO{sub 2} levels per se or changes in environmental conditions associated with methods used to manipulate CO{sub 2} levels? To address these questions, we used the ecosystem experiment at Stanford University`s Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (San Mateo Co., CA). This system consists of 20 open-topped chambers - half receiving ambient CO{sub 2} (360 ppm) and half receiving elevated CO{sub 2} (720 ppm) - and 10 untreated plots serving as chamber controls. Results from the 1994 season demonstrated that there were species-specific responses to elevated CO{sub 2} levels and the field chambers. For Lasthenia californica, elevated CO{sub 2} per se did not affect relative abundance, inflorescence production, or phenology, but chambers did significantly increase inflorescence production and extend the duration of flowering. For Linanthus parviflorus, elevated CO{sub 2} levels significantly increased relative abundance and flower production, and extended the flowering period slightly, while the chambers significantly decreased flower production early in the season and increased it later in the season.

  13. miR-129-2 mediates down-regulation of progesterone receptor in response to progesterone in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Godbole, Mukul; Chandrani, Pratik; Gardi, Nilesh; Dhamne, Hemant; Patel, Kuldeep; Yadav, Neelima; Gupta, Sudeep; Badwe, Rajendra; Dutt, Amit

    2017-09-06

    Hormonal therapy is an important component of first line of treatment for breast cancer. Response to hormonal therapy is influenced by the progesterone receptor (PR)-status of breast cancer patients. However as an early effect, exposure to progesterone decreases expression of PR in breast cancer cells. An understanding of the mechanism underlying down-regulation of PR could help improve response to hormonal therapy. We performed small RNA sequencing of breast cancer cells for identification of microRNAs targeting PR in response to progesterone treatment. Biochemical approaches were used to validate the findings in breast cancer cells. Analysis of small RNA sequencing of four breast cancer cell lines treated with progesterone revealed an up-regulation of miR-129-2 independent of the PR status of the cells. We show that miR-129-2 targets 3'UTR of PR to down-regulate its expression. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-129-2 expression rescues the down-regulation of PR in breast cancer cells. Also, the expression levels of miR-129-2 was observed to be elevated in patients with low expression of PR in the TCGA cohort (n = 359). miR-129-2 mediates down-regulation of PR in breast cancer cells in response to progesterone, while anti-miR-129-2 could potentiate PR expression levels among patients with inadequate PR levels. Thus, modulation of activity of miR-129-2 could stabilize PR expression and potentially improve response to hormonal therapy under adjuvant or neo-adjuvant settings.

  14. American College of Preventive Medicine Practice Policy Statement. Screening for elevated blood lead levels in children.

    PubMed

    Lane, W G; Kemper, A R

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Based on a review of the current literature and recommendations, the American College of Preventive Medicine presents a practice policy statement on screening for elevated blood lead levels in children.

  15. Messenger RNA levels of estrogen receptors alpha and beta and progesterone receptors in the cyclic and inseminated/early pregnant sow uterus.

    PubMed

    Sukjumlong, S; Persson, E; Dalin, A-M; Janson, V; Sahlin, L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in the expression of mRNAs for ERalpha, ERbeta and PR in the sow uterus at different stages of the estrous cycle as well as in inseminated sows at estrus and during early pregnancy by use of solution hybridization and in relation to plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone. Uterine samples were collected at different stages of the estrous cycle and after insemination/early pregnancy. In the endometrium, the expression of ERalpha mRNA and PR mRNA was similar for cyclic and early pregnant groups. Both were highest at early diestrus/70 h after ovulation and ERalpha mRNA was lowest at late diestrus/d 19 while PR mRNA was lowest at diestrus and late diestrus/d 11 and d 19. The expression of endometrial ERbeta was constantly low during the estrous cycle but higher expression was found in inseminated/early pregnant sows at estrus and 70 h after ovulation. In the myometrium, high expression of ERalpha mRNA and PR mRNA was observed at proestrus and estrus in cyclic sows and at estrus in newly inseminated sows. Higher expression of myometrial ERbeta mRNA was found in inseminated/early pregnant sows compared with cyclic sows, although significant only at estrus. In conclusion, the expression of mRNAs for ERalpha, ERbeta and PR in the sow uterus differed between endometrium and myometrium as well as with stages of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. In addition to plasma steroid levels, the differences between cyclic and inseminated/early pregnant sows suggest that other factors, e.g. insemination and/or the presence of embryos, influence the expression of these steroid receptor mRNAs in the sow uterus.

  16. Inhibition of Progesterone Metabolism Mimics the Effect of Progesterone Withdrawal on Forced Swim Test Immobility

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Withdrawal from high levels of progesterone in rodents has been proposed as a model for premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. Forced swim test (FST) immobility, used to model depression, was assessed in intact female DBA/2J mice following progesterone withdrawal (PWD) or treatment with the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride. Following 5 daily progesterone injections (5 mg/kg IP) FST immobility increased only in mice withdrawn for 3 days (p < .05). In another experiment, 3 days of PWD significantly decreased levels of progesterone compared to 0 days of withdrawal, but progesterone levels at 3 days of PWD did not differ from vehicle-treated controls. In a final study, mice received daily injections of progesterone (5 mg/kg IP) for 8 days, with 0 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, or 100 mg/kg finasteride co-administered for the last three days. Mice that received 100 mg/kg finasteride, but not 50 mg/kg finasteride, displayed increased FST immobility. PWD and finasteride treatment, both of which reduce allopregnanolone levels, were associated with increased FST immobility in female DBA/2J mice. These findings suggest that decreased levels of the GABAergic neurosteroid allopregnanolone contributes to symptoms of PWD. Future studies of PWD may provide information about human conditions that are associated with hormone changes such as premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. PMID:17597197

  17. Inhibition of progesterone metabolism mimics the effect of progesterone withdrawal on forced swim test immobility.

    PubMed

    Beckley, Ethan H; Finn, Deborah A

    2007-10-01

    Withdrawal from high levels of progesterone in rodents has been proposed as a model for premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. Forced swim test (FST) immobility, used to model depression, was assessed in intact female DBA/2J mice following progesterone withdrawal (PWD) or treatment with the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride. Following 5 daily progesterone injections (5 mg/kg IP) FST immobility increased only in mice withdrawn for 3 days (p<.05). In another experiment, 3 days of PWD significantly decreased levels of progesterone compared to 0 days of withdrawal, but progesterone levels at 3 days of PWD did not differ from vehicle-treated controls. In a final study, mice received daily injections of progesterone (5 mg/kg IP) for 8 days, with 0 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, or 100 mg/kg finasteride co-administered for the last three days. Mice that received 100 mg/kg finasteride, but not 50 mg/kg finasteride, displayed increased FST immobility. PWD and finasteride treatment, both of which reduce allopregnanolone levels, were associated with increased FST immobility in female DBA/2J mice. These findings suggest that decreased levels of the GABAergic neurosteroid allopregnanolone contribute to symptoms of PWD. Future studies of PWD may provide information about human conditions that are associated with hormone changes such as premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression.

  18. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  19. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  20. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

    PubMed

    Smart, D R; Ritchie, K; Stark, J M; Bugbee, B

    1997-11-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  1. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

    PubMed Central

    Smart, D R; Ritchie, K; Stark, J M; Bugbee, B

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity. PMID:11536820

  2. Study of the mechanism of carcinogenesis by carcinogens which are negative in the Ames test. Progress report. [ICE; TUMOR PROMOTERS; PROGESTERONE; QUANTITY RATIO; RATS

    SciTech Connect

    Borek, E

    1980-01-01

    Research progress for 1980 is reported. The role of tRNA methyltransferases in two-1 stage carcinogenesis of mice by phorbol esters has been investigated. The mechanisms of elevation of progesterone levels in the rat by ethionine have also beed studied. (ACR)

  3. Factors associated with the level of backrest elevation in a thoracic cardiovascular intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Ballew, Carole; Buffmire, Marie V; Fisher, Charles; Schmidt, Paula; Quatrara, Beth; Conaway, Mark; Burns, Suzanne

    2011-09-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a complication of mechanical ventilation that is associated with increased length of stay, morbidity, mortality, and costs. Evidence-based guidelines to reduce the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia recommend use of 30º to 45º backrest elevation. Despite recommendations, patients continue to be cared for in positions with a lower backrest elevation. Hemodynamic stability may be a factor in the lack of adherence, yet few data exist to confirm this hypothesis. To determine the relationship between backrest elevation and hemodynamic instability among patients in a thoracic cardiovascular intensive care unit. A sample of 100 patients was studied. Patients were randomly selected by time of day. A protractor was used to measure patients' backrest elevation. Mean blood pressure, time of day, and fluid and vasopressor use also were recorded. Lower backrest elevation was associated with use of vasopressors (P = .001). Patients who received hemodynamic support also had a lower backrest elevation than did patients not receiving these therapies (mean, 19º vs 26º ; P = .01). Patients with a mean blood pressure of 64 mm Hg or less had a mean backrest elevation of 17º versus 24º for patients with a mean blood pressure greater than 65 mm Hg (P = .01). Back-rest elevations did not differ between shifts. That backrest elevation is associated with lower mean blood pressure and vasopressor use suggests that nurses are not adhering to recommended levels of backrest elevation so as to maintain hemodynamic stability. Further studies are needed to elucidate reasons for lack of adherence to recommended levels of backrest elevation.

  4. Circulating progesterone, progesterone-binding proteins and oestradiol-17 beta concentrations in the pregnant Cape porcupine, Hystrix africaeaustralis.

    PubMed

    van Aarde, R J; Potgieter, H C

    1986-03-01

    Circulating concentrations of progesterone, progesterone-binding plasma proteins (PBPP) and oestradiol-17 beta in pregnant porcupines remained relatively low until Days 25-30 post coitum. Progesterone values peaked (102-180 ng/ml; N = 3) 42-60 days post coitum and the rapid increase in oestradiol-17 beta concentrations approximated that of progesterone with peak values (170-210 pg/ml) being attained 60-85 days post coitum. The pattern of PBPP synthesis, as suggested by circulating concentrations, was closely related to that of plasma progesterone, with values remaining low (less than 20 pmol/ml) until Day 31 post coitum, reaching peak levels at Days 50-56 and Days 73-77 post coitum. The production of PBPP during pregnancy is, as in related New World hystricomorph species, considered to be a mechanism which facilitates a reduction in the rate of progesterone metabolism during pregnancy.

  5. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis: Case report with history of urticaria, petechiae and palpable pinpoint purpura triggered by medical abortion.

    PubMed

    Mbonile, Lumuli

    2016-03-17

    Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (APD) is a rare autoimmune response to raised endogenous progesterone levels that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Cutaneous, mucosal lesions and other systemic manifestations develop cyclically during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle when progesterone levels are elevated. APD symptoms usually start 3 - 10 days before menstruation and resolve 1 - 2 days after menstruation ceases. A 30-year-old woman presented with urticaria, petechiae and palpable pinpoint purpura lesions of the legs, forearms, neck and buttocks 1 week prior to her menses starting and 2 months after a medical abortion. She was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis and topical steroids were prescribed. Her skin conditions did not improve and were associated with her menstrual cycle. We performed an intradermal test using progesterone, which was positive. She was treated with oral contraceptive pills and the symptoms were resolved. This is a typical case of APD triggered by increased sensitivity to endogenous progesterone induced a few months after medical abortion.

  6. Myometrial progesterone responsiveness and the control of human parturition.

    PubMed

    Mesiano, Sam

    2004-05-01

    The goal of this review is to assess the body of literature addressing the mechanism of progesterone withdrawal in the control of human parturition and in particular the recent advances in testing the hypothesis that human parturition is initiated by decreased myometrial responsiveness to progesterone, ie, functional progesterone withdrawal. Published studies of progesterone responsiveness of the pregnant human myometrium in the context of parturition control were reviewed. Advances in understanding the molecular basis for progesterone receptor (PR)-mediated control of progesterone responsiveness has led to the hypothesis that functional progesterone withdrawal in human parturition is mediated by specific changes in myometrial PR expression, function, or both. The human PR exists as two major subtypes, PR-A and PR-B. As PR-A represses progesterone actions mediated by PR-B, the extent of progesterone responsiveness is inversely related to the PR-A/PR-B expression ratio. In women, the onset of term labor is associated with a significant increase in the myometrial PR-A/PR-B expression ratio that may facilitate functional progesterone withdrawal. Interestingly, expression of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) increases concordantly with the PR-A/PR-B expression ratio in nonlaboring myometrium. This finding indicates that functional estrogen activation and functional progesterone withdrawal are linked. Functional progesterone withdrawal in human parturition is likely mediated by an increase in the myometrial PR-A/PR-B expression ratio and possibly by modulation of coactivator and corepressor proteins. Functional progesterone withdrawal appears to induce functional estrogen activation. Thus, for most of pregnancy, progesterone may decrease myometrial estrogen responsiveness by inhibiting ERalpha expression. Such an interaction would explain why the human myometrium is refractory to the high levels of circulating estrogens for most of pregnancy. At term, functional

  7. Elevated voltage level I.sub.DDQ failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Righter, Alan W.

    1996-01-01

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC's is eliminated by I.sub.DDQ testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip.

  8. Elevated voltage level I{sub DDQ} failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Righter, A.W.

    1996-05-21

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC`s is eliminated by I{sub DDQ} testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip. 4 figs.

  9. Feeding soybean meal increases the blood level of isoflavones and reduces the steroidogenic capacity in bovine corpora lutea, without affecting peripheral progesterone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; Vanhaecke, L; Heyerick, A; Bossaert, P; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

    2014-01-30

    Thirty-three Holstein-Friesian cows were followed from 14 days pre partum until the fourth ovulation post partum. Housing conditions and basic ration were identical for all animals. Concentrates were individually supplemented according to the daily milk production level, using two different types of protein rich concentrates: soybean meal and rapeseed meal. Soybean and rapeseed meal are known to be respectively high and low in isoflavones. Cows were randomly divided into three groups and blocked for parity. Group I (n=11) was supplemented with soybean meal and acted as control group. Groups II (n=11) and III (n=11) were respectively supplemented with soybean and rapeseed meal and were subjected to a biopsy sampling of the corpus luteum at day 9 of the first three postpartal estrous cycles. Soybean meal supplementation to lactating dairy cows (1.72 kg on average) induced an increase in the blood concentration of equol, dihydrodaidzein, o-desmethylangolensin in both soy groups and resulted in a reduced area occupied by steroidogenic (P=0.012) and endothelial cells (P=0.0007) in the luteal biopsies. Blood concentrations of equol and glycitein were negatively correlated with the areas occupied by steroidogenic (r=-0.410 with P=0.0002, respectively r=-0.351 with P=0.008) and endothelial cells (r=-0.337 with P=0.01, respectively r=-0.233 with P=0.085) in the 3 first estrous cycles. The latter however did not affect the diestrous peripheral blood progesterone concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between elevated aminotransferase levels and the metabolic syndrome in Northern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Beytullah; Ozugurlu, Fikret; Sahin, Semsettin; Ozyurt, Huseyin; Atis, Omer; Akbas, Ali; Akturk, Yeliz; Ozdemir, Metin; Sahin, Idris; Bulut, Yunus; Etikan, Ylker; Firat, M Murat

    2010-01-01

    Elevated aminotransferase levels(ATLs) are alert the physicians for liver-affecting disease and may reflect liver injury. We aimed to determine the prevalence of elevated ATLs and the association of elevated ATLs with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a northern province of Turkey. Elevated ATLs were evaluated among 1,095 individuals of the Tokat Prevalence Study which have been described in detail elsewhere. 1,095 participants had been selected by a simple random sampling method among 530,000 inhabitants in 70 (12 urban and 58 rural) areas in the province of Tokat which is located in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The prevalence of elevated serum ALT, AST, and ALT and/or AST were found as 11%, 7.2%, and 13.3%, respectively. Increased BMI, fatty liver, and MetS were higher in our general population with elevated ATLs. After exclusion of individuals with hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection, 132 individuals with elevated ATLs (91 male and 41 female) were evaluated. MetS was found in 59 participants and its prevalence was markedly higher in females with elevated ATLs (p < 0.0001). When the males with elevated ATLs were evaluated, the ALT levels of the persons who have no risk of MetS (p =0.007) and the persons who have one risk of MetS (p = 0.001) were lower than the persons with MetS. Elevated ATLs are common and it's an important cause is MetS in Northern Turkey.

  11. Estradiol and Progesterone have Opposing Roles in the Regulation of Fear Extinction in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Bronwyn M; Daher, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Fear extinction, the laboratory basis of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders, fluctuates across the female rat estrous cycle, where extinction is enhanced during proestrus (high estradiol and progesterone), and impaired during metestrus (low estradiol and progesterone). During the estrous cycle increasing levels of estradiol precede and then overlap with increased levels of progesterone. We sought to isolate the impact of these hormonal changes on fear extinction by systematically treating ovariectomized female rats with estradiol alone, or in combination with progesterone. We found that estradiol alone facilitated extinction recall, whereas the effects of progesterone on estradiol-treated rats were biphasic and dependent on the time interval between progesterone administration and extinction training. Progesterone potentiated estradiol's facilitation of extinction recall when extinction training occurred 6 h after progesterone administration. However, progesterone abolished estradiol's facilitation of extinction recall when extinction training occurred 24 h after progesterone administration. Furthermore, in naturally cycling rats, blocking progesterone receptor activation during proestrus (when progesterone levels peak) prevented the impairment in extinction recall in rats extinguished during metestrus. These results suggest that in naturally cycling females whereas cyclical increases in estradiol facilitate fear extinction, cyclical increases in progesterone may lead to fear extinction impairments. As extinction training took place after the hormonal treatments had been metabolized, we propose that genomic mechanisms may at least partly mediate the impact of cyclic fluctuations in sex hormones on fear extinction. PMID:26156559

  12. Estradiol and Progesterone have Opposing Roles in the Regulation of Fear Extinction in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Graham, Bronwyn M; Daher, Melissa

    2016-02-01

    Fear extinction, the laboratory basis of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders, fluctuates across the female rat estrous cycle, where extinction is enhanced during proestrus (high estradiol and progesterone), and impaired during metestrus (low estradiol and progesterone). During the estrous cycle increasing levels of estradiol precede and then overlap with increased levels of progesterone. We sought to isolate the impact of these hormonal changes on fear extinction by systematically treating ovariectomized female rats with estradiol alone, or in combination with progesterone. We found that estradiol alone facilitated extinction recall, whereas the effects of progesterone on estradiol-treated rats were biphasic and dependent on the time interval between progesterone administration and extinction training. Progesterone potentiated estradiol's facilitation of extinction recall when extinction training occurred 6 h after progesterone administration. However, progesterone abolished estradiol's facilitation of extinction recall when extinction training occurred 24 h after progesterone administration. Furthermore, in naturally cycling rats, blocking progesterone receptor activation during proestrus (when progesterone levels peak) prevented the impairment in extinction recall in rats extinguished during metestrus. These results suggest that in naturally cycling females whereas cyclical increases in estradiol facilitate fear extinction, cyclical increases in progesterone may lead to fear extinction impairments. As extinction training took place after the hormonal treatments had been metabolized, we propose that genomic mechanisms may at least partly mediate the impact of cyclic fluctuations in sex hormones on fear extinction.

  13. [Plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and transmission to other trophic levels]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.E.

    1995-10-01

    This program investigated how host plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide may be transmitted to other trophic levels, especially leaf eating insects, and alter consumption of leaves and impare their function. Study results included the following findings: increased carbon dioxide to plants alters feeding by insect herbivores; leaves produced under higher carbon conditions contain proportionally less nitrogen; insect herbivores may have decreased reproduction under elevated carbon dioxide.

  14. Elevated IgG4 serum levels in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Clerc, Axelle; Reynaud, Quitterie; Durupt, Stéphane; Chapuis-Cellier, Colette; Nové-Josserand, Raphaële; Durieu, Isabelle; Lega, Jean Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 elevation has been associated with several pathological conditions other than IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). In cystic fibrosis (CF), an elevation of specific IgG4 has been associated with colonization and infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IgG4 elevation may be a marker of chronic infection or inflammatory stimulation. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of elevated IgG4 levels in CF and its correlation with the major clinical and microbiological features found in CF patients. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from a large cohort of adult CF patients attending the CF center of Lyon University Hospital. An elevated IgG4 level was defined as being above the cut-off value of 135 mg/dL. One hundred and sixty-five CF patients were analyzed. An IgG4 elevation was detected in 43 patients (26%). Compared with the control group (≤ 135 mg/dL), high IgG4 patients exhibited a greater prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and higher IgG, IgG1, IgG2 and IgE levels. No significant differences were observed in terms of pulmonary function, colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or the annual rate of bronchial exacerbations. An elevated IgG4 serum level was frequently detected in adult CF patients and did not appear to be associated with poor lung function. We suggest that IgG4 elevation is a marker of the activation of tolerance. Its clinical significance remains to be demonstrated.

  15. Relationship between concentrations of progesterone, oxytocin, noradrenaline, gene expression and protein level for their receptors in corpus luteum during estrous cycle in the cow.

    PubMed

    Rekawiecki, R; Nowocin, A; Kotwica, J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate of the relationship between luteal concentrations of oxytocin (OT), noradrenaline (NA), progesterone (P4), oxytocin receptors (OT-R) and beta(2)-adrenoreceptors (beta(2)-R) gene expression and their protein level throughout the estrous cycle in cattle. Corpora lutea (CL) collected during days 1-5, 6-10, 11-16 and 17-21 of the estrous cycle were used in these studies. Concentrations of P4, OT and NA were determined in tissue extracts. Gene expression and protein level for OT-R and beta(2)-R were investigated by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Luteal concentration of P4 was higher (P<0.01) on days 6-10 and 11-16 than during days 1-5 and 17-20 of the estrous cycle. Concentration of OT was the highest on days 1-5 and 6-10 of the estrous cycle. This concentration decreased (P<0.01) during days 11-16 reaching the lowest level (P<0.001) on days 17-20 as opposed to days 1-10 of the estrous cycle. Expression of OT-R mRNA was lower on days 6-16 (P<0.05) followed by its increase on days 17-20 as opposed to the expression observed on days 1-5. Expression of OT-R mRNA was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with the profile of OT-R protein level. This latter parameter was the lowest on days 17-20 and 1-5, and the highest on days 6-10 and 11-16. Oxytocin concentration was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with expression of OT-R mRNA and positively correlated (P<0.001) with OT-R protein level. This protein level was only correlated with P4 (r=0.59; P<0.05). Concentration of OT was positively correlated with level of P4 (P<0.001). Concentration of NA was the highest on days 1-5 of the estrous cycle, whereas it was similar or lower (P<0.05) on days 6-21. Expression of mRNA for beta(2)-R was the lowest on days 1-5 and was highly increased (P<0.05) on days 6-16. The expression was the highest (P<0.001) on days 17-21 compared to all others group of the estrous cycle. Protein level for beta(2)-R was the highest on days 1-5 and decreased (P<0

  16. Schistosomiasis Japonica During Pregnancy Is Associated With Elevated Endotoxin Levels in Maternal and Placental Compartments

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Emily A.; Pond-Tor, Sunthorn; Jarilla, Blanca; Sagliba, Marianne J.; Gonzal, Annaliza; Amoylen, Amabelle J.; Olveda, Remigio; Acosta, Luz; Gundogan, Fusun; Ganley-Leal, Lisa M.; Kurtis, Jonathan D.; Friedman, Jennifer F.

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis affects approximately 40 million women of reproductive age and has been linked to elevated levels of circulating endotoxin in nonpregnant individuals. We have evaluated endotoxin levels in maternal, placental, and newborn blood collected from women residing in Leyte, Philippines. Endotoxin levels in both maternal and placental compartments in pregnant women with schistosomiasis were 1.3- and 2.4-fold higher, respectively, than in uninfected women. In addition, higher concentrations of endotoxin in placental blood were associated with premature birth, acute chorioamnionitis, and elevated proinflammatory cytokines. By promoting endotoxemia, schistosomiasis may exert additional, maladaptive influences on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23964108

  17. Effects of environmental stress during pregnancy on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, D.E.; Rhees, R.W.; Williams, S.R.; Kurth, S.M.

    1986-03-01

    Prenatal stress applied during a presumed critical period (third trimester) for sexual differentiation of the brain has been shown to alter development and influence sexual behavior. This experiment was designed to study the effects of environmental stress (restraint/illumination/heat) on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers. These hormones were studied since corticosterone has been shown to alter brain differentiation and progesterone has anti-androgen properties and since the secretion of both from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by ACTH. Plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers of both stressed and control gravid rats and their fetuses were measured on gestational days 18 and 20 by radioimmunoassay. Prenatal stress significantly reduced fetal body weight and fetal adrenal weight. Maternal pituitary weight was significantly increased. Prenatal stress caused a significant elevation in maternal corticosterone and progesterone titers and in fetal corticosterone titers. There was no difference between prenatal stressed and control fetal plasma progesterone levels. These data demonstrate that environmental stress significantly increases adrenal activity beyond that brought about naturally by pregnancy, and therefore may modify sequential hormonal events during fetal development.

  18. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Adame, Maria Fernanda; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-02-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  19. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Fernanda Adame, Maria; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  20. Decreased DNA Methylations at the Progesterone Receptor Promoter A Induce Functional Progesterone Withdrawal in Human Parturition.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Chen, Cheng; Luo, Hui; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C; Ni, Bing; Chang, Qing

    2014-07-01

    The functional interaction of progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms PRA and PRB regulates myometrial transition from the resting state to excitation-contraction to initiate parturition. However, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for maintenance and functional alteration of the PRA and PRB expression levels during human pregnancy and term labor, respectively, remain unknown. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate whether and how epigenetic DNA modifications, specifically methylations, at the PRs' promoter regions contribute to the differential expression of PRA and PRB in laboring term myometrium of humans. Comparative analysis of PRA and PRB messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels and accompanying changes in their promoters' methylation status was carried out using human myometrial samples from women undergoing singleton, term deliveries by cesarean section, either in the absence of labor (designated as NIL for not-in-labor) or in active labor (designated as IL for in labor). The PRA gene expression was shown to be elevated significantly during labor, while PRB gene expression was unaltered, and this differential expression was accompanied by decreased DNA methylation at the PRA promoter and not at the PRB promoter. In addition, labor-related decreased mRNA expression of the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) family members DNMT1 and DNMT3a was found, however whether the increased expression of DNMTs directly supports the functional withdrawal of progesterone needs further investigation. Collectively, these data indicate that DNA methylation might represent an important epigenetic mechanism of labor-related differential expression of PRs, thereby mediating the biological process of functional PR withdrawal at term for parturition. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Progesterone suppresses triple-negative breast cancer growth and metastasis to the brain via membrane progesterone receptor α.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Hongwei; Hu, Yan; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Yufei; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Peng; Xia, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Progesterone plays an important role in mammary epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Evidence from experimental and clinical studies indicates that progesterone is a risk factor for breast cancer under certain conditions through binding nuclear progesterone receptor (PR). These mechanisms, however, are not applicable to triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) due to the lack of PR in these cancers. In this study, we demonstrate that membrane progesterone receptor α (mPRα) is expressed in TNBC tissues and the expression level of mPRα is negatively associated with the TNM stage. We found that progesterone suppressed the growth, migration and invasion of mPRα+ human TNBC cells in vitro, which was neither mediated by PR nor by PR membrane component 1 (PGRMCl). Notably, these effects exerted by progesterone were significantly blocked by shRNA specific to mPRα. Moreover, the knockdown of mPRα expression impaired the inhibitory effects of progesterone on mPRα+ tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. These data collectively indicate that progesterone suppresses TNCB growth and metastasis via mPRα, which provides evidence of the anti-neoplastic effects of progesterone-mPRα pathway in the treatment of human TNBC.

  2. Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

  3. Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

  4. Possible association of elevated serum collagen type IV level with skin sclerosis in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Akiko; Fujiwara, Chisako; Toki, Sayaka; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2016-08-29

    Collagen type IV is the primary collagen in the basement membranes around blood vessels and in the dermoepidermal junction in the skin. Perivascular collagen type IV is synthesized by endothelial cells and pericytes, and contributes to the homeostasis and remodeling of blood vessels. It has been well recognized that elevated serum collagen type IV levels are associated with the liver fibrosis. The objective was to examine serum collagen type IV levels and their clinical associations in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and to examine the expression of collagen type IV in the fibrotic skin in SSc. Serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients and diffuse cutaneous type SSc patients were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals. Serum collagen type IV levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. Serum collagen type IV levels in early stage (disease duration ≤3 years) diffuse cutaneous SSc patients were significantly elevated. Serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients with digital ulcers (DU) were significantly elevated. In immunohistochemical staining, the expression of collagen type IV around dermal small vessels in the affected skin was reduced compared with those of normal individuals. These results suggest that elevated serum collagen type IV levels may be associated with the skin sclerosis in the early stage of SSc. The measurement of serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients may be useful as a disease activity marker in skin sclerosis and DU.

  5. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis: link to failure to metabolize estradiol.

    PubMed

    Bulun, Serdar E; Cheng, You-Hong; Yin, Ping; Imir, Gonca; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Attar, Erkut; Innes, Joy; Julie Kim, J

    2006-03-27

    Endometriosis is the most common cause of pelvic pain and affects an estimated 5 million women in the US. The biologically active estrogen estradiol (E2) is the best-defined mitogen for the growth and inflammation processes in the ectopic endometriotic tissue that commonly resides on the pelvic organs. Progesterone and progestins may relieve pain by limiting growth and inflammation in endometriosis but a portion of patients with endometriosis and pelvic pain do not respond to treatment with progestins. Moreover, progesterone-induced molecular changes in the eutopic (intrauterine) endometrial tissue of women with endometriosis are either blunted or undetectable. These in vivo observations are indicative of resistance to progesterone action in endometriosis. The molecular basis of progesterone resistance in endometriosis may be related to an overall reduction in the levels of progesterone receptors (PRs) and the lack of the PR isoform named progesterone receptor B (PR-B). In normal endometrium, progesterone acts on stromal cells to induce secretion of paracrine factor(s). These unknown factor(s) act on neighboring epithelial cells to induce the expression of the enzyme 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17beta-HSD-2), which metabolizes the biologically active estrogen E2 to estrone (E1). In endometriotic tissue, progesterone does not induce epithelial 17beta-HSD-2 expression due to a defect in stromal cells. The inability of endometriotic stromal cells to produce progesterone-induced paracrine factors that stimulate 17beta-HSD-2 may be due to the lack of PR-B and very low levels of progesterone receptor A (PR-A) observed in vivo in endometriotic tissue. The end result is deficient metabolism of E2 in endometriosis giving rise to high local concentrations of this local mitogen. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying progesterone resistance and failure to metabolize E2 in endometriosis are reviewed.

  6. Elevated alanine aminotransferase levels in HIV-infected persons without hepatitis B or C virus coinfection.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Saad; Alrbiaan, Abdullah; Alaraj, Ali; Alhuraiji, Ahmad; Alghamdi, Mohammad; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Mortality related to human immunodeficiency (HIV) has improved with the use of antiretroviral therapy; however, liver disease-related mortality remains a major concern for the HIV population. Elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) has been noted in HIV-infected persons even without viral hepatitis infection. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of chronic alanine ALT elevation among patients infected with HIV who are negative for hepatitis B or C infection. Retrospective chart review. We reviewed the medical records of all patients infected with HIV who had been treated from November 2002 to December 2010. Patients with an unknown or positive HBV or HCV infection status were excluded. We identified patient demographics, route of transmission, peak viral load, and nadir CD4 count. We followed 440 patients for up to 2265 person-years. A total of 123 patients developed chronically elevated ALT levels, with an incidence of 5.8 cases per 100 person-years. Chronically elevated ALT levels were associated with high HIV viral load, mean body mass index, and diabetes mellitus. We found exposure to lamivudine in 58% of the patients, efavirenz in 41%, and zidovudine in 38%. Abdominal ultrasounds revealed fatty liver in 20 of 39 (51%) of the patients. Among patients without viral hepatitis coinfection, the prevalence and incidence of chronic elevated ALT levels were high and accompanied by high HIV RNA levels and increased BMI. The limitations of this report are its retrospective nature and lack of a control group.

  7. Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels affect community structure of rice root-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Takashi; Liu, Dongyan; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Ikeda, Seishi; Asakawa, Susumu; Tokida, Takeshi; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Aoki, Naohiro; Ishimaru, Ken; Ujiie, Kazuhiro; Usui, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Hayashi, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) affects rice yields and grain quality. However, the responses of root-associated bacteria to [CO2] elevation have not been characterized in a large-scale field study. We conducted a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment (ambient + 200 μmol.mol(-1)) using three rice cultivars (Akita 63, Takanari, and Koshihikari) and two experimental lines of Koshihikari [chromosome segment substitution and near-isogenic lines (NILs)] to determine the effects of [CO2] elevation on the community structure of rice root-associated bacteria. Microbial DNA was extracted from rice roots at the panicle formation stage and analyzed by pyrosequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize the members of the bacterial community. Principal coordinate analysis of a weighted UniFrac distance matrix revealed that the community structure was clearly affected by elevated [CO2]. The predominant community members at class level were Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria in the control (ambient) and FACE plots. The relative abundance of Methylocystaceae, the major methane-oxidizing bacteria in rice roots, tended to decrease with increasing [CO2] levels. Quantitative PCR revealed a decreased copy number of the methane monooxygenase (pmoA) gene and increased methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) in elevated [CO2]. These results suggest elevated [CO2] suppresses methane oxidation and promotes methanogenesis in rice roots; this process affects the carbon cycle in rice paddy fields.

  8. Elevated CO2, nitrogen availability and marsh tolerance for sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langley, J. A.; Cahoon, D. R.; Megonigal, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of sea-level rise that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors such as elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen eutrophication. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. We manipulated atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen availability (2 x 2 factorial) in a highly organic tidal marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr-1, an effect caused primarily by stimulating belowground plant productivity. Nitrogen additions, despite increasing aboveground productivity, tended to reverse elevation gains, perhaps by reducing root productivity and stimulating soil decomposition. Therefore, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas, but nitrogen pollution may negate this effect regionally. These effects on the organic mechanisms of marsh elevation gain may help explain patterns marsh formation and disappearance worldwide.

  9. Risk factors associated with elevated serum pancreatic amylase levels during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Hsu; Yang, Wu-Chang; Wang, Feng-Ming; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Chen, Jinn-Yang; Ng, Yee-Yung; Wu, Tsai-Hun; Lin, Yao-Ping; Lin, Chih-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of serum pancreatic enzymes are frequently observed in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The complex hemodynamic, biochemical, and physiological alterations in uremia were speculated to cause excessive release of pancreatic enzymes beyond decreased renal clearance. However, hemodynamic factors are seldom explored in this aspect. We performed the study to evaluate the association between intradialytic hemodynamic change and elevated serum pancreatic amylase (SPA). Eighty-three prevalent HD patients without any clinical evidence of acute pancreatitis underwent pre-HD and post-HD blood sampling for serum pancreatic enzyme levels. Demographic, biochemical, and hematological data were collected from patient record review. Hemodialysis information including intradialytic blood pressure changes and ultrafiltration (UF) amount were collected and averaged for 1 month before the blood sampling day. Patients with elevated SPA during the HD session had greater mean systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure reduction, greater UF volume, greater pre-HD blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, higher serum phosphorus, lower pre-HD serum total CO2, and lower left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF). Using multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis, the independent predictors of elevated SPA were determined to be mean arterial pressure reduction during HD, mean UF amount, pre-HD serum total CO2, and LVEF. Greater blood pressure reduction during HD, greater UF volume, lower pre-HD serum total CO2, and lower LVEF were significantly associated with elevated SPA during HD. This suggests that hemodynamic factors contribute to elevated serum pancreatic enzymes in HD patients.

  10. CT brain findings in a patient with elevated brain cesium levels.

    PubMed

    Khangure, Simon R; Williams, Eric S; Welman, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    We describe the CT findings in the brain of a woman with pathologically proven elevated levels of blood and tissue cesium. The 42-year-old woman had been receiving cesium chloride as a non-mainstream treatment for metastatic breast carcinoma. She presented to hospital following a seizure, and died 48 hours after admission. A brain CT performed on hospital admission showed a diffuse increase in attenuation of brain parenchyma. Autopsy revealed elevated levels of cesium in blood and solid organs including the brain. We hypothesize that the imaging findings are attributable to the abnormally elevated level of brain cesium at the time of the CT scan. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this imaging finding.

  11. Exposure to Paper Mill Effluent at a Site in North Central Florida Elicits Molecular-Level Changes in Gene Expression Indicative of Progesterone and Androgen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Brockmeier, Erica K.; Jayasinghe, B. Sumith; Pine, William E.; Wilkinson, Krystan A.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are chemicals that negatively impact endocrine system function, with effluent from paper mills one example of this class of chemicals. In Florida, female Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) have been observed with male secondary sexual characteristics at three paper mill-impacted sites, indicative of EDC exposure, and are still found at one site on the Fenholloway River. The potential impacts that paper mill effluent exposure has on the G. holbrooki endocrine system and the stream ecosystem are unknown. The objective of this study was to use gene expression analysis to determine if exposure to an androgen receptor agonist was occurring and to couple this analysis with in vitro assays to evaluate the presence of androgen and progesterone receptor active chemicals in the Fenholloway River. Focused gene expression analyses of masculinized G. holbrooki from downstream of the Fenholloway River paper mill were indicative of androgen exposure, while genes related to reproduction indicated potential progesterone exposure. Hepatic microarray analysis revealed an increase in the expression of metabolic genes in Fenholloway River fish, with similarities in genes and biological processes compared to G. holbrooki exposed to androgens. Water samples collected downstream of the paper mill and at a reference site indicated that progesterone and androgen receptor active chemicals were present at both sites, which corroborates previous chemical analyses. Results indicate that G. holbrooki downstream of the Fenholloway River paper mill are impacted by a mixture of both androgens and progesterones. This research provides data on the mechanisms of how paper mill effluents in Florida are acting as endocrine disruptors. PMID:25198161

  12. Exposure to paper mill effluent at a site in North Central Florida elicits molecular-level changes in gene expression indicative of progesterone and androgen exposure.

    PubMed

    Brockmeier, Erica K; Jayasinghe, B Sumith; Pine, William E; Wilkinson, Krystan A; Denslow, Nancy D

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are chemicals that negatively impact endocrine system function, with effluent from paper mills one example of this class of chemicals. In Florida, female Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) have been observed with male secondary sexual characteristics at three paper mill-impacted sites, indicative of EDC exposure, and are still found at one site on the Fenholloway River. The potential impacts that paper mill effluent exposure has on the G. holbrooki endocrine system and the stream ecosystem are unknown. The objective of this study was to use gene expression analysis to determine if exposure to an androgen receptor agonist was occurring and to couple this analysis with in vitro assays to evaluate the presence of androgen and progesterone receptor active chemicals in the Fenholloway River. Focused gene expression analyses of masculinized G. holbrooki from downstream of the Fenholloway River paper mill were indicative of androgen exposure, while genes related to reproduction indicated potential progesterone exposure. Hepatic microarray analysis revealed an increase in the expression of metabolic genes in Fenholloway River fish, with similarities in genes and biological processes compared to G. holbrooki exposed to androgens. Water samples collected downstream of the paper mill and at a reference site indicated that progesterone and androgen receptor active chemicals were present at both sites, which corroborates previous chemical analyses. Results indicate that G. holbrooki downstream of the Fenholloway River paper mill are impacted by a mixture of both androgens and progesterones. This research provides data on the mechanisms of how paper mill effluents in Florida are acting as endocrine disruptors.

  13. Progesterone binding to the tryptophan residues of human alpha1-acid glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Albani, J R

    2006-11-06

    Binding studies between progesterone and alpha1-acid glycoprotein allowed us to demonstrate that the binding site of progesterone contains one hydrophobic tryptophan residue and that the structure of the protein is not altered upon binding. The data obtained at saturated concentrations of progesterone clearly reveal the type of interaction at physiological levels.

  14. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical

  15. Radiation response of Chinese hamster cells after elevation of intracellular glutathione levels

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, A.; Mitchell, J.B.

    1984-08-01

    Cellular glutathione (GSH) levels were modulated by either inhibition of GSH synthesis by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) or elevation of GSH by treatment with 2-oxo-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTZ), cobaltous chloride, or cysteamine. Using these agents, x ray survival in air was assessed as a function of cellular GSH levels. Depletion of GSH by GSO resulted in slight sensitization of the aerated curve. However, elevation of GSH by as much as 200 to 300% of controls provided no radioprotection in air. These data are discussed in the context of the role of GSH and GSH peroxidase in the detoxification of peroxides produced by x rays.

  16. Bullet fragment–induced lead arthropathy with subsequent fracture and elevated blood lead levels

    PubMed Central

    Adkison, Jonathan; Meyers, Ridgely; Benham, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Lead foreign bodies in joint spaces, often due to projectiles such as bullets, may cause localized arthropathy. There are no reports of joint fracture related to lead arthropathy. Additionally, lead foreign bodes embedded in the joint space may be a source of systemic lead absorption, causing elevated blood lead levels and toxicity to other organs. We present a young adult patient with retained left hip joint bullet fragments who developed suspected lead arthropathy and subsequent acute left hip fracture, as well as systemic lead absorption demonstrated by elevated blood lead levels. PMID:28127147

  17. Marked elevation of procalcitonin level can lead to a misdiagnosis of anaphylactic shock as septic shock.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jun; Kang, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Hoon; Cho, Ji Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with hyperthermia and hypotension is reported. Laboratory test results revealed marked elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels. The clinical presentation and laboratory test results were suggestive of septic shock. No infectious focus was identified. The shock recurred after what was subsequently understood to be an unintended re-challenge with risedronate sodium. Drug-induced anaphylactic shock was finally diagnosed. Anaphylactic shock may be misdiagnosed as septic shock in patients who present with markedly elevated PCT levels. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Successful use of aromatase inhibitor letrozole in NOA with an elevated FSH level: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Pan, L; Zhang, F; Pan, F; Ma, J; Zhang, X; Liu, Y

    2014-05-01

    Aromatase inhibitors inhibit the conversion of testosterone to oestrogens and could reduce serum oestradiol concentrations. Letrozole is one of aromatase inhibitors frequently used in treatment of men with oligospermia. We present the case of an infertile man with small testes and an elevated FSH level, which was diagnosed as NOA, hypospermatogenesis proven by testicular biopsy. After taking letrozole for 3 months, semen analyses by computer-aided sperm analysis present that this man had normal spermatogenesis. This is the first case report of the activation of spermatogenesis, in man who was NOA with elevated FSH level, resulting from the use of the one of aromatase inhibitors.

  19. Estrogen, progesterone, and genistein differentially regulate levels of expression of α-, β-, and γ-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and α-sodium potassium pump (Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase) in the uteri of sex steroid-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Chinigarzadeh, Asma; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2015-10-01

    Estrogen, progesterone, and genistein could induce changes in uterine fluid volume and Na(+) concentration. Progesterone upregulates expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase which contributed toward these changes. However, effects of estrogen and genistein were unknown. This study therefore investigated changes in expression of these proteins in the uterus under estrogen, progesterone, and genistein influences to further understand mechanisms underlying sex steroids and phytoestrogen effects on uterine fluid Na(+) regulation. In this study, uteri of ovariectomized female rats receiving 7-day treatment with genistein (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day), estrogen (0.8 × 10(-4) mg/kg/day), or progesterone (4 mg/kg/day) were harvested, and expression levels of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC proteins and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein were determined by Western blotting (proteins) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (mRNA). Meanwhile, distribution of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase proteins in the uterus was identified by immunohistochemistry. Our findings indicated that expression of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC proteins and mRNAs and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein were enhanced under progesterone influence. Lower expressions were noted under estrogen and genistein influences compared to progesterone. Under estrogen, progesterone, and genistein influences, α- and β-ENaC were distributed at apical membrane and γ-ENaC was distributed at apical and basolateral membranes of uterine luminal epithelia. Under progesterone influence, α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was highly expressed at basolateral membrane. In conclusion, high expression of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase under progesterone influence would contribute toward increased uterine fluid Na(+) reabsorption, whereas lesser expression of these proteins under estrogen and genistein influences would contribute toward lower reabsorption of uterine fluid Na

  20. Elevated serum levels of APRIL, but not BAFF, in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Takashi; Fujimoto, Manabu; Echigo, Takeshi; Matsushita, Yukiyo; Shimada, Yuka; Hasegawa, Minoru; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Sato, Shinichi

    2008-03-01

    Elevated serum levels of B-cell-activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) and/or a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) are shown in autoimmune diseases. We determined serum levels of BAFF and APRIL, and clinical association in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Serum levels of BAFF and APRIL from 35 patients with AD, 25 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, 25 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and 25 normal healthy subjects were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of APRIL, but not BAFF, were significantly elevated in patients with AD than in healthy controls or patients with psoriasis vulgaris. Patients with severe AD exhibited significantly increased APRIL levels compared to patients with moderate AD and mild AD, and serum APRIL levels were significantly decreased after treatment compared with those before treatment. In addition, increased APRIL levels were significantly associated with serum immunoglobulin E levels and blood eosinophil numbers. These results suggest that elevated serum levels of APRIL are associated with disease severity and activity in AD, and APRIL may have an important role in the pathogenesis of AD.

  1. Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

    2013-05-01

    Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and

  3. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and

  4. Elevated homocysteine levels in type 2 diabetes induce constitutive neutrophil extracellular traps

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Manjunath B; Baipadithaya, Guruprasad; Balakrishnan, Aswath; Hegde, Mangala; Vohra, Manik; Ahamed, Rayees; Nagri, Shivashankara K; Ramachandra, Lingadakai; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2016-01-01

    Constitutively active neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and elevated plasma homocysteine are independent risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) associated vascular diseases. Here, we show robust NETosis due to elevated plasma homocysteine levels in T2D subjects and increased components of NETs such as neutrophil elastase and cell free DNA. Cooperative NETs formation was observed in neutrophils exposed to homocysteine, IL-6 and high glucose suggesting acute temporal changes tightly regulate constitutive NETosis. Homocysteine induced NETs by NADPH oxidase dependent and independent mechanisms. Constitutively higher levels of calcium and mitochondrial superoxides under hyperglycemic conditions were further elevated in response to homocysteine leading to accelerated NETosis. Homocysteine showed robust interaction between neutrophils and platelets by inducing platelet aggregation and NETosis in an interdependent manner. Our data demonstrates that homocysteine can alter innate immune function by promoting NETs formation and disturbs homeostasis between platelets and neutrophils which may lead to T2D associated vascular diseases. PMID:27811985

  5. Influence of plant diversity and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on belowground bacterial diversity.

    PubMed

    Grüter, Dominique; Schmid, Bernhard; Brandl, Helmut

    2006-07-27

    Changes in aboveground plant species diversity as well as variations of environmental conditions such as exposure of ecosystems to elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide may lead to changes in metabolic activity, composition and diversity of belowground microbial communities, both bacterial and fungal. We examined soil samples taken from a biodiversity x CO2 grassland experiment where replicate plots harboring 5, 12, or 31 different plant species had been exposed to ambient or elevated (600 ppm) levels of carbon dioxide for 5 years. Analysis of soil bacterial communities in these plots by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) showed that dominant soil bacterial populations varied only very little between different experimental treatments. These populations seem to be ubiquitous. Likewise, screening of samples on a high-resolution level by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) showed that increased levels of carbon dioxide had no significant influence on both soil bacterial community composition (appearance and frequency of operational taxonomic units, OTUs) and on bacterial richness (total number of different OTUs). In contrast, differences in plant diversity levels had a significant effect on bacterial composition but no influence on bacterial richness. Regarding species level, several bacterial species were found only in specific plots and were related to elevated carbon dioxide or varying plant diversity levels. For example, analysis of T-RFLP showed that the occurrence of Salmonella typhimurium was significantly increased in plots exposed to elevated CO2 (P < 0.05). Plant diversity levels are affecting bacterial composition (bacterial types and their frequency of occurrence). Elevated carbon dioxide does not lead to quantitative alteration (bacterial richness), whereas plant diversity is responsible for qualitative changes (bacterial diversity).

  6. Transgenic overexpression of the presynaptic choline transporter elevates acetylcholine levels and augments motor endurance

    PubMed Central

    Holmstrand, Ericka C.; Lund, David; Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Wright, Jane; Martin, Rolicia F.; Ennis, Elizabeth A.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Sarter, Martin; Blakely, Randy D.

    2014-01-01

    The hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) sensitive, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) sustains cholinergic signaling via the presynaptic uptake of choline derived from dietary sources or from acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-mediated hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh). Loss of cholinergic signaling capacity is associated with cognitive and motor deficits in humans and in animal models. Whereas genetic elimination of CHT has revealed the critical nature of CHT in maintaining ACh stores and sustaining cholinergic signaling, the consequences of elevating CHT expression have yet to be studied. Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated transgenic methods, we generated mice with integrated additional copies of the mouse Slc5a7 gene. BAC–CHT mice are viable, appear to develop normally, and breed at wild-type (WT) rates. Biochemical studies revealed a 2 to 3-fold elevation in CHT protein levels in the CNS and periphery, paralleled by significant increases in [3H]HC-3 binding and synaptosomal choline transport activity. Elevations of ACh in the BAC–CHT mice occurred without compensatory changes in the activity of either choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or AChE. Immunohistochemistry for CHT in BAC–CHT brain sections revealed markedly elevated CHT expression in the cell bodies of cholinergic neurons and in axons projecting to regions known to receive cholinergic innervation. Behaviorally, BAC–CHT mice exhibited diminished fatigue and increased speeds on the treadmill test without evidence of increased strength. Finally, BAC–CHT mice displayed elevated horizontal activity in the open field test, diminished spontaneous alteration in the Y-maze, and reduced time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. Together, these studies provide biochemical, pharmacological and behavioral evidence that CHT protein expression and activity can be elevated beyond that seen in wild-type animals. BAC–CHT mice thus represent a novel tool to examine both the positive and negative

  7. Transgenic overexpression of the presynaptic choline transporter elevates acetylcholine levels and augments motor endurance.

    PubMed

    Holmstrand, Ericka C; Lund, David; Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Wright, Jane; Martin, Rolicia F; Ennis, Elizabeth A; Stanwood, Gregg D; Sarter, Martin; Blakely, Randy D

    2014-07-01

    The hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) sensitive, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) sustains cholinergic signaling via the presynaptic uptake of choline derived from dietary sources or from acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-mediated hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh). Loss of cholinergic signaling capacity is associated with cognitive and motor deficits in humans and in animal models. Whereas genetic elimination of CHT has revealed the critical nature of CHT in maintaining ACh stores and sustaining cholinergic signaling, the consequences of elevating CHT expression have yet to be studied. Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated transgenic methods, we generated mice with integrated additional copies of the mouse Slc5a7 gene. BAC-CHT mice are viable, appear to develop normally, and breed at wild-type (WT) rates. Biochemical studies revealed a 2 to 3-fold elevation in CHT protein levels in the CNS and periphery, paralleled by significant increases in [(3)H]HC-3 binding and synaptosomal choline transport activity. Elevations of ACh in the BAC-CHT mice occurred without compensatory changes in the activity of either choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or AChE. Immunohistochemistry for CHT in BAC-CHT brain sections revealed markedly elevated CHT expression in the cell bodies of cholinergic neurons and in axons projecting to regions known to receive cholinergic innervation. Behaviorally, BAC-CHT mice exhibited diminished fatigue and increased speeds on the treadmill test without evidence of increased strength. Finally, BAC-CHT mice displayed elevated horizontal activity in the open field test, diminished spontaneous alteration in the Y-maze, and reduced time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. Together, these studies provide biochemical, pharmacological and behavioral evidence that CHT protein expression and activity can be elevated beyond that seen in wild-type animals. BAC-CHT mice thus represent a novel tool to examine both the positive and negative impact of

  8. Onapristone (ZK299) and mifepristone (RU486) regulate the messenger RNA and protein expression levels of the progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in the bovine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Rekawiecki, Robert; Kowalik, Magdalena K; Kotwica, Jan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether progesterone (P(4)) and its antagonists, onapristone (ZK299) and mifepristone (RU486), affect the levels of PGRA and PGRB messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in the cow uterus which may be important in understanding whether the final physiological effect evoked by an antagonist depends on PGR isoform bound to the antagonist. Endometrial slices on Days 6 to 10 and 17 to 20 of the estrous cycle were treated for 6 or 24 hours for mRNA and protein expression analysis, respectively, with P4, ZK299, or RU486 at a dose of 10(-4), 10(-5), or 10(-6) M. In the samples on Days 6 to 10 of the estrous cycle, PGRAB mRNA was stimulated by P(4) (10(-4) M; P < 0.01) and RU486 (10(-6); P < 0.001) and was decreased by ZK299 (10(-5); P < 0.05). In contrast, PGRB mRNA was decreased by the all P(4) (P < 0.01) and ZK299 (P < 0.001) doses and by two of the RU486 doses (10(-4) M; P < 0.01 and 10(-5) M; P < 0.01). In samples on Days 17 to 20 of the estrous cycle, PGRAB mRNA was stimulated by RU486 (10(-5) M; P < 0.001). PGRB mRNA was decreased by P(4) (10(-4) and 10(-5) M; P < 0.001), ZK299 (10(-4) and 10(-5) M; P < 0.001), and RU486 (10(-4) M; P < 0.01 and 10(-6) M; P < 0.001) and was increased by ZK299 (10(-6) M; P < 0.001) and RU486 (10(-5) M; P < 0.001). In samples on Days 6 to 10 of the estrous cycle, PGRB protein levels were decreased (P < 0.05) by all three ZK299 doses and by two of the RU486 doses (10(-4) M; P < 0.05 and 10(-5) M; P < 0.01). In contrast, in samples on Days 17 to 20, both PGRA and PGRB protein levels were decreased by ZK299 stimulation (10(-5) M; P < 0.05 and 10(-5) M; P < 0.01, respectively), whereas only PGRA protein levels were increased by RU486 (10(-5) M; P < 0.01). Both ZK299 and RU486 may exhibit both agonist and antagonist properties depending on which receptor isoform they affect. As a result, an increase or decrease in the expression of a particular PGR isoform will be observed.

  9. SAFETY AND SECURITY BUILDING, TRA614. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. TWO ROOF LEVELS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SAFETY AND SECURITY BUILDING, TRA-614. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. TWO ROOF LEVELS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-814-2, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0614-00-098-100703, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Elevated ground-level O3 negatively influences paddy methanogenic archaeal community

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Youzhi; Lin, Xiangui; Yu, Yongchang; Zhang, Huayong; Chu, Haiyan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    The current knowledge regarding the effect of global climate change on rice-paddy methane (CH4) emissions is incomplete, partly because information is limited concerning the mechanism of the microbial response to elevated ground-level ozone (O3). A field experiment was conducted in the China Ozone Free-Air Concentration Enrichment facility in a rice–wheat rotation system to investigate the responses of methanogenic archaeal communities to elevated ground-level O3 by culture-independent and -reliant approaches. We found that elevated ground-level O3 inhibited methanogenic activity and influenced the composition of paddy methanogenic communities, reducing the abundance and diversity of paddy methanogens by adversely affecting dominant groups, such as aceticlastic Methanosaeta, especially at the rice tillering stage. Our results indicated that continuously elevated ground-level O3 would negatively influence paddy methanogenic archaeal communities and its critical ecological function. These findings will contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the responses and feedbacks of paddy ecosystems to global climate change. PMID:24217205

  11. What are the characteristics of asthma patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels?

    PubMed

    Flament, T; Marchand-Adam, S; Gatault, P; Dupin, C; Diot, P; Guilleminault, L

    2016-03-01

    IgG4 has recently been a subject of great interest in human pathology. No data are available about the characteristics of asthma patients with elevated IgG4 levels. An observational study was conducted from January 2006 to March 2015 in a difficult-to-treat population of asthma patients. Twenty-six difficult-to-treat asthma patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels (IgG4/IgG ratio up to 10%) were compared with a control population of 98 difficult-to-treat asthma patients with normal serum IgG4. Blood eosinophilia, total IgE and FeNO were compared between groups to better characterize asthma patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels. Median IgG4 concentrations were 1.72 g/l [1.19-2.36] and 0.22 g/l [0.10-0.49] in the elevated IgG4 group and normal Ig4 group, respectively. Median blood eosinophilia was more than three times higher in patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels than in controls (0.75 10(9)/L [IQR 0.54-1.78] vs 0.22 10(9)/L [IQR 0.09-0.54] respectively, p < 0.0001). Total IgE was twice as high (264.5 kUI/l [IQR 166.3-779] vs 126 kUI/l [IQR 26-350] respectively; p < 0.05) and FeNO was nearly twice as high (61 [IQR 41-111] ppb vs 35 [IQR 23-51] ppb, p < 0.001). Allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) were observed in the asthma patients with elevated serum IgG4. Ten patients had unexplained increased blood eosinophilia. Asthma patients with elevated IgG4 levels have significantly higher blood eosinophilia, total IgE and FeNO. ABPA and EGPA are observed in patients with elevated serum IgG4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of coastal wetlands to sea level rise in Liaohe Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guo-dong; Wang, Ming; Lu, Xian-guo; Jiang, Ming

    2016-10-01

    The Liaohe Delta in China is an ecologically and commercially important wetland system under threat from sea level rise and marsh subsidence. Sediments deposited in coastal marshes could offer wetlands a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level, yet coastal wetland stability in Liaohe Delta is not well understood due to limited data from long-term experiments. In this study, wetland surface elevation and vertical accretion were measured from 2011 to 2015 using a surface elevation table (SET) and feldspar marker horizons in two Phragmites and two Suaeda marshes receiving Liaohe River water. The analysis shows that the Phragmites marshes exhibited higher rates of marsh accretion and elevation change than the Suaeda marshes. The two Phragmites marsh sites had average surface elevation change rates at 8.8 and 9.3 mm yr-1, vertical accretion at 17.4 and 17.6 mm yr-1, and shallow subsidence at 8.6 and 8.3 mm yr-1. The average rates of elevation change, vertical accretion, and shallow subsidence at two Suaeda marsh sites were 5.8 and 6.3 mm yr-1, 13.6 and 14.8 mm yr-1, and 7.8 and 8.5 mm yr-1, respectively. The trends suggest that coastal marshes in Liaohe Delta are experiencing changes in average soil elevation that range from a net increase of 0.3 mm y-1 to 6.9 mm y-1 relative to averaged sea level rise in Bohai Sea reported by the 2016 State Oceanic Administration People's Republic of China projection (2.4-5.5 mm y-1), which indicated that the four wetland sites would adjust to the sea level rise and even continue to gain elevation, especially for the Phragmites sites. Nevertheless, the vulnerability of coastal wetlands in Liaohe Delta need further assessment considering the accelerated sea level rise, the high rate of subsidence, and the declining sediment delivery owing to anthropogenic activities such as dam constructions in the river basin.

  13. Elevated soluble CD23 levels in the sera from patients with localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Fujimoto, M; Kikuchi, K; Ihn, H; Tamaki, K; Takehara, K

    1996-02-01

    Soluble CD23 (sCD23) is closely related to B-cell activation and elevated serum levels of sCD23 have been reported in several autoimmune disorders. This study investigated the serum levels of sCD23 and determined the correlation of sCD23 with other immunologic abnormalities and clinical features in localized scleroderma. We examined 49 serum samples by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the following three subgroups: 15 patients with generalized morphoea, 22 with linear scleroderma, and 12 with morphoea. The serum levels of sCD23 were significantly elevated in patients with localized scleroderma, compared with those in healthy individuals. Of the three subgroups of localized scleroderma, patients with generalized morphoea had the highest levels of serum sCD23. The frequency of IgM antihistone antibody (AHA) and IgM rheumatoid factor (RF), the number of linear lesions, and the frequency of muscle involvement were significantly higher in patients with elevated sCD23 levels than in those with normal levels of sCD23. A significant correlation between the serum sCD23 level and the number of involved areas of the body was observed. Our data suggest that the activation of virgin B cells, which is reflected by elevated sCD23 levels, is closely associated with the production of IgM autoantibodies in localized scleroderma and furthermore that the serum levels of sCD23 are a new serological indicator of the severity of localized scleroderma.

  14. Intrauterine devices containing progesterone.

    PubMed

    Murad, F

    1977-05-01

    Characteristics of progesterone-releasing IUDs are reported. At present, the only progesterone-containing IUD on the market is Progestasert, a T-shaped ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer device containing 38 mg progesterone in silicone. The device releases approximately 65 mcg/day into the uterine cavity over the course of 1-year. The device does not alter pituitary function or ovulation, nor does it depend on a local mechanical effect. Rather, it may exert its effect by inhibiting sperm capacitation or survival, or it may prevent nidation by alterning the endometrium. The reported pregnancy rate for Progestasert is 1.9% in parous women and 2.5% in nulliparous women. This efficacy rate is similar to that for other IUDs and low-dose progestin-only oral contraceptives. Breakthrough bleeding is the most common side effect, and perhaps 10-15% of the acceptors will have the device removed for either bleeding, pain, or infection. The rate of spontaneous expulsion of the device is about 3-8%. It is recommended that the device be inserted during or shortly after the menstrual period.

  15. [Studies on the mechanism of elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in alcoholic liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Sakizono, Kenji; Oita, Tatsuo; Eto, Masaaki; Bito, Sanae; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Kasakura, Shinpei

    2002-03-01

    We measured serum PIVKA-II concentrations in 18 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease was diagnosed by the history of ethanol intake of more than 900 ml/day for over 10 years. Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed histologically. Infections with hepatitis B and C viruses were ruled out by assaying serum virus markers. No tumor was detected in liver by ultrasonography and computed tomography during observation period. None of the patients studied were positive for alpafetoprotein (AFP). Eight out of 18 (44.4%) patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis showed elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. In contrast, only eight out of 93 (8.6%) patients with nonalcholic liver cirrhosis had elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. PIVKA-II is well known as a tumor marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The rates of positive PIVKA-II found in alcoholic liver cirrhosis approached its rates in HCC. However, the time course for the elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels was different each other in alcoholic liver cirrhosis and HCC. In HCC, serum PIVKA-II "levels" continued to elevate until therapy. In contrast, its elevation was transient and its levels returned to baseline in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The values of ALT (GPT), gamma-GTP, and ALP correlated poorly with serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. To investigate the mechanism by which elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis occurred, we studied the effect of vitamin K on production of PIVKA-II and AFP by hepatocytes. Hepatocytes(Alexander PLC/PRF/F cell line) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of vitamin K (Kaytwo, Eisai, Tokyo). Vitamin K had no effect on AFP production. In contrast, PIVKA-II production was inhibited by addition of vitamin K in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was suppressed by administration of vitamin K (Kaytwo) to these patients. Taken

  16. Adrenal incidentaloma, borderline elevations of urine or plasma metanephrine levels, and the "subclinical" pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, James A; Zarnegar, Rasa; Shen, Wen T; Kebebew, Electron; Clark, Orlo H; Duh, Quan-Yang

    2007-09-01

    To assess the risk of pheochromocytoma in patients with borderline-elevated urine or plasma metanephrine levels. Retrospective review. University tertiary care center. Forty-two consecutive patients with adrenal incidentalomas (defined as adrenal tumors identified during routine imaging for another condition) who were treated at the UCSF (University of California, San Francisco) Medical Center between January 1, 1995, and July 31, 2005. Patients with genetic syndromes were excluded. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal incidentaloma based on size criteria and preoperative hormonal test results. Urine or plasma metanephrine and catecholamine levels, tumor size, and presence of pheochromocytoma. Of 42 patients, 14 (33%) had a pheochromocytoma (11 of whom had clear-cut elevations in urine or plasma metanephrine levels defined as greater than 2 times the upper limit of normal) and 28 did not. Ten of the 42 patients (24%) had borderline elevations in urine or plasma metanephrine levels (defined as 1-2 times the upper limit of normal), 3 of whom had a pheochromocytoma (30%). Of patients with borderline elevations, mean +/- SD tumor size was 5.4 +/- 3.1 and 4.8 +/- 1.9 cm for patients with and without pheochromocytoma, respectively (P = .37). In these 10 patients, no clinical factors (age, sex, hypertension, presence of symptoms, number of antihypertensive medications, preoperative hemodynamics, or size of tumor on computed tomographic scan) allowed differentiation between those with and without pheochromocytoma. Thirty percent of patients with adrenal incidentaloma and borderline-elevated urine or plasma metanephrine levels had a pheochromocytoma. Clinical factors cannot distinguish between those with and without pheochromocytoma. In this group of patients, we advocate either routine alpha-blockade preoperatively or further diagnostic tests to better characterize the tumor.

  17. Cyanidin-3-O-Glucoside Protects against 1,3-Dichloro-2-Propanol-Induced Reduction of Progesterone by Up-regulation of Steroidogenic Enzymes and cAMP Level in Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianxia; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Cuijuan; Hu, Yunfeng; Jiang, Xinwei; Ou, Shiyi; Su, Zhijian; Huang, Yadong; Jiao, Rui; Bai, Weibin

    2016-01-01

    1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) is a food processing contaminant and has been shown to perturb male reproductive function. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), an anthocyanin antioxidant, is reported to have protective effects on many organs. However, it remains unclear whether C3G protects against chemical-induced reproductive toxicity. The present study was therefore to investigate the intervention of C3G on 1,3-DCP-induced reproductive toxicity in R2C Leydig cells. Results demonstrated that C3G inhibited the 1,3-DCP-induced cytotoxicity and cell shape damage with the effective doses being ranging from 10 to 40 μmol/L. In addition, 1,3-DCP (2 mmol/L) exposure significantly increased the ROS level and mitochondrial membrane potential damage ratio, leading to a decrease in progesterone production, while C3G intervention reduced the ROS level, and increased the progesterone production after 24 h treatment. Most importantly, C3G intervention could up-regulate the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level and protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. It was concluded that C3G is effective in reducing 1,3-DCP-induced reproductive toxicity via activating steroidogenic enzymes and cAMP level. PMID:27867356

  18. Elevated plasma levels of F2 alpha isoprostane in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Collins, C E; Quaggiotto, P; Wood, L; O'Loughlin, E V; Henry, R L; Garg, M L

    1999-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with chronic lung infection, inflammation, and elevated indices of oxidative stress. Recently, isoprostanes were shown to be a reliable in vivo marker of oxidant injury with 8-iso-PGF2 alpha, shown to cause airflow obstruction and plasma exudation in guinea pig lung. The present study was designed to examine the relationship between 8-iso-PGF2 alpha levels, plasma antioxidants, and clinical status in CF. We hypothesized that plasma 8-iso-PGF2 alpha levels would be higher in subjects with CF compared to healthy controls. Plasma 8-iso-PGF2 alpha levels were prospectively measured in 22 subjects with CF and nine healthy controls using an 8-isoprostane enzyme immunoassay kit along with plasma vitamins A, E, and beta-carotene. Plasma 8-iso-PGF2 alpha levels were shown to be significantly elevated in the CF subjects compared to controls (319.6 +/- 52.6 vs. 145.0 +/- 21.0 pg/mL, P = 0.005). Plasma levels of antioxidants were significantly lower for the CF subjects compared to the controls (vitamin A, P < 0.003; vitamin E, P < 0.001; and beta-carotene, P < 0.01). This study confirms significantly elevated lipid peroxidation in CF using 8-iso-PGF2 alpha levels.

  19. Hypertension in pregnancy is associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels later in life

    PubMed Central

    BROWN, Catherine M.; TURNER, Stephen T.; BAILEY, Kent R.; MOSLEY, Thomas H.; KARDIA, Sharon L.R.; WISTE, Heather J.; KULLO, Iftikhar J.; GAROVIC, Vesna D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We assessed if hypertension in pregnancy is associated with elevated CRP levels in later life, possibly reflecting an increased risk of CVD. Background Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels have been associated with hypertension in pregnancy and with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods We studied 2463 women from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. Subjects were categorized as nulliparous women (n=219), women with a history of normotensive pregnancies (n=1839), or women with a history of a hypertensive pregnancy (n=405). Using multiple linear regression models we compared mean CRP levels among the groups after adjusting for age, race, education, smoking, hypertension, personal history of CHD or stroke, diabetes, dyslipidemia, statins, hormone replacement therapy, and family history of CHD or stroke. As CRP levels may be influenced by body mass index (BMI), the model was fit both with and without adjusting for BMI. Results There was no significant difference in CRP levels between nulliparous women and those with a history of normotensive pregnancies, either with (p=0.82) or without (p=0.46) adjusting for BMI. In contrast, women with hypertensive pregnancies, compared to those with normotensive pregnancies, had higher CRP levels, both with (p=0.009) and without (p<0.001) adjusting for BMI. Conclusions A history of hypertension in pregnancy is associated with elevated CRP levels later in life, independent of traditional CVD risk factors and BMI. An elevated CRP may reflect an inflammatory state in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders who are at increased risk for CVD. PMID:24029867

  20. Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Lee S. . E-mail: lfriedman@tspri.org; Lukyanova, Elena M.; Kundiev, Yuri I.; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava A.; Chislovska, Nataliya V.; Mucha, Amy; Zvinchuk, Alexander V.; Oliynyk, Irene; Hryhorczuk, Daniel

    2006-09-15

    No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25{mu}g/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21{mu}g/L (range=0.11-0.42{mu}g/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21{mu}g/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries.

  1. Elevated C-reactive protein levels in schizophrenia inpatients is associated with aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Barzilay, R; Lobel, T; Krivoy, A; Shlosberg, D; Weizman, A; Katz, N

    2016-01-01

    An association between inflammation and behavioral domains of mental disorders is of growing interest. Recent studies reported an association between aggression and inflammation. In this study, we investigated the association between aggressive behavior and inflammatory markers in schizophrenia inpatients. Adult schizophrenia inpatients without affective symptoms (n=213) were retrospectively identified and categorized according to their C-reactive protein measurement at admission as either elevated (CRP>1 mg/dL; n=57) or normal (CRP<1 mg/dL; n=156). The following indicators of aggression were compared: PANSS excitement component (PANSS-EC), restraints and suicidal behavior during hospitalization. Univariate comparisons between elevated and normal CRP levels were performed and multivariate analysis was conducted to control for relevant covariates. CRP levels significantly correlated with other laboratory markers indicating increased inflammation including leukocyte count and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (r=0.387, P<0.0001 and r=0.356, P<0.0001) respectively. Inpatients with elevated C-reactive protein displayed increased aggressive behavior compared to patients with normal CRP levels (<1 mg/dL). This was manifested by higher rates of restraint during hospitalization (χ(2)=5.22, P=0.031) and increased PANSS-EC score (U=5410.5, P=0.012). Elevated CRP levels were not associated with suicidal behavior. Multivariate analysis revealed that higher PANSS-EC score was associated with elevated CRP after controlling for the covariates age, sex, BMI and smoking. This study identified a potential biological correlate (inflammation) of a specific behavioral endophenotype (aggression) in schizophrenia inpatients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Elevated stimulated thyroglobulin levels in the identification of persistent papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Jervis, Paola; González, Baldomero; Vargas, Guadalupe; Mercado, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    Persistence of papillary thyroid carcinoma is usually associated with elevated stimulated thyroglobulin levels. To evaluate the association between moderately elevated stimulated thyroglobulin levels and the persistence of papillary thyroid carcinoma one year after thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation. Out of a cohort of 97 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, we selected those with available stimulated thyroglobulin level measurements (in the absence of thyroglobulin antibodies) after one year of initial treatment with surgery and radioiodine. The subjects were stratified according to whether the stimulated thyroglobulin level was between 1-10 ng/ml or above 10 ng/ml. Twenty-seven patients were included in the study, 11 with a stimulated thyroglobulin level between 1-10 ng/ml, and 16 with values greater than 10 ng/ml. Median age and gender proportion was similar between both groups. As expected, median stimulated thyroglobulin levels were significantly greater in the second group (5.1 vs. 42 ng/ml; p < 0.001). A stratified analysis aiming at associating stimulated thyroglobulin levels with disease persistence yielded an overall risk of 0.58 (95% CI: 0.1-3.09; p = 0.52) for those subjects with levels between 1-10 ng/ml, while for those with levels > 10 ng/ml the overall risk was 1.71 (95% CI: 0.32-9.1; p = 0.52). The positive predictive value for a stimulated thyroglobulin level between 1-10 ng/ml was 64%. A moderately elevated stimulated thyroglobulin level is an uncertain predictor of papillary thyroid carcinoma persistence.

  3. Elevated circulating endothelial cell-derived microparticle levels in patients with liver cirrhosis: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Krzysztof Adam; Pazgan-Simon, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To determine plausible associations between liver cirrhosis and circulating endothelial cell-derived microparticles (EMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels and plasma nitric oxide (NO) metabolites. Material and methods Sixty patients with cirrhosis and 20 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. Circulating EMPs from platelet-poor plasma samples were examined by flow cytometry. These microparticles were categorized into endothelial cell-derived activated MPs (EMP-ac) (CD31+ CD42b– AN-V–) and endothelial cell-derived apoptotic MPs (EMP-ap) (CD31+ CD42b– AN-V+). Plasma VEGF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma NO metabolites (NOx–) levels were determined using a Greiss reaction method. Results Compared with the healthy control subjects, the patients with cirrhosis showed a significant increase in plasma levels of both phenotypes of EMPs. When the presence of ascites was considered, the plasma levels of EMP-ap were higher (p < 0.01), as well as NOx– (p < 0.05). EMP-ap positively correlated with VEGF level in all cirrhotic patients and this correlation was stronger in decompensated cirrhotic patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the independent factors associated with the presence of ascites were high EMP-ap levels and elevated VEGF levels. Conclusions Elevated plasma levels of EMP-ap in addition to high levels of VEGF might be considered as valuable parameters for predicting the occurrence of ascites in cirrhotic patients. PMID:28856256

  4. Pregnancy in an azoospermic patient with markedly elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Gil-Salom, M; Remohí, J; Mínguez, Y; Rubio, C; Pellicer, A

    1995-12-01

    To assess the possibility of achieving a pregnancy in an azoospermic patient with markedly elevated serum FSH level. A case report. In vitro fertilization program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. An azoospermic patient with small testes and serum FSH level (38.7 mIU/mL) higher than three times normal. Testicular biopsy revealed Sertoli cell-only syndrome with focal spermatogenesis. Intracytoplasmic microinjection of testicular tissue-extracted spermatozoa. Fertilization rate, cleavage rate, clinical pregnancy. Eight of 11 (73%) intact oocytes showed two pronuclei. All of them cleaved normally. Four embryos were replaced into the uterine cavity and the other four were cryopreserved. A twin clinical pregnancy was achieved. Spermatozoa may be present in testicular biopsy specimens of azoospermic patients with severe spermatogenic failure despite markedly elevated serum FSH level. These patients can be fertile after intracytoplasmic testicular sperm microinjection.

  5. The putative roles of nuclear and membrane-bound progesterone receptors in the female reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Kowalik, Magdalena K; Rekawiecki, Robert; Kotwica, Jan

    2013-12-01

    Progesterone produced by the corpus luteum (CL) is a key regulator of normal cyclical reproductive functions in the females of mammalian species. The physiological effects of progesterone are mediated by the canonical genomic pathway after binding of progesterone to its specific nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR), which acts as a ligand-activated transcription factor and has two main isoforms, PGRA and PGRB. These PGR isoforms play different roles in the cell; PGRB acts as an activator of progesterone-responsive genes, while PGRA can inhibit the activity of PGRB. The ratio of these isoforms changes during the estrous cycle and pregnancy, and it corresponds to the different levels of progesterone signaling occurring in the reproductive tract. Progesterone exerts its effects on cells also by a non-genomic mechanism by the interaction with the progesterone-binding membrane proteins including the progesterone membrane component (PGRMC) 1 and 2, and the membrane progestin receptors (mPRs). These receptors rapidly activate the appropriate intracellular signal transduction pathways, and subsequently they can initiate specific cell responses or modulate genomic cell responses. The diversity of progesterone receptors and their cellular actions enhances the role of progesterone as a factor regulating the function of the reproductive system and other organs. This paper deals with the possible involvement of nuclear and membrane-bound progesterone receptors in the function of target cells within the female reproductive tract.

  6. Elevated Serum Titanium Level as a Marker for Failure in a Titanium Modular Fluted Tapered Stem.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Ian P; Abdel, Matthew P

    2016-07-01

    Serum ion concentrations of cobalt and chromium are commonly used to monitor for the development of local metal reactions in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties, as well as dual-modular constructs. Although rarely used in clinical practice, elevated serum titanium levels have the ability to indicate a failure with contemporary revision constructs, such as with titanium modular fluted tapered (TMFT) stems. The authors report the case of a 64-year-old man with a TMFT stem after revision total hip arthroplasty for a dual-modular neck construct who had set screw disengagement with subsequent proximal body loosening. The patient's serum cobalt and chromium levels were normal, but he had a markedly elevated serum titanium level, indicating failure of the titanium modular junction. Implant failures at modular junctions in femoral components are well described. Although several different failure mechanisms have been defined, to the authors' knowledge this is the first reported failure of this particular TMFT stem. In addition, this is the first report describing the use of serum titanium levels in identifying a novel failure mechanism. With the popularity of this stem, surgeons should be aware that an elevated serum titanium level may aid in the diagnosis of this unique complication. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e768-e770.].

  7. Development of a rapid qualitative assay for determining elevated antibody levels to periodontopathic organisms.

    PubMed

    Mealey, B L; Ebersole, J L

    1991-05-01

    To allow more widespread use of systemic antibody analysis in clinical settings, a rapid test for determining elevated antibody to periodontitis-associated bacteria was developed. The technique utilizes dot-immunoblotting (DIB) on nitrocellulose paper with whole formalinized Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia. An ELISA was used to compare IgG antibody levels to these organisms in venous serum and peripheral capillary blood from 44 subjects. Correlation between serum and capillary levels ranged from r = 0.760 to 0.900 (P less than 0.00001). Capillary blood antibody levels averaged 55% of those detected in serum. The assay was developed using a variety of antigen and reagent concentrations and multiple chromogenic enzyme-substrate systems. Subsequently, 34 periodontally diseased and 10 periodontally healthy subjects were analyzed for serum IgG antibodies using a quantitative ELISA. The qualitative DIB was performed using capillary blood obtained by digi-puncture and results were compared in a blind fashion to the ELISA data. Relative to its ability to detect elevated antibody levels to these 3 organisms, the DIB had an overall sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 87% (P less than 0.000001). Using peripheral capillary blood and the DIB, detection of elevated systemic antibody levels can be performed in approximately 2 hours. The DIB may be a useful aid in assessing the host response to putative periodontopathic microorganisms.

  8. Progesterone for preterm birth prevention.

    PubMed

    Ransom, Carla E; Murtha, Amy P

    2012-03-01

    Preterm birth—delivery before 37 weeks of gestation—is the second leading cause of infant mortality in the United States after congenital malformations. Spontaneous preterm birth, due to either preterm labor or preterm premature membrane rupture, encompasses approximately 75% of all preterm births, almost 400,000 births per year. Since the 1960s, different formulations of progesterone have been investigated for preterm birth prevention. This article addresses the use of progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth, including selection of candidates for progesterone, pharmacokinetics, dosing, and formulations. This article aims to provide a practical guide for using progesterone in clinical practice.

  9. Elevated FGF23 levels are associated with impaired calcium-mediated suppression of PTH in ESRD.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, James B; Santos, Peter W; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Krebill, Ron; Menard, Rochelle; Gutta, Hema; Quarles, L Darryl

    2011-01-01

    The positive association of elevated fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) with PTH levels in the setting of secondary hyperparathyroidism is paradoxical to the purported effects of FGF23 to suppress PTH secretion. We used dynamic calcium-mediated suppression of PTH levels in hemodialysis (HD) patients to determine the relationship between FGF23 levels and parathyroid gland function. HD patients with elevated PTH were washed out of vitamin D analogs and/or calcimimetics and then exposed them to a high-calcium dialysate bath designed to suppress PTH. The study was conducted at an outpatient HD unit of an academic medical center. Eighteen maintenance HD patients with elevated PTH levels participated in the study. Ionized calcium (iCa), PTH, and FGF23 levels were measured during HD. The slope of the relationship between iCa and PTH (a marker of parathyroid gland mass) and the iCa level required for a 50% reduction in PTH were determined, and the association of these with FGF23 levels was determined. Increased baseline log FGF23 levels were associated with putative alterations in gland mass as estimated by significantly shallower slopes of the iCa/PTH suppression curves (P = 0.0004), but there was no association between FGF23 and calcium sensing as measured by ionized Ca associated with a 50% suppression of PTH (P = 0.38). FGF23 levels decreased significantly during HD, but this change was not correlated with decrements in either renal phosphate or PTH. High FGF23 levels may be a marker for parathyroid gland hyperplasia in HD patients. Acute reductions in neither PTH nor renal phosphate during dialysis correlated with PTH suppression.

  10. Chronic renovascular hypertension is associated with elevated levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin

    PubMed Central

    Eirin, Alfonso; Gloviczki, Monika L.; Tang, Hui; Rule, Andrew D.; Woollard, John R.; Lerman, Amir; Textor, Stephen C.; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2012-01-01

    Background Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the stenotic kidney and progressive renal dysfunction. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), an acute phase protein induced in inflammatory conditions and ischemia, is a novel biomarker for acute kidney injury. We hypothesized that chronic RVH would be associated with increased renal and circulating NGAL levels. Methods We prospectively measured renal vein and inferior vena cava (IVC) levels of NGAL and inflammatory cytokines in essential hypertensive (EH) and RVH patients, during constant sodium intake and anti-hypertensive regimens, and compared them with systemic levels in age-matched normotensive subjects (n = 22 each). In addition, we measured urinary NGAL and kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 in all patients. Results Blood pressure, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), lipid panels and medications were similar in RVH and EH. Systemic, stenotic and contralateral renal vein levels of NGAL were all similarly elevated in RVH versus normal hypertension and EH (P < 0.05), as were renal vein levels of inflammatory markers like tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, renal vein NGAL levels inversely correlated with eGFR, and directly with renal vein (but not systemic) levels of inflammatory markers. Urinary levels of NGAL and KIM-1 were elevated in both EH and RVH, as were systemic levels of C-reactive protein. Conclusions Chronic RVH is associated with elevated NGAL levels, likely due to ongoing kidney and systemic inflammation and ischemia. These findings may also imply the occurrence of the inflammation process in chronic RVH, which might contribute to the poorer outcomes of RVH compared with EH patients. PMID:22923545

  11. Progesterone neuroprotection in traumatic CNS injury and motoneuron degeneration.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, Alejandro F; Labombarda, Florencia; Gonzalez Deniselle, Maria Claudia; Gonzalez, Susana L; Garay, Laura; Meyer, Maria; Gargiulo, Gisella; Guennoun, Rachida; Schumacher, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Studies on the neuroprotective and promyelinating effects of progesterone in the nervous system are of great interest due to their potential clinical connotations. In peripheral neuropathies, progesterone and reduced derivatives promote remyelination, axonal regeneration and the recovery of function. In traumatic brain injury (TBI), progesterone has the ability to reduce edema and inflammatory cytokines, prevent neuronal loss and improve functional outcomes. Clinical trials have shown that short-and long-term progesterone treatment induces a significant improvement in the level of disability among patients with brain injury. In experimental spinal cord injury (SCI), molecular markers of functional motoneurons become impaired, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA, Na,K-ATPase mRNA, microtubule-associated protein 2 and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). SCI also produces motoneuron chromatolysis. Progesterone treatment restores the expression of these molecules while chromatolysis subsided. SCI also causes oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination. In this case, a short progesterone treatment enhances proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors into mature myelin-producing cells, whereas prolonged treatment increases a transcription factor (Olig1) needed to repair injury-induced demyelination. Progesterone neuroprotection has also been shown in motoneuron neurodegeneration. In Wobbler mice spinal cord, progesterone reverses the impaired expression of BDNF, ChAT and Na,K-ATPase, prevents vacuolar motoneuron degeneration and the development of mitochondrial abnormalities, while functionally increases muscle strength and the survival of Wobbler mice. Multiple mechanisms contribute to these progesterone effects, and the role played by classical nuclear receptors, extra nuclear receptors, membrane receptors, and the reduced metabolites of progesterone in neuroprotection and myelin formation remain an exciting field worth of exploration.

  12. Impact of elevated CO2 background levels on the host-seeking behaviour of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Shahid; Hill, Sharon Rose; Ignell, Rickard

    2014-02-15

    Mosquitoes rely on carbon dioxide (CO2) to detect and orient towards their blood hosts. However, the variable and rapid fluctuations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations may have an impact on the host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes. In this study, we analysed the effect of transient elevated background levels of CO2 on the host-seeking behaviour and the physiological characteristics of the CO2-sensitive olfactory receptor neurones (ORNs) in female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. We show that the take-off and source contact behaviour of A. aegypti is impeded at elevated background levels of CO2 as a result of masking of the stimulus signal. The mechanism underlying this masking during take-off behaviour is one of sensory constraint. We show that the net response of the CO2-ORNs regulates this CO2-related behaviour. Since these neurones themselves are not habituated or fatigued by the transient elevation of background CO2, we propose that habituation of second-order neurones in response to the elevated CO2-ORN activity could be one mechanism by which the net response is transduced by the olfactory system. The findings from this study may help to predict future shifts in mosquito-host interactions and consequently to predict vectorial capacity in the light of climate change.

  13. Associates of an Elevated Natriuretic Peptide Level in Stable Heart Failure Patients: Implications for Targeted Management

    PubMed Central

    Dawkins, Ian; Murphy, Niamh; Collier, Patrick; Ledwidge, Mark; McDonald, Kenneth; Watson, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Persistently elevated natriuretic peptide (NP) levels in heart failure (HF) patients are associated with impaired prognosis. Recent work suggests that NP-guided therapy can improve outcome, but the mechanisms behind an elevated BNP remain unclear. Among the potential stimuli for NP in clinically stable patients are persistent occult fluid overload, wall stress, inflammation, fibrosis, and ischemia. The purpose of this study was to identify associates of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in a stable HF population. Methods. In a prospective observational study of 179 stable HF patients, the association between BNP and markers of collagen metabolism, inflammation, and Doppler-echocardiographic parameters including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left atrial volume index (LAVI), and E/e prime (E/e′) was measured. Results. Univariable associates of elevated BNP were age, LVEF, LAVI, E/e′, creatinine, and markers of collagen turnover. In a multiple linear regression model, age, creatinine, and LVEF remained significant associates of BNP. E/e′ and markers of collagen turnover had a persistent impact on BNP independent of these covariates. Conclusion. Multiple variables are associated with persistently elevated BNP levels in stable HF patients. Clarification of the relative importance of NP stimuli may help refine NP-guided therapy, potentially improving outcome for this at-risk population. PMID:24453873

  14. Salivary morning androstenedione and 17α-OH progesterone levels in childhood and puberty in patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Monique J M; Pijnenburg-Kleizen, Karijn J; Thomas, Chris M G; Sweep, Fred C G J; Stikkelbroeck, Nike M M L; Otten, Barto J; Claahsen-van der Grinten, Hedi L

    2015-02-01

    Treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency can be monitored by salivary androstenedione (A-dione) and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) levels. There are no objective criteria for setting relevant target values or data on changes of 17OHP and A-dione during monitoring. We evaluated A-dione and 17OHP levels in nearly 2000 salivary samples collected during long-term treatment of 84 paediatric patients with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency. A-dione and 17OHP levels and its ratio 17OHP/A-dione remained constant from 4 to 11 years with no sex-related differences. During puberty, A-dione and 17OHP levels both increased, starting at earlier age in girls than in boys. The ratio 17OHP/A-dione declined. Normalised A-dione concomitant with elevated 17OHP [1.43 nmol/L (0.46-4.41) during prepuberty; 2.36 nmol/L (0.63-8.89) for boys and 1.99 nmol/L (0.32-6.98) for girls during puberty] could be obtained with overall median glucocorticoid doses of 11-15 mg/m2/day. A-dione levels above the upper reference limit (URL), suggesting undertreatment, coincided with 17OHP levels ≥10 times URL. The percentage of A-dione levels above URL was 16% at ages 4-8 years, but increased to 31% for girls at 16 years and 46% for boys at 17 years. Normalised A-dione consistent with 17OHP three times URL during prepuberty and normalised A-dione consistent with 4-6 times URL during puberty could be obtained by moderate glucocorticoid dosages. A constant 17OHP/A-dione ratio during prepuberty suggested absence of adrenarche. During puberty, a higher percentage of samples met the criteria for undertreatment, especially of boys.

  15. Combined treatment with progesterone and magnesium sulfate positively affects traumatic brain injury in immature rats.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Nazan; Baykara, Basak; Kiray, Muge; Cetin, Ferihan; Aksu, Ilkay; Dayi, Ayfer; Gurpinar, Tugba; Ozdemir, Durgul; Arda, M Nuri

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that head trauma results in damage in hippocampal and cortical areas of the brain and impairs cognitive functions. The aim of this study is to explore the neuroprotective effect of combination therapy with magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) and progesterone in the 7-days-old rat pups subjected to contusion injury. Progesterone (8 mg/kg) and MgSO4 (150 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally immediately after induction of traumatic brain injury. Half of groups were evaluated 24 hours later, the remaining animals 3 weeks after trauma or sham surgery. Anxiety levels were assessed with open field activity and elevated plus maze; learning and memory performance were evaluated with Morris Water maze in postnatal 27 days. Combined therapy with progesterone and magnesium sulfate significantly attenuated trauma-induced neuronal death, increased brain VEGF levels and improved spatial memory deficits that appear later in life. Brain VEGF levels were higher in rats that received combined therapy compared to rats that received either medication alone. Moreover, rats that received combined therapy had reduced hipocampus and prefrontal cortex apoptosis in the acute period. These results demonstrate that combination of drugs with different mechanisms of action may be preferred in the treatment of head trauma.

  16. Effect of progesterone on phosphamidon-induced impairment of memory and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit K; Bhattacharya, Swapan K; Khanna, Naresh; Tripathi, Ashok K; Arora, Tarun; Mehta, Ashish K; Mehta, Kapil D; Joshi, Vikas

    2011-10-01

    Progesterone (a neurosteroid) is an important modulator of the nervous system functioning. Organophosphorus pesticides like phosphamidon have been shown to adversely affect memory and induce oxidative stress on both acute and chronic exposure. The present study was therefore designed to investigate the effects of progesterone (PROG) on phosphamidon-induced modulation of cognitive function and oxidative stress in rats. Cognitive function was assessed using step-down latency (SDL) on a passive avoidance apparatus and transfer latency (TL) on an elevated plus maze. Oxidative stress was assessed by examining the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and non-protein thiols (NP-SH) in isolated homogenized whole brain samples. The results showed a significant reduction in SDL and prolongation of TL in the phosphamidon (1.74 mg/kg/d; p.o.) treated group at weeks 6 and 8 as compared to the control group. Two weeks treatment with PROG (15 mg/kg/d; i.p.) antagonized the effect of phosphamidon on SDL as well as TL. Phosphamidon alone produced a significant increase in the brain TBARS levels and decrease in the brain NP-SH levels. Treatment with PROG (15 mg/kg/d; i.p.) attenuated the effect of phosphamidon on oxidative stress. Together, the results showed that progesterone attenuated the cognitive dysfunction and increased oxidative stress induced by phosphamidon in the brain.

  17. Clinical significance of elevated troponin I levels in patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Deibert, Ellen; Barzilai, Benico; Braverman, Alan C; Edwards, Dorothy Farrar; Aiyagari, Venkatesh; Dacey, Ralph; Diringer, Michael

    2003-04-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with electrocardiographic abnormalities, regional or focal wall-motion abnormalities on echocardiograms, and/or increased creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) or cardiac troponin I (cTnI). The goal of this prospective study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of cTnI with those of CK-MB in the prediction of left ventricular dysfunction on echocardiograms in patients with nontraumatic SAH. In addition, those patients with abnormal findings on their echocardiograms and elevated cTnI levels were further evaluated for the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) by a cardiologist and to determine whether any left ventricular dysfunction that had been detected was reversible. The authors obtained electrocardiograms and echocardiograms, and measured serial levels of cardiac enzymes (CK-MB and cTnI) in 43 patients with nontraumatic SAH. Patients with known CAD were excluded. Those patients found to have elevated enzyme levels and abnormal findings on their echocardiograms underwent additional evaluation for CAD. The sensitivity and specificity of both cTnI and CK-MB for detecting left ventricular function were determined. Twenty-eight percent of patients with SAH in the study had elevated cTnI levels within the first 24 hours after hemorrhage. Seven of the 12 patients had evidence of left ventricular dysfunction on echocardiograms. In all these patients a return to baseline function was found during follow-up examinations. The authors found that cTnI is much more sensitive than CK-MB (100% compared with 29%) in the detection of left ventricular dysfunction in patients with SAH. An elevated level of cTnI is a good indicator of left ventricular dysfunction in patients with SAH. In this study cardiac dysfunction was reversible and should not necessarily preclude these patients from undergoing operative interventions or becoming heart donors. Clinical management may require more aggressive hemodynamic

  18. Factor XIII subunits in human tears; their highly elevated levels following penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Zsuzsanna Z; Katona, Éva; Facskó, Andrea; Módis, László; Muszbek, László; Berta, András

    2011-01-30

    As blood coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) is of high importance in wound healing, we determined the concentrations of FXIII A and B subunits (FXIII-A and FXIII-B) and their complex (FXIII-A(2)B(2)) in normal tears and in tears from patients undergoing penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). FXIII complex and subunit concentrations were measured by highly sensitive chemiluminescent ELISAs in tears from 60 healthy volunteers and from 31 patients undergoing corneal transplantation. In non-stimulated tears from healthy volunteers, low but consistent amounts of FXIII-A and FXIII-B (medians: 2.13 μg/L and 7.22 μg/L, respectively) were measured, mostly in non-complexed form. Following stimulation of tear secretion FXIII levels moderately decreased, but if normalized to protein concentration they did not change. One day after PKP FXIII levels became highly elevated, then gradually decreased, but even on day 7 significantly exceeded pre-surgery values. The elevation of tear FXIII levels was significantly higher in PKP patients who later developed neovascularization of donor cornea. FXIII subunits are low concentration components of normal tear. The striking elevation of FXIII subunit and FXIII-A(2)B(2) concentrations after PKP suggests the involvement of FXIII in corneal wound healing. Perioperatively measured high FXIII levels in tears seem to represent a risk of neovascularization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Storage and survival of red blood cells with elevated sodium levels.

    PubMed

    Wallas, C H; Harris, A S; Wetherall, N T

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 25 percent of black blood donors have an elevated red blood cell (RBC) sodium (Nai) level compared with white donors. This elevation results in a significant increase in the mean Nai from black (9.00 +/- 2.96 mmoles/l RBC) as compared to white blood donors (7.04 +/- 1.48 mmoles/l RBC, p less than 0.001). Red blood cells from four black donors with mean Nai levels of 15 +/- 2.8 mmoles/l RBC were stored for 35 days in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine and compared to that of four donors with normal levels of Nai. Serial measurements of red blood cell adenosine triphosphate, diphosphoglycerate, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvic kinase, lactate production rates, and intracellular cations showed no differences between the two donor groups. Furthermore, the mean 24-hour posttransfusion survival was not significantly different for the high Nai group (83.2 +/- 5.6%) as compared with the control group (82.3 +/- 6.9%). Based on this study, it is not necessary to eliminate individuals with an elevated red blood cell Nai level as blood donors.

  20. Falsely elevated serum creatinine levels secondary to the presence of 5-fluorocytosine.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, R T; Marshall, L H; Lefkowitz, L B; Stratton, C W

    1985-08-01

    The Kodak Ektachem (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) is a new clinical chemistry analyzer that uses an enzymatic method to measure creatinine. The authors report the case of a patient with falsely elevated creatinine levels that were caused by the presence of 5-fluorocytosine. A review of the literature confirmed that this can occur, but well documented reports are not found. In order to determine the magnitude of this interference, the authors plotted creatinine levels versus 5-FC concentration. Significant interference is seen with therapeutic levels of 5-FC. Both clinicians and pathologists should be aware of this phenomenon.

  1. Disturbed estrogen and progesterone action in ovarian endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Smuc, Tina; Hevir, Neli; Ribic-Pucelj, Martina; Husen, Bettina; Thole, Hubert; Rizner, Tea Lanisnik

    2009-03-25

    Endometriosis is a very common disease in pre-menopausal women, where defective metabolism of steroid hormones plays an important role in its development and promotion. In the present study, we have examined the expression of 11 estrogen and progesterone metabolizing enzymes and their corresponding receptors in samples of ovarian endometriomas and control endometrium. Expression analysis revealed significant up-regulation of enzymes involved in estradiol formation (aromatase, sulfatase and all reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases) and in progesterone inactivation (AKR1C1 and AKR1C3). Among the estrogen and progesterone receptors, ERalpha was down-regulated, ERbeta was up-regulated, and there was no significant difference in expression of progesterone receptors A and B (PRAB). Our data indicate that several enzymes of estrogen and progesterone metabolism are aberrantly expressed in endometriosis, which can lead to increased local levels of mitogenic estradiol and decreased levels of protective progesterone. Changes in estrogen receptor expression suggest that estradiol may also act via non-estrogen receptor-mediated pathways, while expression of progesterone receptors still needs further investigation.

  2. Assessing the risks to young children of three effects associated with elevated blood-lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Wallsten, T.S.; Whitfield, R.G.

    1986-12-01

    Formal risk assessments were conducted as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's current review of the primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for lead. The assessments focused on three potentially adverse effects of exposure to lead in children from birth through the seventh birthday: erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) elevation, hemoglobin (Hb) decrement, and intelligence quotient (IQ) effect. The same general strategy was followed in all three cases: for two levels of each effect, probability distributions over population response rate were estimated at a series of blood-lead (PbB) levels. These distributions were estimated from data in the case of EP elevation and from expert judgements in the cases of Hb decrement and IQ effect. Although of interest in their own right, these estimates were combined with PbB distributions to yield probability distributions over the estimated percentages of children experiencing the particular health effects. 15 refs., 24 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Exponential wake structure of heated turbulent boundary layers at elevated levels of free-stream turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Sepri, P. )

    1987-05-01

    The wake region of a turbulent boundary layer is demonstrated to exhibit simple exponential behavior at elevated levels of free-stream turbulence (FST). As a predictive tool, the computer code STANCOOL has been modified to include FST effects in heated turbulent boundary layers. Preliminary comparisons with experimental data indicate improvements in computational capabiity, although futher development of the code is required. From these comparisons, three new results are offered: (1) At elevated levels of FST, several statistical profiles in the boundary layer wake region decay exponentially into the free stream; (2) {ovr v{prime}T{prime}} decays at half the rate of the mean velocity and temperature; (3) analytical expressions are provided for {ovr u{prime}v{prime}} and {ovr v{prime}T{prime}} in this case.

  4. Autistic children display elevated urine levels of bovine casomorphin-7 immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Oleg; Kost, Natalya; Andreeva, Olga; Korneeva, Ekaterina; Meshavkin, Viktor; Tarakanova, Yulia; Dadayan, Aleksander; Zolotarev, Yurii; Grachev, Sergei; Mikheeva, Inna; Varlamov, Oleg; Zozulya, Andrey

    2014-06-01

    Elevated concentrations of circulating casomorphins (CM), the exogenous opioid peptides from milk casein, may contribute to the pathogenesis of autism in children. Because several mass spectrometry studies failed to detect casomorphins in autistic children, it was questioned whether these peptides can be detected in body fluids by mass spec. Here we demonstrated, using a novel high sensitivity ELISA method, that autistic children have significantly higher levels of urine CM-7 than control children. The severity of autistic symptoms correlated with concentrations of CM-7 in the urine. Because CMs interact with opioid and serotonin receptors, the known modulators of synaptogenesis, we suggest that chronic exposure to elevated levels of bovine CMs may impair early child development, setting the stage for autistic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Elevated prolactin levels in patients with schizophrenia: mechanisms and related adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Halbreich, U; Kinon, B J; Gilmore, J A; Kahn, L S

    2003-01-01

    The neurologic processes involved in schizophrenia are complex and diverse and the mechanisms through which antipsychotic agents exert their effects have been only partly elucidated. Hyperprolactinemia is a common side effect of treatment with many antipsychotics and is particularly associated with conventional ('typical') agents as well as the atypical antipsychotic risperidone. In contrast, other atypical agents introduced over the last decade do not elevate prolactin levels. This article discusses the regulatory mechanisms involved in prolactin secretion, the physiologic role of prolactin, and the etiology of hyperprolactinemia. Elevated prolactin levels may play important roles, both direct and indirect, in various pathologic states, including breast cancer, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disorders, and sexual disturbances. Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia may be associated with similar clinical manifestations; these are examined with particular reference to patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Growth of a progesterone receptor-positive meningioma in a female patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, T; Crowley, R K; Farrell, M; MacNally, S; Govender, P; Feeney, J; Gibney, J

    2016-01-01

    Summary Meningioma growth has been previously described in patients receiving oestrogen/progestogen therapy. We describe the clinical, radiological, biochemical and pathologic findings in a 45-year-old woman with congenital adrenal hyperplasia secondary to a defect in the 21-hydroxylase enzyme who had chronic poor adherence to glucocorticoid therapy with consequent virilisation. The patient presented with a frontal headache and marked right-sided proptosis. Laboratory findings demonstrated androgen excess with a testosterone of 18.1 nmol/L (0–1.5 nmol) and 17-Hydroxyprogesterone >180 nmol/L (<6.5 nmol/L). CT abdomen was performed as the patient complained of rapid-onset increasing abdominal girth and revealed bilateral large adrenal myelolipomata. MRI brain revealed a large meningioma involving the right sphenoid wing with anterior displacement of the right eye and associated bony destruction. Surgical debulking of the meningioma was performed and histology demonstrated a meningioma, which stained positive for the progesterone receptor. Growth of meningioma has been described in postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy, in women receiving contraceptive therapy and in transsexual patients undergoing therapy with high-dose oestrogen and progestogens. Progesterone receptor positivity has been described previously in meningiomas. 17-Hydroxyprogesterone is elevated in CAH and has affinity and biological activity at the progesterone receptor. Therefore, we hypothesise that patients who have long-standing increased adrenal androgen precursor concentrations may be at risk of meningioma growth. Learning points: Patients with long-standing CAH (particularly if not optimally controlled) may present with other complications, which may be related to long-standing elevated androgen or decreased glucocorticoid levels. Chronic poor control of CAH is associated with adrenal myelolipoma and adrenal rest tissue tumours. Meningiomas are sensitive to

  7. Divergence of seafloor elevation and sea level rise in coral reef ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Tiling-Range, Ginger

    2017-04-01

    Coral reefs serve as natural barriers that protect adjacent shorelines from coastal hazards such as storms, waves, and erosion. Projections indicate global degradation of coral reefs due to anthropogenic impacts and climate change will cause a transition to net erosion by mid-century. Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the combined effect of all of the processes affecting seafloor accretion and erosion by measuring changes in seafloor elevation and volume for five coral reef ecosystems in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Caribbean over the last several decades. Regional-scale mean elevation and volume losses were observed at all five study sites and in 77 % of the 60 individual habitats that we examined across all study sites. Mean seafloor elevation losses for whole coral reef ecosystems in our study ranged from -0.09 to -0.8 m, corresponding to net volume losses ranging from 3.4 × 106 to 80.5 × 106 m3 for all study sites. Erosion of both coral-dominated substrate and non-coral substrate suggests that the current rate of carbonate production is no longer sufficient to support net accretion of coral reefs or adjacent habitats. We show that regional-scale loss of seafloor elevation and volume has accelerated the rate of relative sea level rise in these regions. Current water depths have increased to levels not predicted until near the year 2100, placing these ecosystems and nearby communities at elevated and accelerating risk to coastal hazards. Our results set a new baseline for projecting future impacts to coastal communities resulting from degradation of coral reef systems and associated losses of natural and socioeconomic resources.

  8. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xing-zheng; Wang, Gen-xuan; Shen, Zhu-xia; Zhang, Hao; Qiu, Mu-qing

    2006-04-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO(2) concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO(2) concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO(2) concentrations (350 micromol/mol and 500 micromol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO(2) on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO(2) concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO(2) enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO(2) enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO(2) concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO(2) concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO(2) enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO(2) depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO(2) enrichment with sufficient water supply.

  9. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora *

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xing-Zheng; Wang, Gen-Xuan; Shen, Zhu-Xia; Zhang, Hao; Qiu, Mu-Qing

    2006-01-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO2 concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO2 concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO2 concentrations (350 μmol/mol and 500 μmol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO2 on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO2 concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO2 enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO2 enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO2 concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO2 enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO2 depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO2 enrichment with sufficient water supply. PMID:16532530

  10. Divergence of seafloor elevation and sea level rise in coral reef ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Tiling-Range, Ginger

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs serve as natural barriers that protect adjacent shorelines from coastal hazards such as storms, waves, and erosion. Projections indicate global degradation of coral reefs due to anthropogenic impacts and climate change will cause a transition to net erosion by mid-century. Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the combined effect of all of the processes affecting seafloor accretion and erosion by measuring changes in seafloor elevation and volume for five coral reef ecosystems in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Caribbean over the last several decades. Regional-scale mean elevation and volume losses were observed at all five study sites and in 77 % of the 60 individual habitats that we examined across all study sites. Mean seafloor elevation losses for whole coral reef ecosystems in our study ranged from −0.09 to −0.8 m, corresponding to net volume losses ranging from 3.4  ×  106 to 80.5  ×  106 m3 for all study sites. Erosion of both coral-dominated substrate and non-coral substrate suggests that the current rate of carbonate production is no longer sufficient to support net accretion of coral reefs or adjacent habitats. We show that regional-scale loss of seafloor elevation and volume has accelerated the rate of relative sea level rise in these regions. Current water depths have increased to levels not predicted until near the year 2100, placing these ecosystems and nearby communities at elevated and accelerating risk to coastal hazards. Our results set a new baseline for projecting future impacts to coastal communities resulting from degradation of coral reef systems and associated losses of natural and socioeconomic resources.

  11. Elevated Salivary Levels of Oxytocin Persist More than 7 h after Intranasal Administration.

    PubMed

    van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bhandari, Ritu; van der Veen, Rixt; Grewen, Karen M; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2012-01-01

    We addressed the question how long salivary oxytocin levels remain elevated after intranasal administration, and whether it makes a difference when 16 or 24 IU of oxytocin administration is used. Oxytocin levels were measured in saliva samples collected from 46 female participants right before intranasal administration (at 9:30 a.m.) of 16 IU (n = 18) or 24 IU (n = 10) of oxytocin, or a placebo (n = 18), and each hour after administration, for 7 h in total. Oxytocin levels did not differ among conditions before use of the nasal spray. Salivary oxytocin levels in the placebo group showed high stability across the day. After oxytocin administration oxytocin levels markedly increased, they peaked around 1 h after administration, and were still significantly elevated 7 h after administration. The amount of oxytocin (16 or 24 IU) did not make a difference for oxytocin levels. The increase of oxytocin levels for at least 7 h shows how effective intranasal administration of oxytocin is. Our findings may raise ethical questions about potentially persisting behavioral effects after participants have left the lab setting. More research into the long-term neurological and behavioral effects of sniffs of oxytocin is urgently needed.

  12. Elevated levels of kynurenic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Sara K.; Samuelsson, Martin; Saetre, Peter; Lindström, Leif; Jönsson, Erik G.; Nordin, Conny; Engberg, Göran; Erhardt, Sophie; Landén, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia show elevated brain levels of the neuroactive tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA). This astrocyte-derived mediator acts as a neuroprotectant and modulates sensory gating and cognitive function. We measured the levels of KYNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers to investigate the putative involvement of KYNA in bipolar disorder. Methods We obtained CSF by lumbar puncture from 23 healthy men and 31 euthymic men with bipolar disorder. We analyzed the samples using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results Patients with bipolar disorder had increased levels of KYNA in their CSF compared with healthy volunteers (1.71 nM, standard error of the mean [SEM] 0.13 v. 1.13 nM, SEM 0.09; p = 0.002. The levels of KYNA were positively correlated with age among bipolar patients but not healthy volunteers. Limitations The influence of ongoing drug treatment among patients cannot be ruled out. We conducted our study during the euthymic phase of the disease. Conclusion Brain KYNA levels are increased in euthymic men with bipolar disorder. In addition, KYNA levels increased with age in these patients. These findings indicate shared mechanisms between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Elevated levels of brain KYNA may provide further insight to the pathophysiology and progression of bipolar disorder. PMID:20420770

  13. Serum endostatin levels are elevated in colorectal cancer and correlate with invasion and systemic inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Kantola, T; Väyrynen, J P; Klintrup, K; Mäkelä, J; Karppinen, S M; Pihlajaniemi, T; Autio-Harmainen, H; Karttunen, T J; Mäkinen, M J; Tuomisto, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endostatin, a fragment of collagen XVIII, is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with anti-tumour functions. However, elevated circulating endostatin concentrations have been found in several human cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Serum endostatin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay from a series of 143 patients with CRC and from 84 controls, and correlated with detailed clinicopathological features of CRC, serum leukocyte differential count and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results: Patients with CRC had higher serum endostatin levels than the controls (P=0.005), and high levels associated with age, tumour invasion through the muscularis propria and poor differentiation, but not with metastases. Endostatin levels showed a positive correlation with the markers of systemic inflammatory response and a negative correlation with the densities of tumour-infiltrating mast cells and dendritic cells. Collagen XVIII was expressed in tumour stroma most strikingly in blood vessels and capillaries, and in the muscle layer of the bowel wall. Conclusions: Elevated endostatin levels in CRC correlate with systemic inflammation and invasion through the muscularis propria. Increased endostatin level may be a result of invasion-related cleavage of collagen XVIII expressed in the bowel wall. The negative correlations between serum endostatin and intratumoural mast cells and immature dendritic cells may reflect angiogenesis inhibition by endostatin. PMID:25137019

  14. Elevated Level of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Search for a Malignancy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Muhammad W

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been shown to be associated with tumor burden in patients with colorectal cancer. However, it is also elevated to a significant degree in a number of other malignant and non-malignant conditions. We report a case of reversible CEA elevation in a patient using lithium for bipolar disorder. A 58-year-old female with a longstanding smoking history and a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bipolar illness, hypothyroidism, and obesity was found to have an elevated CEA level of 11.2 ng/ml (normal level <5 ng/ml) in the workup for postmenopausal bleeding. Her history was not positive for malignancy of colorectum, ovaries, thyroid, or breast.  She underwent a large number of imaging and endoscopic studies to evaluate for colorectal, breast, ovarian, and lung cancer; however, it did not reveal any evidence of malignancy. Upon review of her medications, she reported that she had recently started lithium for her bipolar illness. We followed up her CEA level while her dose of lithium was reduced from 450 to 300 mg per day. Her CEA level decreased from 25 mg/dl to 6.1 mg/dl and remained stable over the course of the next eight months. Our case is the first case report that identifies lithium as a potential cause of reversible CEA elevation. The underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated, but it underscores the importance of investigating the medications as part of the workup. PMID:27446768

  15. Elevated HGF Levels in Sera from Breast Cancer Patients Detected Using a Protein Microarray ELISA

    SciTech Connect

    Woodbury, Ronald L. ); Varnum, Susan M. ); Zangar, Richard C. )

    2002-01-01

    We developed an ELISA in high-density microassay format to detect hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in human serum. The microassay can detect HGF at sub-pg/mL concentrations in sample volumes of 100 uL or less. The microassay is also quantitative and was used to detect elevated HGF levels in sera from recurrent breast cancer patients. The microarray format provides the potential for high-throughput quantitation of multiple biomarkers in parallel.

  16. A Prospective Analysis of Elevated Fasting Glucose Levels and Cognitive Function in Older People

    PubMed Central

    Euser, Sjoerd M.; Sattar, Naveed; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Bollen, Eduard L.E.M.; Sijbrands, Eric J.G.; Hofman, Albert; Perry, Ivan J.; Breteler, Monique M.B.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between fasting glucose levels, insulin resistance, and cognitive impairment in old age. Diabetes is associated with cognitive impairment in older people. However, the link between elevated fasting glucose levels and insulin resistance in nondiabetic individuals, and the risk of cognitive impairment is unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed data from, in total, 8,447 participants in two independent prospective studies: the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER), 5,019 participants, aged 69–84 years, and the Rotterdam Study, 3,428 participants, aged 61–97 years. Fasting glucose levels were assessed at baseline in both studies; fasting insulin levels were assessed in the Rotterdam Study only. Cognitive function was assessed in both studies at baseline and during follow-up. RESULTS Subjects with diabetes had impaired cognitive function at baseline. In contrast, in people without a history of diabetes, there was no clear association between baseline fasting glucose levels and executive function and memory, nor was there a consistent relationship between elevated baseline fasting glucose levels and the rate of cognitive decline in either cohort. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment index) was also unrelated to cognitive function and decline. CONCLUSIONS Elevated fasting glucose levels and insulin resistance are not associated with worse cognitive function in older people without a history of diabetes. These data suggest either that there is a threshold for effects of dysglycemia on cognitive function or that factors other than hyperglycemia contribute to cognitive impairment in individuals with frank diabetes. PMID:20393152

  17. Elevated factor J levels in synovial fluid from patients with inflammatory arthropathies.

    PubMed

    González-Rubio, C; Saboya-Palero, A; Pascual-Salcedo, D; Balsa, A; Fontán, G; López-Trascasa, M

    1997-12-01

    Factor J (FJ) is a complement inhibitor that is able to regulate in vitro both the classical and alternative human complement pathways. In the search of its biological significance, we have analyzed FJ levels in synovial fluid from patients with different arthropathies, in which IL-6 levels had been previously measured. The pathologies included in this study were: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 21), crystal deposition diseases (CDD) (n = 6), osteoarthritis (OA) (n = 23), spondyloarthritis (SpA) (n = 3) and other inflammatory arthropathies (OIA) (n = 4). We found a good correlation between IL-6 and FJ levels (r = 0.33, p = 0.0132) in the 57 processed samples. Synovial fluids had high levels of IL-6 (median: 3000 pg/ml). Besides, we found that FJ levels were elevated (241 +/- 429 micrograms/ml) when compared with NHS (5.32 +/- 2.82 micrograms/ml). Considering OA patients as control group for non-inflammatory situation, we found that FJ levels were significantly elevated in inflammatory patients only if RA patients were excluded. Furthermore, there were also significant differences with CDD patients. In addition, we have examined the presence of this inhibitor in synovial fluid by Western blot after running gels at acid pH and electrophoretical transference at the same pH. In these experiments, we evidenced the presence of a cationic protein immunoreactive with polyclonal and monoclonal anti-FJ antibodies. In conclusion, FJ levels are elevated in pathological synovial fluids. FJ could be an acute phase reactant as other molecules present in the synovial fluid, or could be shed from extracellular matrix as a consequence of the high enzymatic activity present in the articular fluid or as a response to the inflammatory stimulus.

  18. Plasma von Willebrand factor level is transiently elevated in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Li, Liqun; Dong, Fengyun; Guo, Ling; Hou, Yinglong; Hu, Hesheng; Yan, Suhua; Zhou, Xiaojun; Liao, Lin; Allen, Thaddeus D; Liu, J U

    2015-11-01

    The von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a plasma glycoprotein that plays an essential role in hemostasis by supporting platelet adhesion and thrombus formation in response to vascular injury. Plasma levels of vWF are an independent risk factor for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI); however, clinical data have demonstrated a marked variation of vWF levels in patients with AMI, the reason for which has not yet been identified. In the present study, a rat model of ST-segment elevation AMI was established, and cardiac and peripheral blood was collected for a time-course examination of the plasma levels of vWF and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The level of vWF in the blood plasma increased, peaked at 1 h and decreased to normal levels by day 7 following AMI, while the level of TNF-α peaked at 24 h and remained elevated until day 7. The effects of TNF-α on vWF secretion and expression were examined in cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). TNF-α treatment increased vWF secretion from the HUVECs but inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of vWF in the HUVECs. These results indicate that vWF secretion from endothelial cells is transiently elevated following AMI, and then decreases as the expression of vWF is inhibited by TNF-α. The present study increases the understanding of the pathophysiology of vWF and indicates that the determination of vWF levels may be useful in the clinical evaluation of AMI.

  19. Vacuum level effects on gait characteristics for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hang; Greenland, Kasey; Bloswick, Donald; Zhao, Jie; Merryweather, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    The elevated vacuum suspension system has demonstrated unique health benefits for amputees, but the effect of vacuum pressure values on gait characteristics is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated vacuum levels on temporal parameters, kinematics and kinetics for unilateral transtibial amputees. Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted in 9 unilateral transtibial amputees walking at a controlled speed with five vacuum levels ranging from 0 to 20inHg, and also in 9 able-bodied subjects walking at self-preferred speed. Repeated ANOVA and Dunnett's t-test were performed to determine the effect of vacuum level and limb for within subject and between groups. The effect of vacuum level significantly affected peak hip external rotation and external knee adduction moment. Maximum braking and propulsive ground reaction forces generally increased for the residual limb and decreased for the intact limb with increasing vacuum. Additionally, the intact limb experienced an increased loading due to gait asymmetry for several variables. There was no systematic vacuum level effect on gait. Higher vacuum levels, such as 15 and 20inHg, were more comfortable and provided some relief to the intact limb, but may also increase the risk of osteoarthritis of the residual limb due to the increased peak external hip and knee adduction moments. Very low vacuum should be avoided because of the negative effects on gait symmetry. A moderate vacuum level at 15inHg is suggested for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Elevated levels of circulating IL-18BP and perturbed regulation of IL-18 in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin (IL)-18 has been proposed to play a role in schizophrenia, since elevated circulating levels of its protein and altered frequencies of genetic variants in its molecular system are reported in schizophrenic patients. Methods We analyzed 77 patients with schizophrenia diagnosis (SCZ) and 77 healthy control subjects (HC) for serum concentration of both IL-18 and its natural inhibitor, the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). Results We confirmed that serum levels of total IL-18 are significantly increased in SCZ, as compared to HC. However, due to a highly significant increase in levels of circulating IL-18BP in SCZ, as compared to HC, the levels of free, bioactive IL-18 are not significantly different between the two groups. In addition, the relationships between the levels of IL-18 and its inhibitor, as well as between the two molecules and age appear dissimilar for SCZ and HC. In particular, the elevated levels of IL-18BP, likely a consequence of the body’s attempt to counteract the early prominent inflammation which characterizes schizophrenia, are maintained in earlier and later stages of the disease. However, the IL-18BP elevation appears ineffective to balance the IL-18 system in younger SCZ patients, while in older patients the levels of circulating bioactive IL-18 are comparable to those of HC, if not lower. Conclusions In conclusion, these findings indicate that the IL-18 system is perturbed in schizophrenia, supporting the idea that this pro-inflammatory cytokine might be part of a pathway of genetic and environmental components for vulnerability to the disease. PMID:22913567

  1. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels are elevated in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Bando, Sachiko; Soeki, Takeshi; Matsuura, Tomomi; Tobiume, Takeshi; Ise, Takayuki; Kusunose, Kenya; Yamaguchi, Koji; Yagi, Shusuke; Fukuda, Daiju; Iwase, Takashi; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Shimabukuro, Michio; Muguruma, Naoki; Takayama, Tetsuji; Kishimoto, Ichiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Sata, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides have been proposed as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, especially heart failure. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) has also been shown to be upregulated at the transcriptional and translational levels by pro-inflammatory cytokines in cardiac myocytes. Although we often measure plasma BNP levels in cancer patients, it remains unknown whether cancer-related inflammation affects the plasma BNP levels. We investigated the relationship between the BNP and human cancers. We retrospectively studied 2,923 patients in whom the plasma BNP levels and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured and echocardiography was performed. Patients with clinically evident heart failure (NYHA II or higher), heart disease requiring medical treatment or surgery, renal dysfunction, and inflammatory disease were excluded. There were 234 patients in the final analysis. Blood sampling was performed before surgery and chemotherapy. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between the inflammation and plasma BNP levels in mouse models of colon cancer. Of the 234 patients, 80 were diagnosed with cancer. Both the plasma BNP and serum CRP levels were significantly higher in cancer patients than those without. There were no significant differences in the echocardiographic parameters. There was a significant positive correlation between the plasma BNP and serum CRP levels in cancer patients (r = 0.360, P<0.01) but not in those without. In cancer patients, only the CRP correlated with the BNP independent of the age, creatinine level, hypertension, and body mass index. In addition, in nude mice with subcutaneous colon cancer, the plasma BNP level was elevated compared with that in non-cancer mice, and there was a significant relationship between the plasma BNP and serum levels of the inflammatory markers. In cancer patients, as well as colon cancer model mice, the plasma BNP levels were elevated, possibly due to cancer-related inflammation. The effect of cancer on the BNP

  2. Effect of Sustained Elevated Gastric pH Levels on Gefitinib Exposure.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weifeng; Tomkinson, Helen; Masson, Eric

    2017-09-01

    This open-label, randomized, phase 1 crossover study investigated the effect of elevated gastric pH level (>5) on the relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. Healthy male volunteers (n = 26) were randomized to gefitinib 250 mg (fasted), either alone on day 1 (unmodified gastric pH) or 1 hour following the second of 2 oral doses of the H2 -receptor antagonist ranitidine 450 mg (elevated gastric pH). After a 3-week washout period, volunteers crossed to the other treatment. The geometric least-squares (GLS) mean AUC0-∞ and Cmax for gefitinib were reduced by 47% and 71%, respectively, under conditions of sustained elevated gastric pH; for both parameters, the 90%CI for the ratio of the GLS means lay below the prespecified lower limit. Median tmax was delayed from 5 to 6 hours. Mean t1/2 was similar under both gastric pH conditions. No serious adverse events were reported. The bioavailability of a single oral gefitinib 250-mg dose was reduced by approximately 50% when gefitinib was administered under conditions of sustained elevated gastric pH. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  3. [Interest of selective progesterone receptor modulators in endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Merviel, P; Lourdel, E; Sanguin, S; Gagneur, O; Cabry, R; Nasreddine, A

    2013-09-01

    The SPRM (selective progesterone receptor modulators) are agonists and/or antagonists of progesterone receptor. They are responsible for anovulation, amenorrhea and a lower prostaglandin levels, which leads to an improvement in pain and regression of lesions in endometriosis. On the endometrium, a particular aspect, the progesterone receptor modulator-associated endometrial changes (PAEC), raises additional studies to verify its harmlessness. However, due to the lack of hypoestrogenism and metabolic effects with these drugs, it is very likely that the SPRM will in the near future an important place in the treatment of endometriosis.

  4. Reproductive features and faecal progesterone metabolite profile in female ferrets.

    PubMed

    Proháczik, A; Kulcsár, M; Glávits, R; Driancourt, M A; Huszenicza, G Y

    2011-02-01

    Elevated post-partum progesterone metabolite (P(4) -met) levels have been recently postulated to occur in lactating lynxes. The aims of this study were to monitor reproductive features in female ferrets, changes in the faecal P(4) -met concentrations throughout the breeding season and ovarian activity in post-partum lactating and non-lactating (NL) female ferrets. Our results indicate that coinciding with the results described in the lynx, elevated faecal P4-met concentrations occur in lactating ferrets, furthermore, that the duration of elevated secretion of P(4) seems to be dependent on the duration of lactation (P4-met at delivery, n=47: <500 ng/g; 5-7 days after delivery, during lactation, n=47: ≥ 500-800 ng/g; in females weaned at delivery, n=4: baseline levels). Three days after ovariohysterectomy of lactating females, P(4) -met concentrations decreased to baseline levels. In lactating females, the ovarian stroma is more active than that in NL ones implicating that the ovary is at least in part responsible for the elevated P4-met concentrations. Ovaries of lactating females contained many luteinized cells either as luteinized granulose cells in the wall of late pre-antral/early antral follicles or as corpus luteum (CL)-like structures. Early resumption of the entire ovarian activity (developed follicles and oestrus) occurs in NL post-partum females, while final follicular development is blocked (follicles stalls at antral stage) in the lactating ones (however, occasionally lactational oestrus may occur). We suppose that the elevated faecal P4-met during lactation together with suckling and other hormonal effects may contribute to prevention of early returning to oestrus in nursing female ferrets. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Elevated serum digoxin levels in a patient taking digoxin and Siberian ginseng.

    PubMed

    McRae, S

    1996-08-01

    A 74-year-old man taking a constant dose of digoxin for many years was found to have an elevated serum digoxin level with no signs of toxic effects. Common causes of elevated serum digoxin were ruled out, and the patient's digoxin level remained high after digoxin therapy was stopped. The patient then revealed that he was taking Siberian ginseng, a popular herbal remedy. The patient stopped taking ginseng, and the serum digoxin level soon returned to an acceptable level. The digoxin therapy was resumed. The patient resumed taking ginseng several months later, and the serum digoxin level again rose. Digoxin therapy was maintained at a constant daily dose, the ginseng was stopped once more, and the serum digoxin levels again returned to within the therapeutic range. It is unclear whether some component of the ginseng was converted to digoxin in vivo, interfered with digoxin elimination or caused a false serum assay result. The author cautions physicians to be alert to the potential for herbal remedies to interact with prescribed medications and to affect biochemical analyses.

  6. Elevated serum digoxin levels in a patient taking digoxin and Siberian ginseng.

    PubMed Central

    McRae, S

    1996-01-01

    A 74-year-old man taking a constant dose of digoxin for many years was found to have an elevated serum digoxin level with no signs of toxic effects. Common causes of elevated serum digoxin were ruled out, and the patient's digoxin level remained high after digoxin therapy was stopped. The patient then revealed that he was taking Siberian ginseng, a popular herbal remedy. The patient stopped taking ginseng, and the serum digoxin level soon returned to an acceptable level. The digoxin therapy was resumed. The patient resumed taking ginseng several months later, and the serum digoxin level again rose. Digoxin therapy was maintained at a constant daily dose, the ginseng was stopped once more, and the serum digoxin levels again returned to within the therapeutic range. It is unclear whether some component of the ginseng was converted to digoxin in vivo, interfered with digoxin elimination or caused a false serum assay result. The author cautions physicians to be alert to the potential for herbal remedies to interact with prescribed medications and to affect biochemical analyses. PMID:8705908

  7. Association of Elevated Amyloid Levels With Cognition and Biomarkers in Cognitively Normal People From the Community

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ronald C.; Wiste, Heather J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Rocca, Walter A.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Lowe, Val J.; Knopman, David S.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Machulda, Mary M.; Geda, Yonas E.; Jack, Clifford R.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The role of amyloid in the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology is of central interest to the design of randomized clinical trials. The presence of amyloid has become a prerequisite for enrollment in several secondary prevention trials for AD, yet the precise effect of elevated amyloid levels on subsequent clinical and biomarker events is less certain. OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of elevated amyloid levels on subsequent changes in cognition and biomarkers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A total of 564 cognitively normal individuals (median age, 78 years) from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a population-based longitudinal study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, with serial cognitive data were selected for this study. The data used in this study were collected from January 12, 2006, to January 9, 2014. Individuals included in this study had undergone magnetic resonance imaging, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET at baseline were not cognitively impaired at baseline and had at least 1 clinical follow-up. A subset of 286 individuals also underwent serial imaging. Elevated amyloid level was defined as a standardized uptake value ratio of greater than 1.5 on PiB PET. Associations with baseline amyloid status and baseline and longitudinal change in clinical and imaging measures were evaluated after adjusting for age and hippocampal volume. APOE4 effects were also evaluated. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cognitive measures of memory, language, attention/executive function, visuospatial skills, PiB levels, hippocampal and ventricular volumes, and FDG-PET measures. RESULTS At baseline, 179 (31.7%) individuals with elevated amyloid levels had poorer cognition in all domains measured, reduced hippocampal volume, and greater FDG-PET hypometabolism. Elevated amyloid levels at baseline were associated with a greater rate of cognitive decline in all domains (0.04 to 0.09 z score units per year

  8. Neonatal Progesterone Programs Adult Uterine Responses to Progesterone and Susceptibility to Uterine Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Rumi, M. A. Karim; Kubota, Kaiyu; Chakraborty, Damayanti; Chien, Jeremy; Roby, Katherine F.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we investigated the consequences of neonatal progesterone exposure on adult rat uterine function. Female pups were subcutaneously injected with vehicle or progesterone from postnatal days 3 to 9. Early progesterone exposure affected endometrial gland biogenesis, puberty, decidualization, and fertility. Because decidualization and pregnancy success are directly linked to progesterone action on the uterus, we investigated the responsiveness of the adult uterus to progesterone. We first identified progesterone-dependent uterine gene expression using RNA sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR in Holtzman Sprague-Dawley rats and progesterone-resistant Brown Norway rats. The impact of neonatal progesterone treatment on adult uterine progesterone responsiveness was next investigated using quantitative RT-PCR. Progesterone resistance affected the spectrum and total number of progesterone-responsive genes and the magnitude of uterine responses for a subset of progesterone targets. Several progesterone-responsive genes in adult uterus exhibited significantly dampened responses in neonatally progesterone-treated females compared with those of vehicle-treated controls, whereas other progesterone-responsive transcripts did not differ between female rats exposed to vehicle or progesterone as neonates. The organizational actions of progesterone on the uterus were dependent on signaling through the progesterone receptor but not estrogen receptor 1. To summarize, neonatal progesterone exposure leads to disturbances in endometrial gland biogenesis, progesterone resistance, and uterine dysfunction. Neonatal progesterone effectively programs adult uterine responsiveness to progesterone. PMID:26204463

  9. Progesterone action in breast, uterine, and ovarian cancers

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Caroline H.; Daniel, Andrea R.; Mauro, Laura J.; Knutson, Todd P.; Lange, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Progesterone and progesterone receptors (PR) are essential for the development and cyclical regulation of hormone-responsive tissues including the breast and reproductive tract. Altered functions of PR isoforms contribute to the pathogenesis of tumors that arise in these tissues. In the breast, progesterone acts in concert with estrogen to promote proliferative and pro-survival gene programs. In sharp contrast, progesterone inhibits estrogen-driven growth in the uterus and protects the ovary from neoplastic transformation. Progesterone-dependent actions and associated biology in diverse tissues and tumors are mediated by two progesterone receptor isoforms, PR-A and PR-B. These isoforms are subject to altered transcriptional activity or expression levels, differential cross-talk with growth factor signaling pathways, and distinct post-translational modifications and cofactor binding partners. Herein, we summarize and discuss the recent literature focused on progesterone and PR isoform-specific actions in breast, uterine, and ovarian cancers. Understanding the complexity of context-dependent PR actions in these tissues is critical to developing new models that will allow us to advance our knowledge base with the goal of revealing novel and efficacious therapeutic regimens for these hormone-responsive diseases. PMID:25587053

  10. The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Feng, Youzhi; Yu, Yongjie; Tang, Haoye; Zu, Qianhui; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-02-01

    Although elevated ground-level O₃ has a species-specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O₃ pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O₃ Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O₃-tolerant (YD6) and the O₃-sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O₃ pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O₃ negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O₃ pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O₃ pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O₃ pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O₃.

  11. Effects of intermittent flow and irradiance level on back reef Porites corals at elevated seawater temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.W.; Birkeland, C.

    2007-01-01

    Corals inhabiting shallow back reef habitats are often simultaneously exposed to elevated seawater temperatures and high irradiance levels, conditions known to cause coral bleaching. Water flow in many tropical back reef systems is tidally influenced, resulting in semi-diurnal or diurnal flow patterns. Controlled experiments were conducted to test effects of semi-diurnally intermittent water flow on photoinhibition and bleaching of the corals Porites lobata and P. cylindrica kept at elevated seawater temperatures and different irradiance levels. All coral colonies were collected from a shallow back reef pool on Ofu Island, American Samoa. In the high irradiance experiments, photoinhibition and bleaching were less for both species in the intermittent high-low flow treatment than in the constant low flow treatment. In the low irradiance experiments, there were no differences in photoinhibition or bleaching for either species between the flow treatments, despite continuously elevated seawater temperatures. These results suggest that intermittent flow associated with semi-diurnal tides, and low irradiances caused by turbidity or shading, may reduce photoinhibition and bleaching of back reef corals during warming events. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Oestrogen and progesterone concentrations in peripheral blood in pregnant red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Bonnin, M; Mondain-Monval, M; Dutourné, B

    1978-09-01

    Oestrogen levels were low during most of gestation, but there was a significant increase (P less than 0.05) in oestradiol concentrations at implantation. Early pregnancy was characterized by high levels of progesterone which decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) thereafter, but there was no decline in progesterone or rise in oestrogen levels at parturition. There was no difference in the length of progesterone secretion between pregnant and non-pregnant females.

  13. Evidence that exposure to progesterone alone is a sufficient stimulus to cause a precipitous rise in the immunomodulatory protein the progesterone induced blocking factor (PIBF).

    PubMed

    Cohen, Rachael A; Check, Jerome H; Dougherty, Michael P

    2016-02-01

    To determine if exposure to progesterone alone is sufficient to increase the production of the immunomodulatory protein known as the progesterone induced blocking factor (PIBF). Also to determine what method of progesterone delivery or form of P best stimulates PIBF secretion. Serum samples from patients with infertility and paid volunteers were evaluated for both PIBF and progesterone at various times during the follicular phase and the luteal phase in both natural cycles and cycles involving embryo transfer after endogenous and exogenous progesterone exposure and after various synthetic progestins. PIBF was measured by a non-commercial research ELISA assay. Comparisons were made of serum PIBF before and after exposure to progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and oral contraceptives. PIBF was also measured before and after transfer of embryos. Progesterone alone without exposure to the fetal allogeneic stimulus was able to produce a marked increase in serum PIBF. Neither a synthetic progestin (19-nortestosterone derivative) nor 17-hydroxyprogesterone caused an increase in PIBF. Some PIBF is generally detected even in the follicular phase. A previous concept considered that an allogeneic stimulus, e.g., from the fetal semi-allograft, was necessary to induce de novo progesterone receptors in gamma delta T cells, which, in turn, when exposed to a high concentration of progesterone, would secrete high levels of PIBF. These data show that exposure to an allogeneic stimulus is not needed to cause a marked rise in PIBF, merely progesterone alone is sufficient.

  14. Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrell, J. R.; Zuber, M. T.

    2000-01-01

    Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation of the northern polar cap. Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) provide comprehensive, high-accuracy topographical information required to precisely determine polar insolation. In this study, we employ a geodetic elevation model to quantify the north polar insolation and consider implications for seasonal and climatic changes. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  15. Men with elevated testosterone levels show more affiliative behaviours during interactions with women

    PubMed Central

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Buunk, Abraham P.; Fawcett, Tim W.; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone (T) is thought to play a key role in male–male competition and courtship in many vertebrates, but its precise effects are unclear. We explored whether courtship behaviour in humans is modulated and preceded by changes in T. Pairs of healthy male students first competed in a non-physical contest in which their T levels became elevated. Each participant then had a short, informal interaction with either an unfamiliar man or woman. The sex of the stimulus person did not affect the participants' behaviour overall. However, in interactions with women, those men who had experienced a greater T increase during the contest subsequently showed more interest in the woman, engaged in more self-presentation, smiled more and made more eye contact. No such effects were seen in interactions with other men. This is the first study to provide direct evidence that elevating T during male–male competition is followed by increased affiliative behaviour towards women. PMID:21632627

  16. Pancreatic Tuberculosis with Markedly Elevated CA 19-9 Levels: A Diagnostic Pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Manveen; Dalal, Varsha; Bhatnagar, Amar; Siraj, Fouzia

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries, isolated pancreatic TB is rare and is usually seen in immunocompromised patients. It presents with non-specific signs and symptoms and may mimic malignancy both clinically and radiologically. Cytologic and histologic confirmation is required to establish the definitive diagnosis. We present a case of a 25-year-old male with a pancreatic mass and markedly elevated serum cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 levels raising the suspicion of malignancy but with a histopathologic picture of TB. This case suggests that clinicians should have a heightened suspicion of pancreatic TB when faced with discrete pancreatic lesions even though elevated tumor markers may indicate malignancy. It is important to perform appropriate diagnostic testing and initiate antitubercular therapy early. PMID:27974961

  17. Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrell, J. R.; Zuber, M. T.

    2000-01-01

    Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation of the northern polar cap. Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) provide comprehensive, high-accuracy topographical information required to precisely determine polar insolation. In this study, we employ a geodetic elevation model to quantify the north polar insolation and consider implications for seasonal and climatic changes. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  18. Elevated interleukin-6 levels in peritoneal fluid of patients with pelvic pathology.

    PubMed

    Buyalos, R P; Funari, V A; Azziz, R; Watson, J M; Martinez-Maza, O

    1992-08-01

    To determine if interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a normal constituent of peritoneal fluid (PF), and if various types of pelvic pathology influence its presence within the PF microenvironment. Peritoneal fluid from 73 women obtained at the time of laparoscopy was examined for the presence of IL-6 using an IL-6 specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty-nine patients had pelvic endometriosis, 17 had nonendometriotic pelvic adhesive disease, and 17 subjects undergoing tubal sterilization without evidence of pelvic pathology served as controls. Immunoreactive IL-6 was observed in the PF of all 73 subjects (range 0.26 to 11.16 ng/mL). The mean concentration of IL-6 was higher in women with nonendometriotic pelvic adhesions as compared with control subjects (1.28 +/- 0.16 versus 0.80 +/- 0.06 ng/mL, P less than 0.03). There was no difference in the mean peritoneal concentrations of IL-6 between women with endometriosis (1.16 +/- 0.28 ng/mL) and controls, P = 0.38. Twenty-seven of 73 patients (37%) demonstrated elevated levels (greater than 1.0 ng/mL) of IL-6. Patients with pelvic adhesions were significantly more likely to have elevated concentrations of IL-6 than controls (10/17 [59%] versus 3/17 [18%], P less than 0.02). Alternatively, the percentage of patients with elevated IL-6 concentrations did not differ between patients with endometriosis or controls (14/39 [36%] versus 3/17 [18%], P greater than 0.10). These findings demonstrate that IL-6 is a normal constituent of PF and that elevated levels are found in many patients with pelvic adhesions.

  19. A Nutraceutical Composition Decreases CPK Levels in Saos-2 Cells and in Patients with Elevated Serum Levels of This Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Ammendola, Sergio; Stoppoloni, Daniela; Loreto, Mario Di; d'Abusco, Anna Scotto

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a nutraceutical composition on the expression of some genes involved in muscle cells and functioning in osteoblast cells. The effects of nutraceutical composition have been compared to the effects of atorvastatin, which induces muscle pain and elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK) serum level when administered to patients. In particular, we analyzed the MyoD-1 gene, which is responsible for modulation of the CPK gene, which is a marker of muscle pain and damage. The effects of nutraceutical composition on Saos-2 cells were compared with the effects of atorvastatin. The mRNAs were extracted and the expression levels of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic CPK genes and MyoD-1 were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Moreover, the effects on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis were measured in the osteoblast cell line. Furthermore, 11 patients with muscle pain or elevated CPK serum levels received a supplementation of the nutraceutical composition to test whether CPK levels could be downregulated. The analysis in Saos-2 cells showed that the nutraceutical composition upregulates the gene expression of MyoD-1 and downregulates the expression of the cytoplasmic isoform of CPK gene expression (p ≤ 0.05); moreover, it slightly increases ATP amount and decreases LDH activity. Conversely, atorvastatin represses the expression of MyoD-1 gene without significant changing into the expression levels of both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial CPK genes. Moreover, atorvastatin does not increase the ATP amount or increase LDH activity. Remarkable, the nutraceutical composition is able to decrease CPK levels in serum of patients and in some cases improve myalgia symptoms. The nutraceutical composition decreases CPK levels both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that it might be useful to management of nonneurological myalgia symptoms.

  20. [Results' analysis of estradiol and progesterone supplementation in luteal phase vs progesterone alone in an assisted reproduction program].

    PubMed

    Kably Ambe, Alberto; Ruiz Anguas, Julián; Walters Arballo, Fabian; García Benitez, Carlos Quesnel; Karchmer Krivitsky, Samuel

    2005-04-01

    To correlate estradiol and progesterone concentrations in luteal phase with pregnancy rates, and to determine the real value of estradiol administration during luteal phase support. In a prospective and comparative study, 69 patients who underwent IVF-ET program were divided in two groups: group 1 (n = 32) received luteal phase support only with progesterone and group 2, (n = 37) luteal phase support with estradiol and progesterone. Ovarian stimulation was made with recombinant FSH and GnRH analogues (agonists or antagonists) and 24 hours after oocyte retrieval we began luteal phase support: group 1 progesterone (in oily solution) 100 mg/day IM, and group 2 same progesterone doses plus 2 mg of estradiol valerianate. Statistical analysis was performed using students' t- test and ROC curves. No statistical differences were observed in age, preovulatory estradiol levels, oocytes retrieved, fertilization rates, number of embryos transferred, or difficulty of embryo transfer among groups. The overall pregnancy rate was of 34.78% per cycle, no significant differences were observed among groups (37.5 vs 32.43%). We observed greater incidence of miscarriage in group 2 (4.35 vs 0%), without statistical significance. When comparing estradiol levels and pregnancy outcomes, higher levels were observed in the pregnancy group (403.3 vs 221.85 pg/mL) on day 7 post-transfer. Same results were reported for progesterone levels (107.04 vs 240.76). We determined that estradiol levels on day 7, higher than 244 pg/mL, could predict pregnancy with sensitivity of 58% and specificity of 70%, whereas progesterone levels greater than 108.6 ng/mL had specificity and sensitivity of 50 and 70%, respectively. We couldn't determine any advantage with estradiol supplementation during luteal phase support; however, measurement on day 7 of estradiol and progesterone allowed a greater predictive accuracy of pregnancy outcome.

  1. Surface Elevation, Carbon Sequestration Potential and Rising sea Levels in Estuarine Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, J. F.; Howe, A.; Saco, P. M.

    2007-12-01

    Estuarine wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth, providing habitat for commercially important fish species and migratory shorebirds, serving as nurseries for many other marine organisms and supporting the productivity of adjacent coastal waters. Typically, these wetlands are driven by tidal hydrodynamics and are net sinks for sediment and soil carbon. Their distribution in the tidal frame depends on a delicate balance between topographic gradient, the rate of vertical soil development, and the rate of sea level change. The complex interactions between hydrodynamics, ecology and soil processes that govern this balance produce positive feedbacks and system self-organization. As complex systems, these wetlands demonstrate resilience under a wide range of conditions but they have been observed to collapse or move to another equilibrium state above certain thresholds. Research at a wetland in the Hunter estuary, southeast Australia has tracked changes in relative sea level and surface elevation in mangrove and saltmarsh wetlands over a five year period (2002- 2006) and soil carbon over a two year period (2005-2006). Mangrove surface elevation was strongly correlated with relative sea level (R2=0.715, p=0.004) but there was no correlation between relative sea level and saltmarsh surface elevation (R2=0.093, p=0.424). Soil carbon levels were high in both vegetation types (% loss on ignition of 16.2% and 18.8% for mangrove and saltmarsh soils, respectively) and not significantly different (ANOVA F=1.36, p=0.270). A 16% increase in soil carbon was recorded in each vegetation type over the period 2005-2006. Mean annual sea level rose by 55 mm and net annual precipitation (rainfall minus evaporation) fell by 189 mm over the same period. The ability of mangrove to respond rapidly to changes in relative sea level and the indicative positive trend between soil carbon and relative sea level suggest that this wetland type is both resilient to future sea level

  2. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj

    2014-09-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3 were measured in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of BDNF and NT-3 were evaluated in various affective states in bipolar disorder patients during a 6-12 months period and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Careful attention was given to standardization of all procedures and adjustment for potential confounders of BDNF and NT-3. In linear mixed models, adjusting for demographical and lifestyle factors, levels of BDNF were significantly elevated in bipolar disorder patients in euthymic- (p<0.05), depressed- (p<0.005) and manic/hypomanic (p<0.005) states compared with healthy control subjects. Within bipolar disorder patients, adjusting for medication, there was no significant difference in BDNF levels between affective states, with equally elevated levels present in euthymic-, depressive- and manic/hypomanic patients. Levels of BDNF were higher in patients with longer duration of illness compared with patients with shorter duration of illness. We found no difference in NT-3 levels between bipolar disorder patients in any affective state compared with healthy control subjects and no difference in NT-3 levels between affective states in bipolar disorder patients. The results suggest that

  3. Elevated plasma midkine and pleiotrophin levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Cui; Yuan, Hui; Pan, Hai-Feng; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2017-06-20

    Emerging evidence suggests that two heparin-binding growth factor, midkine and pleiotrophin are implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases including SLE. To investigate the plasma midkine and pleiotrophin levels in SLE patients, as well as their correlation with major clinical parameters and interleukin-17 (IL-17) level in SLE, 83 SLE patients and 123 controls including 20 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, 21 Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients and 82 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Plasma midkine, pleiotrophin and IL-17 levels were detected by ELISA. Midkine and pleiotrophin levels were significantly higher in SLE, RA and SS patients compared with HCs (all P < 0.05). There were significantly lower midkine and pleiotrophin levels in SLE compared to SS (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). No significant differences in midkine and pleiotrophin levels were found between SLE and RA (P = 0.240 and P = 0.074, respectively). Both plasma midkine and pleiotrophin levels were associated with rash and anti-SSA in SLE. In addition, both midkine and pleiotrophin levels were positively associated with IL-17 level in SLE (both P < 0.001). Area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for midkine and pleiotrophin were 0.606 (0.527-0.681) and 0.605 (0.526-0.680) respectively. In conclusion, elevated plasma midkine and pleiotrophin levels and their associations with rash, anti-SSA and IL-17 in SLE patients suggest their involvement in this disease.

  4. Measures for the reduction of the noise and vibration level of apartment house elevators. [changes in construction and insulation measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enescu, N.; Munteanu, M.; Stan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The reduction of the level of elevator noise and vibrations in apartment buildings was studied. By improving the mounting and gearing conditions of the winch and soundproofing the winch chamber, as well as by covering the elevator's control panel, the noise and vibration level was appreciably reduced.

  5. Transplantation of Deceased Donor Livers With Elevated Levels of Serum Transaminases at Shiraz Transplant Center

    PubMed Central

    Fakhar, Nasir; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Kazemi, Kourosh; Shamsayeefar, Ali Reza; Gholami, Siavash; Kasraianfard, Amir; Malek-Hosseini, Seyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background The current organ shortage has prompted the use of marginal organs. We conducted this retrospective study to present our experience with transplanting deceased donor livers with elevated levels of serum transaminases and to explain whether elevated levels of serum transaminases in donors affect allograft function and survival of the recipients. Methods Data of deceased donor livers and patients, who underwent liver transplantation from March 2013 to March 2015 at Shiraz center for organ transplantation, was reviewed. Liver donors with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and/or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level of more than 500 IU/l and their related recipients were considered as the case group (n = 24) and the others were considered as the control group (n = 834). Results In the case group, the medians of levels of serum AST and ALT of donors were 834 ± 425 IU/L (range: 250 - 2285) and 507 ± 367 IU/L (range: 100 - 1600), respectively. Recipients were followed for a median of 13.6 ± 9 months (range: 7 - 28.4). Post-transplant complications were acute rejection (n = 5), infection (n = 3), portal vein thrombosis (n = 3), bile duct stricture (n = 1), and hepatic artery stenosis (n = 1). The one-year survival rate of the patients was 91.7%. Demographics, post-transplant complications and one-year survival rates were not significantly different between the two study groups. Conclusions Transplanting deceased donor livers with markedly elevated liver enzymes may be an acceptable choice for expanding the donor pool. PMID:27882068

  6. Elevation of ouabainlike compound levels with hypertonic sodium chloride load in rat plasma and tissues.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Goto, A; Nagoshi, H; Terano, Y; Omata, M

    1997-07-01

    A major biologically active endogenous digitalis-like factor in the mammalian body may be an isomer of ouabain (ouabainlike compound, OLC). However, the exact role of OLC in sodium homeostasis is still unclear, and acute isotonic volume expansion does not enhance the secretion of OLC. We tested the hypothesis that OLC may be more important in the response to acute hypertonic NaCl load rather than isotonic volume expansion. We injected intraperitoneally 2 mL of 20% NaCl solution into male Wistar rats (n=34) and measured OLC levels in plasma, hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal at baseline (n=10) and 1, 2, and 4 hours (n=8 for each). In response to hypertonic NaCl loading, plasma Na-K ratio was elevated at 2 and 4 hours (P<.01). OLC levels in pituitary increased (P<.01) at 1 hour. Thereafter, plasma OLC levels increased at 2 and 4 hours (P<.05; basal, 75+/-11 pmol/L [+/-SEM]; 1 hour, 55+/-11; 2 hours, 130+/-24; 4 hours, 156+/-20). Concomitantly, OLC levels in adrenal increased at 2 and 4 hours (P<.01; basal, 1.7+/-0.2 pmol/g; 1 hour, 4.5+/-0.9; 2 hours, 5.0+/-0.7; 4 hours, 6.8+/-2.2). A significant correlation was observed between OLC levels in plasma and adrenal (P<.05). Plasma Na-K ratio positively correlated with OLC levels in plasma (r=.51, P<.01) and adrenal (r=.48, P<.01). Similar injection of physiological saline solution or hypertonic sucrose solution in physiological saline did not increase OLC levels in plasma and tissues. These findings indicate the elevation of OLC levels in plasma, pituitary, and adrenal in response to acute hypertonic NaCl load in rats and suggest that OLC may be involved in the response to the hypernatremic state.

  7. Myxedema ascites with an extremely elevated CA125 Level: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kanehara, Hideo; Bando, Yukihiro; Tomita, Manabu; Kontani, Makoto; Takegoshi, Yasuo; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi

    2007-08-01

    Carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) is a tumor-marker frequently associated with ovarian malignancies; however, benign gynecologic conditions (e.g. ovarian cysts) commonly cause a smaller increase in CA125 levels. This report describes an elderly Japanese woman with high CA125 levels and massive ascites caused by hypothyroidism. A 67-year-old woman presented herself with a weight gain of about 12 kg and abdominal distension. Her serum CA125 level was markedly elevated (822 U/ml) and abdominal CT revealed a right ovarian cyst and massive ascites. Hormonal laboratory data showed severe primary hypothyroidism with a serum TSH of 594 IU/L and a free thyroxin level of 0.05 ng/dl. Ascitic fluid was found to be exudate with a high protein content of 42 g/L. Cytological analysis and FDG-PET showed no evidence of malignancy. The ascites completely disappeared and serum CA125 normalized after adequate hormonal replacement therapy. These data suggest that hypothyroidism should be considered in patients with ascites and elevated serum CA125.

  8. Elevated levels of tenascin-C in patients with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Keiko; Sakamoto, Noriho; Mukae, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Amenomori, Misato; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hanako; Ishii, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Seiko; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Kohno, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) comprises a group of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases of unknown etiology with varying degrees of inflammation and fibrosis including cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Tenascin-C is an extracellular matrix molecule that is expressed during wound healing in various tissues. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of tenascin-C in the pathogenesis of IIPs. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure levels of tenascin-C in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from 17 patients with IPF, 12 with NSIP, 15 with COP and from 23 healthy individuals. Serum levels of tenascin-C were significantly elevated in patients with COP compared with those in all other participants, whereas those in patients with IPF and NSIP were not significantly elevated compared with healthy individuals. The levels of tenascin-C in BALF from patients with COP and NSIP were significantly higher than those of healthy individuals. In addition, serum tenascin-C was significantly correlated with levels of serum C-reactive protein, which is a serum acute phase protein. Systemic inflammation in the lung with IIPs might be associated with tenascin-C. These results suggest that tenascin-C is responsible for the pathogenesis of IIPs especially via inflammation, and that it might serve as a serum marker of COP.

  9. Elevated red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in black blood donors.

    PubMed

    Wallas, C H

    1978-01-01

    Mean levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) were significantly increased in erythrocytes (RBC) from 43 nonanemic black blood donors (4.80 +/- 0.06 micromoles/l RBC) compared with 22 white donors 4.47 +/- 0.08 micromoles/l RBCs from eight of the 12 black donors with DPG levels greater than 5 micromoles/l RBC. Although a potentially hemolytic disorder could be defined in four (AS hemoglobin, beta-Thalassemia minor, G6PD deficiency), reticulocyte counts were normal. However, when RBCs from the subgroup were compared to RBCs from an additional 25 unselected white donors, the following suggested an abnormally large population of young RBCs in the subgroup: 1) normal or elevated RBC-ATP with normal serum phosphate level; 2) significantly increased activities of RBC age-dependent enzymes hexokinase (p less than 0.02), pyruvate kinase (p less than 0.05), and glutamicoxaloacetic transaminase (p less than 0.01), with normal activity of phosphoglycerate kinase, an age-independent enzyme; 3) decreased dense (older) RBCs as determined by sedimentation in phthalate esters. Since DPG is increased in young RBCs and falls as the RBC ages, loss of older relatively DPG depleted RBCs due to shortened survival could account for the elevated DPG levels seen in the subgroup.

  10. Barrier island response to an elevated sea-level anomaly: Onslow Beach, North Carolina, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, E. J.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Fegley, S. R.; Luettich, R.

    2012-12-01

    Variations in sea level over time scales ranging from hours to millennia influence coastal processes and evolution. At annual time scales, elevated sea-level anomalies produce coastal flooding and promote beach erosion. This study examines the coastal response of Onslow Beach, North Carolina to the summer 2009 East Coast sea-level anomaly. Onslow Beach is a 12-km-long wave-dominated barrier island with highly variable along-barrier morphology. The transgressive southern portion of the island is characterized by a narrow beach, low dunes, and multiple washover fans, while the regressive northern portion is characterized by a wide beach and continuous tall dunes. Hourly tide gauge data from adjacent NOAA stations (Beaufort and Wrightsville Beach) are used to determine the timing and extent of elevated water levels. The seasonal and longer term trends (relative sea level rise) are removed from both of the water level series and the sea-level anomaly is represented by a large residual between the observed and predicted water levels. Beach response is quantified using terrestrial laser scanning for morphology and from geoprobe cores to determine the maximum depth of erosion (MDOE). The mean high water (MHW) shoreline and dune toe are digitized from digital elevation models derived from the laser scans and analyzed using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS). Landward (negative) movement of these contacts indicates erosion. Wave data collected from an Acoustic Wave and Current Meter (AWAC) located offshore of the southern end of Onslow Beach is used to characterize the wave regime throughout the study. Water level is elevated in the tide gauge data from June 2009 to March 2010. This sea-level anomaly corresponds with an increase in the maximum depth of erosion between 2009 and 2010. Landward movement of the MHW shoreline and the dunetoe increased during the period between September 2009 and May 2010 indicating an increase in beach erosion during the sea-level

  11. Neuroactive Steroids in First-Episode Psychosis: A Role for Progesterone?

    PubMed Central

    Pagotto, Uberto; Bonora, Elena; Triolo, Federico; Chiri, Luigi; Menchetti, Marco; Mondelli, Valeria; Pariante, Carmine; Berardi, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Neuroactive steroids may play a role in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders, but few studies examined this issue. We compared serum levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and progesterone between a representative sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. Furthermore, we analyzed the associations between neuroactive steroids levels and the severity of psychotic symptom dimensions. Male patients had lower levels of progesterone than controls (p = 0.03). Progesterone levels were inversely associated with the severity of positive symptoms (p = 0.007). Consistent with preclinical findings, results suggest that progesterone might have a role in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders. PMID:27747103

  12. [Progesterone for Prevention of Preterm Birth--Evidence-based Indications].

    PubMed

    Kuon, R-J; Abele, H; Berger, R; Garnier, Y; Maul, H; Schleußner, E; Rath, W

    2015-06-01

    The prevention and treatment of preterm birth remains an unsolved problem in modern obstetrics. Progesterone has a variety of actions on the myometrium and the cervix, among others inhibition of myometrial contractility and a cervix strengthening effect by inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins as well as by reducing the synthesis of proteins, which play a crucial role in initiating labour. Consequently, progesterone may be a promising candidate for the prevention of preterm birth. We searched PubMed from 1956 to August 2014 using a combination of key words and text words related to preterm birth and progesterone. ('progesterone', progestins, 17-OHPC). The aim of the literature search was to determine evidence-based indications for the use of progesterone in the prevention of preterm birth. (i) Patients with a singleton pregnancy and history of preterm birth should receive vaginal progesterone daily (200 mg capsule or 90 mg containing gel) from 16+0 to 36+0 weeks of gestation (alternatively 250 mg intramuscular 17-OHPC weekly): level of evidence 1a, grade of recommendation ++ . Prophylactic progesterone reduces the incidence of preterm birth <34 and <37 weeks of gestation and perinatal mortality significantly. (ii) Patients with singleton pregnancies and a sonographically short cervix (≤25 mm) before 24 weeks of gestation should receive vaginal progesterone daily (200 mg capsule or 90 mg containing gel) until 36+6 weeks of gestation: level of evidence 1a, grade of recommendation ++ . Prophylactic progesterone leads to a significant reduction in the incidence of preterm birth <28, <33, and <35 weeks of gestation and is associated with a significant reduction of neonatal morbidity. (III) There is a lack of evidence to recommend vaginal progesterone or intramuscular 17-OHPC for primary tocolysis or for "adjunctive" tocolysis (in combination with conventional tocolytic agents). (IV) There is a growing body of

  13. Elevation of liver enzyme levels during psychopharmacological treatment is associated with weight gain.

    PubMed

    Himmerich, Hubertus; Kaufmann, Christian; Schuld, Andreas; Pollmächer, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Increased circulating levels of liver enzymes emerging during treatment with psychotropic drugs are frequently encountered and, in general, attributed to drug metabolism or toxic effects. Because obesity was shown to be associated with elevated liver enzyme levels in different non-psychiatric study samples, we hypothesized that drug-induced weight gain might be an additional causative factor. We tested this hypothesis in 67 inpatients who received psychopharmacological treatment across five weeks. Stepwise linear regression was used to predict changes in the serum levels of aspartate-amino transferase (ASAT) and alanine-amino transferase (ALAT) by changes in the body mass index (BMI), by changes in other biological parameters related to body weight (tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha], soluble TNF receptors [sTNF-R], interleukin-6 [IL-6], leptin plasma levels) and by the respective liver enzyme baseline level. BMI changes from baseline to endpoint were significantly associated with the changes in ALAT and ASAT levels across five weeks of treatment and with ALAT and ASAT levels at the end point of the study. The baseline levels of ALAT and ASAT also had a significant impact on these liver enzyme level changes, whereas all other variables had not. These results suggest that weight gain-associated metabolic changes occurring during treatment with psychotropic drugs have consistent and clinically relevant effects on the liver.

  14. Elevated serum neopterin level: its relation to endotoxaemia and sepsis in patients with major burns.

    PubMed

    Yao, Y M; Yu, Y; Wang, Y P; Tian, H M; Sheng, Z Y

    1996-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between levels of neopterin and endotoxin in the circulation, and whether the neopterin level was related to the development of severe sepsis after extensive burns. This prospective study included 35 patients with burn size greater than 30% (30-98%), and 22 healthy volunteers who served as a comparison group. Neopterin levels increased in most patients on day 3 post-burn, but they were not significantly correlated with the extent of the burn surface (P > 0 center dot 05). A high serum neopterin level was found in patients with sepsis (n = 15), and a marked elevation persisted throughout the observation period. The difference between septic and non-septic patients (n = 20) became significant on 14 and 28 days post-burn. Although the presence of early endotoxaemia did not influence the alterations in serum neopterin, patients with endotoxaemia had much higher neopterin values than those who showed no endotoxaemia from the second week onward (P < 0 center dot 05-0 center dot 01). In addition, circulating endotoxin and neopterin levels were positively correlated in patients who developed endotoxaemia on day 14 (r = 0 center dot 368, P < 0 center dot 05) and day 21 (r = 0 center dot 439, P < 0 center dot 01) after major burns. These results suggest that thermal injury can lead to an elevation of serum neopterin independent of the burn surface area. The initial increase in the neopterin level may be a part of the acute-phase response to tissue injury itself, whereas the endotoxin release in the circulation may be responsible for the continuous induction of neopterin during the late stage. In addition, the presence of a constant high neopterin level is associated with a critical event in the development of severe burn sepsis.

  15. Identification of the source of elevated hepatocyte growth factor levels in multiple myeloma patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine which can lead to cancer cell proliferation, migration and metastasis. In multiple myeloma (MM) patients it is an abundant component of the bone marrow. HGF levels are elevated in 50% of patients and associated with poor prognosis. Here we aim to investigate its source in myeloma. Methods HGF mRNA levels in bone marrow core biopsies from healthy individuals and myeloma patients were quantified by real-time PCR. HGF gene expression profiling in CD138+ cells isolated from bone marrow aspirates of healthy individuals and MM patients was performed by microarray analysis. HGF protein concentrations present in peripheral blood of MM patients were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cytogenetic status of CD138+ cells was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA sequencing of the HGF gene promoter. HGF secretion in co-cultures of human myeloma cell lines and bone marrow stromal cells was measured by ELISA. Results HGF gene expression profiling in both bone marrow core biopsies and CD138+ cells showed elevated HGF mRNA levels in myeloma patients. HGF mRNA levels in biopsies and in myeloma cells correlated. Quantification of HGF protein levels in serum also correlated with HGF mRNA levels in CD138+ cells from corresponding patients. Cytogenetic analysis showed myeloma cell clones with HGF copy numbers between 1 and 3 copies. There was no correlation between HGF copy number and HGF mRNA levels. Co-cultivation of the human myeloma cell lines ANBL-6 and JJN3 with bone marrow stromal cells or the HS-5 cell line resulted in a significant increase in secreted HGF. Conclusions We here show that in myeloma patients HGF is primarily produced by malignant plasma cells, and that HGF production by these cells might be supported by the bone marrow microenvironment. Considering the fact that elevated HGF serum and plasma levels predict poor prognosis, these findings are of

  16. Elevated resistin levels induce central leptin resistance and increased atherosclerotic progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Asterholm, Ingrid W; Rutkowski, Joseph M; Fujikawa, Teppei; Cho, You-Ree; Fukuda, Makoto; Tao, Caroline; Wang, Zhao V; Gupta, Rana K; Elmquist, Joel K; Scherer, Philipp E

    2014-06-01

    Resistin was originally identified as an adipocyte-derived factor upregulated during obesity and as a contributor to obesity-associated insulin resistance. Clinically, resistin has also been implicated in cardiovascular disease in a number of different patient populations. Our aim was to simultaneously address these phenomena. We generated mice with modest adipocyte-specific resistin overexpression. These mice were crossed with mice deficient in the LDL receptor (Ldlr (-/-)) to probe the physiological role of resistin. Both metabolic and atherosclerotic assessments were performed. Resistin overexpression led to increased atherosclerotic progression in Ldlr (-/-) mice. This was in part related to elevated serum triacylglycerol levels and a reduced ability to clear triacylglycerol upon a challenge. Additional phenotypic changes, such as increased body weight and reduced glucose clearance, independent of the Ldlr (-/-) background, confirmed increased adiposity associated with a more pronounced insulin resistance. A hallmark of elevated resistin was the disproportionate increase in circulating leptin levels. These mice thus recapitulated both the proposed negative cardiovascular correlation and the insulin resistance. A unifying mechanism for this complex phenotype was a resistin-mediated central leptin resistance, which we demonstrate directly both in vivo and in organotypic brain slices. In line with reduced sympathetic nervous system outflow, we found decreased brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity. The resulting elevated triacylglycerol levels provide a likely explanation for accelerated atherosclerosis. Resistin overexpression leads to a complex metabolic phenotype driven by resistin-mediated central leptin resistance and reduced BAT activity. Hypothalamic leptin resistance thus provides a unifying mechanism for both resistin-mediated insulin resistance and enhanced atherosclerosis.

  17. Nitrate retention in riparian ground water at natural and elevated nitrate levels in north central Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Duff, John H; Jackman, Alan P; Triska, Frank J; Sheibley, Richard W; Avanzino, Ronald J

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between local ground water flows and NO(3)(-) transport to the channel was examined in three well transects from a natural, wooded riparian zone adjacent to the Shingobee River, MN. The hillslope ground water originated as recharge from intermittently grazed pasture up slope of the site. In the hillslope transect perpendicular to the stream, ground water NO(3)(-) concentrations decreased from approximately 3 mg N L(-1) beneath the ridge (80 m from the channel) to 0.01 to 1.0 mg N L(-1) at wells 1 to 3 m from the channel. The Cl(-) concentrations and NO(3)/Cl ratios decreased toward the channel indicating NO(3)(-) dilution and biotic retention. In the bankside well transect parallel to the stream, two distinct ground water environments were observed: an alluvial environment upstream of a relict beaver dam influenced by stream water and a hillslope environment downstream of the relict beaver dam. Nitrate was elevated to levels representative of agricultural runoff in a third well transect located approximately 5 m from the stream to assess the effectiveness of the riparian zone as a NO(3)(-) sink. Subsurface NO(3)(-) injections revealed transport of up to 15 mg N L(-1) was nearly conservative in the alluvial riparian environment. Addition of glucose stimulated dissolved oxygen uptake and promoted NO(3)(-) retention under both background and elevated NO(3)(-) levels in summer and winter. Disappearance of added NO(3)(-) was followed by transient NO(2)(-) formation and, in the presence of C(2)H(2), by N(2)O formation, demonstrating potential denitrification. Under current land use, most NO(3)(-) associated with local ground water is biotically retained or diluted before reaching the channel. However, elevating NO(3)(-) levels through agricultural cultivation would likely result in increased NO(3)(-) transport to the channel.

  18. Nitrate retention in riparian ground water at natural and elevated nitrate levels in North Central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duff, J.H.; Jackman, A.P.; Triska, F.J.; Sheibley, R.W.; Avanzino, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between local ground water flows and NO3- transport to the channel was examined in three well transects from a natural, wooded riparian zone adjacent to the Shingobee River, MN. The hillslope ground water originated as recharge from intermittently grazed pasture up slope of the site. In the hillslope transect perpendicular to the stream, ground water NO3- concentrations decreased from ???3 mg N L-1 beneath the ridge (80 m from the channel) to 0.01 to 1.0 mg N L-1 at wells 1 to 3 m from the channel. The Cl- concentrations and NO3/Cl ratios decreased toward the channel indicating NO3- dilution and biotic retention. In the bankside well transect parallel to the stream, two distinct ground water environments were observed: an alluvial environment upstream of a relict beaver dam influenced by stream water and a hillslope environment downstream of the relict beaver dam. Nitrate was elevated to levels representative of agricultural runoff in a third well transect looted ???5 m from the stream to assess the effectiveness of the riparian zone as a NO3- sink. Subsurface NO3- injections revealed transport of up to 15 mg N L-1 was nearly conservative in the alluvial riparian environment. Addition of glucose stimulated dissolved oxygen uptake and promoted NO3- retention under both background and elevated NO 3- levels in summer and winter. Disappearance of added NO3- was followed by transient NO2- formation and, in the presence of C2H2, by N2O formation, demonstrating potential denitrification. Under current land use, most NO3- associated with local ground water is biotically retained or diluted before reaching the channel. However, elevating NO 3- levels through agricultural cultivation would likely result in increased NO3- transport to the channel. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  19. The ontogeny of individual vs. stand-level responses to elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1994-06-01

    Plant species appear to differ widely in terms of growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2]; however, most existing comparative data are limited to observations made early in the ontogeny on plants grown an isolated individuals. We examined growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2] in nine species of herbaceous plants, including three erect annuals (genera included Abutilon, Ambrosia, and Cassia) three grasses (Dactylis, Lolium, Panicum), and three rosette species (Plantago, Rumex, and Taraxacum), each grown as isolated individuals and as dense monocultures in ambient (350 ppm) and 2X ambient (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] atmospheres in a glasshouse over 5-6 mo. Soil texture, depth, and nutrient conditions matched those of waste areas in western Massachusetts. On the basis of non-destructive estimates of leaf area index (LAI), all species exhibited large early growth responses to CO[sub 2], ranging up to 50-120%. However, later in stand ontogeny LAI consistently converged between CO[sub 2] treatments, eventually becoming lower at ambient than at elevated CO[sub 2] in most species. Final total biomass effects at the stand level were in the range of 0-10% enhancements, with no consistent differences among growth forms. Reproductive output was significantly reduced by elevated CO[sub 2] in several species, including some with very high early growth enhancements. Our results strongly suggest that CO[sub 2] effects on early growth of individual plants greatly overestimate longer term effects on species performance and net ecosystem carbon gain.

  20. β-Alanine dose for maintaining moderately elevated muscle carnosine levels.

    PubMed

    Stegen, Sanne; Bex, Tine; Vervaet, Chris; Vanhee, Lander; Achten, Eric; Derave, Wim

    2014-07-01

    Chronic β-alanine (BA) supplementation is an increasingly popular nutritional strategy, because it can elevate muscle carnosine content and thereby enhance high-intensity exercise performance. The current study investigated 1) whether sex and body mass are determinants of BA-induced muscle carnosine loading and 2) the optimal maintenance dose for ensuring constantly elevated muscle carnosine stores. During the loading phase, 34 participants (men and women) were supplemented with 3.2 g (4 × 800 mg) BA per day for 46 d (slightly different loading strategies were applied concerning the effect of meal timing and supplementation form). Thereafter, 19 participants (men and women) continued taking free-powder BA for six more weeks (maintenance phase). The participants were matched and redivided into three groups receiving 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g·d(-1) BA, respectively. Muscle carnosine content was measured in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Body mass and sex had only minimal effect on the absolute increase in muscle carnosine. Given the lower baseline values in women, the relative increase for women was higher, indicating that women required less BA for the same relative increase. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between body mass and the relative increase in muscle carnosine (r = -0.45, P = 0.007). A maintenance dose of ∼1.2 g·d(-1) BA was the most effective in keeping muscle carnosine content elevated at the postsupplementation level. Sex and body mass did not markedly affect the absolute increase during muscle carnosine loading, although they are determinants for the relative increase. In addition, we established for the first time an effective maintenance dose of ∼1.2 g·d(-1) BA to keep muscle carnosine content elevated at 30%-50% above baseline for a prolonged period.

  1. Effects of elevated CO2 levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress*

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yan; Tang, Shi-rong; Ju, Xue-hai; Shu, Li-na; Tu, Shu-xing; Feng, Ren-wei; Giusti, Lorenzino

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO2 levels and cadmium (Cd) on the root morphological traits and Cd accumulation in Lolium multiflorum Lam. and Lolium perenne L. exposed to two CO2 levels (360 and 1000 μl/L) and three Cd levels (0, 4, and 16 mg/L) under hydroponic conditions. The results show that elevated levels of CO2 increased shoot biomass more, compared to root biomass, but decreased Cd concentrations in all plant tissues. Cd exposure caused toxicity to both Lolium species, as shown by the restrictions of the root morphological parameters including root length, surface area, volume, and tip numbers. These parameters were significantly higher under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2, especially for the number of fine roots. The increases in magnitudes of those parameters triggered by elevated levels of CO2 under Cd stress were more than those under non-Cd stress, suggesting an ameliorated Cd stress under elevated levels of CO2. The total Cd uptake per pot, calculated on the basis of biomass, was significantly greater under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2. Ameliorated Cd toxicity, decreased Cd concentration, and altered root morphological traits in both Lolium species under elevated levels of CO2 may have implications in food safety and phytoremediation. PMID:21462388

  2. Elevated serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Young; Jang, Sun Hee; Kim, Song Yee; Chung, Kyung Soo; Song, Joo Han; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kang, Young Ae

    2016-01-01

    Increased serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with nonmalignant diseases have been investigated in previous reports. This study evaluates the clinical significance of serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease and pulmonary tuberculosis. The median CA 19-9 level was higher in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease than in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease: 13.80, tuberculosis: 5.85, p<0.001). A multivariate logistic regression analysis performed in this study showed that Mycobacterium abscessus (OR 9.97, 95% CI: 1.58, 62.80; p=0.014) and active phase of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease (OR 12.18, 95% CI: 1.07, 138.36, p=0.044) were found to be risk factors for serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. The serum CA 19-9 levels showed a tendency to decrease during successful treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease but not in pulmonary tuberculosis. These findings suggest that CA 19-9 may be a useful marker for monitoring therapeutic responses in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, although it is not pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease-specific marker.

  3. Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide elevates circulating glucose in maternal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, L.J.; Goeden, H.; Roth, S.H. )

    1990-09-01

    Although the lethal effect of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) has long been known, the results of exposure to low levels of H{sub 2}S have not been well documented. Rat dams and pups were exposed to low levels of H{sub 2}S (less than or equal to 75 ppm) from d 1 of gestation until d 21 postpartum and analyzed for changes in circulating enzymatic activity and metabolites. Blood glucose was significantly elevated in maternal blood on d 21 postpartum at all exposure levels. This increase in glucose was accompanied by a possible decrease in serum triglyceride in the pups and in the dams on d 21 postpartum. There was no evidence of alterations in serum alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, or serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase.

  4. Role of transport in elevated CO levels over Delhi during onset phase of monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Reka; Beig, Gufran; Peshin, Sunil K.

    2016-09-01

    While local anthropogenic emission sources contribute significantly to pollutant levels in a megacity Delhi, meteorology can significantly modulate carbon monoxide (CO) levels. We hereby demonstrate that the concentration of CO during the unusual onset of monsoon 2013 was dramatically elevated and crossed the permissible limit (1.7 ppmv) for about a month long-period as against normal onset of monsoon where CO concentration generally drops down significantly. We compare level of CO in 2013 with normal monsoon year 2012. We provide a hypothesis to interpret this long lasting high concentration CO episode and validate using interactive high resolution WRF-Chem model. The model indicates that the high CO episode was caused by an unusually active Bay of Bengal branch of monsoon which bounces off from the east and transports CO rich air from the eastern part of the Indo Gangetic Plains to Delhi.

  5. A time trend study of significantly elevated perfluorocarboxylate levels in humans after using fluorinated ski wax.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Helena; Kärrman, Anna; Westberg, Håkan; Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Lindström, Gunilla

    2010-03-15

    A time trend study focusing on ski waxing technicians' exposure to perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) from fluorinated wax fumes was performed in 2007/2008. Levels of eight perfluorocarboxylates and three perfluorosulfonates were analyzed in monthly blood samples from eight technicians. Samples were collected before the ski season, i.e., preseason, then at four FIS World Cup competitions in cross country skiing, and finally during an unexposed 5-month postseason period. The perfluorinated carboxylates perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) bioaccumulate, and continued exposure may contribute to elevated levels in ski technicians compared to the general population. The wax technicians' median blood level of PFOA is 112 ng/mL compared to 2.5 ng/mL in the general Swedish population. A significant correlation was found between number of working years and levels of perfluorocarboxylates. The PFOA levels in three technicians with "low" initial levels of PFOA (<10.0 ng/mL in preseason blood) increased by 254, 134, and 120%, whereas five technicians with "high" initial levels (>100 ng/mL in preseason sample) were at steady state. PFHxA is suggested to have a short half-life in humans relative the other perfluorocarboxylates. The levels of perfluorosulfonates were unaffected by the wax exposure.

  6. Elevated serum levels of MMP-11 correlate with poor prognosis in colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Pang, Li; Wang, Da-Wei; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Da-Hai; Meng, Xiang-Wei

    2016-03-11

    Matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11) has been shown to play a key role in human tumor progression and indicates poor clinical outcome in cancer patients. The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum levels of MMP-11 and prognosis in colon cancer patients. Serum levels of MMP-11 were determined in 92 colon cancer patients and 92 healthy individuals using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Associations between serum MMP-11 levels and clinicopathological characteristics of the patients and their outcomes were investigated. Survival analyses were performed to measure the 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Serum MMP-11 levels were substantially higher in colon cancer patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, serum MMP-11 levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced T status, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and a higher TNM stage. Elevated serum levels of MMP-11 were identified as an independent prognostic factor for 5-year mortality and adverse events associated with colon cancer. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified the serum MMP-11 level as an independent predictor of OS and DFS. Our study established that high serum levels of MMP-11 are associated with poor clinical outcome and may serve as a prognostic biomarker in colon cancer patients.

  7. Greek rheumatoid arthritis patients have elevated levels of antibodies against antigens from Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Georgios; Christopoulou, V; Routsias, J G; Babionitakis, A; Antoniadis, C; Vaiopoulos, G

    2017-03-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from different ethnic groups present elevated levels of antibodies against Proteus mirabilis. This finding implicates P. mirabilis in the development of RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of P. mirabilis in the etiopathogenesis of RA in Greek RA patients. In this study, 63 patients with RA and 38 healthy controls were included. Class-specific antibodies IgM, IgG, and IgA against three human cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive synthetic peptides from P. mirabilis-hemolysin (HpmB), urease C (UreC), and urease F (UreF)-were performed in all subjects, using the ELISA method. RA patients had elevated levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies against HpmB and UreC Proteus peptide which are significantly different compared to healthy controls: p = 0.005, p < 0.001, and p = 0.003 and p = 0.007, p = 0.002, and p < 0.001, correspondingly. Also, elevated levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies against the UreF Proteus peptide-which are non-cross-reactive with human tissue antigens-were observed and their significant difference compared to healthy controls (p = 0.007, p < 0.001, p < 0.001). Anti-peptide antibodies in RA patients showed a significant correlation with rheumatoid factors (Rf), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP), especially when patients were divided into subgroups according to the receiving treatment. Greek RA patients present elevated levels of antibodies against P. mirabilis antigenic epitopes, such as in North European populations, albeit Greek RA patients presenting the cross-reaction antigen in a low percentage. These results indicate that P. mirabilis through the molecular mimicry mechanism leads to inflammation and damage of the joints in RA.

  8. Ovarian tumors with elevated CA-125 levels and severe juvenile hypothyroidism: a need for increased awareness.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Seth, Anju; Puri, Archana; Anand, Rama; Aneja, Satinder

    2010-06-01

    A 15-yr-old girl presented with bilateral gross ovarian tumors, clinical features of long-standing unrecognized hypothyroidism and markedly elevated CA-125 levels. Ovarian resection was avoided, as the presentation was consistent with the Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome; and the patient was treated with replacement of thyroid hormone. Regression of the ovarian tumors occurred 6 months after initiation of the treatment. The authors emphasise the need for increased awareness and screening for hypothyroidism in patients with ovarian tumors, in order to prevent inadvertent operative interventions.

  9. Elevated levels of tryparedoxin peroxidase in antimony unresponsive Leishmania donovani field isolates

    PubMed Central

    Wyllie, Susan; Mandal, Goutam; Singh, Neeloo; Sundar, Shyam; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2012-01-01

    Enhancement of the anti-oxidant metabolism of Leishmania parasites, dependent upon the unique dithiol trypanothione, has been implicated in laboratory-generated antimony resistance. Here, the role of the trypanothione-dependent anti-oxidant pathway is studied in antimony-resistant clinical isolates. Elevated levels of tryparedoxin and tryparedoxin peroxidase, key enzymes in hydroperoxide detoxification, were observed in antimonial resistant parasites resulting in an increased metabolism of peroxides. These data suggest that enhanced anti-oxidant defences may play significant in clinical resistance to antimonials. PMID:20553768

  10. Elevation of circulating LOX-1 ligand levels in Zucker obese and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Shimomura, Tomoko; Nakanishi, Mamoru; Uchida, Kagehiro

    2015-01-01

    LOX-1 ligands containing apolipoprotein B (LAB) reflect ligand activity of LOX-1, which is a key molecule for initiation of atherosclerosis. The Zucker rat is a well-known model used for research on obesity and diabetes. Blood levels of LAB were compared among Zucker fatty (ZF), Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Zucker lean (ZL) rats. Log-transformed LAB was significantly higher in ZF and ZDF rats than in control ZL rats, while no significant difference was found in log-transformed LAB of ZF and ZDF rats. This study for the first time demonstrated that circulating LOX-1 ligands were elevated in obesity and diabetes model rats.

  11. 21 CFR 556.540 - Progesterone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Progesterone. 556.540 Section 556.540 Food and... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.540 Progesterone. No residues of progesterone are permitted in excess of the following increments above the concentrations of progesterone naturally present in untreated...

  12. 21 CFR 556.540 - Progesterone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Progesterone. 556.540 Section 556.540 Food and... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.540 Progesterone. (a) (b) Tolerances. Residues of progesterone are not permitted in excess of the following increments above the concentrations of progesterone naturally present...

  13. 21 CFR 556.540 - Progesterone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Progesterone. 556.540 Section 556.540 Food and... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.540 Progesterone. (a) (b) Tolerances. Residues of progesterone are not permitted in excess of the following increments above the concentrations of progesterone naturally present...

  14. 21 CFR 556.540 - Progesterone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Progesterone. 556.540 Section 556.540 Food and... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.540 Progesterone. (a) (b) Tolerances. Residues of progesterone are not permitted in excess of the following increments above the concentrations of progesterone naturally present...

  15. Nuclear progesterone receptor expression in the human fetal membranes and decidua at term before and after labor.

    PubMed

    Merlino, Amy; Welsh, Toni; Erdonmez, Tan; Madsen, Gemma; Zakar, Tamas; Smith, Roger; Mercer, Brian; Mesiano, Sam

    2009-04-01

    To explore how progesterone affects human pregnancy, we identified the progesterone target cells within the fetal membranes (amnion, chorion, and decidua) at term by assessing the extent of expression and localization of the nuclear progesterone receptors, progesterone receptor-A and progesterone receptor-B. Fetal membranes (separated into amnion and chorion-decidua) were obtained after term cesarean deliveries performed before (n = 7) and after (n = 7) labor onset. Nuclear progesterone receptor expression was determined by the abundance of nuclear progesterone receptor mRNAs (by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) and proteins (by western blotting). Localization of nPRs was determined by immunohistochemistry. Progesterone receptor-A and progesterone receptor-B mRNA and protein levels were highest in the chorion-decidua and did not change in association with labor. Nuclear progesterone receptor mRNAs and proteins were barely detectable in amnion. Nuclear progesterone receptor immunostaining was detected only in the nucleus of decidual cells. These findings suggest that the decidua, and not the amnion and chorion, is a direct target for nuclear progesterone receptor-mediated progesterone actions during human pregnancy.

  16. Serum levels of genomic DNA of α1(I) collagen are elevated in scleroderma patients.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Soichiro; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Shimbara, Miki; Nakamura, Kayo; Kudo, Hideo; Inoue, Kuniko; Nakayama, Wakana; Kajihara, Ikko; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2017-03-31

    Recent studies have indicated that various nucleic acids are present in human sera, and attracted attention for their potential as novel disease markers in many human diseases. In this study, we tried to evaluate the possibility that DNA and RNA of collagens exist in human sera, and determined whether their serum levels can be useful biomarkers in scleroderma patients. The RNA or DNA of collagens were purified from sera, and detected by polymerase chain reaction or quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Among approximately 18 360 bases of full-length α1(I) collagen DNA, various regions were detected by polymerase chain reaction in human sera. However, α2(I) collagen DNA, α1(I) collagen RNA or α2(I) collagen RNA were not detectable. α1(I) Collagen DNA in sera was quantitative using our method. The levels of serum α1(I) collagen DNA were significantly increased in scleroderma patients compared with healthy control subjects or systemic lupus erythematosus patients. According to the receiver-operator curve analysis, serum α1(I) collagen DNA levels were shown to be effective as a diagnostic marker of scleroderma. Furthermore, when we determined the association of serum α1(I) collagen DNA levels with clinical/laboratory features in scleroderma patients, those with elevated α1(I) collagen DNA levels showed significantly higher prevalence of pitting scars/ulcers. In summary, elevation of serum α1(I) collagen DNA levels in scleroderma patients may be useful as the diagnostic marker, reflecting the presence of vasculopathy.

  17. Effect of nutrition on plasma progesterone levels, metabolic parameters and small follicles development in unstimulated goats reared under constant photoperiod regimen.

    PubMed

    Rondina, D; Freitas, V J F; Spinaci, M; Galeati, G

    2005-12-01

    Sixteen local adult goats were submitted for 9 weeks to 2.09 (high group) and 0.54 (low group) x dietary maintenance respectively. During the experimental period, goats were weighed, oestrus was detected and plasma insulin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids and progesterone concentrations were assessed. At the end of the experiment, ovarian small follicles population was studied by histological analysis. Final weight loss in low group was 18.37 +/- 2.02%, whereas weight gain of high group was 13.84 +/- 2.70%. Insulin and urea were lower in low group, while non-esterified fatty acids were significantly higher. A lower number of fasted goats was in oestrus or ovulated and an extended length of oestrus (p < 0.05) and a higher frequency of short or long cycles (p < 0.05) were also observed. Fed animals showed heavier ovaries (p < 0.01) and a lower number of primordial follicles (p < 0.05). In restricted goats a significant qualitative alteration of follicle classes involved in the initiation process of primordial pool was found. In this phase, granulosa thickness and oocyte size were the most affected (p < 0.01). However in small follicles beyond the primary stage no differences were found between the groups in either number or qualitative characteristics (p > 0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that opposite dietary intakes for a medium period induce a composite reproductive response in goats and can regulate the early onset of follicle growth.

  18. Lake Levels in Northeastern South Dakota Reach Historical Maximum Elevations in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. T.; Driscoll, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    The hydroclimatic conditions in the winter and spring of 2011 in eastern South Dakota combined to raise lake levels to historical maximums in northeastern South Dakota. The high lake levels caused extensive damage to lakeside homes and the transportation grid of rural, county, and State roads. These lake levels are one more manifestation of long-term upward trends of precipitation and streamflow conditions for the area. For example, upward trends are evident in the annual streamflow records for the James and Big Sioux Rivers in eastern South Dakota (Anderson and others, 2008). Levels in Waubay Lake in Day County reached an elevation of 1805.36 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 on July 18, 2011, exceeding the previous maximum level that occurred in 1999 by 1.36 feet. Anecdotal evidence and measurements indicate that many other lakes also reached maximum levels in 2011, such as Bitter Lake (1802.98 feet), Blue Dog Lake (1805.80), and Rush Lake (1805.75). These lakes are within a closed basin, with Bitter Lake being the terminal lake. At an estimated elevation of about 1811 feet, water in the Waubay-Bitter Lake system would begin to flow into the Big Sioux River. Some areas of the glaciated terrain of eastern South Dakota have such low topographic relief, that comparatively small increases in lake levels can inundate large land areas. The valuable historical archive of freely available satellite imagery from the U.S. Geological Survey permits analysis of the areal extent of flooding. Landsat and France's SPOT (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre) imagery are coupled with lake-level hydrographs to clearly depict change in land-surface inundation over time. Image analysis will present the change in flooded acreage from minimum lake levels in 1976 to maximum levels in July 2011 for Day County. The hydroclimatic trends are indicating wetter conditions, which leaves open the possibility that lake levels may continue to rise in future years.

  19. Elevated prolactin levels immediately precede decisions to babysit by male meerkat helpers.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Russell, Andrew F; Young, Andrew J; Jordan, Neil R; McNeilly, Alan S; Parlow, Al F; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2006-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that decisions to care for the offspring of others in societies of cooperative vertebrates may have a hormonal basis. The crucial question of whether changes in hormone levels immediately precede or merely follow bouts of offspring care, however, remains largely unanswered. Here, we show that in wild groups of cooperatively breeding meerkats, male helpers that decided to babysit for the day had significantly higher levels of prolactin, coupled with lower levels of cortisol, before initiating a babysitting session compared with similarly aged individuals that decided to forage. In addition, these hormonal differences disappeared over the course of the day, suggesting that hormone levels changed in a fundamentally different way in meerkats that babysat versus those that foraged. In contrast, long-term contributions to babysitting were not significantly associated with plasma levels of prolactin, cortisol, or testosterone in individual male helpers. Our results show, for the first time, that elevated levels of prolactin may immediately precede bouts of helping behavior but differ from recent findings on the same study population in which plasma levels of cortisol, but not prolactin, were significantly and positively associated with rates of pup feeding by male helpers. Together, these results lend significant weight to the idea that decisions to help in cooperative vertebrates have a hormonal basis, although different hormones appear to be associated with different types of care.

  20. Sirolimus Therapy Is Associated with Elevation in Circulating PCSK9 Levels in Cardiac Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Simha, Vinaya; Qin, Sisi; Shah, Pankaj; Smith, Byron H; Kremers, Walter K; Kushwaha, Sudhir; Wang, Liewei; Pereira, Naveen L

    2017-02-01

    Sirolimus used in transplantation is often associated with hypercholesterolemia. We measured serum lipid and PCSK9 levels in 51 heart transplant recipients who had their immunosuppressive therapy switched from calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus. The switch resulted in a 23% increase in LDL cholesterol, and 46% increase in triglycerides and PCSK9 levels increased from 316 ± 105 ng/mL to 343 ± 107 ng/mL (p = 0.04), however the change in PCSK9 levels did not correlate with an increase in lipid levels (p = 0.2). To investigate the mechanism for the variability in the change in PCSK9 levels, lymphoblastoid cell lines were incubated with both sirolimus and everolimus, resulting in a 2-3 fold increase in PCSK9 expression and protein levels in mTOR inhibitor sensitive but not in mTOR inhibitor resistant cell lines. This first in human study demonstrates that sirolimus therapy is associated with elevation in PCSK9 levels which is not associated with sirolimus-induced hypercholesterolemia.

  1. Non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas are associated with elevated D-dimer levels.

    PubMed

    Yener, S; Comlekci, A; Akinci, B; Secil, M; Demir, T; Ertilav, S; Yesil, S

    2009-04-01

    Although the majority of adrenal incidentalomas (AI) are non-functioning, studies evaluating metabolic disturbances in this particular group are limited. The objective of this study is to investigate metabolic syndrome components and levels of plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF), fibrinogen, and D-dimer in subjects with non-functioning AI. Forty-five subjects without clinical and subclinical findings of hypercortisolism or other adrenal gland disorders and 37 healthy controls were enrolled. The patients and controls underwent hormonal evaluation including morning cortisol, ACTH, post-dexamethasone suppression test (DST), morning cortisol, DHEAS, and urinary free cortisol. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters and body composition were assessed and fibrinogen, D-dimer, and VWF were measured. When compared with healthy controls, subjects with AI had significant elevations in several metabolic and anthropometric parameters, uric acid, post-DST cortisol, and D-dimer. When compared with body mass index-matched controls, blood pressure (p=0.004), uric acid (p=0.009), post-DST cortisol (p=0.014), and D-dimer (p=0.045) remained significantly elevated. We demonstrated weak correlations between D-dimer and other metabolic and anthropometric variables. Morning cortisol was demonstrated as an independent variable associated with homeostasis model assessment levels in subjects with AI (beta=410, p=0.004). Individuals with clinically and hormonally inactive adrenal adenomas feature insulin resistance and a variety of metabolic disturbances. The subtle cortisol autonomy seems to be associated with insulin-resistant state. D-dimer elevation in AI group was a consequence of insulin-resistant state associated with subtle cortisol autonomy rather than a direct effect of cortisol secretion.

  2. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Associated with Retained Bullet Fragments - United States, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Debora; Tomasallo, Carrie D; Meiman, Jon G; Alarcon, Walter; Graber, Nathan M; Bisgard, Kristine M; Anderson, Henry A

    2017-02-10

    An estimated 115,000 firearm injuries occur annually in the United States, and approximately 70% are nonfatal (1). Retained bullet fragments (RBFs) are an infrequently reported, but important, cause of lead toxicity; symptoms are often nonspecific and can appear years after suffering a gunshot wound (2,3). Adult blood lead level (BLL) screening is most commonly indicated for monitoring of occupational lead exposure; routine testing of adults with RBFs is infrequent (3). States collaborate with CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to monitor elevated BLLs through the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program (4,5). To help assess the public health burden of RBFs, data for persons with BLLs ≥10 μg/dL reported to ABLES during 2003-2012 were analyzed. An RBF-associated case was defined as a BLL ≥10 μg/dL in a person with an RBF. A non-RBF-associated case was defined as a BLL ≥10 μg/dL without an RBF. During 2003-2012, a total of 145,811 persons aged ≥16 years with BLLs ≥10 μg/dL were reported to ABLES in 41 states. Among these, 457 RBF-associated cases were identified with a maximum RBF-associated BLL of 306 μg/dL. RBF-associated cases accounted for 0.3% of all BLLs ≥10 μg/dL and 4.9% of BLLs ≥80 μg/dL. Elevated BLLs associated with RBFs occurred primarily among young adult males in nonoccupational settings. Low levels of suspicion of lead toxicity from RBFs by medical providers might cause a delay in diagnosis (3). Health care providers should inquire about an RBF as the potential cause for lead toxicity in an adult with an elevated BLL whose lead exposure is undetermined.

  3. Slow intestinal transit contributes to elevate urinary p-cresol level in Italian autistic children.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Altieri, Laura; Neri, Cristina; Urbani, Andrea; Bravaccio, Carmela; Riccio, Maria Pia; Iovene, Maria Rosaria; Bombace, Francesca; De Magistris, Laura; Persico, Antonio M

    2016-07-01

    The uremic toxin p-cresol (4-methylphenol) is either of environmental origin or can be synthetized from tyrosine by cresol-producing bacteria present in the gut lumen. Elevated p-cresol amounts have been previously found in the urines of Italian and French autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children up until 8 years of age, and may be associated with autism severity or with the intensity of abnormal behaviors. This study aims to investigate the mechanism producing elevated urinary p-cresol in ASD. Urinary p-cresol levels were thus measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in a sample of 53 Italian ASD children assessed for (a) presence of Clostridium spp. strains in the gut by means of an in vitro fecal stool test and of Clostridium difficile-derived toxin A/B in the feces, (b) intestinal permeability using the lactulose/mannitol (LA/MA) test, (c) frequent use of antibiotics due to recurrent infections during the first 2 years of postnatal life, and (d) stool habits with the Bristol Stool Form Scale. Chronic constipation was the only variable significantly associated with total urinary p-cresol concentration (P < 0.05). No association was found with presence of Clostridium spp. in the gut flora (P = 0.92), augmented intestinal permeability (P = 0.18), or frequent use of antibiotics in early infancy (P = 0.47). No ASD child was found to carry C. difficile in the gut or to release toxin A/B in the feces. In conclusion, urinary p-cresol levels are elevated in young ASD children with increased intestinal transit time and chronic constipation. Autism Res 2016, 9: 752-759. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Elevated level of acetylation of APE1 in tumor cells modulates DNA damage repair

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Shiladitya; Mantha, Anil K.; Song, Heyu; Roychoudhury, Shrabasti; Nath, Somsubhra; Ray, Sutapa; Bhakat, Kishor K.

    2016-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are frequently generated in the genome by spontaneous depurination/depyrimidination or after removal of oxidized/modified bases by DNA glycosylases during the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Unrepaired AP sites are mutagenic and block DNA replication and transcription. The primary enzyme to repair AP sites in mammalian cells is AP endonuclease (APE1), which plays a key role in this repair pathway. Although overexpression of APE1 in diverse cancer types and its association with chemotherapeutic resistance are well documented, alteration of posttranslational modification of APE1 and modulation of its functions during tumorigenesis are largely unknown. Here, we show that both classical histone deacetylase HDAC1 and NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 regulate acetylation level of APE1 and acetylation of APE1 enhances its AP-endonuclease activity both in vitro and in cells. Modulation of APE1 acetylation level in cells alters AP site repair capacity of the cell extracts in vitro. Primary tumor tissues of diverse cancer types have higher level of acetylated APE1 (AcAPE1) compared to adjacent non-tumor tissue and exhibit enhanced AP site repair capacity. Importantly, in the absence of APE1 acetylation, cells accumulate AP sites in the genome and show increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. Together, our study demonstrates that elevation of acetylation level of APE1 in tumor could be a novel mechanism by which cells handle the elevated levels of DNA damages in response to genotoxic stress and maintain sustained proliferation. PMID:27655688

  5. Peripheral interleukin-1β levels are elevated in chronic tension-type headache patients

    PubMed Central

    Vedova, Chris Della; Cathcart, Stuart; Dohnalek, Alan; Lee, Vanessa; Hutchinson, Mark R; Immink, Maarten A; Hayball, John

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tension-type headache is the most common form of headache and its chronic form, chronic tension-type headache (CTTH), is one of the most difficult to treat. The etiology of CTTH is not well understood, but is believed to be multifactorial and to vary among individuals. In the present study, the authors sought to identify common mechanisms of CTTH pathology. Empirical studies have implicated various immunomodulatory cytokines as mediators of chronic pain disorders, including CTTH. OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of peripheral cytokines and genetic factors in the development of CTTH. METHODS: A panel of cytokines hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of CTTH was measured using cytometric bead arrays and ELISAs in 56 individuals with CTTH and 42 healthy control participants between 18 and 65 years of age. RESULTS: Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β were significantly elevated in participants diagnosed with CTTH relative to healthy controls, while IL-18 levels were found to be significantly elevated in men with CTTH. Because the levels of these immune mediators were increased in the apparent absence of injury or infection, the authors sought to determine whether genetic changes were responsible for fluctuations in cytokine levels. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses were used to determine individual genotypes at key single nucleotide polymorphism positions in the IL-1B gene. No association was observed between CTTH and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the IL-1β gene. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that increases in key proinflammatory cytokine levels are associated with CTTH and the pathology of the disorder involves sterile neurovascular inflammation. PMID:23957020

  6. Origin of elevated water levels encountered in Pahute Mesa emplacement boreholes: Preliminary investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Brikowski, T.; Chapman, J.; Lyles, B.; Hokett, S.

    1993-11-01

    The presence of standing water well above the predicted water table in emplacement boreholes on Pahute Mesa has been a recurring phenomenon at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). If these levels represent naturally perched aquifers, they may indicate a radionuclide migration hazard. In any case, they can pose engineering problems in the performance of underground nuclear tests. The origin of these elevated waters is uncertain. Large volumes of water are introduced during emplacement drilling, providing ample source for artificially perched water, yet elevated water levels can remain constant for years, suggesting a natural origin instead. In an effort to address the issue of unexpected standing water in emplacement boreholes, three different sites were investigated in Area 19 on Pahute Mesa by Desert Research Institute (DRI) staff from 1990-93. These sites were U-19az, U-19ba, and U-19bh. As of this writing, U-19bh remains available for access; however, nuclear tests were conducted at the former two locations subsequent to this investigations. The experiments are discussed in chronological order. Taken together, the experiments indicate that standing water in Pahute Mesa emplacement holes originates from the drainage of small-volume naturally perched zones. In the final study, the fluids used during drilling of the bottom 100 m of emplacement borehole U-19bh were labeled with a chemical tracer. After hole completion, water level rose in the borehole, while tracer concentration decreased. In fact, total mass of tracer in the borehole remained constant, while water levels rose. After water levels stabilized in this hole, no change in tracer mass was observed over two years, indicating that no movement of water out of the borehole is taking place (as at U- 19ba). Continued labeling tests of standing water are recommended to confirm the conclusions made here, and to establish their validity throughout Pahute Mesa.

  7. Investigation of potential sea level rise impact on the Nile Delta, Egypt using digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Emad; Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Hong, Yang

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the future impact of Sea Level Rise (SLR) on the Nile Delta region in Egypt is assessed by evaluating the elevations of two freely available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs): the SRTM and the ASTER-GDEM-V2. The SLR is a significant worldwide dilemma that has been triggered by recent climatic changes. In Egypt, the Nile Delta is projected to face SLR of 1 m by the end of the 21th century. In order to provide a more accurate assessment of the future SLR impact on Nile Delta's land and population, this study corrected the DEM's elevations by using linear regression model with ground elevations from GPS survey. The information for the land cover types and future population numbers were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and the Gridded Population of the Worlds (GPWv3) datasets respectively. The DEM's vertical accuracies were assessed using GPS measurements and the uncertainty analysis revealed that the SRTM-DEM has positive bias of 2.5 m, while the ASTER-GDEM-V2 showed a positive bias of 0.8 m. The future inundated land cover areas and the affected population were illustrated based on two SLR scenarios of 0.5 m and 1 m. The SRTM DEM data indicated that 1 m SLR will affect about 3900 km(2) of cropland, 1280 km(2) of vegetation, 205 km(2) of wetland, 146 km(2) of urban areas and cause more than 6 million people to lose their houses. The overall vulnerability assessment using ASTER-GDEM-V2 indicated that the influence of SLR will be intense and confined along the coastal areas. For instance, the data indicated that 1 m SLR will inundate about 580 Km(2) (6%) of the total land cover areas and approximately 887 thousand people will be relocated. Accordingly, the uncertainty analysis of the DEM's elevations revealed that the ASTER-GDEM-V2 dataset product was considered the best to determine the future impact of SLR on the Nile Delta region.

  8. Joint effects of elevated levels of ultraviolet-B radiation, carbon dioxide and ozone on plants.

    PubMed

    Krupa, Sagar V

    2003-12-01

    There is growing interest regarding the joint effects of elevated levels of surface ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation, carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) on plants. Our current knowledge of this subject is too limited to draw any specific conclusions, although one might state that such effects are likely to be highly species dependent and may be more than additive, additive or less than additive. There are a number of uncertainties associated with the experimental protocols used and the conclusions reached in many studies. Nevertheless, in North America, there appear to be genotypes of three monocot crop species (Avena sativa L., Oryza sativa L. and Sorghum vulgare L.); six dicot crops (Cucumis sativus L., Lactuca sativa L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L. and Solanum tuberosum L.) and two conifer species (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. and Pinus taeda L.) that may be considered sensitive to the joint effects of elevated levels of UV-B, CO2 and O3. However, to provide a more reliable assessment or validation of the predictions, future research must consider the concept of plant response surfaces and describe them more fully in numerical terms. Achieving that objective will require close cooperation among a number of scientists representing geographic locations with known spatial and temporal differences in UV-B, CO2 and O3 to conduct experiments under their site-specific conditions, using common plant materials and experimental protocols.

  9. Elevated circulating levels of copper and nickel are found in elderly subjects with left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Lind, P Monica; Olsén, Lena; Lind, Lars

    2012-12-01

    Identified risk factors for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are hypertension, diabetes and obesity. However, since these risk factors only explain a part of the variation in left ventricular mass, we investigated if trace and heavy metals might also play a role in LVH. In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were determined by echocardiography together with eleven different trace and heavy metals in 993 subjects aged 70 years. Only copper levels were significantly related to LVMI following adjustment for sex, blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, diabetes and body mass index (BMI) (p<0.0001). However, both copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) were related to RWT following adjustment (p<0.0001). When divided into four geometric groups, both Cu and Ni were elevated in subjects with concentric remodelling and concentric LVH, but not in those with eccentric hypertrophy, when compared to subjects with a normal left ventricle. No relationships were found for zinc, aluminium, manganese, molybdenum, mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt or chromium. Elevated levels of copper and nickel are found in elderly subjects with LVH, especially of the concentric type, following adjustment for known risk factors for LVH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Elevated Levels of Plasma Phenylalanine in Schizophrenia: A Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase-1 Metabolic Pathway Abnormality?

    PubMed Central

    Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Muravitskaja, Olesja; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ashraf, Ayesha; Hinman, Sarah; Giegling, Ina; Hartmann, Annette M.; Konte, Bettina; Friedl, Marion; Schiffman, Jason; Hong, Elliot; Reeves, Gloria; Groer, Maureen; Dantzer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Phenylalanine and tyrosine are precursor amino acids required for the synthesis of dopamine, the main neurotransmitter implicated in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Inflammation, increasingly implicated in schizophrenia, can impair the function of the enzyme Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; which catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine) and thus lead to elevated phenylalanine levels and reduced tyrosine levels. This study aimed to compare phenylalanine, tyrosine, and their ratio (a proxy for PAH function) in a relatively large sample of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Methods We measured non-fasting plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine in 950 schizophrenia patients and 1000 healthy controls. We carried out multivariate analyses to compare log transformed phenylalanine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio between patients and controls. Results Compared to controls, schizophrenia patients had higher phenylalanine (p<0.0001) and phenylalanine: tyrosine ratio (p<0.0001) but tyrosine did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.596). Conclusions Elevated phenylalanine and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio in the blood of schizophrenia patients have to be replicated in longitudinal studies. The results may relate to an abnormal PAH function in schizophrenia that could become a target for novel preventative and interventional approaches. PMID:24465804

  11. Cerebral Spinal Fluid levels of Cytokines are elevated in Patients with Metachromatic Leukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Thibert, Kathryn A.; Raymond, Gerald V.; Tolar, Jakub; Miller, Weston P.; Orchard, Paul J.; Lund, Troy C.

    2016-01-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a lysosomal storage disease resulting from a deficiency of arylsulfatase A causing an accumulation of cerebroside sulfate, a lipid normally abundant in myelin. Sulfatide accumulation is associated with progressive demyelination and a clinical presentation in severe disease forms that is dominated by motor manifestations. Cerebral inflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology of MLD. To date, cytokine levels in the cerebral spinal fluid of MLD patients have not previously been reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the CSF of patients with MLD and to compare these levels to unaffected controls. Of 22 cytokines evaluated, we documented significant elevations of MCP-1, IL-1Ra, IL-8, MIP-1b and VEGF in the MLD patients compared to unaffected controls. The elevated cytokines identified in this study may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of MLD. Better understanding of the inflammatory and neurodegenerative process of MLD may lead to improved targeted therapies. PMID:27079147

  12. Temporal association of serum progesterone concentrations and vaginal cytology in walruses (Odobenus rosmarus).

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, K; Kiwata, M; Kuwano, R; Sato, N; Tanaka, T; Nagata, M; Taira, H; Kusunoki, H

    2012-03-15

    Concentrations of serum estradiol-17β and progesterone were monitored in six female walruses using an enzyme immunoassay. Progesterone concentrations increased from March to May in females aged 6 y or older, and subsequently declined (October). No significant elevation of estradiol-17β concentration was detected before an elevation of progesterone concentration. Vaginal smears from four females were examined with Papanicolaou staining. In all females, most epithelial cells were basophilic intermediate-superficial cells; no color change from basophilic to eosinophilic of the cells was detected. Meanwhile, the percentage of anucleate cells in vaginal smears reached its highest value before the elevation of progesterone concentration, followed by an increase in the percentage of leukocytes. We inferred that the change in populations of anucleate cells and leukocytes in vaginal smears reflected ovarian status and CL formation in female walruses.

  13. Does elevated osteopontin level play an important role in the development of scoliosis in bipedal mice?

    PubMed

    Xie, Ning; Li, Mo; Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun; Wang, Binbin; Tang, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies implied indirectly that an elevated osteopontin (OPN) level might play a key role in the pathomechanism of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Nonetheless, up to now, no direct evidence was proposed to determine this issue. The aim was to determine the role of OPN in the pathomechanism of scoliosis. This was an experimental study to investigate the role of OPN in a bipedal mouse scoliosis model. All procedures were performed under the approval and supervision of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of our university. A new bipedal mouse model with elevated OPN level was established in this study. Amputation of forelimbs and tail was performed on 80 male C3H/HeJ mice at the age of 3 weeks. Then, these mice were randomly divided into two groups: Group A consisted of 40 mice treated with OPN 40 mg/kg daily and Group B consisted of the remaining 40 mice treated with saline. Then, 40 quadruped mice with saline were included in Group C. Body length, X-rays, and computed tomographic scans were obtained at the twentieth week. Then, scoliosis incidence, curve magnitude, and circulating OPN level were compared among groups. Osteopontin level was significantly higher in Group A compared with that in Groups B and C. Spine deformity was identified in 37 mice in Group A, 21 mice in Group B, and 5 mice in Group C. The average Cobb angle was 29.8° in Group A, 20.9° in Group B, and 17.5° in Group C. Although no significant difference of body length was found, significant statistical difference was noted in terms of scoliosis incidence and curve magnitude, among the three groups. The results of the present study indicated that the elevated OPN level might play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of scoliosis, that is, it not only raises the risk for scoliosis in bipedal mice but also contributes to curve progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Elevated light levels in schools have a protective effect on myopia.

    PubMed

    Hua, Wen-Juan; Jin, Ju-Xiang; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Ji-Wen; Jiang, Xuan; Gao, Guo-Peng; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether elevated light levels in classrooms in rural areas can protect school-age children from myopia onset or myopia progression. A total of 317 subjects from 1713 eligible students aged six to 14 in four schools located in northeast China participated in the study. Students received a comprehensive eye examination including cycloplegic refraction and ocular biometry, which included axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal curvature (CC) measurement, and completed a questionnaire. The intervention arm included 178 students in two schools with rebuilt elevated lighting systems and the control arm included 139 students in which lighting systems were unchanged. Results for the two arms were compared with a Wilcoxon rank sum test, a chi-squared test or a t-test, as appropriate. Factors that might help explain any differences were explored with multivariate linear regression analysis. The median average illuminance of blackboards and desks and uniformity of desk lighting were significantly improved, however, the uniformity of blackboard lighting declined after intervention. At baseline, the mean refraction, AL, CC, ACD and myopia prevalence between the two arms were not significantly different. After 1 year, compared with the control arm the intervention arm had a lower incidence of new myopia onset (4% vs 10%; p = 0.029), a smaller decrease in refractive error among no myopic subjects (-0.25 dioptre [D] vs -0.47 D; p = 0.001), and shorter axial growth for both non-myopic (0.13 vs 0.18 mm; p = 0.023) and myopic subjects (0.20 vs 0.27 mm; p = 0.0001). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed the intervention program, lower hyperopic baseline refraction, lower father's education level, longer time sleeping and less time in screen-viewing activities were associated with less refractive shift in the direction of myopia in non-myopic children. For myopic subjects, myopia progression was significantly associated with family income only

  15. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Luying

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of the preoperative plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A total of 168 consecutive locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Plasma D-dimer levels were measured by a latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Of the 168 patients enrolled, 106 patients were males and 62 patients were females. There was significant difference between plasma D-dimer levels and clinical responses (P=0.001). The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year cumulative overall survival rates were 50.6%, 15.0%, and 4.9%, respectively. Plasma D-dimer levels (P<0.001) and platelet counts (P=0.010) were significantly related with overall survival in univariate analysis. The Cox proportional hazards regression indicated that plasma D-dimer levels (P=0.028), platelet counts (P=0.004), and treatment response (P<0.001) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  16. Elevated Omentin Serum Levels Predict Long-Term Survival in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Luedde, Mark; Benz, Fabian; Niedeggen, Jennifer; Vucur, Mihael; Hippe, Hans-Joerg; Spehlmann, Martina E.; Schueller, Florian; Loosen, Sven; Frey, Norbert; Trautwein, Christian; Koch, Alexander; Luedde, Tom; Tacke, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Omentin, a recently described adipokine, was shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, its role in critical illness and sepsis is currently unknown. Materials and Methods. Omentin serum concentrations were measured in 117 ICU-patients (84 with septic and 33 with nonseptic disease etiology) admitted to the medical ICU. Results were compared with 50 healthy controls. Results. Omentin serum levels of critically ill patients at admission to the ICU or after 72 hours of ICU treatment were similar compared to healthy controls. Moreover, circulating omentin levels were independent of sepsis and etiology of critical illness. Notably, serum concentrations of omentin could not be linked to concentrations of inflammatory cytokines or routinely used sepsis markers. While serum levels of omentin were not predictive for short term survival during ICU treatment, low omentin concentrations were an independent predictor of patients' overall survival. Omentin levels strongly correlated with that of other adipokines (e.g., leptin receptor or adiponectin), which have also been identified as prognostic markers in critical illness. Conclusions. Although circulating omentin levels did not differ between ICU-patients and controls, elevated omentin levels were predictive for an impaired patients' long term survival. PMID:27867249

  17. Treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy is associated with elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Hannerfors, A-K; Hellgren, C; Schijven, D; Iliadis, S I; Comasco, E; Skalkidou, A; Olivier, J D A; Sundström-Poromaa, I

    2015-08-01

    Treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, but causality remains unclear. While placental CRH production is correlated with gestational length and preterm birth, it has been difficult to establish if psychological stress or mental health problems are associated with increased CRH levels. This study compared second trimester CRH serum concentrations in pregnant women on SSRI treatment (n=207) with untreated depressed women (n=56) and controls (n=609). A secondary aim was to investigate the combined effect of SSRI treatment and CRH levels on gestational length and risk for preterm birth. Women on SSRI treatment had significantly higher second trimester CRH levels than controls, and untreated depressed women. CRH levels and SSRI treatment were independently associated with shorter gestational length. The combined effect of SSRI treatment and high CRH levels yielded the highest risk estimate for preterm birth. SSRI treatment during pregnancy is associated with increased CRH levels. However, the elevated risk for preterm birth in SSRI users appear not to be mediated by increased placental CRH production, instead CRH appear as an independent risk factor for shorter gestational length and preterm birth.

  18. Clinical significance of elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level in acute viral hepatitis A (AHA).

    PubMed

    Seo, Seung In; Kim, Su Sun; Choi, Bo Youn; Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Sung Jun; Park, Hye Won; Kim, Hyoung Su; Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Kyung Ho; Lee, Jin Heon; Kim, Hak Yang; Jang, Myoung Kuk

    2013-10-01

    The clinical course of acute viral hepatitis A (AHA) is highly variable. Serum alphafetoprotein (AFP) level is often elevated in various types of acute liver injuries, indicating active liver regeneration. This study was aimed to investigate the clinical significance of serum AFP level in the aspect of the early recovery in AHA. A total of 238 patients with AHA, confirmed by IgM anti-hepatitis A virus, were included. The patients were classified according to serum AFP level. Multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards model using dichotomized clinical variables was performed to identify the independent predictors for early recovery (ALT normalization within 2 weeks). The median age (range) was 30 (17-50) years and male dominant (62%, 147/238). Compared to low AFP group, high AFP group (>10 ng/mL) had significantly lower platelet counts (p <0.0001), lower albumin (p =0.003), lower AST (p <0.001), lower ALT (p = 0.001), higher total bilirubin level (p <0.0001) on univariate analysis. On Cox regression analysis, high AFP level (>10 ng/mL) was the only independent predictor for early recovery (Hazard ratio (HR); 2.392, 95% CI; 1.564-3.659, p = 0.0001). High serum AFP level (>10 ng/mL) may indicate the already-started recovery through active liver regeneration or the early recovery within 2 weeks in AHA.

  19. Proteome Analyses of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm at Elevated Levels of NaCl

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Nazrul; Ross, Julia M; Marten, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Our studies demonstrate that sodium chloride (NaCl) induces changes in biofilm, mediated by increased production of polysaccharides intercellular adhesion (PIA). We identified 12 proteins that showed higher abundance in increased level of NaCl. This includes one important protein (IsaA) known to be associated with biofilm stability. In addition, we also found higher abundance of a cold shock protein, CspA, at higher NaCl. We have also identified several other proteins that are differentially expressed to the elevated levels of NaCl and mapped them in the regulatory pathways of PIA. The majority of proteins are involved with various aspects bacterial metabolic function. Our results demonstrated that NaCl influences gene regulatory networks controlling exopolysaccharide expression. PMID:26973848

  20. Predictors of elevational biodiversity gradients change from single taxa to the multi-taxa community level

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Marcell K.; Hemp, Andreas; Appelhans, Tim; Behler, Christina; Classen, Alice; Detsch, Florian; Ensslin, Andreas; Ferger, Stefan W.; Frederiksen, Sara B.; Gebert, Friederike; Haas, Michael; Helbig-Bonitz, Maria; Hemp, Claudia; Kindeketa, William J.; Mwangomo, Ephraim; Ngereza, Christine; Otte, Insa; Röder, Juliane; Rutten, Gemma; Schellenberger Costa, David; Tardanico, Joseph; Zancolli, Giulia; Deckert, Jürgen; Eardley, Connal D.; Peters, Ralph S.; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Schleuning, Matthias; Ssymank, Axel; Kakengi, Victor; Zhang, Jie; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Brandl, Roland; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Kleyer, Michael; Nauss, Thomas; Tschapka, Marco; Fischer, Markus; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2016-01-01

    The factors determining gradients of biodiversity are a fundamental yet unresolved topic in ecology. While diversity gradients have been analysed for numerous single taxa, progress