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Sample records for elevates soil inorganic

  1. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaochuang; Ma, Qingxu; Zhong, Chu; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Lianfeng; Zhang, Junhua; Jin, Qianyu; Wu, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N), which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3--N + NH4+-N). On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine) did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10). The compositional similarity of many

  2. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Zhu, Lianfeng; Zhang, Junhua; Jin, Qianyu; Wu, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N), which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3−-N + NH4+-N). On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine) did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10). The compositional similarity of many

  3. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaochuang; Ma, Qingxu; Zhong, Chu; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Lianfeng; Zhang, Junhua; Jin, Qianyu; Wu, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N), which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3--N + NH4+-N). On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine) did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10). The compositional similarity of many

  4. Soil carbon dioxide partial pressure and dissolved inorganic carbonate chemistry under elevated carbon dioxide and ozone.

    PubMed

    Karberg, N J; Pregitzer, K S; King, J S; Friend, A L; Wood, J R

    2005-01-01

    Global emissions of atmospheric CO(2) and tropospheric O(3) are rising and expected to impact large areas of the Earth's forests. While CO(2) stimulates net primary production, O(3) reduces photosynthesis, altering plant C allocation and reducing ecosystem C storage. The effects of multiple air pollutants can alter belowground C allocation, leading to changes in the partial pressure of CO(2) (pCO(2)) in the soil , chemistry of dissolved inorganic carbonate (DIC) and the rate of mineral weathering. As this system represents a linkage between the long- and short-term C cycles and sequestration of atmospheric CO(2), changes in atmospheric chemistry that affect net primary production may alter the fate of C in these ecosystems. To date, little is known about the combined effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3) on the inorganic C cycle in forest systems. Free air CO(2) and O(3) enrichment (FACE) technology was used at the Aspen FACE project in Rhinelander, Wisconsin to understand how elevated atmospheric CO(2) and O(3) interact to alter pCO(2) and DIC concentrations in the soil. Ambient and elevated CO(2) levels were 360+/-16 and 542+/-81 microl l(-1), respectively; ambient and elevated O(3) levels were 33+/-14 and 49+/-24 nl l(-1), respectively. Measured concentrations of soil CO(2) and calculated concentrations of DIC increased over the growing season by 14 and 22%, respectively, under elevated atmospheric CO(2) and were unaffected by elevated tropospheric O(3). The increased concentration of DIC altered inorganic carbonate chemistry by increasing system total alkalinity by 210%, likely due to enhanced chemical weathering. The study also demonstrated the close coupling between the seasonal delta(13)C of soil pCO(2) and DIC, as a mixing model showed that new atmospheric CO(2) accounted for approximately 90% of the C leaving the system as DIC. This study illustrates the potential of using stable isotopic techniques and FACE technology to examine long- and short

  5. Soil microbes compete strongly with plants for soil inorganic and amino acid nitrogen in a semiarid grassland exposed to elevated CO2 and warming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free amino acids (FAAs) in soil are an important N source for plants, and abundances are predicted to shift under altered climate conditions such as elevated atmospheric CO2. Composition, plant uptake capacity and plant and microbial use of FAAs relative to inorganic N forms were investigated in a t...

  6. Phosphate addition enhanced soil inorganic nutrients to a large extent in three tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feifei; Lu, Xiankai; Liu, Lei; Mo, Jiangming

    2015-01-21

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may constrain soil phosphorus (P) and base cation availability in tropical forests, for which limited evidence have yet been available. In this study, we reported responses of soil inorganic nutrients to full factorial N and P treatments in three tropical forests different in initial soil N status (N-saturated old-growth forest and two less-N-rich younger forests). Responses of microbial biomass, annual litterfall production and nutrient input were also monitored. Results showed that N treatments decreased soil inorganic nutrients (except N) in all three forests, but the underlying mechanisms varied depending on forests: through inhibition on litter decomposition in the old-growth forest and through Al(3+) replacement of Ca(2+) in the two younger forests. In contrast, besides great elevation in soil available P, P treatments induced 60%, 50%, 26% increases in sum of exchangeable (K(+)+Ca(2+)+Mg(2+)) in the old-growth and the two younger forests, respectively. These positive effects of P were closely related to P-stimulated microbial biomass and litter nutrient input, implying possible stimulation of nutrient return. Our results suggest that N deposition may result in decreases in soil inorganic nutrients (except N) and that P addition can enhance soil inorganic nutrients to support ecosystem processes in these tropical forests.

  7. Phosphate addition enhanced soil inorganic nutrients to a large extent in three tropical forests

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Feifei; Lu, Xiankai; Liu, Lei; Mo, Jiangming

    2015-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may constrain soil phosphorus (P) and base cation availability in tropical forests, for which limited evidence have yet been available. In this study, we reported responses of soil inorganic nutrients to full factorial N and P treatments in three tropical forests different in initial soil N status (N-saturated old-growth forest and two less-N-rich younger forests). Responses of microbial biomass, annual litterfall production and nutrient input were also monitored. Results showed that N treatments decreased soil inorganic nutrients (except N) in all three forests, but the underlying mechanisms varied depending on forests: through inhibition on litter decomposition in the old-growth forest and through Al3+ replacement of Ca2+ in the two younger forests. In contrast, besides great elevation in soil available P, P treatments induced 60%, 50%, 26% increases in sum of exchangeable (K++Ca2++Mg2+) in the old-growth and the two younger forests, respectively. These positive effects of P were closely related to P-stimulated microbial biomass and litter nutrient input, implying possible stimulation of nutrient return. Our results suggest that N deposition may result in decreases in soil inorganic nutrients (except N) and that P addition can enhance soil inorganic nutrients to support ecosystem processes in these tropical forests. PMID:25605567

  8. Arsenic bioavailability to rice is elevated in Bangladeshi paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Khan, K Asaduzzaman; Stroud, Jacqueline L; Zhu, Yong-Guan; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2010-11-15

    Some paddy soils in the Bengal delta are contaminated with arsenic (As) due to irrigation of As-laden groundwater, which may lead to yield losses and elevated As transfer to the food chain. Whether these soils have a higher As bioavailability than other soils containing either geogenic As or contaminated by mining activities was investigated in a pot experiment. Fourteen soils varying in the source and the degree (4-138 mg As kg 1⁻¹) of As contamination were collected, 10 from Bangladeshi paddy fields (contaminated by irrigation water) and two each from China and the UK (geogenic or mining impacted), for comparison. Bangladeshi soils had higher percentages of the total As extractable by ammonium phosphate (specifically sorbed As) than other soils and also released more As into the porewater upon flooding. Porewater As concentrations increased with increasing soil As concentrations more steeply in Bangladeshi soils, with arsenite being the dominant As species. Rice growth and grain yield decreased markedly in Bangladeshi soils containing > 13 mg As kg 1⁻¹, but not in the other soils. Phosphate-extractable or porewater As was a better indicator of As bioavailability than total soil As. Rice straw As concentrations increased with increasing soil As concentrations; however, As phytotoxicity appeared to result in lower grain As concentrations. The relative proportions of inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in grain varied among soils, and the percentage DMA was larger in greenhouse-grown plants than grain samples collected from the paddy fields of the same soil and the same rice cultivar, indicating a strong environmental influence on As species found in rice grain. This study shows that Bangladeshi paddy soils contaminated by irrigation had a higher As bioavailability than other soils, resulting in As phytotoxicity in rice and substantial yield losses.

  9. Arsenic bioavailability to rice is elevated in Bangladeshi paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Khan, K Asaduzzaman; Stroud, Jacqueline L; Zhu, Yong-Guan; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2010-11-15

    Some paddy soils in the Bengal delta are contaminated with arsenic (As) due to irrigation of As-laden groundwater, which may lead to yield losses and elevated As transfer to the food chain. Whether these soils have a higher As bioavailability than other soils containing either geogenic As or contaminated by mining activities was investigated in a pot experiment. Fourteen soils varying in the source and the degree (4-138 mg As kg 1⁻¹) of As contamination were collected, 10 from Bangladeshi paddy fields (contaminated by irrigation water) and two each from China and the UK (geogenic or mining impacted), for comparison. Bangladeshi soils had higher percentages of the total As extractable by ammonium phosphate (specifically sorbed As) than other soils and also released more As into the porewater upon flooding. Porewater As concentrations increased with increasing soil As concentrations more steeply in Bangladeshi soils, with arsenite being the dominant As species. Rice growth and grain yield decreased markedly in Bangladeshi soils containing > 13 mg As kg 1⁻¹, but not in the other soils. Phosphate-extractable or porewater As was a better indicator of As bioavailability than total soil As. Rice straw As concentrations increased with increasing soil As concentrations; however, As phytotoxicity appeared to result in lower grain As concentrations. The relative proportions of inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in grain varied among soils, and the percentage DMA was larger in greenhouse-grown plants than grain samples collected from the paddy fields of the same soil and the same rice cultivar, indicating a strong environmental influence on As species found in rice grain. This study shows that Bangladeshi paddy soils contaminated by irrigation had a higher As bioavailability than other soils, resulting in As phytotoxicity in rice and substantial yield losses. PMID:20977268

  10. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide increases soil carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, Richard J; Jastrow, Julie D; Miller, Michael R; Matamala, Roser; Boutton, Thomas W; Rice, Charles W; Owensby, Clenton E

    2005-01-01

    In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science, researchers from Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories and Kansas State and Texas A&M Universities evaluated the collective results of earlier studies by using a statistical procedure called meta-analysis. They found that on average elevated CO2 increased soil carbon by 5.6 percent over a two to nine year period. They also measured comparable increases in soil carbon for Tennessee deciduous forest and Kansas grassland after five to eight years of experimental exposure to elevated CO2.

  11. Degradation of alkyllead compounds to inorganic lead in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Gallert, C; Winter, J

    2004-11-01

    In glass columns with sandy soil from a former antiknocking agents factory hydrophobic tetraalkyllead was transformed in oxygen-saturated water to inorganic lead. Up to 324 mg l(-1) trialkyllead, but only very little dialkyllead accumulated. After 740 days 49.1+/-6.7% of the organic lead was converted to inorganic lead. Conversion of hydrocarbons was 39.6+/-5.1%. To reduce toxicity of high trialkyllead concentrations the water of soil columns was replaced by tap water after 450d. Trialkyllead in the new water increased again to more than 150 mg l(-1). If the alkyllead-containing water from these columns was diluted to concentrations of alkyllead compounds that were found in the groundwater after air injection (total alkyllead<10 mg l(-1)) and used as a source of alkyllead compounds in columns with non-contaminated sandy soil, elimination of tetra-, tri- and dialkyllead compounds followed first-order kinetics. In the soil 85.8-93.6% of the alkyllead dissappeared in only 170 days with 51% being converted to inorganic lead. This makes in situ remediation reasonable.

  12. Mean age distribution of inorganic soil-nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Dong K.; Kumar, Praveen

    2016-07-01

    Excess reactive nitrogen in soils of intensively managed landscapes causes adverse environmental impact, and continues to remain a global concern. Many novel strategies have been developed to provide better management practices and, yet, the problem remains unresolved. The objective of this study is to develop a model to characterize the "age" of inorganic soil-nitrogen (nitrate, and ammonia/ammonium). We use the general theory of age, which provides an assessment of the time elapsed since inorganic nitrogen has been introduced into the soil system. We analyze a corn-corn-soybean rotation, common in the Midwest United States, as an example application. We observe two counter-intuitive results: (1) the mean nitrogen age in the topsoil layer is relatively high; and (2) mean nitrogen age is lower under soybean cultivation compared to corn although no fertilizer is applied for soybean cultivation. The first result can be explained by cation-exchange of ammonium that retards the leaching of nitrogen, resulting in an increase in the mean nitrogen age near the soil surface. The second result arises because the soybean utilizes the nitrogen fertilizer left from the previous year, thereby removing the older nitrogen and reducing mean nitrogen age. Estimating the mean nitrogen age can thus serve as an important tool to disentangle complex nitrogen dynamics by providing a nuanced characterization of the time scales of soil-nitrogen transformation and transport processes.

  13. Soil Inorganic Carbon Formation: Can Parent Material Overcome Climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanbery, C.; Will, R. M.; Seyfried, M. S.; Benner, S. G.; Flores, A. N.; Guilinger, J.; Lohse, K. A.; Good, A.; Black, C.; Pierce, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Soil carbon is the third largest carbon reservoir and is composed of both organic and inorganic constituents. However, the storage and flux of soil carbon within the global carbon cycle are not fully understood. While organic carbon is often the focus of research, the factors controlling the formation and dissolution of soil inorganic carbon (SIC) are complex. Climate is largely accepted as the primary control on SIC, but the effects of soil parent material are less clear. We hypothesize that effects of parent material are significant and that SIC accumulation will be greater in soils formed from basalts than granites due to the finer textured soils and more abundant calcium and magnesium cations. This research is being conducted in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in southwestern Idaho. The watershed is an ideal location because it has a range of gradients in precipitation (250 mm to 1200 mm), ecology (sagebrush steppe to juniper), and parent materials (a wide array of igneous and sedimentary rock types) over a relatively small area. Approximately 20 soil profiles will be excavated throughout the watershed and will capture the effects of differing precipitation amounts and parent material on soil characteristics. Several samples at each site will be collected for analysis of SIC content and grain size distribution using a pressure calcimeter and hydrometers, respectively. Initial field data suggests that soils formed over basalts have a higher concentration of SIC than those on granitic material. If precipitation is the only control on SIC, we would expect to see comparable amounts in soils formed on both rock types within the same precipitation zone. However, field observations suggest that for all but the driest sites, soils formed over granite had no SIC detected while basalt soils with comparable precipitation had measurable amounts of SIC. Grain size distribution appears to be a large control on SIC as the sandier, granitic soils promote

  14. Exposure to inorganic arsenic in soil increases urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations of residents living in old mining areas.

    PubMed

    Hinwood, Andrea L; Sim, Malcolm R; Jolley, Damien; de Klerk, Nick; Bastone, Elisa B; Gerostamoulos, Jim; Drummer, Olaf H

    2004-03-01

    The short term human exposure studies conducted on populations exposed to high concentrations of inorganic arsenic in soil have been inconsistent in demonstrating a relationship between environmental concentrations and exposure measures. In Australia there are many areas with very high arsenic concentrations in residential soil most typically associated with gold mining activities in rural areas. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between environmental arsenic and urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations in a population living in a gold mining area (soil arsenic concentrations between 9 and 9900 mg kg(-1)), and a control population with low arsenic levels in soil (between 1 and 80 mg kg(-1)). Risk factors for increased urinary arsenic concentrations were also explored. There was a weak but significant relationship between soil arsenic concentrations and inorganic urinary arsenic concentration with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.39. When participants with greater than 100 mg kg(-1) arsenic in residential soil were selected, the coefficient increased to 0.64. The geometric mean urinary inorganic arsenic concentration for the exposed group was 1.64 microg L(-1) (soil in excess of 1000 mg kg(-1) recorded a geometric mean urinary inorganic arsenic concentration of 2.46 microg L(-1). In a random effects linear regression model, soil arsenic concentration was the significant predictor of increased urinary arsenic concentrations. Season was shown to have a significant influence on urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other factors such as age, gender and hours of contact with soil may also be important risk factors. These results show that high concentrations of arsenic in soil can make a contribution to urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations.

  15. Flood regime and leaf fall determine soil inorganic nitrogen dynamics in semiarid riparian forests.

    PubMed

    Shah, J J Follstad; Dahm, C N

    2008-04-01

    Flow regulation has reduced the exchange of water, energy, and materials between rivers and floodplains, caused declines in native plant populations, and advanced the spread of nonnative plants. Naturalized flow regimes are regarded as a means to restore degraded riparian areas. We examined the effects of flood regime (short [SIFI] vs. long [LIFI] inter-flood interval) on plant community and soil inorganic nitrogen (N) dynamics in riparian forests dominated by native Populus deltoides var. wislizenii Eckenwalder (Rio Grande cottonwood) and nonnative Tamarix chinensis Lour. (salt cedar) along the regulated middle Rio Grande of New Mexico. The frequency of inundation (every 2-3 years) at SIFI sites better reflected inundation patterns prior to the closure of an upstream dam relative to the frequency of inundation at LIFI sites (> or =10 years). Riparian inundation at SIFI sites varied from 7 to 45 days during the study period (April 2001-July 2004). SIFI vs. LIFI sites had higher soil moisture but greater groundwater table elevation fluctuation in response to flooding and drought. Rates of net N mineralization were consistently higher at LIFI vs. SIFI sites, and soil inorganic N concentrations were greatest at sites with elevated leaf-litter production. Sites with stable depth to ground water (approximately 1.5 m) supported the greatest leaf-litter production. Reduced leaf production at P. deltoides SIFI sites was attributed to drought-induced recession of ground water and prolonged inundation. We recommend that natural resource managers and restoration practitioners (1) utilize naturalized flows that help maintain riparian groundwater elevations between 1 and 3 m in reaches with mature P. deltoides or where P. deltoides revegetation is desired, (2) identify areas that naturally undergo long periods of inundation and consider restoring these areas to seasonal wetlands, and (3) use native xeric-adapted riparian plants to revegetate LIFI and SIFI sites where

  16. Flood regime and leaf fall determine soil inorganic nitrogen dynamics in semiarid riparian forests.

    PubMed

    Shah, J J Follstad; Dahm, C N

    2008-04-01

    Flow regulation has reduced the exchange of water, energy, and materials between rivers and floodplains, caused declines in native plant populations, and advanced the spread of nonnative plants. Naturalized flow regimes are regarded as a means to restore degraded riparian areas. We examined the effects of flood regime (short [SIFI] vs. long [LIFI] inter-flood interval) on plant community and soil inorganic nitrogen (N) dynamics in riparian forests dominated by native Populus deltoides var. wislizenii Eckenwalder (Rio Grande cottonwood) and nonnative Tamarix chinensis Lour. (salt cedar) along the regulated middle Rio Grande of New Mexico. The frequency of inundation (every 2-3 years) at SIFI sites better reflected inundation patterns prior to the closure of an upstream dam relative to the frequency of inundation at LIFI sites (> or =10 years). Riparian inundation at SIFI sites varied from 7 to 45 days during the study period (April 2001-July 2004). SIFI vs. LIFI sites had higher soil moisture but greater groundwater table elevation fluctuation in response to flooding and drought. Rates of net N mineralization were consistently higher at LIFI vs. SIFI sites, and soil inorganic N concentrations were greatest at sites with elevated leaf-litter production. Sites with stable depth to ground water (approximately 1.5 m) supported the greatest leaf-litter production. Reduced leaf production at P. deltoides SIFI sites was attributed to drought-induced recession of ground water and prolonged inundation. We recommend that natural resource managers and restoration practitioners (1) utilize naturalized flows that help maintain riparian groundwater elevations between 1 and 3 m in reaches with mature P. deltoides or where P. deltoides revegetation is desired, (2) identify areas that naturally undergo long periods of inundation and consider restoring these areas to seasonal wetlands, and (3) use native xeric-adapted riparian plants to revegetate LIFI and SIFI sites where

  17. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic constituents in ambient surface soils, Chicago, Illinois: 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, R.T.; Arnold, T.L.; Cannon, W.F.; Graham, D.

    2008-01-01

    Samples of ambient surface soils were collected from 56 locations in Chicago, Illinois, using stratified random sampling techniques and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds and inorganic constituents. PAHs appear to be derived primarily from combustion of fossil fuels and may be affected by proximity to industrial operations, but do not appear to be substantially affected by the organic carbon content of the soil, proximity to nonindustrial land uses, or proximity to a roadway. Atmospheric settling of particulate matter appears to be an important mechanism for the placement of PAH compounds into soils. Concentrations of most inorganic constituents are affected primarily by soil-forming processes. Concentrations of lead, arsenic, mercury, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, molybdenum, zinc, and selenium are elevated in ambient surface soils in Chicago in comparison to the surrounding area, indicating anthropogenic sources for these elements in Chicago soils. Concentrations of calcium and magnesium in Chicago soils appear to reflect the influence of the carbonate bedrock parent material on the chemical composition of the soil, although the effects of concrete and road fill cannot be discounted. Concentrations of inorganic constituents appear to be largely unaffected by the type of nearby land use. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  18. Inorganic carbon fluxes across the vadose zone of planted and unplanted soil mesocosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaysen, E. M.; Jacques, D.; Jessen, S.; Andersen, C. E.; Laloy, E.; Ambus, P.; Postma, D.; Jakobsen, I.

    2014-03-01

    The efflux of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils influences atmospheric CO2 concentrations and thereby climate change. The partitioning of inorganic carbon fluxes in the vadose zone between emission to the atmosphere and to the groundwater was investigated. Carbon dioxide partial pressure in the soil gas (pCO2), alkalinity, soil moisture and temperature were measured over depth and time in unplanted and planted (barley) mesocosms. The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) percolation flux was calculated from the pCO2, alkalinity and the water flux at the mesocosm bottom. Carbon dioxide exchange between the soil surface and the atmosphere was measured at regular intervals. The soil diffusivity was determined from soil radon-222 (222Rn) emanation rates and soil air Rn concentration profiles, and was used in conjunction with measured pCO2 gradients to calculate the soil CO2 production. Carbon dioxide fluxes were modelled using the HP1 module of the Hydrus 1-D software. The average CO2 effluxes to the atmosphere from unplanted and planted mesocosm ecosystems during 78 days of experiment were 0.1 ± 0.07 and 4.9 ± 0.07 μmol carbon (C) m-2 s-1, respectively, and largely exceeded the corresponding DIC percolation fluxes of 0.01 ± 0.004 and 0.06 ± 0.03 μmol C m-2 s-1. Post-harvest soil respiration (Rs) was only 10% of the Rs during plant growth, while the post-harvest DIC percolation flux was more than one third of the flux during growth. The Rs was controlled by production and diffusivity of CO2 in the soil. The DIC percolation flux was largely controlled by the pCO2 and the drainage flux due to low solution pH. Plant biomass and soil pCO2 were high in the mesocosms as compared to a standard field situation. Our results indicate no change of the cropland C balance under elevated atmospheric CO2 in a warmer future climate, in which plant biomass and soil pCO2 are expected to increase.

  19. Diffusion of inorganic chemical species in compacted clay soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackelford, Charles D.; Daniel, David E.; Liljestrand, Howard M.

    1989-08-01

    This research was conducted to study the diffusion of inorganic chemicals in compacted clay soil for the design of waste containment barriers. The effective diffusion coefficients ( D ∗) of anionic (Cl -, Br -, and I -) and cationic (K +, Cd 2+, and Zn 2+) species in a synthetic leachate were measured. Two clay soils were used in the study. The soils were compacted and pre-soaked to minimize mass transport due to suction in the soil. The results of the diffusion tests were analyzed using two analytical solutions to Fick's second law and a commercially available semi-analytical solution, POLLUTE 3.3. Mass balance calculations were performed to indicate possible sinks/sources in the diffusion system. Errors in mass balance were attributed to problems with the chemical analysis (I -), the inefficiency of the extraction procedure (K +), precipitation (Cd 2+ and Zn 2+), and chemical complexation (Cl - and Br -). The D ∗ values for Cl - reported in this study are in excellent agreement with previous findings for other types of soil. The D ∗ values for the metals (K +, Cd 2+, and Zn 2+) are thought to be high (conservative) due to: (1) Ca 2+ saturation of the exchange complex of the clays; (2) precipitation of Cd 2+ and Zn 2+; and (3) nonlinear adsorption behavior. In general, high D ∗ values and conservative designs of waste containment barriers will result if the procedures described in this study are used to determine D ∗ and the adsorption behavior of the solutes is similar to that described in this study.

  20. Profile storage of organic/inorganic carbon in soil: from forest to desert.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yugang; Li, Yan; Ye, Xuehua; Chu, Yu; Wang, Xinping

    2010-03-15

    Understanding the distribution of organic/inorganic carbon storage in soil profile is crucial for assessing regional, continental and global soil C stores and predicting the consequences of global change. However, little is known about the organic/inorganic carbon storages in deep soil layers at various landscapes. This study was conducted to determine the soil organic/inorganic carbon storage in soil profile of 0-3m at 5 sites of natural landscape from forest to desert. Landscapes are temperate forest, temperate grassland, temperate shrub-grassland, temperate shrub desert, and temperate desert. Root mass density and carbon contents at the profile were determined for each site. The results showed that considerable decrease in root biomass and soil organic carbon content at the soil profile of 0-3m when landscape varied from forest to desert along a precipitation gradient, while soil inorganic carbon content increased significantly along the precipitation gradient. Namely, for density of soil organic carbon: forest>grassland>shrub-grassland>shrub desert>desert; for density of soil inorganic carbon: forest, grasslandsoil carbon storage was found in 1-3m depth. For grassland and shrub-grassland, the contribution from 1-3m was mainly in the form of organic carbon, while for shrub desert and desert the contribution from this depth was mainly in the form of inorganic carbon. The comparison of soil C storage between top 0-1m and 1-3m showed that the using top 1m of soil profile to estimate soil carbon storages would considerably underestimate soil carbon storage. This is especially true for organic soil carbon at grassland region, and for soil inorganic carbon at desert region.

  1. REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF INORGANIC NITROGEN YIELD AND RETENTION IN HIGH-ELEVATION ECOSYSTEMS OF THE SIERRA NEVADA AND ROCKY MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yields and retention of inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and nitrate concentrations in surface runoff are summarized for 28 high elevation watersheds in the Sierra Nevada, California and Rocky Mountains of Wyoming and Colorado. Catchments ranged in elevation from 2475 to 3603 m and from...

  2. Elevated Carbon Dioxide Alters the Structure of Soil Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Xu, Meiying; Qin, Yujia; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Wu, Liyou; Roe, Bruce A.; Wiley, Graham; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Reich, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes was used to examine impacts of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on soil microbial communities from 12 replicates each from ambient CO2 (aCO2) and eCO2 settings. The results suggest that the soil microbial community composition and structure significantly altered under conditions of eCO2, which was closely associated with soil and plant properties. PMID:22307288

  3. Community structure and elevational diversity patterns of soil Acidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Li, Guangliang; Qu, Yuanyuan; Su, Xiujiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang

    2014-08-01

    Acidobacteria is one of the most dominant and abundant phyla in soil, and was believed to have a wide range of metabolic and genetic functions. Relatively little is known about its community structure and elevational diversity patterns. We selected four elevation gradients from 1000 to 2800 m with typical vegetation types of the northern slope of Shennongjia Mountain in central China. The vegetation types were evergreen broadleaved forest, deciduous broadleaved forest, coniferous forest and sub-alpine shrubs. We analyzed the soil acidobacterial community composition, elevational patterns and the relationship between Acidobacteria subdivisions and soil enzyme activities by using the 16S rRNA meta-sequencing technique and multivariate statistical analysis. The result found that 19 known subdivisions as well as an unclassified phylotype were presented in these forest sites, and Subdivision 6 has the highest number of detectable operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A significant single peak distribution pattern (P<0.05) between the OTU number and the elevation was observed. The Jaccard and Bray-Curtis index analysis showed that the soil Acidobacteria compositional similarity significantly decreased (P<0.01) with the increase in elevation distance. Mantel test analysis showed the most of the soil Acidobacteria subdivisions had the significant relationship (P<0.01) with different soil enzymes. Therefore, soil Acidobacteria may be involved in different ecosystem functions in global elemental cycles. Partial Mantel tests and CCA analysis showed that soil pH, soil temperature and plant diversity may be the key factors in shaping the soil Acidobacterial community structure.

  4. Altered soil microbial community at elevated CO2 leads to loss of soil carbon

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Karen M.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Drake, Bert G.; Megonigal, J. Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Increased carbon storage in ecosystems due to elevated CO2 may help stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations and slow global warming. Many field studies have found that elevated CO2 leads to higher carbon assimilation by plants, and others suggest that this can lead to higher carbon storage in soils, the largest and most stable terrestrial carbon pool. Here we show that 6 years of experimental CO2 doubling reduced soil carbon in a scrub-oak ecosystem despite higher plant growth, offsetting ≈52% of the additional carbon that had accumulated at elevated CO2 in aboveground and coarse root biomass. The decline in soil carbon was driven by changes in soil microbial composition and activity. Soils exposed to elevated CO2 had higher relative abundances of fungi and higher activities of a soil carbon-degrading enzyme, which led to more rapid rates of soil organic matter degradation than soils exposed to ambient CO2. The isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids confirmed that elevated CO2 increased microbial utilization of soil organic matter. These results show how elevated CO2, by altering soil microbial communities, can cause a potential carbon sink to become a carbon source. PMID:17360374

  5. Soil Inorganic Carbon Thresholds and Formation: What are the Controls in a Transitional, Semi-Arid Watershed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanbery, C.; Will, R. M.; Benner, S. G.; Seyfried, M. S.; Lohse, K. A.; Lytle, M. L.; Weppner, K.; Flores, A. N.; Smith, A.; Good, A.; Thornton, C.; Lewis, H.; Bruck, B.; Huq, O.; Wallace, S.; Cook, M.; Black, C.; Pierce, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Inorganic Soil Carbon (SIC) constitutes approximately 40% of terrestrial soil carbon and it is an integral part of the global carbon cycle. The precipitation and storage of inorganic carbon within soils is controlled by the soil forming factors (Jenny, 1941) where the amount of rainfall is the strongest control on SIC presence or absence. However, within areas dry enough to allow inorganic carbon formation, the hierarchy of controls on SIC amount is complex. Measuring and modeling SIC accumulation at the pedon and watershed scale will improve our understanding of SIC storage. The Reynolds Creek watershed in southwestern Idaho is an ideal location for the study as it transitions from SIC dominated in low elevations to organic carbon dominated at high elevations, and includes a range of parent materials and vegetation types. Initial results show that SIC is unlikely to form at sites with >450mm of precipitation, and variability in SIC concentration at the pedon scale is significant. The study locations had vegetation types that included a variety of sagebrush species (Artimesia spp), bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus) and juniper (Juniperus occidentalis). Samples were collected from soils formed on granite, basalt, other volcanics, and alluvium. SIC measurements were made using a modified pressure calcimeter, measuring CO2 released from the reaction of acid with the sample. The highest SIC concentrations range from 15 to 27kg/m2 and are found in basaltic and terrace soils with loess accumulation, in elevations ranging from 1148-1943m and rainfall ranging from 250-716mm. Soils examined from a chronosequence of four terraces in the lower watershed (282-296mm of rainfall), and generally increasing amounts of loess accumulation with time, suggest strong accumulation of SIC on older loessal surfaces. Measurements from both fine-grained and gravelly soils suggests that approximately 15% of SIC in gravelly sites may be accumulated as

  6. Organic phosphorus mineralisation in a temperate grassland soil under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosch, Klaus A.; Andresen, Louise; Gorenflo, André D.; Müller, Christoph; Frossard, Emmanuel; Bünemann, Else K.

    2016-04-01

    Background: Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for all biota and significant proportions of P in soil are present in organic form. Increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) have been shown to influence plant P uptake traits, resulting in plant-mediated changes in soil P pools. However, little is known on the effect of elevated [CO2] on organic P mineralisation rates in soil. Study design & hypotheses: A 33P isotopic dilution experiment was performed with soils of the 17-year-old Giessen free air carbon dioxide enrichment (GiFACE) - trial. At the GiFACE, three plots are treated with 20 % elevated [CO2] while three control plots receive ambient air. We hypothesised that i) the observed positive effect of elevated [CO2] on plant growth translates into differences in soil organic P mineralisation rates between treated and untreated plots, resulting in ii) differences in soil organic P pools. Methods: Fresh soil (0-8 cm) was sampled from each plot, labelled with a carrier free 33P solution and incubated for 36 days at 19° C in the dark. On six time points, inorganic P and 33P in soil filtrates, soil microorganisms (by liquid fumigation) and resin extractable P were quantified. The baseline of 33P isotopic dilution was assessed from a short term batch experiment and extrapolated for 36 days. Gross organic P mineralisation rates were determined as the difference between isotopic dilution in the incubated soils (physicochemical + biological processes) minus extrapolated values (physicochemical processes only). Additionally, enzyme addition assays on alkaline soil extracts were performed to quantify different soil organic P classes, using enzymes with a known substrate specificity. Results & Discussion: Gross organic P mineralisation rates were high during the first three days (5.5 - 34.3 mg P kg-1 d-1), possibly due to the soil disturbance at labelling soils with 33P. However, gross organic P mineralisation decreased rapidly to rates between 0

  7. Organic phosphorus mineralisation in a temperate grassland soil under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosch, Klaus A.; Andresen, Louise; Gorenflo, André D.; Müller, Christoph; Frossard, Emmanuel; Bünemann, Else K.

    2016-04-01

    Background: Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for all biota and significant proportions of P in soil are present in organic form. Increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) have been shown to influence plant P uptake traits, resulting in plant-mediated changes in soil P pools. However, little is known on the effect of elevated [CO2] on organic P mineralisation rates in soil. Study design & hypotheses: A 33P isotopic dilution experiment was performed with soils of the 17-year-old Giessen free air carbon dioxide enrichment (GiFACE) - trial. At the GiFACE, three plots are treated with 20 % elevated [CO2] while three control plots receive ambient air. We hypothesised that i) the observed positive effect of elevated [CO2] on plant growth translates into differences in soil organic P mineralisation rates between treated and untreated plots, resulting in ii) differences in soil organic P pools. Methods: Fresh soil (0-8 cm) was sampled from each plot, labelled with a carrier free 33P solution and incubated for 36 days at 19° C in the dark. On six time points, inorganic P and 33P in soil filtrates, soil microorganisms (by liquid fumigation) and resin extractable P were quantified. The baseline of 33P isotopic dilution was assessed from a short term batch experiment and extrapolated for 36 days. Gross organic P mineralisation rates were determined as the difference between isotopic dilution in the incubated soils (physicochemical + biological processes) minus extrapolated values (physicochemical processes only). Additionally, enzyme addition assays on alkaline soil extracts were performed to quantify different soil organic P classes, using enzymes with a known substrate specificity. Results & Discussion: Gross organic P mineralisation rates were high during the first three days (5.5 - 34.3 mg P kg‑1 d‑1), possibly due to the soil disturbance at labelling soils with 33P. However, gross organic P mineralisation decreased rapidly to rates between

  8. Increased mercury in forest soils under elevated carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Natali, Susan M; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A; Norby, Richard J; Zhang, Hong; Finzi, Adrien C; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2008-11-01

    Fossil fuel combustion is the primary anthropogenic source of both CO2 and Hg to the atmosphere. On a global scale, most Hg that enters ecosystems is derived from atmospheric Hg that deposits onto the land surface. Increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 may affect Hg deposition to terrestrial systems and storage in soils through CO(2)-mediated changes in plant and soil properties. We show, using free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments, that soil Hg concentrations are almost 30% greater under elevated atmospheric CO2 in two temperate forests. There were no direct CO2 effects, however, on litterfall, throughfall or stemflow Hg inputs. Soil Hg was positively correlated with percent soil organic matter (SOM), suggesting that CO(2)-mediated changes in SOM have influenced soil Hg concentrations. Through its impacts on SOM, elevated atmospheric CO2 may increase the Hg storage capacity of soils and modulate the movement of Hg through the biosphere. Such effects of rising CO2, ones that transcend the typically studied effects on C and nutrient cycling, are an important next phase for research on global environmental change.

  9. Effect of elevated CO2 on chlorpyriphos degradation and soil microbial activities in tropical rice soil.

    PubMed

    Adak, Totan; Munda, Sushmita; Kumar, Upendra; Berliner, J; Pokhare, Somnath S; Jambhulkar, N N; Jena, M

    2016-02-01

    Impact of elevated CO2 on chlorpyriphos degradation, microbial biomass carbon, and enzymatic activities in rice soil was investigated. Rice (variety Naveen, Indica type) was grown under four conditions, namely, chambered control, elevated CO2 (550 ppm), elevated CO2 (700 ppm) in open-top chambers and open field. Chlorpyriphos was sprayed at 500 g a.i. ha(-1) at maximum tillering stage. Chlorpyriphos degraded rapidly from rice soils, and 88.4% of initially applied chlorpyriphos was lost from the rice soil maintained under elevated CO2 (700 ppm) by day 5 of spray, whereas the loss was 80.7% from open field rice soil. Half-life values of chlorpyriphos under different conditions ranged from 2.4 to 1.7 days with minimum half-life recorded with two elevated CO2 treatments. Increased CO2 concentration led to increase in temperature (1.2 to 1.8 °C) that played a critical role in chlorpyriphos persistence. Microbial biomass carbon and soil enzymatic activities specifically, dehydrogenase, fluorescien diacetate hydrolase, urease, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase responded positively to elevated CO2 concentrations. Generally, the enzyme activities were highly correlated with each other. Irrespective of the level of CO2, short-term negative influence of chlorpyriphos was observed on soil enzymes till day 7 of spray. Knowledge obtained from this study highlights that the elevated CO2 may negatively influence persistence of pesticide but will have positive effects on soil enzyme activities. PMID:26790432

  10. Effect of elevated CO2 on chlorpyriphos degradation and soil microbial activities in tropical rice soil.

    PubMed

    Adak, Totan; Munda, Sushmita; Kumar, Upendra; Berliner, J; Pokhare, Somnath S; Jambhulkar, N N; Jena, M

    2016-02-01

    Impact of elevated CO2 on chlorpyriphos degradation, microbial biomass carbon, and enzymatic activities in rice soil was investigated. Rice (variety Naveen, Indica type) was grown under four conditions, namely, chambered control, elevated CO2 (550 ppm), elevated CO2 (700 ppm) in open-top chambers and open field. Chlorpyriphos was sprayed at 500 g a.i. ha(-1) at maximum tillering stage. Chlorpyriphos degraded rapidly from rice soils, and 88.4% of initially applied chlorpyriphos was lost from the rice soil maintained under elevated CO2 (700 ppm) by day 5 of spray, whereas the loss was 80.7% from open field rice soil. Half-life values of chlorpyriphos under different conditions ranged from 2.4 to 1.7 days with minimum half-life recorded with two elevated CO2 treatments. Increased CO2 concentration led to increase in temperature (1.2 to 1.8 °C) that played a critical role in chlorpyriphos persistence. Microbial biomass carbon and soil enzymatic activities specifically, dehydrogenase, fluorescien diacetate hydrolase, urease, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase responded positively to elevated CO2 concentrations. Generally, the enzyme activities were highly correlated with each other. Irrespective of the level of CO2, short-term negative influence of chlorpyriphos was observed on soil enzymes till day 7 of spray. Knowledge obtained from this study highlights that the elevated CO2 may negatively influence persistence of pesticide but will have positive effects on soil enzyme activities.

  11. Manure and inorganic N affect irrigated corn yields and soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure could be a substitute for inorganic N fertilizers and for mitigating potential soil deterioration under irrigated corn (Zea mays L.) silage production, but the impact on yields, soil C and N have not been thoroughly studied in the semi-arid western U.S. Five N source treatments [dairy manure...

  12. A simple, gravimetric method to quantify inorganic carbon in calcareous soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total carbon (TC) in calcareous soils has two components: inorganic carbon (IC) as calcite and or dolomite and organic carbon (OC) in the soil organic matter. The IC must be measured and subtracted from TC to obtain OC. Our objective was to develop a simple gravimetric technique to quantify IC. Th...

  13. [Accumulation of soil inorganic nitrogen in mono-harvesting farmlands in northeast China in late autumn].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Zhang, Qingzhong; Lu, Caiyan; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Lu

    2004-10-01

    The study showed that in northeast China, the farmlands with a mono-harvesting agricultural system had a low accumulation of soil inorganic nitrogen after harvest. In late autumn, there was an interval of about 20-30 days when the temperature and humidity were appropriate to soil N mineralization, but the mineralized nitrogen could not be used by crops in this non-growing season. The accumulation of inorganic nitrogen in upland soil reached a high level before freezing. Its inorganic nitrogen content in 1 m depth soil was 99.9 kg x hm(-2) in the treatment of commercial fertilizers (N 150 kg x hm(-2); P 16.4 kg x hm(-2); K 62.3 kg x hm(-2))and 145.4 kg x hm(-2) in the treatment of commercial fertilizers plus manure (pig manure by a reutilization of 80% product). While in rice field, its inorganic nitrogen content was relatively low before freezing. The reason might be that the soil permeability was not as good as that in upland for its long-term water-logging, and its insufficient aeration would be favorable to denitrification which induces the inorganic nitrogen loss via N2O emission.

  14. Net transformation of phosphorus forms applied as inorganic and organic amendments to a calcareous soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audette, Yuki; O'Halloran, Ivan; Voroney, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The forms of phosphorus (P) in animal manure composts are different from that of synthetic P fertilizers, and this could affect how soil P chemistry will be altered when they are used as P amendments. The objective of this study was to analyze the net changes in the nature and dynamics of plant available P forms applied either as inorganic P (KH2PO4) or turkey litter compost (TLC) in calcareous soil with and without plant growth. Forms of TLC-P were characterized by x-ray diffraction and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy techniques. The amounts of various P forms in soils were measured by a sequential fractionation method after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks incubation. Brushite (Ca-P) and newberyite (Mg-P) were the major forms of inorganic P, and phosphate monoester was the major form of organic P present in TLC. The addition of inorganic P fertilizer increased the labile/moderately labile P, whereas the compost increased the moderately labile P extractable with weak acid (pH 4.2). Even though the amount of the labile P fraction in the compost-treated soil was smaller than that in the fertilizer-treated soils, ryegrass growth and plant P uptake were greater. The net transformation of the labile/moderately labile P was slower in the compost-treated soil without plant growth, however it was faster with plant growth. This study showed that P applied either as an inorganic or an organic amendment was recovered in different P fractions in a calcareous soil, and therefore it is expected that the P source would affect soil P chemistry. A weak acid extractable inorganic P fraction should be considered as plant available P especially in the compost-treated soil, that is converted into plant available P through direct and/or indirect root-induced acidification in the rhizosphere.

  15. The effects of inorganic particles of lunar soil simulant on brain nerve terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Krisanova, Natalia; Sivko, Roman; Borisov, Arseniy

    2012-07-01

    The health effects from lunar soil exposure are almost completely unknown, whereas the observations suggest that it can be deleterious to human physiology. It is important that the components of lunar soil may be internalized with lipid fractions of the lung epithelium, which in turn may help ions to overcome the blood-brain barrier. The study focused on the effects of JSC-1a Lunar Soil Simulant (LSS) (Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, USA) on rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes). We revealed that brain nerve terminals were not indifferent to the exposure to LSS inorganic particles. Using Zetasizer Nanosystem (Malvern Instruments) with helium-neon laser for dynamic light scattering (DLS), the synaptosomal size before and after the addition of LSS was measured and the binding of LSS inorganic particles to nerve terminals was demonstrated. Using potential-sensitive fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G, we showed that LSS inorganic particles did not influence the potential of the plasma membrane of nerve terminals. Acidification of synaptic vesicles of nerve terminals did not change in the presence of LSS inorganic particles that was revealed with pH-sensitive fluorescent dye acridine orange. However, LSS inorganic particles influenced accumulation of glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, by nerve terminals. Thus, we report that inorganic particles of LSS influence accumulation of glutamate in brain nerve terminals and this fact may have harmful consequences to human physiology, in particular glutamate homeostasis in the mammalian CNS.

  16. Soil Inorganic Carbon in Deserts: Active Carbon Sink or Inert Reservoir?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monger, H. C.; Cole, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Soil inorganic carbon is the third largest C pool in the active global carbon cycle, containing at least 800 petagrams of carbon. Although carbonate dissolution-precipitation reactions have been understood for over a century, the role of soil inorganic carbon in carbon sequestration, and in particular pedogenic carbonate, is a deceptively complex process because it involves interdependent connections among climate, plants, microorganisms, silicate minerals, soil moisture, pH, and Ca supply via rain, dust, or in situ weathering. An understanding of soil inorganic carbon as a sink or reservoir also requires examination of the system at local to continental scales and at seasonal to millennial time scales. In desert soils studied in North America, carbon isotope ratios and radiocarbon dates were measured in combination with electron microscopy, lab and field experiments with biological calcite formation, and field measurements of carbon dioxide emissions. These investigations reveal that soil inorganic carbon is both an active sink and a inert reservoir depending on the spatial and temporal scale and source of calcium.

  17. [Effects of litters and tannin on forest soil inorganic nitrogen].

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Liang; Liu, Wei-Li; Gao, Ren; Yang, Yu-Sheng; Sun, Jie

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory incubation test was conducted to study the effects of litters and tannin on forest soil nitrate- and ammonium N. The addition of litters and tannic acid made the soil nitrate- and ammonium N decreased. With the addition of fir litter, the nitrate- and ammonium N contents in red soil decreased by 6.1%-25. 9% and 19.7%-68.6%, respectively, and the decrements in yellow-red soil were higher than those with the addition of bamboo litter, being significant for ammonium N. Compared with the control, the addition of tannin decreased the ammonium N content in yellow-red soil significantly, and there was a positive correlation between the concentration of added tannin and the decrement of soil ammonium N content. When the concentration of added tannin was high, the decrement of the ammonium N reached 31.9%-57.8%. With the addition of low concentration tannin, the soil nitrate N content decreased with time, and the decrement on the 84th day reached 4.5%. However, the addition of high concentration tannin increased the soil nitrate N content by 10.3%-18.5% in the first 7-28 days, but decreased it by 23.9% and 42.3% on the 56th and 85th day, respectively.

  18. Microbial activity and diversity during extreme freeze-thaw cycles in periglacial soils, 5400 m elevation, Cordillera Vilcanota, Perú.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S K; Nemergut, D R; Miller, A E; Freeman, K R; King, A J; Seimon, A

    2009-09-01

    High-elevation periglacial soils are among the most extreme soil systems on Earth and may be good analogs for the polar regions of Mars where oligotrophic mineral soils abut with polar ice caps. Here we report on preliminary studies carried out during an expedition to an area where recent glacial retreat has exposed porous mineral soils to extreme, daily freeze-thaw cycles and high UV fluxes. We used in situ methods to show that inorganic nitrogen (NO(3) (-) and NH(4) (+)) was being actively cycled even during a period when diurnal soil temperatures (5 cm depth) ranged from -12 to 27 degrees C and when sub-zero, soil cooling rates reached 1.8 degrees C h(-1) (the most rapid soil cooling rates recorded to date). Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses of microbial phylotypes present at our highest sites (5410 m above sea level) showed the presence of nitrifying bacteria of the genus Nitrospira and newly discovered nitrite-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria. These soils were overwhelmingly dominated (>70% of phylotypes) by photosynthetic bacteria that were related to novel cyanobacteria previously found almost exclusively in other plant-free, high-elevation soils. We also demonstrated that soils from our highest sites had higher potential for mineralizing glutamate and higher microbial biomass than lower elevation soils that had been more recently covered by ice. Overall, our findings indicate that a diverse and robustly functioning microbial ecosystem is present in these previously unstudied high-elevation soils.

  19. Microbial activity and diversity during extreme freeze-thaw cycles in periglacial soils, 5400 m elevation, Cordillera Vilcanota, Perú.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S K; Nemergut, D R; Miller, A E; Freeman, K R; King, A J; Seimon, A

    2009-09-01

    High-elevation periglacial soils are among the most extreme soil systems on Earth and may be good analogs for the polar regions of Mars where oligotrophic mineral soils abut with polar ice caps. Here we report on preliminary studies carried out during an expedition to an area where recent glacial retreat has exposed porous mineral soils to extreme, daily freeze-thaw cycles and high UV fluxes. We used in situ methods to show that inorganic nitrogen (NO(3) (-) and NH(4) (+)) was being actively cycled even during a period when diurnal soil temperatures (5 cm depth) ranged from -12 to 27 degrees C and when sub-zero, soil cooling rates reached 1.8 degrees C h(-1) (the most rapid soil cooling rates recorded to date). Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses of microbial phylotypes present at our highest sites (5410 m above sea level) showed the presence of nitrifying bacteria of the genus Nitrospira and newly discovered nitrite-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria. These soils were overwhelmingly dominated (>70% of phylotypes) by photosynthetic bacteria that were related to novel cyanobacteria previously found almost exclusively in other plant-free, high-elevation soils. We also demonstrated that soils from our highest sites had higher potential for mineralizing glutamate and higher microbial biomass than lower elevation soils that had been more recently covered by ice. Overall, our findings indicate that a diverse and robustly functioning microbial ecosystem is present in these previously unstudied high-elevation soils. PMID:19597697

  20. Understanding on Soil Inorganic Carbon Transformation in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guitong; Yang, Lifang; Zhang, Chenglei; Zhang, Hongjie

    2015-04-01

    Soil total carbon balance in long-term fertilization field experiments in North China Plain. Four long-term fertilization experiments (20-30 years) were investigated on SOC in 40 cm, calcium carbonate and active carbonate (AC) in 180 or 100 cm soil profile, δ13C values of SOC and δ13C and δ18O values of carbonate in soil profile, particle distribution of SOC and SIC in main soil layers, and ratios of pedogenic carbonate (PC) in SIC and C3-SOC in SOC. The most important conclusion is that fertilization of more than 20 years can produce detectable impact on pool size, profile distribution, ratio of active component and PC of SIC, which make it clear that SIC pool must be considered in the proper evaluation of the response of soil carbon balance to human activities in arid and semi-arid region. Land use impact on soil total carbon pool in Inner Mongolia. With the data of the second survey of soils in Inner Mongolia and the 58 soil profile data from Wu-lan-cha-bu-meng and Xi-lin-hao-te, combining with the 13C and 18O techniques, SIC density and stock in Inner Mongolia is estimated. The main conclusion is that soils in inner Mongolia have the same level of SOC and SIC, with the density in 100cm pedons of 8.97 kg•m-2 and 8.61 kg•m-2, respectively. Meanwhile, the significantly positive relationship between SOC and SIC in A layer indicates co-sequestration of SOC and SIC exist. Evaluation of the methods for measuring CA enzyme activity in soil. In laboratory, method in literature to measure CA activity in soil sample was repeated, and found it was not valid indeed. The failure could not attribute to the disturbance of common ions like NO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, and Mg2+. The adsorption of CA to soil material was testified as the main reason for that failure. A series of extractants were tested but no one can extract the adsorbed CA and be used in measuring CA activity in soil sample. Carbonate transformation in field with straw returned and biochar added. In 2009, a field

  1. Soil Inorganic Nitrogen Cycling during Successional Change in a Northern Temperate Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, L. E.; Sparks, J. P.; Le Moine, J.; Hardiman, B. S.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.; Strahm, B. D.; Curtis, P.

    2012-12-01

    Transformations and fluxes of inorganic nitrogen (N) compounds in forest soils are the basis for major biogeochemical functions. Inorganic N fluxes contribute significantly to plant and microbial N nutrition, mediate the exchange of reactive, gas-phase N between the biosphere and atmosphere, and are coupled via hydrologic linkages to N cycling in surface and groundwater. However, soil inorganic N cycling may change during forest succession due to shifts in tree species composition, ecosystem N capital and distribution, or other drivers. Within the framework of a paired-ecosystem, experimentally accelerated successional advancement, we synthesized comprehensive measurements of soil and soil surface inorganic N fluxes to: a) quantify changes in, and interactions between, the component processes of the N cycle that mediate forest biogeochemical functions, and b) understand how these processes and associated biogeochemical functions change during forest succession. We hypothesized that a sudden decline in plant N uptake during the mortality event that accelerated ongoing succession would significantly increase NH4+ availability, prompting fundamental changes to the N cycle including the initiation of significant nitrification and increased exports of NO3- derived compounds in gas phase and soil solution. We found that in surface soils (top 20 cm), levels of seasonally integrated, ion-exchange NH4+ and NO3- availability increased with decreasing fine root biomass (regression, P<0.01), and the availability of these two inorganic N forms was positively and nonlinearly related (regression, P<0.0001). Correlations between NH4+ and NO3- availability, nitrification rates, and NH4+ and NO3- transport in soil solution indicated distinct but dependent cycling pathways and controls on the vertical redistribution of these ions. Increasing hydrologic NO3- fluxes downwards out of the surface soil significantly increased rates of denitrification (N2O efflux), which also varied with

  2. Evaluation of potential effects of soil available phosphorus on soil arsenic availability and paddy rice inorganic arsenic content.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Hou, Qingye; Yang, Zhongfang; Zhong, Cong; Zheng, Guodong; Yang, Zhiqiang; Li, Jie

    2014-05-01

    The transfer of arsenic from paddy field to rice is a major exposure route of the highly toxic element to humans. The aim of our study is to explore the effects of soil available phosphorus on As uptake by rice, and identify the effects of soil properties on arsenic transfer from soil to rice under actual field conditions. 56 pairs of topsoil and rice samples were collected. The relevant parameters in soil and the inorganic arsenic in rice grains were analyzed, and then all the results were treated by statistical methods. Results show that the main factors influencing the uptake by rice grain include soil pH and available phosphorus. The eventual impact of phosphorus is identified as the suppression of As uptake by rice grains. The competition for transporters from soil to roots between arsenic and phosphorus in rhizosphere soil has been a dominant feature. PMID:24598788

  3. Storage/Turnover rate of inorganic carbon and its dissolvable part in the profile of saline/alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yugang; Wang, Zhongyuan; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Soil inorganic carbon is the most common form of carbon in arid and semiarid regions, and has a very long turnover time. However, little is known about dissolved inorganic carbon storage and its turnover time in these soils. With 81 soil samples taken from 6 profiles in the southern Gurbantongute Desert, China, we investigated the soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and the soil dissolved inorganic carbon (SDIC) in whole profiles of saline and alkaline soils by analyzing their contents and ages with radiocarbon dating. The results showed that there is considerable SDIC content in SIC, and the variations of SDIC and SIC contents in the saline soil profile were much larger than that in the alkaline profile. SDIC storage accounted for more than 20% of SIC storage, indicating that more than 1/5 of the inorganic carbon in both saline and alkaline soil is not in non-leachable forms. Deep layer soil contains considerable inorganic carbon, with more than 80% of the soil carbon stored below 1 m, whether for SDIC or SIC. More importantly, SDIC ages were much younger than SIC in both saline soil and alkaline soil. The input rate of SDIC and SIC ranged from 7.58 to 29.54 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 1.34 to 5.33 g C m(-2) yr(-1) respectively for saline soil, and from 1.43 to 4.9 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 0.79 to 1.27 g C m(-2) yr(-1)respectively for alkaline soil. The comparison of SDIC and SIC residence time showed that using soil inorganic carbon to estimate soil carbon turnover would obscure an important fraction that contributes to the modern carbon cycle: namely the shorter residence and higher input rate of SDIC. This is especially true for SDIC in deep layers of the soil profile.

  4. Storage/Turnover Rate of Inorganic Carbon and Its Dissolvable Part in the Profile of Saline/Alkaline Soils

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yugang; Wang, Zhongyuan; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Soil inorganic carbon is the most common form of carbon in arid and semiarid regions, and has a very long turnover time. However, little is known about dissolved inorganic carbon storage and its turnover time in these soils. With 81 soil samples taken from 6 profiles in the southern Gurbantongute Desert, China, we investigated the soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and the soil dissolved inorganic carbon (SDIC) in whole profiles of saline and alkaline soils by analyzing their contents and ages with radiocarbon dating. The results showed that there is considerable SDIC content in SIC, and the variations of SDIC and SIC contents in the saline soil profile were much larger than that in the alkaline profile. SDIC storage accounted for more than 20% of SIC storage, indicating that more than 1/5 of the inorganic carbon in both saline and alkaline soil is not in non-leachable forms. Deep layer soil contains considerable inorganic carbon, with more than 80% of the soil carbon stored below 1 m, whether for SDIC or SIC. More importantly, SDIC ages were much younger than SIC in both saline soil and alkaline soil. The input rate of SDIC and SIC ranged from 7.58 to 29.54 g C m-2 yr-1 and 1.34 to 5.33 g C m-2 yr-1 respectively for saline soil, and from 1.43 to 4.9 g C m-2 yr-1 and 0.79 to 1.27 g C m-2 yr-1respectively for alkaline soil. The comparison of SDIC and SIC residence time showed that using soil inorganic carbon to estimate soil carbon turnover would obscure an important fraction that contributes to the modern carbon cycle: namely the shorter residence and higher input rate of SDIC. This is especially true for SDIC in deep layers of the soil profile. PMID:24312399

  5. Effect of elevated CO2 on degradation of azoxystrobin and soil microbial activity in rice soil.

    PubMed

    Manna, Suman; Singh, Neera; Singh, V P

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was conducted in open-top chambers (OTC) to study the effect of elevated CO2 (580 ± 20 μmol mol(-1)) on azoxystrobin degradation and soil microbial activities. Results indicated that elevated CO2 did not have any significant effect on the persistence of azoxystrobin in rice-planted soil. The half-life values for the azoxystrobin in rice soils were 20.3 days in control (rice grown at ambient CO2 outdoors), 19.3 days in rice grown under ambient CO2 atmosphere in OTC, and 17.5 days in rice grown under elevated CO2 atmosphere in OTC. Azoxystrobin acid was recovered as the only metabolite of azoxystrobin, but it did not accumulate in the soil/water and was further metabolized. Elevated CO2 enhanced soil microbial biomass (MBC) and alkaline phosphatase activity of soil. Compared with rice grown at ambient CO2 (both outdoors and in OTC), the soil MBC at elevated CO2 increased by twofold. Elevated CO2 did not affect dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate, and acid phosphatase activity. Azoxystrobin application to soils, both ambient and elevated CO2, inhibited alkaline phosphates activity, while no effect was observed on other enzymes. Slight increase (1.8-2 °C) in temperature inside OTC did not affect microbial parameters, as similar activities were recorded in rice grown outdoors and in OTC at ambient CO2. Higher MBC in soil at elevated CO2 could be attributed to increased carbon availability in the rhizosphere via plant metabolism and root secretion; however, it did not significantly increase azoxystrobin degradation, suggesting that pesticide degradation was not the result of soil MBC alone. Study suggested that increased CO2 levels following global warming might not adversely affect azoxystrobin degradation. However, global warming is a continuous and cumulative process, therefore, long-term studies are necessary to get more realistic assessment of global warming on fate of pesticide. PMID:22773147

  6. Effects of Vegetation Removal and Soil Disturbance on Soil Organic and Inorganic Carbon Dynamics in California Desert Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, A. C.; Allen, E. B.; Allen, M. F.; Hernandez, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Solar energy developments are projected to be deployed over desert wildland areas with deep soil inorganic carbon (SIC) deposits, which often involves elimination of deep-rooted vegetation. This land cover change may systemically alter SIC pools since respired CO2 is the carbon (C) source during SIC formation. We sought to understand how removal of creosote bush scrub affects soil C pools. We hypothesized that vegetation is important for maintaining SIC and soil organic C (SOC) pools and that disturbance to the vegetation and soil will change CO2 flux with increased losses from SIC. Soils were collected from sites that had intact creosote bush scrub habitat adjacent to disturbed, bare areas where the native vegetation had been previously removed. Samples were taken from beneath shrub canopies and interspaces in intact areas, and from random points in the disturbed area. Soils were analyzed for SIC, SOC, microbial and labile C, and δ13C. Soils were also incubated to determine the potential CO2 flux from disturbed and undisturbed soils along with the sources of CO2. Three replicates per soil underwent a control and water addition treatment and flux and δ13C of CO2 were measured continuously. Control replicates yielded no significant CO2 flux. CO2 flux from watered soils was higher beneath shrub canopy (18.57µmol g soil-1 day-1±1.86) than the interspace soils (0.86 µmol g soil-1 day-1±0.17). Soils collected from bare areas had an intermediate flux (5.41 µmol g soil-1 day-1±2.68 and 3.68 µmol g soil-1 day-1±0.85, respectively) lying between shrub canopy and interspace soils. There was no significant difference between the δ13C values of CO2 from shrub canopy and interspace soils, both of which had a very low δ13C values (-22.60‰±0.64 and -23.88‰±0.89, respectively), resembling that of organic C. However, the isotopic values of CO2 from disturbed soils were significantly higher (-16.68‰±1.36 and -15.22‰±2.12, respectively) suggesting that these

  7. Inorganic fertilizer and poultry-litter manure amendments alter the soil microbial communities in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of agricultural land management practices on soil prokaryotic diversity are not well described. We investigated three land usage systems (row cropped, ungrazed pasture, and cattle-grazed pasture) and two fertilizer systems (inorganic fertilizer or IF and poultry-litter or PL) and compare...

  8. Clinoptilolite zeolite influence on inorganic nitrogen in silt loam and sandy agricultural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of best management practices can help improve inorganic nitrogen (N) availability to plants and reduce nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching in soils. This study was conducted to determine the influence of the zeolite mineral Clinoptilolite (CL) additions on NO3-N and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4...

  9. Clinoptilolite Zeolite Influence on Inorganic Nitrogen in Silt Loam and Sandy Agricultural Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of best management practices can help improve inorganic nitrogen (N) availability to plants and reduce nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching in soils. This study was conducted to determine the influence of the zeolite mineral Clinoptilolite (CL) additions on NO3-N and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4...

  10. Inorganic nitrogen determined by laboratory and field extractions of two forest soils

    SciTech Connect

    Miegroet, H.V.

    1995-03-01

    To assess the effect of a delay in soil processing on inorganic N levels in N-rich soils, field and laboratory extractions were compared at two forested sites with high N mineralization and nitrification potential. At eight sampling dates in 1989 and 1990, five mineral soil cores per site were taken between 0- and 10-cm depth and transported on ice to the laboratory for KCI extraction and NH{sub 4}-N and NO{sub 3}-N analysis. At three sampling dates in 1990, soil extractions were performed in the field immediately following sampling, and inorganic N concentrations were compared between extractions. Nitrate-N increased four- to sevenfold (net release of 2-7 mg NO{sub 3}-N/kg dry soil) due to the transport and relatively short delay (<24 h) in the processing of the soil samples, either coinciding with increased net N mineralization or due to transformation of NH{sub 4}-N into NO{sub 3}-N. This study indicates that if possible, soil samples should be extracted in the field, especially at N-rich sites. The concerns raised by this study may not necessarily apply to N-pour soils characterized by slow N transformation rates. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Bioavailability of inorganic arsenic from bog ore-containing soil in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Groen, K; Vaessen, H A; Kliest, J J; de Boer, J L; van Ooik, T; Timmerman, A; Vlug, R F

    1994-01-01

    In some parts of The Netherlands, bog ore-containing soils predominate, which have natural arsenic levels that exceed, by a factor of 10, existing standards for maximum allowable levels of inorganic arsenic in soil. These standards are based on the assumption that in humans the bioavailability of arsenic from ingested soil is equal to that from an aqueous solution. In view of the regulatory problem that the arsenic levels of these soils present, we questioned the validity of this assumption. To obtain a more realistic estimate, the bioavailability of inorganic arsenic from soil in a suitable animal model was studied. In this report, a study performed in six dogs in a two-way cross-over design is presented. The dogs received orally, in random order, arsenic both as an intravenous solution and as arsenic-containing soil. During a 120-hr period after administration urine was collected in 24-hr fractions. Levels of arsenic were determined using a method of wet digestion, isolation and complexation of arsine, followed by molecule absorption spectrometry. Within 120 hr after intravenous administration, 88 +/- 16% of the dose was excreted renally. After oral administration of arsenic-containing soil, only 7.0 +/- 1.5% was excreted renally. From the urinary excretion data for these two routes of administration, the calculated bioavailability of inorganic arsenic from soil was 8.3 +/- 2.0%. The results from this study demonstrate the need to reconsider the present risk assessment for arsenic in soil. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8033848

  12. Hurricane Wilma's impact on overall soil elevation and zones within the soil profile in a mangrove forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whelan, K.R.T.; Smith, T. J.; Anderson, G.H.; Ouellette, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Soil elevation affects tidal inundation period, inundation frequency, and overall hydroperiod, all of which are important ecological factors affecting species recruitment, composition, and survival in wetlands. Hurricanes can dramatically affect a site's soil elevation. We assessed the impact of Hurricane Wilma (2005) on soil elevation at a mangrove forest location along the Shark River in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Using multiple depth surface elevation tables (SETs) and marker horizons we measured soil accretion, erosion, and soil elevation. We partitioned the effect of Hurricane Wilma's storm deposit into four constituent soil zones: surface (accretion) zone, shallow zone (0–0.35 m), middle zone (0.35–4 m), and deep zone (4–6 m). We report expansion and contraction of each soil zone. Hurricane Wilma deposited 37.0 (± 3.0 SE) mm of material; however, the absolute soil elevation change was + 42.8 mm due to expansion in the shallow soil zone. One year post-hurricane, the soil profile had lost 10.0 mm in soil elevation, with 8.5 mm of the loss due to erosion. The remaining soil elevation loss was due to compaction from shallow subsidence. We found prolific growth of new fine rootlets (209 ± 34 SE g m−2) in the storm deposited material suggesting that deposits may become more stable in the near future (i.e., erosion rate will decrease). Surficial erosion and belowground processes both played an important role in determining the overall soil elevation. Expansion and contraction in the shallow soil zone may be due to hydrology, and in the middle and bottom soil zones due to shallow subsidence. Findings thus far indicate that soil elevation has made substantial gains compared to site specific relative sea-level rise, but data trends suggest that belowground processes, which differ by soil zone, may come to dominate the long term ecological impact of storm deposit.

  13. Soil Incorporation of Silica-Rich Rice Husk Decreases Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Grain.

    PubMed

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; Morris, Andrew H; Gill, Rattandeep; Kearns, Kelli A; Mann, Jessica N; Paukett, Michelle; Leskanic, Corey

    2016-05-18

    Arsenic decreases rice yield, and inorganic grain As threatens human health; thus, strategies to decrease rice As are critically needed. Increased plant-available silica (Si) can decrease rice As, yet the source of Si matters. Rice husk, an underutilized and Si-rich byproduct of rice production that contains less labile C and an order of magnitude less As than rice straw, may be an economically viable Si resource to decrease rice As, yet the impact of rice husk incorporation on As in the rice-soil nexus has not been reported. This proof-of-concept study shows that rice husk incorporation to soil (1% w/w) decreases inorganic grain As by 25-50% without negatively affecting grain Cd, yield, or dissolved CH4 levels. Rice husk is a critical yet perhaps overlooked resource to improve soil quality through enhanced nutrient availability and attenuate human health risks through consumption of As-laden grain. PMID:27109244

  14. Relative movement and soil fixation of soluble organic and inorganic phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brandon H; Magdoff, Frederick R

    2005-01-01

    There is considerable concern about pollution of surface waters with P. Although most of the research has focused on inorganic P in surface runoff, it has recently become possible to easily follow the fate of soluble organic P forms in soils and waters. Two experiments were performed to compare the relative mobility and soil fixation affinity of orthophosphate monoesters, orthophosphate diesters, and soluble inorganic P. We used three P substrates, 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (MUP), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and KH(2)PO(4) in (i) a soil column experiment and (ii) a soil P adsorption test tube experiment. Shortly after columns were prepared, approximately two pore volumes of 0.005 M CaCl(2) were passed through 25 cm length columns containing 10 cm of loamy sand amended with approximately 10 mg P as MUP, DNA, or KH(2)PO(4) above 15 cm of nonamended loamy sand. The total net quantity of 757.8 microg P 2L(-1) of orthophosphate diesters in the leachate from the DNA columns exceeded the net quantity of orthophosphate monoesters in leachate from the MUP columns (4.6 microg P 2L(-1)) and soluble inorganic P from the KH(2)PO(4) columns (34.0 microg P 2L(-1)). Adsorption of soluble organic and inorganic P in the test tube experiment yielded similar results: DNA, containing orthophosphate diesters, had a relatively low affinity for soils. In both experiments, high concentrations of other P compounds were identified in samples treated with organic P substrates, suggesting enzymatic hydrolysis by native soil phosphatase enzymes. These findings indicate that repeated application of organic forms of P could lead to significant leaching of P to ground water.

  15. Organic and inorganic nitrogen dynamics in soil - advanced Ntrace approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, Louise C.; Björsne, Anna-Karin; Bodé, Samuel; Klemedtsson, Leif; Boeckx, Pascal; Rütting, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Depolymerization of soil organic nitrogen (SON) into monomers (e.g. amino acids) is currently thought to be the rate limiting step for the terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycle. The production of free amino acids (AA) is followed by AA mineralization to ammonium, which is an important fraction of the total N mineralization. Accurate assessment of depolymerization and AA mineralization rate is important for a better understanding of the rate limiting steps. Recent developments in the 15N pool dilution techniques, based on 15N labelling of AA's, allow quantifying gross rates of SON depolymerization and AA mineralization (Wanek et al., 2010; Andersen et al., 2015) in addition to gross N mineralization. However, it is well known that the 15N pool dilution approach has limitations; in particular that gross rates of consumption processes (e.g. AA mineralization) are overestimated. This has consequences for evaluating the rate limiting step of the N cycle, as well as for estimating the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Here we present a novel 15N tracing approach, which combines 15N-AA labelling with an advanced version of the 15N tracing model Ntrace (Müller et al., 2007) explicitly accounting for AA turnover in soil. This approach (1) provides a more robust quantification of gross depolymerization and AA mineralization and (2) suggests a more realistic estimate for the microbial NUE of amino acids. Advantages of the new 15N tracing approach will be discussed and further improvements will be identified. References: Andresen, L.C., Bodé, S., Tietema, A., Boeckx, P., and Rütting, T.: Amino acid and N mineralization dynamics in heathland soil after long-term warming and repetitive drought, SOIL, 1, 341-349, 2015. Müller, C., Rütting, T., Kattge, J., Laughlin, R. J., and Stevens, R. J.: Estimation of parameters in complex 15N tracing models via Monte Carlo sampling, Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39, 715-726, 2007. Wanek, W., Mooshammer, M., Blöchl, A., Hanreich, A., and Richter

  16. [Responses of soil nematode communities to long-term application of inorganic fertilizers in upland red soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Man-Qiang; He, Yuan-Qiu; Fan, Jian-Bo; Chen, Yan

    2014-08-01

    Soil biota plays a key role in ecosystem functioning of red soil. Based on the long-term inorganic fertilization field experiment (25-year) in an upland red soil, the impacts of different inorganic fertilization managements, including NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), NPKCaS (NPK plus gypsum fertilizers), NP (nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers), NK (nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) and PK (phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), on the assemblage of soil nematodes during the growing period of peanut were investigated. Significant differences among the treatments were observed for total nematode abundance, trophic groups and ecological indices (P < 0.01). The total nematode abundance decreased in the order of PK > NPKCaS > NPK > NP > NK. The total number of nematodes was significantly higher in NPKCaS and PK than in NPK, NP and NK except in May. Plant parasitic nematodes were the dominant trophic group in all treatments excepted in NPKCaS, and their proportion ranged between 38% and 65%. The dominant trophic group in NPKCaS was bacterivores and represented 42.1%. Furthermore, the higher values of maturity index, Wasilewska index and structure index in NPKCaS indicated that the combined application of NPK and gypsum could remarkably relieve soil acidification, resulting in a more mature and stable soil food web structure. While, that of the NK had the opposite effect. In conclusion, our study suggested that the application of both gypsum and phosphate is an effective practice to improve soil quality. Moreover, the analysis of nematode assemblage is relevant to reflect the impact of different inorganic fertilizer on the red soil ecosystem. PMID:25509090

  17. [Responses of soil nematode communities to long-term application of inorganic fertilizers in upland red soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Man-Qiang; He, Yuan-Qiu; Fan, Jian-Bo; Chen, Yan

    2014-08-01

    Soil biota plays a key role in ecosystem functioning of red soil. Based on the long-term inorganic fertilization field experiment (25-year) in an upland red soil, the impacts of different inorganic fertilization managements, including NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), NPKCaS (NPK plus gypsum fertilizers), NP (nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers), NK (nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) and PK (phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), on the assemblage of soil nematodes during the growing period of peanut were investigated. Significant differences among the treatments were observed for total nematode abundance, trophic groups and ecological indices (P < 0.01). The total nematode abundance decreased in the order of PK > NPKCaS > NPK > NP > NK. The total number of nematodes was significantly higher in NPKCaS and PK than in NPK, NP and NK except in May. Plant parasitic nematodes were the dominant trophic group in all treatments excepted in NPKCaS, and their proportion ranged between 38% and 65%. The dominant trophic group in NPKCaS was bacterivores and represented 42.1%. Furthermore, the higher values of maturity index, Wasilewska index and structure index in NPKCaS indicated that the combined application of NPK and gypsum could remarkably relieve soil acidification, resulting in a more mature and stable soil food web structure. While, that of the NK had the opposite effect. In conclusion, our study suggested that the application of both gypsum and phosphate is an effective practice to improve soil quality. Moreover, the analysis of nematode assemblage is relevant to reflect the impact of different inorganic fertilizer on the red soil ecosystem.

  18. Effects of inorganic carbon on CO2 efflux from calcareous soil during the closed- jar incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J.; Dong, Y.; Cai, M.; Liang, B.

    2011-12-01

    The estimation of CO2 evolved during the incubation of soil in a closed system is widely used to quantifying microbial activities in soil, and the decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the stabilization of organic carbon in soil. However, there are two carbon pools in calcareous soil, i.e., organic pool and inorganic pool. The measurement of CO2 efflux from calcareous soil using closed-jar incubation can be influenced significantly by the abiotic CO2 production in calcareous soil (Alef, 1995; Stvenson and Verburg, 2006). The amount of soil inorganic carbon (SIC) is ten times greater than that of soil organic C (SOC) in arid and semiarid regions. And the arid and semiarid regions occupied 30% of the earth's area. Therefore, more studies are needed to evaluate the contribution of SIC on the CO2 production with the closed-jar system. In this study, we conducted the different incubation experiments with a calcareous soil. Its SOC content was 5.81g/kg, the SIC content was 0.74 g/kg, and pH was 7.67. We added the different rates of inorganic carbonates (as CaCO3 or MgCO3) into soil, and incubated the soil with the closed-jar method. And the CO2 trapped in the NaOH solutions at the different time intervals during the incubation was determined by BaCl2 titration method. The three incubation experiments indicated that adding either CaCO3 or MgCO3 increased the emission of CO2 during the incubation. The increasing extent of CO2 production in the 100-day incubation ranged from 12.0% (adding CaCO3) to 460.1 % (adding MgCO3) in the soils with additional carbonates. After adding CaCO3 and MgCO3, their effects on the CO2 productions during the incubation were different. The amounts of CO2 produced increased as the amounts of CaCO3 increased, while the amounts of CO2 produced decreased as the amounts of MgCO3 increased. When the same content of inorganic carbon was added, the CO2 productions were significantly higher in the MgCO3 treatments than in CaCO3 treatments at the

  19. Are we overestimating organic carbon concentrations in soils containing inorganic carbon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunliffe, Andrew; Brazier, Richard; Vernon, Ian

    2014-05-01

    The concentration of carbon in soils is often measured via chromatographic analysis of elemental gases following dry combustion of a soil sample. This quantifies total carbon (TC), and, in soils which can be assumed to contain no inorganic carbon (IC), TC can be interpreted as organic carbon (OC). Soils containing IC are commonly subjected to an acid digestion to remove IC, prior to analysis for OC concentration; with IC being assigned as the difference between TC and OC. However, the removal of IC reduces the sample mass. Therefore, analysing acid-washed samples reveals the carbon concentration of the non-inorganic carbon sample mass, rather than the actual sample mass, as is generally assumed. This results in the overestimation of OC concentrations and consequent underestimation of IC concentrations, although TC concentrations are correct. The magnitude of the error is proportional to both IC concentration, and the ratio OC/IC, and consequently is greater in carbonate-rich samples. We present a revised protocol for accurately calculating OC and IC concentrations, using the carbon concentrations of the total sample and the acid-washed sample. The revised protocol is easily applicable to existing data, and corrects a known bias in apportioning carbon between organic and inorganic pools. Propagating the error through an example dataset from a semiarid environment, we find it can make a substantial (>10%) difference to estimated total OC pools. We recommend that this new protocol is used whenever elemental analysers are used to quantify OC concentrations in acid-washed sediments.

  20. [Seasonal dynamics of soil labile nitrogen pools and net nitrogen mineralization in subalpine forests along an elevational gradient in western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Yin, Rui; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Xiong, Li; Xiao, Sa; Ma, Zhi-Liang; Li, Zhi-Ping

    2013-12-01

    The seasonal dynamics of soil labile nitrogen pools and net nitrogen mineralization of three subalpine forests along an elevation gradient (3600, 3300 and 3000 m), western Sichuan, China were examined. Obvious seasonal dynamics were found in soil labile nitrogen pools (ammonium, nitrate, microbial biomass nitrogen and dissolved organic nitrogen) and net nitrogen mineralization rate, but the seasonality varied with the measured nitrogen pools. The concentrations of soil nitrate (8.38-89.60 mg x kg(-1)) were significantly higher than those of ammonium (0.44-8.43 mg x kg(-1)) in four sampling periods (non-growing season, early, middle and late growing season). Regardless of the elevation, the rate of soil net nitrogen mineralization was negative (-0.77 to -0.56 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) early in the growing season, but positive in the other three periods. Except for nitrate, the contents of ammonium, microbial biomass nitrogen and dissolved organic nitrogen varied significantly with elevation and the altitude effects on those pools were dependent on seasons. In summary, soil nitrification was the major process of net soil nitrogen mineralization and soil nitrogen mineralization was not affected by elevational gradient. Soil nitrogen mineralization (0.42-0.99 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) in winter was considerable in this area. Relatively high inorganic nitrogen in early spring might be favorable for vegetation growth, but might also be lost from soil ecosystem through leaching. PMID:24697050

  1. [Seasonal dynamics of soil labile nitrogen pools and net nitrogen mineralization in subalpine forests along an elevational gradient in western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Yin, Rui; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Xiong, Li; Xiao, Sa; Ma, Zhi-Liang; Li, Zhi-Ping

    2013-12-01

    The seasonal dynamics of soil labile nitrogen pools and net nitrogen mineralization of three subalpine forests along an elevation gradient (3600, 3300 and 3000 m), western Sichuan, China were examined. Obvious seasonal dynamics were found in soil labile nitrogen pools (ammonium, nitrate, microbial biomass nitrogen and dissolved organic nitrogen) and net nitrogen mineralization rate, but the seasonality varied with the measured nitrogen pools. The concentrations of soil nitrate (8.38-89.60 mg x kg(-1)) were significantly higher than those of ammonium (0.44-8.43 mg x kg(-1)) in four sampling periods (non-growing season, early, middle and late growing season). Regardless of the elevation, the rate of soil net nitrogen mineralization was negative (-0.77 to -0.56 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) early in the growing season, but positive in the other three periods. Except for nitrate, the contents of ammonium, microbial biomass nitrogen and dissolved organic nitrogen varied significantly with elevation and the altitude effects on those pools were dependent on seasons. In summary, soil nitrification was the major process of net soil nitrogen mineralization and soil nitrogen mineralization was not affected by elevational gradient. Soil nitrogen mineralization (0.42-0.99 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) in winter was considerable in this area. Relatively high inorganic nitrogen in early spring might be favorable for vegetation growth, but might also be lost from soil ecosystem through leaching.

  2. Organic-inorganic interactions in the system of pyrrole-hematite-water at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kangle

    2015-11-01

    The distribution and abundance of pyrrolic compounds in sediments and crude oils are most likely influenced by inorganic sedimentary components. In this paper, thermal simulation experiments on the system pyrrole-hematite-water were carried out at elevated temperatures and pressures in order to investigate the effect of organic-inorganic interactions on the preservation of pyrrolic compounds. Compositions of the reaction products were analyzed with GC-MS and GC-FID methods. In the closed system pyrrole-hematite-water, the nitrogen-oxygen exchange obviously occurred at temperatures above 350ºC in accordance with the thermochemical calculation. Large amounts of furan and ammonia were generated after simulation experiments, indicating that the conversion of pyrrole into furan was the dominant reaction. Thermochemical exchange effect between organic nitrogen and inorganic oxygen was obviously facilitated by elevated temperatures and found to be catalyzed by hematite, but inhibited by the increasing volume of water. Thermodynamically water spontaneously reacts with pyrrole above 300ºC. The reaction of pyrrole-hematite-water is an exothermic process in which the reaction heat positively correlates with temperature. The heat released was estimated as 9.0 KJ/(mol) pyrrole - 15.0 KJ/(mol) pyrrole in typical oil reservoirs (100ºC-150ºC) and 15.0-23.0 KJ/(mol) pyrrole in typical gas reservoirs (150ºC-200ºC). The calculated activation energy of the nitrogen-oxygen atom exchange is about 129.59 kJ/mol. According to the experimental results, a small amount of water may effectively initiate the nitrogen-oxygen exchange. The study would improve our evaluating of the preservation and fate of pyrrolic compounds in deeply buried geologic settings and further understanding of thermochemical processes behind the degradation of petroleum.

  3. Nitrate and phosphate leaching in a Phaeozem soil treated with biosolids, composted biosolids and inorganic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Esteller, M V; Martínez-Valdés, H; Garrido, S; Uribe, Q

    2009-06-01

    The use of organic wastes in agriculture may increase the production of crops by incorporating organic matter and nutrients into the soil, and by improving its physical characteristics; however, this use may cause environmental problems such as the leaching of certain ions. The objective of this study was to establish possible nitrogen and phosphorus leaching under real field conditions in Phaeozem soils. The experimental work was performed in a corn (Zea mays L.) field where three plots were conditioned with inorganic fertilizer, three plots with 4.5 Mgha(-1) of biosolids on dry basis, and three plots with the same amount of composted biosolids. The quality of biosolids and composted biosolids complied with the Mexican Official Standards. Soil water samples were collected with suction cups during two agricultural cycles and were analysed. Soil samples were also taken and analysed. The N-NO(3) concentrations in soil water fluctuated between 0.9 and 98mgL(-1) in the composted biosolid treatment, between 0.7 and 64 mgL(-1) in the biosolid treatment, and between 1 and 61 mgL(-1) in the inorganic fertilizer treatment. The maximum concentration of N-NO(2) and N-NH(3) in soil water was 1.02 and 2.65 mgL(-1), respectively. The greatest percentage of nitrogen leached is produced when inorganic fertilizer is used (37.4% and 24.0% N leached in the first and second years, respectively), followed by composted biosolids (17.1% and 13.5% N leached in the first and second years, respectively) and last by biosolids (11% for both years). This difference could be related to the form in which nitrogen is present in the fertilizers, while commercial fertilizer is as inorganic nitrogen, organic wastes are basically presented as organic nitrogen. The maximum PO(4)(3-) concentration in soil water was 1.9 mgL(-1) in the composted biosolid treatment, 1.7mgL(-1) in the biosolid treatment and 0.9 mgL(-1) in the inorganic fertilizer treatment. The estimated percentage of leached phosphorus

  4. Nitrate and phosphate leaching in a Phaeozem soil treated with biosolids, composted biosolids and inorganic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Esteller, M V; Martínez-Valdés, H; Garrido, S; Uribe, Q

    2009-06-01

    The use of organic wastes in agriculture may increase the production of crops by incorporating organic matter and nutrients into the soil, and by improving its physical characteristics; however, this use may cause environmental problems such as the leaching of certain ions. The objective of this study was to establish possible nitrogen and phosphorus leaching under real field conditions in Phaeozem soils. The experimental work was performed in a corn (Zea mays L.) field where three plots were conditioned with inorganic fertilizer, three plots with 4.5 Mgha(-1) of biosolids on dry basis, and three plots with the same amount of composted biosolids. The quality of biosolids and composted biosolids complied with the Mexican Official Standards. Soil water samples were collected with suction cups during two agricultural cycles and were analysed. Soil samples were also taken and analysed. The N-NO(3) concentrations in soil water fluctuated between 0.9 and 98mgL(-1) in the composted biosolid treatment, between 0.7 and 64 mgL(-1) in the biosolid treatment, and between 1 and 61 mgL(-1) in the inorganic fertilizer treatment. The maximum concentration of N-NO(2) and N-NH(3) in soil water was 1.02 and 2.65 mgL(-1), respectively. The greatest percentage of nitrogen leached is produced when inorganic fertilizer is used (37.4% and 24.0% N leached in the first and second years, respectively), followed by composted biosolids (17.1% and 13.5% N leached in the first and second years, respectively) and last by biosolids (11% for both years). This difference could be related to the form in which nitrogen is present in the fertilizers, while commercial fertilizer is as inorganic nitrogen, organic wastes are basically presented as organic nitrogen. The maximum PO(4)(3-) concentration in soil water was 1.9 mgL(-1) in the composted biosolid treatment, 1.7mgL(-1) in the biosolid treatment and 0.9 mgL(-1) in the inorganic fertilizer treatment. The estimated percentage of leached phosphorus

  5. Soil moisture feedback mediates increased carbon storage under elevated CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Hungate, B.A.; Chapin, F.S. III; Jackson, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    After 3 years of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}, soil carbon increased in an extremely nutrient-limited serpentine grassland, but did not change in a more productive sandstone grassland. The increase in the serpentine shows the potential for nutrient-limited ecosystems to sequester carbon under elevated CO{sub 2}, but lack of response in the sandstone grassland suggests that increased soil carbon is not a general ecosystem response to elevated CO{sub 2}. Changes in soil moisture under elevated CO{sub 2} may explain the lack of response in the sandstone. Elevated CO{sub 2} decreases transpiration in plants from both ecosystems, but this consistently increases soil moisture only on the sandstone, where plants more strongly control evapotranspiration than on the serpentine. Increased soil moisture stimulates decomposition in these systems, potentially compensating for increased carbon input to soil under elevated CO{sub 2}, resulting in no net change in soil carbon. Increased soil moisture also stimulates plant growth directly and stimulates nitrogen mineralization and plant nitrogen uptake, potentially increasing plant production under elevated CO{sub 2}. We suggest that, in ecosystems with well developed plant canopies where increased soil moisture is likely under elevated CO{sub 2}, feedbacks through soil moisture may increase production, but may also constrain increased carbon storage in soil.

  6. Organic and inorganic diffuse contamination in urban soils: the case of Torino (Italy).

    PubMed

    Biasioli, Mattia; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco

    2007-08-01

    Soils in urban parks are useful tracers of diffuse contamination and could represent a potential health risk for citizens. Soils in the parks of Torino, Italy, were sampled and analysed for a broad range of organic and inorganic contaminants. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements, PAHs, PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans were often above national legislation limits, and higher than surrounding rural areas or than other cities. Mean concentrations were 233 mg kg(-1) for Cr, 164 mg kg(-1) for Ni, 124 mg kg(-1) for Pb and 170 mg kg(-1) for Zn. Other inorganic contaminants such as Cd, As, and Hg showed high concentrations in some soils. Organic contaminants were also found to be enriched in the sampled parks (e.g. maximum concentrations of PCDDs/DFs and PCBs were 12.6 ng kg(-1) and 0.310 mg kg(-1), respectively). Data from this study reveal an important enrichment of parks for some contaminants, reflecting the intensity of phenomena of diffuse contamination. Historical parks presented the highest degree of contamination, suggesting that the age of soils rather than their proximity to sources of emissions is a key factor in determining soil contamination. Data obtained in this study could be of help in the investigation and remediation practices of urban contaminated sites within large cities.

  7. Effect of metals and other inorganic ions on soil microbial activity: soil dehydrogenase assay as a simple toxicity test

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.E.; Li, S.W.

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to illustrate the utility of the soil dehydrogenase assay as an effective primary test for assessing the potential toxicity of chemicals to soil microbial activity. In this manuscript the authors describe their use of the soil dehydrogenase assay in determining the effects of a number of potential toxic inorganic ions on soil microbial activity. The ions include Cu/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, NH/sub 4//sup +/, Cd/sup 2 +/, Cr/sup 32/, F/sup -/, AsO/sub 4//sup 3 -/, BO/sub 3//sup 3 -/, and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/.

  8. Electrokinetic remediation of inorganic and organic pollutants in textile effluent contaminated agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Sivasankar; Santhanam, Manikandan; Sundaram, Maruthamuthu; Curras, Marta Pazos

    2014-12-01

    The discharge from the dyeing industries constitutes unfixed dyes, inorganic salts, heavy metal complexes etc., which spoil the surrounding areas of industrial sites. The present article reports the use of direct current electrokinetic technique for the treatment of textile contaminated soil. Impressed direct current voltage of 20 V facilitates the dye/metal ions movement in the naturally available dye contaminated soil towards the opposite electrode by electromigration. IrO2–RuO2–TiO2/Ti was used as anode and Ti used as cathode. UV–Visible spectrum reveals that higher dye intensity was nearer to the anode. Ni, Cr and Pb migration towards the cathode and migration of Cu, SO42− and Cl− towards anode were noticed. Chemical oxygen demand in soil significantly decreased upon employing electrokinetic. This technology may be exploited for faster and eco-friendly removal of dye in soil environment. PMID:25461934

  9. Elevated stream inorganic nitrogen impacts on a dominant riparian tree species: Results from an experimental riparian stream system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultine, K. R.; Jackson, T. L.; Burtch, K. G.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    The release of inorganic nitrogen from intensive agricultural practices and urbanization has resulted in significant alterations of the aquatic nitrogen cycle in riparian ecosystems. Nevertheless, impacts of stream nitrogen inputs on the terrestrial nitrogen cycle and the water and carbon cycles are unclear. Information on terrestrial ecosystem responses to stream N loading is largely absent in part because of the difficulty in controlling for temporal and spatial variation in streamflow, geomorphology, climate, and vegetation. To address these issues, we constructed a dual-plot artificial stream riparian system within a 10-year-old plantation of a dominant riparian tree species, box elder (Acer negundo). The dual-plot design allowed for different concentrations of stream inorganic nitrogen between plots while controlling for ecohydrologic and geohydrologic variability. The system was used to investigate elevated inorganic stream nitrogen impacts on water use patterns, above-ground productivity, and leaf chemistry of streamside box elder trees over two consecutive growing seasons (2006 and 2007). One plot received inorganic soluble fertilizer that brought the NO3 concentration of stream water from 5 μmol l-1 to about 100 μmol l-1, while the second plot received no additional nitrogen. Relative stem sap flux density (Js) did not vary between plots until near the conclusion of the 2006 growing season, when trees in the fertilized plot showed a steep upswing in Js relative to trees in the control plot. Sap flux in 2007 increased consistently by 0.4% day-1 in the fertilized plot relative to the control plot over a 75-day period, before leveling off near the conclusion of the growing season. At the onset of the experiment, leaf nitrogen per unit mass and leaf nitrogen per unit area were significantly higher in the control plot, and leaf C:N ratios were lower. In 2007, however, differences in leaf chemistry disappeared, suggesting that leaf nitrogen increased in the

  10. Inorganic materials as ameliorants for soil remediation of metal toxicity to wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Filho, Mateus Rosas; Siqueira, José Oswaldo; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Curi, Nilton

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved plant growth with 45% and reduced metal uptake by over 70% in comparison to untreated soil. Reductions in availability as estimated by BaCl2-extractable metals reached up to 90% for Zn and 65% for Cd as compared to unamended soil. These reductions were associated with lower shoot and root metal contents. Shoot Zn content was reduced from 1,369 microg g(-1) in plants grown on untreated soil to 377 microg g(-1) when grown on cyclonic ash amended soil while Cd decreased from 267 to 44 microg g(-1) in steel shots amended soil. Superphosphate addition had no ameliorating effect. On the contrary, it increased BaCl2-extractable amounts of Zn. Considering all parameters we determined, steel shots, cyclonic ash and silifertil are the most promising for remediating metal contaminated soil in the tropics. Further studies evaluating impacts, cost-effectiveness and durability of effects will be conducted. PMID:21598779

  11. Effects of soil dissolved organic matter inputs on high-elevation lake metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadro, S.; De La Rosa, G. T.; Nelson, C. E.; Homyak, P. M.; Sickman, J. O.

    2015-12-01

    Concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) have been increasing in many aquatic ecosystems. In snow-dominated systems, longer growing seasons and shifts in precipitation from snow to rain are expected to increase terrestrial DOM loading in lakes. In particular, high-elevation lakes are susceptible to the effects of rain-induced loading because they are often located in steep catchments with thin soils and impermeable rock outcrops that rapidly channel runoff. Observational studies have linked rain-induced loading with increased lake DOM and nutrient concentrations, altering ecosystem metabolic rates. However, the aquatic ecosystem response to different magnitudes of terrestrial DOM loading remains unclear. We hypothesize that low levels of DOM loading will stimulate rates of primary production to a greater extent than heterotrophic respiration as phytoplankton in these oligotrophic lakes exploit increased inorganic nutrient availability, ultimately increasing net ecosystem production. In contrast, we expect high levels of loading to suppress rates of gross primary production through reduced transparency of photosynthetically active radiation, while stimulating heterotrophic respiration through increased DOM substrate availability for bacterioplankton. We predict there will be a threshold DOM-loading level above which net ecosystem metabolism becomes heterotrophic. To test these hypotheses we conducted a series of in situ incubations of lake water amended with soil DOM extracted from catchment Entisols and Inceptisols. Background concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in these lakes are typically ~60 - 80 μM during the ice-free season. Incubation treatments included a control with ambient DOC concentration, soil DOM additions targeting +10 μM, +20 μM, +60 μM, +190 μM, +440 μM, and +940 μM DOC, and a nutrient amendment matching inorganic N and P concentrations in the highest soil DOM treatment. We develop models that predict phytoplankton and

  12. [Correlation Among Soil Organic Carbon, Soil Inorganic Carbon and the Environmental Factors in a Typical Oasis in the Southern Edge of the Tarim Basin].

    PubMed

    Gong, Lu; Zhu, Mei-ling; Liu, Zeng-yuan; Zhang, Xue-ni; Xie, Li-na

    2016-04-15

    We analyzed the differentiation among the environmental factors and soil organic/inorganic carbon contents of irrigated desert soil, brown desert soil, saline soil and aeolian sandy soil by classical statistics methods, and studied the correlation between soil carbon contents and the environmental factor by redundancy analysis (RDA) in a typical oasis of Yutian in the southern edge of the Tarim Basin. The results showed that the average contents of soil organic carbon and soil inorganic carbon were 2.51 g · kg⁻¹ and 25.63 g · kg⁻¹ respectively. The soil organic carbon content of the irrigated desert soil was significantly higher than those of brown desert soil, saline soil and aeolian sandy soil, while the inorganic carbon content of aeolian sandy soil was significantly higher than those of other soil types. The soil moisture and nutrient content were the highest in the irrigated desert soil and the lowest in the aeolian sandy sail. All soil types had high degree of salinization except the irrigated desert soil. The RDA results showed that the impacts of environmental factors on soil carbon contents ranked in order of importance were total nitrogen > available phosphorus > soil moisture > ground water depth > available potassium > pH > total salt. The soil carbon contents correlated extremely significantly with total nitrogen, available phosphorus, soil moisture and ground water depth (P < 0.01), and it correlated significantly with available potassium and pH (P < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between soil carbon contents and other environmental factors (P > 0.05). PMID:27548977

  13. [Correlation Among Soil Organic Carbon, Soil Inorganic Carbon and the Environmental Factors in a Typical Oasis in the Southern Edge of the Tarim Basin].

    PubMed

    Gong, Lu; Zhu, Mei-ling; Liu, Zeng-yuan; Zhang, Xue-ni; Xie, Li-na

    2016-04-15

    We analyzed the differentiation among the environmental factors and soil organic/inorganic carbon contents of irrigated desert soil, brown desert soil, saline soil and aeolian sandy soil by classical statistics methods, and studied the correlation between soil carbon contents and the environmental factor by redundancy analysis (RDA) in a typical oasis of Yutian in the southern edge of the Tarim Basin. The results showed that the average contents of soil organic carbon and soil inorganic carbon were 2.51 g · kg⁻¹ and 25.63 g · kg⁻¹ respectively. The soil organic carbon content of the irrigated desert soil was significantly higher than those of brown desert soil, saline soil and aeolian sandy soil, while the inorganic carbon content of aeolian sandy soil was significantly higher than those of other soil types. The soil moisture and nutrient content were the highest in the irrigated desert soil and the lowest in the aeolian sandy sail. All soil types had high degree of salinization except the irrigated desert soil. The RDA results showed that the impacts of environmental factors on soil carbon contents ranked in order of importance were total nitrogen > available phosphorus > soil moisture > ground water depth > available potassium > pH > total salt. The soil carbon contents correlated extremely significantly with total nitrogen, available phosphorus, soil moisture and ground water depth (P < 0.01), and it correlated significantly with available potassium and pH (P < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between soil carbon contents and other environmental factors (P > 0.05).

  14. Bioavailability of Fe(III) in natural soils and the impact on mobility of inorganic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Kosson, David S.; Cowan, Robert M.; Young, Lily Y.; Hacherl, Eric L.; Scala, David J.

    2002-10-03

    Inorganic contaminants, such as heavy metals and radionuclides, can adhere to insoluble Fe(III) minerals resulting in decreased mobility of these contaminants through subsurface environments. Dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (DIRB), by reducing insoluble Fe(III) to soluble Fe(II), may enhance contaminant mobility. The Savannah River Site, South Carolina (SRS), has been subjected to both heavy metal and radionuclide contamination. The overall objective of this project is to investigate the release of inorganic contaminants such as heavy metals and radionuclides that are bound to solid phase soil Fe complexes and to elucidate the mechanisms for mobilization of these contaminants that can be associated with microbial Fe(III) reduction. This is being accomplished by (i) using uncontaminated and contaminated soils from SRS as prototype systems, (ii) evaluating the diversity of DIRBs within the samples and isolating cultures for further study, (iii) using batch microcosms to evaluate the bioavailability of Fe(III) from pure minerals and SRS soils, (iv) developing kinetic and mass transfer models that reflect the system dynamics, and (v) carrying out soil column studies to elucidate the dynamics and interactions amongst Fe(III) reduction, remineralization and contaminant mobility.

  15. Soil bacterial diversity patterns and drivers along an elevational gradient on Shennongjia Mountain, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Li, Guangliang; Xue, Yadong; Deng, Ye; Li, Hui; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang

    2015-07-01

    Understanding biological diversity elevational pattern and the driver factors are indispensable to develop the ecological theories. Elevational gradient may minimize the impact of environmental factors and is the ideal places to study soil microbial elevational patterns. In this study, we selected four typical vegetation types from 1000 to 2800 m above the sea level on the northern slope of Shennongjia Mountain in central China, and analysed the soil bacterial community composition, elevational patterns and the relationship between soil bacterial diversity and environmental factors by using the 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing and multivariate statistical analysis. The results revealed that the dominant bacterial phyla were Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia, which accounted for over 75% of the bacterial sequences obtained from tested samples, and the soil bacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness was a significant monotonous decreasing (P < 0.01) trend with the elevational increasing. The similarity of soil bacterial population composition decreased significantly (P < 0.01) with elevational distance increased as measured by the Jaccard and Bray-Curtis index. Canonical correspondence analysis and Mantel test analysis indicated that plant diversity and soil pH were significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with the soil bacterial community. Therefore, the soil bacterial diversity on Shennongjia Mountain had a significant and different elevational pattern, and plant diversity and soil pH may be the key factors in shaping the soil bacterial spatial pattern.

  16. Potential net soil N mineralization and decomposition of glycine-13C in forest soils along an elevation gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this research was to better understand patterns of soil nitrogen (N) availability and soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition in forest soils across an elevation gradient (235-1670 m) in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Laboratory studies were used to determine the potential rate of net soil N mineralization and in situ studies of {sup 13}C-labelled glycine were used to infer differences in decomposition rates. Nitrogen stocks, surface soil (0-5 cm) N concentrations, and the pool of potentially mineralizable surface soil N tended to increase from low to high elevations. Rates of potential net soil N mineralization were not significantly correlated with elevation. Increasing soil N availability with elevation is primarily due to greater soil N stocks and lower substrate C-to-N ratios, rather than differences in potential net soil N mineralization rates. The loss rate of {sup 13}C from labelled soils (0-20 cm) was inversely related to study site elevation (r = -0.85; P < 0.05) and directly related to mean annual temperature (+0.86; P<0.05). The results indicated different patterns of potential net soil N mineralization and {sup 13}C loss along the elevation gradient. The different patterns can be explained within a framework of climate, substrate chemistry, and coupled soil C and N stocks. Although less SOM decomposition is indicated at cool, high-elevation sites, low substrate C-to-N ratios in these N-rich systems result in more N release (N mineralization) for each unit of C converted to CO{sub 2} by soil microorganisms.

  17. Fertilization and pH effects on processes and mechanisms controlling dissolved inorganic phosphorus in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devau, Nicolas; Hinsinger, Philippe; Le Cadre, Edith; Colomb, Bruno; Gérard, Frédéric

    2011-05-01

    We used of a set of mechanistic adsorption models (1-pK TPM, ion exchange and Nica-Donnan) within the framework of the component additive (CA) approach in an attempt to determine the effect of repeated massive application of inorganic P fertilizer on the processes and mechanisms controlling the concentration of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) in soils. We studied the surface layer of a Luvisol with markedly different total concentrations of inorganic P as the result of different P fertilizer history (i.e. massive or no application for 40 years). Soil pH was made to vary from acid to alkaline. Soil solutions were extracted with water and CaCl 2 (0.01 M). The occurrence of montmorillonite led us to determine the binding properties of P and Ca ions for this clay mineral. Satisfactory results were obtained using generic values for model parameters and soil-specific ones, which were either determined directly by measurements or estimated from the literature. We showed that adsorption largely controlled the variations of DIP concentration and that, because of kinetic constrains, only little Ca-phosphates may be precipitated under alkaline conditions, particularly in the P fertilized treatment. The mineral-P pool initially present in both P treatments did not dissolve significantly during the course of the experiments. The adsorption of Ca ions onto soil minerals also promoted adsorption of P ions through electrostatic interactions. The intensity of the mechanism was high under neutral to alkaline conditions. Changes in DIP concentration as a function of these environmental variables can be related to changes in the contribution of the various soil minerals to P adsorption. The extra P adsorbed in the fertilized treatment compared with the control treatment was mainly adsorbed onto illite. This clay mineral was the major P-fixing constituent from neutral to alkaline pH conditions, because the repulsion interactions between deprotonated hydroxyl surface sites and P

  18. Soil Carbon Dynamics Along an Elevation Gradient in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr., C.T.

    2004-04-13

    The role of soil C dynamics in the exchange of CO{sub 2} between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is at the center of many science questions related to global climate change. The purpose of this report is to summarize measured trends in environmental factors and ecosystem processes that affect soil C balance along elevation gradients in the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina, USA. Three environmental factors that have potentially significant effects on soil C dynamics (temperature, precipitation, and soil N availability) vary in a predictable manner with altitude. Forest soil C stocks and calculated turnover times of labile soil C increase with elevation, and there is an apparent inverse relationship between soil C storage and mean annual temperature. Relationships between climate variables and soil C dynamics along elevation gradients must be interpreted with caution because litter chemistry, soil moisture, N availability, and temperature are confounded; all potentially interact in complex ways to regulate soil C storage through effects on decomposition. Some recommendations are presented for untangling these complexities. It is concluded that past studies along elevation gradients have contributed to a better but not complete understanding of environmental factors and processes that potentially affect soil C balance. Furthermore, there are advantages linked to the use of elevation gradients as an approach to climate change research when hypotheses are placed in a strong theoretical or mechanistic framework. Climate change research along elevation gradients can be both convenient and economical. More importantly, ecosystem processes and attributes affecting soil C dynamics along elevation gradients are usually the product of the long-term interactions between climate, vegetation, and soil type. Investigations along elevation gradients are a useful approach to the study of environmental change, and its effect

  19. Response of aluminum solubility to elevated nitrification in soil of a red spruce stand in eastern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of soluble Al can impair tree growth and be toxic to aquatic biota, but effects of acidic deposition on Al solubility in forest soils are only partially understood because of complex interactions with H+ and organic matter. We therefore evaluated Al solubility in two red spruce stands in eastern Maine, one of which received dry (NH4)2SO4 at a rate of 1800 equiv ha-1 yr-1 during 19891995. Samples of soil (Spodosol Oa and Bh horizons) and soil solution were collected on five dates from 1992 to 1995. The treatment elevated nitrification, causing an increase in acid input that led to inorganic Al concentrations of greater than 60 ??mol L-1 in both the Oa and Bh horizons. Solubility of Al was also lower in the Bh horizon of the treated stand than in the reference stand, a response related to higher DOC concentrations in the treated stand. Concentrations of CuCl2 and pyrophosphate-extractable Al were higher in the Oa horizon of the treated watershed than the reference stand, a result of accelerated weathering of mineral particles caused by lower solution pH in the treated stand (3.47) than in the reference stand (3.69). Dissolved Al concentrations in these soils are the result of complex mechanisms through which mineral matter, organic matter, and pH interact to control Al solubility; mechanisms that are not incorporated in current Al solubility models.

  20. Inorganic carbon fluxes across the vadose zone of planted and unplanted soil mesocosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaysen, E. M.; Jacques, D.; Jessen, S.; Andersen, C. E.; Laloy, E.; Ambus, P.; Postma, D.; Jakobsen, I.

    2014-12-01

    The efflux of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils influences atmospheric CO2 concentrations and thereby climate change. The partitioning of inorganic carbon (C) fluxes in the vadose zone between emission to the atmosphere and to the groundwater was investigated to reveal controlling underlying mechanisms. Carbon dioxide partial pressure in the soil gas (pCO2), alkalinity, soil moisture and temperature were measured over depth and time in unplanted and planted (barley) mesocosms. The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) percolation flux was calculated from the pCO2, alkalinity and the water flux at the mesocosm bottom. Carbon dioxide exchange between the soil surface and the atmosphere was measured at regular intervals. The soil diffusivity was determined from soil radon-222 (222Rn) emanation rates and soil air Rn concentration profiles and was used in conjunction with measured pCO2 gradients to calculate the soil CO2 production. Carbon dioxide fluxes were modeled using the HP1 module of the Hydrus 1-D software. The average CO2 effluxes to the atmosphere from unplanted and planted mesocosm ecosystems during 78 days of experiment were 0.1 ± 0.07 and 4.9 ± 0.07 μmol C m-2 s-1, respectively, and grossly exceeded the corresponding DIC percolation fluxes of 0.01 ± 0.004 and 0.06 ± 0.03 μmol C m-2 s-1. Plant biomass was high in the mesocosms as compared to a standard field situation. Post-harvest soil respiration (Rs) was only 10% of the Rs during plant growth, while the post-harvest DIC percolation flux was more than one-third of the flux during growth. The Rs was controlled by production and diffusivity of CO2 in the soil. The DIC percolation flux was largely controlled by the pCO2 and the drainage flux due to low solution pH. Modeling suggested that increasing soil alkalinity during plant growth was due to nutrient buffering during root nitrate uptake.

  1. Effects of plant diversity, N fertilization, and elevated carbon dioxide on grassland soil N cycling in a long-term experiment.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kevin E; Hobbie, Sarah E; Tilman, David; Reich, Peter B

    2013-04-01

    The effects of global environmental changes on soil nitrogen (N) pools and fluxes have consequences for ecosystem functions such as plant productivity and N retention. In a 13-year grassland experiment, we evaluated how elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ), N fertilization, and plant species richness alter soil N cycling. We focused on soil inorganic N pools, including ammonium and nitrate, and two N fluxes, net N mineralization and net nitrification. In contrast with existing hypotheses, such as progressive N limitation, and with observations from other, often shorter, studies, elevated CO2 had relatively static and small, or insignificant, effects on soil inorganic N pools and fluxes. Nitrogen fertilization had inconsistent effects on soil N transformations, but increased soil nitrate and ammonium concentrations. Plant species richness had increasingly positive effects on soil N transformations over time, likely because in diverse subplots the concentrations of N in roots increased over time. Species richness also had increasingly positive effects on concentrations of ammonium in soil, perhaps because more carbon accumulated in soils of diverse subplots, providing exchange sites for ammonium. By contrast, subplots planted with 16 species had lower soil nitrate concentrations than less diverse subplots, especially when fertilized, probably due to greater N uptake capacity of subplots with 16 species. Monocultures of different plant functional types had distinct effects on N transformations and nitrate concentrations, such that not all monocultures differed from diverse subplots in the same manner. The first few years of data would not have adequately forecast the effects of N fertilization and diversity on soil N cycling in later years; therefore, the dearth of long-term manipulations of plant species richness and N inputs is a hindrance to forecasting the state of the soil N cycle and ecosystem functions in extant plant communities. PMID:23504900

  2. Effects of plant diversity, N fertilization, and elevated carbon dioxide on grassland soil N cycling in a long-term experiment.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kevin E; Hobbie, Sarah E; Tilman, David; Reich, Peter B

    2013-04-01

    The effects of global environmental changes on soil nitrogen (N) pools and fluxes have consequences for ecosystem functions such as plant productivity and N retention. In a 13-year grassland experiment, we evaluated how elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ), N fertilization, and plant species richness alter soil N cycling. We focused on soil inorganic N pools, including ammonium and nitrate, and two N fluxes, net N mineralization and net nitrification. In contrast with existing hypotheses, such as progressive N limitation, and with observations from other, often shorter, studies, elevated CO2 had relatively static and small, or insignificant, effects on soil inorganic N pools and fluxes. Nitrogen fertilization had inconsistent effects on soil N transformations, but increased soil nitrate and ammonium concentrations. Plant species richness had increasingly positive effects on soil N transformations over time, likely because in diverse subplots the concentrations of N in roots increased over time. Species richness also had increasingly positive effects on concentrations of ammonium in soil, perhaps because more carbon accumulated in soils of diverse subplots, providing exchange sites for ammonium. By contrast, subplots planted with 16 species had lower soil nitrate concentrations than less diverse subplots, especially when fertilized, probably due to greater N uptake capacity of subplots with 16 species. Monocultures of different plant functional types had distinct effects on N transformations and nitrate concentrations, such that not all monocultures differed from diverse subplots in the same manner. The first few years of data would not have adequately forecast the effects of N fertilization and diversity on soil N cycling in later years; therefore, the dearth of long-term manipulations of plant species richness and N inputs is a hindrance to forecasting the state of the soil N cycle and ecosystem functions in extant plant communities.

  3. Nitrogen-mediated effects of elevated CO2 on intra-aggregate soil pore structure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While previous elevated atmospheric CO2 research has addressed changes in belowground processes, its effects on soil structure remain virtually undescribed. This study examined the long-term effects of elevated CO2 and N fertilization on soil structural changes in a bahiagrass pasture grown on a san...

  4. Effect of Elevated CO2, O3, and UV Radiation on Soils

    PubMed Central

    Rejšek, Klement; Vranová, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have attempted to review the current knowledge on the impact of elevated CO2, O3, and UV on soils. Elevated CO2 increases labile and stabile soil C pool as well as efficiency of organic pollutants rhizoremediation and phytoextraction of heavy metals. Conversely, both elevated O3 and UV radiation decrease inputs of assimilates to the rhizosphere being accompanied by inhibitory effects on decomposition processes, rhizoremediation, and heavy metals phytoextraction efficiency. Contrary to elevated CO2, O3, or UV-B decreases soil microbial biomass, metabolisable C, and soil Nt content leading to higher C/N of soil organic matter. Elevated UV-B radiation shifts soil microbial community and decreases populations of soil meso- and macrofauna via direct effect rather than by induced changes of litter quality and root exudation as in case of elevated CO2 or O3. CO2 enrichment or increased UV-B is hypothesised to stimulate or inhibit both plant and microbial competitiveness for soluble soil N, respectively, whereas O3 favours only microbial competitive efficiency. Understanding the consequences of elevated CO2, O3, and UV radiation for soils, especially those related to fertility, phytotoxins inputs, elements cycling, plant-microbe interactions, and decontamination of polluted sites, presents a knowledge gap for future research. PMID:24688424

  5. Isotopic Composition of Organic and Inorganic Carbon in Desert Biological Soil Crust Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, K.; Hartnett, H.; Anbar, A.; Beraldi, H.; Garcia-Pichel, F.

    2006-12-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are microbial communities that colonize soil surfaces in many arid regions. BSCs are important sources for fixed carbon and nitrogen in these ecosystems, and they greatly influence the structure, function, and appearance of desert soils. Biological activity of BSCs occurs during pulses of hydration requiring desert crusts to tolerate extremes in UV radiation, temperature, and desiccation. These characteristics make desert crusts unique systems that have received little consideration in the study of biogeochemical processes in extreme environments. This project investigates the impact of BSCs on carbon dynamics within desert soils. Soil cores ranging in depth from 8 to 12 cm were taken in March, 2006 from deserts near Moab, Utah. Two major BSC classes were identified: lichen-dominated (dark and pinnacled) soil crusts and cyanobacteria-dominated (light and flat) soil crusts. These two surface morphologies are related to the different biological communities. Carbon content and stable carbon isotopic composition were determined for the bulk carbon pool, as well as for the organic and inorganic carbon fractions of the soils. Expectedly, there was a net decrease in organic carbon content with depth (0.39-0.27 percent). Stable carbon isotope values for the organic fraction ranged from -5.8 per mil to -24.0 per mil (Avg: -14.4 per mil, S.D: 6.42 per mil). Stable carbon isotope values for the inorganic fraction ranged from 0.3 per mil to -3.6 per mil (Avg: -2.4 per mil, S.D.: 1.05 per mil). The variation in the isotopic composition of the organic carbon was due to a strong depletion below the surface soil value occurring between 3 and 5 cm depth, with an enrichment above the original surface value at depths below 6 to 10 cm. These data suggest that within desert soil crust systems the carbon isotopic signal is complex with both a clear biological imprint (lighter organic carbon) as well as evidence for some mechanism that results in

  6. Microbial response to salinity stress in a tropical sandy soil amended with native shrub residues or inorganic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Sall, Saïdou Nourou; Ndour, Ndèye Yacine Badiane; Diédhiou-Sall, Siré; Dick, Richard; Chotte, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-15

    Soil degradation and salinization caused by inappropriate cultivation practices and high levels of saltwater intrusion are having an adverse effect on agriculture in Central Senegal. The residues of Piliostigma reticulatum, a local shrub that coexists with crops, were recently shown to increase particulate organic matter and improve soil quality and may be a promising means of alleviating the effects of salinization. This study compared the effects of inorganic fertilizer and P. reticulatum residues on microbial properties and the ability of soil to withstand salinity stress. We hypothesized that soils amended with P. reticulatum would be less affected by salinity stress than soils amended with inorganic fertilizer and control soil. Salinity stress was applied to soil from a field site that had been cultivated for 5 years under a millet/peanut crop rotation when microbial biomass, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) community profile, catabolic diversity, microbial activities were determined. Microbial biomass, nitrification potential and dehydrogenase activity were higher by 20%, 56% and 69% respectively in soil with the organic amendment. With salinity stress, the structure and activities of the microbial community were significantly affected. Although the biomass of actinobacteria community increased with salinity stress, there was a substantial reduction in microbial activity in all soils. The soil organically amended was, however, less affected by salinity stress than the control or inorganic fertilizer treatment. This suggests that amendment using P. reticulatum residues may improve the ability of soils to respond to saline conditions.

  7. The influences of inorganic elements in soil on the development of famous - region Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiwanqi; Ouyang, Zhen; Zhao, Ming; Wei, Yuan; Peng, Huasheng; Wang, Qiang; Guo, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background: Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC., is an important medicinal plant in China. Recently, researches of A. Lancea were focused on chemical composition and genetics, only a few were concerned with soil factors. Objective: The aim was to discuss the relationship between geo-herbalism of A. Lancea (Thunb.) DC. and inorganic elements in soil. Materials and Methods: The contents of 15 kinds of inorganic elements in the rhizoma of A. Lancea (Thunb.) DC. and soils from various regions were determined with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer and the data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 20.0 software. Results: The contents of inorganic elements in rhizoma of A. Lancea and in soil with different geological background were different. The soils in the famous region contained high aluminum, iron, sodium and low sulfur content. The rhizoma of A. Lancea contained high aluminum, lithium, manganese and low iron, sulfur content. The famous-region crude drugs had a strong tendency to accumulate selenium, manganese. Ten characteristic elements of A. Lancea were K, Ca, S, Al, Li, Ti, Mn, Pb, Ni, SE. Conclusion: The contents of inorganic elements in rhizoma of A. Lancea showed a significant positive interrelationship with those in soil. It was identified that inorganic elements play an important role in forming authenticity A. Lancea (Thunb.) DC. PMID:25829773

  8. Linking Soils and Streams: Hydrological Controls on Organic and Inorganic Solute Transport in two Mediterranean Catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderman, J.; Lohse, K. A.; Amundson, R.

    2005-12-01

    The dissolved chemical load in a particular stream is the result of a complex interplay between upland soil biogeochemistry, hydrology and downstream biogeochemical cycling. Because few studies have coupled biogeochemical and hydrological studies at the sub-catchment scale, we still do not fully understand the processes controlling transport and retention of nutrients as they interact with different hydrologic pathways. To better understand the processes behind observed seasonal trends in both organic (dissolved organic matter (DOM)) and inorganic (NO3, HCO3, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, ...) solute concentrations entering the stream network, we monitored changes in solution chemistry as rainwater moved through the soils and out into the streams of two small (<2 ha) coastal California catchments of differing rainfalls. In the steeper, more humid and deeply weathered site where vertically infiltrating throughflow dominates everywhere except in the immediate vicinity of the channel head, concentrations of DOM drop rapidly with depth primarily due to adsorption with the fine textured soil resulting in very low concentrations in stream water. At the gentler sloping site, saturated subsurface and saturated overland flow occur during most large storms leading to a rapid transfer of DOM and other biologically active solutes from the surface soils directly to the stream bypassing the deeper fine textured zone where adsorption and other removal mechanisms could occur. Due to this short-circuiting of typical elemental removal mechanisms, we observe a significant jump in both organic and inorganic solute concentrations from base flow levels during these large storm events as the spatial extent of saturated flow greatly expands upslope from the channel head. In the two ecosystems in this study, the hydrologic routing of water from soil to stream plays a critical role in determining the stream water chemistry.

  9. Distinct soil bacterial communities along a small-scale elevational gradient in alpine tundra

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Congcong; Ni, Yingying; Liang, Wenju; Wang, Jianjun; Chu, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    The elevational diversity pattern for microorganisms has received great attention recently but is still understudied, and phylogenetic relatedness is rarely studied for microbial elevational distributions. Using a bar-coded pyrosequencing technique, we examined the biodiversity patterns for soil bacterial communities of tundra ecosystem along 2000–2500 m elevations on Changbai Mountain in China. Bacterial taxonomic richness displayed a linear decreasing trend with increasing elevation. Phylogenetic diversity and mean nearest taxon distance (MNTD) exhibited a unimodal pattern with elevation. Bacterial communities were more phylogenetically clustered than expected by chance at all elevations based on the standardized effect size of MNTD metric. The bacterial communities differed dramatically among elevations, and the community composition was significantly correlated with soil total carbon (TC), total nitrogen, C:N ratio, and dissolved organic carbon. Multiple ordinary least squares regression analysis showed that the observed biodiversity patterns strongly correlated with soil TC and C:N ratio. Taken together, this is the first time that a significant bacterial diversity pattern has been observed across a small-scale elevational gradient. Our results indicated that soil carbon and nitrogen contents were the critical environmental factors affecting bacterial elevational distribution in Changbai Mountain tundra. This suggested that ecological niche-based environmental filtering processes related to soil carbon and nitrogen contents could play a dominant role in structuring bacterial communities along the elevational gradient. PMID:26217308

  10. Distinct soil bacterial communities along a small-scale elevational gradient in alpine tundra.

    PubMed

    Shen, Congcong; Ni, Yingying; Liang, Wenju; Wang, Jianjun; Chu, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    The elevational diversity pattern for microorganisms has received great attention recently but is still understudied, and phylogenetic relatedness is rarely studied for microbial elevational distributions. Using a bar-coded pyrosequencing technique, we examined the biodiversity patterns for soil bacterial communities of tundra ecosystem along 2000-2500 m elevations on Changbai Mountain in China. Bacterial taxonomic richness displayed a linear decreasing trend with increasing elevation. Phylogenetic diversity and mean nearest taxon distance (MNTD) exhibited a unimodal pattern with elevation. Bacterial communities were more phylogenetically clustered than expected by chance at all elevations based on the standardized effect size of MNTD metric. The bacterial communities differed dramatically among elevations, and the community composition was significantly correlated with soil total carbon (TC), total nitrogen, C:N ratio, and dissolved organic carbon. Multiple ordinary least squares regression analysis showed that the observed biodiversity patterns strongly correlated with soil TC and C:N ratio. Taken together, this is the first time that a significant bacterial diversity pattern has been observed across a small-scale elevational gradient. Our results indicated that soil carbon and nitrogen contents were the critical environmental factors affecting bacterial elevational distribution in Changbai Mountain tundra. This suggested that ecological niche-based environmental filtering processes related to soil carbon and nitrogen contents could play a dominant role in structuring bacterial communities along the elevational gradient.

  11. Elevated CO2 and temperature increase soil C losses from a soy-maize ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warming temperatures and increasing CO2 are likely to have large effects on the amount of carbon stored in soil, but predictions of these effects are poorly constrained. We elevated temperature (canopy: +2.8 °C; soil growing season: +1.8 °C; soil fallow: +2.3 °C) for three years within the 9th-11th ...

  12. Leaching Kinetics of Atrazine and Inorganic Chemicals in Tilled and Orchard Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szajdak, Lech W.; Lipiec, Jerzy; Siczek, Anna; Nosalewicz, Artur; Majewska, Urszula

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify first-order kinetic reaction rate model performance in predicting of leaching of atrazine and inorganic compounds (K+1, Fe+3, Mg+2, Mn+2, NH4 +, NO3 - and PO4 -3) from tilled and orchard silty loam soils. This model provided an excellent fit to the experimental concentration changes of the compounds vs. time data during leaching. Calculated values of the first-order reaction rate constants for the changes of all chemicals were from 3.8 to 19.0 times higher in orchard than in tilled soil. Higher first-order reaction constants for orchard than tilled soil correspond with both higher total porosity and contribution of biological pores in the former. The first order reaction constants for the leaching of chemical compounds enables prediction of the actual compound concentration and the interactions between compound and soil as affected by management system. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of simultaneous chemical and physical analyses as a tool for the understanding of leaching in variously managed soils.

  13. Response of soil inorganic nitrogen to land use and topographic position in the Cofre de Perote volcano (Mexico).

    PubMed

    Campos C, Adolfo

    2010-08-01

    This study addressed the effects of land use and slope position on soil inorganic nitrogen and was conducted in small watersheds. The study covered three land use types: tropical cloud forest, grassland, and coffee crop. To conduct this research, typical slope small watersheds were chosen in each land use type. Slopes were divided into three positions: shoulder, backslope, and footslope. At the center of each slope position, soil sampling was carried out. Soil inorganic nitrogen was measured monthly during a period of 14 months (July 2005-August 2006) with 11 observations. Significant differences in soil NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N content were detected for both land use and sampling date effects, as well as for interactions. A significant slope position-by-sampling date interaction was found only in coffee crop for NO(3) (-)-N content. In tropical cloud forest and grassland, high soil NH(4) (+)-N and low NO(3) (-)-N content were recorded, while soil NO(3) (-)-N content was high in coffee crop. Low NO(3) (-)-N contents could mean a substantial microbial assimilation of NO(3) (-)-N, constituting an important mechanism for nitrogen retention. Across the entire land use set, the relationship between soil temperature and soil inorganic N concentration was described by an exponential decay function (N = 33 + 2459exp(-0.23T), R (2) = 0.44, P < 0.0001). This study also showed that together, soil temperature and gravimetric soil water content explained more variation in soil inorganic N concentration than gravimetric soil water content alone. PMID:20582414

  14. Sorption of inorganic and total phosphorus from dairy and swine slurries to soil.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Sarah K; Laboski, Carrie A M

    2006-01-01

    Understanding P sorption from animal manures is essential to formulate best management practices with regard to land application of manure from the standpoint of crop production and environmental quality. Little research has focused on the construction of P sorption isotherms where the P source is manure. The objectives of this study were to: (i) develop a procedure to characterize how inorganic P (P(i)) and total P (P(t)) from dairy slurry and swine slurry sorbs to soil; and (ii) compare the sorption characteristics of P(i) and P(t) where the P source was dairy slurry, swine slurry, or potassium phosphate (KH2PO4). Sorption solutions were prepared in 0.1 M KCl at pH 6 and equilibrated with soils at a 1:25 (w/v) soil/solution ratio for 24 h. Inorganic P, P(t), Al, and Fe in the equilibrated solutions were measured. For all soils, P(i) and P(t) sorption capacity of dairy slurry was greater than KH2PO4. Total P sorption capacity of swine slurry was greater than KH2PO4, while P(i) sorption capacity was less than KH2PO4. Overall, P(i) and P(t) sorption strengths of the manure slurries were less than or equal to KH2PO4. Increased P(i) sorption from dairy slurry was correlated with Fe and Al desorption. Reduction of P(i) sorption capacity from swine slurry was related to preferential sorption of organic P. Additional studies need to be conducted to determine how differences in P sorption between manures and fertilizer impact in-field P availability to a crop and potential for losses in runoff water.

  15. Combining agricultural practices key to elevating soil microbial activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concept of soil health is an emerging topic in applied ecology, specifically as it pertains to the agriculture, which utilizes approximately 40% of earth’s land. However, rigorous quantification of soil health and the services provided by soil organisms to support agriculture production (e.g., n...

  16. Soil microbial responses to elevated CO₂ and O₃ in a nitrogen-aggrading agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Booker, Fitzgerald L; Burkey, Kent O; Tu, Cong; Shew, H David; Rufty, Thomas W; Fiscus, Edwin L; Deforest, Jared L; Hu, Shuijin

    2011-01-01

    Climate change factors such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) and ozone (O₃) can exert significant impacts on soil microbes and the ecosystem level processes they mediate. However, the underlying mechanisms by which soil microbes respond to these environmental changes remain poorly understood. The prevailing hypothesis, which states that CO₂- or O₃-induced changes in carbon (C) availability dominate microbial responses, is primarily based on results from nitrogen (N)-limiting forests and grasslands. It remains largely unexplored how soil microbes respond to elevated CO₂ and O₃ in N-rich or N-aggrading systems, which severely hinders our ability to predict the long-term soil C dynamics in agroecosystems. Using a long-term field study conducted in a no-till wheat-soybean rotation system with open-top chambers, we showed that elevated CO₂ but not O₃ had a potent influence on soil microbes. Elevated CO₂(1.5×ambient) significantly increased, while O₃ (1.4×ambient) reduced, aboveground (and presumably belowground) plant residue C and N inputs to soil. However, only elevated CO₂ significantly affected soil microbial biomass, activities (namely heterotrophic respiration) and community composition. The enhancement of microbial biomass and activities by elevated CO₂ largely occurred in the third and fourth years of the experiment and coincided with increased soil N availability, likely due to CO₂-stimulation of symbiotic N₂ fixation in soybean. Fungal biomass and the fungi∶bacteria ratio decreased under both ambient and elevated CO₂ by the third year and also coincided with increased soil N availability; but they were significantly higher under elevated than ambient CO₂. These results suggest that more attention should be directed towards assessing the impact of N availability on microbial activities and decomposition in projections of soil organic C balance in N-rich systems under future CO₂ scenarios.

  17. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Linkages Along an Urban Elevational Gradient in Humid Tropical Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, D. F.; Lee, J. K.; McCleery, T. L.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical forests in and around urban centers face a suite of anthropogenic disturbances that may be muted or absent in more remote forests. In particular, urban-proximate forests are likely to have elevated soil nitrogen (N) levels because of local N deposition. High background N availability common in humid tropical soils may result in soil carbon (C) cycling responses that differ from those observed in N-poor Northern soils. Furthermore, N availability and temperature have been shown to have interacting effects on soil C cycling, such that responses may vary over elevational gradients. We used fragments of secondary forest along an urban elevational gradient in Puerto Rico to address the following questions: (a) Is there evidence that increased N availability in urban-proximate tropical forests alters soil C cycling? (b) Do effects of N availability vary over elevational gradients? To address these questions, we measured soil C and N content, soil respiration, mineral N pools, total dissolved N (TDN), dissolved organic C (DOC), pH, microbial biomass, and decomposer enzyme activities. Data from the urban gradient were compared with results for rural and remote Puerto Rican forests. Forest soils along the urban gradient had elevated levels of soil nitrate (NO3-) relative to rural and remote forests, whereas extractable DOC and TDN were both lower in the urban forest soils. Soil pH was significantly higher and more variable in urban forests, ranging from 4.5 to 8.5 across nine forest stands, whereas remote forests had soil pH ranging from 4.4 to 5.2. Dissolved organic C and TDN declined with increases in pH across all sites (R2 = 0.64 and 0.48 respectively, n = 48, p < 0.05). Microbial biomass was not different among the study areas, but several microbial enzyme activities were lower in urban forest soils relative to the remote forests, including phosphorous-acquiring phosphatase, N-acquiring NAGase, and oxidative enzymes that degrade complex C compounds. Soil

  18. Elevated cholinesterase activity and increased urinary excretion of inorganic fluorides in the workers producing fluorine-containing plastic (polytetrafluoroethylene)

    SciTech Connect

    Baohui Xu |; Jiusun Zhang; Guaogeng Mao; Guifen Yang; Aini Chen; Aoyama, Kohji; Matsushita, Toshio; Ueda, Atsushi

    1992-07-01

    Fluoropolymers are widely used in thermal and electrical industries. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) plastic is a typical one. During its production, workers are occupationally exposed to many organic fluorides, especially tetrafluoroethylene, chlorodifluoromethane, PTFE and its thermal decomposition products. Of these compounds, it has been documented that following inhalation of combustion products of PTFE the focal hemorrhages, edema, fibrin deposition in lungs and renal infarcts were observed in rats. Odum and Green have demonstrated a marked damage to proximal tubule of kidney with no effects on the liver in rats exposed to 6000 ppm tetrafluoroethylene for 6 hr. The investigations of the hazards of these compounds to workers have been mainly focused on acute toxicity. There have been some reports that polymers and its pyrolysis caused polymer fume fever and pulmonary edema. In practice, workers engaged in PTFE manufacture are chronically exposed to the above-mentioned chemicals, but little was known about the hazards ascribed to these chemicals. To clarify the influences of the exposed chemicals on health in PTFE production we conducted a mass survey investigation in a PTFE production factory. As a result, in addition to the nephrotoxicity characterized by elevated ALP and NAG activities in urine, more interestingly, we have also found a reversible increase in cholinesterase (ChE) activity and enhanced urinary excretion of inorganic fluorides in workers engaged in PTFE production. We report here these findings and discuss their physiological significance. 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea respond positively to inorganic nitrogen addition in desert soils.

    PubMed

    Marusenko, Yevgeniy; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Hall, Sharon J

    2015-02-01

    In soils, nitrogen (N) addition typically enhances ammonia oxidation (AO) rates and increases the population density of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), but not that of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). We asked if long-term inorganic N addition also has similar consequences in arid land soils, an understudied yet spatially ubiquitous ecosystem type. Using Sonoran Desert top soils from between and under shrubs within a long-term N-enrichment experiment, we determined community concentration-response kinetics of AO and measured the total and relative abundance of AOA and AOB based on amoA gene abundance. As expected, N addition increased maximum AO rates and the abundance of bacterial amoA genes compared to the controls. Surprisingly, N addition also increased the abundance of archaeal amoA genes. We did not detect any major effects of N addition on ammonia-oxidizing community composition. The ammonia-oxidizing communities in these desert soils were dominated by AOA as expected (78% of amoA gene copies were related to Nitrososphaera), but contained unusually high contributions of Nitrosomonas (18%) and unusually low numbers of Nitrosospira (2%). This study highlights unique traits of ammonia oxidizers in arid lands, which should be considered globally in predictions of AO responses to changes in N availability.

  20. [Dynamics of soil inorganic nitrogen in middle mountain moist evergreen broadleaf forest under different disturbance intensities in Ailao Mountain].

    PubMed

    Li, Guicai; Han, Xingguo; Huang, Jianhui; Wamg, Changyao

    2003-08-01

    The effects of three different intensities of disturbance on soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-).N contents were studied in three community types (primary Lithocarpus xylocarpus forest, secondary oak forest, and tea plantation, which represent three different intensities of disturbance). The results showed that the contents of inorganic nitrogen in soil (0-15 cm) of three community types had marked differences. Soil organic matter and total nitrogen decreased, while C/N ratio increased, with the increasing intensity of the disturbance. Simultaneously, the potential lose of NO3(-)-N increased. It suggested that the disturbance was not in favor of the retainment of soil fertility and the positive development of community succession. The soil organic matter, total nitrogen and C/N ratio were basically same at different spatial sites in same community, while the NO3(-)-N contents were obvious difference. This implied that soil NO3(-)-N content was less stable than NH4(+)-N. In addition, NH4(+)-N was the major component of the soil inorganic nitrogen, accounted for 95.5%-99.3% of the total content of soil inorganic nitrogen.

  1. [Effects of elevated CO2 on forest soil CH4 consumption in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Guan, Jian; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Li, Hui; Han, Si-Qin; Xu, Hui

    2012-02-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration may affect the oxidation rate of methane (CH4 ) in forest soil. In this study, the effects of a 6-year exposure to elevated CO2 concentration (500 micromol x mol(-1)) on the soil microbial process of CH4 oxidation under Quercus mongolica seedlings were investigated with open top chamber (OTC), and specific 16S rRNA and pmoA gene fragment primers were adopted to analyze the diversity and abundance of soil methanotrophs. Comparing with that under ambient CO2 and open-air, the soil methane consumption under elevated atmospheric CO2 during growth season was reduced by 4% and 22%, respectively. The specific 16S rRNA PCR-DGGE analysis showed that under elevated CO2, the community structure of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) changed, and the diversity index decreased. Elevated CO2 concentration had no distinct effects on the abundance of Type I MOB, but decreased the amount of Type II MOB significantly. The pmoA gene copy number under elevated CO2 concentration decreased by 15% and 46%, respectively, as compared with that under ambient CO2 and open-air. Our results suggested that elevated atmospheric CO2 decreased the abundance and activity of soil methanotrophs, and the main cause could be the increase of soil moisture content.

  2. Groundwater control of mangrove surface elevation: shrink and swell varies with soil depth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whelan, K.R.T.; Smith, T. J.; Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.; Anderson, G.H.

    2005-01-01

    We measured monthly soil surface elevation change and determined its relationship to groundwater changes at a mangrove forest site along Shark River, Everglades National Park, Florida. We combined the use of an original design, surface elevation table with new rod-surface elevation tables to separately track changes in the mid zone (0?4 m), the shallow root zone (0?0.35 m), and the full sediment profile (0?6 m) in response to site hydrology (daily river stage and groundwater piezometric pressure). We calculated expansion and contraction for each of the four constituent soil zones (surface [accretion and erosion; above 0 m], shallow zone [0?0.35 m], middle zone [0.35?4 m], and bottom zone [4?6 m]) that comprise the entire soil column. Changes in groundwater pressure correlated strongly with changes in soil elevation for the entire profile (Adjusted R2 5 0.90); this relationship was not proportional to the depth of the soil profile sampled. The change in thickness of the bottom soil zone accounted for the majority (R2 5 0.63) of the entire soil profile expansion and contraction. The influence of hydrology on specific soil zones and absolute elevation change must be considered when evaluating the effect of disturbances, sea level rise, and water management decisions on coastal wetland systems.

  3. Soil respiration in northern forests exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone.

    PubMed

    Pregitzer, Kurt; Loya, Wendy; Kubiske, Mark; Zak, Donald

    2006-06-01

    The aspen free-air CO2 and O3 enrichment (FACTS II-FACE) study in Rhinelander, Wisconsin, USA, is designed to understand the mechanisms by which young northern deciduous forest ecosystems respond to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and elevated tropospheric ozone (O3) in a replicated, factorial, field experiment. Soil respiration is the second largest flux of carbon (C) in these ecosystems, and the objective of this study was to understand how soil respiration responded to the experimental treatments as these fast-growing stands of pure aspen and birch + aspen approached maximum leaf area. Rates of soil respiration were typically lowest in the elevated O3 treatment. Elevated CO2 significantly stimulated soil respiration (8-26%) compared to the control treatment in both community types over all three growing seasons. In years 6-7 of the experiment, the greatest rates of soil respiration occurred in the interaction treatment (CO2 + O3), and rates of soil respiration were 15-25% greater in this treatment than in the elevated CO2 treatment, depending on year and community type. Two of the treatments, elevated CO2 and elevated CO2 + O3, were fumigated with 13C-depleted CO2, and in these two treatments we used standard isotope mixing models to understand the proportions of new and old C in soil respiration. During the peak of the growing season, C fixed since the initiation of the experiment in 1998 (new C) accounted for 60-80% of total soil respiration. The isotope measurements independently confirmed that more new C was respired from the interaction treatment compared to the elevated CO2 treatment. A period of low soil moisture late in the 2003 growing season resulted in soil respiration with an isotopic signature 4-6 per thousand enriched in 13C compared to sample dates when the percentage soil moisture was higher. In 2004, an extended period of low soil moisture during August and early September, punctuated by a significant rainfall event, resulted in soil

  4. Soil respiration in northern forests exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone.

    PubMed

    Pregitzer, Kurt; Loya, Wendy; Kubiske, Mark; Zak, Donald

    2006-06-01

    The aspen free-air CO2 and O3 enrichment (FACTS II-FACE) study in Rhinelander, Wisconsin, USA, is designed to understand the mechanisms by which young northern deciduous forest ecosystems respond to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and elevated tropospheric ozone (O3) in a replicated, factorial, field experiment. Soil respiration is the second largest flux of carbon (C) in these ecosystems, and the objective of this study was to understand how soil respiration responded to the experimental treatments as these fast-growing stands of pure aspen and birch + aspen approached maximum leaf area. Rates of soil respiration were typically lowest in the elevated O3 treatment. Elevated CO2 significantly stimulated soil respiration (8-26%) compared to the control treatment in both community types over all three growing seasons. In years 6-7 of the experiment, the greatest rates of soil respiration occurred in the interaction treatment (CO2 + O3), and rates of soil respiration were 15-25% greater in this treatment than in the elevated CO2 treatment, depending on year and community type. Two of the treatments, elevated CO2 and elevated CO2 + O3, were fumigated with 13C-depleted CO2, and in these two treatments we used standard isotope mixing models to understand the proportions of new and old C in soil respiration. During the peak of the growing season, C fixed since the initiation of the experiment in 1998 (new C) accounted for 60-80% of total soil respiration. The isotope measurements independently confirmed that more new C was respired from the interaction treatment compared to the elevated CO2 treatment. A period of low soil moisture late in the 2003 growing season resulted in soil respiration with an isotopic signature 4-6 per thousand enriched in 13C compared to sample dates when the percentage soil moisture was higher. In 2004, an extended period of low soil moisture during August and early September, punctuated by a significant rainfall event, resulted in soil

  5. Mechanisms of inorganic nitrous oxide production in soils during nitrification and their dependence on soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, Jannis; Liu, Shurong; Vereecken, Harry; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important anthropogenic greenhouse gas and today's single most ozone depleting substance. Soils have been identified as the major source of N2O. Microbial nitrification and denitrification are considered the major N2O emission sources. However, N2O production in soils, especially during nitrification, is far from being completely understood. Several abiotic reactions involving the nitrification intermediate hydroxylamine (NH2OH) have been identified leading to N2O emissions, but are being neglected in most current studies. However, it is known that NH2OH can be oxidized by several soil constituents to form N2O. For better mitigation strategies it is mandatory to understand the underlying processes of N2O production during nitrification and their controlling factors. We studied N2O emissions from different soils in laboratory incubation experiments. Soils covered a wide range of land use types from arable to grassland and forest. Soil incubations were conducted with and without the addition of NH2OH at conditions favorable for nitrification with non-sterile as well as with sterile samples. N2O and, additionally, CO2 evolution were analyzed using gas chromatography. To get insight into the dynamics of N2O formation, N2O production from NH2OH was quantified online using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy. Furthermore, isotope ratio mass spectrometry was used to analyze the isotopic signature of the produced N2O (i.e. δ15N, δ18O, and 15N site preference). We observed large differences in N2O emissions between different soils upon the addition of NH2OH. While a forest soil sample with pH < 3 showed hardly any reaction to the addition of NH2OH, a very high and immediate formation of N2O was observed in a cropland soil sample at neutral pH. N2O production after NH2OH addition was also observed in autoclaved samples, which confirmed an abiotic production mechanism. Further, isotopic signatures of N2O could be used to differentiate

  6. Soil nitrogen transformations under elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3 during the soybean growing season

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Engil Isadora Pujol; Chung, Haegeun; Scow, Kate; Sadowsky, Michael J.; van Kessel, Chris; Six, Johan

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of elevated CO2 and O3 on soil N cycling within the soybean growing season and across soil environments (i.e., rhizosphere and bulk soil) at the Soybean Free Air Concentration Enrichment (SoyFACE) experiment in Illinois, USA. Elevated O3 decreased soil mineral N likely through a reduction in plant material input and increased denitrification, which was evidenced by the greater abundance of the denitrifier gene nosZ. Elevated CO2 did not alter the parameters evaluated and both elevated CO2 and O3 showed no interactive effects on nitrifier and denitrifier abundance, nor on total and mineral N concentrations. These results indicate that elevated CO2 may have limited effects on N transformations in soybean agroecosystems. However, elevated O3 can lead to a decrease in soil N availability in both bulk and rhizosphere soils, and this likely also affects ecosystem productivity by reducing the mineralization rates of plant-derived residues. PMID:21115216

  7. Effects of post-fire soil hydrophobicity on inorganic soil nitrogen and sulfur cycling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire plays an important role in many native ecosystems, and its suppression has increased woody encroachment across the globe. Restoring native herbaceous communities following fire in encroached systems is often challenging. Post-fire soil hydrophobicity is one factor that may further limit site re...

  8. Assessment of methods for organic and inorganic carbon quantification in carbonate-containing Mediterranean soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apesteguia, Marcos; Virto, Iñigo; Plante, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Quantification of soil organic matter (SOM) stocks and fluxes continues to be an important endeavor in assessments of soil quality, and more broadly in assessments of ecosystem functioning. The quantification of SOM in alkaline, carbonate-containing soils, such as those found in Mediterranean areas, is complicated by the need to differentiate between organic carbon (OC) and inorganic carbon (IC), which continues to present methodological challenges. Acidification is frequently used to eliminate carbonates prior to soil OC quantification, but when performed in the liquid phase, can promote the dissolution and loss of a portion of the OC. Acid fumigation (AF) is increasingly preferred for carbonate removal, but its effectiveness is difficult to assess using conventional elemental and isotopic analyses. In addition, the potential effects of AF on SOM are not well characterized. The objective of the current study was to apply a multi-method approach to determine the efficacy of carbonate removal by AF and its effects on the residual SOM. We selected a set of 24 surface agricultural soils representing a large range of textures, SOM contents and presumed carbonate contents. For each soil, OC was determined using wet combustion (Walkley-Black) and IC was determined using the calcimeter method. Samples were then subjected to elemental (total C) and isotopic (δ13C) analyses by dry combustion using a Costech autoanalyzer coupled to a Thermo Finnigan Delta Plus isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) before and after AF. IC was equated to total C determined after fumigation, and OC was estimated as the different in total C before and after AF. Samples were also subjected to ramped oxidation using a Netzsch STA109 PC Luxx thermal analyzer coupled to a LICOR 820A infrared gas analyzer (IRGA). Quantification of OC was performed using evolved gas analysis of CO2 (CO2-EGA) in the exothermic region 200-500° C associated with organic matter combustion. IC was quantified by CO2-EGA

  9. Application of a two-pool model to soil carbon dynamics under elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Xia, Jianyang; Osenberg, Craig W; Luo, Yiqi; Hungate, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase plant productivity and affect soil microbial communities, with possible consequences for the turnover rate of soil carbon (C) pools and feedbacks to the atmosphere. In a previous analysis (Van Groenigen et al., 2014), we used experimental data to inform a one-pool model and showed that elevated CO2 increases the decomposition rate of soil organic C, negating the storage potential of soil. However, a two-pool soil model can potentially explain patterns of soil C dynamics without invoking effects of CO2 on decomposition rates. To address this issue, we refit our data to a two-pool soil C model. We found that CO2 enrichment increases decomposition rates of both fast and slow C pools. In addition, elevated CO2 decreased the carbon use efficiency of soil microbes (CUE), thereby further reducing soil C storage. These findings are consistent with numerous empirical studies and corroborate the results from our previous analysis. To facilitate understanding of C dynamics, we suggest that empirical and theoretical studies incorporate multiple soil C pools with potentially variable decomposition rates. PMID:26313640

  10. Application of a two-pool model to soil carbon dynamics under elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Xia, Jianyang; Osenberg, Craig W; Luo, Yiqi; Hungate, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase plant productivity and affect soil microbial communities, with possible consequences for the turnover rate of soil carbon (C) pools and feedbacks to the atmosphere. In a previous analysis (Van Groenigen et al., 2014), we used experimental data to inform a one-pool model and showed that elevated CO2 increases the decomposition rate of soil organic C, negating the storage potential of soil. However, a two-pool soil model can potentially explain patterns of soil C dynamics without invoking effects of CO2 on decomposition rates. To address this issue, we refit our data to a two-pool soil C model. We found that CO2 enrichment increases decomposition rates of both fast and slow C pools. In addition, elevated CO2 decreased the carbon use efficiency of soil microbes (CUE), thereby further reducing soil C storage. These findings are consistent with numerous empirical studies and corroborate the results from our previous analysis. To facilitate understanding of C dynamics, we suggest that empirical and theoretical studies incorporate multiple soil C pools with potentially variable decomposition rates.

  11. Soil microbial responses to elevated CO2 and O3 in a nitrogen-aggrading agroecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite decades of study, the underlying mechanisms by which soil microbes respond to rising atmospheric CO2 and ozone remain poorly understood. A prevailing hypothesis, which states that changes in C availability induced by elevated CO2 and ozone drive alterations in soil microbes and the processe...

  12. Linear spectral unmixing to monitor crop growth in typical organic and inorganic amended arid soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Battay, A.; Mahmoudi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The soils of the GCC countries are dominantly sandy which is typical of arid regions such as the Arabian Peninsula. Such soils are low in nutrients and have a poor water holding capacity associated with a high infiltration rate. Soil amendments may rehabilitate these soils by restoring essential soil properties and hence enable site revegetation and revitalization for crop production, especially in a region where food security is a priority. In this study, two inorganic amendments; AustraHort and Zeoplant pellet, and one organic locally produced compost were tested as soil amendments at the experimental field of the International Center for Biosaline Agriculture in Dubai, UAE. The main objective is to assess the remote sensing ability to monitor crop growth, for instance Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), having these amendments, as background with the soil. Three biomass spectral vegetation indices were used namely; NDVI, TDVI and SAVI. Pure spectral signatures of the soil and the three amendments were collected, using a field spectroradiometer, in addition to the spectral signatures of Okra in two growing stages (vegetative and flowering) in the field with a mixed F.O.V of the plant and amended soil during March and May 2015. The spectral signatures were all collected using the FieldSpec® HandHeld 2 (HH2) in the spectral range 325 nm - 1075 nm over 12 plots. A set of 4 plots were assigned for each of the three amendments as follow: three replicates of a 1.5 by 1.5 meter plot with 3kg/m2 of each amendment and 54 plants, one plot as control and all plots were given irrigation treatments at 100% based on ETc. Spectra collected over the plots were inversed in the range of 400-900 nm via a Linear Mixture Model using pure soil and amendments spectral signatures as reference. Field pictures were used to determine the vegetation fraction (in term of area of the F.O.V). Hence, the Okra spectral signatures were isolated for all plots with the three types of amendments. The

  13. An investigation of the impact of inorganic air pollutants on soils in Saguaro National Monument, Tucson, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Gladney, E.S.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Stolte, K.W.; Duriscoe, D.M.

    1993-08-01

    Environmental data related to the evaluation of inorganic air pollution input to the Saguaro National Monument ecosystem were collected over four years. The data specific to soils are presented in this document. The enrichment factor approach is employed to provide a framework for simplified interpretation of this large collection of data.

  14. Thinning intensity influences on soil microbial and inorganic nitrogen in Pinus densiflora forests, central Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Li, G.; Yun, H. M.; Han, S. H.; Lee, J.; Kim, C.; Lee, S. T.; Son, Y.

    2015-12-01

    With growing considerations for sustainable forest management, examining thinning effects on forest ecosystems becomes one of the principal research focuses. Soil microbial biomass and inorganic nitrogen (N) have, particularly, received increasing attentions, as they are the relevant indices for N availability in forests. Here, we investigated the influences of thinning on soil microbial biomass N (MBN) and inorganic N (NH4+ and NO3-) in two Pinus densiflora forests, central Korea. The thinning from below with different intensities based on stand density (site 1: control, 20%, and 30% thinning; site 2: control, 39%, and 74% thinning) was applied in 2008, and MBN, NH4+, and NO3- at 0-10 cm depth were measured seven years after thinning. The MBN, NH4+, and NO3- concentrations (mg kg-1) of the site 1 were 69.8, 9.8, and 6.3 in the control, 94.6, 9.3, and 4.0 in the 20% thinning plot, and 97.2, 8.4, and 5.2 in the 30% thinning plot, respectively. On the other hand, those of the site 2 were 34.5, 5.4, and 6.3 in the control, 37.3, 4.7, and 7.8 in the 39% thinning plot, and 44.4, 4.4, and 9.2 in the 74% thinning plot, respectively. The MBN of the thinning plots tended to be higher compared to those of the controls, although the analysis of variance reported the significant difference only for the MBN in the site 1 (P<0.05). This might be attributed to the incorporation of organic matter from the introduced thinning residues and from the increased understory vegetation following thinning. However, no significant difference was found for the NH4+ and NO3- (P>0.05). The results of the present study show that the application of thinning could differently affect MBN and inorganic N; accordingly, this difference might alter N availability of the study sites. This study was supported by Forest Practice Research Center, Korea Forest Research Institute.

  15. Nitrogen saturation and soil N availability in a high-elevation spruce and fir forest

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    2000-06-01

    A field study was conducted during the summer of 1995 to gain abetter understanding of the causes of nitrate (NO{sub 3}-N) leaching and ongoing changes in soil nitrogen (N) availability in high-elevation (1524-2000 m) spruce (Picea rubens) and fir (Abies fraseri) forests of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina, U.S.A. Indicators of soil N availability (total soil N concentrations, extractable NH{sub 4}-N, extractable NO{sub 3}-N, and C/N ratios) were measured in Oa and A horizons at 33 study plots. Dynamic measures included potential net soil N mineralization determined in 12-week aerobic laboratory incubations at 22 C. Potential net nitrification in the A horizon was correlated (r = + 0.83, P < 0.001) with total soil n concentrations. mostmeasures of soil n availability did not exhibit significanttrends with elevation, but there were topographic differences. Potential net soil N mineralization and net nitrification in the A horizon were higher in coves than on ridges. Relative amounts of particulate and organomineral soil organic matter influenced potential net N mineralization and nitrification in the A horizon. Calculations indicate that soil N availability and NO{sub 3}-N leaching in high-elevation spruce and fir forests of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park will increase in response to regional warming.

  16. Elevated atmospheric CO2 affects soil microbial diversity associated with trembling aspen.

    PubMed

    Lesaulnier, Celine; Papamichail, Dimitris; McCorkle, Sean; Ollivier, Bernard; Skiena, Steven; Taghavi, Safiyh; Zak, Donald; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    The effects of elevated atmospheric CO(2) (560 p.p.m.) and subsequent plant responses on the soil microbial community composition associated with trembling aspen was assessed through the classification of 6996 complete ribosomal DNA sequences amplified from the Rhinelander WI free-air CO(2) and O(3) enrichment (FACE) experiments microbial community metagenome. This in-depth comparative analysis provides an unprecedented, detailed and deep branching profile of population changes incurred as a response to this environmental perturbation. Total bacterial and eukaryotic abundance does not change; however, an increase in heterotrophic decomposers and ectomycorrhizal fungi is observed. Nitrate reducers of the domain bacteria and archaea, of the phylum Crenarchaea, potentially implicated in ammonium oxidation, significantly decreased with elevated CO(2). These changes in soil biota are evidence for altered interactions between trembling aspen and the microorganisms in its surrounding soil, and support the theory that greater plant detritus production under elevated CO(2) significantly alters soil microbial community composition.

  17. Threshold increases in soil lead and mercury from tropospheric deposition across an elevational gradient.

    PubMed

    Stankwitz, Clare; Kaste, James M; Friedland, Andrew J

    2012-08-01

    Atmospheric deposition is the primary mechanism by which remote ecosystems are contaminated, but few data sets show how fluxes change and control soil metal burdens at the landform scale. We present mercury (Hg), lead ((210)Pb and total Pb), and cosmogenic beryllium-7 ((7)Be) measurements in organic (O) soil horizons at high-resolution elevation intervals of ∼60 m from 540 to 1160 m on Camels Hump in northern Vermont, USA. Across this gradient, average O horizon Hg ranges from 0.99 mg m(-2) in the low elevation deciduous forest zone to 7.6 mg m(-2) in the higher elevation coniferous forest at 1030 m. We measure two pronounced threshold increases in soil metal burdens above 801 and 934 m, corresponding to the two most common altitudes of cloud base, which coincide with changes in vegetation species. Lead-210, a unique tracer of tropospheric deposition, also increased from 3200 Bq m(-2) to 11500 Bq m(-2) in O horizons, exhibiting threshold responses at the same elevations as Hg and total Pb. Concentrations of (210)Pb and Hg in foliage double from 760 to 900 m elevation, indicating enhanced deposition across the transition from deciduous to coniferous forest. In contrast, (7)Be is constant across the entire elevational gradient because of its upper atmospheric source. This indicates that the effects of orographic precipitation have a smaller control on soil contaminant burdens than the coupled cloudwater deposition-vegetation scavenging effect in the presence of upwind sources. By measuring soil contaminants and unique tracers of atmospheric deposition, we show that tropospheric fluxes of Hg and Pb are higher by a factor of 2 in high-elevation coniferous forests than in adjacent lowlands. Total O horizon Hg and Pb burdens increase by over 4-fold with elevation because of the compounding effects of enhanced deposition and longer metal residence times at higher elevations (>50 years).

  18. Phosphorous in the Sierra Nevada: Forms, mechanisms, and timing of release in high-elevation soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homyak, P. M.; Sickman, J. O.; Melack, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    In high-elevation lakes of the Sierra Nevada (California) a change in nutrient loading has resulted in mild eutrophication with concomitant shifts from P to N limitation, but the source of P is currently unknown. Temperature, runoff patterns, and the timing of snowmelt influence N and P biogeochemistry in high-elevation ecosystems, which can modify cycling of P in soils and result in altered P availability. To determine whether changes in P cycling, in response to climatic changes, can lead to the mild eutrophication documented in Sierran lakes, we analyzed P pools in entisols and inceptisols in the Emerald Lake Watershed, a representative high-elevation catchment, in Sequoia National Park. Our objective is to address how P is mobilized and transformed in soils and how these processes are modified by variations in climate and hydrology. Results from sequential P fractionation extractions indicate that on average 692 µg P g-1 of soil are available in organic soils and 547 µg P g-1 of soil are available in mineral soils. In organic soils, 71 % of the total P is freely exchangeable or associated with Fe and Al, 19 % is Ca-associated P, and 10 % exists in recalcitrant pools. In mineral soils, 58 % of the total P is freely exchangeable or associated with Fe and Al, 32 % is associated with Ca, and 10 % exists in recalcitrant pools. Our results suggest that the majority of the total P in high-elevation soils is found in pools that can be affected by climatic and hydrologic changes. Future research will incorporate lake sediment P chemistry as well as freeze-thawing and drying-rewetting experiments on soils to assess microbial P turnover and the potential effect of climate change on P availability in Sierran soils.

  19. Dynamics of soil organic and inorganic carbon in the cropland of upper Yellow River Delta, China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yang; Wang, Xiujun; Li, Xianglan; Wang, Jiaping; Xu, Minggang; Li, Dongwei

    2016-01-01

    Soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and organic carbon (SOC) are important carbon reservoirs in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little attention was paid to SIC dynamics in cropland. We conducted a survey in the upper Yellow River Delta of North China Plain. We collected 155 soil samples from 31 profiles, and measured SOC, SIC and soluble Ca2+ and Mg2+ contents. Our results showed that mean SOC content decreased from 9.30 g kg−1 near the surface to 2.36 g kg−1 in 80–100 cm whereas mean SIC content increased from 10.48 to 12.72 g kg−1. On average, SOC and SIC stocks over 0–100 cm were 5.73 kg C m−2 and 16.89 kg C m−2, respectively. There was a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.88, P < 0.001) between SOC and SIC in the cropland. We also found that SIC had a significantly positive correlation with both soluble Ca2+ (r = 0.57, P < 0.01) and Mg2+ (r = 0.43, P < 0.05). Our study suggested that increasing SOC might lead to an increase in SIC stocks in the cropland of North China Plain. This study highlights the importance of SIC in the carbon cycle of China’s semi-arid region. PMID:27782204

  20. 30 year soil water trends along an elevation gradient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many of the issues associated with ongoing global climate change hinge on the impacts of the documented physical changes (e.g., rising temperature) on the ecological systems that sustain life. A primary interface between these two is the soil, where water and nutrients are stored for plant consumpti...

  1. Soil properties in high-elevation ski slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippa, Gianluca; Freppaz, Michele; Letey, Stéphanie; Corti, Giuseppe; Cocco, Stefania; Zanini, Ermanno

    2010-05-01

    The development of winter sports determines an increasing impact on the high altitude ecosystems, as a consequence of increased participation and an increasing demand of high quality standards for skiable areas. The construction of a ski slope is associated with a certain impact on soil, which varies as a function of the degree of human-induced disturbance to the native substrata. In this work, we provide a description of the characteristics of alpine tundra ski-slope soils and their nutrient status, contrasted with undisturbed areas. The study site is located in the Monterosaski Resort, Aosta Valley, NW Italy (45°51' N; 7°48' E). We chose 5 sites along an altitudinal gradient between 2700 and 2200 m a.s.l.. Per each site, one plot was established on the ski slope, while a control plot was chosen under comparable topographic conditions a few meters apart. Soils were described and samples were collected and analysed for main chemical-physical properties. In addition an evaluation of N forms, organic matter fractionation and microbial biomass was carried out. Soil depth ranged between 10 to more than 70 cm, both on the ski slope and in the undisturbed areas. A true organo-mineral (A) horizon was firstly identified at 2500 m a.s.l., while a weathering horizon (Bw) was detected at 2400 m a.s.l.. However, a Bw horizon thick enough to be recognised as diagnostic for shifting soil classification order from Entisols to Inceptisols (USDA-Soil Taxonomy) was detected only below 2400 m a.s.l.. Lithic Cryorthents were predominant in the upper part of the sequence (above 2500 m a.s.l.), both in the ski slope and the undisturbed areas; Typic Cryorthents were identified between 2500 and 2400 m a.s.l., while Inceptisols were predominant between 2400 and 2200 m a.s.l.. Chemical-physical properties will be discussed focusing on the main differences between ski slope and undisturbed soils, as determined by the ski slope construction. Pedogenetic processes at high altitude are

  2. Bioavailable soil phosphorus decreases with increasing elevation in a subarctic tundra landscape.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Andrea G; Sundqvist, Maja K; Wardle, David A; Giesler, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important macronutrient in arctic and subarctic tundra and its bioavailability is regulated by the mineralization of organic P. Temperature is likely to be an important control on P bioavailability, although effects may differ across contrasting plant communities with different soil properties. We used an elevational gradient in northern Sweden that included both heath and meadow vegetation types at all elevations to study the effects of temperature, soil P sorption capacity and oxalate-extractable aluminium (Alox) and iron (Feox) on the concentration of different soil P fractions. We hypothesized that the concentration of labile P fractions would decrease with increasing elevation (and thus declining temperature), but would be lower in meadow than in heath, given that N to P ratios in meadow foliage are higher. As expected, labile P in the form of Resin-P declined sharply with elevation for both vegetation types. Meadow soils did not have lower concentrations of Resin-P than heath soils, but they did have 2-fold and 1.5-fold higher concentrations of NaOH-extractable organic P and Residual P, respectively. Further, meadow soils had 3-fold higher concentrations of Alox + Feox and a 20% higher P sorption index than did heath soils. Additionally, Resin-P expressed as a proportion of total soil P for the meadow was on average half that in the heath. Declining Resin-P concentrations with elevation were best explained by an associated 2.5-3.0 °C decline in temperature. In contrast, the lower P availability in meadow relative to heath soils may be associated with impaired organic P mineralization, as indicated by a higher accumulation of organic P and P sorption capacity. Our results indicate that predicted temperature increases in the arctic over the next century may influence P availability and biogeochemistry, with consequences for key ecosystem processes limited by P, such as primary productivity.

  3. Changes to Extractable Soil Amino Compounds Under Elevated CO2 and Ozone in an Aspen Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Top, S. M.; Filley, T. R.; Zhang, X.

    2011-12-01

    Forests growing under elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and ozone exhibit changes to root and foliar chemistry and quality that are related to changes in physiology, N limitation, and leaf damage. Additionally, there are documented changes to the activity of some understory invertebrate populations, and a variety of responses to soil organic matter ranging from accrual in the upper few centimeters to loss of soil C and N over the upper 20 cm. Under such conditions, however, the cycling of specific amino compounds is poorly understood. Knowledge of the role that new plant N plays in supporting soil microbial populations and soil C and N dynamics is important to fully understand relationships between N limitation under elevated CO2-induced productivity increases and available organic N pools in soil. We investigated the composition and concentration of hydrolysable amino compounds (amino acids and amino sugars) in litter, roots, soil, and earthworm fecal matter from the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) sites at Rhinelander, WI. Under elevated CO2 amino acids, when normalized to total N, exhibited change in both amount (decrease) and composition among roots (<2mm) with depth over the upper 25 cm, however, root amino acids showed only minor changes with depth in the ambient and ozone treatments. Ozonated rings exhibited a lower release of amino compounds (with respect to total N) compared to ambient and elevated CO2, which may suggest poorer quality input. For soil organic matter extractable amino acids (normalized to total soil N) exhibited changes similar to roots among the treatment. These results indicate that CO2 and ozone significantly influence amino compound dynamics in both soil and input which should impact the overall ability to decompose and preserve soils in such environments.

  4. Studies on organic and in-organic biostimulants in bioremediation of diesel-contaminated arable soil.

    PubMed

    Nwankwegu, Amechi S; Orji, Michael U; Onwosi, Chukwudi O

    2016-11-01

    In this study, use of inorganic fertilizer (N.P.K) was compared with organic manure (compost) in the bioremediation of diesel-polluted agricultural soil over a two-month period. Renewal by enhanced natural attenuation was used as control. The results revealed that total petroleum hydrocarbon removal from polluted soil was 71.40 ± 5.60% and 93.31 ± 3.60% for N.P.K and compost amended options, respectively. The control (natural attenuation) had 57.90 ± 3.98% of total petroleum hydrocarbon removed. Experimental data fitted second order kinetic model adequately for compost amended option. The fertilizer amended option was found to be 1.04 times slower (k2 = 4.00 ± 1.40 × 10(-7)gmg(-1)d(-1), half-life = 28.15 d) than compost amended option (k2 = 1.39 ± 0.54 × 10(-5) gmg(-1)d(-1), half-life = 8.10 d) but 1.21 times (20.6%) faster than the control (k2 = 2.57 ± 0.16 × 10(-7) gmg(-1)d(-1), half-life = 43.81 d). The hydrocarbon utilizers isolated from the diesel contaminated soil were: Bacillus nealsoni, Micrococcus luteus, Aspergillus awamori, and Fusarium proliferatum. The phytotoxicity test showed that germination indices for natural attenuation (control), fertilizer (NPK) and compost amended options were 34%, 56%, and 89%, respectively. PMID:27494315

  5. Studies on organic and in-organic biostimulants in bioremediation of diesel-contaminated arable soil.

    PubMed

    Nwankwegu, Amechi S; Orji, Michael U; Onwosi, Chukwudi O

    2016-11-01

    In this study, use of inorganic fertilizer (N.P.K) was compared with organic manure (compost) in the bioremediation of diesel-polluted agricultural soil over a two-month period. Renewal by enhanced natural attenuation was used as control. The results revealed that total petroleum hydrocarbon removal from polluted soil was 71.40 ± 5.60% and 93.31 ± 3.60% for N.P.K and compost amended options, respectively. The control (natural attenuation) had 57.90 ± 3.98% of total petroleum hydrocarbon removed. Experimental data fitted second order kinetic model adequately for compost amended option. The fertilizer amended option was found to be 1.04 times slower (k2 = 4.00 ± 1.40 × 10(-7)gmg(-1)d(-1), half-life = 28.15 d) than compost amended option (k2 = 1.39 ± 0.54 × 10(-5) gmg(-1)d(-1), half-life = 8.10 d) but 1.21 times (20.6%) faster than the control (k2 = 2.57 ± 0.16 × 10(-7) gmg(-1)d(-1), half-life = 43.81 d). The hydrocarbon utilizers isolated from the diesel contaminated soil were: Bacillus nealsoni, Micrococcus luteus, Aspergillus awamori, and Fusarium proliferatum. The phytotoxicity test showed that germination indices for natural attenuation (control), fertilizer (NPK) and compost amended options were 34%, 56%, and 89%, respectively.

  6. Forest soil carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio responses to elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockaday, William C.; Gallagher, Morgan E.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Baldock, Jeffrey A.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Norby, Richard J.

    2015-09-01

    The oxidative ratio (OR) of the biosphere is the stoichiometric ratio (O2/CO2) of gas exchange by photosynthesis and respiration—a key parameter in budgeting calculations of the land and ocean carbon sinks. Carbon cycle-climate feedbacks could alter the OR of the biosphere by affecting the quantity and quality of organic matter in plant biomass and soil carbon pools. This study considers the effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) on the OR of a hardwood forest after nine growing seasons of Free-Air CO2 Enrichment. We measured changes in the carbon oxidation state (Cox) of biomass and soil carbon pools as a proxy for the ecosystem OR. The OR of net primary production, 1.039, was not affected by elevated [CO2]. However, the Cox of the soil carbon pool was 40% higher at elevated [CO2], and the estimated OR values for soil respiration increased from 1.006 at ambient [CO2] to 1.054 at elevated [CO2]. A biochemical inventory of the soil organic matter ascribed the increases in Cox and OR to faster turnover of reduced substrates, lignin and lipids, at elevated [CO2]. This implicates the heterotrophic soil community response to elevated [CO2] as a driver of disequilibrium in the ecosystem OR. The oxidation of soil carbon pool constitutes an unexpected terrestrial O2 sink. Carbon budgets constructed under the assumption of OR equilibrium would equate such a terrestrial O2 sink to CO2 uptake by the ocean. The potential for climate-driven disequilibriua in the cycling of O2 and CO2 warrants further investigation.

  7. Forest soil carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio responses to elevated CO2

    DOE PAGES

    Hockaday, William C.; Gallagher, Morgan E.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Baldock, Jeffrey A.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Norby, Richard J.

    2015-09-21

    The oxidative ratio (OR) of the biosphere is the stoichiometric ratio (O2/CO2) of gas exchange by photosynthesis and respiration a key parameter in budgeting calculations of the land and ocean carbon sinks. Carbon cycle-climate feedbacks could alter the OR of the biosphere by affecting the quantity and quality of organic matter in plant biomass and soil carbon pools. Here, this study considers the effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) on the OR of a hardwood forest after nine growing seasons of Free-Air CO2 Enrichment. We measured changes in the carbon oxidation state (Cox) of biomass and soil carbonmore » pools as a proxy for the ecosystem OR. The OR of net primary production, 1.039, was not affected by elevated [CO2]. However, the Cox of the soil carbon pool was 40% higher at elevated [CO2], and the estimated OR values for soil respiration increased from 1.006 at ambient [CO2] to 1.054 at elevated [CO2]. A biochemical inventory of the soil organic matter ascribed the increases in Cox and OR to faster turnover of reduced substrates, lignin and lipids, at elevated [CO2]. This implicates the heterotrophic soil community response to elevated [CO2] as a driver of disequilibrium in the ecosystem OR. The oxidation of soil carbon pool constitutes an unexpected terrestrial O2 sink. Carbon budgets constructed under the assumption of OR equilibrium would equate such a terrestrial O2 sink to CO2 uptake by the ocean. We find that the potential for climate-driven disequilibriua in the cycling of O2 and CO2 warrants further investigation.« less

  8. Inorganic-based proton conductive composite membranes for elevated temperature and reduced relative humidity PEM fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunmei

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are regarded as highly promising energy conversion systems for future transportation and stationary power generation and have been under intensive investigations for the last decade. Unfortunately, cutting edge PEM fuel cell design and components still do not allow economically commercial implementation of this technology. The main obstacles are high cost of proton conductive membranes, low-proton conductivity at low relative humidity (RH), and dehydration and degradation of polymer membranes at high temperatures. The objective of this study was to develop a systematic approach to design a high proton conductive composite membrane that can provide a conductivity of approximately 100 mS cm-1 under hot and dry conditions (120°C and 50% RH). The approach was based on fundamental and experimental studies of the proton conductivity of inorganic additives and composite membranes. We synthesized and investigated a variety of organic-inorganic Nafion-based composite membranes. In particular, we analyzed their fundamental properties, which included thermal stability, morphology, the interaction between inorganic network and Nafion clusters, and the effect of inorganic phase on the membrane conductivity. A wide range of inorganic materials was studied in advance in order to select the proton conductive inorganic additives for composite membranes. We developed a conductivity measurement method, with which the proton conductivity characteristics of solid acid materials, zirconium phosphates, sulfated zirconia (S-ZrO2), phosphosilicate gels, and Santa Barbara Amorphous silica (SBA-15) were discussed in detail. Composite membranes containing Nafion and different amounts of functionalized inorganic additives (sulfated inorganics such as S-ZrO2, SBA-15, Mobil Composition of Matter MCM-41, and S-SiO2, and phosphonated inorganic P-SiO2) were synthesized with different methods. We incorporated inorganic particles within Nafion clusters

  9. Synergistic effects of dissolved organic carbon and inorganic nitrogen on methane uptake in forest soils without and with freezing treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haohao; Xu, Xingkai; Duan, Cuntao; Li, Tuansheng; Cheng, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about how the interaction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic nitrogen (N) released into the soil just after freezing can affect methane (CH4) uptake in forest soils. Here, we present how freezing treatment and glucose, as a DOC source, can affect the roles of NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N in inhibiting soil CH4 uptake, by using soil-core incubation experiments. A long-term freezing at low temperature reduced cumulative CH4 uptake in the soils sampled from two temperate forest stands without carbon (C) and N addition. The inhibition effects of N addition as NH4Cl and KNO3 on the soil CH4 uptake were much larger than C addition. Freezing treatment eliminated the inhibition effect of NH4Cl and KNO3 addition on CH4 uptake, and this response was affected by glucose addition and forest types. The addition of glucose eliminated the inhibition effect of NO3(-)-N on CH4 uptake in the forest soils without and with freezing treatment, while the addition of NH4(+)-N and glucose inhibited synergistically the soil CH4 uptake. The results highlight the importance of synergistic effects of DOC and N inputs on the soil CH4 uptake under forest stands during soil wetting and thawing periods. PMID:27572826

  10. Synergistic effects of dissolved organic carbon and inorganic nitrogen on methane uptake in forest soils without and with freezing treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haohao; Xu, Xingkai; Duan, Cuntao; Li, Tuansheng; Cheng, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about how the interaction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic nitrogen (N) released into the soil just after freezing can affect methane (CH4) uptake in forest soils. Here, we present how freezing treatment and glucose, as a DOC source, can affect the roles of NH4+-N and NO3−-N in inhibiting soil CH4 uptake, by using soil-core incubation experiments. A long-term freezing at low temperature reduced cumulative CH4 uptake in the soils sampled from two temperate forest stands without carbon (C) and N addition. The inhibition effects of N addition as NH4Cl and KNO3 on the soil CH4 uptake were much larger than C addition. Freezing treatment eliminated the inhibition effect of NH4Cl and KNO3 addition on CH4 uptake, and this response was affected by glucose addition and forest types. The addition of glucose eliminated the inhibition effect of NO3−-N on CH4 uptake in the forest soils without and with freezing treatment, while the addition of NH4+-N and glucose inhibited synergistically the soil CH4 uptake. The results highlight the importance of synergistic effects of DOC and N inputs on the soil CH4 uptake under forest stands during soil wetting and thawing periods. PMID:27572826

  11. Effect of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil nematode communities within aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaoke; Mahamood, Md.; Zhang, Shuiqing; Huang, Shaomin; Liang, Wenju

    2016-01-01

    A long-term fertilization experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different fertilization practices on nematode community composition within aggregates in a wheat-maize rotation system. The study was a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The experiment involved the following four treatments: no fertilizer, inorganic N, P and K fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM) and NPK plus maize straw (NPKS). Soil samples were taken at 0–20 cm depth during the wheat harvest stage. Based on our results, NPKS contributed to soil aggregation and moisture retention, with a positive effect on soil total nitrogen accumulation, particularly within small macroaggregates (0.25–1 mm) and microaggregates (<0.25 mm). The C/N ratio was correlated to the distribution of the soil nematode community. Both manure application and straw incorporation increased the nematode functional metabolic footprints within all aggregates. Additionally, the functional metabolic footprints decreased with a decline in aggregate size. The accumulation of total nitrogen within <1 mm aggregates under NPKS might play a key role in maintaining the survival of soil nematodes. In our study, both crop straw incorporation and inorganic fertilizer application effectively improved soil physicochemical properties and were also beneficial for nematode survival within small aggregate size fractions. PMID:27502433

  12. Effect of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil nematode communities within aggregates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaoke; Mahamood, Md; Zhang, Shuiqing; Huang, Shaomin; Liang, Wenju

    2016-01-01

    A long-term fertilization experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different fertilization practices on nematode community composition within aggregates in a wheat-maize rotation system. The study was a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The experiment involved the following four treatments: no fertilizer, inorganic N, P and K fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM) and NPK plus maize straw (NPKS). Soil samples were taken at 0-20 cm depth during the wheat harvest stage. Based on our results, NPKS contributed to soil aggregation and moisture retention, with a positive effect on soil total nitrogen accumulation, particularly within small macroaggregates (0.25-1 mm) and microaggregates (<0.25 mm). The C/N ratio was correlated to the distribution of the soil nematode community. Both manure application and straw incorporation increased the nematode functional metabolic footprints within all aggregates. Additionally, the functional metabolic footprints decreased with a decline in aggregate size. The accumulation of total nitrogen within <1 mm aggregates under NPKS might play a key role in maintaining the survival of soil nematodes. In our study, both crop straw incorporation and inorganic fertilizer application effectively improved soil physicochemical properties and were also beneficial for nematode survival within small aggregate size fractions. PMID:27502433

  13. Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO(2) on Rhizosphere Soil Microbial Communities in a Mojave Desert Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, L M; Buttner, M P; Cruz, P; Smith, S D; Robleto, E A

    2011-10-01

    The effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide [CO(2)] on microbial communities in arid rhizosphere soils beneath Larrea tridentata were examined. Roots of Larrea were harvested from plots fumigated with elevated or ambient levels of [CO(2)] using Free-Air CO(2) Enrichment (FACE) technology. Twelve bacterial and fungal rRNA gene libraries were constructed, sequenced and categorized into operational taxonomical units (OTUs). There was a significant decrease in OTUs within the Firmicutes (bacteria) in elevated [CO(2)], and increase in Basiomycota (fungi) in rhizosphere soils of plots exposed to ambient [CO(2)]. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that OTUs belonged to a wide range of bacterial and fungal taxa. To further study changes in bacterial communities, Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (QPCR) was used to quantify populations of bacteria in rhizosphere soil. The concentration of total bacteria 16S rDNA was similar in conditions of enriched and ambient [CO(2)]. However, QPCR of Gram-positive microorganisms showed a 43% decrease in the population in elevated [CO(2)]. The decrease in representation of Gram positives and the similar values for total bacterial DNA suggest that the representation of other bacterial taxa was promoted by elevated [CO(2)]. These results indicate that elevated [CO(2)] changes structure and representation of microorganisms associated with roots of desert plants.

  14. Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 on Rhizosphere Soil Microbial Communities in a Mojave Desert Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, L.M.; Buttner, M.P.; Cruz, P.; Smith, S.D.; Robleto, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide [CO2] on microbial communities in arid rhizosphere soils beneath Larrea tridentata were examined. Roots of Larrea were harvested from plots fumigated with elevated or ambient levels of [CO2] using Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) technology. Twelve bacterial and fungal rRNA gene libraries were constructed, sequenced and categorized into operational taxonomical units (OTUs). There was a significant decrease in OTUs within the Firmicutes (bacteria) in elevated [CO2], and increase in Basiomycota (fungi) in rhizosphere soils of plots exposed to ambient [CO2]. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that OTUs belonged to a wide range of bacterial and fungal taxa. To further study changes in bacterial communities, Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (QPCR) was used to quantify populations of bacteria in rhizosphere soil. The concentration of total bacteria 16S rDNA was similar in conditions of enriched and ambient [CO2]. However, QPCR of Gram-positive microorganisms showed a 43% decrease in the population in elevated [CO2]. The decrease in representation of Gram positives and the similar values for total bacterial DNA suggest that the representation of other bacterial taxa was promoted by elevated [CO2]. These results indicate that elevated [CO2] changes structure and representation of microorganisms associated with roots of desert plants. PMID:21779135

  15. Bacterial Community Structure after a 17-year Reciprocal Soil Transplant Simulating Climate Change with Elevation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, V. L.; McCue, L.; Fansler, S.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Hess, N. J.; Smith, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    In 1994, a reciprocal soil transplant experiment was initiated between two elevations (310 m, warmer and drier, and 844 m, cooler and wetter) on Rattlesnake Mountain in southeastern Washington, USA. In March 2012 we resampled the original transplanted soils, control cores transplanted in situ, and native soils from each elevation, to study longer-term changes in microbial community composition, soil C and N dynamics, and soil physical structure. Our studies of these soils suggested that climate change has significantly altered the C dynamics in these soils, and that even after 17 years of adaptation, the soil microbial communities have not recovered to a condition similar to their new environment. To more thoroughly define the response of the native bacterial communities to this long-term transplant, we sequenced the V4 region of the 16S genes for all the treatments in this study, broken into 0-5, 5-10, and 10-15-cm depth intervals. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analyses of the sequence data reveal a strong surface influence, with some separation of the 5-10 and 10-15-cm depths. We are investigating these data, and companion metagenomic data, for signatures of the bacterial community's response to simulated climate change.

  16. Elevation trends and shrink-swell response of wetland soils to flooding and drying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, Donald R.; Perez, Brian C.; Segura, Bradley D.; Lynch, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Given the potential for a projected acceleration in sea-level rise to impact wetland sustainability over the next century, a better understanding is needed of climate-related drivers that influence the processes controlling wetland elevation. Changes in local hydrology and groundwater conditions can cause short-term perturbations to marsh elevation trends through shrink—swell of marsh soils. To better understand the magnitude of these perturbations and their impacts on marsh elevation trends, we measured vertical accretion and elevation dynamics in microtidal marshes in Texas and Louisiana during and after the extreme drought conditions that existed there from 1998 to 2000. In a Louisiana marsh, elevation was controlled by subsurface hydrologic fluxes occurring below the root zone but above the 4 m depth (i.e., the base of the surface elevation table benchmark) that were related to regional drought and local meteorological conditions, with marsh elevation tracking water level variations closely. In Texas, a rapid decline in marsh elevation was related to severe drought conditions, which lowered local groundwater levels. Unfragmented marshes experienced smaller water level drawdowns and more rapid marsh elevation recovery than fragmented marshes. It appears that extended drawdowns lead to increased substrate consolidation making it less resilient to respond to future favorable conditions. Overall, changes in water storage lead to rapid and large short-term impacts on marsh elevation that are as much as five times greater than the long-term elevation trend, indicating the importance of long-term, high-resolution elevation data sets to understand the prolonged effects of water deficits on marsh elevation change.

  17. Prospects for optimizing soil microbial functioning to improve plant nutrient uptake and soil carbon sequestration under elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, M.; Pendall, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    Potential to mitigate climate change through increasing plant productivity and its carbon (C) input to soil may be limited by soil nitrogen (N) availability. Using a novel 13C-CO2 and 15N-soil dual labeling method, we investigated whether plant growth-promoting bacteria would interact with atmospheric CO2 concentration to alter plant productivity and soil C storage. We grew Bouteloua gracilis under ambient (380 ppm) or elevated CO2 (700 ppm) in climate-controlled chambers, and plant individuals were grown with or without Pseudomonas fluorescens inoculum, which can produce N catabolic enzymes. We observed that both eCO2 and P. fluorescens increased plant productivity and its C allocation to soil. P. fluorescens relative to eCO2 enhanced plant N uptake from soil organic matter, which highly correlated with soil N enzyme activities and rhizosphere exudate C. More importantly, P. fluorescens increased microbial biomass and deceased specific microbial respiration in comparison with eCO2. These results indicate that application of plant growth-promoting bacteria can increase microbial C utilization efficiency with subsequent N mineralization from soil organic matter, and may improve plant N availability and soil C sequestration. Together, our findings highlight the potential of plant growth-promoting bacteria for global change mitigation by terrestrial ecosystems.

  18. Nematode Genera in Forest Soil Respond Differentially to Elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Deborah A.; Weicht, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports suggest that fungivorous nematodes are the only trophic group in forest soils affected by elevated CO2. However, there can be ambiguity within trophic groups, and we examined data at a genus level to determine whether the conclusion remains similar. Nematodes were extracted from roots and soil of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) forests fumigated with either ambient air or CO2-enriched air. Root length and nematode biomass were estimated using video image analysis. Most common genera included Acrobeloides, Aphelenchoides, Cephalobus, Ditylenchus, Ecphyadorphora, Filenchus, Plectus, Prismatolaimus, and Tylencholaimus. Maturity Index values and diversity increased with elevated CO2 in loblolly pine but decreased with elevated CO2 in sweet gum forests. Elevated CO2 treatment affected the occurrence of more nematode genera in sweet gum than loblolly pine forests. Numbers were similar but size of Xiphinema decreased in elevated CO2. Abundance, but not biomass, of Aphelenchoides was reduced by elevated CO2. Treatment effects were apparent at the genus levels that were masked at the trophic level. For example, bacterivores were unaffected by elevated CO2, but abundance of Cephalobus was affected by CO2 treatment in both forests. PMID:24115786

  19. The efficacy of winter cover crops to stabilize soil inorganic nitrogen after fall-applied anhydrous ammonia.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Corey; Armstrong, Shalamar

    2015-03-01

    There is a dearth of knowledge on the ability of cover crops to increase the effectiveness of fall-applied nitrogen (N). The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of two cover crop species to stabilize inorganic soil N after a fall application of N. Fall N was applied at a rate of 200 kg N ha into living stands of cereal rye, tillage radish, and a control (no cover crop) at the Illinois State University Research and Teaching Farm in Lexington, Illinois. Cover crops were sampled to determine N uptake, and soil samples were collected in the spring at four depths to 80 cm to determine the distribution of inorganic N within the soil profile. Tillage radish (131.9-226.8 kg ha) and cereal rye (188.1-249.9 kg ha N) demonstrated the capacity to absorb a minimum of 60 to 80% of the equivalent rate of fall-applied N, respectively. Fall applying N without cover crops resulted in a greater percentage of soil NO-N (40%) in the 50- to 80-cm depth, compared with only 31 and 27% when tillage radish and cereal rye were present at N application. At planting, tillage radish stabilized an average of 91% of the equivalent rate of fall-applied N within the 0- to 20-cm, depth compared with 66 and 57% for the cereal rye and control treatments, respectively. This study has demonstrated that fall applying N into a living cover crop stand has the potential to reduce the vulnerability of soil nitrate and to stabilize a greater concentration of inorganic N within the agronomic depths of soil.

  20. Elevated lead and zinc contents in remote alpine soils of the Swiss National Park.

    PubMed

    Nowack, B; Obrecht, J M; Schluep, M; Schulin, R; Hansmann, W; Köppel, V

    2001-01-01

    Weathering of bedrock and pedogenic processes can result in elevated heavy metal concentrations in the soil. Small-scale variations in bedrock composition can therefore cause local variations in the metal content of the soil. Such a case was found in the remote alpine area of the Swiss National Park. Soil profiles were sampled at an altitude of about 2,400 m, representing soils developed above different bedrocks. The concentration of lead in the profiles was found to be strongly dependent on the metal content in the bedrock underlying the soil and was strongly enriched in the top 10 cm. The dolomitic bedrock in the study area contains elevated lead concentrations compared with other dolomites. Dissolution of dolomite and accumulation of weathering residues during soil formation resulted in high lead concentrations throughout the soil profile. The enrichment of lead in the topsoil, however, is largely attributed to atmospheric input. The isotopic signature of the lead clearly indicates that it is mainly of natural origin and that atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic lead contributed to about 20 to 40% to the lead concentration in the topsoil on the bedrock with elevated lead concentrations. In the soils on bedrock with normal lead concentrations, the anthropogenic contribution is estimated to be about 75%. Also, zinc was very strongly enriched in the topsoil. This enrichment was closely correlated with the organic matter distribution in the profiles, suggesting that recycling through plant uptake and litter deposition was a dominant process in the long-term retention of this metal in the soil.

  1. Diversity and succession of autotrophic microbial community in high-elevation soils along deglaciation chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinbo; Kong, Weidong; Zhang, Guoshuai; Khan, Ajmal; Guo, Guangxia; Zhu, Chunmao; Wei, Xiaojie; Kang, Shichang; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M

    2016-10-01

    Global warming has resulted in substantial glacier retreats in high-elevation areas, exposing deglaciated soils to harsh environmental conditions. Autotrophic microbes are pioneering colonizers in the deglaciated soils and provide nutrients to the extreme ecosystem devoid of vegetation. However, autotrophic communities remain less studied in deglaciated soils. We explored the diversity and succession of the cbbL gene encoding the large subunit of form I RubisCO, a key CO2-fixing enzyme, using molecular methods in deglaciated soils along a 10-year deglaciation chronosequence on the Tibetan Plateau. Our results demonstrated that the abundance of all types of form I cbbL (IA/B, IC and ID) rapidly increased in young soils (0-2.5 years old) and kept stable in old soils. Soil total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) gradually increased along the chronosequence and both demonstrated positive correlations with the abundance of bacteria and autotrophs, indicating that soil TOC and TN originated from autotrophs. Form IA/B autotrophs, affiliated with cyanobacteria, exhibited a substantially higher abundance than IC and ID. Cyanobacterial diversity and evenness increased in young soils (<6 years old) and then remained stable. Our findings suggest that cyabobacteria play an important role in accumulating TOC and TN in the deglaciated soils. PMID:27465079

  2. Interaction of inorganic nanoparticles of lunar soil simulant with blood platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Kasatkina, Ludmila; Krisanova, Natalia; Sivko, Roman; Borisov, Arseniy; Slenzka, Klaus

    Blood platelets play a central role in the physiology of primary hemostasis and in the patholog-ical processes of arterial thrombosis. Also, blood platelets contain neuronal high-affinity Na+-dependent glutamate transporters (EAAT 1 -3) and are able to uptake glutamate, thereby playing possible physiological role in extracellular glutamate homeostasis in the mammalian CNS as an additional powerful target for excessive neurotoxic glutamate accumulation and storage. The health effects of lunar soil exposure are almost completely unknown, whereas the observations suggest that it can be deleterious to human physiology. It is important that the components of lunar soil may be internalized with lipid fractions of the lung epithelium, which in turn may help ions to overcome the blood-brain barrier. The study focused on the effects of JSC-1a Lunar Soil Simulant (LSS) (Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, USA) on platelets isolated from rabbit blood. We revealed that platelets were not indifferent to the expo-sure to LSS. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the incubation of platelets with LSS resulted in an upper shift of platelet spot in histograms presenting cell size (FS) and granularity (SS) as x and y coordinates, thereby demonstrating apparent increase in platelet granularity. Analysis of control platelet preparation did not reveal the alterations in platelet size and granularity during the same incubation period. LSS scatter per se did not cover area of platelet prepara-tion in histogram. Using Zetasizer Nanosystem (Malvern Instruments) with helium-neon laser for dynamic light scattering (DLS), the platelet size before and after the addition of LSS was measured. We have found the increase in the mean size of the population of platelets from 2.45 ±0.09 µm in control to 3.0 ± 0.25 µm in the presence of LSS. Thus, we report that inorganic nanoparticles of LSS bind to blood platelets and this fact may have considerable harmful conse-quences to human

  3. Forest soil carbon inventories and dynamics along an elevation gradient in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T; Post, Wilfred M; Hanson, Paul J; Cooper, Lee W

    1999-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) was partitioned between unprotected and protected pools in six forests along an elevation gradient in the southern Appalachian Mountains using two physical methods: flotation in aqueous CaCl{sub 2} (1.4 g/mL) and wet sieving through a 0.053 mm sieve. Both methods produced results that were qualitatively and quantitatively similar. Along the elevation gradient, 28 to 53% of the SOC was associated with an unprotected pool that included forest floor O-layers and other labile soil organic matter (SOM) in various stages of decomposition. Most (71 to 83%) of the C in the mineral soil at the six forest sites was identified as protected because of its association with a heavy soil fraction (> 1.4 g/mL) or a silt-clay soil fraction. Total inventories of SOC in the forests (to a depth of 30 cm) ranged from 384 to 1244 mg C/cm{sup 2}. The turnover time of the unprotected SOC was negatively correlated (r = -0.95, p < 0.05) with mean annual air temperature (MAT) across the elevation gradient. Measured SOC inventories, annual C returns to the forest floor, and estimates of C turnover associated with the protected soil pool were used to parameterize a simple model of SOC dynamics. Steady-state predictions with the model indicated that, with no change in C inputs, the low- (235-335 m), mid- (940-1000 m), and high- (1650-1670 m) elevation forests under study might surrender {approx} 40 to 45% of their current SOC inventory following a 4 C increase in MAT. Substantial losses of unprotected SOM as a result of a warmer climate could have long-term impacts on hydrology, soil quality, and plant nutrition in forest ecosystems throughout the southern Appalachian Mountains.

  4. Controls over soil N pools in a semiarid grassland under elevated CO2 and warming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change will likely be regulated by N availability. Very few studies have addressed the combined effects of warming and elevated CO2 (eCO2) on N availability. The stock of soil N determines availability for organisms, but also for loss to the at...

  5. Monitoring of soil water storage along elevation transech on morphological diverse study-sites affected by soil erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka; Nikodem, Antonin; Fer, Miroslav; Klement, Ales; Kratina, Josef

    2015-04-01

    Soil water availability is one of the key factors determining plant growth. Spatial distribution of soil water content is influenced by many factors. For the field-scale, one of the most important factors is terrain and its shape. The goal of our study was to characterize soil water storage within the soil profile with respect to terrain attributes. Two morphologically diverse study sites were chosen, in order to monitor soil water storage during vegetation season. The first site Brumovice in located in the Southern Moravian Region. The original soil unit was Haplic Chernozem developed on loess, which was gradually degraded by soil erosion. In the steepest parts, due to substantial loss of soil material, soil is transformed to Regosol. As a result of consequently sedimentation of previously eroded material in toe slopes and terrain depressions colluvial soils are formed. The second site Vidim is placed in the Central Bohemia. Dominant soil unit in wider area is Haplic Luvisol on loess loam. Similar process of progressive soil transformation was identified. On each study site, two elevation transects were delimited, where each consists of 5 monitoring spots. Access tubes were installed in order to measure soil moisture in six different depths (10, 20, 30 40, 60 a 100 cm) using Profile Probe PR2. The monitoring was conducted during vegetation season: April - July 2012 in Brumovice and May - July 2013 in Vidim. The average soil water contents were calculated for following three layers: topsoil A (0-20 cm), subsoil B (20-40cm), and substrate (40-100cm). The soil water storage within the soil profile was also expressed. Sensors TMS3 were also used for continual soil water content monitoring in the depth of 0-15 cm. In addition undisturbed soil samples were taken from topsoil to measure soil hydraulic properties using the multistep outflow experiment. Data were used to assess retention ability of erosion affected soils. The soil water storage and particularly average

  6. Continuous soil respiration at the Prairie Heating and Elevated CO2 site using forced diffusion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendall, E.; Brennan, A. L.; Risk, D. A.; Carrillo, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Temporal variations in soil respiration are regulated by changes in soil temperature, moisture and plant phenological activity. These drivers are expected to vary with climate changes including elevated atmospheric CO2 and warming, but it is unknown whether the relationships between the drivers and soil CO2 efflux change with climate change. We studied diurnal to seasonal patterns of soil respiration and its drivers in mixed C3/C4 grassland at the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) site near Cheyenne, WY, where Free-Air CO2 Enrichment is applied at 600 ppm during daytime in the growing season, and temperature is elevated by 1.5/3 deg C day/night all year. We deployed pairs of forced diffusion (FD) chambers in plots with intact and plant-free grassland, exposed to elevated CO2, warming, and ambient climate (six treatments total). Fluxes from intact grassland plots reflected contributions from root and microbial respiration (referred to as soil respiration), while those from plant-free plots reflected only microbial respiration. Non-dispersive infrared CO2 sensors (Vaisala GMT222, Helsinki, Finland) were installed inside the chambers, which had rims inserted 2-cm into the soil. Three sensors were installed in chambers that were not in contact with the soil surface, which recorded atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Soil respiration rates were calculated as the concentration difference between the soil and air chambers times the forced diffusivity factor, which was set by the semi-permeable membrane and calibrated for individual chambers. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the feasibility of this method for determination of continuous fluxes in semi-arid grassland by comparison with established methods, and to compare temporal dynamics and response functions of soil respiration to environmental drivers across the six treatments. We found that fluxes from the forced diffusion chambers compared well with those from an established, closed, dynamic

  7. Effects of biochar and elevated soil temperature on soil microbial activity and abundance in an agricultural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamminger, Chris; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven

    2014-05-01

    As a consequence of Global Warming, rising surface temperatures will likely cause increased soil temperatures. Soil warming has already been shown to, at least temporarily, increase microbial activity and, therefore, the emissions of greenhouse gases like CO2 and N2O. This underlines the need for methods to stabilize soil organic matter and to prevent further boost of the greenhouse gas effect. Plant-derived biochar as a soil amendment could be a valuable tool to capture CO2 from the atmosphere and sequestrate it in soil on the long-term. During the process of pyrolysis, plant biomass is heated in an oxygen-low atmosphere producing the highly stable solid matter biochar. Biochar is generally stable against microbial degradation due to its chemical structure and it, therefore, persists in soil for long periods. Previous experiments indicated that biochar improves or changes several physical or chemical soil traits such as water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity or soil structure, but also biotic properties like microbial activity/abundance, greenhouse gas emissions and plant growth. Changes in the soil microbial abundance and community composition alter their metabolism, but likely also affect plant productivity. The interaction of biochar addition and soil temperature increase on soil microbial properties and plant growth was yet not investigated on the field scale. To investigate whether warming could change biochar effects in soil, we conducted a field experiment attached to a soil warming experiment on an agricultural experimental site near the University of Hohenheim, already running since July 2008. The biochar field experiment was set up as two-factorial randomized block design (n=4) with the factors biochar amendment (0, 30 t ha-1) and soil temperature (ambient, elevated=ambient +2.5° C) starting from August 2013. Each plot has a dimension of 1x1m and is equipped with combined soil temperature and moisture sensors. Slow pyrolysis biochar from the C

  8. Species richness and selenium accumulation of plants in soils with elevated concentration of selenium and salinity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z Z; Wu, L

    1991-12-01

    Field studies were conducted in soils with elevated concentrations of Se and salinity at Kesterson, California. Biomass distribution, species richness, and selenium accumulation of plants were examined for two sites where 15 cm of surface soil was removed and replaced with fill dirt in the fall of 1989, and two sites were native soil cover. The Se concentrations in the top 15 cm of fill dirt ranged from undetectable to 36 ng g-1. For the native soil sites, Se levels ranged from 75 to 550 ng g-1. Soil Se concentrations below 15 cm ranged from 300 to 700 ng g-1 and were comparable between the fill dirt and the native soil sites. At least 20 different plant species were brought into the two fill dirt sites with the top soil. Avena fatua L., Bassia hyssopifolia Kuntze Rev. Gen. Pl., Centaurea solstitialis L., Erysimum officianale L., Franseria acanthicarpa Cav. Icon., and Melilotus indica (L.) All. contributed over 60% of the total biomass. Only 5 species were found in the native soil sites, and salt grass (Distichlis spicata L.) was the predominant species and accounted for over 80% of the total biomass. Between 1989 and 1990, two years after the surface soil replacement, the two fill dirt sites had a 70% reduction in species richness. Plant tissue selenium concentrations were found to be quite variable between plant species and between sites of sampling. At the fill dirt sites, the plant species with deep root systems accumulated greater amounts of selenium than the shallow-rooted species. The soil selenium concentration of the field soil had no negative effect on pollen fertility, seed set, and seed germination for the plant species examined. However, seedling growth was impaired by the soil selenium concentrations. This suggests that a selection pressure of soil Se concentration may have been imposed on plant species such as M. indica in an early stage of its life cycle.

  9. Effect of Elevated CO2 Concentration, Elevated Temperature and No Nitrogen Fertilization on Methanogenic Archaeal and Methane-Oxidizing Bacterial Community Structures in Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongyan; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Usui, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) enhance the production and emission of methane in paddy fields. In the present study, the effects of elevated [CO2], elevated temperature (ET), and no nitrogen fertilization (LN) on methanogenic archaeal and methane-oxidizing bacterial community structures in a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experimental paddy field were investigated by PCR-DGGE and real-time quantitative PCR. Soil samples were collected from the upper and lower soil layers at the rice panicle initiation (PI) and mid-ripening (MR) stages. The composition of the methanogenic archaeal community in the upper and lower soil layers was not markedly affected by the elevated [CO2], ET, or LN condition. The abundance of the methanogenic archaeal community in the upper and lower soil layers was also not affected by elevated [CO2] or ET, but was significantly increased at the rice PI stage and significantly decreased by LN in the lower soil layer. In contrast, the composition of the methane-oxidizing bacterial community was affected by rice-growing stages in the upper soil layer. The abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria was significantly decreased by elevated [CO2] and LN in both soil layers at the rice MR stage and by ET in the upper soil layer. The ratio of mcrA/pmoA genes correlated with methane emission from ambient and FACE paddy plots at the PI stage. These results indicate that the decrease observed in the abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria was related to increased methane emission from the paddy field under the elevated [CO2], ET, and LN conditions. PMID:27600710

  10. Ecogeomorphology of Spartina patens-dominated tidal marshes: Soil organic matter accumulation, marsh elevation dynamics, and disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.; Ford, M.A.; Hensel, P.F.; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Marani, Marco; Blum, Linda K.

    2004-01-01

    Marsh soil development and vertical accretion in Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl.-dominated tidal marshes is largely dependent on soil organic matter accumulation from root-rhizome production and litter deposition. Yet there are few quantitative data sets on belowground production and the relationship between soil organic matter accumulation and soil elevation dynamics for this marsh type. Spartina patens marshes are subject to numerous stressors, including sea-level rise, water level manipulations (i.e., flooding and draining) by impoundments, and prescribed burning. These stressors could influence long-term marsh sustainability by their effect on root production, soil organic matter accumulation, and soil elevation dynamics. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the interactions among vegetative production, soil organic matter accumulation and marsh elevation dynamics, or the ecogeomorphology, of Spartina patens-dominated tidal marshes. Additional studies are needed of belowground production/decomposition and soil elevation change (measured simultaneously) to better understand the links among soil organic matter accumulation, soil elevation change, and disturbance in this marsh type. From a management perspective, we need to better understand the impacts of disturbance stressors, both lethal and sub-lethal, and the interactive effect of multiple stressors on soil elevation dynamics in order to develop better management practices to safeguard marsh sustainability as sea level rises.

  11. Simulated In Situ Determination of Soil Profile Organic and Inorganic Carbon With LIBS and VisNIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricklemyer, R. S.; Brown, D. J.; Clegg, S. M.; Barefield, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    There is growing need for rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods to measure, and verify soil organic carbon (SOC) change for national greenhouse gas accounting and the development of a soil carbon trading market. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (VisNIR) are complementary analytical techniques that have the potential to fill that need. The LIBS method provides precise elemental analysis of soils, but generally cannot distinguish between organic C and inorganic C. VisNIR has been established as a viable technique for measuring soil properties including SOC and inorganic carbon (IC). As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnership, 240 intact core samples (3.8 x 50 cm) have been collected from six agricultural fields in north central Montana, USA. Each of these core samples were probed concurrently with LIBS and VisNIR at 2.5, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5, 22.5, 27.5, 35 and 45 cm (+/- 1.5 cm) depths. VisNIR measurements were taken using an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD, Boulder, CO, USA) Agrispec spectrometer to determine the partition of SOC vs. IC in the samples. The LIBS scans were collected with the LANL LIBS Core Scanner Instrument which collected the entire 200 - 900 nm plasma emission including the 247.8 nm carbon emission line. This instrument also collected the emission from the elements typically found in inorganic carbon (Ca and Mg) and organic carbon (H, O, and N). Subsamples of soil (~ 4 g) were taken from interrogation points for laboratory determination of SOC and IC. Using this analytical data, we constructed several full spectrum multivariate VisNIR/LIBS calibration models for SOC and IC. These models were then applied to independent validation cores for model evaluation.

  12. Soil moisture surpasses elevated CO2 and temperature as a control on soil carbon dynamics in a multi-factor climate change experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T; Classen, Aimee T; Norby, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    Some single-factor experiments suggest that elevated CO2 concentrations can increase soil carbon, but few experiments have examined the effects of interacting environmental factors on soil carbon dynamics. We undertook studies of soil carbon and nitrogen in a multi-factor (CO2 x temperature x soil moisture) climate change experiment on a constructed old-field ecosystem. After four growing seasons, elevated CO2 had no measurable effect on carbon and nitrogen concentrations in whole soil, particulate organic matter (POM), and mineral-associated organic matter (MOM). Analysis of stable carbon isotopes, under elevated CO2, indicated between 14 and 19% new soil carbon under two different watering treatments with as much as 48% new carbon in POM. Despite significant belowground inputs of new organic matter, soil carbon concentrations and stocks in POM declined over four years under soil moisture conditions that corresponded to prevailing precipitation inputs (1,300 mm yr-1). Changes over time in soil carbon and nitrogen under a drought treatment (approximately 20% lower soil water content) were not statistically significant. Reduced soil moisture lowered soil CO2 efflux and slowed soil carbon cycling in the POM pool. In this experiment, soil moisture (produced by different watering treatments) was more important than elevated CO2 and temperature as a control on soil carbon dynamics.

  13. Effects of combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers plus nitrification inhibitor DMPP on nitrogen runoff loss in vegetable soils.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiaogang; Ma, Junwei; Zou, Ping; Lin, Hui; Sun, Wanchun; Yin, Jianzhen; Fu, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    The application of nitrogen fertilizers leads to various ecological problems such as large amounts of nitrogen runoff loss causing water body eutrophication. The proposal that nitrification inhibitors could be used as nitrogen runoff loss retardants has been suggested in many countries. In this study, simulated artificial rainfall was used to illustrate the effect of the nitrification inhibitor DMPP (3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate) on nitrogen loss from vegetable fields under combined organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer application. The results showed that during the three-time simulated artificial rainfall period, the ammonium nitrogen content in the surface runoff water collected from the DMPP application treatment increased by 1.05, 1.13, and 1.10 times compared to regular organic and inorganic combined fertilization treatment, respectively. In the organic and inorganic combined fertilization with DMPP addition treatment, the nitrate nitrogen content decreased by 38.8, 43.0, and 30.1% in the three simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. Besides, the nitrite nitrogen content decreased by 95.4, 96.7, and 94.1% in the three-time simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. A robust decline in the nitrate and nitrite nitrogen surface runoff loss could be observed in the treatments after the DMPP addition. The nitrite nitrogen in DMPP addition treatment exhibited a significant low level, which is near to the no fertilizer application treatment. Compared to only organic and inorganic combined fertilizer treatment, the total inorganic nitrogen runoff loss declined by 22.0 to 45.3% in the organic and inorganic combined fertilizers with DMPP addition treatment. Therefore, DMPP could be used as an effective nitrification inhibitor to control the soil ammonium oxidation in agriculture and decline the nitrogen runoff loss, minimizing the nitrogen transformation risk to the water body and being beneficial for the ecological environment.

  14. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases microbial growth rates and enzymes activity in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    Increasing the belowground translocation of assimilated carbon by plants grown under elevated CO2 can cause a shift in the structure and activity of the microbial community responsible for the turnover of organic matter in soil. We investigated the long-term effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere on microbial biomass and specific growth rates in root-free and rhizosphere soil. The experiments were conducted under two free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) systems: in Hohenheim and Braunschweig, as well as in the intensively managed forest mesocosm of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory (B2L) in Oracle, AZ. Specific microbial growth rates (μ) were determined using the substrate-induced respiration response after glucose and/or yeast extract addition to the soil. We evaluated the effect of elevated CO2 on b-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase to estimate the potential enzyme activity after soil amendment with glucose and nutrients. For B2L and both FACE systems, up to 58% higher μ were observed under elevated vs. ambient CO2, depending on site, plant species and N fertilization. The μ-values increased linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration at all three sites. The effect of elevated CO2 on rhizosphere microorganisms was plant dependent and increased for: Brassica napus=Triticum aestivumelevated CO2 was smoothed on rich vs. simple substrate. So, the r/K strategies ratio can be better revealed by studying growth on simple (glucose) than on rich substrate mixtures (yeast extract). After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were

  15. Forest soil carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio responses to elevated CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Hockaday, William C.; Gallagher, Morgan E.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Baldock, Jeffrey A.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Norby, Richard J.

    2015-09-21

    The oxidative ratio (OR) of the biosphere is the stoichiometric ratio (O2/CO2) of gas exchange by photosynthesis and respiration a key parameter in budgeting calculations of the land and ocean carbon sinks. Carbon cycle-climate feedbacks could alter the OR of the biosphere by affecting the quantity and quality of organic matter in plant biomass and soil carbon pools. Here, this study considers the effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) on the OR of a hardwood forest after nine growing seasons of Free-Air CO2 Enrichment. We measured changes in the carbon oxidation state (Cox) of biomass and soil carbon pools as a proxy for the ecosystem OR. The OR of net primary production, 1.039, was not affected by elevated [CO2]. However, the Cox of the soil carbon pool was 40% higher at elevated [CO2], and the estimated OR values for soil respiration increased from 1.006 at ambient [CO2] to 1.054 at elevated [CO2]. A biochemical inventory of the soil organic matter ascribed the increases in Cox and OR to faster turnover of reduced substrates, lignin and lipids, at elevated [CO2]. This implicates the heterotrophic soil community response to elevated [CO2] as a driver of disequilibrium in the ecosystem OR. The oxidation of soil carbon pool constitutes an unexpected terrestrial O2 sink. Carbon budgets constructed under the assumption of OR equilibrium would equate such a terrestrial O2 sink to CO2 uptake by the ocean. We find that the potential for climate-driven disequilibriua in the cycling of O2 and CO2 warrants further investigation.

  16. Soil Respiration in Relation to Photosynthesis of Quercus mongolica Trees at Elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yumei; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Xu-Bing; Wang, Cun-Guo; Fan, A-Nan; Shi, Lian-Xuan; Wang, Xiu-Xiu; Han, Shijie

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of soil respiration and photosynthesis under elevated CO2 is crucial for exactly understanding and predicting the carbon balance in forest ecosystems in a rapid CO2-enriched world. Quercus mongolica Fischer ex Ledebour seedlings were planted in open-top chambers exposed to elevated CO2 (EC = 500 µmol mol−1) and ambient CO2 (AC = 370 µmol mol−1) from 2005 to 2008. Daily, seasonal and inter-annual variations in soil respiration and photosynthetic assimilation were measured during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. EC significantly stimulated the daytime soil respiration by 24.5% (322.4 at EC vs. 259.0 mg CO2 m−2 hr−1 at AC) in 2007 and 21.0% (281.2 at EC vs. 232.6 mg CO2 m−2 hr−1 at AC) in 2008, and increased the daytime CO2 assimilation by 28.8% (624.1 at EC vs. 484.6 mg CO2 m−2 hr−1 at AC) across the two growing seasons. The temporal variation in soil respiration was positively correlated with the aboveground photosynthesis, soil temperature, and soil water content at both EC and AC. EC did not affect the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. The increased daytime soil respiration at EC resulted mainly from the increased aboveground photosynthesis. The present study indicates that increases in CO2 fixation of plants in a CO2-rich world will rapidly return to the atmosphere by increased soil respiration. PMID:21151897

  17. OPTIMALITY PRINCIPLE INTEGRATES PLANT RESPONSES TO ELEVATED CO2 AND SOIL NITROGEN AVAILABILITY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, O.

    2009-12-01

    INTRODUCTION Soil N availability is of particular importance for the response of forests to elevated CO2 (eCO2) because it often limits tree growth responses to eCO2 and changes C allocation among foliage, wood and root systems. Clearly, understanding the interactive effects of eCO2 and soil N availability is essential for accurate projections of forest responses to rising atmospheric CO2. HYPOTHESIS Plants acclimate to soil N availability and atmospheric CO2 by maximizing net growth through three nested optimizations operating on different time scales: short term - vertical canopy N distribution, medium term - Leaf area index (LAI) for a given total canopy N (Nc) and longer term - Nc and root allocation. N uptake is a function of root exploration for N (fine root production) and soil N availability. RESULTS The model explained a range of observed forest CO2 responses of productivity and LAI in FACE experiments (Franklin et al. 2009) (Franklin 2007). N use efficiency increased with soil N availability, which is in line with recent findings regarding resource use efficiency, but contrasts with some earlier conceptual models. The model gives rise to a relationship between root production and total plant N demand, which implies that root production and N uptake is always increased by eCO2 (fig. 1). The increased N uptake associated with increased demand for fine-root production may lead to declining soil N availability (progressive N limitation), which was observed in the ORNL FACE experiment. The principle of maximization of net growth to control allocation could serve as a basis for simplification and generalization of foliage/stem/root allocation in larger scale forest models. REFERENCES Franklin O. (2007) Optimal nitrogen allocation controls tree responses to elevated CO 2. New Phytologist, 174, 811-822 Franklin O., McMurtrie R.E., Iversen C.M., Crous K.Y., Finzi A.C., Tissue D.T., Ellsworth D.S., Oren R. & Norby R.J. (2009) Forest fine-root production and

  18. Influence of inorganic nitrogen management regime on the diversity of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in agricultural grassland soils.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Thomas E; Chang, Lisa; Clegg, Christopher D; Prosser, James I

    2005-12-01

    To assess links between the diversity of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in agricultural grassland soils and inorganic N fertilizer management, NOB communities in fertilized and unfertilized soils were characterized by analysis of clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments. Previously uncharacterized Nitrospira-like sequences were isolated from both long-term-fertilized and unfertilized soils, but DGGE migration patterns indicated the presence of additional sequence types in the fertilized soils. Detailed phylogenetic analysis of Nitrospira-like sequences suggests the existence of one newly described evolutionary group and of subclusters within previously described sublineages, potentially representing different ecotypes; the new group may represent a lineage of noncharacterized Nitrospira species. Clone libraries of Nitrobacter-like sequences generated from soils under different long-term N management regimes were dominated by sequences with high similarity to the rhizoplane isolate Nitrobacter sp. strain PJN1. However, the diversity of Nitrobacter communities did not differ significantly between the two soil types. This is the first cultivation-independent study of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in soil demonstrating that nitrogen management practices influence the diversity of this bacterial functional group.

  19. Responses of soil respiration to elevated CO[sub 2] in two California grassland ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Jackson, R.B.; Field, C.B.; Mooney, H.A. )

    1994-06-01

    Estimates of soil respiration (SR) in current and elevated CO[sub 2] are critical for predicting future global carbon budgets. We measured SR in two California grassland ecosystems (sandstone and serpentine) growing at ambient and ambient+350 ppm CO[sub 2]. SR was higher in elevated CO[sub 2] for both ecosystems in the field, but differences were not significant. At peak plant growth, SR was approximately 6 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1] in elevated CO[sub 2] and 5 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] in ambient CO[sub 2] for both ecosystems. We also examined soil respiration in monocultures of 7 grassland species grown in microecosystems (10-cm diameter by 1-m deep tubes). SR was approximately 2 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1] for Plantago, Bromus, Hemizona, and Calycadenia and 7 [minus] 8 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]2] for Lolium, Avena, and Vulpia. Elevated CO[sub 2] significantly increased soil respiration by 20-30% in Bromus, Hemizonia and Lolium monocultures. SR was significantly correlated with total plant biomass as averaged across all species.

  20. Elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and soil nutrients alter competitive performance of California annual grassland species

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, H.L.; Chapin, F.S. III; Field, C.B.

    1995-06-01

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} and soil nutrients altered interspecific competitive performance of three grassland annuals, all exhibiting the C{sub 3} metabolic pathway. Plantago erecta, an herbaceous dicot dominant in low-fertility serpentine grassland, was the superior interspecific competitor at low soil nutrients. Bromus hordeaceus, an introduced grass dominant in higher fertility sandstone grassland, was the superior interspecific competitor at high soil nutrients. Interspecific competitive ability of Plantago was slightly enhanced under elevated CO{sub 2}, but only at high soil nutrients, whereas interspecific competitive ability of Bromus was stimulated under elevated CO{sub 2} at both low and high soil nutrients. Interspecific competitive ability of Lasthenia californica, another herbaceous dicot common in serpentine grassland, was low in all treatments, and tended to decrease with elevated CO{sub 2} at low soil nutrients. Our results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2} may shift plant species abundance of serpentine grassland in favor of Bromus hordeaceus.

  1. Distribution and elevated soil pools of mercury in an acidic subtropical forest of southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Chen, Jian

    2015-07-01

    Tieshanping catchment in southwest China was supposed to a large pool of atmospheric mercury. This work was aimed to examine THg (total mercury) concentrations, pools and influence factors in the acidic forest. THg concentrations were highly elevated in the study area, which was significantly depended on TOM (total organic matter) concentrations and altitudinal elevation, whereas negatively correlated with soil pH. The pools of mercury accumulated in soils were correlated strongly with the stocks of TOM and altitude, ranged from 5.9 to 32 mg m(-2) and averaged 14.5 mg m(-2), indicating that the acidic forest was a great sink of atmospheric mercury in southwest China. THg concentrations in stream waters decreased with altitude increasing and regression analyses showed that soil/air exchange flux would be increased with the decrease of altitude. Present results suggest that elevation increasing decreases THg losses as low THg concentrations in runoffs and volatilization from soils. PMID:25836382

  2. Consistent responses of soil microbial communities to elevated nutrient inputs in grasslands across the globe

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Jonathan W.; Jones, Stuart E.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Barberán, Albert; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Firn, Jennifer L.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; La Pierre, Kimberly; Risch, Anita C.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Schütz, Martin; Steenbock, Christopher; Stevens, Carly J.; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Soil microorganisms are critical to ecosystem functioning and the maintenance of soil fertility. However, despite global increases in the inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to ecosystems due to human activities, we lack a predictive understanding of how microbial communities respond to elevated nutrient inputs across environmental gradients. Here we used high-throughput sequencing of marker genes to elucidate the responses of soil fungal, archaeal, and bacterial communities using an N and P addition experiment replicated at 25 globally distributed grassland sites. We also sequenced metagenomes from a subset of the sites to determine how the functional attributes of bacterial communities change in response to elevated nutrients. Despite strong compositional differences across sites, microbial communities shifted in a consistent manner with N or P additions, and the magnitude of these shifts was related to the magnitude of plant community responses to nutrient inputs. Mycorrhizal fungi and methanogenic archaea decreased in relative abundance with nutrient additions, as did the relative abundances of oligotrophic bacterial taxa. The metagenomic data provided additional evidence for this shift in bacterial life history strategies because nutrient additions decreased the average genome sizes of the bacterial community members and elicited changes in the relative abundances of representative functional genes. Our results suggest that elevated N and P inputs lead to predictable shifts in the taxonomic and functional traits of soil microbial communities, including increases in the relative abundances of faster-growing, copiotrophic bacterial taxa, with these shifts likely to impact belowground ecosystems worldwide. PMID:26283343

  3. Consistent responses of soil microbial communities to elevated nutrient inputs in grasslands across the globe.

    PubMed

    Leff, Jonathan W; Jones, Stuart E; Prober, Suzanne M; Barberán, Albert; Borer, Elizabeth T; Firn, Jennifer L; Harpole, W Stanley; Hobbie, Sarah E; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Knops, Johannes M H; McCulley, Rebecca L; La Pierre, Kimberly; Risch, Anita C; Seabloom, Eric W; Schütz, Martin; Steenbock, Christopher; Stevens, Carly J; Fierer, Noah

    2015-09-01

    Soil microorganisms are critical to ecosystem functioning and the maintenance of soil fertility. However, despite global increases in the inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to ecosystems due to human activities, we lack a predictive understanding of how microbial communities respond to elevated nutrient inputs across environmental gradients. Here we used high-throughput sequencing of marker genes to elucidate the responses of soil fungal, archaeal, and bacterial communities using an N and P addition experiment replicated at 25 globally distributed grassland sites. We also sequenced metagenomes from a subset of the sites to determine how the functional attributes of bacterial communities change in response to elevated nutrients. Despite strong compositional differences across sites, microbial communities shifted in a consistent manner with N or P additions, and the magnitude of these shifts was related to the magnitude of plant community responses to nutrient inputs. Mycorrhizal fungi and methanogenic archaea decreased in relative abundance with nutrient additions, as did the relative abundances of oligotrophic bacterial taxa. The metagenomic data provided additional evidence for this shift in bacterial life history strategies because nutrient additions decreased the average genome sizes of the bacterial community members and elicited changes in the relative abundances of representative functional genes. Our results suggest that elevated N and P inputs lead to predictable shifts in the taxonomic and functional traits of soil microbial communities, including increases in the relative abundances of faster-growing, copiotrophic bacterial taxa, with these shifts likely to impact belowground ecosystems worldwide.

  4. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Fernanda Adame, Maria; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  5. Structures of Microbial Communities in Alpine Soils: Seasonal and Elevational Effects

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaro, Anna; Hilfiker, Daniela; Zeyer, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities in alpine environments are exposed to several environmental factors related to elevation and local site conditions and to extreme seasonal variations. However, little is known on the combined impact of such factors on microbial community structure. We assessed the effects of seasonal variations on soil fungal and bacterial communities along an elevational gradient (from alpine meadows to a glacier forefield, 1930–2519 m a.s.l.) over 14 months. Samples were taken during all four seasons, even under the winter snowpack and at snowmelt. Microbial community structures and abundances were investigated using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the 16S and 18S rRNA genes. Illumina sequencing was performed to identify key bacterial groups in selected samples. We found that the soil properties varied significantly with the seasons and along the elevational gradient. For example, concentrations of soluble nutrients (e.g., NH4+-N, SO42−-S, PO43−-P) significantly increased in October but decreased drastically under the winter snowpack. At all times, the alpine meadows showed higher soluble nutrient concentrations than the glacier forefield. Microbial community structures at the different sites were strongly affected by seasonal variations. Under winter snowpack, bacterial communities were dominated by ubiquitous groups (i.e., beta-Proteobacteria, which made up to 25.7% of the total reads in the glacier forefield). In the snow-free seasons, other groups (i.e., Cyanobacteria) became more abundant (from 1% under winter snow in the glacier forefield samples to 8.1% in summer). In summary, elevation had a significant effect on soil properties, whereas season influenced soil properties as well as microbial community structure. Vegetation had a minor impact on microbial communities. At every elevation analyzed, bacterial, and fungal community structures exhibited a pronounced annual cycle. PMID:26635785

  6. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Adame, Maria Fernanda; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-02-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  7. Fly ash for soil amelioration: A review on the influence of ash blending with inorganic and organic amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, L. C.; Masto, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, fly ash (FA), generated in huge quantities from coal fired power plants is a problematic solid waste. Utilization of FA as an ameliorant for improving soil quality has received a great deal of attention over the past four decades, and many studies have been carried out worldwide. The silt-sized particles, low bulk density (BD), higher water holding capacity (WHC), favorable pH, and significant presence of plant nutrients in FA, make it a potential amendment for soils. The studies suggest enormous potential for the use of FA to improve cultivable, degraded/waste land, mine soil, landfills, and also to reclaim abandoned ash ponds, for agriculture and forestry. FA application improves the physical, chemical and biological qualities of soils to which it is applied. However, in some cases, depending on the characteristics of FA, the release of trace elements and soluble salts from FA to a soil-plant-human system could be a constraint. The effect is minimal in the case of weathered FA. The findings reflected the heterogeneity of ash characteristics, soil types, and agro-climatic conditions, thus a generalized conclusion on the impact of FA on plant species and soil quality is difficult. It is very important that the application of FA to soil must be very specific depending on the properties of the FA and soil. A considerable amount of research has been carried out to blend FA with varieties of organic and inorganic materials, like lime, gypsum, red mud, animal manure, poultry manure, sewage sludge, composts, press mud, vermicompost, biochar, bioinoculants, etc. Co-application of FA with these materials has much advantage: enhanced nutrient availability, decreased bioavailability of toxic metals, pH buffering, organic matter addition, microbial stimulation, overall improvement in the general health of the soil, etc. The performance of FA blending with organic and inorganic materials is better than FA alone treatments. Farm manure was found to be the most

  8. Tree Species Traits Influence Soil Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties in High Elevation Forests

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, Edward; Steltzer, Heidi; Berg, Sarah; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Simmons, Breana L.; Wall, Diana H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, which are dominant tree species in this region and are distributed widely in North America. We hypothesized that soil properties would differ among stands dominated by different tree species and expected that aspen stands would have higher soil temperatures due to their open structure, which, combined with higher quality litter, would result in increased soil respiration rates, nitrogen availability, and microbial biomass, and differences in soil faunal community composition. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed soil physical, chemical, and biological properties at four sites where stands of aspen, pine, and spruce occurred in close proximity to one-another in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Leaf litter quality differed among the tree species, with the highest nitrogen (N) concentration and lowest lignin∶N in aspen litter. Nitrogen concentration was similar in pine and spruce litter, but lignin∶N was highest in pine litter. Soil temperature and moisture were highest in aspen stands, which, in combination with higher litter quality, probably contributed to faster soil respiration rates from stands of aspen. Soil carbon and N content, ammonium concentration, and microbial biomass did not differ among tree species, but nitrate concentration was highest in aspen soil and lowest in spruce soil. In addition, soil fungal, bacterial, and nematode community composition and rotifer, collembolan, and mesostigmatid mite abundance differed among the tree species, while the total abundance of nematodes, tardigrades, oribatid mites, and prostigmatid mites did not

  9. Defoliation reduces soil biota - and modifies stimulating effects of elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Dam, Marie; Christensen, Søren

    2015-11-01

    To understand the responses to external disturbance such as defoliation and possible feedback mechanisms at global change in terrestrial ecosystems, it is necessary to examine the extent and nature of effects on aboveground-belowground interactions. We studied a temperate heathland system subjected to experimental climate and atmospheric factors based on prognoses for year 2075 and further exposed to defoliation. By defoliating plants, we were able to study how global change modifies the interactions of the plant-soil system. Shoot production, root biomass, microbial biomass, and nematode abundance were assessed in the rhizosphere of manually defoliated patches of Deschampsia flexuosa in June in a full-factorial FACE experiment with the treatments: increased atmospheric CO 2, increased nighttime temperatures, summer droughts, and all of their combinations. We found a negative effect of defoliation on microbial biomass that was not apparently affected by global change. The negative effect of defoliation cascades through to soil nematodes as dependent on CO 2 and drought. At ambient CO 2, drought and defoliation each reduced nematodes. In contrast, at elevated CO 2, a combination of drought and defoliation was needed to reduce nematodes. We found positive effects of CO 2 on root density and microbial biomass. Defoliation affected soil biota negatively, whereas elevated CO 2 stimulated the plant-soil system. This effect seen in June is contrasted by the effects seen in September at the same site. Late season defoliation increased activity and biomass of soil biota and more so at elevated CO 2. Based on soil biota responses, plants defoliated in active growth therefore conserve resources, whereas defoliation after termination of growth results in release of resources. This result challenges the idea that plants via exudation of organic carbon stimulate their rhizosphere biota when in apparent need of nutrients for growth. PMID:26640664

  10. Response of Soil Respiration to Grazing in an Alpine Meadow at Three Elevations in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Gang; Zhang, Xianzhou; Yu, Chengqun; Shi, Peili; Zhou, Yuting; Li, Yunlong; Yang, Pengwan; Shen, Zhenxi

    2014-01-01

    Alpine meadows are one major type of pastureland on the Tibetan Plateau. However, few studies have evaluated the response of soil respiration (Rs) to grazing along an elevation gradient in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau. Here three fenced enclosures were established in an alpine meadow at three elevations (i.e., 4313 m, 4513 m, and 4693 m) in July 2008. We measured Rs inside and outside the three fenced enclosures in July–September, 2010-2011. Topsoil (0–20 cm) samples were gathered in July, August, and September, 2011. There were no significant differences for Rs, dissolved organic C (DOC), and belowground root biomass (BGB) between the grazed and ungrazed soils. Soil respiration was positively correlated with soil organic C (SOC), microbial biomass (MBC), DOC, and BGB. In addition, both Rs and BGB increased with total N (TN), the ratio of SOC to TN, ammonium N (NH4+-N), and the ratio of NH4+-N to nitrate N. Our findings suggested that the negligible response of Rs to grazing could be directly attributed to that of respiration substrate and that soil N may indirectly affect Rs by its effect on BGB. PMID:24790558

  11. Responses of trace gas fluxes and N availability to experimentally elevated soil temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Peterjohn, W.T.; Melillo, J.M.; Steudler, P.A.; Newkirk, K.M. ); Bowles, F.P. ); Aber, J.D. )

    1994-08-01

    A field study is being conducted to determine the long-term response of belowground processes to elevated soil temperatures in a mixed deciduous forest. Eighteen experimental plots were established and randomly assigned them to one of three treatments in six blocks. The treatments are: (1) heated plots in which the soil temperature is raised 5[degrees]C above ambient using buried heating cables; (2) disturbance control plots (cables but no heat); and (3) undisturbed control plots (no cables and no heat). In each plot indexes of N availability, the concentration of N in soil solutions leaching below the rooting zone, and trace gas emissions (CO[sub 2], N[sub 2]O, and CH[sub 4]) were measured. In this paper results are presented from the first 6 mo of this study. The daily average efflux of CO[sub 2] increased exponentially with increasing soil temperature and decreased linearly with increasing soil moisture. A linear regression of temperature and the natural logarithm of CO[sub 2] flux explained 92% of the variability. A linear regression of soil moisture and CO[sub 2] flux could explain only 44% of the variability. The relationship between soil temperature and CO[sub 2] flux is in good agreement with the Arrhenius equation. For these CO[sub 2] flux data, the activation energy was 63 kJ/mol and the Q[sub 10] was 2.5.

  12. Elevated carbon dioxide does not offset loss of soil carbon from a corn-soybean agroecosystem.

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, K. K.; Jastrow, J. D.; Biosciences Division

    2010-04-01

    The potential for storing additional C in U.S. Corn Belt soils - to offset rising atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] - is large. Long-term cultivation has depleted substantial soil organic matter (SOM) stocks that once existed in the region's native ecosystems. In central Illinois, free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment technology was used to investigate the effects of elevated [CO{sub 2}] on SOM pools in a conservation tilled corn-soybean rotation. After 5 and 6 y of CO{sub 2} enrichment, we investigated the distribution of C and N among soil fractions with varying ability to protect SOM from rapid decomposition. None of the isolated C or N pools, or bulk-soil C or N, was affected by CO{sub 2} treatment. However, the site has lost soil C and N, largely from unprotected pools, regardless of CO{sub 2} treatment since the experiment began. These findings suggest management practices have affected soil C and N stocks and dynamics more than the increased inputs from CO{sub 2}-stimulated photosynthesis. Soil carbon from microaggregate-protected and unprotected fractions decreased in a conservation tilled corn-soybean rotation despite increases in primary production from exposure to atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment.

  13. Decadal Effects of Elevated CO2 and O3 on Forest Soil Respiration and Belowground Carbon Cycling at Aspen FACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talhelm, A. F.; Pregitzer, K. S.; Zak, D. R.; Burton, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Three northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and/or tropospheric ozone (O3) for 11 years, advancing from open-grown seedlings <0.25 m in height at the beginning to the experiment to closed-canopy stands that were >8 m tall. Here, we report results from measurements of soil respiration that occurred during the experiment from 1999 to 2008. In order to better understand this flux, we compare changes in soil respiration to the effects of CO2 and O3 on net primary productivity (NPP), fine root biomass, and leaf litter production. Elevated CO2 enhanced soil respiration by an average of 28%. This stimulation of soil respiration varied from +19% to +44%, but did not change consistently during the 10 year measurement period (r2 = 0.04). The effect of elevated O3 on soil respiration was dynamic. In year two of the experiment (1999), elevated O3 decreased soil respiration by 7%. However, soil respiration consistently increased through time under elevated O3 (r2 = 0.71) and was 9% greater than under ambient O3 in the final year of the experiment (2008). Overall, elevated O3 had no meaningful effect on soil respiration (+0.3%). The annual effects of elevated CO2 on soil respiration were not correlated with NPP or fine root biomass, but was positively correlated with leaf litter production (r = 0.57). Annual leaf litter production was also related to the annual effects of elevated O3 on soil respiration (r = 0.78), but relationship was tighter between annual O3 effects on NPP and soil respiration (r = 0.83).

  14. Flow injection with in-line reduction column and conductometric detection for determination of total inorganic nitrogen in soil.

    PubMed

    Yanu, Pattama; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    A cost effective flow injection (FI) conductometric system has been developed for determination of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN). The system is aimed for evaluation of nitrogen nutrient in soil for agricultural application. Inorganic nitrogen compounds were extracted from soil according to the standard method by using potassium chloride solution as an extractant, and the extracted solution was then injected into the FI system. Nitrate and nitrite are converted to ammonium ion by an in-line reduction column packed with a Devarda's alloy. A gas diffusion unit was incorporated into the FI system to separate ammonium ion from other ions in a donor stream by forming ammonia gas that can diffuse through a PTFE membrane to re-dissolve in an acceptor stream. Conductance of the acceptor stream was directly proportional to ammonium ion concentration. Various parameters affecting reduction efficiency of the column, e.g., column diameter, column packing procedure, and column length was investigated and optimized. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2.00-60.00 mg L(-1) N-NH4(+) (y=0.123x+0.039, R(2) =0.997) was obtained with a limit of detection of 0.47 mg L(-1). Sample throughput of 20 samples h(-1) was achieved. The result of developed method was correlated with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) obtained from the Kjeldahl digestion method. The proposed method could be used as an alternative method to the Kjeldahl method for determination of TIN in soil.

  15. Flow injection with in-line reduction column and conductometric detection for determination of total inorganic nitrogen in soil.

    PubMed

    Yanu, Pattama; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    A cost effective flow injection (FI) conductometric system has been developed for determination of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN). The system is aimed for evaluation of nitrogen nutrient in soil for agricultural application. Inorganic nitrogen compounds were extracted from soil according to the standard method by using potassium chloride solution as an extractant, and the extracted solution was then injected into the FI system. Nitrate and nitrite are converted to ammonium ion by an in-line reduction column packed with a Devarda's alloy. A gas diffusion unit was incorporated into the FI system to separate ammonium ion from other ions in a donor stream by forming ammonia gas that can diffuse through a PTFE membrane to re-dissolve in an acceptor stream. Conductance of the acceptor stream was directly proportional to ammonium ion concentration. Various parameters affecting reduction efficiency of the column, e.g., column diameter, column packing procedure, and column length was investigated and optimized. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2.00-60.00 mg L(-1) N-NH4(+) (y=0.123x+0.039, R(2) =0.997) was obtained with a limit of detection of 0.47 mg L(-1). Sample throughput of 20 samples h(-1) was achieved. The result of developed method was correlated with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) obtained from the Kjeldahl digestion method. The proposed method could be used as an alternative method to the Kjeldahl method for determination of TIN in soil. PMID:26452820

  16. Arsenic accumulation and speciation in rice grains influenced by arsenic phytotoxicity and rice genotypes grown in arsenic-elevated paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Syu, Chien-Hui; Huang, Chia-Chen; Jiang, Pei-Yu; Lee, Chia-Hsing; Lee, Dar-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Rice consumption is a major route of As exposure to human for the population of worldwide. This study investigates the effect of phytotoxicity and rice genotypes on the content and speciation of As in rice grains grown in different levels of As-elevated paddy soils from Taiwan. Three levels of As-elevated soils and six rice genotypes commonly planted in Taiwan were used for this study. The results indicate that As contents in grains of rice is not proportional to soil As concentrations and they were equal or higher in indica genotypes than japonica genotypes used in this study. It was also found that the As phytotoxicity not only reducing the grain yields but also the As concentrations in grain of rice. The predominant As species found in rice grains were dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and arsenite. The concentrations of DMA increased with total As concentrations, wherggeas the arsenite remained in a narrow range from 0.1 to 0.3 mg kg(-1). Because of the lower toxicity of DMA than inorganic As species, the health risks may not be increased through consumption of rice even when total As content in the grains is increased. PMID:25577320

  17. Inorganic arsenic speciation in soil and groundwater near in-service chromated copper arsenate-treated wood poles.

    PubMed

    Zagury, Gérald J; Dobran, Simona; Estrela, Sandra; Deschênes, Louise

    2008-04-01

    The environmental impact of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated utility poles is linked to the possible soil and groundwater contamination with arsenic. The objective of the present study was to determine the arsenic speciation in soil and groundwater near in-service CCA-treated poles. Arsenite (As[III]) and arsenate (As[V]) concentrations were determined in 29 surface and subsurface soil samples collected near eight CCA-treated wood poles. Temporal variability of total arsenic concentrations and inorganic arsenic speciation was also assessed in groundwater at two sites through four sampling events over a 19-month period. Arsenic speciation was carried out by a solvent extraction method using ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-methyl isobutyl ketone, and total arsenic was quantified by inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry/hydride generation. Average arsenic concentrations in surface soils immediately adjacent to utility poles ranged from 153+/-49 to 410+/-150 mg/kg but approached background levels (below 5 mg/kg) within 0.50 m from the poles. A positive correlation was found between surface soil As concentration and total Fe content. In subsurface samples (0.50 m), arsenic levels were generally high in sandy soils (up to 223+/-32 mg/kg), moderate in clayey soils (up to 126+/-26 mg/kg), and relatively lower in organic soils (up to 56+/-24 mg/ kg). Arsenic(V) was the predominant arsenic species in surface (>78%) and subsurface soils (>66%). Total arsenic concentrations in groundwater below the clayey site were high and varied widely over time (79-390 microg/L), with 30 to 68% as As(III). Below the utility pole located on the organic site with a high Fe content, lower total arsenic levels (12-33 microg/L) were found, with As(III) ranging from 0 to 100%.

  18. Soil , phyto and zoocenosis characteristics along an elevational gradient in the Alps (NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caimi, Angelo; Freppaz, Michele; Filippa, Gianluca; Buffa, Giorgio; Rivella, Enrico; Griselli, Bona; Parodi, Alessandra; Zanini, Ermanno

    2010-05-01

    From a global point of view, the distribution of biodiversity can be associated with climate. In particular, a majority of patterns of species diversity can be explained in terms of climatic gradients. Within a given mountain range, climate may affect the distribution of soils and the abundance and richness of plant species and mesofauna composition. In this study, promoted in the framework of an INTERREG Project "Biodiversità: una ricchezza da conservare" we investigate the soil, plant characteristics and mesofauna communities along two elevational gradient in Italian North Western Alps. Mountain environments are well-suited for such studies because of pronounced climatic gradients within short distances. The study areas, named San Bernardo and Vannino, are located in North Italy, close to the border of Switzerland (San Bernardo: N 46°09' E 08°10'; Vannino: N 46°23'E 08°22'). The first one ranged form 1617 m ASL to 2595 m ASL. while the second one ranged from 1786 to 2515 m ASL , with both a prevalent south aspect. Along both elevational gradients we selected 7 sites, with a vegetation cover ranging from coniferous forest (Larix, Picea and Abies) to high-elevation prairies. In each site, soil material (0-10 cm depth) was collected and in the laboratory, samples were dried and passed through a 2-mm sieve. The pH and the particle size distribution was determined following standard methods (SISS, 1998, 2000). Total C and N contents of the soil were measured with a C/H/N analyser (Elementar Vario EL). Data on the vegetation structure were collected close to each soil sampling points, covering a surface of 16 m2; each sampling site has been further divided into 4 sub-areas of 4 m2. Soil texture ranged between sand and loamy sand, without any obvious distribution with altitude. On average, in the Vannino transect soil texture was slightly coarser than at San Bernardo. A total of 118 vascular species were found at the sampling sites. Landolt ecological spectrum

  19. Atmospheric mercury inputs in montane soils increase with elevation: evidence from mercury isotope signatures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Yin, Run-sheng; Feng, Xin-bin; Sommar, Jonas; Anderson, Christopher W. N.; Sapkota, Atindra; Fu, Xue-wu; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2013-01-01

    The influence of topography on the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg) has received relatively little attention. Here, we report the measurement of Hg species and their corresponding isotope composition in soil sampled along an elevational gradient transect on Mt. Leigong in subtropical southwestern China. The data are used to explain orography-related effects on the fate and behaviour of Hg species in montane environments. The total- and methyl-Hg concentrations in topsoil samples show a positive correlation with elevation. However, a negative elevation dependence was observed in the mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) signatures of Hg isotopes. Both a MIF (Δ199Hg) binary mixing approach and the traditional inert element method indicate that the content of Hg derived from the atmosphere distinctly increases with altitude. PMID:24270081

  20. Response to elevated CO2 in the temperate C3 grass Festuca arundinaceae across a wide range of soils

    PubMed Central

    Nord, Eric A.; Jaramillo, Raúl E.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Soils vary widely in mineral nutrient availability and physical characteristics, but the influence of this variability on plant responses to elevated CO2 remains poorly understood. As a first approximation of the effect of global soil variability on plant growth response to CO2, we evaluated the effect of CO2 on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) grown in soils representing 10 of the 12 global soil orders plus a high-fertility control. Plants were grown in small pots in continuously stirred reactor tanks in a greenhouse. Elevated CO2 (800 ppm) increased plant biomass in the high-fertility control and in two of the more fertile soils. Elevated CO2 had variable effects on foliar mineral concentration—nitrogen was not altered by elevated CO2, and phosphorus and potassium were only affected by CO2 in a small number of soils. While leaf photosynthesis was stimulated by elevated CO2 in six soils, canopy photosynthesis was not stimulated. Four principle components were identified; the first was associated with foliar minerals and soil clay, and the second with soil acidity and foliar manganese concentration. The third principle component was associated with gas exchange, and the fourth with plant biomass and soil minerals. Soils in which tall fescue did not respond to elevated CO2 account for 83% of global land area. These results show that variation in soil physical and chemical properties have important implications for plant responses to global change, and highlight the need to consider soil variability in models of vegetation response to global change. PMID:25774160

  1. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical

  2. Soil warming enhances the hidden shift of elemental stoichiometry by elevated CO2 in wheat.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangnan; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2016-03-22

    Increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and associated soil warming along with global climate change are expected to have large impacts on grain mineral nutrition in wheat. The effects of CO2 elevation (700 μmol l(-1)) and soil warming (+2.4 °C) on K, Ca and Mg concentrations in the xylem sap and their partitioning in different organs of wheat plant during grain filling were investigated. Results showed that the combination of elevated [CO2] and soil warming improved wheat grain yield, but decreased plant K, Ca and Mg accumulation and their concentrations in the leaves, stems, roots and grains. The reduced grain mineral concentration was attributed to the lowered mineral uptake as exemplified by both the decreased stomatal conductance and mineral concentration in the xylem sap. These findings suggest that future higher atmospheric [CO2] and warmer soil conditions may decrease the dietary availability of minerals from wheat crops. Breeding wheat cultivars possessing higher ability of mineral uptake at reduced xylem flux in exposure to climate change should be a target.

  3. Soil warming enhances the hidden shift of elemental stoichiometry by elevated CO2 in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangnan; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2016-01-01

    Increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and associated soil warming along with global climate change are expected to have large impacts on grain mineral nutrition in wheat. The effects of CO2 elevation (700 μmol l−1) and soil warming (+2.4 °C) on K, Ca and Mg concentrations in the xylem sap and their partitioning in different organs of wheat plant during grain filling were investigated. Results showed that the combination of elevated [CO2] and soil warming improved wheat grain yield, but decreased plant K, Ca and Mg accumulation and their concentrations in the leaves, stems, roots and grains. The reduced grain mineral concentration was attributed to the lowered mineral uptake as exemplified by both the decreased stomatal conductance and mineral concentration in the xylem sap. These findings suggest that future higher atmospheric [CO2] and warmer soil conditions may decrease the dietary availability of minerals from wheat crops. Breeding wheat cultivars possessing higher ability of mineral uptake at reduced xylem flux in exposure to climate change should be a target. PMID:27001555

  4. Responses of soil microbial activity to cadmium pollution and elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi Ping; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Yong Jun; Jia, Feng An; He, Xin Hua

    2014-03-06

    To address the combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and elevated CO2 on soil microbial communities, DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) profiles, respiration, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations, loessial soils were exposed to four levels of Cd, i.e., 0 (Cd0), 1.5 (Cd1.5), 3.0 (Cd3.0) and 6.0 (Cd6.0) mg Cd kg(-1) soil, and two levels of CO2, i.e., 360 (aCO2) and 480 (eCO2) ppm. Compared to Cd0, Cd1.5 increased fungal abundance but decreased bacterial abundance under both CO2 levels, whilst Cd3.0 and Cd6.0 decreased both fungal and bacterial abundance. Profiles of DGGE revealed alteration of soil microbial communities under eCO2. Soil respiration decreased with Cd concentrations and was greater under eCO2 than under aCO2. Soil total C and N were greater under higher Cd. These results suggest eCO2 could stimulate, while Cd pollution could restrain microbial reproduction and C decomposition with the restraint effect alleviated by eCO2.

  5. Efficiency of soil organic and inorganic amendments on the remediation of a contaminated mine soil: I. Effects on trace elements and nutrients solubility and leaching risk.

    PubMed

    Pardo, T; Bernal, M P; Clemente, R

    2014-07-01

    A mesocosm experiment, in columns, was conducted in a growth chamber to assess the viability of two organic materials (pig slurry and compost; in combination with hydrated lime) for the remediation of a highly acidic and trace elements (TEs) contaminated mine soil and the reduction of its associated leaching risks. Their influence on the evolution throughout the soil depth of the physicochemical properties (including TEs mobility) of the soil and soil solution (in situ periodic collection) and on Lolium perenne growth and foliar TEs accumulation was evaluated. Soluble and extractable concentrations of the different TEs were considerably high, although the organic amendments (with lime) and lime addition successfully decreased TEs mobility in the top soil layer, as a consequence of a rise in pH and changes in the redox conditions. Compost and pig slurry increased the soluble organic-C and dissolved N, K and P of the soil, producing a certain downwards displacement of N and K. The organic amendments allowed the growth of L. perenne in the soil, thus indicating improvement of soil conditions, but elevated TEs availability in the soil led to toxicity symptoms and abnormally high TEs concentrations in the plants. An evaluation of the functioning and ecotoxicological risks of the remediated soils is reported in part II: this allows verification of the viability of the amendments for remediation strategies. PMID:24875879

  6. Efficiency of soil organic and inorganic amendments on the remediation of a contaminated mine soil: I. Effects on trace elements and nutrients solubility and leaching risk.

    PubMed

    Pardo, T; Bernal, M P; Clemente, R

    2014-07-01

    A mesocosm experiment, in columns, was conducted in a growth chamber to assess the viability of two organic materials (pig slurry and compost; in combination with hydrated lime) for the remediation of a highly acidic and trace elements (TEs) contaminated mine soil and the reduction of its associated leaching risks. Their influence on the evolution throughout the soil depth of the physicochemical properties (including TEs mobility) of the soil and soil solution (in situ periodic collection) and on Lolium perenne growth and foliar TEs accumulation was evaluated. Soluble and extractable concentrations of the different TEs were considerably high, although the organic amendments (with lime) and lime addition successfully decreased TEs mobility in the top soil layer, as a consequence of a rise in pH and changes in the redox conditions. Compost and pig slurry increased the soluble organic-C and dissolved N, K and P of the soil, producing a certain downwards displacement of N and K. The organic amendments allowed the growth of L. perenne in the soil, thus indicating improvement of soil conditions, but elevated TEs availability in the soil led to toxicity symptoms and abnormally high TEs concentrations in the plants. An evaluation of the functioning and ecotoxicological risks of the remediated soils is reported in part II: this allows verification of the viability of the amendments for remediation strategies.

  7. Elevated soil lead concentrations in residential yards in Appleton, WI, a small Midwestern city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. J.; Knudsen, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    Elevated soil lead concentrations are well documented in large urban areas, having been attributed to a combination of leaded-paint, leaded-gasoline, and industrial emissions. Fewer studies, however, have been conducted in smaller communities. We analyzed 200 surface soils in the neighborhood near Lawrence University’s campus in Appleton, WI (population ~70,000). Like many larger cities Appleton has a historic city-center. However, it is has no high-density housing or commercial districts and has not seen heavy traffic. The socioeconomic pressures that lead to disrepair of inner city neighborhoods have been less prevalent here as well. At each property 3 integrated samples were taken, one adjacent to the front of the house, one in the front lawn, and one between the road and sidewalk. We correlated building and property traits (e.g. structure age, distance from road, exterior type, exterior condition, direction of exposure, and assessed home value) with soil lead concentrations determined by XRF and subsequently, mapped these data for geospatial patterns. Soil lead concentrations in the city park and campus greens were typically less than 100 ppm. The highest lead concentrations are close to campus, which has a number of civil war era buildings and homes. High lead concentrations (averaging over 1,000 ppm near the home, with concentrations as high as 10,000 ppm) were associated with aging, poorly maintained structures as expected. However, a number of well-maintained structures also show substantially elevated concentrations. These soil lead concentrations are not dissimilar to those found in much larger cities such as New Orleans, Milwaukee, and Chicago. Lead levels dropped quickly as distance from the house increased suggesting that the contamination is from lead paint and not from gasoline exhaust. Furthermore, samples taken adjacent to the main arterial through town exhibited relatively low, but slightly elevated lead levels (~250 ppm). Not surprisingly

  8. Strains of the Harmful Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Differ in Gene Expression and Activity of Inorganic Carbon Uptake Systems at Elevated CO2 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Sandrini, Giovanni; Jakupovic, Dennis; Matthijs, Hans C. P.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are generally assumed to be effective competitors at low CO2 levels because of their efficient CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), and yet how bloom-forming cyanobacteria respond to rising CO2 concentrations is less clear. Here, we investigate changes in CCM gene expression at ambient CO2 (400 ppm) and elevated CO2 (1,100 ppm) in six strains of the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis. All strains downregulated cmpA encoding the high-affinity bicarbonate uptake system BCT1, whereas both the low- and high-affinity CO2 uptake genes were expressed constitutively. Four strains downregulated the bicarbonate uptake genes bicA and/or sbtA, whereas two strains showed constitutive expression of the bicA-sbtA operon. In one of the latter strains, a transposon insert in bicA caused low bicA and sbtA transcript levels, which made this strain solely dependent on BCT1 for bicarbonate uptake. Activity measurements of the inorganic carbon (Ci) uptake systems confirmed the CCM gene expression results. Interestingly, genes encoding the RuBisCO enzyme, structural carboxysome components, and carbonic anhydrases were not regulated. Hence, Microcystis mainly regulates the initial uptake of inorganic carbon, which might be an effective strategy for a species experiencing strongly fluctuating Ci concentrations. Our results show that CCM gene regulation of Microcystis varies among strains. The observed genetic and phenotypic variation in CCM responses may offer an important template for natural selection, leading to major changes in the genetic composition of harmful cyanobacterial blooms at elevated CO2. PMID:26319871

  9. Increased soil salinity causes elevated cadmium concentrations in field-grown potato tubers

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, M.J.; Tiller, K.G.; Beech, T.A.

    1994-09-01

    Elevated Cd concentrations have been observed in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers from commercial crops in certain regions of southern Australia. Reasons for enhanced Cd uptake by tubers were investigated by a survey of commercial crops and associated soils. Eighty-nine sites were selected and paired tuber and soil samples taken. Concentration of Cd in tubers was compared to potato variety, tuber elemental composition, and chemical-physical characteristics of topsoil (0-150) and subsoil (150-300 mm). Tuber Cd concentrations were positively related to soil electrical conductivity (EC) and extractable Cl (R{sup 2} = 0.62, P < 0.001) in the topsoil, with extractable Cl accounting for more variation than EC. Tuber Cd concentrations were not strongly related (R{sup 2} = 0.23, P < 0.05) to potato variety alone. However, inclusion of variety and EDTA-extractable Zn with water-extractable Cl in a multivariate model resulted in a small but significant improvement in the variance accounted for by the model (R{sup 2} = 0.73, p < 0.001). Tuber Cd was unrelated to tuber concentrations of P or tuber but was positively related to concentrations of major cations in the tuber particularly Na. Soil pH, total C, EDTA-extractable Cd, or particle-size distribution were not correlated to tuber Cd concentrations, either singly or after inclusion in a multivariate model with soil Cl concentrations. As Cl is known to mobilize soil Cd and increase its phytoavailability, elevated Cd concentrations in potato tubers in southern Australia appear to be largely a result of the use of saline irrigation waters. 41 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Seasonal Dynamics of Soil Microbial Biomass C and N along an Elevational Gradient on the Eastern Tibetan Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Xu, Zhengfeng; Li, Zhiping; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on the seasonal response of soil microbial biomass to climate warming even though it is very sensitive to climate change. A two-year field experiment was conducted in the subalpine and alpine forests of the eastern Tibetan Plateau, China. The intact soil cores from 3,600 m site were incubated in three elevations (3,000 m, 3,300 m and 3,600 m) to simulate climate warming. Soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) were measured at different periods (early growing season [EG], late growing season [LG], onset of soil freezing period [OF], deep soil frozen period [DF] and soil thawing period [ET]) from May 2010 to August 2012. Average air temperature and soil temperature increased with the decrease of elevation during the experimental period. MBC and MBN showed a sharp decrease during the OF and ET in both organic layer and mineral layer at the three sites. Additionally, a relatively high MBC was observed during the DF. MBC and MBN in the soil organic layer decreased with the decrease of elevation but the opposite was true in the mineral soil layer. Warming had stronger effects on soil microbial biomass in the organic layer than in the mineral soil layer. The results indicated that future warming would alter soil microbial biomass and biogeochemical cycling in the forest ecosystems on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. PMID:26147974

  11. Degradation of flubendiamide as affected by elevated CO2, temperature, and carbon mineralization rate in soil.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Irani; Das, Shaon Kumar; Kumar, Aman

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted under three levels of atmospheric CO2 [ambient (398 ± 10 μmol mol(-1)), elevated (570 ± 10 μmol mol(-1)) and open condition], three levels of temperature (4, 25, and 40 °C) to study the degradation pattern of flubendiamide in soil and also carbon mineralization in soil. Results of this study revealed that flubendiamide was found to persist longer under outdoor condition (T1/2, 177.0 and 181.1 days) than ambient (T1/2, 168.4 and 172.3 days) and elevated condition (T1/2, 159.3 and 155.3 days) at 1 and 10 μg g(-1) fortification level, respectively. Results also revealed that flubendiamide dissipated faster at 40 °C (T1/2, 189.4 days) than 25 °C (T1/2, 225.3 days). Slower dissipation was recorded at 4 °C (T1/2, 326.3 days). Thus, increased CO2 levels and temperature following global warming might adversely affect flubendiamide degradation in soil. Laboratory study on microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and carbon mineralization (Cmin) in soil revealed that in des-iodo flubendiamide-treated soils, MBC significantly increased up to 45 days and then decreased. Flubendiamide-treated soil showed a non-significantly decreasing trend of soil MBC with time up to the 15th day of incubation and after 15 days significantly decreased up to 90 days of incubation. In des-iodo flubendiamide-treated soil, the evolution of CO2 decreased up to 45 days, which was increased after 45 days up to 90 days. In flubendiamide-treated soil, CO2 evolution decreased up to 30 days and after 45 days, it increased up to 90 days. PMID:27430656

  12. Soil-profile distribution of inorganic N during 6 years of integrated crop-livestock management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive accumulation of soil nitrate-N can threaten water and air quality. How integrated crop-livestock systems might influence soil-profile nitrate-N accumulation has not been investigated. Therefore, we determined soil nitrate-N accumulation during 6 years of evaluation of diverse cropping sy...

  13. Efficiency of soil organic and inorganic amendments on the remediation of a contaminated mine soil: II. Biological and ecotoxicological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pardo, T; Clemente, R; Alvarenga, P; Bernal, M P

    2014-07-01

    The feasibility of two organic materials (pig slurry and compost) in combination with hydrated lime for the remediation of a highly acidic trace elements (TEs) contaminated mine soil was assessed in a mesocosm experiment. The effects of the amendments on soil biochemical and ecotoxicological properties were evaluated and related with the main physicochemical characteristics of soil and soil solution. The original soil showed impaired basic ecological functions due to the high availability of TEs, its acidic pH and high salinity. The three amendments slightly reduced the direct and indirect soil toxicity to plants, invertebrates and microorganisms as a consequence of the TEs' mobility decrease in topsoil, reducing therefore the soil associated risks. The organic amendments, especially compost, thanks to the supply of essential nutrients, were able to improve soil health, as they stimulated plant growth and significantly increased enzyme activities related with the key nutrients in soil. Therefore, the use of compost or pig slurry, in combination with hydrated lime, decreased soil ecotoxicity and seems to be a suitable management strategy for the remediation of highly acidic TEs contaminated soils. PMID:24875876

  14. Efficiency of soil organic and inorganic amendments on the remediation of a contaminated mine soil: II. Biological and ecotoxicological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pardo, T; Clemente, R; Alvarenga, P; Bernal, M P

    2014-07-01

    The feasibility of two organic materials (pig slurry and compost) in combination with hydrated lime for the remediation of a highly acidic trace elements (TEs) contaminated mine soil was assessed in a mesocosm experiment. The effects of the amendments on soil biochemical and ecotoxicological properties were evaluated and related with the main physicochemical characteristics of soil and soil solution. The original soil showed impaired basic ecological functions due to the high availability of TEs, its acidic pH and high salinity. The three amendments slightly reduced the direct and indirect soil toxicity to plants, invertebrates and microorganisms as a consequence of the TEs' mobility decrease in topsoil, reducing therefore the soil associated risks. The organic amendments, especially compost, thanks to the supply of essential nutrients, were able to improve soil health, as they stimulated plant growth and significantly increased enzyme activities related with the key nutrients in soil. Therefore, the use of compost or pig slurry, in combination with hydrated lime, decreased soil ecotoxicity and seems to be a suitable management strategy for the remediation of highly acidic TEs contaminated soils.

  15. Elevated carbon dioxide accelerates the spatial turnover of soil microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Xiong, Jinbo; Yu, Hao; Xu, Meiying; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Reich, Peter B.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Kent, Angela; Pendall, Elise; Wallenstein, Matthew; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-10-23

    Although elevated CO2 (eCO2) significantly affects the -diversity, composition, function, interaction and dynamics of soil microbial communities at the local scale, little is known about eCO2 impacts on the geographic distribution of micro-organisms regionally or globally. Here, we examined the -diversity of 110 soil microbial communities across six free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experimental sites using a high-throughput functional gene array. The -diversity of soil microbial communities was significantly (P<0.05) correlated with geographic distance under both CO2 conditions, but declined significantly (P<0.05) faster at eCO2 with a slope of -0.0250 than at ambient CO2 (aCO2) with a slope of -0.0231 although it varied within each individual site, indicating that the spatial turnover rate of soil microbial communities was accelerated under eCO2 at a larger geographic scale (e.g. regionally). Both distance and soil properties significantly (P<0.05) contributed to the observed microbial -diversity. Furthermore, this study provides new hypotheses for further understanding their assembly mechanisms that may be especially important as global CO2 continues to increase.

  16. Elevated carbon dioxide accelerates the spatial turnover of soil microbial communities

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Xiong, Jinbo; Yu, Hao; Xu, Meiying; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Reich, Peter B.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Kent, Angela; Pendall, Elise; et al

    2015-10-23

    Although elevated CO2 (eCO2) significantly affects the -diversity, composition, function, interaction and dynamics of soil microbial communities at the local scale, little is known about eCO2 impacts on the geographic distribution of micro-organisms regionally or globally. Here, we examined the -diversity of 110 soil microbial communities across six free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experimental sites using a high-throughput functional gene array. The -diversity of soil microbial communities was significantly (P<0.05) correlated with geographic distance under both CO2 conditions, but declined significantly (P<0.05) faster at eCO2 with a slope of -0.0250 than at ambient CO2 (aCO2) with a slope of -0.0231more » although it varied within each individual site, indicating that the spatial turnover rate of soil microbial communities was accelerated under eCO2 at a larger geographic scale (e.g. regionally). Both distance and soil properties significantly (P<0.05) contributed to the observed microbial -diversity. Furthermore, this study provides new hypotheses for further understanding their assembly mechanisms that may be especially important as global CO2 continues to increase.« less

  17. Responses of beech and spruce foliage to elevated carbon dioxide, increased nitrogen deposition and soil type.

    PubMed

    Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine Silvia; Vollenweider, Pierre

    2015-06-19

    Although enhanced carbon fixation by forest trees may contribute significantly to mitigating an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), capacities for this vary greatly among different tree species and locations. This study compared reactions in the foliage of a deciduous and a coniferous tree species (important central European trees, beech and spruce) to an elevated supply of CO2 and evaluated the importance of the soil type and increased nitrogen deposition on foliar nutrient concentrations and cellular stress reactions. During a period of 4 years, beech (represented by trees from four different regions) and spruce saplings (eight regions), planted together on either acidic or calcareous forest soil in the experimental model ecosystem chambers, were exposed to single and combined treatments consisting of elevated carbon dioxide (+CO2, 590 versus 374 μL L(-1)) and elevated wet nitrogen deposition (+ND, 50 versus 5 kg ha(-1) a(-1)). Leaf size and foliage mass of spruce were increased by +CO2 on both soil types, but those of beech by +ND on the calcareous soil only. The magnitude of the effects varied among the tree origins in both species. Moreover, the concentration of secondary compounds (proanthocyanidins) and the leaf mass per area, as a consequence of cell wall thickening, were also increased and formed important carbon sinks within the foliage. Although the species elemental concentrations differed in their response to CO2 fertilization, the +CO2 treatment effect was weakened by an acceleration of cell senescence in both species, as shown by a decrease in photosynthetic pigment and nitrogen concentration, discolouration and stress symptoms at the cell level; the latter were stronger in beech than spruce. Hence, young trees belonging to a species with different ecological niches can show contrasting responses in their foliage size, but similar responses at the cell level, upon exposure to elevated levels of CO2. The soil type and its nutrient supply

  18. Responses of beech and spruce foliage to elevated carbon dioxide, increased nitrogen deposition and soil type.

    PubMed

    Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine Silvia; Vollenweider, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Although enhanced carbon fixation by forest trees may contribute significantly to mitigating an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), capacities for this vary greatly among different tree species and locations. This study compared reactions in the foliage of a deciduous and a coniferous tree species (important central European trees, beech and spruce) to an elevated supply of CO2 and evaluated the importance of the soil type and increased nitrogen deposition on foliar nutrient concentrations and cellular stress reactions. During a period of 4 years, beech (represented by trees from four different regions) and spruce saplings (eight regions), planted together on either acidic or calcareous forest soil in the experimental model ecosystem chambers, were exposed to single and combined treatments consisting of elevated carbon dioxide (+CO2, 590 versus 374 μL L(-1)) and elevated wet nitrogen deposition (+ND, 50 versus 5 kg ha(-1) a(-1)). Leaf size and foliage mass of spruce were increased by +CO2 on both soil types, but those of beech by +ND on the calcareous soil only. The magnitude of the effects varied among the tree origins in both species. Moreover, the concentration of secondary compounds (proanthocyanidins) and the leaf mass per area, as a consequence of cell wall thickening, were also increased and formed important carbon sinks within the foliage. Although the species elemental concentrations differed in their response to CO2 fertilization, the +CO2 treatment effect was weakened by an acceleration of cell senescence in both species, as shown by a decrease in photosynthetic pigment and nitrogen concentration, discolouration and stress symptoms at the cell level; the latter were stronger in beech than spruce. Hence, young trees belonging to a species with different ecological niches can show contrasting responses in their foliage size, but similar responses at the cell level, upon exposure to elevated levels of CO2. The soil type and its nutrient supply

  19. Responses of beech and spruce foliage to elevated carbon dioxide, increased nitrogen deposition and soil type

    PubMed Central

    Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine Silvia; Vollenweider, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Although enhanced carbon fixation by forest trees may contribute significantly to mitigating an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), capacities for this vary greatly among different tree species and locations. This study compared reactions in the foliage of a deciduous and a coniferous tree species (important central European trees, beech and spruce) to an elevated supply of CO2 and evaluated the importance of the soil type and increased nitrogen deposition on foliar nutrient concentrations and cellular stress reactions. During a period of 4 years, beech (represented by trees from four different regions) and spruce saplings (eight regions), planted together on either acidic or calcareous forest soil in the experimental model ecosystem chambers, were exposed to single and combined treatments consisting of elevated carbon dioxide (+CO2, 590 versus 374 μL L−1) and elevated wet nitrogen deposition (+ND, 50 versus 5 kg ha−1 a−1). Leaf size and foliage mass of spruce were increased by +CO2 on both soil types, but those of beech by +ND on the calcareous soil only. The magnitude of the effects varied among the tree origins in both species. Moreover, the concentration of secondary compounds (proanthocyanidins) and the leaf mass per area, as a consequence of cell wall thickening, were also increased and formed important carbon sinks within the foliage. Although the species elemental concentrations differed in their response to CO2 fertilization, the +CO2 treatment effect was weakened by an acceleration of cell senescence in both species, as shown by a decrease in photosynthetic pigment and nitrogen concentration, discolouration and stress symptoms at the cell level; the latter were stronger in beech than spruce. Hence, young trees belonging to a species with different ecological niches can show contrasting responses in their foliage size, but similar responses at the cell level, upon exposure to elevated levels of CO2. The soil type and its nutrient supply

  20. Soil propagule banks of ectomycorrhizal fungi share many common species along an elevation gradient.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yumiko; Nara, Kazuhide

    2016-04-01

    We conducted bioassay experiments to investigate the soil propagule banks of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi in old-growth forests along an elevation gradient and compared the elevation pattern with the composition of EM fungi on existing roots in the field. In total, 150 soil cores were collected from three forests on Mt. Ishizuchi, western Japan, and subjected to bioassays using Pinus densiflora and Betula maximowicziana. Using molecular analyses, we recorded 23 EM fungal species in the assayed propagule banks. Eight species (34.8 %) were shared across the three sites, which ranged from a warm-temperate evergreen mixed forest to a subalpine conifer forest. The elevation pattern of the assayed propagule banks differed dramatically from that of EM fungi on existing roots along the same gradient, where only a small proportion of EM fungal species (3.5 %) were shared across sites. The EM fungal species found in the assayed propagule banks included many pioneer fungal species and composition differed significantly from that on existing roots. Furthermore, only 4 of 23 species were shared between the two host species, indicating a strong effect of bioassay host identity in determining the propagule banks of EM fungi. These results imply that the assayed propagule bank is less affected by climate compared to EM fungal communities on existing roots. The dominance of disturbance-dependent fungal species in the assayed propagule banks may result in higher ecosystem resilience to disturbance even in old-growth temperate forests. PMID:26231215

  1. Soil nitrogen status as a regulator of carbon substrate flows through microbial communities with elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Susan E.; Billings, Sharon A.

    2011-03-01

    To assess how microbial processing of organic C inputs to forest soils may be influenced by elevated CO2 and altered N dynamics, we followed the fate of 13C-labeled substrates in soils from the Duke Free Air Carbon Enrichment site where differences in soil N status have been imposed by 7 years of N amendments. Heterotrophic respiration and δ13C of respired CO2-C and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were measured to track activities of microbial groups and estimate a relative measure of substrate use efficiency (PLFA-based SUE). Results indicate an increased proportion of fungal and actinomycete activity in elevated CO2 soils, which varied with substrate. The negative effect of N on vanillin phenolic-C incorporation into actinomycete PLFA suggests legacies of fertilization can mitigate increased C flow into actinomycetes with elevated CO2. Further, the fourfold increase in PLFA-based SUE for vanillin phenolic-C in elevated CO2 soils that received N suggests future enhanced N limitation in elevated CO2 soils may promote enhanced respiratory loss relative to incorporation of some C-substrates into microbial biomass. These short-term incubations did not reveal greater loss of soil organic carbon via respiration or shifts in SUE with elevated CO2. However, observed relative increases in activity of actinomycetes and fungi with elevated CO2 and mitigation of this effect on actinomycetes with N amendments suggests that elevated CO2 and predicted N limitation may alter the fate of slow-turnover soil organic matter (SOM) in two competing ways. Investigations need to focus on how these microorganisms may increase slow-turnover substrate use while possibly enhancing the prevalence of microbial cell wall structures that can serve as precursors of stabilized SOM.

  2. Impact of a lowered water table on water holding capacity of high elevation meadow soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    Meadow degradation, as a product of overgrazing or disruption of hydrologic regime, is a critical problem facing a variety of environments, including high elevation ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada, California and has become a focus of major research and restoration efforts. Within the historic range of water level in a meadow, it is hypothesized that a meadow will retain its water holding capacity and resiliency. However, if the water table drops below a historic level, due to climate change and/or management practices, the process of soil consolidation will influence the resiliency of the meadow through the irreversible plastic deformation of the soil pores. The subsequent change in soil structure results in decreased porosity, increased bulk density, and a reduction in permeability of the meadow. Such changes can adversely impact the overall water holding capacity of the meadow. This study utilizes a modified triaxial system combined with a multiphysics modeling approach to quantify the historic limit of dryness experienced in a high elevation meadow and degree of consolidation the meadow would experience if that limit was exceeded.

  3. Changes in root architecture under elevated concentrations of CO₂ and nitrogen reflect alternate soil exploration strategies.

    PubMed

    Beidler, Katilyn V; Taylor, Benton N; Strand, Allan E; Cooper, Emily R; Schönholz, Marcos; Pritchard, Seth G

    2015-02-01

    Predicting the response of fine roots to increased atmospheric CO₂ concentration has important implications for carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Root architecture is known to play an important role in how trees acquire soil resources in changing environments. However, the effects of elevated CO₂ on the fine-root architecture of trees remain unclear. We investigated the architectural response of fine roots exposed to 14 yr of CO₂ enrichment and 6 yr of nitrogen (N) fertilization in a Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) forest. Root traits reflecting geometry, topology and uptake function were measured on intact fine-root branches removed from soil monoliths and the litter layer. CO₂ enrichment resulted in the development of a fine-root pool that was less dichotomous and more exploratory under N-limited conditions. The per cent mycorrhizal colonization did not differ among treatments, suggesting that root growth and acclimation to elevated CO₂ were quantitatively more important than increased mycorrhizal associations. Our findings emphasize the importance of architectural plasticity in response to environmental change and suggest that changes in root architecture may allow trees to effectively exploit larger volumes of soil, thereby pre-empting progressive nutrient limitations.

  4. A comparison of soil climate and biological activity along an elevation gradient in the eastern Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amundson, R.G.; Chadwick, O.A.; Sowers, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Soil temperature, moisture, and CO2 were monitored at four sites along an elevation transect in the eastern Mojave Desert from January to October, 1987. Climate appeared to be the major factor controlling CO2 partial pressures, primarily through its influence of rates of biological reactions, vegetation densities, and organic matter production. With increasing elevation, and increasing actual evapotranspiration, the organic C, plant density, and the CO2 content of the soils increased. Between January and May, soil CO2 concentrations at a given site were closely related to variations in soil temperature. In July and October, temperatures had little effect on CO2, presumably due to low soil moisture levels. Up to 75% of litter placed in the field in March was lost by October whereas, for the 3 lower elevations, less than 10% of the litter placed in the field in April was lost through decomposition processes. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, YongHua; Wang, WenKe; He, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and l-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings. PMID:26395070

  6. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, YongHua; Wang, WenKe; He, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and l-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings.

  7. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Wang, Wenke; He, Yunhua

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and L-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings.

  8. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, YongHua; Wang, WenKe; He, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and l-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings. PMID:26395070

  9. Photosynthetic and stomatal acclimation to elevated CO{sub 2} depends on soil type in Quercus prinus

    SciTech Connect

    Bunce, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Quercus prinus (L.) seedlings grown outdoors at ambient and elevated (ambient + 350 ppm) CO{sub 2} with a fertile soil had no photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO{sub 2} and no stomatal response to growth or measurement CO{sub 2}. In contrast, seedlings grown with soil collected from a Q. prinus stand had photosynthetic and stomatal acclimation, and stomatal conductance was sensitive to measurement CO{sub 2}. In plants grown with the native soil, light-saturated stomatal conductance measured at the growth CO{sub 2} was reduced by 54% at elevated CO{sub 2}, compared to the short-term reduction of 36%. Photosynthetic acclimation in plants grown with the native soil reduced the stimulation of light-saturated photosynthesis at elevated CO{sub 2} from a factor of 1.9 to a factor of 1.3. In contrast to the dependence of photosynthetic and stomatal acclimation on soil type, the response of leaf respiration to elevated CO{sub 2} was the same for both soils. Respiration of leaves was reduced in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatment by 41 % on a leaf area basis. However, this effect was immediately reversible by altering the measurement CO{sub 2}, indicating that no acclimation of respiration occurred.

  10. Effect of interactions on the nutrient status of a tropical soil treated with green manures and inorganic phosphate fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Bah, Abdul R; Rahman, Zaharah A; Hussin, Aminuddin

    2004-06-01

    Integrated nutrient management systems using plant residues and inorganic P fertilizers have high potential for increasing crop production and ensuring sustainability in the tropics, but their adoption requires in-depth understanding of nutrient dynamics in such systems. This was examined in a highly weathered tropical soil treated with green manures (GMs) and P fertilizers in two experiments conducted in the laboratory and glasshouse. The treatments were factorial combinations of the GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium, and Imperata cylindrica) and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks [PRs] from North Carolina, China, and Algeria, and triple superphosphate) replicated thrice. Olsen P, mineral N, pH, and exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg were monitored in a laboratory incubation study for 16 months. The change in soil P fractions and available P was also determined at the end of the study. Phosphorus available from the amendments was quantified at monthly intervals for 5 months by 33P-32P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata as test crop. The GMs were labeled with 33P to determine their contribution to P taken up by Setaria, while that from the P fertilizers was indirectly measured by labeling the soil with 32P. The P fertilizers hardly changed Olsen P and exchangeable cations during 16 months of incubation. The legume GMs and legume GM+P did not change Olsen P, lowered exchangeable Ca, and increased exchangeable K about threefold (4.5 cmol[+]kg(-1) soil) in the first 4 months, even as large amounts of NH4-N accumulated (approximately 1000 mg kg soil(-1)) and soil pH increased to more than 6.5. Afterwards, Olsen P and exchangeable Ca and Mg increased (threefold) as NH4+-N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs also augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect in the soil, while fertilizer-P was irreversibly retained. The GMs increased PR-P utilization by 40 to over 80%, mobilized soil P, and

  11. Controls on Soil Respiration in a High Elevation Alpine System and the Implications For Soil Carbon Storage in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schliemann, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The alpine ecosystem is a dynamic network of heterogeneous soil and vegetation patches. Microsite characteristics are controlled by site geomorphology, underlying bedrock, and landscape position. These microsite characteristics create a complex mosaic of soil moisture and temperature regimes across the landscape. To investigate the relative influences of soil moisture and soil temperature on soil respiration in these varied microsites, 12 study sites were established in June of 2015 in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Sites were distributed across 3 plots with distinct vegetation and soil regimes: 1) Conifer forest at the upper limit of the tree line 2) Tundra characterized by shallow soil and minimal vegetation consisting of herbs and lichen 3) Tundra characterized by organic-rich, deep soil and abundant vegetation consisting of grasses and sedges. Soil respiration, soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured weekly throughout the snow-free period of 2015. Soil moisture was negatively correlated with soil respiration and soil temperature was positively correlated with soil respiration across the study sites (p <0.001). Soil respiration rates were significantly different from one another in all plots and were highest in the forest plot (maximum 9.6 μmol/ m2/sec) and much lower in the two tundra plots (< 4.5 μmol/ m2/sec) (p < 0.001). These data suggest that as the alpine climate warms, an increase in soil temperature and a longer snow-free period may result in an overall increase in the rate of soil respiration, which could alter the soil carbon pool. In addition, as temperatures rise, the tree line may migrate to a higher elevation. The results of this study suggest that with such a movement, the soil respiration rate will also increase. However the net change in soil organic matter in the newly established forest would not only depend on the soil respiration rate, but on the overall capacity of the new forest soil to retain carbon, especially

  12. Longleaf pine photosynthetic response to soil resource availability and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Runion, G.B.; Mitchell, R.J.; Green, T.H.; Prior, S.A.; Rogers, H.H.; Gjerstad, D.H.

    1999-05-01

    Gas exchange responses during a drought cycle were studied in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings after prolonged exposure to varying levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2} soil N and water. Elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration increased photosynthesis, tended to decrease stomatal conductance, and increased water-use efficiency (WUE). Although soil resource availability influences gas exchange measurements, it generally did not affect the magnitude or direction of the response to CO{sub 2} concentration. However, significant interactions among treatment variables were observed for plant xylem pressure potential. In seedlings grown with high N, a positive growth response to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} increased whole-plant water use resulting in more severe plant water stress, despite increased leaf-level WUE; however, under low N conditions the lack of a growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} reduced whole-plant water use, decreased water stress severity, and increased WUE. Photosynthetic response to CO{sub 2} was greatest in the high N treatment at the beginning of the drought cycle, but diminished as water stress increased; however, plants grown with low N showed greater photosynthetic responses to CO{sub 2} later in the drought cycle. Therefore, plant gas exchange rates interact with growth response in determining the severity of water stress under drought and, thus, the ability of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} to ameliorate the effects of drought and allow plants to maintain increased rates of photosynthesis may be influenced by the availability of other resources, such as N and water.

  13. Controls on inorganic monomeric aluminum release from soils after a clearcut in southeastern New York State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHale, M. R.; Murdoch, P. S.; Burns, D. A.; Lawrence, G. B.

    2004-12-01

    A 24 ha catchment in the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York was clearcut during the winter of 1996-97. Soil water from the O-, upper B-, and lower B horizons was examined for interactions between inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim) and nitrate (NO3-), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH, and base cations to discern how Alim was released from soils to stream water after the disturbance. Alim at concentrations greater than 2 μ moles l-1 can be toxic to some fish species and can inhibit the uptake of calcium by tree roots thereby decreasing tree tolerance to stress. Alim was strongly correlated with NO3- in upper and lower B-horizon soil water (r2 = 0.67 and 0.68 respectively), but the relation was much weaker in O-horizon soil water (r2 = 0.40). O-horizon soil water had the lowest pH values despite having lower NO3- concentrations than were measured in the B-horizon; high DOC concentrations in O-horizon soil water suggest that the acidity was partly due to organic acids. The O-horizon also had higher exchangeable base cations than the B-horizon that buffered the inorganic acidity produced by NO3- after the clearcut. The high organic content of the O-horizon also allowed for organic complexation of Al as indicated by the strong correlation between DOC and organic monomeric Al (r2 = 0.67). Alim concentrations were much higher and DOC concentrations were much lower in B-horizon soil water than in the O-horizon and in the B-horizon the high Alim concentrations persisted for a year longer after the clearcut. Alim concentrations in groundwater seeps were consistently low because mineral dissolution of base cations provided a high buffering capacity; as a result water with high NO3- concentration was buffered by base cations rather than by Alim. In contrast, B-horizon soil water, which had low buffering capacity and low DOC concentration, contributed large amounts of Alim to stream water, especially at NO3- concentrations above 100 μ moles l-1, an apparent

  14. Reduced Atmospheric CH4 Consumption by Temperate Forest Soils Under Elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubbs, L. E.; Whalen, S. C.; Fischer, E. N.

    2004-12-01

    Models project that atmospheric CO2 concentrations, by the end of the present century, will exceed the preindustrial concentration by up to 250%. The regional and global impact of this projected concentration increase on other biogeochemical cycles is uncertain. We recently reported in a two year study a 17 (year 2) to 30% (year 1) decrease in atmospheric CH4 consumption by soils in CO2-enriched plots in a temperate loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest, although the reason for the decline was unclear. Consumption by upland soils is the only terrestrial sink for atmospheric CH4, which is second only to CO2 in terms of radiative forcing. Forest ecosystems occupy about half of the Earth's terrestrial surface. A sustained CO2-induced negative feedback on forest soil CH4 consumption could lead to a 25% reduction (7.5 Tg CH4 yr-1) in the current upland soil sink of ˜30 Tg yr-1. However, CO2-enriched tundra ecosystems showed down regulation in at least the photosynthetic response after 3 yr of fertilization and it is uncertain whether decreased atmospheric CH4 consumption represents a transient or sustained response of forest-soil systems to elevated CO2. We report here the early results of our efforts to determine the duration and underlying causes for the decline in atmospheric CH4 consumption in a CO2-enriched forest. Reduced CH4 consumption persisted in elevated CO2 plots, which showed declines of 13% (year 3) and 34% (year 5, to date), relative to unenriched controls. This decline may be related to the rate of supply of CH4 to the subsurface zone of oxidation, as soil moisture was significantly higher in CO2-enriched plots. A single experiment to date showed that changes in the chemical composition of leachate from aboveground plant material had no impact on the CH4 oxidizing community, as rates of CH4 consumption by soil samples amended with throughfall from CO2-enriched and control plots were not significantly different.

  15. Biochemical parameters and bacterial species richness in soils contaminated by sludge-borne metals and remediated with inorganic soil amendments.

    PubMed

    Mench, Michel; Renella, Giancarlo; Gelsomino, Antonio; Landi, Loretta; Nannipieri, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    The effectiveness of two amendments for the in situ remediation of a Cd- and Ni-contaminated soil in the Louis Fargue long-term field experiment was assessed. In April 1995, one replicate plot (S1) was amended with 5% w/w of beringite (B), a coal fly ash (treatment S1+B), and a second plot with 1% w/w zerovalent-Fe iron grit (SS) (treatment S1+SS), with the aim of increasing metal sorption and attenuating metal impacts. Long-term responses of daily respiration rates, microbial biomass, bacterial species richness and the activities of key soil enzymes (acid and alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, beta-glucosidase, urease and protease activities) were studied in relation to soil metal extractability. Seven years after initial amendments, the labile fractions of Cd and Ni in both the S1+B and S1+SS soils were reduced to various extents depending on the metal and fractions considered. The soil microbial biomass and respiration rate were not affected by metal contamination and amendments in the S1+B and S1+SS soils, whereas the activity of different soil enzymes was restored. The SS treatment was more effective in reducing labile pools of Cd and Ni and led to a greater recovery of soil enzyme activities than the B treatment. Bacterial species richness in the S1 soil did not alter with either treatment. It was concluded that monitoring of the composition and activity of the soil microbial community is important in evaluating the effectiveness of soil remediation practices.

  16. Elevated CO2 and warming shift the functional composition of soil nematode communities in a semiarid grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change can alter soil communities and functions, but the impacts are uncertain for most ecosystems. We assessed the impacts of climate change on soil nematodes in a semiarid grassland using a 7-year, factorial manipulation of temperature and [CO2]. Elevated CO2 and warming decreased the abun...

  17. Carbon Input Control Over Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in a Temperate Grassland Exposed to Elevated CO2 and Warming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated CO2 generally increases soil C pools. However, greater available C concentrations can potentially stimulate soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. The effects of climate warming on C storage can also be positive or negative. There is a high degree of uncertainty on the combined effects of...

  18. Elevated atmospheric CO2 affected photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xia; Liu, Tuo; Zhao, Yonghua; He, Yunhua; Yang, Mingyan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 (700 ± 23 μmol mol(-1)) on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated CO2 was associated with decreased quantities of reducing sugars, starch, and soluble amino acids, and with increased quantities of soluble sugars, total sugars, and soluble proteins in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. The contents of total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, total soluble phenolic acids, and total organic acids in the rhizosphere soil under Cd stress were improved by elevated CO2. Compared to Cd stress alone, the activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, urease, L-asparaginase, β-glucosidase, neutral phosphatase, and fluorescein diacetate increased under elevated CO2 in combination with Cd stress; only cellulase activity decreased. Bacterial abundance in rhizosphere soil was stimulated by elevated CO2 at low Cd concentrations (1.31-5.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil). Actinomycetes, total microbial abundance, and fungi decreased under the combined conditions at 5.31-10.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil. In conclusion, increased production of soluble sugars, total sugars, and proteins in wheat seedlings under elevated CO2 + Cd stress led to greater quantities of organic compounds in the rhizosphere soil relative to seedlings grown under Cd stress only. Elevated CO2 concentrations could moderate the effects of heavy metal pollution on enzyme activity and microorganism abundance in rhizosphere soils, thus improving soil fertility and the microecological rhizosphere environment of wheat under Cd stress.

  19. HYDROLOGIC FLOWPATHS INFLUENCE INORGANIC AND ORGANIC NUTRIENT LEACHING IN A FOREST SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic pathways through soil affect element leaching by determining the relative importance of biogeochemical processes such as sorption and decomposition. We used stable hydrogen isotopes of water (δD) to examine the influence of flowpaths on soil solution chemistry in a mat...

  20. Zeolite Soil Application Method Affects Inorganic Nitrogen, Moisture, and Corn Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adoption of new management techniques which improve soil water storage and soil nitrogen plant availability yet limit nitrogen leaching may help improve environmental quality. A benchtop study was conducted to determine the influence of a single urea fertilizer rate (224 kilograms of Nitrogen per ...

  1. [Effects of Organic and Inorganic Slow-Release Compound Fertilizer on Different Soils Microbial Community Structure].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Yuan, Ting; Gu, Shou-kuan; Wang, Zheng-yin

    2015-04-01

    As a new style fertilizer, slow-control release fertilizer had been an important subject in recent years, but few researches were about soil microbial community structure diversity. Phospholipid fatty acid method was used to determined the microbial community structure diversity of acid soil and slight alkaline soil applied with slow-release compound fertilizer (SRF), chemical fertilizer (CF) and common compound fertilizer (CCF) at the 10th, 30th, 60th and 90th day under the constant temperature incubation condition. Results indicated that various bacteria (i. e 13:0, i14:0,14:0, i15:0, a15:0, i16:0, 16:12OH, 16:1w5c,16:0, i17:0, a17:0, cy17:0, 17:02OH, i18:0, 18:0 and cy19:0w8c), two actinomycetes (10Me17:0 and 10Me18:0) and only one fungus (18:1 w9c) were detected in two soils after applying slow-release compound fertilizer and other fertilizers during the whole incubation period. SRF could significantly increase the fungi PLFA content by 8.3% and 6.8% at the early stage (the 10th day and 30th day) compared with CF, as well as significantly increase by 22.7% and 17.1% at the late stage (the 60th day and 90th day) compared with CCF in acid soil. SRF significantly increased bacteria, fungi and gram positive bacteria compared with CF and CCF in incubation period (except at the 30th day) in slight alkaline soil. SRF could significantly improve the ratio of normal saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid at the 30th day and 90th days in acid soil compared with no fertilizer (CK), CF and CCF, while as to slight alkaline soil, SRF was significantly greater than that of CK, CF and CCF only at the 60th day. SRF could significantly decrease the ratio of iso PLFA and anteiso PLFA in acid soil (in 30-90 days) and slight alkaline soil (in 10-60 days). For two soils PLFA varieties, contents and ratios of microbial community, slow-release compound fertilizer increased soil microbial PLFA varieties and contents, and decreased the influence to microbial survival

  2. Microbial community composition explains soil respiration responses to changing carbon inputs along an Andes-to-Amazon elevation gradient

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Jeanette; Ostle, Nicholas; Nottingham, Andrew T; Ccahuana, Adan; Salinas, Norma; Bardgett, Richard D; Meir, Patrick; McNamara, Niall P; Austin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    1. The Andes are predicted to warm by 3–5 °C this century with the potential to alter the processes regulating carbon (C) cycling in these tropical forest soils. This rapid warming is expected to stimulate soil microbial respiration and change plant species distributions, thereby affecting the quantity and quality of C inputs to the soil and influencing the quantity of soil-derived CO2 released to the atmosphere. 2. We studied tropical lowland, premontane and montane forest soils taken from along a 3200-m elevation gradient located in south-east Andean Peru. We determined how soil microbial communities and abiotic soil properties differed with elevation. We then examined how these differences in microbial composition and soil abiotic properties affected soil C-cycling processes, by amending soils with C substrates varying in complexity and measuring soil heterotrophic respiration (RH). 3. Our results show that there were consistent patterns of change in soil biotic and abiotic properties with elevation. Microbial biomass and the abundance of fungi relative to bacteria increased significantly with elevation, and these differences in microbial community composition were strongly correlated with greater soil C content and C:N (nitrogen) ratios. We also found that RH increased with added C substrate quality and quantity and was positively related to microbial biomass and fungal abundance. 4. Statistical modelling revealed that RH responses to changing C inputs were best predicted by soil pH and microbial community composition, with the abundance of fungi relative to bacteria, and abundance of gram-positive relative to gram-negative bacteria explaining much of the model variance. 5. Synthesis. Our results show that the relative abundance of microbial functional groups is an important determinant of RH responses to changing C inputs along an extensive tropical elevation gradient in Andean Peru. Although we do not make an experimental test of the effects of climate

  3. Soil microbial nutrient constraints along a tropical forest elevation gradient: a belowground test of a biogeochemical paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nottingham, A. T.; Turner, B. L.; Whitaker, J.; Ostle, N. J.; McNamara, N. P.; Bardgett, R. D.; Salinas, N.; Meir, P.

    2015-10-01

    Aboveground primary productivity is widely considered to be limited by phosphorus (P) availability in lowland tropical forests and by nitrogen (N) availability in montane tropical forests. However, the extent to which this paradigm applies to belowground processes remains unresolved. We measured indices of soil microbial nutrient status in lowland, sub-montane and montane tropical forests along a natural gradient spanning 3400 m in elevation in the Peruvian Andes. With increasing elevation there were marked increases in soil concentrations of total N, total P, and readily exchangeable P, but a decrease in N mineralization determined by in situ resin bags. Microbial carbon (C) and N increased with increasing elevation, but microbial C : N : P ratios were relatively constant, suggesting homeostasis. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes, which are rich in N, decreased with increasing elevation, while the ratio of enzymes involved in the acquisition of N and P increased with increasing elevation, further indicating an increase in the relative demand for N compared to P with increasing elevation. We conclude that soil microorganisms shift investment in nutrient acquisition from P to N between lowland and montane tropical forests, suggesting that different nutrients regulate soil microbial metabolism and the soil carbon balance in these ecosystems.

  4. Quantification of soil losses from tourist trails - use of Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    Tourism impacts in protected mountain areas are one of the main concerns for land managers. Impact to environment is most visible at locations of highly concentrated activities like tourist trails, campsites etc. The main indicators of the tourist trail degradation are: vegetation loss (trampling of vegetation cover), change of vegetation type and composition, widening of the trails, muddiness and soil erosion. The last one is especially significant, since it can cause serious transformation of the land surface. Such undesirable changes cannot be repaired without high-cost management activities, and, in some cases they can made the trails difficult and unsafe to use. Scientific understanding of soil erosion related to human impact can be useful for more effective management of the natural protected areas. The aim of this study was to use of digital elevation models (DEMs) to precisely quantify of soil losses from tourist trails. In the study precise elevation data were gathered in several test fields of 4 by 5 m spatial dimension. Measurements were taken in 13 test fields, located in two protected natural areas in south Poland: Gorce National Park and Popradzki Landscape Park. The measuring places were located on trails characterized by different slope, type of vegetation and type of use. Each test field was established by four special marks, firmly dug into the ground. Elevation data were measured with the electronic total station. Irregular elevation points were surveying with essential elements of surrounding terrain surface being included. Moreover, surveys in fixed profile lines were done. For each test field a set of 30 measurements in control points has been collected and these data provide the base for verification of digital elevation models. Average density of the surveying was 70 points per square meter (1000 - 1500 elevation points per each test fields). Surveys in each test field were carried out in August and September of 2008, June 2009 and August

  5. Effect of Combustion Temperature on Soil and Soil Organic Matter Properties: A Study of Soils from the Western Elevation Transect in Central Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, S. N.; Berhe, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is a common ecosystem perturbation that affects many soil physical and chemical properties and soil organic matter (SOM). We investigated the effect of combustion temperatures on the physical and chemical properties of five soils from an elevation transect that spans from 210 to 2865 m.a.s.l. along the Western slope of the Sierra Nevada. All soils formed on a granitic parent material under either oak woodland, oak/mixed-conifer forest, mixed-conifer forest or subalpine mixed-conifer forest ecosystem. Soils show significant differences in SOM content and mineralogy owing to the effects of climate on soil development. Soils from 0 to 5 cm depth were combusted in a muffle furnace at six different temperatures within major fire intensity classes (150, 250, 350, 450, 550 and 650ºC). We determined the effects of combustion temperature on aggregation; specific surface area; pH; mineralogy; cation exchange capacity; carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content; 13C and 15N isotopic composition, and distribution within aggregate sizes; and quality of SOM through infrared spectroscopy. Among other things, we found significant reduction total C and N, accumulation of aromatic carbon functional groups, and loss of aggregation with implication to loss of protection of C as the combustion temperature increases. The findings demonstrate that most significant changes in the soils physical and chemical properties occur around 350ºC. Findings from this study are critical for estimating the amount and rate of change in C and N loss, and other essential soil properties that can be expected from topsoils exposed to different intensity fires.

  6. Improving the mining soil quality for a vegetation cover after addition of sewage sludges: inorganic ions and low-molecular-weight organic acids in the soil solution.

    PubMed

    Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, Ma Dolores; Guzmán-Carrizosa, Ignacio; Fernández-Espinosa, Antonio J

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effects of applying stabilized sewage sludge (SSL) and composted sewage sludge (CLV), at 5 and 10% to an acid mining soil. Limed soil (NCL) amended or not with SSL and CLV was incubated for 47 days. We studied the cations and organic and inorganic anions in the soil solution by means of ion chromatography. Liming led to big increases in Ca(2+) and SO4(2-) and to significant decreases in K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+) and NO3(-). Addition of both organic amendments increased some cations (NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Na(+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO3(-) only with CLV and PO4(3-) only with SSL) and provided a greater amount of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) (SSL more than CLV). Incubation led to decreases in all cations, particularly remarkable for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in SSL-10. A decrease in NH4(+) was associated with variations in NO2(-) and NO3(-) resulting from nitrification reactions. During incubation the LMWOAs content tended to decrease similarly to the cations, especially in SSL-10. Chemometric tools revealed a clear discrimination between SSL, CLV and NCL. Furthermore, treatment effects depended upon dose, mainly in SSL. Amendment nature and dose affect the quality of a mining soil and improve conditions for plant establishment.

  7. Improving the mining soil quality for a vegetation cover after addition of sewage sludges: inorganic ions and low-molecular-weight organic acids in the soil solution.

    PubMed

    Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, Ma Dolores; Guzmán-Carrizosa, Ignacio; Fernández-Espinosa, Antonio J

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effects of applying stabilized sewage sludge (SSL) and composted sewage sludge (CLV), at 5 and 10% to an acid mining soil. Limed soil (NCL) amended or not with SSL and CLV was incubated for 47 days. We studied the cations and organic and inorganic anions in the soil solution by means of ion chromatography. Liming led to big increases in Ca(2+) and SO4(2-) and to significant decreases in K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+) and NO3(-). Addition of both organic amendments increased some cations (NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Na(+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO3(-) only with CLV and PO4(3-) only with SSL) and provided a greater amount of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) (SSL more than CLV). Incubation led to decreases in all cations, particularly remarkable for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in SSL-10. A decrease in NH4(+) was associated with variations in NO2(-) and NO3(-) resulting from nitrification reactions. During incubation the LMWOAs content tended to decrease similarly to the cations, especially in SSL-10. Chemometric tools revealed a clear discrimination between SSL, CLV and NCL. Furthermore, treatment effects depended upon dose, mainly in SSL. Amendment nature and dose affect the quality of a mining soil and improve conditions for plant establishment. PMID:25506677

  8. Applications analysis report: Silicate Technology Corporation's solidification/stabilization technology for organic and inorganic contaminants in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, E.

    1992-12-01

    The STC demonstration was conducted under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program in November, 1990, at the Selma Pressure Treating (SPT) wood preserving site in Selma, California. The SPT site was contaminated with both organics, predominantly pentachlorophenol (PCP), inorganics, mainly arsenic, chromium, and copper. Extensive sampling and analyses were performed on the waste both before and after treatment to compare physical, chemical, and leaching characteristics of raw and treated wastes. STC's contaminated soil treatment process was evaluated based on contaminant mobility measured by numerous leaching tests, structural integrity of the solidified material, measured by physical and engineering tests and morphological examinations; and economic analysis, using cost information supplied by STC and the results of the SITE demonstration, the vendor's design and test data, and other laboratory and field applications of the technology. It discusses the advantages, disadvantages, and limitations, as well as estimated costs of the technology.

  9. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 ON ROOT FUNCTION AND SOIL RESPIRATION IN A MOJAVE DESERT ECOSYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Robert S.

    2007-12-19

    Increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration during the last 250 years are unequivocal, and CO{sub 2} will continue to increase at least for the next several decades (Houghton et al. 2001, Keeling & Whorf 2002). Arid ecosystems are some of the most important biomes globally on a land surface area basis, are increasing in area at an alarming pace (Dregne 1991), and have a strong coupling with regional climate (Asner & Heidebrecht 2005). These water-limited ecosystems also are predicted to be the most sensitive to elevated CO{sub 2}, in part because they are stressful environments where plant responses to elevated CO{sub 2} may be amplified (Strain & Bazzaz 1983). Indeed, all C{sub 3} species examined at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility (NDFF) have shown increased A{sub net} under elevated CO{sub 2} (Ellsworth et al. 2004, Naumburg et al. 2003, Nowak et al. 2004). Furthermore, increased shoot growth for individual species under elevated CO{sub 2} was spectacular in a very wet year (Smith et al. 2000), although the response in low to average precipitation years has been smaller (Housman et al. 2006). Increases in perennial cover and biomass at the NDFF are consistent with long term trends in the Mojave Desert and elsewhere in the Southwest, indicating C sequestration in woody biomass (Potter et al. 2006). Elevated CO{sub 2} also increases belowground net primary production (BNPP), with average increases of 70%, 21%, and 11% for forests, bogs, and grasslands, respectively (Nowak et al. 2004). Although detailed studies of elevated CO{sub 2} responses for desert root systems were virtually non-existent prior to our research, we anticipated that C sequestration may occur by desert root systems for several reasons. First, desert ecosystems exhibit increases in net photosynthesis and primary production at elevated CO{sub 2}. If large quantities of root litter enter the ecosystem at a time when most decomposers are inactive, significant quantities of carbon may be stored

  10. Elevated carbon dioxide increases soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability in a phosphorus-limited Eucalyptus woodland.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Shun; Macdonald, Catriona A; Power, Sally A

    2016-04-01

    Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments have demonstrated increased plant productivity in response to elevated (e)CO2, with the magnitude of responses related to soil nutrient status. Whilst understanding nutrient constraints on productivity responses to eCO2 is crucial for predicting carbon uptake and storage, very little is known about how eCO2 affects nutrient cycling in phosphorus (P)-limited ecosystems. Our study investigates eCO2 effects on soil N and P dynamics at the EucFACE experiment in Western Sydney over an 18-month period. Three ambient and three eCO2 (+150 ppm) FACE rings were installed in a P-limited, mature Cumberland Plain Eucalyptus woodland. Levels of plant accessible nutrients, evaluated using ion exchange resins, were increased under eCO2, compared to ambient, for nitrate (+93%), ammonium (+12%) and phosphate (+54%). There was a strong seasonality to responses, particularly for phosphate, resulting in a relatively greater stimulation in available P, compared to N, under eCO2 in spring and summer. eCO2 was also associated with faster nutrient turnover rates in the first six months of the experiment, with higher N (+175%) and P (+211%) mineralization rates compared to ambient rings, although this difference did not persist. Seasonally dependant effects of eCO2 were seen for concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in soil solution (+31%), and there was also a reduction in bulk soil pH (-0.18 units) observed under eCO2. These results demonstrate that CO2 fertilization increases nutrient availability - particularly for phosphate - in P-limited soils, likely via increased plant belowground investment in labile carbon and associated enhancement of microbial turnover of organic matter and mobilization of chemically bound P. Early evidence suggests that there is the potential for the observed increases in P availability to support increased ecosystem C-accumulation under future predicted CO2 concentrations.

  11. Lignin decomposition along an Alpine elevation gradient in relation to physicochemical and soil microbial parameters.

    PubMed

    Duboc, Olivier; Dignac, Marie-France; Djukic, Ika; Zehetner, Franz; Gerzabek, Martin H; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2014-07-01

    Lignin is an aromatic plant compound that decomposes more slowly than other organic matter compounds; however, it was recently shown that lignin could decompose as fast as litter bulk carbon in minerals soils. In alpine Histosols, where organic matter dynamics is largely unaffected by mineral constituents, lignin may be an important part of soil organic matter (SOM). These soils are expected to experience alterations in temperature and/or physicochemical parameters as a result of global climate change. The effect of these changes on lignin dynamics remains to be examined and the importance of lignin as SOM compound in these soils evaluated. Here, we investigated the decomposition of individual lignin phenols of maize litter incubated for 2 years in-situ in Histosols on an Alpine elevation gradient (900, 1300, and 1900 m above sea level); to this end, we used the cupric oxide oxidation method and determined the phenols' (13) C signature. Maize lignin decomposed faster than bulk maize carbon in the first year (86 vs. 78% decomposed); however, after the second year, lignin and bulk C decomposition did not differ significantly. Lignin mass loss did not correlate with soil temperature after the first year, and even correlated negatively at the end of the second year. Lignin mass loss also correlated negatively with the remaining maize N at the end of the second year, and we interpreted this result as a possible negative influence of nitrogen on lignin degradation, although other factors (notably the depletion of easily degradable carbon sources) may also have played a role at this stage of decomposition. Microbial community composition did not correlate with lignin mass loss, but it did so with the lignin degradation indicators (Ac/Al)s and S/V after 2 years of decomposition. Progressing substrate decomposition toward the final stages thus appears to be linked with microbial community differentiation. PMID:24323640

  12. Soil-solution chemistry in a low-elevation spruce-fir ecosystem, Howland, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Ivan J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Son, Yowhan

    1995-01-01

    Soil solutions were collected monthly by tension and zero-tension lysimeters in a low-elevation red spruce stand in east-central Maine from May 1987 through December 1992. Soil solutions collected by Oa tension lysimeters had higher concentrations of most constituents than the Oa zero-tension lysimeters. In Oa horizon soil solutions growing season concentrations for SO4, Ca, and Mg averaged 57, 43, and 30 μmol L−1 in tension lysimeters, and 43, 28, and 19 μmol L−1 in zero-tension lysimeters, respectively. Because tension lysimeters remove water held by the soil at tensions up to 10 kPa, solutions are assumed to have more time to react with the soil compared to freely draining solutions collected by zero-tension lysimeters. Solutions collected in the Bs horizon by both types of collectors were similar which was attributed to the frequency of time periods when the water table was above the Bs lysimeters. Concentrations of SO4 and NO3 at this site were lower than concentrations reported for most other eastern U.S. spruce-fir sites, but base cation concentrations fell in the same range. Aluminum concentrations in this study were also lower than reported for other sites in the eastern U.S. and Ca/Al ratios did not suggest inhibition of Ca uptake by roots. Concentrations of SO4, Ca, K, and Cl decreased significantly in both the Oa and Bs horizons over the 56-month sampling period, which could reflect decreasing deposition rates for sulfur and base cations, climatic influences, or natural variation. A longer record of measured fluxes will be needed to adequately define temporal trends in solution chemistry and their causes.

  13. Lignin decomposition along an Alpine elevation gradient in relation to physicochemical and soil microbial parameters.

    PubMed

    Duboc, Olivier; Dignac, Marie-France; Djukic, Ika; Zehetner, Franz; Gerzabek, Martin H; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2014-07-01

    Lignin is an aromatic plant compound that decomposes more slowly than other organic matter compounds; however, it was recently shown that lignin could decompose as fast as litter bulk carbon in minerals soils. In alpine Histosols, where organic matter dynamics is largely unaffected by mineral constituents, lignin may be an important part of soil organic matter (SOM). These soils are expected to experience alterations in temperature and/or physicochemical parameters as a result of global climate change. The effect of these changes on lignin dynamics remains to be examined and the importance of lignin as SOM compound in these soils evaluated. Here, we investigated the decomposition of individual lignin phenols of maize litter incubated for 2 years in-situ in Histosols on an Alpine elevation gradient (900, 1300, and 1900 m above sea level); to this end, we used the cupric oxide oxidation method and determined the phenols' (13) C signature. Maize lignin decomposed faster than bulk maize carbon in the first year (86 vs. 78% decomposed); however, after the second year, lignin and bulk C decomposition did not differ significantly. Lignin mass loss did not correlate with soil temperature after the first year, and even correlated negatively at the end of the second year. Lignin mass loss also correlated negatively with the remaining maize N at the end of the second year, and we interpreted this result as a possible negative influence of nitrogen on lignin degradation, although other factors (notably the depletion of easily degradable carbon sources) may also have played a role at this stage of decomposition. Microbial community composition did not correlate with lignin mass loss, but it did so with the lignin degradation indicators (Ac/Al)s and S/V after 2 years of decomposition. Progressing substrate decomposition toward the final stages thus appears to be linked with microbial community differentiation.

  14. Can assessing for potential contribution of soil organic and inorganic components for butachlor sorption be improved?

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Liu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Haizhen; Shi, Jiachun; Xu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    Sorption of butachlor to various types of common soil components was investigated. Six pure minerals (montmorillonite [Mont], kaolinite [Kaol], Ca homoionic montmorillonite [Ca-Mont] and kaolinite [Ca-Kaol], amorphous hydrated Al and Fe oxides [AHOs-Al, AHOs-Fe]), four soil alkali-extractable pure humic acids (HAs), and the four corresponding HAs originated real unmodified and HO-treated soils were selected as the representative sorbents. Results showed that the HAs played a crucial role, and clay minerals (especially Mont) also showed an important effect in butachlor sorption. The AHOs may likely influence only in a mediator way by enhancing the availability of sorption domains of HAs. By removing 78% (on average) of the total organic carbon (TOC) from the soils with HO, the content ratio of clay to TOC (RCO) increased by an average of 367% and became >60. This change simultaneously decreased the sorption capacity of soils (40%, on average). Considering that the surface sorption domain on clay minerals may be highly exposed and more competitive after the partial removal of soil organic matter (SOM), this reaffirmed the potential contribution from clay minerals. It can thus be inferred that in the real soil where SOM and clay minerals are associated, the coating of clay minerals may have weakened the partition function of SOM or blocked some sorption domain within SOM, resulting in a decreased sorption of butachlor. Therefore, clay minerals, especially 2:1 type expanding minerals, may play a dual function vs. SOM content for the sorption of butachlor in soil.

  15. The phytoremediation of an organic and inorganic polluted soil: A real scale experience.

    PubMed

    Macci, C; Peruzzi, E; Doni, S; Poggio, G; Masciandaro, G

    2016-01-01

    A phytoremediation process with horse manure, plants (Populus alba, Cytisus scoparius, Paulownia tomentosa) and naturally growing vegetation was carried out at a real-scale in order to phytoremediate and functionally recover a soil contaminated by metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr), hydrocarbons (TPH) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCB). All the plants were effective in two years in the reclamation of the polluted soil, showing an average reduction of about 35%, 40%, and 70% in metals, TPH and PCB content, respectively. As regards the plants, the poplar contributed the most to organic removal. In fact, its ability to take up and detoxify organic pollutants is well known. Paulownia tomentosa, instead, showed high metal removal. The Cytisus scoparius was the least effective plant in soil decontamination. The recovery of soil functionality was followed by enzyme activities, expressing the biochemical processes underway, and nutrient content useful for plant growth and development. Throughout the area, an enhancement of metabolic processes and soil chemical quality was observed. All the enzymatic activities showed a general increase over time (until 3-4 fold than the initial value for urease and β-glucosidase). Moreover, Cytisus scoparius, even though it showed a lower decontamination capability, was the most effective in soil metabolic stimulation. PMID:26555402

  16. A method for analyzing the δ18O of resin-extractable soil inorganic phosphate.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Tal; Mazeh, Shunit; Tamburini, Federica; Frossard, Emmanuel; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Chiti, Tommaso; Angert, Alon

    2011-03-15

    Improved tools for tracing phosphate transformations in soils are much needed, and can lead to a better understanding of the terrestrial phosphorus cycle. The oxygen stable isotopes in soil phosphate are still not exploited in this regard. Here we present a method for measuring the oxygen stable isotopes in a fraction of the soil phosphate which is rapidly available to plants, the resin-extractable P. This method is based on extracting available phosphate from the soil with anion-exchange membranes, soil organic matter removal by a resin, purification by precipitation as cerium phosphate, and finally precipitation as silver phosphate. The purified silver phosphate samples are then measured by a high-temperature elemental analyzer (HT-EA) coupled in continuous flow mode to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Testing the method with Mediterranean and semi-arid soils showed no artifacts, as well as good reproducibility in the same order as that of the HT-EA analytical uncertainty (0.3‰).

  17. Responses of soil respiration to elevated CO2, air warming, and changing soil water availability in an old-field grassland

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Shiqiang; Norby, Richard J; Childs, Joanne; Weltzin, Jake

    2007-01-01

    Responses of soil respiration to atmospheric and climatic change will have profound impacts on ecosystem and global C cycling in the future. This study was conducted to examine effects on soil respiration of the concurrent driving factors of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, rising temperature, and changing precipitation in a constructed old-field grassland in eastern Tennessee, USA. Model ecosystems of seven old-field species in 12 open-top chambers (4 m in diameter) were treated with two CO2 (ambient and ambient plus 300 ppm) and two temperature (ambient and ambient plus 3 C) levels. Two split plots with each chamber were assigned with high and low soil moisture levels. During the 19-month experimental period from June 2003 to December 2004, higher CO2 concentration and soil water availability significantly increased mean soil respiration by 35.8% and 15.7%, respectively. The effects of air warming on soil respiration varied seasonally from small reductions to significant increases to no response, and there was no significant main effect. In the wet side of elevated CO2 chambers, air warming consistently caused increases in soil respiration, whereas in other three combinations of CO2 and water treatments, warming tended to decrease soil respiration over the growing season but increase it over the winter. There were no interactive effects on soil respiration among any two or three treatment factors irrespective of testing time period. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was reduced by air warming, lower in the wet than the dry side, and not affected by CO2 treatment. Variations of soil respiration responses with soil temperature and soil moisture ranges could be primarily attributable to the seasonal dynamics of plant growth and its responses to the three treatments. Using a conceptual model to interpret the significant relationships of treatment-induced changes in soil respiration with changes in soil temperature and moisture observed in this study

  18. Microcosm studies of the role of land plants in elevating soil carbon dioxide and chemical weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, C.; Hefin Jones, T.; Edwards, Dianne

    2008-09-01

    A decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration during the mid-Palaeozoic is postulated to have been partially the consequence of the evolution of rooted land plants. Root development increased the amount of carbonic acid generated by root respiration within soils. This led to increased chemical weathering of silicates and subsequent formation of carbonates, resulting in lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations. To test this assumption, analog (morphologically equivalent) plant species, ranging from those possessing no roots to those with complex rhizomatous rooting systems, were grown in trays within microcosms at ambient (360 ppm/0.37 mbar) and highly elevated (3500 ppm/3.55 mbar) atmospheric CO2 concentrations in a controlled environment facility. Substrate CO2 concentrations increased significantly under elevated atmospheric CO2, and Equisetum hyemale (L.). The latter is postulated to result from the effects of deeply rooted plants, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, or both. Plants with simple or no rooting systems or the addition of dead organic matter as a substrate for microorganisms did not enhance substrate CO2 concentrations.

  19. Source portioning of N_{2}O emissions after long term elevation of soil temperature in a permanent grassland soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen-Willems, Anne; Lanigan, Gary; Clough, Timothy; Andresen, Louise; Müller, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Several methods, such as source portioning, have been used to quantify the contributions of individual N pools to N2O emissions. These methods however, assume the absence of hybrid reactions such as co-denitrification, which were previously identified as important. A straight forward method portioning N2O fluxes into four different production processes, including a hybrid reaction, was therefore developed. This method portioned the N2O fluxes in nitrification, denitrification, oxidation of organic matter and co-denitrification, using data on 45R and 46R of the N2O flux and the 15N content of the NO3- and NH4+ in the soil. This newly developed method was used to analyse the N2O emissions from incubated soil, which was previously subjected to 6 years of elevated soil temperature of +0, +1, +2 or +3 ° C. N2O emissions were measured and analysed at four time points in the six days following, NO315NH4 Gly or 15NO3NH4 Gly, label addition. The oxidation of organic N was found to be the main source of N2O fluxes at all sampling dates, comprising between 63 and 85% of the total N2O flux. The percentage contribution made by organic N to N2O fluxes increased over the sampling period, rising from a minimum of 40% in the control treatment, to virtually 100% across all treatments by Day 6. Compared to the control treatment, denitrification contributed less to N2O from soil subjected to +2 and +3 ° C warming (p <0.0001 and p=0.002, respectively). Co-denitrification only contributed to the N2O flux during the first day after substrate addition. The highest amount of N2O produced via co-denitrification was found under the control treatment. From soil subjected to +2 and +3 ° C treatments, the contribution of co-denitrification was minor. However, these differences in co-denitrification were not significant. This research showed the importance of the oxidation of organic N in N2O emissions. It should therefore not be omitted as a potential source in source portioning. Emissions

  20. Source portioning of N_{2}O emissions after long term elevation of soil temperature in a permanent grassland soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen-Willems, Anne; Lanigan, Gary; Clough, Timothy; Andresen, Louise; Müller, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Several methods, such as source portioning, have been used to quantify the contributions of individual N pools to N2O emissions. These methods however, assume the absence of hybrid reactions such as co-denitrification, which were previously identified as important. A straight forward method portioning N2O fluxes into four different production processes, including a hybrid reaction, was therefore developed. This method portioned the N2O fluxes in nitrification, denitrification, oxidation of organic matter and co-denitrification, using data on 45R and 46R of the N2O flux and the 15N content of the NO3‑ and NH4+ in the soil. This newly developed method was used to analyse the N2O emissions from incubated soil, which was previously subjected to 6 years of elevated soil temperature of +0, +1, +2 or +3 ° C. N2O emissions were measured and analysed at four time points in the six days following, NO315NH4 Gly or 15NO3NH4 Gly, label addition. The oxidation of organic N was found to be the main source of N2O fluxes at all sampling dates, comprising between 63 and 85% of the total N2O flux. The percentage contribution made by organic N to N2O fluxes increased over the sampling period, rising from a minimum of 40% in the control treatment, to virtually 100% across all treatments by Day 6. Compared to the control treatment, denitrification contributed less to N2O from soil subjected to +2 and +3 ° C warming (p <0.0001 and p=0.002, respectively). Co-denitrification only contributed to the N2O flux during the first day after substrate addition. The highest amount of N2O produced via co-denitrification was found under the control treatment. From soil subjected to +2 and +3 ° C treatments, the contribution of co-denitrification was minor. However, these differences in co-denitrification were not significant. This research showed the importance of the oxidation of organic N in N2O emissions. It should therefore not be omitted as a potential source in source portioning. Emissions

  1. [Determination of inorganic elements in the soil-grass-animal system by sealed microwave digestion ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Xin, Guo-Sheng; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Xu-Sheng; Long, Rui-Jun

    2010-02-01

    The contents of inorganic elements including K, Ca, Na, Mg, P, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, and Co in the soil-grass-animal mineral system from Qinghai Tibetan Plateau were determined by ICP-AES using high pressure system-sealed microwave digestion. The sample of soil was digested with HNO3-HF-H2O2 acids system, but others including pasture, animal fur, liver, and serum were digested with HNO3-H2O2 acids system. The operation would be simplified and the blank value would be decreased with the above acids systems. The results were proved to be reliable with the relative standard deviation being 0.271%-2.633% for Ca, 2.971%-4.854% for Co, 0.372%-2.874% for Cu, 0.600%-3.683% for Fe, 0.347%-2.829% for K, 0.626%-2.593% for Mg, 0.705%-4.828% for Mn, 2.946%-4.622% for Mo, 0.689%-3.621% for Na, 0.422%-3.890% for P, and 0.143%-4.622% for S, 0.166%-2.399% for Zn, and all of them were less than 5% for all the elements, and the recovery being 97.1%-101.4% for Ca, 93.5%-112.5% for Co, 95.2%-104.0% for Cu, 96.9%-104.2% for Fe, 96.1%-105.6% for K, 96.2%-102.8% for Mg, 91.5%-108.9% for Mn, 95.0%-113.5% for Mo, 95.2%-101.8% for Na, 94.7%-100.7% for P, 98.3%-108.4% for S, and 97.5%-102.0% for Zn by adding standard recovery experiment. The results of determination were proved that the method of sealed microwave digestion ICP-AES was sensitive, precise, easy to operate and rapid for the determination of inorganic elements in the soil-grass-animal mineral system, and could satisfy the sample examination request. The methods and results were meaningful to research on the soil-pasture-animal mineral system including the contents of mineral elements, the circulation of mineral elements, the interaction, and the application of mineral additive.

  2. Long-term organic-inorganic fertilization ensures great soil productivity and bacterial diversity after natural-to-agricultural ecosystem conversion.

    PubMed

    Xun, Weibing; Xu, Zhihui; Li, Wei; Ren, Yi; Huang, Ting; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-09-01

    Natural ecosystems comprise the planet's wild plant and animal resources, but large tracts of land have been converted to agroecosystems to support the demand for agricultural products. This conversion limits the number of plant species and decreases the soil biological diversity. Here we used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to evaluate the responses of soil bacterial communities in long-term converted and fertilized red soils (a type of Ferralic Cambisol). We observed that soil bacterial diversity was strongly affected by different types of fertilization management. Oligotrophic bacterial taxa demonstrated large relative abundances in chemically fertilized soil, whereas copiotrophic bacterial taxa were found in large relative abundances in organically fertilized and fallow management soils. Only organic-inorganic fertilization exhibited the same local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity as that of a natural ecosystem. However, the independent use of organic or inorganic fertilizer reduced local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity and caused biotic homogenization. This study demonstrated that the homogenization of bacterial communities caused by natural-to-agricultural ecosystem conversion can be mitigated by employing rational organic-inorganic fertilization management. PMID:27572510

  3. Long-term organic-inorganic fertilization ensures great soil productivity and bacterial diversity after natural-to-agricultural ecosystem conversion.

    PubMed

    Xun, Weibing; Xu, Zhihui; Li, Wei; Ren, Yi; Huang, Ting; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-09-01

    Natural ecosystems comprise the planet's wild plant and animal resources, but large tracts of land have been converted to agroecosystems to support the demand for agricultural products. This conversion limits the number of plant species and decreases the soil biological diversity. Here we used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to evaluate the responses of soil bacterial communities in long-term converted and fertilized red soils (a type of Ferralic Cambisol). We observed that soil bacterial diversity was strongly affected by different types of fertilization management. Oligotrophic bacterial taxa demonstrated large relative abundances in chemically fertilized soil, whereas copiotrophic bacterial taxa were found in large relative abundances in organically fertilized and fallow management soils. Only organic-inorganic fertilization exhibited the same local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity as that of a natural ecosystem. However, the independent use of organic or inorganic fertilizer reduced local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity and caused biotic homogenization. This study demonstrated that the homogenization of bacterial communities caused by natural-to-agricultural ecosystem conversion can be mitigated by employing rational organic-inorganic fertilization management.

  4. Phosphorus forms and pools in high-elevation soils of the Sierra Nevada: Sensitivity to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sickman, J. O.; Homyak, P. M.; Melack, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    High-elevation lakes in the Sierra Nevada are experiencing increased P supply, which is causing mild eutrophication and shifts toward greater nitrogen limitation of phytoplankton growth. The mechanisms underlying excess P-supply are not fully understood, but likely sources include increased atmospheric deposition of P and/or climate change effects on P cycling that enhance P release from soils and sediments. Since temperature, runoff patterns, and the timing of snowmelt strongly influence N biogeochemistry in high-elevation ecosystems, we hypothesize that climate change may influence the cycling of P in soils and result in increased P loading to lakes. We analyzed P pools in entisols and inceptisols in the Emerald Lake watershed, a representative high-elevation catchment, in Sequoia National Park. The distribution of P in soils was characterized by a Hedley sequential fractionation procedure and the effects of seasonal transitions were monitored by examining changes in labile and microbial P pools during winter, spring snowmelt, summer, and the autumn-winter transition. On average, 692 µg P/g of soil are available in the top 10 cm of soil and 547 µg P/g of soil are available in soils from 10-50 cm. In soils from the top 10 cm about 70% of the P is freely exchangeable or associated with Fe and Al, while in soils from 10-50 cm about 60% is exchangeable or bound to Fe and Al. Our measurements of microbial biomass soil P pools during seasonal transitions suggest that during the winter, microbial pools were 685 µg P/g of soil. During spring snowmelt, microbial P decreased to 250 µg P/g of soil, suggesting that hydrologic flushing and changes to soil redox affected soil P dynamics. Our data indicate that the majority of the P found in high-elevation soils is sensitive to changes in temperature, moisture, and runoff patterns and may account for some of the excess P contributing to eutrophication of high-elevation lakes.

  5. Long-term effects of organic and inorganic nutrient sources on soil organic carbon and major nutrients in Vertisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aladakatti, Y. R.; Hallikeri, S. S.; Nandagavi, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiment conducted over 10 years at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, assessed the long-term effects of various sources of organics (farmyard manure {FYM}, vermicompost and cotton crop residue) in conjunction with graded levels of inorganic fertilizers on the soil organic carbon (SOC), available major nutrients and seed cotton yield in cotton- (groundnut - winter Sorghum) rotation system. Main plots comprised FYM (10 Mg/ha), vermicompost (2.5 Mg/ha), cotton crop residue (2.5 Mg/ha) and combination of these organics in various proportions with an absolute control (no organics). No inorganic fertilizes, 50 and 100 % of the recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) were assigned to the sub plots. The organics were applied every year during rainy season and the inorganic fertilizers as per the University recommended dose to each crop. Initial SOC, available N, P and K were 0.68%, 220, 22.5 and 403 kg/ha, respectively. Results indicated that at the end of tenth year of crop rotation, application of FYM, vermicompost and cotton crop residue either alone or in combination increased the SOC (0.68 to 0.81%), available N (220 to 308 kg/ha), P (22.5 to 33.0 kg/ha) and K (403 to 530 kg/ha) compared to the control plot where no organics were applied. SOC in the control treatment decreased to 0.52% at the end of tenth year from 0.68%. Averaged over five cropping cycles, application of FYM gave significantly higher yields of seed cotton, groundnut pods and sorghum grain over all other organic sources. During fifth cycle of cotton crop or 10th year of rotation, application of FYM along with 100% RDF resulted in the highest productivity and was similar to FYM + 50 % RDF, indicating a saving of 50% chemical fertilizer in these crops. Combination of cotton crop residue and vermicompost were next best alternative sources of organics after FYM in order of preference. Our studies suggest that in the scarcity of good quality manure such as FYM, cotton crop

  6. Plant-soil distribution of potentially toxic elements in response to elevated atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Duval, Benjamin D; Dijkstra, Paul; Natali, Susan M; Megonigal, J Patrick; Ketterer, Michael E; Drake, Bert G; Lerdau, Manuel T; Gordon, Gwyneth; Anbar, Ariel D; Hungate, Bruce A

    2011-04-01

    The distribution of contaminant elements within ecosystems is an environmental concern because of these elements' potential toxicity to animals and plants and their ability to hinder microbial ecosystem services. As with nutrients, contaminants are cycled within and through ecosystems. Elevated atmospheric CO2 generally increases plant productivity and alters nutrient element cycling, but whether CO2 causes similar effects on the cycling of contaminant elements is unknown. Here we show that 11 years of experimental CO2 enrichment in a sandy soil with low organic matter content causes plants to accumulate contaminants in plant biomass, with declines in the extractable contaminant element pools in surface soils. These results indicate that CO2 alters the distribution of contaminant elements in ecosystems, with plant element accumulation and declining soil availability both likely explained by the CO2 stimulation of plant biomass. Our results highlight the interdependence of element cycles and the importance of taking a broad view of the periodic table when the effects of global environmental change on ecosystem biogeochemistry are considered.

  7. Inorganic Nutrients Increase Humification Efficiency and C-Sequestration in an Annually Cropped Soil

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Alan E.; Wade, Len J.; Conyers, Mark; Kirkegaard, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and storing the carbon (C) in resistant soil organic matter (SOM) is a global priority to restore soil fertility and help mitigate climate change. Although it is widely assumed that retaining rather than removing or burning crop residues will increase SOM levels, many studies have failed to demonstrate this. We hypothesised that the microbial nature of resistant SOM provides a predictable nutrient stoichiometry (C:nitrogen, C:phosphorus and C:sulphur–C:N:P:S) to target using supplementary nutrients when incorporating C-rich crop residues into soil. An improvement in the humification efficiency of the soil microbiome as a whole, and thereby C-sequestration, was predicted. In a field study over 5 years, soil organic-C (SOC) stocks to 1.6 m soil depth were increased by 5.5 t C ha-1 where supplementary nutrients were applied with incorporated crop residues, but were reduced by 3.2 t C ha-1 without nutrient addition, with 2.9 t C ha-1 being lost from the 0–10 cm layer. A net difference of 8.7 t C ha-1 was thus achieved in a cropping soil over a 5 year period, despite the same level of C addition. Despite shallow incorporation (0.15 m), more than 50% of the SOC increase occurred below 0.3 m, and as predicted by the stoichiometry, increases in resistant SOC were accompanied by increases in soil NPS at all depths. Interestingly the C:N, C:P and C:S ratios decreased significantly with depth possibly as a consequence of differences in fungi to bacteria ratio. Our results demonstrate that irrespective of the C-input, it is essential to balance the nutrient stoichiometry of added C to better match that of resistant SOM to increase SOC sequestration. This has implications for global practices and policies aimed at increasing SOC sequestration and specifically highlight the need to consider the hidden cost and availability of associated nutrients in building soil-C. PMID:27144282

  8. Inorganic Nutrients Increase Humification Efficiency and C-Sequestration in an Annually Cropped Soil.

    PubMed

    Kirkby, Clive A; Richardson, Alan E; Wade, Len J; Conyers, Mark; Kirkegaard, John A

    2016-01-01

    Removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and storing the carbon (C) in resistant soil organic matter (SOM) is a global priority to restore soil fertility and help mitigate climate change. Although it is widely assumed that retaining rather than removing or burning crop residues will increase SOM levels, many studies have failed to demonstrate this. We hypothesised that the microbial nature of resistant SOM provides a predictable nutrient stoichiometry (C:nitrogen, C:phosphorus and C:sulphur-C:N:P:S) to target using supplementary nutrients when incorporating C-rich crop residues into soil. An improvement in the humification efficiency of the soil microbiome as a whole, and thereby C-sequestration, was predicted. In a field study over 5 years, soil organic-C (SOC) stocks to 1.6 m soil depth were increased by 5.5 t C ha-1 where supplementary nutrients were applied with incorporated crop residues, but were reduced by 3.2 t C ha-1 without nutrient addition, with 2.9 t C ha-1 being lost from the 0-10 cm layer. A net difference of 8.7 t C ha-1 was thus achieved in a cropping soil over a 5 year period, despite the same level of C addition. Despite shallow incorporation (0.15 m), more than 50% of the SOC increase occurred below 0.3 m, and as predicted by the stoichiometry, increases in resistant SOC were accompanied by increases in soil NPS at all depths. Interestingly the C:N, C:P and C:S ratios decreased significantly with depth possibly as a consequence of differences in fungi to bacteria ratio. Our results demonstrate that irrespective of the C-input, it is essential to balance the nutrient stoichiometry of added C to better match that of resistant SOM to increase SOC sequestration. This has implications for global practices and policies aimed at increasing SOC sequestration and specifically highlight the need to consider the hidden cost and availability of associated nutrients in building soil-C. PMID:27144282

  9. The earliest stages of ecosystem succession in high-elevation (5000 metres above sea level), recently deglaciated soils

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, S.K; Reed, Sasha C; Nemergut, Diana R; Stuart Grandy, A; Cleveland, Cory C; Weintraub, Michael N; Hill, Andrew W; Costello, Elizabeth K; Meyer, A.F; Neff, J.C; Martin, A.M

    2008-01-01

    Global climate change has accelerated the pace of glacial retreat in high-latitude and high-elevation environments, exposing lands that remain devoid of vegetation for many years. The exposure of ‘new’ soil is particularly apparent at high elevations (5000 metres above sea level) in the Peruvian Andes, where extreme environmental conditions hinder plant colonization. Nonetheless, these seemingly barren soils contain a diverse microbial community; yet the biogeochemical role of micro-organisms at these extreme elevations remains unknown. Using biogeochemical and molecular techniques, we investigated the biological community structure and ecosystem functioning of the pre-plant stages of primary succession in soils along a high-Andean chronosequence. We found that recently glaciated soils were colonized by a diverse community of cyanobacteria during the first 4–5 years following glacial retreat. This significant increase in cyanobacterial diversity corresponded with equally dramatic increases in soil stability, heterotrophic microbial biomass, soil enzyme activity and the presence and abundance of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments. Furthermore, we found that soil nitrogen-fixation rates increased almost two orders of magnitude during the first 4–5 years of succession, many years before the establishment of mosses, lichens or vascular plants. Carbon analyses (pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy) of soil organic matter suggested that soil carbon along the chronosequence was of microbial origin. This indicates that inputs of nutrients and organic matter during early ecosystem development at these sites are dominated by microbial carbon and nitrogen fixation. Overall, our results indicate that photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixing bacteria play important roles in acquiring nutrients and facilitating ecological succession in soils near some of the highest elevation receding glaciers on the Earth. PMID:18755677

  10. Soil microbial nutrient constraints along a tropical forest elevation gradient: a belowground test of a biogeochemical paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nottingham, A. T.; Turner, B. L.; Whitaker, J.; Ostle, N.; McNamara, N. P.; Bardgett, R. D.; Salinas, N.; Meir, P.

    2015-04-01

    Aboveground primary productivity is widely considered to be limited by phosphorus (P) availability in lowland tropical forests and by nitrogen (N) availability in montane tropical forests. However, the extent to which this paradigm applies to belowground processes remains unresolved. We measured indices of soil microbial nutrient status in lowland, sub-montane and montane tropical forests along a natural gradient spanning 3400 m in elevation in the Peruvian Andes. With increasing elevation there were marked increases in soil concentrations of total N, total P, and readily-extractable P, but a decrease in N mineralization determined by in situ resin bags. Microbial carbon (C) and N increased with increasing elevation, but microbial C:N:P ratios were relatively constant, suggesting homeostasis. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes, which are rich in N, decreased with increasing elevation, while the ratios of enzymes involved in the acquisition of N and P increased with increasing elevation, further indicating a shift in the relative demand for N and P by microbial biomass. We conclude that soil microorganisms shift investment in nutrient acquisition from P to N between lowland and montane tropical forests, suggesting that different nutrients regulate soil microbial metabolism and the soil carbon balance in these ecosystems.

  11. Effects of inorganic and organic amendments on the uptake of lead and trace elements by Brassica chinensis grown in an acidic red soil.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xianjin; Li, Xia; Liu, Xingmei; Hashmi, Muhammad Z; Xu, Jianming; Brookes, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the effects of inorganic (phosphate rock, single superphosphate and calcium magnesium phosphate) and organic amendments (peat, straw manure and pig manure) on the uptake of lead (Pb) and trace elements by Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis) grown in an acidic red soil. The application of all organic amendments increased the soil pH while inorganic amendments such as single superphosphate did not. Both inorganic and organic amendments decreased the availability and uptake of Pb while the organic amendments were superior to the inorganic (phosphate) amendments in reducing the availability of the more labile (soluble and exchangeable Pb) forms of soil Pb. More Pb was taken up by roots than shoots with all soil amendments. Among the organic amendments, straw manure and pig manure caused the largest decrease in Pb availability at 456.5 and 457.3 mg kg(-1), respectively, when a high level of 30 g organic amendments kg(-1) was applied. The organic amendments greatly increased the fraction D targeted to Fe-Mn oxides bound Pb, and decreased the fraction A (water-soluble), B (exchangeable), and C (carbonate-bound), thereby decreasing the solubility and mobility of Pb in soil. The organic amendments also significantly improved the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in the soil and shoots (except Fe in shoots and/or roots), which are essential for plant nutrition. The organic amendments of straw and pig manure lowered the availability and uptake of Pb but not that of other trace metals. Thus, these amendments have the potential to remediate Pb-contaminated soils in situ. PMID:24992219

  12. Using Multispectral and Elevation Data to Predict Soil Properties for a Better Management of Fertilizers at Field Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Ariane; Michaud, Aubert; Sylvain, Jean-Daniel; N'Dayegamiye, Adrien; Gasser, Marc-Olivier; Nolin, Michel; Perron, Isabelle; Grenon, Lucie; Beaudin, Isabelle; Desjardins, Jacques; Côté, Noémi

    2013-04-01

    This project aims at developing and validating an operational integrated management and localized approach at field scale using remote sensing data. It is realized in order to support the competitiveness of agricultural businesses, to ensure soil productivity in the long term and prevent diffuse contamination of surface waters. Our intention is to help agrienvironmental advisors and farmers in the consideration of spatial variability of soil properties in the management of fields. The proposed approach of soil properties recognition is based on the combination of elevation data and multispectral satellite imagery (Landsat) within statistical models. The method is based on the use of the largest possible number of satellite images to cover the widest range of soil moisture variability. Several spectral indices are calculated for each image (normalized brightness index, soil color index, organic matter index, etc.). The assignation of soils is based on a calibration procedure making use of the spatial soil database available in Canada. It includes soil profile point data associated to a database containing the information collected in the field. Three soil properties are predicted and mapped: A horizon texture, B horizon texture and drainage class. All the spectral indices, elevation data and soil data are combined in a discriminant analysis that produces discriminant functions. These are then used to produce maps of soil properties. In addition, from mapping soil properties, management zones are delineated within the field. The delineation of management zones with relatively similar soil properties is created to enable farmers to manage their fertilizers by taking greater account of their soils. This localized or precision management aims to adjust the application of fertilizer according to the real needs of soils and to reduce costs for farmers and the exports of nutrients to the stream. Mapping of soil properties will be validated in three agricultural regions in

  13. Use of metal-reducing bacteria for bioremediation of soil contaminated with mixed organic and inorganic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun-Young; Bosch, Julian; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2012-01-01

    Mixed contamination by organic and inorganic compounds in soil is a serious problem for remediation. Most laboratory studies and field-scale trials focused on individual contaminant in the past. For concurrent bioremediation by biodegradation and bioleaching processes, we tested metal-reducing microorganism, Geobacter metallireducens. In order to prove the feasibility of the coupled process, multiple-contaminated soil was prepared. Mineralogical analyses have shown the existence of labile forms of As(V) as amorphous and/or weakly sorbed phases in the secondary Fe oxides. In the biotic experiment using G. metallireducens, biodegradation of toluene and bioleaching of As by bacteria were observed simultaneously. Bacteria accelerated the degradation rate of toluene with reductive dissolution of Fe and co-dissolution of As. Although there have been many studies showing each individual process, we have shown here that the idea of concurrent microbial reaction is feasible. However, for the practical use as a remediation technology, more details and multilateral evaluations are required in future studies.

  14. Organic and inorganic amendments affect soil concentration and accumulation of cadmium and lead in wheat in calcareous alkaline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation with untreated effluent in periurban agriculture could result in accumulation and bioconcentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Different amendments were used to investigate their effect on availability, concentration, and uptake of metals by wheat in texturally different soils. Crop w...

  15. Concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic constituents in ambient surface soils, Chicago, Illinois, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Arnold, Terri L.; Cannon, William F.; Graham, David; Morton, Eric; Bienert, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    compounds, which are present primarily in the particulate phase in the atmosphere, tended to be in higher concentrations in the surface soils. The apparent effect of the PAH phase in the atmosphere on the concentration of a PAH in ambient surface soils indicates that atmospheric settling of particulate matter is an important source of the PAH compounds in ambient surface soils in Chicago. The distribution of PAH compounds within the city was complex. Comparatively high concentrations were detected near Lake Michigan in the northern part of the city, in much of the western part of the city, and in isolated areas in the southern part of the city. Concentrations were lower in much of the northwestern, south-central, southwestern, and far southern parts of the city. The arithmetic mean concentration of arsenic, mercury, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, molybdenum, zinc, and selenium was from 2 to 6 times higher in ambient surface soils in the city of Chicago than in soils from surrounding agricultural areas. The arithmetic mean concentration of lead in Chicago soils was about 20 times higher. Concentrations of calcium and magnesium above those of surrounding agricultural areas appear to be related to the effects of dolomite bedrock on the chemical composition of the soil. Elevated concentrations of the remaining elements listed above indicate a potential anthropogenic source(s) of these elements in Chicago soils.

  16. Association of Soil Aggregation with the Distribution and Quality of Organic Carbon in Soil along an Elevation Gradient on Wuyi Mountain in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Liguang; Vogel, Jason; He, Zhenli; Zou, Xiaoming; Ruan, Honghua; Huang, Wei; Wang, Jiashe; Bianchi, Thomas S

    2016-01-01

    Forest soils play a critical role in the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 and subsequent attenuation of global warming. The nature and properties of organic matter in soils have an influence on the sequestration of carbon. In this study, soils were collected from representative forestlands, including a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBF), a coniferous forest (CF), a subalpine dwarf forest (DF), and alpine meadow (AM) along an elevation gradient on Wuyi Mountain, which is located in a subtropical area of southeastern China. These soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory to examine the distribution and speciation of organic carbon (OC) within different size fractions of water-stable soil aggregates, and subsequently to determine effects on carbon sequestration. Soil aggregation rate increased with increasing elevation. Soil aggregation rate, rather than soil temperature, moisture or clay content, showed the strongest correlation with OC in bulk soil, indicating soil structure was the critical factor in carbon sequestration of Wuyi Mountain. The content of coarse particulate organic matter fraction, rather than the silt and clay particles, represented OC stock in bulk soil and different soil aggregate fractions. With increasing soil aggregation rate, more carbon was accumulated within the macroaggregates, particularly within the coarse particulate organic matter fraction (250-2000 μm), rather than within the microaggregates (53-250μm) or silt and clay particles (< 53μm). In consideration of the high instability of macroaggregates and the liability of SOC within them, further research is needed to verify whether highly-aggregated soils at higher altitudes are more likely to lose SOC under warmer conditions.

  17. Association of Soil Aggregation with the Distribution and Quality of Organic Carbon in Soil along an Elevation Gradient on Wuyi Mountain in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liguang; Vogel, Jason; He, Zhenli; Zou, Xiaoming; Ruan, Honghua; Huang, Wei; Wang, Jiashe; Bianchi, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    Forest soils play a critical role in the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 and subsequent attenuation of global warming. The nature and properties of organic matter in soils have an influence on the sequestration of carbon. In this study, soils were collected from representative forestlands, including a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBF), a coniferous forest (CF), a subalpine dwarf forest (DF), and alpine meadow (AM) along an elevation gradient on Wuyi Mountain, which is located in a subtropical area of southeastern China. These soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory to examine the distribution and speciation of organic carbon (OC) within different size fractions of water-stable soil aggregates, and subsequently to determine effects on carbon sequestration. Soil aggregation rate increased with increasing elevation. Soil aggregation rate, rather than soil temperature, moisture or clay content, showed the strongest correlation with OC in bulk soil, indicating soil structure was the critical factor in carbon sequestration of Wuyi Mountain. The content of coarse particulate organic matter fraction, rather than the silt and clay particles, represented OC stock in bulk soil and different soil aggregate fractions. With increasing soil aggregation rate, more carbon was accumulated within the macroaggregates, particularly within the coarse particulate organic matter fraction (250–2000 μm), rather than within the microaggregates (53–250μm) or silt and clay particles (< 53μm). In consideration of the high instability of macroaggregates and the liability of SOC within them, further research is needed to verify whether highly-aggregated soils at higher altitudes are more likely to lose SOC under warmer conditions. PMID:26964101

  18. Association of Soil Aggregation with the Distribution and Quality of Organic Carbon in Soil along an Elevation Gradient on Wuyi Mountain in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Liguang; Vogel, Jason; He, Zhenli; Zou, Xiaoming; Ruan, Honghua; Huang, Wei; Wang, Jiashe; Bianchi, Thomas S

    2016-01-01

    Forest soils play a critical role in the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 and subsequent attenuation of global warming. The nature and properties of organic matter in soils have an influence on the sequestration of carbon. In this study, soils were collected from representative forestlands, including a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBF), a coniferous forest (CF), a subalpine dwarf forest (DF), and alpine meadow (AM) along an elevation gradient on Wuyi Mountain, which is located in a subtropical area of southeastern China. These soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory to examine the distribution and speciation of organic carbon (OC) within different size fractions of water-stable soil aggregates, and subsequently to determine effects on carbon sequestration. Soil aggregation rate increased with increasing elevation. Soil aggregation rate, rather than soil temperature, moisture or clay content, showed the strongest correlation with OC in bulk soil, indicating soil structure was the critical factor in carbon sequestration of Wuyi Mountain. The content of coarse particulate organic matter fraction, rather than the silt and clay particles, represented OC stock in bulk soil and different soil aggregate fractions. With increasing soil aggregation rate, more carbon was accumulated within the macroaggregates, particularly within the coarse particulate organic matter fraction (250-2000 μm), rather than within the microaggregates (53-250μm) or silt and clay particles (< 53μm). In consideration of the high instability of macroaggregates and the liability of SOC within them, further research is needed to verify whether highly-aggregated soils at higher altitudes are more likely to lose SOC under warmer conditions. PMID:26964101

  19. Mycorrhizal fungal communities respond to experimental elevation of soil pH and P availability in temperate hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R; Kluber, Laurel A; Petersen, Sheryl M; Coyle, Kaitlin P; Hewins, Charlotte R; DeForest, Jared L; Smemo, Kurt A; Burke, David J

    2016-03-01

    Many forests are affected by chronic acid deposition, which can lower soil pH and limit the availability of nutrients such as phosphorus (P), but the response of mycorrhizal fungi to changes in soil pH and P availability and how this affects tree acquisition of nutrients is not well understood. Here, we describe an ecosystem-level manipulation in 72 plots, which increased pH and/or P availability across six forests in Ohio, USA. Two years after treatment initiation, mycorrhizal fungi on roots were examined with molecular techniques, including 454-pyrosequencing. Elevating pH significantly increased arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization and total fungal biomass, and affected community structure of AM and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi, suggesting that raising soil pH altered both mycorrhizal fungal communities and fungal growth. AM fungal taxa were generally negatively correlated with recalcitrant P pools and soil enzyme activity, whereas EcM fungal taxa displayed variable responses, suggesting that these groups respond differently to P availability. Additionally, the production of extracellular phosphatase enzymes in soil decreased under elevated pH, suggesting a shift in functional activity of soil microbes with pH alteration. Thus, our findings suggest that elevating pH increased soil P availability, which may partly underlie the mycorrhizal fungal responses we observed.

  20. Mycorrhizal fungal communities respond to experimental elevation of soil pH and P availability in temperate hardwood forests

    DOE PAGES

    Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R.; Kluber, Laurel A.; Petersen, Sheryl M.; Coyle, Kaitlin P.; Hewins, Charlotte R.; DeForest, Jared L.; Smemo, Kurt A.; Burke, David J.

    2016-02-04

    Many forests are affected by chronic acid deposition, which can lower soil pH and limit the availability of nutrients such as phosphorus (P), but the response of mycorrhizal fungi to changes in soil pH and P availability and how this affects tree acquisition of nutrients is not well understood. Here, we describe an ecosystem-level manipulation in 72 plots, which increased pH and/or P availability across six forests in Ohio, USA. Two years after treatment initiation, mycorrhizal fungi on roots were examined with molecular techniques, including 454-pyrosequencing. Elevating pH significantly increased arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization and total fungal biomass, andmore » affected community structure of AM and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi, suggesting that raising soil pH altered both mycorrhizal fungal communities and fungal growth. AM fungal taxa were generally negatively correlated with recalcitrant P pools and soil enzyme activity, whereas EcM fungal taxa displayed variable responses, suggesting that these groups respond differently to P availability. Additionally, the production of extracellular phosphatase enzymes in soil decreased under elevated pH, suggesting a shift in functional activity of soil microbes with pH alteration. Furthermore, our findings suggest that elevating pH increased soil P availability, which may partly underlie the mycorrhizal fungal responses we observed.« less

  1. Determination of inorganic pollutants in soil after volatilization using microwave-induced combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picoloto, Rochele S.; Wiltsche, Helmar; Knapp, Günter; Mello, Paola A.; Barin, Juliano S.; Flores, Erico M. M.

    2013-08-01

    Microwave-induced combustion (MIC) was applied for analyte volatilization from soil and subsequent determination of As, Cd and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and Hg by cold vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CVG-ICP-MS). Soil samples (up to 300 mg) were mixed with microcrystalline cellulose, pressed as pellets and combusted in closed quartz vessels pressurized with 20 bar O2. Analytes were volatilized from soil during combustion and quantitatively absorbed in a suitable solution: nitric acid (1, 2, 4 or 6 mol L- 1) or a solution of nitric (2 mol L- 1) and hydrochloric (1, 2 or 4 mol L- 1) acids. Accuracy was evaluated using certified reference materials of soil (NIST 2709, San Joaquin Soil) and sediment (SUD-1, Sudbury sediment for trace elements). Agreement with certified values was better than 95% (t-test, 95% confidence level) for all analytes when 6 mL of a solution of 2 mol L- 1 HNO3 and 2 mol L- 1 HCl was used with a reflux step of 5 min. The limit of detection was 0.010, 0.002, 0.009 and 0.012 μg g- 1 for As, Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively using ICP-MS determination. A clear advantage of the proposed method over classical approaches is that only diluted solution is used. Moreover, a complete separation of the analytes from matrix is achieved minimizing potential interferences in ICP-MS or ICP-OES determination. Up to eight samples can be digested in a single run of only 25 min, resulting in a solution suitable for the determination of all analytes by both techniques.

  2. Differences in the Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition in a Semi-Arid Ecosystem across an Elevational Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvinne, H.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.; Feris, K. P.; De Graaff, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Semi-arid ecosystems are a significant component of the global carbon (C) cycle as they store approximately 20% of global soil C. Yet, projected increases in mean annual temperatures might alter the amount of soil organic C (SOC) currently stored in these ecosystems. Uncertainties about the temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition have hindered accurate predictions of C cycle feedbacks to climate change. This study aims to elucidate how the temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition varies along an elevational (1000m) and climatic (i.e. mean annual temperature and precipitation) gradient. The study sites are located at Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory in Owyhee Mountains of Idaho, USA. We conducted stratified random sampling of soil up to 0-5cm across sagebrush canopy and inter-canopy areas at four elevations. We hypothesized decomposition of SOC pools at lower elevations to have greater temperature sensitivity (more CO2 respired per unit C) compared to upper due to the quality of C that is inherently more temperature sensitive. To assess the temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition, we used aerobic laboratory incubations (n=40) across a temperature gradient ((15, 20, 25, 30) oC) at constant soil moisture (60% water holding capacity) for 120 days and measured CO2 respired. Cumulative CO2 respired increased with increasing incubation temperature. Cumulative CO2 respired also increased with elevation as upper elevations support greater amounts of C. However, when normalized by SOC, we found that the temperature response of CO2 respiration was greater in soils derived from lower than higher elevations (p<0.05). These results indicate that the response of SOC decomposition to elevated temperatures differs strongly across the landscape in semi-arid ecosystems.

  3. Nitrogen Mineralization of a Loam Soil Supplemented with Organic-Inorganic Amendments under Laboratory Incubation.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, M Kaleem; Khaliq, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of nitrogen (N) supplying capacity of organic amendments applied to a soil is of immense importance to examine synchronization, N release capacity, and fertilizer values of these added materials. The aims of the present study was to determine the potential N mineralization and subsequent nitrification of separate and combined use of poultry manure (PM), wheat straw residues (WSR), and urea N (UN) applied to a loam soil incubated periodically over 140 days period. In addition, changes in total soil N and carbon contents were also monitored during the study. Treatments included: PM100, WSR100, PM50 + WSR50, UN100, UN50 + PM50, UN50 + WSR50, UN50 + PM25 + WSR25, and a control (unfertilized). All the amendments were applied on an N-equivalent basis at the rate of 200 mg N kg(-1). Results indicated that a substantial quantity of N had been released from the added amendments into the soil mineral pool and the net cumulative N mineralized varied between 39 and 147 mg N kg(-1), lowest in the WSR and highest in the UN50 + PM50. Significant differences were observed among the amendments and the net mineral N derived from a separate and combined use of PM was greater than the other treatments. The net cumulative N nitrified (NCNN) varied between 16 and 126 mg kg(-1), highest in UN50 + PM50 treatment. On average, percentage conversion of added N into available N by different amendments varied between 21 and 80%, while conversion of applied N into NO3 (-)-N ranged between 9 and 65%, and the treatment UN50 + PM50 displayed the highest N recovery. Urea N when applied alone showed disappearance of 37% N (N unaccounted for) at the end while application of PM and WSR with UN reduced N disappearance and increased N retention in the mineral pool for a longer period. Organic amendments alone or in combination with UN improved organic matter buildup and increased soil N concentration. These results demonstrate the existence of substantial amounts of N reserves present

  4. Nitrogen Mineralization of a Loam Soil Supplemented with Organic-Inorganic Amendments under Laboratory Incubation.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, M Kaleem; Khaliq, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of nitrogen (N) supplying capacity of organic amendments applied to a soil is of immense importance to examine synchronization, N release capacity, and fertilizer values of these added materials. The aims of the present study was to determine the potential N mineralization and subsequent nitrification of separate and combined use of poultry manure (PM), wheat straw residues (WSR), and urea N (UN) applied to a loam soil incubated periodically over 140 days period. In addition, changes in total soil N and carbon contents were also monitored during the study. Treatments included: PM100, WSR100, PM50 + WSR50, UN100, UN50 + PM50, UN50 + WSR50, UN50 + PM25 + WSR25, and a control (unfertilized). All the amendments were applied on an N-equivalent basis at the rate of 200 mg N kg(-1). Results indicated that a substantial quantity of N had been released from the added amendments into the soil mineral pool and the net cumulative N mineralized varied between 39 and 147 mg N kg(-1), lowest in the WSR and highest in the UN50 + PM50. Significant differences were observed among the amendments and the net mineral N derived from a separate and combined use of PM was greater than the other treatments. The net cumulative N nitrified (NCNN) varied between 16 and 126 mg kg(-1), highest in UN50 + PM50 treatment. On average, percentage conversion of added N into available N by different amendments varied between 21 and 80%, while conversion of applied N into NO3 (-)-N ranged between 9 and 65%, and the treatment UN50 + PM50 displayed the highest N recovery. Urea N when applied alone showed disappearance of 37% N (N unaccounted for) at the end while application of PM and WSR with UN reduced N disappearance and increased N retention in the mineral pool for a longer period. Organic amendments alone or in combination with UN improved organic matter buildup and increased soil N concentration. These results demonstrate the existence of substantial amounts of N reserves present

  5. Nitrogen Mineralization of a Loam Soil Supplemented with Organic–Inorganic Amendments under Laboratory Incubation

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, M. Kaleem; Khaliq, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of nitrogen (N) supplying capacity of organic amendments applied to a soil is of immense importance to examine synchronization, N release capacity, and fertilizer values of these added materials. The aims of the present study was to determine the potential N mineralization and subsequent nitrification of separate and combined use of poultry manure (PM), wheat straw residues (WSR), and urea N (UN) applied to a loam soil incubated periodically over 140 days period. In addition, changes in total soil N and carbon contents were also monitored during the study. Treatments included: PM100, WSR100, PM50 + WSR50, UN100, UN50 + PM50, UN50 + WSR50, UN50 + PM25 + WSR25, and a control (unfertilized). All the amendments were applied on an N-equivalent basis at the rate of 200 mg N kg-1. Results indicated that a substantial quantity of N had been released from the added amendments into the soil mineral pool and the net cumulative N mineralized varied between 39 and 147 mg N kg-1, lowest in the WSR and highest in the UN50 + PM50. Significant differences were observed among the amendments and the net mineral N derived from a separate and combined use of PM was greater than the other treatments. The net cumulative N nitrified (NCNN) varied between 16 and 126 mg kg-1, highest in UN50 + PM50 treatment. On average, percentage conversion of added N into available N by different amendments varied between 21 and 80%, while conversion of applied N into NO3-–N ranged between 9 and 65%, and the treatment UN50 + PM50 displayed the highest N recovery. Urea N when applied alone showed disappearance of 37% N (N unaccounted for) at the end while application of PM and WSR with UN reduced N disappearance and increased N retention in the mineral pool for a longer period. Organic amendments alone or in combination with UN improved organic matter buildup and increased soil N concentration. These results demonstrate the existence of substantial amounts of N reserves present in PM

  6. Uptake of inorganic and amino acid nitrogen from soil by Eucalyptus regnans and Eucalyptus pauciflora seedlings.

    PubMed

    Warren, Charles R

    2009-03-01

    This study examined whether two species of Eucalyptus can take up the amino acid glycine from soil and compared the uptake rate of glycine with the uptake rates of nitrate and ammonium. Ectomycorrhizal seedlings of two ecologically disparate species were studied: Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell., a fast-growing forest tree from low altitudes; and Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieber ex Spreng., a slow-growing tree that forms the alpine treeline. Seedlings were grown from seeds in field soil. When seedlings were 4-5 months old, soils were injected with equimolar mixtures of isotope-labeled glycine, ammonium and nitrate. Seedlings and soil were harvested 4 and 48 h later. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry analysis of (13)C and (15)N enrichment in plants receiving glycine indicated uptake of 1.5 (13)C for every (15)N at the 4-h harvest (versus 2:1 (13)C:(15)N in labeled glycine), suggesting intact uptake of around 75% of glycine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis detected intact (13)C(2),(15)N-glycine in roots, but the pool of (13)C(2),(15)N-glycine was 10-500 times smaller than (13)C and (15)N excess, and no (13)C(2),(15)N-glycine was detected in shoots. This is consistent with glycine being taken up as an intact molecule that is subsequently metabolized rapidly. Both species took up more nitrate than ammonium, and glycine was the least preferred form of nitrogen (N). Microbes took up more N than seedlings, and their preference for N forms was the mirror image of the plant preferences. These data suggest that patterns of microbial uptake may determine plant preference for forms of N. PMID:19203963

  7. Comparison of organic and inorganic amendments for enhancing soil lead phytoextraction by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Saifullah; Ghafoor, A; Zia, M H; Murtaza, G; Waraich, Ejaz Ahmad; Bibi, Sadia; Srivastava, P

    2010-09-01

    Phytoextraction has received increasing attention as a promising, cost-effective alternative to conventional engineering-based remediation methods for metal contaminated soils. In order to enhance the phytoremediative ability of green plants chelating agents are commonly used. Our study aims to evaluate whether, citric acid (CA) or elemental sulfur (S) should be used as an alternative to the ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)for chemically enhanced phytoextraction. Results showed that EDTA was more efficient than CA and S in solubilizing lead (Pb) from the soil. The application of EDTA and S increased the shoot biomass of wheat. However, application of CA at higher rates (30 mmol kg(-1)) resulted in significantly lower wheat biomass. Photosynthesis and transpiration rates increased with EDTA and S application, whereas these parameters were decreased with the application of CA. Elemental sulfur was ineffective for enhancing the concentration of Pb in wheat shoots. Although CA did not increase the Pb solubility measured at the end of experiment, however, it was more effective than EDTA in enhancing the concentration of Pb in the shoots of Triticum aestivum L. It was assumed that increase in Mn concentration to toxic levels in soil with CA addition might have resulted in unusual Pb concentration in wheat plants. The results of the present study suggest that under the conditions used in this experiment, CA at the highest dose was the best amendment for enhanced phytoextraction of Pb using wheat compared to either EDTA or S.

  8. Seismic response of an elevated aqueduct considering hydrodynamic and soil-structure interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeti, Bhavana; Ray-Chaudhuri, Samit; Raychowdhury, Prishati

    2016-03-01

    In conventional design of an elevated aqueduct, apart from considering the weight of water inside the channels, hydrodynamic forces are generally neglected. In a few special cases involving high seismic zones, hydrodynamic forces have been modeled considering equivalent lumped-mass type idealization or other models. For support conditions, either the base is considered as fixed or in a few cases, equivalent spring-dashpot system is considered. However, during an intense seismic event, nonlinear soil-structure interactions (SSI) may alter the response of the aqueduct significantly. This paper investigates the effect of hydrodynamic forces and SSI on seismic response of a representative elevated aqueduct model. Different modeling concepts of SSI has been adopted and the responses are compared. Frequency domain stochastic response analysis as well as time-history analysis with a series of ground motions of varying hazard levels have been performed. Demand parameters such as base shear and drift ratio are studied for varying heights of water in channels and different site conditions. From the frequency domain analysis, the effect of convective masses is found to be significant. From the time history analysis, the overall effect of increase in height of water is found to be negligible for nonlinear base case unlike the fixed and elastic base cases. For the nonlinear base condition, the base shear demand is found to decrease and the drift ratio is found to increase when compared to the results of linear base condition. The results of this study provide a better understanding of seismic behavior of an elevated aqueduct under various modeling assumptions and input excitations.

  9. Influence of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on belowground carbon allocation and enzyme activities in tropical flooded soil planted with rice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, P; Roy, K S; Neogi, S; Manna, M C; Adhya, T K; Rao, K S; Nayak, A K

    2013-10-01

    Changes in the soil labile carbon fractions and soil biochemical properties to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature reflect the changes in the functional capacity of soil ecosystems. The belowground root system and root-derived carbon products are the key factors for the rhizospheric carbon dynamics under elevated CO2 condition. However, the relationship between interactive effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on belowground soil carbon accrual is not very clear. To address this issue, a field experiment was laid out to study the changes of carbon allocation in tropical rice soil (Aeric Endoaquept) under elevated CO2 and elevated CO2 + elevated temperature conditions in open top chambers (OTCs). There were significant increase of root biomass by 39 and 44 % under elevated CO2 and elevated CO2 + temperature compared to ambient condition, respectively. A significant increase (55 %) of total organic carbon in the root exudates under elevated CO2 + temperature was noticed. Carbon dioxide enrichment associated with elevated temperature significantly increased soil labile carbon, microbial biomass carbon, and activities of carbon-transforming enzyme like β-glucosidase. Highly significant correlations were noticed among the different soil enzymes and soil labile carbon fractions.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    López-Valdez, F; Fernández-Luqueño, F; Luna-Suárez, S; Dendooven, L

    2011-12-15

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO(2) and N(2)O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO(2) and N(2)O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N(2)O emissions but not CO(2) emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern. PMID:22033361

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    López-Valdez, F; Fernández-Luqueño, F; Luna-Suárez, S; Dendooven, L

    2011-12-15

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO(2) and N(2)O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO(2) and N(2)O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N(2)O emissions but not CO(2) emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern.

  12. Responses of soil respiration to elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen addition in young subtropical forest ecosystems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Q.; Zhou, G.; Liu, J.; Liu, S.; Duan, H.; Zhang, D.

    2010-01-01

    Global climate change in the real world always exhibits simultaneous changes in multiple factors. Prediction of ecosystem responses to multi-factor global changes in a future world strongly relies on our understanding of their interactions. However, it is still unclear how nitrogen (N) deposition and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] would interactively influence forest floor soil respiration in subtropical China. We assessed the main and interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and N addition on soil respiration by growing tree seedlings in ten large open-top chambers under CO2 (ambient CO2 and 700 μmol mol-1) and nitrogen (ambient and 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1) treatments. Soil respiration, soil temperature and soil moisture were measured for 30 months, as well as above-ground biomass, root biomass and soil organic matter (SOM). Results showed that soil respiration displayed strong seasonal patterns with higher values observed in the wet season (April-September) and lower values in the dry season (October-March) in all treatments. Significant exponential relationships between soil respiration rates and soil temperatures, as well as significant linear relationships between soil respiration rates and soil moistures (below 15%) were found. Both CO2 and N treatments significantly affected soil respiration, and there was significant interaction between elevated [CO2] and N addition (p<0.001, p=0.003, and p=0.006, respectively). We also observed that the stimulatory effect of individual elevated [CO2] (about 29% increased) was maintained throughout the experimental period. The positive effect of N addition was found only in 2006 (8.17% increased), and then had been weakened over time. Their combined effect on soil respiration (about 50% increased) was greater than the impact of either one alone. Mean value of annual soil respiration was 5.32 ± 0.08, 4.54 ± 0.10, 3.56 ± 0.03 and 3.53 ± 0.03 kg CO2 m-2 yr-1 in the chambers exposed to elevated [CO2] and

  13. Solubilization of insoluble inorganic phosphate by Burkholderia cepacia DA23 isolated from cultivated soil

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ok-Ryul; Lee, Seung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Keun-Ki; Choi, Yong-Lark

    2008-01-01

    A mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia DA23 has been isolated from cultivated soils. Phosphate-solubilizing activities of the strain against three types of insoluble phosphate were quantitatively determined. When 3% of glucose concentration was used for carbon source, the strain had a marked mineral phosphate-solubilizing activity. Mineral phosphate solubilization was directly related to the pH drop by the strain. Analysis of the culture medium by high pressure liquid chromatography identified gluconic acid as the main organic acid released by Burkholderia cepacia DA23. Gluconic acid production was apparently the result of the glucose dehydrogenase activity and glucose dehydrogenase was affected by phosphate regulation. PMID:24031195

  14. Elevated CO2 did not mitigate the effect of a short-term drought on biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wertin, Timothy M.; Phillips, Susan L.; Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2012-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are critical components of arid and semi-arid ecosystems that contribute significantly to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fixation, water retention, soil stability, and seedling recruitment. While dry-land ecosystems face a number of environmental changes, our understanding of how biocrusts may respond to such perturbation remains notably poor. To determine the effect that elevated CO2 may have on biocrust composition, cover, and function, we measured percent soil surface cover, effective quantum yield, and pigment concentrations of naturally occurring biocrusts growing in ambient and elevated CO2 at the desert study site in Nevada, USA, from spring 2005 through spring 2007. During the experiment, a year-long drought allowed us to explore the interacting effects that elevated CO2 and water availability may have on biocrust cover and function. We found that, regardless of CO2 treatment, precipitation was the major regulator of biocrust cover. Drought reduced moss and lichen cover to near-zero in both ambient and elevated CO2 plots, suggesting that elevated CO2 did not alleviate water stress or increase C fixation to levels sufficient to mitigate drought-induced reduction in cover. In line with this result, lichen quantum yield and soil cyanobacteria pigment concentrations appeared more strongly dependent upon recent precipitation than CO2 treatment, although we did find evidence that, when hydrated, elevated CO2 increased lichen C fixation potential. Thus, an increase in atmospheric CO2 may only benefit biocrusts if overall climate patterns shift to create a wetter soil environment.

  15. Some Like it High! Phylogenetic Diversity of High-Elevation Cyanobacterial Community from Biological Soil Crusts of Western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Čapková, Kateřina; Hauer, Tomáš; Řeháková, Klára; Doležal, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The environment of high-altitudinal cold deserts of Western Himalaya is characterized by extensive development of biological soil crusts, with cyanobacteria as dominant component. The knowledge of their taxonomic composition and dependency on soil chemistry and elevation is still fragmentary. We studied the abundance and the phylogenetic diversity of the culturable cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae in soil crusts along altitudinal gradients (4600-5900 m) at two sites in the dry mountains of Ladakh (SW Tibetan Plateau and Eastern Karakoram), using both microscopic and molecular approaches. The effects of environmental factors (altitude, mountain range, and soil physico-chemical parameters) on the composition and biovolume of phototrophs were tested by multivariate redundancy analysis and variance partitioning. Both phylogenetic diversity and composition of morphotypes were similar between Karakorum and Tibetan Plateau. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene revealed strains belonging to at least five genera. Besides clusters of common soil genera, e.g., Microcoleus, Nodosilinea, or Nostoc, two distinct clades of simple trichal taxa were newly discovered. The most abundant cyanobacterial orders were Oscillatoriales and Nostacales, whose biovolume increased with increasing elevation, while that of Chroococales decreased. Cyanobacterial species richness was low in that only 15 morphotypes were detected. The environmental factors accounted for 52 % of the total variability in microbial data, 38.7 % of which was explained solely by soil chemical properties, 14.5 % by altitude, and 8.4 % by mountain range. The elevation, soil phosphate, and magnesium were the most important predictors of soil phototrophic communities in both mountain ranges despite their different bedrocks and origin. The present investigation represents a first record on phylogenetic diversity of the cyanobacterial community of biological soil crusts from Western Himalayas and first record

  16. Responses of soil cellulolytic fungal communities to elevated atmospheric CO2 are complex and variableacross five ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Carolyn F; Zak, Donald R; Hungate, Bruce; Jackson, Robert B; Vilgalys, Rytas; Evans, R David; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Megonigal, J. Patrick; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2011-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO(2) generally increases plant productivity and subsequently increases the availability of cellulose in soil to microbial decomposers. As key cellulose degraders, soil fungi are likely to be one of the most impacted and responsive microbial groups to elevated atmospheric CO(2) . To investigate the impacts of ecosystem type and elevated atmospheric CO(2) on cellulolytic fungal communities, we sequenced 10 677 cbhI gene fragments encoding the catalytic subunit of cellobiohydrolase I, across five distinct terrestrial ecosystem experiments after a decade of exposure to elevated CO(2) . The cbhI composition of each ecosystem was distinct, as supported by weighted Unifrac analyses (all P-values; < 0.001), with few operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being shared across ecosystems. Using a 114-member cbhI sequence database compiled from known fungi, less than 1% of the environmental sequences could be classified at the family level indicating that cellulolytic fungi in situ are likely dominated by novel fungi or known fungi that are not yet recognized as cellulose degraders. Shifts in fungal cbhI composition and richness that were correlated with elevated CO(2) exposure varied across the ecosystems. In aspen plantation and desert creosote bush soils, cbhI gene richness was significantly higher after exposure to elevated CO(2) (550 mol mol(-1) ) than under ambient CO(2) (360 mol mol(-1) CO(2) ). In contrast, while the richness was not altered, the relative abundance of dominant OTUs in desert soil crusts was significantly shifted. This suggests that responses are complex, vary across different ecosystems and, in at least one case, are OTU-specific. Collectively, our results document the complexity of cellulolytic fungal communities in multiple terrestrial ecosystems and the variability of their responses to long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO(2) .

  17. Microbial community and nitrogen cycling shift with snowmelt in high-elevation barren soils of Mount Rainier National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, A.; Zabowski, D.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change and nutrient deposition have the potential to accelerate soil formation in high-elevation sediments recently exposed by glacier or snow melt. This process has implications not only for ecosystem formation on Earth but for the formation of Earth-like ecosystems on other planets and icy moons. Research into microbial communities shifting from subnival to mesotrophic conditions has mainly focused on changes on respiration and biomass, and is generally limited to one or two well-studied geographical locations. In particular, more information is needed on microbial shifts in snow-covered volcanic sediments, which may prove the closest analog to the most 'habitable' non-terrestrial environments for Earth microorganisms. We sampled in volcanic soil and sediment along gradients of elevation and snowmelt - dry soil, moist soil next to snowpack, and soil underneath snowpack - at the Muir Snowfields at Mount Rainier National Park, in order to investigate changes in carbon and nitrogen compounds, microbial diversity and gene expression. Initial results show a decrease in available ammonium and increase in microbial biomass carbon in exposed sediment with increasing soil moisture, and a sharp decrease in microbial C:N ratios after snowmelt and drying. Available/labile organic carbon and organic nitrogen decrease strongly with elevation, while microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and mineral nitrogen compounds show no change with elevation. Though gene expression data is needed for confirmation, we hypothesize that these snowfields receive strong wind-borne deposits of carbon and nitrogen but that chemoautotrophic communities under semi-permanent snowpack do not shift to more mesotrophic communities until after exposed sediment has already begun to desiccate, limiting soil formation.

  18. Selenium accumulation and selenium tolerance of salt grass from soils with elevated concentrations of Se and salinity.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Huang, Z Z

    1991-12-01

    Biomass production, selenium accumulation, and the role of the bioextraction of selenium by salt grass (Distichlis spicata L.) in soils with elevated concentrations of Se and salinity at Kesterson, California, were studied. Salt grass contributed more than 80% vegetative coverage and 90% dry weight in the grassland communities where the soil Se concentrations were 100 times (1000 to 3000 micrograms kg-1) higher than the Se concentrations found in soils of the control sites. No evidence for evolution of Se tolerance was found in the salt grass populations. The successful colonization of salt grass in the soil with elevated Se and salinity is attributable to the presence of high concentrations of soil sulfate. Salt grass accumulated less Se than other salt-tolerant plant species existing in the same area, and no predation of animals and insects on salt grass has been noticed. Salt grass can transpire substantial amounts of volatile Se through its plant tissue. Under field conditions, a 1-m2 salt grass plot may produce 180 micrograms volatile selenium per day. However, no reduction of soil Se concentration in the salt grass habitat was detected over a period of 1 year. A long-term monitoring of Se status is needed in order to make predictions of the effectiveness of efforts to clean up Se-contaminated soils through the use of native plant species.

  19. Effect of long-term compost and inorganic fertilizer application on background N2O and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions from an intensively cultivated soil.

    PubMed

    Ding, Weixin; Luo, Jiafa; Li, Jie; Yu, Hongyan; Fan, Jianling; Liu, Deyan

    2013-11-01

    The influence of inorganic fertilizer and compost on background nitrous oxide (N2O) and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions were examined over a maize-wheat rotation year from June 2008 to May 2009 in a fluvo-aquic soil in Henan Province of China where a field experiment had been established in 1989 to evaluate the long-term effects of manure and fertilizer on soil organic status. The study involved five treatments: compost (OM), fertilizer NPK (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium, NPK), half compost N plus half fertilizer N (HOM), fertilizer NK (NK), and control without any fertilizer (CK). The natural logarithms of the background N2O fluxes were significantly (P<0.05) correlated with soil temperature, but not with soil moisture, during the maize or wheat growing season. The 18-year application of compost alone and inorganic fertilizer not only significantly (P<0.05) increased soil organic carbon (SOC) by 152% and 10-43% (respectively), but also increased background N2O emissions by 106% and 48-76% (respectively) compared with the control. Total N in soils was a better indicator for predicting annual background N2O emission than SOC. The estimated emission factor (EF) of mineralized N, calculated by dividing annual N2O emission by mineralized N was 0.13-0.19%, significantly (P<0.05) lower than the EF of added N (0.30-0.39%). The annual N2O emission in the NPK, HOM and OM soils amended with 300 kg ha(-1) organic or inorganic N was 1427, 1325 and 1178 g N ha(-1), respectively. There was a significant (P<0.05) difference between the NPK and OM. The results of this study indicate that soil indigenous N was less efficiently converted into N2O compared with exogenous N. Increasing SOC by compost application, then partially increasing N supply to crops instead of adding inorganic N fertilizer, may be an effective measure to mitigate N2O emissions from arable soils in the North China plain.

  20. Growth and Physiological Response of Tropical Lianas and Trees to Elevated CO2 and Soil Nutrient Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin, D. C.; Morrison, E.; Quebbeman, A.; Turner, B. L.; Winter, K.

    2012-12-01

    The recent increase in the abundance and size of native lianas (woody climbing vines) in tropical forests may lead to changes in species community composition and decreased carbon storage capacity (Schnitzer & Bongers 2011). Lianas are associated with an increased risk of tree mortality and decreased tree growth due to intense above and belowground competition with trees for light, water, and soil nutrients (Schnitzer & Bongers 2002). Increasing atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen deposition are potential drivers of the liana increase. Phosphorus availability, often assumed to be of key importance in constraining the productivity of lowland tropical forests, may decline as a consequence of increased nitrogen deposition (Matson et al. 1999). Our goal is to determine whether there is any difference in the growth and physiological response of tropical lianas and trees grown under elevated CO2, and whether any response differs as soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability change. We investigated locally abundant tropical liana and tree species grown in open-top chambers in Panama, half of which were maintained at twice-ambient levels of CO2. In two separate studies, seedlings were grown in pots that had either reduced soil nitrogen or phosphorus. Half of the pots in each experiment then received weekly additions of a nutrient mixture to return the soil nutrients to current levels found in neotropical forests. We found that elevated CO2 alone leads to a larger relative increase in the biomass of lianas than trees. The relative effect of elevated CO2 on the increase in liana biomass was much larger under low soil phosphorus availability. Nitrogen fertilization in combination with elevated CO2 led to a greater increase in tree height compared to lianas, but no other differences in growth response were found between the two plant types. These results suggest the liana increase will continue as elevated CO2 increases and phosphorus limitation is strengthened by increasing

  1. Elevated CO2 affects secondary metabolites in Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Liu, Tuo; Huang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    Secondary metabolites play important roles in plant interactions with the environment. The co-occurrence of heavy metal contamination of soils and rising atmospheric CO2 has important effects on plant. It is important to explore the ways in which production of plant secondary metabolites is affected by heavy metals under elevated atmospheric CO2. We examined the effects of elevated CO2 on secondary metabolite contents in Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings grown in Cd- and lead (Pb)-contaminated soils. The increase in secondary metabolites was greater under Cd + Pb exposure than under exposure to individual metals regardless of elevated CO2 with the exception of condensed tannins in leaves and total alkaloids in stems. Except for phenolic compounds and condensed tannins, elevated CO2 was associated with increased secondary metabolite contents in leaves and stems of plants exposed to Cd, Pb, and Cd + Pb compared to plants exposed to ambient CO2 + metals. Changes in saponins in leaves and alkaloids in stems were greater than changes in the other secondary metabolites. Significant interactive effects of CO2, Cd, and Pb on secondary metabolites were observed. Saponins in leaves and alkaloids in stems were more sensitive than other secondary metabolites to elevated CO2 + Cd + Pb. Elevated CO2 could modulate plant protection and defense mechanisms in R. pseudoacacia seedlings exposed to heavy metals by altering the production of secondary metabolites. The increased Cd and Pb uptake under elevated CO2 suggested that R. pseudoacacia may be used in the phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils under global environmental scenarios.

  2. Elevated CO2 affects secondary metabolites in Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Liu, Tuo; Huang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    Secondary metabolites play important roles in plant interactions with the environment. The co-occurrence of heavy metal contamination of soils and rising atmospheric CO2 has important effects on plant. It is important to explore the ways in which production of plant secondary metabolites is affected by heavy metals under elevated atmospheric CO2. We examined the effects of elevated CO2 on secondary metabolite contents in Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings grown in Cd- and lead (Pb)-contaminated soils. The increase in secondary metabolites was greater under Cd + Pb exposure than under exposure to individual metals regardless of elevated CO2 with the exception of condensed tannins in leaves and total alkaloids in stems. Except for phenolic compounds and condensed tannins, elevated CO2 was associated with increased secondary metabolite contents in leaves and stems of plants exposed to Cd, Pb, and Cd + Pb compared to plants exposed to ambient CO2 + metals. Changes in saponins in leaves and alkaloids in stems were greater than changes in the other secondary metabolites. Significant interactive effects of CO2, Cd, and Pb on secondary metabolites were observed. Saponins in leaves and alkaloids in stems were more sensitive than other secondary metabolites to elevated CO2 + Cd + Pb. Elevated CO2 could modulate plant protection and defense mechanisms in R. pseudoacacia seedlings exposed to heavy metals by altering the production of secondary metabolites. The increased Cd and Pb uptake under elevated CO2 suggested that R. pseudoacacia may be used in the phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils under global environmental scenarios. PMID:27376859

  3. Humic Acid Composition and Characteristics of Soil Organic Matter in Relation to the Elevation Gradient of Moso Bamboo Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Chou, Chiao-Ying; Chiou, Chyi-Rong; Tian, Guanglong

    2016-01-01

    Studying the influence of climatic and/or site-specific factors on soil organic matter (SOM) along an elevation gradient is important for understanding the response of SOM to global warming. We evaluated the composition of SOM and structure of humic acids along an altitudinal gradient from 600 to 1400 m in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantations in central Taiwan using NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis. Total organic C and total nitrogen (N) content increased with increasing elevation. Aromaticity decreased and ΔlogK (the logarithm of the absorbance ratio of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification decreased with increasing elevation. High temperature at low elevations seemed to enhance the decomposition (less accumulation of total organic C and N) and humification (high aromaticity and low ΔlogK). The alkyl-C/O-alkyl-C (A/O-A) ratio of humic acids increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification increased with increasing elevation; this finding was contrary to the trend observed for ΔlogK and aromaticity. Such a discrepancy might be due to the relatively greater remaining of SOM derived from high alkyl-C broadleaf litter of previous forest at high elevations. The ratio of recalcitrant C to total organic C was low at low elevations, possibly because of enhanced decomposition of recalcitrant SOM from the previous broadleaf forest during long-term intensive cultivation and high temperature. Overall, the change in SOM pools and in the rate of humification with elevation was primarily affected by changes in climatic conditions along the elevation gradient in these bamboo plantations. However, when the composition of SOM, as assessed by NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis was considered, site-specific factors such as residual SOM from previous forest and intensive cultivation history could also have an important effect on the humic acid composition and

  4. Humic Acid Composition and Characteristics of Soil Organic Matter in Relation to the Elevation Gradient of Moso Bamboo Plantations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Chou, Chiao-Ying; Chiou, Chyi-Rong; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Studying the influence of climatic and/or site-specific factors on soil organic matter (SOM) along an elevation gradient is important for understanding the response of SOM to global warming. We evaluated the composition of SOM and structure of humic acids along an altitudinal gradient from 600 to 1400 m in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantations in central Taiwan using NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis. Total organic C and total nitrogen (N) content increased with increasing elevation. Aromaticity decreased and ΔlogK (the logarithm of the absorbance ratio of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification decreased with increasing elevation. High temperature at low elevations seemed to enhance the decomposition (less accumulation of total organic C and N) and humification (high aromaticity and low ΔlogK). The alkyl-C/O-alkyl-C (A/O-A) ratio of humic acids increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification increased with increasing elevation; this finding was contrary to the trend observed for ΔlogK and aromaticity. Such a discrepancy might be due to the relatively greater remaining of SOM derived from high alkyl-C broadleaf litter of previous forest at high elevations. The ratio of recalcitrant C to total organic C was low at low elevations, possibly because of enhanced decomposition of recalcitrant SOM from the previous broadleaf forest during long-term intensive cultivation and high temperature. Overall, the change in SOM pools and in the rate of humification with elevation was primarily affected by changes in climatic conditions along the elevation gradient in these bamboo plantations. However, when the composition of SOM, as assessed by NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis was considered, site-specific factors such as residual SOM from previous forest and intensive cultivation history could also have an important effect on the humic acid composition and

  5. SOIL RESPIRATION RESPONSE TO THREE YEARS OF ELEVATED CO-2 AND N FERTILIZATION IN PONDEROSA PINE (PINUS PONDEROSA DOUG. EX LAWS.)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured growing season soil CO-2 evolution under elevated atmospheric (CO-2) and soil nitrogen (N) additions. Our objectives were to determine treatment effects, quantify seasonal variation, and compare two measurement techniques. Elevated (CO-2) treatments were applied in op...

  6. Elevated CO2, not defoliation, enhances N cycling and increases short-term soil N immobilization regardless of N addition in a semiarid grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated CO2 and defoliation effects on nitrogen (N) cycling in rangeland soils remain poorly understood. Here we tested whether effects of elevated CO2 and defoliation (clipping to 2.5 cm height) on N cycling depended on soil N availability (addition of 1 vs. 11 g N/m2) in intact mesocosms extracte...

  7. Microbe-driven turnover offsets mineral-mediated storage of soil carbon under elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulman, Benjamin N.; Phillips, Richard P.; Oishi, A. Christopher; Shevliakova, Elena; Pacala, Stephen W.

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to changing environmental conditions represents a critical uncertainty in coupled carbon cycle-climate models. Much of this uncertainty arises from our limited understanding of the extent to which root-microbe interactions induce SOC losses (through accelerated decomposition or `priming') or indirectly promote SOC gains (via `protection' through interactions with mineral particles). We developed a new SOC model to examine priming and protection responses to rising atmospheric CO2. The model captured disparate SOC responses at two temperate free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. We show that stabilization of `new' carbon in protected SOC pools may equal or exceed microbial priming of `old' SOC in ecosystems with readily decomposable litter and high clay content (for example, Oak Ridge). In contrast, carbon losses induced through priming dominate the net SOC response in ecosystems with more resistant litters and lower clay content (for example, Duke). The SOC model was fully integrated into a global terrestrial carbon cycle model to run global simulations of elevated CO2 effects. Although protected carbon provides an important constraint on priming effects, priming nonetheless reduced SOC storage in the majority of terrestrial areas, partially counterbalancing SOC gains from enhanced ecosystem productivity.

  8. Growth under elevated air temperature alters secondary metabolites in Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y H; Jia, X; Wang, W K; Liu, T; Huang, S P; Yang, M Y

    2016-09-15

    Plant secondary metabolites play a pivotal role in growth regulation, antioxidant activity, pigment development, and other processes. As the global climate changes, increasing atmospheric temperatures and contamination of soil by heavy metals co-occur in natural ecosystems, which alters the pH of rhizosphere soil and influences the bioavailability and mobility of metals. Elevated temperatures in combination with heavy metals are expected to affect plant secondary metabolites, but this issue has not been extensively examined. Here, we investigated secondary metabolites in Robiniapseudoacacia seedlings exposed to elevated temperatures using a passive warming device in combination with Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils. Heavy metals significantly stimulated the accumulation of saponins, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids in leaves and stems; alkaloid compounds increased in leaves and decreased in stems, and condensed tannins fluctuated. Elevated temperatures, alone and in combination with Cd and Pb, caused increases in secondary metabolites in the plant tissues. Phenolic compounds showed the greatest changes among the secondary metabolites and significant interactive effects of temperature and metals were observed. These results suggest that slightly elevated temperature could enhance protective and defense mechanisms of Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings exposed to heavy metals by stimulating the production of secondary metabolites.

  9. Growth under elevated air temperature alters secondary metabolites in Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y H; Jia, X; Wang, W K; Liu, T; Huang, S P; Yang, M Y

    2016-09-15

    Plant secondary metabolites play a pivotal role in growth regulation, antioxidant activity, pigment development, and other processes. As the global climate changes, increasing atmospheric temperatures and contamination of soil by heavy metals co-occur in natural ecosystems, which alters the pH of rhizosphere soil and influences the bioavailability and mobility of metals. Elevated temperatures in combination with heavy metals are expected to affect plant secondary metabolites, but this issue has not been extensively examined. Here, we investigated secondary metabolites in Robiniapseudoacacia seedlings exposed to elevated temperatures using a passive warming device in combination with Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils. Heavy metals significantly stimulated the accumulation of saponins, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids in leaves and stems; alkaloid compounds increased in leaves and decreased in stems, and condensed tannins fluctuated. Elevated temperatures, alone and in combination with Cd and Pb, caused increases in secondary metabolites in the plant tissues. Phenolic compounds showed the greatest changes among the secondary metabolites and significant interactive effects of temperature and metals were observed. These results suggest that slightly elevated temperature could enhance protective and defense mechanisms of Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings exposed to heavy metals by stimulating the production of secondary metabolites. PMID:27203519

  10. ELEVATED TEMPERATURE, SOIL MOISTURE AND SEASONALITY BUT NOT CO2 AFFECT CANOPY ASSIMILATION AND SYSTEM RESPIRATION IN SEEDLING DOUGLAS-FIR ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and air temperature on C cycling in trees and associated soil system, focusing on canopy CO2 assimilation (Asys) and system CO2 loss through respiration (Rsys). We hypothesized that both elevated CO2 and elevated temperature...

  11. DOES SOIL CO2 EFFLUX ACCLIMATIZETO ELEVATED TEMPERATURE AND CO2 DURING LONG-TERM TREATMENT OF DOUGLAS-FIR SEEDLINGS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the effects of elevated soil temperature and atmospheric CO2 efflux (SCE) during the third an fourth years of study. We hypothesized that elevated temperature would stimulate SCE, and elevated CO2 would also stimulate SCE with the stimulation being greater at hig...

  12. Dryland biological soil crust cyanobacteria show unexpected decreases in abundance under long-term elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Yeager, Chris M; Belnap, Jayne; Evans, R David; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2012-12-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) cover soil surfaces in many drylands globally. The impacts of 10 years of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the cyanobacteria in biocrusts of an arid shrubland were examined at a large manipulated experiment in Nevada, USA. Cyanobacteria-specific quantitative PCR surveys of cyanobacteria small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes suggested a reduction in biocrust cyanobacterial biomass in the elevated CO2 treatment relative to the ambient controls. Additionally, SSU rRNA gene libraries and shotgun metagenomes showed reduced representation of cyanobacteria in the total microbial community. Taxonomic composition of the cyanobacteria was similar under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions, indicating the decline was manifest across multiple cyanobacterial lineages. Recruitment of cyanobacteria sequences from replicate shotgun metagenomes to cyanobacterial genomes representing major biocrust orders also suggested decreased abundance of cyanobacteria sequences across the majority of genomes tested. Functional assignment of cyanobacteria-related shotgun metagenome sequences indicated that four subsystem categories, three related to oxidative stress, were differentially abundant in relation to the elevated CO2 treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that elevated CO2 affected a generalized decrease in cyanobacteria in the biocrusts and may have favoured cyanobacteria with altered gene inventories for coping with oxidative stress.

  13. Nitrogen Fertilization Has a Stronger Effect on Soil Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterial Communities than Elevated Atmospheric CO2

    PubMed Central

    Berthrong, Sean T.; Yeager, Chris M.; Gallegos-Graves, Laverne; Steven, Blaire; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Jackson, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is the primary supply of N to most ecosystems, yet there is considerable uncertainty about how N-fixing bacteria will respond to global change factors such as increasing atmospheric CO2 and N deposition. Using the nifH gene as a molecular marker, we studied how the community structure of N-fixing soil bacteria from temperate pine, aspen, and sweet gum stands and a brackish tidal marsh responded to multiyear elevated CO2 conditions. We also examined how N availability, specifically, N fertilization, interacted with elevated CO2 to affect these communities in the temperate pine forest. Based on data from Sanger sequencing and quantitative PCR, the soil nifH composition in the three forest systems was dominated by species in the Geobacteraceae and, to a lesser extent, Alphaproteobacteria. The N-fixing-bacterial-community structure was subtly altered after 10 or more years of elevated atmospheric CO2, and the observed shifts differed in each biome. In the pine forest, N fertilization had a stronger effect on nifH community structure than elevated CO2 and suppressed the diversity and abundance of N-fixing bacteria under elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions. These results indicate that N-fixing bacteria have complex, interacting responses that will be important for understanding ecosystem productivity in a changing climate. PMID:24610855

  14. Dryland biological soil crust cyanobacteria show unexpected decreases in abundance under long-term elevated CO2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Yeager, Chris M.; Belnap, Jayne; Evans, R. David; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2012-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) cover soil surfaces in many drylands globally. The impacts of 10 years of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the cyanobacteria in biocrusts of an arid shrubland were examined at a large manipulated experiment in Nevada, USA. Cyanobacteria-specific quantitative PCR surveys of cyanobacteria small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes suggested a reduction in biocrust cyanobacterial biomass in the elevated CO2 treatment relative to the ambient controls. Additionally, SSU rRNA gene libraries and shotgun metagenomes showed reduced representation of cyanobacteria in the total microbial community. Taxonomic composition of the cyanobacteria was similar under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions, indicating the decline was manifest across multiple cyanobacterial lineages. Recruitment of cyanobacteria sequences from replicate shotgun metagenomes to cyanobacterial genomes representing major biocrust orders also suggested decreased abundance of cyanobacteria sequences across the majority of genomes tested. Functional assignment of cyanobacteria-related shotgun metagenome sequences indicated that four subsystem categories, three related to oxidative stress, were differentially abundant in relation to the elevated CO2 treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that elevated CO2 affected a generalized decrease in cyanobacteria in the biocrusts and may have favoured cyanobacteria with altered gene inventories for coping with oxidative stress.

  15. Nitrogen fertilization has a stronger effect on soil nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities than elevated atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Berthrong, Sean T; Yeager, Chris M; Gallegos-Graves, Laverne; Steven, Blaire; Eichorst, Stephanie A; Jackson, Robert B; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2014-05-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is the primary supply of N to most ecosystems, yet there is considerable uncertainty about how N-fixing bacteria will respond to global change factors such as increasing atmospheric CO2 and N deposition. Using the nifH gene as a molecular marker, we studied how the community structure of N-fixing soil bacteria from temperate pine, aspen, and sweet gum stands and a brackish tidal marsh responded to multiyear elevated CO2 conditions. We also examined how N availability, specifically, N fertilization, interacted with elevated CO2 to affect these communities in the temperate pine forest. Based on data from Sanger sequencing and quantitative PCR, the soil nifH composition in the three forest systems was dominated by species in the Geobacteraceae and, to a lesser extent, Alphaproteobacteria. The N-fixing-bacterial-community structure was subtly altered after 10 or more years of elevated atmospheric CO2, and the observed shifts differed in each biome. In the pine forest, N fertilization had a stronger effect on nifH community structure than elevated CO2 and suppressed the diversity and abundance of N-fixing bacteria under elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions. These results indicate that N-fixing bacteria have complex, interacting responses that will be important for understanding ecosystem productivity in a changing climate.

  16. Are microbial N transformation rates in a permanent grassland soil after 17 years of elevated atmospheric CO2 sensitive to soil temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Gerald; Gorenflo, André; Brenzinger, Kristof; Clough, Tim; Braker, Gesche; Müller, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Long-term observations (17 years) within the Giessen Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (Giessen FACE) study on permanent grassland showed that the carbon fertilization caused significant changes in the ecosystem nitrogen cycle. These changes are responsible for a doubling of annual N2O emissions under elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) caused by increased emissions during the plant growing season. The goal of this lab study was to understand how soil temperature influences the long-term effects of eCO2 and plant carbon input on microbial N transformations in the Giessen FACE. Therefore, a pulse labelling study with 15N tracing of 15NH4+ and 15NO3- was carried out with incubated soil samples from elevated and ambient CO2 FACE rings in climate chambers at two different temperatures (10°C and 19°C), while water filled pore space of the samples was adjusted to the same level. The various N pools in the soil (NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, soil organic matter), N2O emissions and simultaneous gross N transformation rates were quantified. The quantification of the gross N transformations are based on the turnover of 15NH4+, 15NO3-, 15NO2- and shall illuminate the interaction between carbon fertilization, temperature and changes in nitrogen cycle in this grassland soil. While the soil respiration after labelling was significantly increased at 19°C compared to 10°C, N2O emissions showed no significant differences. There were also no significant differences of N2O emissions between soil samples from control and elevated CO2 rings within each temperature level. As the soil temperature (within the range of 10-19°C) had no significant effects on N transformations responsible for the observed doubling of N2O emissions under eCO2, it seems most likely that other factors like direct carbon input by plants and/or soil moisture differences between ambient and elevated rings in the field are responsible for the observed increase in N2O emissions under eCO2.

  17. Are microbial N transformation rates in a permanent grassland soil after 17 years of elevated atmospheric CO2 sensitive to soil temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Gerald; Gorenflo, André; Brenzinger, Kristof; Clough, Tim; Braker, Gesche; Müller, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Long-term observations (17 years) within the Giessen Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (Giessen FACE) study on permanent grassland showed that the carbon fertilization caused significant changes in the ecosystem nitrogen cycle. These changes are responsible for a doubling of annual N2O emissions under elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) caused by increased emissions during the plant growing season. The goal of this lab study was to understand how soil temperature influences the long-term effects of eCO2 and plant carbon input on microbial N transformations in the Giessen FACE. Therefore, a pulse labelling study with 15N tracing of 15NH4+ and 15NO3‑ was carried out with incubated soil samples from elevated and ambient CO2 FACE rings in climate chambers at two different temperatures (10°C and 19°C), while water filled pore space of the samples was adjusted to the same level. The various N pools in the soil (NH4+, NO3‑, NO2‑, soil organic matter), N2O emissions and simultaneous gross N transformation rates were quantified. The quantification of the gross N transformations are based on the turnover of 15NH4+, 15NO3‑, 15NO2‑ and shall illuminate the interaction between carbon fertilization, temperature and changes in nitrogen cycle in this grassland soil. While the soil respiration after labelling was significantly increased at 19°C compared to 10°C, N2O emissions showed no significant differences. There were also no significant differences of N2O emissions between soil samples from control and elevated CO2 rings within each temperature level. As the soil temperature (within the range of 10-19°C) had no significant effects on N transformations responsible for the observed doubling of N2O emissions under eCO2, it seems most likely that other factors like direct carbon input by plants and/or soil moisture differences between ambient and elevated rings in the field are responsible for the observed increase in N2O emissions under eCO2.

  18. SOIL RESPIRED D13C SIGNATURES REFLECT ROOT EXUDATE OR ROOT TURNOVER SIGNATURES IN AN ELEVATED CO2 AND OZONE MESOCOSM EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bulk tissue and root and soil respired d13C signatures were measured throughout the soil profile in a Ponderosa Pine mesocosm experiment exposed to ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations. For the ambient treatment, root (0-1mm, 1-2mm, and >2mm) and soil d13C signatures were ?24...

  19. Using scaling factors for evaluating spatial and temporal variability of soil hydraulic properties within one elevation transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikodem, Antonín; Kodešová, Radka; Jakšík, Ondřej; Fér, Miroslav; Klement, Aleš

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out in Southern Moravia, in the Czech Republic. The original soil unit in the wider area is a Haplic Chernozem developed on loess. The intensive agricultural exploitation in combination with terrain morphology has resulted in a highly diversified soil spatial pattern. Nowadays the original soil unit is preserved only on top of relatively flat parts, and is gradually transformed by water erosion up to Regosols on the steepest slopes, while colluvial soils are formed in terrain depressions and at toe slopes due to sedimentation of previously eroded material. Soils within this area has been intensively investigated during the last several years (e.g. Jakšík et al., 2015; Vašát et al., 2014, 2015a,b). Soil sampling (disturbed and undisturbed 100-cm3 soil samples) was performed at 5 points of one elevation transect in November 2010 (after wheat sowing) and August 2011 (after wheat harvest). Disturbed soil samples were used to determine basic soil properties (grain size distribution and organic carbon content etc.). Undisturbed soil samples were used to determine the soil water retention curves and the hydraulic conductivity functions using the multiple outflow tests in Tempe cells and a numerical inversion with HYDRUS 1-D. Scaling factors (alpha-h for pressure head, alpha-theta for soil water contents and alpha-k for hydraulic conductivities) were used here to express soil hydraulic properties variability. Evaluated scaling factors reflected position within the elevation transect as well as time of soil sampling. In general large values of alpha-h, lower values of alpha-k and similar values of alpha-theta were obtained in 2010 in comparison to values obtained in 2011, which indicates development of soil structure during the vegetation season. Jakšík, O., Kodešová, R., Kubiš, A., Stehlíková, I., Drábek, O., Kapička, A. (2015): Soil aggregate stability within morphologically diverse areas. Catena, 127, 287-299. Vašát, R., Kode

  20. Elevated CO2 shifts the functional structure and metabolic potentials of soil microbial communities in a C4 agroecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jinbo; He, Zhili; Shi, Shengjing; Kent, Angela; Deng, Ye; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration is continuously increasing, and previous studies have shown that elevated CO2 (eCO2) significantly impacts C3 plants and their soil microbial communities. However, little is known about effects of eCO2 on the compositional and functional structure, and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities under C4 plants. Here we showed that a C4 maize agroecosystem exposed to eCO2 for eight years shifted the functional and phylogenetic structure of soil microbial communities at both soil depths (0–5 cm and 5–15 cm) using EcoPlate and functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) analyses. The abundances of key genes involved in carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling were significantly stimulated under eCO2 at both soil depths, although some differences in carbon utilization patterns were observed between the two soil depths. Consistently, CO2 was found to be the dominant factor explaining 11.9% of the structural variation of functional genes, while depth and the interaction of depth and CO2 explained 5.2% and 3.8%, respectively. This study implies that eCO2 has profound effects on the functional structure and metabolic potential/activity of soil microbial communities associated with C4 plants, possibly leading to changes in ecosystem functioning and feedbacks to global change in C4 agroecosystems. PMID:25791904

  1. Elevated CO2 shifts the functional structure and metabolic potentials of soil microbial communities in a C4 agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinbo; He, Zhili; Shi, Shengjing; Kent, Angela; Deng, Ye; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-03-20

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration is continuously increasing, and previous studies have shown that elevated CO2 (eCO2) significantly impacts C3 plants and their soil microbial communities. However, little is known about effects of eCO2 on the compositional and functional structure, and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities under C4 plants. Here we showed that a C4 maize agroecosystem exposed to eCO2 for eight years shifted the functional and phylogenetic structure of soil microbial communities at both soil depths (0-5 cm and 5-15 cm) using EcoPlate and functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) analyses. The abundances of key genes involved in carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling were significantly stimulated under eCO2 at both soil depths, although some differences in carbon utilization patterns were observed between the two soil depths. Consistently, CO2 was found to be the dominant factor explaining 11.9% of the structural variation of functional genes, while depth and the interaction of depth and CO2 explained 5.2% and 3.8%, respectively. This study implies that eCO2 has profound effects on the functional structure and metabolic potential/activity of soil microbial communities associated with C4 plants, possibly leading to changes in ecosystem functioning and feedbacks to global change in C4 agroecosystems.

  2. Elevated atmospheric CO2 stimulates soil fungal diversity through increased fine root production in a semiarid shrubland ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Lipson, David A; Kuske, Cheryl R; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Oechel, Walter C

    2014-08-01

    Soil fungal communities are likely to be central in mediating microbial feedbacks to climate change through their effects on soil carbon (C) storage, nutrient cycling, and plant health. Plants often produce increased fine root biomass in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ), but the responses of soil microbial communities are variable and uncertain, particularly in terms of species diversity. In this study, we describe the responses of the soil fungal community to free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) in a semiarid chaparral shrubland in Southern California (dominated by Adenomstoma fasciculatum) using large subunit rRNA gene sequencing. Community composition varied greatly over the landscape and responses to FACE were subtle, involving a few specific groups. Increased frequency of Sordariomycetes and Leotiomycetes, the latter including the Helotiales, a group that includes many dark septate endophytes known to associate positively with roots, was observed in the FACE plots. Fungal diversity, both in terms of richness and evenness, increased consistently in the FACE treatment, and was relatively high compared to other studies that used similar methods. Increases in diversity were observed across multiple phylogenetic levels, from genus to class, and were distributed broadly across fungal lineages. Diversity was also higher in samples collected close to (5 cm) plants compared to samples in canopy gaps (30 cm away from plants). Fungal biomass correlated well with soil organic matter (SOM) content, but patterns of diversity were correlated with fine root production rather than SOM. We conclude that the fungal community in this ecosystem is tightly linked to plant fine root production, and that future changes in the fungal community in response to elevated CO2 and other climatic changes will be primarily driven by changes in plant belowground allocation. Potential feedbacks mediated by soil fungi, such as soil C sequestration, nutrient cycling, and

  3. Assessing the effect of elevated carbon dioxide on soil carbon: a comparison of four meta-analyses.

    SciTech Connect

    Hungate, B. A.; van Groenigen, K.; Six, J.; Jastrow, J. D.; Luo, Y.; de Graaff, M.; van Kessel, C.; Osenberg, C. W.

    2009-08-01

    Soil is the largest reservoir of organic carbon (C) in the terrestrial biosphere and soil C has a relatively long mean residence time. Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations generally increase plant growth and C input to soil, suggesting that soil might help mitigate atmospheric CO{sub 2} rise and global warming. But to what extent mitigation will occur is unclear. The large size of the soil C pool not only makes it a potential buffer against rising atmospheric CO{sub 2}, but also makes it difficult to measure changes amid the existing background. Meta-analysis is one tool that can overcome the limited power of single studies. Four recent meta-analyses addressed this issue but reached somewhat different conclusions about the effect of elevated CO{sub 2} on soil C accumulation, especially regarding the role of nitrogen (N) inputs. Here, we assess the extent of differences between these conclusions and propose a new analysis of the data. The four meta-analyses included different studies, derived different effect size estimates from common studies, used different weighting functions and metrics of effect size, and used different approaches to address nonindependence of effect sizes. Although all factors influenced the mean effect size estimates and subsequent inferences, the approach to independence had the largest influence. We recommend that meta-analysts critically assess and report choices about effect size metrics and weighting functions, and criteria for study selection and independence. Such decisions need to be justified carefully because they affect the basis for inference. Our new analysis, with a combined data set, confirms that the effect of elevated CO{sub 2} on net soil C accumulation increases with the addition of N fertilizers. Although the effect at low N inputs was not significant, statistical power to detect biogeochemically important effect sizes at low N is limited, even with meta-analysis, suggesting the continued need for

  4. Competitive interactions between established grasses and woody plant seedlings under elevated CO₂ levels are mediated by soil water availability.

    PubMed

    Manea, A; Leishman, M R

    2015-02-01

    The expansion of woody plants into grasslands has been observed worldwide and is likely to have widespread ecological consequences. One proposal is that woody plant expansion into grasslands is driven in part by the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We have examined the effect of CO2 concentration on the competitive interactions between established C4 grasses and woody plant seedlings in a model grassland system. Woody plant seedlings were grown in mesocosms together with established C4 grasses in three competition treatments (root competition, shoot competition and root + shoot competition) under ambient and elevated CO2 levels. We found that the growth of the woody plant seedlings was suppressed by competition from grasses, with root and shoot competition having similar competitive effects on growth. In contrast to expectations, woody plant seedling growth was reduced at elevated CO2 levels compared to that at the ambient CO2 level across all competition treatments, with the most plausible explanation being reduced light and soil water availability in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Reduced light and soil water availability in the elevated CO2 mesocosms was associated with an increased leaf area index of the grasses which offset the reductions in stomatal conductance and increased rainfall interception. The woody plant seedlings also had reduced 'escapability' (stem biomass and stem height) under elevated compared to ambient CO2 levels. Our results suggest that the expansion of woody plants into grasslands in the future will likely be context-dependent, with the establishment success of woody plant seedlings being strongly coupled to the CO2 response of competing grasses and to soil water availability.

  5. Silver Nanoparticles Entering Soils via the Wastewater-Sludge-Soil Pathway Pose Low Risk to Plants but Elevated Cl Concentrations Increase Ag Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Menzies, Neal W; Dennis, Paul G; Guo, Jianhua; Forstner, Christian; Sekine, Ryo; Lombi, Enzo; Kappen, Peter; Bertsch, Paul M; Kopittke, Peter M

    2016-08-01

    The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) results in their movement into wastewater treatment facilities and subsequently to agricultural soils via application of contaminated sludge. On-route, the chemical properties of Ag may change, and further alterations are possible upon entry to soil. In the present study, we examined the long-term stability and (bio)availability of Ag along the "wastewater-sludge-soil" pathway. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) revealed that ca. 99% of Ag added to the sludge reactors as either Ag-NPs or AgNO3 was retained in sludge, with ≥79% of this being transformed to Ag2S, with the majority (≥87%) remaining in this form even after introduction to soils at various pH values and Cl concentrations for up to 400 days. Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), chemical extraction, and plant uptake experiments indicated that the potential (bio)availability of Ag in soil was low but increased markedly in soils with elevated Cl, likely due to the formation of soluble AgClx complexes in the soil solution. Although high Cl concentrations increased the bioavailability of Ag markedly, plant growth was not reduced in any treatment. Our results indicate that Ag-NPs entering soils through the wastewater-sludge-soil pathway pose low risk to plants due to their conversion to Ag2S in the wastewater treatment process, although bioavailability may increase in saline soils or when irrigated with high-Cl water. PMID:27380126

  6. Elevated CO2 levels affects the concentrations of copper and cadmium in crops grown in soil contaminated with heavy metals under fully open-air field conditions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongyan; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Pei, Daping; Ji, Rong; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Xiaorong

    2011-08-15

    Elevated CO(2) levels and the increase in heavy metals in soils through pollution are serious problems worldwide. Whether elevated CO(2) levels will affect plants grown in heavy-metal-polluted soil and thereby influence food quality and safety is not clear. Using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) system, we investigated the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on the concentrations of copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd) in rice and wheat grown in soil with different concentrations of the metals in the soil. In the two-year study, elevated CO(2) levels led to lower Cu concentrations and higher Cd concentrations in shoots and grain of both rice and wheat grown in the respective contaminated soil. Elevated CO(2) levels slightly but significantly lowered the pH of the soil and led to changes in Cu and Cd fractionation in the soil. Our study indicates that elevated CO(2) alters the distribution of contaminant elements in soil and plants, thereby probably affecting food quality and safety.

  7. Effects of soil chemistry on tropical forest biomass and productivity at different elevations in the equatorial Andes.

    PubMed

    Unger, Malte; Homeier, Jürgen; Leuschner, Christoph

    2012-09-01

    The dependence of aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests on soil fertility is not fully understood, since previous studies yielded contrasting results. Here, we quantify aboveground biomass (AGB) and stem wood production, and examine the impact of soil chemistry on these parameters in mature tropical forest stands of the equatorial Andes in Ecuador. In 80 plots of 0.04 ha at four elevation levels (500, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 m a.s.l., total sample area = 3.2 ha), we measured ten important soil chemical parameters, inventoried all trees ≥10 cm dbh and monitored stem diameter growth with dendrometer tapes in 32 plots. Top canopy height and stem density significantly decreased from 500 to 2,000 m, while tree basal area increased and AGB remained invariant (344 ± 17 Mg DM ha(-1), mean ± SE) with elevation. Wood specific gravity (WSG) showed a significant, but small, decrease. Stem wood production decreased from 4.5 to 3.2 Mg DM ha(-1) year(-1) along the transect, indicating a higher biomass turnover at lower elevations. The only soil variable that covaried with AGB was exchangeable K in the topsoil. WSG increased with decreases in N mineralisation rate, soil pH and extractable Ca and P concentrations. Structural equation modelling (SEM) revealed that nitrogen availability acts on stem wood production only indirectly through a negative relation between N mineralisation rate and WSG, and a positive effect of a lowered WSG on stem growth. The SEM analysis showed neither direct nor indirect effects of resin-extractable P on wood production, but a negative P influence on AGB. We conclude that nitrogen availability significantly influences productivity in these Andean forests, but both N and P are affecting wood production mainly indirectly through alterations in WSG and stem density; the growth-promoting effect of N is apparently larger than that of P. PMID:22410639

  8. Carbon input control over soil organic matter dynamics in a temperate grassland exposed to elevated CO2 and warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, Y.; Pendall, E.; Dijkstra, F. A.; Morgan, J. A.; Newcomb, J. M.

    2010-03-01

    Elevated CO2 generally increases soil C pools. However, greater available C concentrations can potentially stimulate soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. The effects of climate warming on C storage can also be positive or negative. There is a high degree of uncertainty on the combined effects of climate warming and atmospheric CO2 increase on SOM dynamics and its potential feedbacks to climate change. Semi-arid systems are predicted to show strong ecosystem responses to both factors. Global change factors can have contrasting effects for different SOM pools, thus, to understand the mechanisms underlying the combined effects of multiple factors on soil C storage, effects on individual C pools and their kinetics should be evaluated. We assessed SOM dynamics by conducting long-term laboratory incubations of soils from PHACE (Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment experiment), an elevated CO2 and warming field experiment in semi-arid, native northern mixed grass prairie, Wyoming, USA. We measured total C mineralization and estimated the size of the labile pool and the decomposition rates of the labile and resistant SOM pools. To examine the role of plant inputs on SOM dynamics we measured aboveground biomass, root biomass, and soil dissolved organic C (DOC). Greater aboveground productivity under elevated CO2 translated into enlarged pools of readily available C (measured as total mineralized C, labile C pool and DOC). The effects of warming on the labile C only occurred in the first year of warming suggesting a transient effect of the microbial response to increased temperature. Experimental climate change affected the intrinsic decomposability of both the labile and resistant C pools. Positive relationships of the rate of decomposition of the resistant C with aboveground and belowground biomass and dissolved organic C suggested that plant inputs mediated the response by enhancing the degradability of the resistant C. Our results contribute to a growing body of

  9. Compound-specific 15N analysis of amino acids in 15N tracer experiments provide an estimate of newly synthesised soil protein from inorganic and organic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charteris, Alice; Michaelides, Katerina; Evershed, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Organic N concentrations far exceed those of inorganic N in most soils and despite much investigation, the composition and cycling of this complex pool of SOM remains poorly understood. A particular problem has been separating more recalcitrant soil organic N from that actively cycling through the soil system; an important consideration in N cycling studies and for the soil's nutrient supplying capacity. The use of 15N-labelled substrates as stable isotope tracers has contributed much to our understanding of the soil system, but the complexity and heterogeneity of soil organic N prevents thorough compound-specific 15N analyses of organic N compounds and makes it difficult to examine any 15N-labelled organic products in any detail. As a result, a significant proportion of previous work has either simply assumed that since the majority of soil N is organic, all of the 15N retained in the soil is organic N (e.g. Sebilo et al., 2013) or subtracted 15N-labelled inorganic compounds from bulk values (e.g. Pilbeam et al., 1997). While the latter approach is more accurate, these methods only provide an estimate of the bulk 15N value of an extremely complex and non-uniformly labelled organic pool. A more detailed approach has been to use microbial biomass extraction (Brookes et al., 1985) and subsequent N isotopic analysis to determine the 15N value of biomass-N, representing the fraction of 15N assimilated by microbes or the 15N cycling through the 'living' or 'active' portion of soil organic N. However, this extraction method can only generate estimates and some lack of confidence in its validity and reliability remains. Here, we present an alternative technique to obtain a measure of the assimilation of an applied 15N substrate by the soil microbial biomass and an estimate of the newly synthesized soil protein, which is representative of the magnitude of the active soil microbial biomass. The technique uses a stable isotope tracer and compound-specific 15N analysis, but

  10. The impact of elevated CO2 concentrations on soil microbial community, soil organic matter storage and nutrient cycling at a natural CO2 vent in NW Bohemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Martin; Beulig, Felix; von Fischer, Joe; Muhr, Jan; Kuesel, Kirsten; Trumbore, Susan

    2014-05-01

    findings of this study can help to understand interactions of soil, microorganisms and plants under elevated CO2 concentrations in these special soils. Further, they will help to quantify the process of autotrophic uptake of CO2 in soils and its influence on subsurface C cycling.

  11. Natural vegetation restoration is more beneficial to soil surface organic and inorganic carbon sequestration than tree plantation on the Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhao; Dong, Yunshe; Wang, Yunqiang; Wei, Xiaorong; Wang, Yafeng; Cui, Buli; Zhou, Weijian

    2014-07-01

    Natural vegetation restoration and tree plantation are the two most important measures for ecosystem restoration on the Loess Plateau of China. However, few studies have compared the effects of the two contrasting measures on soil organic and inorganic carbon (SOC and SIC) sequestration or have further used SOC and SIC isotopes to analyze the inherent sequestration mechanism. This study examined a pair of neighboring small watersheds with similar topographical and geological backgrounds. Since 1954, natural vegetation restoration has been conducted in one of these watersheds, and tree plantation has been conducted in the other. The two watersheds have now formed completely different landscapes (naturally restored grassland and artificial forestland). Differences in soil bulk density, SOC and SIC content and storage, and SOC and SIC δ(13)C values were investigated in the two ecosystems in the upper 1m of the soil. We found that SOC storage was higher in the grassland than in the forestland, with a difference of 14.90 Mg ha(-1). The vertical changes in the δ(13)CSOC value demonstrated that the two ecosystems have different mechanisms of soil surface organic carbon accumulation. The SIC storage in the grassland was lower than that in the forestland, with a difference of 38.99 Mg ha(-1). The δ(13)CSIC values indicated that the grassland generates more secondary carbonate than the forestland and that SIC was most likely transported to the rivers from the grassland as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The biogeochemical characteristics of the grassland were favorable for the formation of bicarbonate. Thus, more DIC derived from the dissolution of root and microbial respired CO2 into soil water could have been transported to the rivers through flood runoff. It is necessary to study further the transportation of DIC from the grassland because this process can produce a large potential carbon sink.

  12. How do elevated [CO2], warming, and reduced precipitation interact to affect soil moisture and LAI in an old field ecosystem?

    SciTech Connect

    Dermody, Orla; Weltzin, Jake; Engel, Elizabeth C.; Allen, Phillip; Norby, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    Soil moisture content and leaf area index (LAI) are properties that will be particularly important in mediating whole system responses to the combined effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2], warming and altered precipitation. Warming and drying will likely reduce soil moisture, and this effect may be exacerbated when these factors are combined. However, elevated [CO2] may increase soil moisture contents and when combined with warming and drying may partially compensate for their effects. The response of LAI to elevated [CO2] and warming will be closely tied to soil moisture status and may mitigate or exacerbate the effects of global change on soil moisture. Using open-top chambers (4-m diameter), the interactive effects of elevated [CO2], warming, and differential irrigation on soil moisture availability were examined in the OCCAM (Old-Field Community Climate and Atmospheric Manipulation) experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in eastern Tennessee. Warming consistently reduced soil moisture contents and this effect was exacerbated by reduced irrigation. However, elevated [CO2] partially compensated for the effects of warming and drying on soil moisture. Changes in LAI were closely linked to soil moisture status. LAI was determined using an AccuPAR ceptometer and both the leaf area duration (LAD) and canopy size were increased by irrigation and elevated [CO2]. The climate of the southeastern United States is predicted to be warmer and drier in the future. This research suggests that although elevated [CO2] will partially ameliorate the effects of warming and drying, losses of soil moisture will increase from old field ecosystems in the future.

  13. Turnover and storage of soil organic carbon from different land uses on an elevation gradient in the Peruvian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Viktoria; Kala, Jose; Lever, Rebecca; Oliveras, Imma; Arn Teh, Yit

    2015-04-01

    Tropical soils account for a third of global soil C and play a critical role in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The continuing fast rates of deforestation in the tropics for agricultural expansion and subsequent abandonment of new land uses are of particular interest to the science of soil C because of the associated C losses and potential for C sequestration. This study seeks to improve understanding of soil C stock changes within managed land in different ecosystems over a 2600 m gradient in the south-eastern Peruvian Andes. Using a density fractionation technique and natural abundance isotopes, the effects of the diverse range of local land use changes on 23 sites were investigated: grazing and burning on high altitude montane grasslands; burning in montane cloud forests; agricultural practices (cultivated and abandoned banana plantations, pastures of different grazing intensity), selective logging and secondary forest succession in the premontane forests. Overall, the montane grasslands and montane cloud forest had very similar soil C stocks down to 30 cm (167 ± 12 and 162 ± 36 Mg C ha-1), with the premontane forest containing approximately 35 % less soil C (61 ± 2.5 Mg C ha-1). The majority of the soil C pool (75 %) was recovered in the mineral - associated density fraction, with the montane grasslands containing on average ~ 10 % less C in this fraction than the premontane soils. Burning and grazing in the montane grasslands had no significant influence on the total C stocks but the distribution of physical density fractions were altered, with significantly lower labile fractions and burning alone causing higher occluded LFs. Burning in the upper montane forest had no significant effect on soil C stocks, except on one of the sites, which may have been a result of burning intensity or site-specific micro climate differences. Agricultural practices in the premontane elevation showed variable results in both total soil C and its distribution within

  14. Flocculant in wastewater affects dynamics of inorganic N and accelerates removal of phenanthrene and anthracene in soil.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Luqueno, F; Thalasso, F; Luna-Guido, M L; Ceballos-Ramírez, J M; Ordoñez-Ruiz, I M; Dendooven, L

    2009-06-01

    Recycling of municipal wastewater requires treatment with flocculants, such as polyacrylamide. It is unknown how polyacrylamide in sludge affects removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from soil. An alkaline-saline soil and an agricultural soil were contaminated with phenanthrene and anthracene. Sludge with or without polyacrylamide was added while emission of CO(2) and concentrations of NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), phenanthrene and anthracene were monitored in an aerobic incubation experiment. Polyacrylamide in the sludge had no effect on the production of CO(2), but it reduced the concentration of NH(4)(+), increased the concentration of NO(3)(-) in the Acolman soil and NO(2)(-) in the Texcoco soil, and increased N mineralization compared to the soil amended with sludge without polyacrylamide. After 112d, polyacrylamide accelerated the removal of anthracene from both soils and that of phenanthrene in the Acolman soil. It was found that polyacrylamide accelerated removal of phenanthrene and anthracene from soil.

  15. Are there links between responses of soil microbes and ecosystem functioning to elevated CO2, N deposition and warming? A global perspective.

    PubMed

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L; Shaw, E Ashley; Dam, Marie; Post, Keith H; Ramirez, Kelly S; Sylvain, Zachary A; de Tomasel, Cecilia Milano; Wall, Diana H

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in research to understand how global changes' impacts on soil biota translate into altered ecosystem functioning. However, results vary between global change effects, soil taxa, and ecosystem processes studied, and a synthesis of relationships is lacking. Therefore, here we initiate such a synthesis to assess whether the effect size of global change drivers (elevated CO2, N deposition, and warming) on soil microbial abundance is related with the effect size of these drivers on ecosystem functioning (plant biomass, soil C cycle, and soil N cycle) using meta-analysis and structural equation modeling. For N deposition and warming, the global change effect size on soil microbes was positively associated with the global change effect size on ecosystem functioning, and these relationships were consistent across taxa and ecosystem processes. However, for elevated CO2, such links were more taxon and ecosystem process specific. For example, fungal abundance responses to elevated CO2 were positively correlated with those of plant biomass but negatively with those of the N cycle. Our results go beyond previous assessments of the sensitivity of soil microbes and ecosystem processes to global change, and demonstrate the existence of general links between the responses of soil microbial abundance and ecosystem functioning. Further we identify critical areas for future research, specifically altered precipitation, soil fauna, soil community composition, and litter decomposition, that are need to better quantify the ecosystem consequences of global change impacts on soil biodiversity.

  16. Long-term soil water trends across a 1000 m elevation gradient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a general consensus among climate models that the direct influence of increasing temperature on evaporative demand will result in drier soils, reduced water supply and more frequent drought conditions. The data available to evaluate long term soil water trends that may result from climate c...

  17. Soil organic matter of high-elevation wetlands in a sagebrush ecosystem: Fence-line contrasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientific information regarding soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in western rangelands, especially those with a sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) component and in lower rainfall areas (<350 mm), remains a major knowledge gap in understanding the effects of land management. We sampled soils from two...

  18. Effect of inorganic amendments for in situ stabilization of cadmium in contaminated soils and its phyto-availability to wheat and rice under rotation.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Muhammad Zia-ur; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ghafoor, Abdul; Naeem, Asif; Ali, Shafaqat; Sabir, Muhammad; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) toxicity is a widespread problem in crops grown on contaminated soils, and little information is available on the role of inorganic amendments in Cd immobilization, uptake, and tolerance in crops especially under filed conditions. The effect of three amendments, monoammonium phosphate (MAP), gypsum, and elemental sulfur (S), on Cd immobilization in soil and uptake in wheat and rice plants, under rotation, were investigated under field conditions receiving raw city effluent since >20 years and contaminated with Cd. Three levels of each treatment, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8% by weight, were applied at the start of the experiment, and wheat was sown in the field. After wheat harvesting, rice was sown in the same field without application of amendments. Both crops were harvested at physiological maturity, and data regarding grain yield, straw biomass, Cd concentrations, and uptake in grain and straw, and bioavailable Cd in soil and soil pH were recorded. Both MAP and gypsum application increased grain yield and biomass of wheat and rice, while S application did not increase the yield of both crops. MAP and gypsum amendments decreased gain and straw Cd concentrations and uptake in both crops, while S application increased Cd concentrations in these parts which were correlated with soil bioavailable Cd. We conclude that MAP and gypsum amendments could be used to decrease Cd uptake by plants receiving raw city effluents, and gypsum might be a better amendment for in situ immobilization of Cd due to its low cost and frequent availability.

  19. Soil N2O fluxes along an elevation gradient of tropical montane forests under experimental nitrogen and phosphorus addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Anke; Matson, Amanda; Corre, Marife; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-10-01

    Nutrient deposition to tropical forests is increasing, which could affect soil fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), a powerful greenhouse gas. We assessed the effects of 35-56 months of moderate nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions on soil N2O fluxes and net soil N-cycling rates, and quantified the relative contributions of nitrification and denitrification to N2O fluxes. In 2008, a nutrient manipulation experiment was established along an elevation gradient (1000, 2000 and 3000 m) of montane forests in southern Ecuador. Treatments included control, N, P and N+P addition (with additions of 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and 10 kg P ha-1 yr-1). Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured using static, vented chambers and N cycling was determined using the buried bag method. Measurements showed that denitrification was the main N2O source at all elevations, but that annual N2O emissions from control plots were low, and decreased along the elevation gradient (0.57 ± 0.26 to 0.05 ± 0.04 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1). We attributed the low fluxes to our sites’ conservative soil N cycling as well as gaseous N losses possibly being dominated by N2. Contrary to the first 21 months of the experiment, N addition did not affect N2O fluxes during the 35-56 month period, possibly due to low soil moisture contents during this time. With P addition, N2O fluxes and mineral N concentrations decreased during Months 35-56, presumably because plant P limitations were alleviated, increasing plant N uptake. Nitrogen plus phosphorus addition showed similar trends to N addition, but less pronounced given the counteracting effects of P addition. The combined results from this study (Months 1-21 and 35-56) showed that effects of N and P addition on soil N2O fluxes were not linear with time of exposure, highlighting the importance of long-term studies.

  20. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    SciTech Connect

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  1. Summary of inorganic compositional data for groundwater, soil-water, and surface-water samples collected at the Headgate Draw subsurface drip irrigation site, Johnson County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupancic, John W.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  2. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on soil CO2 and N2O effluxes in a loess grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cserhalmi, Dóra; Balogh, János; Papp, Marianna; Horváth, László; Pintér, Krisztina; Nagy, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration proved to be the primary factor causing global climate change. Exposition systems to study the response to increasing CO2 levels by the terrestrial vegetation include the open top chamber (OTC) exposition system, also used in this study. Response of biomass growth and ecophysiological variables (e.g. emission of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O) from the soil) to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration were investigated in the OTC station, located in the Botanical Garden of the Szent István University, Gödöllő , Hungary. Loess grassland (Salvio nemorosae - Festucetum rupicolae) monoliths were studied in OTCs with target air CO2 concentration of 600 mikromol.mol-1 in 3 chambers. The chamber-effect (shade effect of the side of the chambers) was measured in 3 control chambers under present CO2 level. This management was compared to 3 free air parcels under the natural conditions. Changes of soil temperature and soil water content were recorded in each treatment, while PAR, air temperature, precipitation, wind velocity and humidity were measured by a micrometeorological station. Plant biomass was cut down to 5 cm height once a year. Leaf area index (LAI) was estimated weekly from ceptometer measurements, soil CO2 and N2O effluxes were also measured weekly during the growing period and less frequently during the rest of the year. Soil water content in the upper 30 cm of the soil was lower in the chambers by 3 % (v/v) in average than in the field plots. Soil temperature in the chambers at 3 cm depth was 1.5oC lower than in the free air parcels probably due to the shading effect of the larger biomass in the chambers. In the chambers (both the high CO2 and control ones) biomass values (536.59 ±222.43 gm-2) were higher than in the free parcels (315.67 ±73.36 gm-2). Average LAI was also higher (3.07 ± 2.78) in the chambers than in the free air treatment (2.08 ± 1.95). Soil respiration values in the high CO2 treatment was higher in

  3. Soil carbon dioxide fluxes in conventional and conservation tillage corn production systems receiving poultry litter and inorganic fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil management practices for increasing agricultural production can alter the natural balance at the soil-plant-atmosphere ecosystem interface. In the long-term, this can significantly affect the environment. This study investigated soil CO2 emissions in conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (...

  4. EFFECTS OF FERTILIZER TYPE (CHICKEN LITTER VS. INORGANIC FERTILIZER) AND CATTLE GRAZING ON THE SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pasture plots included unharvested, hayed, light and heavy cattle grazing pressure, fertilized with either inorganic N-P-K or broiler litter. Total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) followed a seasonal trend and were higher in grazed plots than hayed & unharvested plots. Fungi a...

  5. Elevated soil CO2 efflux at the boundaries between impervious surfaces and urban greenspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, XiaoGang; Hu, Dan; Ma, ShengLi; Zhang, Xia; Guo, Zhen; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2016-09-01

    Impervious surfaces and greenspaces have significant impacts on ecological processes and ecosystem services in urban areas. However, there have been no systematic studies of how the interaction between the two forms of land cover, and especially their edge effects, influence ecosystem properties. This has made it difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of urban greenspace design in meeting environmental goals. In this study, we investigated edge effects on soil carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in Beijing and found that soil CO2 flux rates were averagely 73% higher 10 cm inwards from the edge of greenspaces. Distance, soil temperature, moisture, and their interaction significantly influenced soil CO2 flux rates. The magnitude and distance of edge effects differed among impervious structure types. Current greening policy and design should be adjusted to avoid the carbon sequestration service of greenspaces being limited by their fragmentation.

  6. Trace gas fluxes and nitrogen availability in a deciduous forest after one year of elevated soil temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Peterjohn, W.; Newkirk, K.; Melillo, J.; Steudler, P.; Aber, J. The Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham )

    1993-06-01

    We initiated a field experiment in July of 1991 to determine the response of a deciduous forest to elevated soil temperatures. From July 1991 through June 1992, CO[sub 2] fluxes from control, disturbance control, and heated plots were 711, 791, and 1113 g C/m[sup 2]*yr, respectively. Over the period from July to November 1991, CO[sub 2] fluxes increased 47% due to warming. However, during the same period in 1992, CO[sub 2] fluxes increased only 9% due to warming. These results suggest that heating may have significantly reduced the amount of labile carbon in the soils of the heated plots. Heating also increased CH[sub 4] uptake by 0.21 9 C/m[sup 2]*yr and doubled net N mineralization rates. Unlike CO[sub 2] emissions, the changes in CH[sub 4] uptake and net N mineralization persisted throughout the first year of the experiment.

  7. A MIXED MODEL ANALYSIS OF SOIL CO2 EFFLUX AND NIGHT-TIME RESPIRATION RESPONSES TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: We investigated the effects of elevated soil temperature and atmospheric CO2 on soil CO2 efflux and system respiration responses. The study was conducted in sun-lit controlled-environment chambers using two-year-old Douglas-fir seedlings grown in reconstructed litter-so...

  8. Elevated mobility of persistent organic pollutants in the soil of a tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qian; Nizzetto, Luca; Liu, Xiang; Borgå, Katrine; Starrfelt, Jostein; Li, Jun; Jiang, Yishan; Liu, Xin; Jones, Kevin C; Zhang, Gan

    2015-04-01

    Semivolatile persistent organic pollutants (POP) are bioaccumulative and toxic contaminants. Their global distribution depends on source distribution, atmospheric transport, degradation, and the exchange with ocean and land surfaces. Forests are crucial terrestrial reservoirs due to the commonly envisaged high capacity of their surface soils to store and immobilize airborne contaminants bound to soil organic matter. Our results show that POPs can be unexpectedly mobile in the soil of a tropical rainforest due to fast litter turnover (leading to rapid POP transfer to the subsoil) and leaching rates exceeding degradation rates especially for more hydrophobic congeners. Co-transport in association with leaching fine particulate and dissolved organic matter appears as a relevant driver of this PCB export. A markedly different distribution pattern is displayed in this soil in comparison to soils of colder environments with lower overall storage capacity. These findings show that biogeochemistry of organic matter degradation and weathering can influence POP soil fate. Because tropical forests represent 60% of the global terrestrial productivity, the highlighted dynamics might have an implication for the general distribution of these contaminants.

  9. Changes in Fungal Community Composition in Response to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization Varies with Soil Horizon.

    PubMed

    Weber, Carolyn F; Vilgalys, Rytas; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2013-01-01

    Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and rates of nitrogen (N)-deposition to forest ecosystems are predicted to alter the structure and function of soil fungal communities, but the spatially heterogeneous distribution of soil fungi has hampered investigations aimed at understanding such impacts. We hypothesized that soil physical and chemical properties and fungal community composition would be differentially impacted by elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) and N-fertilization in spatially separated field samples, in the forest floor, 0-2, 2-5, and 5-10 cm depth intervals in a loblolly pine Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment. In all soils, quantitative PCR-based estimates of fungal biomass were highest in the forest floor. Fungal richness, based on pyrosequencing of the fungal ribosomal large subunit gene, increased in response to N-fertilization in 0-2 cm and forest floor intervals. Composition shifted in forest floor, 0-2 and 2-5 cm intervals in response to N-fertilization, but the shift was most distinct in the 0-2 cm interval, in which the largest number of statistically significant changes in soil chemical parameters (i.e., phosphorus, organic matter, calcium, pH) was also observed. In the 0-2 cm interval, increased recovery of sequences from the Thelephoraceae, Tricholomataceae, Hypocreaceae, Clavicipitaceae, and Herpotrichiellaceae families and decreased recovery of sequences from the Amanitaceae correlated with N-fertilization. In this same depth interval, Amanitaceae, Tricholomataceae, and Herpotriciellaceae sequences were recovered less frequently from soils exposed to eCO2 relative to ambient conditions. These results demonstrated that vertical stratification should be taken into consideration in future efforts to elucidate environmental impacts on fungal communities and their feedbacks on ecosystem processes.

  10. Ecological aspects of selenium effects on plant growth and species diversity in soils with elevated concentrations of salinity and selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhangzhi.

    1991-01-01

    A field study was conducted in soils with elevated concentrations of salinity and selenium during 1986-1990 at Kesterson Reservoir, Merced County, California. The investigation was conducted in three stages of plant habitat restoration: (1) wet habitat, (2) dry habitat, and (3) fill dirt cover habitat. The total water extractable selenium concentrations of wet habitat, dry habitat and fill dirt cover habitat were 2260-3700, 90-670, and undetectable-37 [mu]g/kg dry soil, respectively. Among the vascular flowering plants, saltgrass (Distichlis spicata L.) was the dominant species in dry habitat, and cattail (Typha latifolia L.) was the dominant species in wet habitat in the evaporation ponds at Kesterson. High concentrations of selenium were found in Kesterson marsh plant species. In wet habitat, selenium concentrations averaged 12.50 ppm ([mu]g/g dry wt) in Distichlis spicata leaves, 15.20 ppm in Typha latifolia leaves and 4.10 ppm in Juncus mexicanus leaves, respectively. In dry habitat, the tissue selenium concentration was about 1.5 ppm for Distichlis spicata and 4 ppm for Atriplex species. In fill dirt cover habitat, plant tissue selenium concentrations ranged from 1 to 19 ppm. Biomass distribution, species richness, and selenium accumulation of plants were studied for four sites during 1988-1990. At two sites, the surface soil consisted of fill dirt. Another two sites were native-soil cover (including Kesterson sediment).

  11. Response of microbial extracellular enzyme activities and r- vs. K- selected microorganisms to elevated atmospheric CO2 depends on soil aggregate size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorodnikov, Maxim; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatskiy, Sergey; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Increased belowground carbon (C) transfer by plant roots under elevated atmospheric CO2 and the contrasting environment in soil macro- and microaggregates could affect properties of the microbial community in the rhizosphere. We evaluated the effect of 5 years of elevated CO2 (550 ppm) on four extracellular enzymes: ß-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase along with the contribution of fast- (r-strategists) and slow-growing microorganisms (K-strategists) in soil aggregates. We fractionated the bulk soil from the ambient and elevated CO2 treatments of FACE-Hohenheim (Stuttgart) into large macro- (>2 mm), small macro- (0.25-2.00 mm), and microaggregates (<0.25 mm) using a modified dry sieving. Microbial biomass (C-mic by SIR), the maximal specific growth rate (µ), growing microbial biomass (GMB) and lag-period (t-lag) were estimated by the kinetics of CO2 emission from bulk soil and aggregates amended with glucose and nutrients. In the bulk soil and isolated aggregates before and after activation with glucose, the actual and the potential enzyme activities were measured. Although C-org and C-mic as well as the activities of ß-glucosidase, phosphatase, and sulfatase were unaffected in bulk soil and in aggregate-size classes by elevated CO2, significant changes were observed in potential enzyme production after substrate amendment. After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were 1.2-1.9-fold higher than under ambient CO2. In addition, µ values were significantly higher under elevated than ambient CO2 for bulk soil, small macroaggregates, and microaggregates. Based on changes in µ, GMB, and lag-period, we conclude that elevated atmospheric CO2 stimulated the r-selected microorganisms, especially in soil microaggregates. In contrast, significantly higher chitinase activity in bulk soil and in large macroaggregates under elevated CO2 revealed an increased contribution of fungi to turnover processes. We conclude that quantitative and

  12. Impact of elevated CO2, water table, and temperature changes on CO2 and CH4 fluxes from arctic tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zona, Donatella; Haynes, Katherine; Deutschman, Douglas; Bryant, Emma; McEwing, Katherine; Davidson, Scott; Oechel, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Large uncertainties still exist on the response of tundra C emissions to future climate due, in part, to the lack of understanding of the interactive effects of potentially controlling variables on C emissions from Arctic ecosystems. In this study we subjected 48 soil cores (without active vegetation) from dominant arctic wetland vegetation types, to a laboratory manipulation of elevated atmospheric CO2, elevated temperature, and altered water table, representing current and future conditions in the Arctic for two growing seasons. To our knowledge this experiment comprised the most extensively replicated manipulation of intact soil cores in the Arctic. The hydrological status of the soil was the most dominant control on both soil CO2 and CH4 emissions. Despite higher soil CO2 emission occurring in the drier plots, substantial CO2 respiration occurred under flooded conditions, suggesting significant anaerobic respirations in these arctic tundra ecosystems. Importantly, a critical control on soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes was the original vascular plant cover. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration was correlated with cumulative CH4 emissions but not with cumulative CO2 suggesting C quality influenced CH4 production but not soil CO2 emissions. An interactive effect between increased temperature and elevated CO2 on soil CO2 emissions suggested a potential shift of the soils microbial community towards more efficient soil organic matter degraders with warming and elevated CO2. Methane emissions did not decrease over the course of the experiment, even with no input from vegetation. This result indicated that CH4 emissions are not carbon limited in these C rich soils. Overall CH4 emissions represented about 49% of the sum of total C (C-CO2 + C-CH4) emission in the wet treatments, and 15% in the dry treatments, representing a dominant component of the overall C balance from arctic soils.

  13. Derivation of a target concentration of Pb in soil based on elevation of adult blood pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, A.H.

    1996-04-01

    The increase in systolic blood pressure in males appears to be the most sensitive adult endpoint appropriate for deriving a health risk-based target level of lead (Ph) in soil. Because the response of blood pressure to blood Ph concentration (PbB) has no apparent threshold, traditional approaches based on the application of a Reference Dose (RfD) are not applicable. An alternative approach is presented based on a model which predicts the population shift in systolic blood pressure from ingestion of Pb contaminated soil as a simultaneous function of exposure to Pb in soil, the baseline distribution of blood Pb concentration in the population and the baseline distribution of systolic pressure in the population. This model is analyzed using Monte Carlo analysis to predict the population distribution of systolic pressure resulting from Ph exposure. Based on this analysis, it is predicted that for adult males 18-65 years old, exposure to 1000 ppm Pb in soil will result in an increase of approximately 1 mm Hg systolic pressure, an increase in the incidence of systolic hypertension (i.e., systolic pressure >140 mm Hg) of approximately 1% and an increase in PbB of 1-3 {mu}g/dl. Based on the proposition that these adverse effects can be considered de minimis, 1000 ppm Ph in soil is proposed as a target soil concentration for adult exposure. Available data do not appear to be adequate to predict the newborn PbB level which would result from exposure to this soil level during pregnancy, 36 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Improved diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) measurement of total dissolved inorganic arsenic in waters and soils using a hydrous zirconium oxide binding layer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qin; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Ding, Shiming; Li, Zhu; Williams, Paul N; Cheng, Hao; Han, Chao; Wu, Longhua; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2014-03-18

    A high-capacity diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique has been developed for measurement of total dissolved inorganic arsenic (As) using a long shelf life binding gel layer containing hydrous zirconium oxide (Zr-oxide). Both As(III) and As(V) were rapidly accumulated in the Zr-oxide gel and could be quantitatively recovered by elution using 1.0 M NaOH for freshwater or a mixture of 1.0 M NaOH and 1.0 M H2O2 for seawater. DGT uptake of As(III) and As(V) increased linearly with deployment time and was independent of pH (2.0-9.1), ionic strength (0.01-750 mM), the coexistence of phosphate (0.25-10 mg P L(-1)), and the aging of the Zr-oxide gel up to 24 months after production. The capacities of the Zr-oxide DGT were 159 μg As(III) and 434 μg As(V) per device for freshwater and 94 μg As(III) and 152 μg As(V) per device for seawater. These values were 5-29 times and 3-19 times more than those reported for the commonly used ferrihydrite and Metsorb DGTs, respectively. Deployments of the Zr-oxide DGT in As-spiked synthetic seawater provided accurate measurements of total dissolved inorganic As over the 96 h deployment, whereas ferrihydrite and Metsorb DGTs only measured the concentrations accurately up to 24 and 48 h, respectively. Deployments in soils showed that the Zr-oxide DGT was a reliable and robust tool, even for soil samples heavily polluted with As. In contrast, As in these soils was underestimated by ferrihydrite and Metsorb DGTs due to insufficient effective capacities, which were likely suppressed by the competing effects of phosphate.

  15. Climate Warming and Soil Carbon in Tropical Forests: Insights from an Elevation Gradient in the Peruvian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Nottingham, Andrew T.; Whitaker, Jeanette; Turner, Benjamin L.; Salinas, Norma; Zimmermann, Michael; Malhi, Yadvinder; Meir, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition in tropical forests will influence future climate. Studies of a 3.5-kilometer elevation gradient in the Peruvian Andes, including short-term translocation experiments and the examination of the long-term adaptation of biota to local thermal and edaphic conditions, have revealed several factors that may regulate this sensitivity. Collectively this work suggests that, in the absence of a moisture constraint, the temperature sensitivity of decomposition is regulated by the chemical composition of plant debris (litter) and both the physical and chemical composition of preexisting SOM: higher temperature sensitivities are found in litter or SOM that is more chemically complex and in SOM that is less occluded within aggregates. In addition, the temperature sensitivity of SOM in tropical montane forests may be larger than previously recognized because of the presence of “cold-adapted” and nitrogen-limited microbial decomposers and the possible future alterations in plant and microbial communities associated with warming. Studies along elevation transects, such as those reviewed here, can reveal factors that will regulate the temperature sensitivity of SOM. They can also complement and guide in situ soil-warming experiments, which will be needed to understand how this vulnerability to temperature may be mediated by altered plant productivity under future climatic change. PMID:26955086

  16. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen application on cotton biomass, nitrogen utilization and soil urease activity].

    PubMed

    Lyu, Ning; Yin, Fei-hu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Zhi-jian; Liu, Yu; Shi, Lei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a semi-open-top artificial climate chamber was used to study the effect of CO2 enrichment (360 and 540 µmol · mol(-1)) and nitrogen addition (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg · hm(-2)) on cotton dry matter accumulation and distribution, nitrogen absorption and soil urease activity. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation of bud, stem, leaf and the whole plant increased significantly in the higher CO2 concentration treatment irrespective of nitrogen level. The dry matter of all the detected parts of plant with 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen addition was significantly higher than those with the other nitrogen levels irrespective of CO2 concentration, indicating reasonable nitrogen fertilization could significantly improve cotton dry matter accumulation. Elevated CO2 concentration had significant impact on the nitrogen absorption contents of cotton bud and stem. Compared to those under CO2 concentration of 360 µmol · mol(-1), the nitrogen contents of bud and stem both increased significantly under CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content of cotton bud in the treatment of 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen was the highest among the four nitrogen fertilizer treatments. While the nitrogen contents of cotton stem in the treatments of 150 kg · hm(-2) and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels were higher than those in the treatment of 0 kg · hm(-2) and 450 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels. The nitrogen content of cotton leaf was significantly influenced by the in- teraction of CO2 elevation and N addition as the nitrogen content of leaf increased in the treatments of 0, 150 and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels under the CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content in cotton root was significantly increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level under elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment. Overall, the cotton nitrogen absorption content under the elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment was higher than that

  17. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen application on cotton biomass, nitrogen utilization and soil urease activity].

    PubMed

    Lyu, Ning; Yin, Fei-hu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Zhi-jian; Liu, Yu; Shi, Lei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a semi-open-top artificial climate chamber was used to study the effect of CO2 enrichment (360 and 540 µmol · mol(-1)) and nitrogen addition (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg · hm(-2)) on cotton dry matter accumulation and distribution, nitrogen absorption and soil urease activity. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation of bud, stem, leaf and the whole plant increased significantly in the higher CO2 concentration treatment irrespective of nitrogen level. The dry matter of all the detected parts of plant with 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen addition was significantly higher than those with the other nitrogen levels irrespective of CO2 concentration, indicating reasonable nitrogen fertilization could significantly improve cotton dry matter accumulation. Elevated CO2 concentration had significant impact on the nitrogen absorption contents of cotton bud and stem. Compared to those under CO2 concentration of 360 µmol · mol(-1), the nitrogen contents of bud and stem both increased significantly under CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content of cotton bud in the treatment of 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen was the highest among the four nitrogen fertilizer treatments. While the nitrogen contents of cotton stem in the treatments of 150 kg · hm(-2) and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels were higher than those in the treatment of 0 kg · hm(-2) and 450 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels. The nitrogen content of cotton leaf was significantly influenced by the in- teraction of CO2 elevation and N addition as the nitrogen content of leaf increased in the treatments of 0, 150 and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels under the CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content in cotton root was significantly increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level under elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment. Overall, the cotton nitrogen absorption content under the elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment was higher than that

  18. Soil water content and global change across an elevation gradient at Reynolds Creek, Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many of the issues associated with ongoing global climate change hinge on the impacts of the documented physical changes (e.g., rising temperature) on the ecological systems that sustain life. Soil is a primary interface between the two. Most GCM forecasts indicate that increasing temperatures will ...

  19. Remediation of inorganic contaminants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils polluted by municipal solid waste incineration residues.

    PubMed

    Jobin, Philippe; Coudert, Lucie; Taillard, Vincent; Blais, Jean-Francois; Mercier, Guy

    2016-08-01

    Three soils polluted by municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration residues and containing various concentrations of Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn were treated using magnetism, gravity separation (jig and shaking table) and flotation/leaching. The process removed between 18% and 39% of the contaminants present in soil 1, between 31% and 53% of the contaminants present in soil 2 and between 42% and 56% of the contaminants present in soil 3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were present only in soil 3, and the process removed 64% of its PAHs total content. Magnetism seemed to be the most efficient technique to remove metals from contaminated soils, followed by gravity separation and finally flotation/leaching. The global efficiency of the process was higher when the initial contaminant concentrations were lower (smaller proportions of MSW incineration residues). The estimated costs of the process, including direct and indirect costs, varied from $82 to $88 per ton of treated soil depending on the proportion of MSW incineration residues mixed with the soil.

  20. Remediation of inorganic contaminants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils polluted by municipal solid waste incineration residues.

    PubMed

    Jobin, Philippe; Coudert, Lucie; Taillard, Vincent; Blais, Jean-Francois; Mercier, Guy

    2016-08-01

    Three soils polluted by municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration residues and containing various concentrations of Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn were treated using magnetism, gravity separation (jig and shaking table) and flotation/leaching. The process removed between 18% and 39% of the contaminants present in soil 1, between 31% and 53% of the contaminants present in soil 2 and between 42% and 56% of the contaminants present in soil 3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were present only in soil 3, and the process removed 64% of its PAHs total content. Magnetism seemed to be the most efficient technique to remove metals from contaminated soils, followed by gravity separation and finally flotation/leaching. The global efficiency of the process was higher when the initial contaminant concentrations were lower (smaller proportions of MSW incineration residues). The estimated costs of the process, including direct and indirect costs, varied from $82 to $88 per ton of treated soil depending on the proportion of MSW incineration residues mixed with the soil. PMID:26729603

  1. Influence of elevated ozone concentration on methanotrophic bacterial communities in soil under field condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. Z.; Zhong, M.

    2015-05-01

    The open top chamber (OTC) method was used in combination with real-time quantitative PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) techniques in the wheat field to study the influence of different levels of O3 concentrations (ambient air filtered by activated carbons, 40 ppb, 80 ppb and 120 ppb) on the quantity and community structure of methanotrophic bacteria. O3 stress can influence the potential methane oxidation rate (PMOR) and potential methane production rate (PMPR) in the farmland soil. O3 treatment of 40 ppb improved significantly the 16S rRNA gene copy number in the total methanotrophic bacteria pmoA, and type I and type II methanotrophic bacteria in the soil depth of 0-20 cm. When the O3 concentration reached 120 ppb, the 16S rRNA gene copy number in the total methanotrophic bacteria pmoA and type I methanotrophic bacteria decreased significantly as compared to the control treatment in 10-20 cm layer. The 16s rRNA gene copy number of total methanotrophic bacteria pmoA and type I and type II methanotrophic bacteria were influenced by different O3 concentration and soil depth. The T-RFLP analysis indicated that O3 stress influenced significantly the community structure of the methanotrophic bacteria in soil, causing potential threat to the diversity of methanotrophic bacteria. It seems to imply that the rise of O3 concentration could produce an impact on the carbon cycling and the methane emission of the wheat field soil by changing the community structure and diversity of methanotrophic bacteria, which then influences the global climate change.

  2. Elevation-dependent changes in n-alkane δD and soil GDGTs across the South Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Moreno, Vanesa; Rohrmann, Alexander; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Sachse, Dirk; Tofelde, Stefanie; Niedermeyer, Eva M.; Strecker, Manfred R.; Mulch, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Surface uplift of large plateaus may significantly influence regional climate and more specifically precipitation patterns and temperature, sometimes complicating paleoaltimetry interpretations. Thus, understanding the topographic evolution of tectonically active mountain belts benefits from continued development of reliable proxies to reduce uncertainties in paleoaltimetry reconstructions. Lipid biomarker-based proxies provide a novel approach to stable isotope paleoaltimetry and complement authigenic or pedogenic mineral proxy materials, in particular outside semi-arid climate zones where soil carbonates are not abundant but (soil) organic matter has a high preservation potential. Here we present δD values of soil-derived n-alkanes and mean annual air temperature (MAT) estimates based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (brGDGT) distributions to assess their potential for paleoelevation reconstructions in the southern central Andes. We analyzed soil samples across two environmental and hydrological gradients that include a hillslope (26-28°S) and a valley (22-24°S) transect on the windward flanks of Central Andean Eastern Cordillera in NW Argentina. Our results show that present-day n-alkane δD values and brGDGT-based MAT estimates are both linearly related with elevation and in good agreement with present-day climate conditions. Soil n-alkanes show a δD lapse rate (Δ (δD)) of - 1.64 ‰ / 100 m (R2 = 0.91, p < 0.01) at the hillslope transect, within the range of δD lapse rates from precipitation and surface waters in other tropical regions in the Andes like the Eastern Cordillera in Colombia and Bolivia and the Equatorial and Peruvian Andes. BrGDGT-derived soil temperatures are similar to monitored winter temperatures in the region and show a lapse rate of ΔT = - 0.51 °C / 100 m (R2 = 0.91, p < 0.01), comparable with lapse rates from in situ soil temperature measurements, satellite-derived land-surface temperatures at this transect, and

  3. Effect of inorganic amendments for in situ stabilization of cadmium in contaminated soils and its phyto-availability to wheat and rice under rotation.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Muhammad Zia-ur; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ghafoor, Abdul; Naeem, Asif; Ali, Shafaqat; Sabir, Muhammad; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) toxicity is a widespread problem in crops grown on contaminated soils, and little information is available on the role of inorganic amendments in Cd immobilization, uptake, and tolerance in crops especially under filed conditions. The effect of three amendments, monoammonium phosphate (MAP), gypsum, and elemental sulfur (S), on Cd immobilization in soil and uptake in wheat and rice plants, under rotation, were investigated under field conditions receiving raw city effluent since >20 years and contaminated with Cd. Three levels of each treatment, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8% by weight, were applied at the start of the experiment, and wheat was sown in the field. After wheat harvesting, rice was sown in the same field without application of amendments. Both crops were harvested at physiological maturity, and data regarding grain yield, straw biomass, Cd concentrations, and uptake in grain and straw, and bioavailable Cd in soil and soil pH were recorded. Both MAP and gypsum application increased grain yield and biomass of wheat and rice, while S application did not increase the yield of both crops. MAP and gypsum amendments decreased gain and straw Cd concentrations and uptake in both crops, while S application increased Cd concentrations in these parts which were correlated with soil bioavailable Cd. We conclude that MAP and gypsum amendments could be used to decrease Cd uptake by plants receiving raw city effluents, and gypsum might be a better amendment for in situ immobilization of Cd due to its low cost and frequent availability. PMID:26109220

  4. Elevated soil nitrogen pools after conversion of turfgrass to water-efficient residential landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heavenrich, Hannah; Hall, Sharon J.

    2016-08-01

    As a result of uncertain resource availability and growing populations, city managers are implementing conservation plans that aim to provide services for people while reducing household resource use. For example, in the US, municipalities are incentivizing homeowners to replace their water-intensive turfgrass lawns with water-efficient landscapes consisting of interspersed drought-tolerant shrubs and trees with rock or mulch groundcover (e.g. xeriscapes, rain gardens, water-wise landscapes). While these strategies are likely to reduce water demand, the consequences for other ecosystem services are unclear. Previous studies in controlled, experimental landscapes have shown that conversion from turfgrass to shrubs may lead to high rates of nutrient leaching from soils. However, little is known about the long-term biogeochemical consequences of this increasingly common land cover change across diverse homeowner management practices. We explored the fate of soil nitrogen (N) across a chronosequence of land cover change from turfgrass to water-efficient landscapes in privately owned yards in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona, in the arid US Southwest. Soil nitrate ({{{{NO}}}3}--N) pools were four times larger in water-efficient landscapes (25 ± 4 kg {{{{NO}}}3}--N/ha 0-45 cm depth) compared to turfgrass lawns (6 ± 7 kg {{{{NO}}}3}--N/ha). Soil {{{{NO}}}3}--N also varied significantly with time since landscape conversion; the largest pools occurred at 9-13 years after turfgrass removal and declined to levels comparable to turfgrass thereafter. Variation in soil {{{{NO}}}3}--N with landscape age was strongly influenced by management practices related to soil water availability, including shrub cover, sub-surface plastic sheeting, and irrigation frequency. Our findings show that transitioning from turfgrass to water-efficient residential landscaping can lead to an accumulation of {{{{NO}}}3}--N that may be lost from the plant rooting zone over time following irrigation or

  5. Elevated soil nitrogen pools after conversion of turfgrass to water-efficient residential landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heavenrich, Hannah; Hall, Sharon J.

    2016-08-01

    As a result of uncertain resource availability and growing populations, city managers are implementing conservation plans that aim to provide services for people while reducing household resource use. For example, in the US, municipalities are incentivizing homeowners to replace their water-intensive turfgrass lawns with water-efficient landscapes consisting of interspersed drought-tolerant shrubs and trees with rock or mulch groundcover (e.g. xeriscapes, rain gardens, water-wise landscapes). While these strategies are likely to reduce water demand, the consequences for other ecosystem services are unclear. Previous studies in controlled, experimental landscapes have shown that conversion from turfgrass to shrubs may lead to high rates of nutrient leaching from soils. However, little is known about the long-term biogeochemical consequences of this increasingly common land cover change across diverse homeowner management practices. We explored the fate of soil nitrogen (N) across a chronosequence of land cover change from turfgrass to water-efficient landscapes in privately owned yards in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona, in the arid US Southwest. Soil nitrate ({{{{NO}}}3}-–N) pools were four times larger in water-efficient landscapes (25 ± 4 kg {{{{NO}}}3}-–N/ha 0–45 cm depth) compared to turfgrass lawns (6 ± 7 kg {{{{NO}}}3}-–N/ha). Soil {{{{NO}}}3}-–N also varied significantly with time since landscape conversion; the largest pools occurred at 9–13 years after turfgrass removal and declined to levels comparable to turfgrass thereafter. Variation in soil {{{{NO}}}3}-–N with landscape age was strongly influenced by management practices related to soil water availability, including shrub cover, sub-surface plastic sheeting, and irrigation frequency. Our findings show that transitioning from turfgrass to water-efficient residential landscaping can lead to an accumulation of {{{{NO}}}3}-–N that may be lost from the plant rooting zone over time following

  6. Photosynthetic acclimation of overstory Populus tremuloides and understory Acer saccharum to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration: interactions with shade and soil nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Kubiske, Mark E; Zak, Donald R; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Takeuchi, Yu

    2002-04-01

    We exposed Populus tremuloides Michx. and Acer saccharum Marsh. to a factorial combination of ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) and high-nitrogen (N) and low-N soil treatments in open-top chambers for 3 years. Our objective was to compare photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO2] between species of contrasting shade tolerance, and to determine if soil N or shading modify the acclimation response. Sun and shade leaf responses to elevated [CO2] and soil N were compared between upper and lower canopy leaves of P. tremuloides and between A. saccharum seedlings grown with and without shading by P. tremuloides. Both species had higher leaf N concentrations and photosynthetic rates in high-N soil than in low-N soil, and these characteristics were higher for P. tremuloides than for A. saccharum. Electron transport capacity (Jmax) and carboxylation capacity (Vcmax) generally decreased with atmospheric CO2 enrichment in all 3 years of the experiment, but there was no evidence that elevated [CO2] altered the relationship between them. On a leaf area basis, both Jmax and Vcmax acclimated to elevated [CO2] more strongly in shade leaves than in sun leaves of P. tremuloides. However, the apparent [CO2] x shade interaction was largely driven by differences in specific leaf area (m2 g-1) between sun and shade leaves. In A. saccharum, photosynthesis acclimated more strongly to elevated [CO2] in sun leaves than in shade leaves on both leaf area and mass bases. We conclude that trees rooted freely in the ground can exhibit photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO2], and the response may be modified by light environment. The hypothesis that photosynthesis acclimates more completely to elevated [CO2] in shade-tolerant species than in shade-intolerant species was not supported.

  7. [Influences of long-term application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in black soil].

    PubMed

    Yin, Chang; Fan, Fen-Liang; Li, Zhao-Jun; Song, A-Lin; Zhu, Ping; Peng, Chang; Liang, Yong-Chao

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of long-term organic and inorganic fertilizations on the composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in black soil. Soil samples were collected from 4 treatments (i. e. no fertilizer treatment, CK; organic manure treatment, OM; chemical fertilizer treatment (NPK) and combination of organic and chemical fertilizers treatment (MNPK)) in Gongzhuling Long-term Fertilization Experiment Station. Composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers were analyzed with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), respectively. Denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) and soil properties were also measured. Application of organic fertilizers (OM and MNPK) significantly increased the DEAs of black soil, with the DEAs in OM and MNPK being 5.92 and 6.03 times higher than that in CK treatment, respectively, whereas there was no significant difference between NPK and CK. OM and MNPK treatments increased the abundances of nirS-type denitrifiers by 2.73 and 3.83 times relative to that of CK treatment, respectively. The abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in NPK treatment was not significantly different from that of CK. The T-RFLP analysis of nirS genes showed significant differences in community composition between organic and inorganic treatments, with the emergence of a 79 bp T-RF, a significant decrease in relative abundance of the 84 bp T-RF and a loss of the 99 bp T-RF in all organic treatments. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the airS-type denitrifiers in the black soil were mainly composed of alpha, beta and gamma-Proteobacteria. The 79 bp-type denitrifiers inhabiting exclusively in organic treatments (OM and MNPK) were affiliated to Pseudomonadaceae in gamma-Proteobacteria and Burkholderiales in beta-Proteobacteria. The 84 bp-types were related to Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales. Correlation analysis indicated that pH, concentrations of total nitrogen

  8. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION - SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF PCP AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS - SELMA, CA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Technolgy Evaluation Report evaluates the solidification/stabilization process of Silicate Technology Corporation (STC) for the on-site treatment of contaminated soil The STC immobilization technology uses a proprietary product (FMS Silicate) to chemically stabilize and ...

  9. Spatial regression between soil surface elevation, water storage in root zone and biomass productivity of alfalfa within an irrigated field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2014-05-01

    with formation of water flow and water storage. The major changes are formed as a result of imposing of the intensity fields on a soil surface and its field capillary infiltration rate. Excess of the first intensity over the second in each point of soil surface leads to formation of a layer of intensity of water not infiltrated in soil. Thus generate the new field of vectors of intensity which can consist of vertically directed vector of speed of evaporation, a quasi horizontal vector of intensity of a surface water flow and quasi vertical vector of intensity of a preferential flow directed downwards. Principal cause of excess of irrigation water application intensity over capillary infiltration rate can be on the one hand spatial non-uniformity of irrigation water application, and with other spatial variability of capillary infiltration rate, connected with spatial variability of water storage in the top layers of soil. As a result the spatial redistribution of irrigation water over irrigated filed forms distortions of ideal model of irrigation water storage in root zone of soil profile. The major differences consist in increasing of water storage in the depressions of a relief of an irrigated field and accordingly in their reduction on elevated zones of a relief, as well as losses of irrigation water outside of boundaries of a root zone of an irrigated field, in vertical, and horizontal directions. One of key parameters characterizing interaction between irrigation technology and soil state an irrigated field are intensity of water application, intensity and volume of a capillary infiltration, the water storage in root zone at the moment of infiltration starting and a topography of an irrigated field. Fnalyzing of spatial links between these characteristics a special research had been carried out on irrigated by sprinkler machine called Fregate at alfalfa field during the summer of 2012. This research carried out at experimental farm of the research institute Volg

  10. Source and fate of inorganic soil contamination around the abandoned Phillips sulfide mine, hudson Highlands, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilchrist, S.; Gates, A.; Elzinga, E.; Gorring, M.; Szabo, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The abandoned Phillips sulfide mine in the critical Highlands watershed in New York has been shown to produce strongly acidic mine drainage (AMD) with anomalous metal contaminants in first-order streams that exceeded local water standards by up to several orders of magnitude (Gilchrist et al., 2009). The metal-sulfide-rich tailings also produce contaminated soils with pH < 4, organic matter < 2.5% and trace metals sequestered in soil oxides. A geochemical transect to test worst-case soil contamination showed that Cr, Co and Ni correlated positively with Mn, (r = 0.72, r= 0.89, r = 0.80, respectively), suggesting Mn-oxide sequestration and that Cu and Pb correlated with Fe (r = 0.76, r = 0.83, respectively), suggesting sequestration in goethite. Ubiquitous, yellow coating on the mine wastes, including jarosite and goethite, is a carrier of the metals. Geochemical and μ-SXRF analyses determined Cu to be the major soil contaminant. μ-SXRF also demonstrated that the heterogeneous nature of the soil chemistry at the micro-meter scale is self-similar to those in the bulk soil samples. Generally metals decreased, with some fluctuations, rapidly downslope through suspension of fines and dissolution in AMD leaving the area of substantial contamination << 0.5 km from the source.

  11. Source and Fate of Inorganic Soil Contamination Around the Abandoned Phillips Sulfide Mine Hudson Highlands New York

    SciTech Connect

    S Gilchrist; A Gates; E Elzinga; M Gorring; z Szabo

    2011-12-31

    The abandoned Phillips sulfide mine in the critical Highlands watershed in New York has been shown to produce strongly acidic mine drainage (AMD) with anomalous metal contaminants in first-order streams that exceeded local water standards by up to several orders of magnitude (Gilchrist et al., 2009). The metal-sulfide-rich tailings also produce contaminated soils with pH < 4, organic matter < 2.5% and trace metals sequestered in soil oxides. A geochemical transect to test worst-case soil contamination showed that Cr, Co and Ni correlated positively with Mn, (r = 0.72, r = 0.89, r = 0.80, respectively), suggesting Mn-oxide sequestration and that Cu and Pb correlated with Fe (r = 0.76, r = 0.83, respectively), suggesting sequestration in goethite. Ubiquitous, yellow coating on the mine wastes, including jarosite and goethite, is a carrier of the metals. Geochemical and {mu}-SXRF analyses determined Cu to be the major soil contaminant, {mu}-SXRF also demonstrated that the heterogeneous nature of the soil chemistry at the micro-meter scale is self-similar to those in the bulk soil samples. Generally metals decreased, with some fluctuations, rapidly downslope through suspension of fines and dissolution in AMD leaving the area of substantial contamination << 0.5 km from the source.

  12. Fine root chemistry and decomposition in model communities of north-temperate tree species show little response to elevated atmospheric CO2 and varying soil resource availability.

    PubMed

    King, J S; Pregitzer, K S; Zak, D R; Holmes, W E; Schmidt, K

    2005-12-01

    Rising atmospheric [CO2] has the potential to alter soil carbon (C) cycling by increasing the content of recalcitrant constituents in plant litter, thereby decreasing rates of decomposition. Because fine root turnover constitutes a large fraction of annual NPP, changes in fine root decomposition are especially important. These responses will likely be affected by soil resource availability and the life history characteristics of the dominant tree species. We evaluated the effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2] and soil resource availability on the production and chemistry, mycorrhizal colonization, and decomposition of fine roots in an early- and late-successional tree species that are economically and ecologically important in north temperate forests. Open-top chambers were used to expose young trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) trees to ambient (36 Pa) and elevated (56 Pa) atmospheric CO2. Soil resource availability was composed of two treatments that bracketed the range found in the Upper Lake States, USA. After 2.5 years of growth, sugar maple had greater fine root standing crop due to relatively greater allocation to fine roots (30% of total root biomass) relative to aspen (7% total root biomass). Relative to the low soil resources treatment, aspen fine root biomass increased 76% with increased soil resource availability, but only under elevated [CO2]. Sugar maple fine root biomass increased 26% with increased soil resource availability (relative to the low soil resources treatment), and showed little response to elevated [CO2]. Concentrations of N and soluble phenolics, and C/N ratio in roots were similar for the two species, but aspen had slightly higher lignin and lower condensed tannins contents compared to sugar maple. As predicted by source-sink models of carbon allocation, pooled constituents (C/N ratio, soluble phenolics) increased in response to increased relative carbon availability (elevated [CO2]/low soil resource

  13. Fine root chemistry and decomposition in model communities of north-temperate tree species show little response to elevated atmospheric CO2 and varying soil resource availability.

    PubMed

    King, J S; Pregitzer, K S; Zak, D R; Holmes, W E; Schmidt, K

    2005-12-01

    Rising atmospheric [CO2] has the potential to alter soil carbon (C) cycling by increasing the content of recalcitrant constituents in plant litter, thereby decreasing rates of decomposition. Because fine root turnover constitutes a large fraction of annual NPP, changes in fine root decomposition are especially important. These responses will likely be affected by soil resource availability and the life history characteristics of the dominant tree species. We evaluated the effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2] and soil resource availability on the production and chemistry, mycorrhizal colonization, and decomposition of fine roots in an early- and late-successional tree species that are economically and ecologically important in north temperate forests. Open-top chambers were used to expose young trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) trees to ambient (36 Pa) and elevated (56 Pa) atmospheric CO2. Soil resource availability was composed of two treatments that bracketed the range found in the Upper Lake States, USA. After 2.5 years of growth, sugar maple had greater fine root standing crop due to relatively greater allocation to fine roots (30% of total root biomass) relative to aspen (7% total root biomass). Relative to the low soil resources treatment, aspen fine root biomass increased 76% with increased soil resource availability, but only under elevated [CO2]. Sugar maple fine root biomass increased 26% with increased soil resource availability (relative to the low soil resources treatment), and showed little response to elevated [CO2]. Concentrations of N and soluble phenolics, and C/N ratio in roots were similar for the two species, but aspen had slightly higher lignin and lower condensed tannins contents compared to sugar maple. As predicted by source-sink models of carbon allocation, pooled constituents (C/N ratio, soluble phenolics) increased in response to increased relative carbon availability (elevated [CO2]/low soil resource

  14. Influence of 20–Year Organic and Inorganic Fertilization on Organic Carbon Accumulation and Microbial Community Structure of Aggregates in an Intensively Cultivated Sandy Loam Soil

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huanjun; Ding, Weixin; He, Xinhua; Yu, Hongyan; Fan, Jianling; Liu, Deyan

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the long–term effect of compost (CM) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK) application on microbial community structure and organic carbon (OC) accumulation at aggregate scale, soils from plots amended with CM, NPK and no fertilizer (control) for 20 years (1989–2009) were collected. Soil was separated into large macroaggregate (>2,000 μm), small macroaggregate (250–2,000 μm), microaggregate (53–250 μm), silt (2–53 μm) and clay fraction (<2 μm) by wet-sieving, and their OC concentration and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were measured. The 20-year application of compost significantly (P<0.05) increased OC by 123–134% and accelerated the formation of macroaggregates, but decreased soil oxygen diffusion coefficient. NPK mainly increased OC in macroaggregates and displayed weaker influence on aggregation. Bacteria distributed in all aggregates, while fungi and actinobacteria were mainly in macroaggregates and microaggregates. The ratio of monounsaturated to branched (M/B) PLFAs, as an indicator for the ratio of aerobic to anaerobic microorganisms, increased inversely with aggregate size. Both NPK and especially CM significantly (P<0.05) decreased M/B ratios in all aggregates except the silt fraction compared with the control. The increased organic C in aggregates significantly (P<0.05) negatively correlated with M/B ratios under CM and NPK. Our study suggested that more efficient OC accumulations in aggregates under CM–treated than under NPK–treated soil was not only due to a more effective decrease of actinobacteria, but also a decrease of monounsaturated PLFAs and an increase of branched PLFAs. Aggregations under CM appear to alter micro-habitats to those more suitable for anaerobes, which in turn boosts OC accumulation. PMID:24667543

  15. Influence of 20-year organic and inorganic fertilization on organic carbon accumulation and microbial community structure of aggregates in an intensively cultivated sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanjun; Ding, Weixin; He, Xinhua; Yu, Hongyan; Fan, Jianling; Liu, Deyan

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effect of compost (CM) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK) application on microbial community structure and organic carbon (OC) accumulation at aggregate scale, soils from plots amended with CM, NPK and no fertilizer (control) for 20 years (1989-2009) were collected. Soil was separated into large macroaggregate (>2,000 μm), small macroaggregate (250-2,000 μm), microaggregate (53-250 μm), silt (2-53 μm) and clay fraction (<2 μm) by wet-sieving, and their OC concentration and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were measured. The 20-year application of compost significantly (P<0.05) increased OC by 123-134% and accelerated the formation of macroaggregates, but decreased soil oxygen diffusion coefficient. NPK mainly increased OC in macroaggregates and displayed weaker influence on aggregation. Bacteria distributed in all aggregates, while fungi and actinobacteria were mainly in macroaggregates and microaggregates. The ratio of monounsaturated to branched (M/B) PLFAs, as an indicator for the ratio of aerobic to anaerobic microorganisms, increased inversely with aggregate size. Both NPK and especially CM significantly (P<0.05) decreased M/B ratios in all aggregates except the silt fraction compared with the control. The increased organic C in aggregates significantly (P<0.05) negatively correlated with M/B ratios under CM and NPK. Our study suggested that more efficient OC accumulations in aggregates under CM-treated than under NPK-treated soil was not only due to a more effective decrease of actinobacteria, but also a decrease of monounsaturated PLFAs and an increase of branched PLFAs. Aggregations under CM appear to alter micro-habitats to those more suitable for anaerobes, which in turn boosts OC accumulation.

  16. Soil and Plant Water Relations Determine Photosynthetic Responses of C3 and C4 Grasses in a Semi‐arid Ecosystem under Elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    LECAIN, DANIEL R.; MORGAN, JACK A.; MOSIER, ARVIN R.; NELSON, JIM A.

    2003-01-01

    To model the effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 on semi‐arid grasslands, the gas exchange responses of leaves to seasonal changes in soil water, and how they are modified by CO2, must be understood for C3 and C4 species that grow in the same area. In this study, open‐top chambers were used to investigate the photosynthetic and stomatal responses of Pascopyrum smithii (C3) and Bouteloua gracilis (C4) grown at 360 (ambient CO2) and 720 µmol mol–1 CO2 (elevated CO2) in a semi‐arid shortgrass steppe. Assimilation rate (A) and stomatal conductance (gs) at the treatment CO2 concentrations and at a range of intercellular CO2 concentrations and leaf water potentials (ψleaf) were measured over 4 years with variable soil water content caused by season and CO2 treatment. Carboxylation efficiency of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Vc,max), and ribulose bisphosphate regeneration capacity (Jmax) were reduced in P. smithii grown in elevated CO2, to the degree that A was similar in elevated and ambient CO2 (when soil moisture was adequate). Photosynthetic capacity was not reduced in B. gracilis under elevated CO2, but A was nearly saturated at ambient CO2. There were no stomatal adaptations independent of photosynthetic acclimation. Although photosynthetic capacity was reduced in P. smithii growing in elevated CO2, reduced gs and transpiration improved soil water content and ψleaf in the elevated CO2 chambers, thereby improving A of both species during dry periods. These results suggest that photosynthetic responses of C3 and C4 grasses in this semi‐arid ecosystem will be driven primarily by the effect of elevated CO2 on plant and soil water relations. PMID:12754182

  17. Contamination of food crops grown on soils with elevated heavy metals content.

    PubMed

    Dziubanek, Grzegorz; Piekut, Agata; Rusin, Monika; Baranowska, Renata; Hajok, Ilona

    2015-08-01

    The exposure of inhabitants from 13 cities of The Upper Silesia Industrial Region to cadmium and lead has been estimated on the basis of heavy metals content in commonly consumed vegetables. The samples were collected from agricultural fields, allotments and home gardens in these cities. Cadmium and lead concentrations in samples of soil and vegetables - cabbage, carrots and potatoes were determined. High content of heavy metals in the arable layer of soil in Upper Silesia (max. 48.8 and 2470mgkg(-1) d.w. for Cd and Pb, respectively) explained high Cd and Pb concentrations in locally cultivated vegetables which are well above the permissible level. Three exposure scenarios with different concentrations of Pb and Cd in vegetables were taken into consideration. In the Scenario I where the content of heavy metals was equal to maximum permissible level, the value of hazard quotient (HQ) for Pb and Cd was 0.530 and 0.704, respectively. In the scenarios where were assumed consumption of contaminated vegetables from Upper Silesia the value of hazard quotient (HQ) for Pb and Cd was 0.755 and 1.337 for Scenario II and 1.806 and 4.542 for Scenario III. The study showed that consumption of vegetables cultivated in Upper Silesia Region on the agricultural fields, allotments and in home gardens may pose a significant health risk.

  18. Microbial biomass, P-nutrition, and enzymatic activities of wheat soil in response to phosphorus enriched organic and inorganic manures.

    PubMed

    Gaind, Sunita; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Lata

    2006-01-01

    Compost was prepared from wheat straw enriched with Rajasthan rock phosphate and Aspergillus awamori. The resulting phospho-compost along with phosphorus enriched FYM, mineral fertilizer (rock phosphate) and super phosphate were evaluated for their individual contribution in improving organic matter status, P availability, and enzymatic activities of soil under wheat crop grown in a micro plot. The results showed that total organic carbon, nitrogen, microbial biomass, and humus content (an index of organic matter status of soil) of soil was highest when farm yard manure (FYM) after its enrichment with 12.5% rock phosphate was applied. Microbial enriched phospho-compost was the product yielding highest soil available phosphorus, phosphorus uptake, urease, and cellulase activities. However, FYM amended with 25% rock phosphate resulted in the greatest enhancement of beta- glucosidase. Measured parameters indicated a sure improvement of chemical and biological activities of soil after the application of phosphorus enriched organic amendments compared to the commercial fertilizer commonly used by the Indian farmers.

  19. Applications of organic and inorganic amendments induce changes in the mobility of mercury and macro- and micronutrients of soils.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Sípková, Adéla; Száková, Jiřina; Kaplan, Lukáš; Ochecová, Pavla; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Both soil organic matter and sulfur (S) can reduce or even suppress mercury (Hg) mobility and bioavailability in soil. A batch incubation experiment was conducted with a Chernozem and a Luvisol artificially contaminated by 440 mg · kg(-1) Hg showing wide differences in their physicochemical properties and available nutrients. The individual treatments were (i) digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of biowaste; (ii) fly ash from wood chip combustion; and (iii) ammonium sulfate, and every treatment was added with the same amount of S. The mobile Hg portion in Chernozem was highly reduced by adding digestate, even after 1 day of incubation, compared to control. Meanwhile, the outcome of these treatments was a decrease of mobile Hg forms as a function of incubation time whereas the contents of magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and phosphorus (P) were stimulated by the addition of digestate in both soils. The available calcium (Ca) contents were not affected by the digestate addition. The experiment proved digestate application as the efficient measure for fast reduction of mobile Hg at extremely contaminated soils. Moreover, the decrease of the mobile mercury portion was followed by improvement of the nutrient status of the soils. PMID:25401138

  20. Applications of Organic and Inorganic Amendments Induce Changes in the Mobility of Mercury and Macro- and Micronutrients of Soils

    PubMed Central

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Šípková, Adéla; Száková, Jiřina; Kaplan, Lukáš; Ochecová, Pavla; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Both soil organic matter and sulfur (S) can reduce or even suppress mercury (Hg) mobility and bioavailability in soil. A batch incubation experiment was conducted with a Chernozem and a Luvisol artificially contaminated by 440 mg·kg−1 Hg showing wide differences in their physicochemical properties and available nutrients. The individual treatments were (i) digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of biowaste; (ii) fly ash from wood chip combustion; and (iii) ammonium sulfate, and every treatment was added with the same amount of S. The mobile Hg portion in Chernozem was highly reduced by adding digestate, even after 1 day of incubation, compared to control. Meanwhile, the outcome of these treatments was a decrease of mobile Hg forms as a function of incubation time whereas the contents of magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and phosphorus (P) were stimulated by the addition of digestate in both soils. The available calcium (Ca) contents were not affected by the digestate addition. The experiment proved digestate application as the efficient measure for fast reduction of mobile Hg at extremely contaminated soils. Moreover, the decrease of the mobile mercury portion was followed by improvement of the nutrient status of the soils. PMID:25401138

  1. Enhanced Phytoremediation of Crude Oil-Polluted Soil by Four Plant Species: Effect of Inorganic and Organic Bioaugumentation.

    PubMed

    Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi; Frac, Magdalena; Nwoha, Paul Aleruchi; Eragbor, Progress

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment investigating the removal and/or uptake of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and specific metals (As, Cd, Cr) from a crude oil polluted agricultural soil was performed during the 2013 wet season using four plant species: Fimbristylis littoralis, Hevea brasilensis (Rubber plants), Cymbopogom citratus (Lemon grass), and Vigna subterranea (Bambara nuts). Soil functional diversity and soil-enzyme interactions were also investigated. The diagnostic ratios and the correlation analysis identified mixed petrogenic and pyrogenic sources as the main contributors of PAHs at the study site. A total of 16 PAHs were identified, 6 of which were carcinogenic. Up to 42.4 mg kg(-1) total PAHs was recorded prior to the experiments. At 90 d, up to 92% total PAH reduction and 96% As removal were achieved using F. littoralis, the best performing species. The organic soil amendment (poultry dung) rendered most of the studied contaminants unavailable for uptake. However, the organic amendment accounted for over 70% of the increased dehydrogenase, phosphatase, and proteolytic enzymes activities in the study. Overall, the combined use of soil amendments and phytoremediation significantly improved the microbial community activity, thus promoting the restoration of the ecosystem.

  2. Effect of inorganic and organic copper fertilizers on copper nutrition in Spinacia oleracea and on labile copper in soil.

    PubMed

    Obrador, Ana; Gonzalez, Demetrio; Alvarez, Jose M

    2013-05-22

    To ensure an optimal concentration of Cu in food crops, the effectiveness of eight liquid Cu fertilizers was studied in a spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) crop grown on Cu-deficient soil under greenhouse conditions. Plant dry matter yields, Cu concentrations in spinach plants (total and morpholino acid (MES)- and ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS)-extractable), and Cu uptakes were studied. The behavior of Cu in soil was evaluated by both single and sequential extraction procedures. The highest quantities of Cu in labile forms in the soil, total uptakes, and Cu concentrations in the plants were associated with the application of the two sources that contained Cu chelated by EDTA and/or DTPA. The fertilizers containing these Cu chelates represent a promising approach to achieve high levels of agronomic biofortification. The stronger correlations obtained between low-molecular-weight organic acid-extractable Cu in soil and the Cu concentrations and Cu uptakes by the plants show the suitability of this soil extraction method for predicting Cu available to spinach plants.

  3. Inorganic and organic fertilizers impact the abundance and proportion of antibiotic resistance and integron-integrase genes in agricultural grassland soil.

    PubMed

    Nõlvak, Hiie; Truu, Marika; Kanger, Kärt; Tampere, Mailiis; Espenberg, Mikk; Loit, Evelin; Raave, Henn; Truu, Jaak

    2016-08-15

    Soil fertilization with animal manure or its digestate may facilitate an important antibiotic resistance dissemination route from anthropogenic sources to the environment. This study examines the effect of mineral fertilizer (NH4NO3), cattle slurry and cattle slurry digestate amendment on the abundance and proportion dynamics of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and two classes of integron-integrase genes (intI1 and intI2) in agricultural grassland soil. Fertilization was performed thrice throughout one vegetation period. The targeted ARGs (sul1, tetA, blaCTX-M, blaOXA2 and qnrS) encode resistance to several major antibiotic classes used in veterinary medicine such as sulfonamides, tetracycline, cephalosporins, penicillin and fluoroquinolones, respectively. The non-fertilized grassland soil contained a stable background of tetA, blaCTX-M and sul1 genes. The type of applied fertilizer significantly affected ARGs and integron-integrase genes abundances and proportions in the bacterial community (p<0.001 in both cases), explaining 67.04% of the abundance and 42.95% of the proportion variations in the grassland soil. Both cattle slurry and cattle slurry digestate proved to be considerable sources of ARGs, especially sul1, as well as integron-integrases. Sul1, intI1 and intI2 levels in grassland soil were elevated in response to each organic fertilizer's application event, but this increase was followed by a stage of decrease, suggesting that microbes possessing these genes were predominantly entrained into soil via cattle slurry or its digestate application and had somewhat limited survival potential in a soil environment. However, the abundance of these three target genes did not decrease to a background level by the end of the study period. TetA was most abundant in mineral fertilizer treated soil and blaCTX-M in cattle slurry digestate amended soil. Despite significantly different abundances, the abundance dynamics of bacteria possessing these genes were

  4. Inorganic and organic fertilizers impact the abundance and proportion of antibiotic resistance and integron-integrase genes in agricultural grassland soil.

    PubMed

    Nõlvak, Hiie; Truu, Marika; Kanger, Kärt; Tampere, Mailiis; Espenberg, Mikk; Loit, Evelin; Raave, Henn; Truu, Jaak

    2016-08-15

    Soil fertilization with animal manure or its digestate may facilitate an important antibiotic resistance dissemination route from anthropogenic sources to the environment. This study examines the effect of mineral fertilizer (NH4NO3), cattle slurry and cattle slurry digestate amendment on the abundance and proportion dynamics of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and two classes of integron-integrase genes (intI1 and intI2) in agricultural grassland soil. Fertilization was performed thrice throughout one vegetation period. The targeted ARGs (sul1, tetA, blaCTX-M, blaOXA2 and qnrS) encode resistance to several major antibiotic classes used in veterinary medicine such as sulfonamides, tetracycline, cephalosporins, penicillin and fluoroquinolones, respectively. The non-fertilized grassland soil contained a stable background of tetA, blaCTX-M and sul1 genes. The type of applied fertilizer significantly affected ARGs and integron-integrase genes abundances and proportions in the bacterial community (p<0.001 in both cases), explaining 67.04% of the abundance and 42.95% of the proportion variations in the grassland soil. Both cattle slurry and cattle slurry digestate proved to be considerable sources of ARGs, especially sul1, as well as integron-integrases. Sul1, intI1 and intI2 levels in grassland soil were elevated in response to each organic fertilizer's application event, but this increase was followed by a stage of decrease, suggesting that microbes possessing these genes were predominantly entrained into soil via cattle slurry or its digestate application and had somewhat limited survival potential in a soil environment. However, the abundance of these three target genes did not decrease to a background level by the end of the study period. TetA was most abundant in mineral fertilizer treated soil and blaCTX-M in cattle slurry digestate amended soil. Despite significantly different abundances, the abundance dynamics of bacteria possessing these genes were

  5. Effect of inorganic fertilizer and farmyard manure on soil physical properties, root distribution, and water-use efficiency of soybean in Vertisols of central India.

    PubMed

    Hati, K M; Mandal, K G; Misra, A K; Ghosh, P K; Bandyopadhyay, K K

    2006-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a Vertisol for three consecutive years (1998-2000) to study the effects of combined use of inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and organic manure (farmyard manure) on soil physical properties, water-use efficiency, root growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in a soybean-mustard cropping system. Application of 10 Mg farmyard manure and recommended NPK (NPK+FYM) to soybean for three consecutive years improved the organic carbon content of the surface (0-15 cm) soil from an initial value of 4.4 g kg(-1) to 6.2 g kg(-1) and also increased seed yield and water-use efficiency by 103% and 76%, respectively, over the control. The surface (0-15 cm) soil of the plots receiving both farmyard manure and recommended NPK had larger mean weight diameter (0.50 mm) and a higher percentage of water stable aggregates (55%) than both the inorganically fertilized (NPK) (0.44 mm and 49%) and unfertilized control plots (0.41 mm and 45.4%). The saturated hydraulic conductivity (13.32 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) of the NPK+FYM treatment of the 0-7.5 cm depth was also significantly greater than that of the NPK (10.53 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) and control (8.61 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) treatments. The lowest bulk density (1.18 Mg m(-3)) in the 0-7.5 cm layer was recorded in NPK+FYM whereas it was highest in the control plots (1.30 Mg m(-3)). However, at sub-surface (22.5-30 cm) layer, fertilizer and manure application had little effect on bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Root length density (RLD) up to the 30 cm depth was highest in the NPK+FYM plots and it was 31.9% and 70.5% more than NPK and control plots. The RLD showed a significant and negative correlation (r=-0.88( * *)) with the penetration resistance. PMID:16289791

  6. Effect of inorganic fertilizer and farmyard manure on soil physical properties, root distribution, and water-use efficiency of soybean in Vertisols of central India.

    PubMed

    Hati, K M; Mandal, K G; Misra, A K; Ghosh, P K; Bandyopadhyay, K K

    2006-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a Vertisol for three consecutive years (1998-2000) to study the effects of combined use of inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and organic manure (farmyard manure) on soil physical properties, water-use efficiency, root growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in a soybean-mustard cropping system. Application of 10 Mg farmyard manure and recommended NPK (NPK+FYM) to soybean for three consecutive years improved the organic carbon content of the surface (0-15 cm) soil from an initial value of 4.4 g kg(-1) to 6.2 g kg(-1) and also increased seed yield and water-use efficiency by 103% and 76%, respectively, over the control. The surface (0-15 cm) soil of the plots receiving both farmyard manure and recommended NPK had larger mean weight diameter (0.50 mm) and a higher percentage of water stable aggregates (55%) than both the inorganically fertilized (NPK) (0.44 mm and 49%) and unfertilized control plots (0.41 mm and 45.4%). The saturated hydraulic conductivity (13.32 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) of the NPK+FYM treatment of the 0-7.5 cm depth was also significantly greater than that of the NPK (10.53 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) and control (8.61 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) treatments. The lowest bulk density (1.18 Mg m(-3)) in the 0-7.5 cm layer was recorded in NPK+FYM whereas it was highest in the control plots (1.30 Mg m(-3)). However, at sub-surface (22.5-30 cm) layer, fertilizer and manure application had little effect on bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Root length density (RLD) up to the 30 cm depth was highest in the NPK+FYM plots and it was 31.9% and 70.5% more than NPK and control plots. The RLD showed a significant and negative correlation (r=-0.88( * *)) with the penetration resistance.

  7. Effects of compost amended lead-arsenate contaminated soils on total and inorganic arsenic concentration in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a staple crop for over fifty percent of the world’s population, is also a source of dietary arsenic because of its efficiency at accumulating As. Pesticides containing As were once widely used in agriculture, and some soils in which these pesticides were used are now being u...

  8. ADSORPTION OF CADMIUM ONTO ORGANIC, TOTAL INORGANIC, AND METAL OXIDE FRACTIONS IN BIOSOLIDS AND BIOSOLID-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental impact and potential hazards of metals in biosolids to plants, animals and the human food chain from biosolids application on soils has been studied for decades. The early hypothesis known as "Time Bomb" has been questioned by recent research results which tend ...

  9. Contrasting effects of elevated CO2 and warming on temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition in a Chinese paddy field.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaozhi; Wang, Bingyu; Wang, Jinyang; Pan, Genxing; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2015-10-01

    Climate changes including elevated CO2 and temperature have been known to affect soil carbon (C) storage, while the effects of climate changes on the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) are unclear. A 365-day laboratory incubation was used to investigate the temperature sensitivity for decomposition of labile (Q 10-L) and recalcitrant (Q 10-R) SOMs by comparing the time required to decompose a given amount of C at 25 and 35 °C. Soils were collected from a paddy field that was subjected to four treatments: ambient CO2 and temperature, elevated CO2 (500 μmol/mol), enhanced temperature (+2 °C), and their combination. The results showed that the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition increased with increasing SOM recalcitrance in this paddy soil (Q 10-L = 2.21 ± 0.16 vs. Q 10-R = 2.78 ± 0.42; mean ± SD). Elevated CO2 and enhanced temperature showed contrasting effects on the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition. Elevated CO2 stimulated Q 10-R but had no effect on Q 10-L; in contrast, enhanced temperature increased Q 10-L but had no effect on Q 10-R. Furthermore, the elevated CO2 combined with enhanced temperature treatment significantly increased Q 10-L and Q 10-R by 18.9 and 10.2 %, respectively, compared to the ambient conditions. Results suggested that the responses of SOM to temperature, especially for the recalcitrant SOM pool, were altered by climate changes. The greatly enhanced temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition by elevated CO2 and temperature indicates that more CO2 will be released to the atmosphere and losses of soil C may be even greater than that previously expected in paddy field. PMID:27590882

  10. Changes in the microbial community structure of bacteria, archaea and fungi in response to elevated CO(2) and warming in an Australian native grassland soil.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Helen L; Mele, Pauline M; Bougoure, Damian S; Allan, Claire Y; Norng, Sorn; Piceno, Yvette M; Brodie, Eoin L; Desantis, Todd Z; Andersen, Gary L; Williams, Amity L; Hovenden, Mark J

    2012-12-01

    The microbial community structure of bacteria, archaea and fungi is described in an Australian native grassland soil after more than 5 years exposure to different atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) (ambient, +550 ppm) and temperatures (ambient, + 2°C) under different plant functional types (C3 and C4 grasses) and at two soil depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm). Archaeal community diversity was influenced by elevated [CO2], while under warming archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers increased for C4 plant Themeda triandra and decreased for the C3 plant community (P < 0.05). Fungal community diversity resulted in three groups based upon elevated [CO2], elevated [CO2] plus warming and ambient [CO2]. Overall bacterial community diversity was influenced primarily by depth. Specific bacterial taxa changed in richness and relative abundance in response to climate change factors when assessed by a high-resolution 16S rRNA microarray (PhyloChip). Operational taxonomic unit signal intensities increased under elevated [CO2] for both Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and increased under warming for Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. For the interaction of elevated [CO2] and warming there were 103 significant operational taxonomic units (P < 0.01) representing 15 phyla and 30 classes. The majority of these operational taxonomic units increased in abundance for elevated [CO2] plus warming plots, while abundance declined in warmed or elevated [CO2] plots. Bacterial abundance (16S rRNA gene copy number) was significantly different for the interaction of elevated [CO2] and depth (P < 0.05) with decreased abundance under elevated [CO2] at 5-10 cm, and for Firmicutes under elevated [CO2] (P < 0.05). Bacteria, archaea and fungi in soil responded differently to elevated [CO2], warming and their interaction. Taxa identified as significantly climate-responsive could show differing trends in the direction of response ('+' or '-') under elevated CO2 or warming, which could then not be used to

  11. Changes in the flux of carbon between plants and soil microorganisms at elevated CO{sub 2}: Physiological processes with ecosystem-level implications. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, D.R.; Pregitzer, K.S.

    1994-05-15

    Our ability to interpret ecosystem response to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} is contingent on understanding and integrating a complex of physiological and ecological processes. However, we have a limited understanding of the combined effects of changes in plant carbon (C) allocation, microbial activity, and nitrogen (N) dynamics on the long-term response of terrestrial ecosystems to elevated CO{sub 2}. Individually, these factors are potent modifiers of C and N dynamics, and an in depth understanding of their interactions should provide insight into ecosystem-level responses to global climate change. Our research is aimed at quantifying the physiological mechanisms leading to increased fine root production, microbial biomass and rates of N cycling at elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}. More specifically, we will experimentally manipulate soil nitrogen availability and atmospheric CO{sub 2} to understand how changes in plant resource availability influence the cycling of carbon between plants and soil microorganisms.

  12. Exploration of Inorganic C and N Assimilation by Soil Microbes with Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry†

    PubMed Central

    Cliff, John B.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Bottomley, Peter J.; Myrold, David D.

    2002-01-01

    Stable C and N isotopes have long been used to examine properties of various C and N cycling processes in soils. Unfortunately, relatively large sample sizes are needed for accurate gas phase isotope ratio mass spectrometric analysis. This limitation has prevented researchers from addressing C and N cycling issues on microbially meaningful scales. Here we explored the use of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to detect 13C and 15N assimilation by individual bacterial cells and to quantify N isotope ratios in bacterial samples and individual fungal hyphae. This was accomplished by measuring the relative abundances of mass 26 (12C14N−) and mass 27 (13C14N− and 12C15N−) ions sputtered with a Ga+ probe from cells adhered to an Si contact slide. TOF-SIMS was successfully used to locate and quantify the relative 15N contents of individual hyphae that grew onto Si contact slides in intimate contact with a model organomineral porous matrix composed of kaolin, straw fragments, and freshly deposited manure that was supplemented with 15NO3−. We observed that the 15N content of fungal hyphae grown on the slides was significantly lower in regions where the hyphae were influenced by N-rich manure than in regions influenced by N-deficient straw. This effect occurred over distances of tens to hundreds of microns. Our data illustrate that TOF-SIMS has the potential to locate N-assimilating microorganisms in soil and to quantify the 15N content of cells that have assimilated 15N-labeled mineral N and shows promise as a tool with which to explore the factors controlling microsite heterogeneities in soil. PMID:12147508

  13. Exploration of Inorganic C and N Assimilation by Soil Microbes with Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Cliff, John B.; Gaspar, Dan J. ); Bottomley, Peter J.; Myrold, David D.

    2002-08-01

    Stable C and N isotopes have long been used to examine properties of various C and N cycling processes in soils. Unfortunately, relatively large sample sizes are needed for accurate gas phase isotope ratio mass spectrometric analysis. This limitation has prevented researchers from addressing C and N cycling issues at microbially meaningful scales. Here we explore the use of time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to detect 13C and 15N assimilation by individual bacterial cells and to quantify N isotope ratios in bacterial samples and individual fungal hyphae. This was accomplished by measuring the relative abundances of mass 26 (12C14N) and mass 27 (13C14N and 12C15N) ions sputtered with a Ga+ probe form cells adhered to a Si contact slide. TOF-SIMS was successfully used to locate and quantify the relative 15N content of individual hyhpae that grew onto Si contact slides in intimate contact with a model organomineral porous matrix composed of kaolin, straw fragments, and freshly deposited manure that was supplemented with 15NO-3. We observed that 15N content of fungal hyphae grown on the slides was significantly lower in regions where the hyhpae were influenced by N-rich manure than in regions influenced by N-deficient straw. This effect occurred over distances of tens of hundreds of microns. Our data illustrates that TOF-SIMS has the potential to locate N assimilating microorganisms in soil, to quantify the 15N content of cells that have assimilated 15N-labeled mineral N, and shows promise as a tool to explore the factors controlling microsite heterogeneities in soil.

  14. Exploration of inorganic C and N assimilation by soil microbes with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cliff, John B; Gaspar, Daniel J; Bottomley, Peter J; Myrold, David D

    2002-08-01

    Stable C and N isotopes have long been used to examine properties of various C and N cycling processes in soils. Unfortunately, relatively large sample sizes are needed for accurate gas phase isotope ratio mass spectrometric analysis. This limitation has prevented researchers from addressing C and N cycling issues on microbially meaningful scales. Here we explored the use of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to detect 13C and 15N assimilation by individual bacterial cells and to quantify N isotope ratios in bacterial samples and individual fungal hyphae. This was accomplished by measuring the relative abundances of mass 26 (12C14N-) and mass 27 (13C14N- and 12C15N-) ions sputtered with a Ga+ probe from cells adhered to an Si contact slide. TOF-SIMS was successfully used to locate and quantify the relative 15N contents of individual hyphae that grew onto Si contact slides in intimate contact with a model organomineral porous matrix composed of kaolin, straw fragments, and freshly deposited manure that was supplemented with 15NO3-. We observed that the 15N content of fungal hyphae grown on the slides was significantly lower in regions where the hyphae were influenced by N-rich manure than in regions influenced by N-deficient straw. This effect occurred over distances of tens to hundreds of microns. Our data illustrate that TOF-SIMS has the potential to locate N-assimilating microorganisms in soil and to quantify the 15N content of cells that have assimilated 15N-labeled mineral N and shows promise as a tool with which to explore the factors controlling microsite heterogeneities in soil.

  15. Leaf area index drives soil water availability and extreme drought-related mortality under elevated CO2 in a temperate grassland model system.

    PubMed

    Manea, Anthony; Leishman, Michelle R

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude and frequency of climatic extremes, such as drought, are predicted to increase under future climate change conditions. However, little is known about how other factors such as CO2 concentration will modify plant community responses to these extreme climatic events, even though such modifications are highly likely. We asked whether the response of grasslands to repeat extreme drought events is modified by elevated CO2, and if so, what are the underlying mechanisms? We grew grassland mesocosms consisting of 10 co-occurring grass species common to the Cumberland Plain Woodland of western Sydney under ambient and elevated CO2 and subjected them to repeated extreme drought treatments. The 10 species included a mix of C3, C4, native and exotic species. We hypothesized that a reduction in the stomatal conductance of the grasses under elevated CO2 would be offset by increases in the leaf area index thus the retention of soil water and the consequent vulnerability of the grasses to extreme drought would not differ between the CO2 treatments. Our results did not support this hypothesis: soil water content was significantly lower in the mesocosms grown under elevated CO2 and extreme drought-related mortality of the grasses was greater. The C4 and native grasses had significantly higher leaf area index under elevated CO2 levels. This offset the reduction in the stomatal conductance of the exotic grasses as well as increased rainfall interception, resulting in reduced soil water content in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Our results suggest that projected increases in net primary productivity globally of grasslands in a high CO2 world may be limited by reduced soil water availability in the future.

  16. Low soil temperature inhibits the effect of high nutrient supply on photosynthetic response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration in white birch seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ambebe, Titus F; Dang, Qing-Lai; Li, Junlin

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the interactive effects of soil temperature (T(soil)) and nutrient availability on the response of photosynthesis to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) seedlings were exposed to ambient (360 micromol mol(-1)) or elevated (720 micromol mol(-1)) [CO(2)], three T(soil) (5, 15 and 25 degrees C initially, increased to 7, 17 and 27 degrees C, respectively, 1 month later) and three nutrient regimes (4/1.8/3.3, 80/35/66 and 160/70/132 mg l(-1) N/P/K) for 3 months in environment-controlled greenhouses. Elevated [CO(2)] increased net photosynthetic rate (A(n)), instantaneous water-use efficiency (IWUE), internal to ambient carbon dioxide concentration ratio (C(i)/C(a)), triose phosphate utilization (TPU) and photosynthetic linear electron transport to carboxylation (J(c)), and it decreased actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (DeltaF/F(m)'), the fraction of total linear electron transport partitioned to oxygenation (J(o)/J(T)) and leaf N concentration. The low T(soil) suppressed A(n), transpiration rate (E), TPU, DeltaF/F(m)' and J(c), but it increased J(o)/J(T). The low nutrient treatment reduced A(n), IWUE, maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco, light-saturated electron transport rate, TPU, DeltaF/F(m)', J(c) and leaf N concentration, but increased C(i)/C(a). There were two-factor interactions for C(i)/C(a), TPU and leaf N concentration, and a significant effect of CO(2) x T(soil) x nutrient regime on A(n), IWUE and J(c). The stimulations of A(n) and IWUE by elevated [CO(2)] were limited to seedlings grown under the intermediate and high nutrient regimes at the intermediate and high T(soil). For J(c), the [CO(2)] effect was significant only at intermediate T(soil) + high nutrient availability. No significant [CO(2)] effects were observed under the low T(soil) at any nutrient level. Our results support this study's hypothesis that low T(soil) would reduce the positive effect of high

  17. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on soil microbial biomass, activity, and diversity in a chaparral ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Lipson, David A; Wilson, Richard F; Oechel, Walter C

    2005-12-01

    This study reports the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO2 on root production and microbial activity, biomass, and diversity in a chaparral ecosystem in southern California. The free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) ring was located in a stand dominated by the woody shrub Adenostoma fasciculatum. Between 1995 and 2003, the FACE ring maintained an average daytime atmospheric CO2 concentration of 550 ppm. During the last two years of operation, observations were made on soil cores collected from the FACE ring and adjacent areas of chaparral with ambient CO2 levels. Root biomass roughly doubled in the FACE plot. Microbial biomass and activity were related to soil organic matter (OM) content, and so analysis of covariance was used to detect CO2 effects while controlling for variation across the landscape. Extracellular enzymatic activity (cellulase and amylase) and microbial biomass C (chloroform fumigation-extraction) increased more rapidly with OM in the FACE plot than in controls, but glucose substrate-induced respiration (SIR) rates did not. The metabolic quotient (field respiration over potential respiration) was significantly higher in FACE samples, possibly indicating that microbial respiration was less C limited under high CO2. The treatments also differed in the ratio of SIR to microbial biomass C, indicating a metabolic difference between the microbial communities. Bacterial diversity, described by 16S rRNA clone libraries, was unaffected by the CO2 treatment, but fungal biomass was stimulated. Furthermore, fungal biomass was correlated with cellulase and amylase activities, indicating that fungi were responsible for the stimulation of enzymatic activity in the FACE treatment.

  18. Few apparent short-term effects of elevated soil temperature and increased frequency of summer precipitation on the abundance and taxonomic diversity of desert soil micro- and meso-fauna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, B.J.; Neher, D.A.; Housman, D.C.; Belnap, J.

    2011-01-01

    Frequent hydration and drying of soils in arid systems can accelerate desert carbon and nitrogen mobilization due to respiration, microbial death, and release of intracellular solutes. Because desert microinvertebrates can mediate nutrient cycling, and the autotrophic components of crusts are known to be sensitive to rapid desiccation due to elevated temperatures after wetting events, we studied whether altered soil temperature and frequency of summer precipitation can also affect the composition of food web consumer functional groups. We conducted a two-year field study with experimentally-elevated temperature and frequency of summer precipitation in the Colorado Plateau desert, measuring the change in abundance of nematodes, protozoans, and microarthropods. We hypothesized that microfauna would be more adversely affected by the combination of elevated temperature and frequency of summer precipitation than either effect alone, as found previously for phototrophic crust biota. Microfauna experienced normal seasonal fluctuations in abundance, but the effect of elevated temperature and frequency of summer precipitation was statistically non-significant for most microfaunal groups, except amoebae. The seasonal increase in abundance of amoebae was reduced with combined elevated temperature and increased frequency of summer precipitation compared to either treatment alone, but comparable with control (untreated) plots. Based on our findings, we suggest that desert soil microfauna are relatively more tolerant to increases in ambient temperature and frequency of summer precipitation than the autotrophic components of biological soil crust at the surface.

  19. Arsenic, inorganic

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Arsenic , inorganic ; CASRN 7440 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  20. Low moisture availability inhibits the enhancing effect of increased soil temperature on net photosynthesis of white birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings grown under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ambebe, Titus F; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2009-11-01

    White birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) seedlings were grown under two carbon dioxide concentrations (ambient: 360 micromol mol(-1) and elevated: 720 micromol mol(-1)), three soil temperatures (5, 15 and 25 degrees C initially, increased to 7, 17 and 27 degrees C, respectively, 1 month later) and three moisture regimes (low: 30-40%; intermediate: 45-55% and high: 60-70% field water capacity) in greenhouses. In situ gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured after 2 months of treatments. Net photosynthetic rate (A(n)) of seedlings grown under the intermediate and high moisture regimes increased from low to intermediate T(soil) and then decreased to high T(soil). There were no significant differences between the low and high T(soil), with the exception that A(n) was significantly higher under high than low T(soil) at the high moisture regime. No significant T(soil) effect on A(n) was observed at the low moisture regime. The intermediate T(soil) increased stomatal conductance (g(s)) only at intermediate and high but not at low moisture regime, whereas there were no significant differences between the low and high T(soil) treatments. Furthermore, the difference in g(s) between the intermediate and high T(soil) at high moisture regime was not statistically significant. The low moisture regime significantly reduced the internal to ambient CO2 concentration ratio at all T(soil). There were no significant individual or interactive effects of treatment on maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco, light-saturated electron transport rate, triose phosphate utilization or potential photochemical efficiency of photosystem II. The results of this study suggest that soil moisture condition should be taken into account when predicting the responses of white birch to soil warming. PMID:19797245

  1. Effects of Elevated CO2 on Soil Trace Gas (CH4, N2O and NO) Fluxes in a Scrub Oak Ecosystem at Kennedy Space Center, FL, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, A. E.; Bracho, R. G.; Stover, D.

    2008-05-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase the plant demand for soil nutrients, which in turn can impose a nitrogen limitation on unmanaged ecosystems. The microbial responses to CO2 enrichment are complex and difficult to predict. Some studies suggest that CO2 enrichment increases microbial mineralization of nitrogen, making nitrogen more available through a carbon priming effect. Alternatively, microbes may contribute to nitrogen limitation through accelerated soil nitrogen losses. In this study, we examined the effects of CO2 enrichment on trace gases that are released or taken up during soil microbial reactions: nitrification, denitrification and methane consumption. Ambient and approximately twice-ambient CO2 treatments were applied to a coastal scrub oak community at Kennedy Space Center, FL, via open-top chambers since May 1996. The CO2 treatments ended in July 2007 before an aboveground harvest took place inside the chambers. Nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO) and methane (CH4) fluxes were measured in the field from 2006-2008. Soil N2O losses from the study site were low (< 1 ng N2O-N cm-2 h-1) with no CO2 treatment effect. Soil NO losses were similarly low (< 1 ng N2O-N cm-2 h-1), but fluxes were consistently lower in elevated CO2 than in ambient CO2. NO production was higher for 3 months post-harvest in ambient CO2. Methane consumption was lower in elevated vs. ambient CO2 in 2006, although this trend was not significant. Over a decade of CO2 enrichment has reduced soil nitrogen availability, which could explain the low overall rates of nitrogen trace gas emission. Reduced soil carbon stores in elevated CO2 measured at this site could also explain the lower nitrification rates, measured as NO efflux. Trace gas emissions in this sandy, nutrient-poor scrub oak forest are comparable to published rates in desert ecosystems.

  2. Vegetation and Cold Trapping Modulating Elevation-dependent Distribution of Trace Metals in Soils of a High Mountain in Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Bing, Haijian; Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Jun; Li, Rui; Luo, Ji; Yu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals adsorbed onto fine particles can be transported long distances and ultimately deposited in Polar Regions via the cold condensation effect. This study indicated the possible sources of silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and zinc (Zn) in soils on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga, eastern Tibetan Plateau, and deciphered the effects of vegetation and mountain cold condensation on their distributions with elevation. The metal concentrations in the soils were comparable to other mountains worldwide except the remarkably high concentrations of Cd. Trace metals with high enrichment in the soils were influenced from anthropogenic contributions. Spatially, the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the surface horizons decreased from 2000 to 3700 m a.s.l., and then increased with elevation, whereas other metals were notably enriched in the mid-elevation area (approximately 3000 m a.s.l.). After normalization for soil organic carbon, high concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were observed above the timberline. Our results indicated the importance of vegetation in trace metal accumulation in an alpine ecosystem and highlighted the mountain cold trapping effect on trace metal deposition sourced from long-range atmospheric transport.

  3. Multi-targeted metagenetic analysis of the influence of climate and environmental parameters on soil microbial communities along an elevational gradient

    PubMed Central

    Lanzén, Anders; Epelde, Lur; Blanco, Fernando; Martín, Iker; Artetxe, Unai; Garbisu, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Mountain elevation gradients are invaluable sites for understanding the effects of climate change on ecosystem function, community structure and distribution. However, relatively little is known about the impact on soil microbial communities, in spite of their importance for the functioning of the soil ecosystem. Previous studies of microbial diversity along elevational gradients were often limited by confounding variables such as vegetation, pH, and nutrients. Here, we utilised a transect in the Pyrenees established to minimise variation in such parameters, to examine prokaryotic, fungal, protist and metazoan communities throughout three consecutive years. We aimed to determine the influences of climate and environmental parameters on soil microbial community structure; as well as on the relationships between those microbial communities. Further, functional diversity of heterotrophic bacteria was determined using Biolog. Prokaryotic and fungal community structure, but not alpha-diversity, correlated significantly with elevation. However, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and pH appeared to affect prokaryotic and protist communities more strongly. Both community structure and physicochemical parameters varied considerably between years, illustrating the value of long-term monitoring of the dynamic processes controlling the soil ecosystem. Our study also illustrates both the challenges and strengths of using microbial communities as indicators of potential impacts of climate change. PMID:27321429

  4. Multi-targeted metagenetic analysis of the influence of climate and environmental parameters on soil microbial communities along an elevational gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzén, Anders; Epelde, Lur; Blanco, Fernando; Martín, Iker; Artetxe, Unai; Garbisu, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Mountain elevation gradients are invaluable sites for understanding the effects of climate change on ecosystem function, community structure and distribution. However, relatively little is known about the impact on soil microbial communities, in spite of their importance for the functioning of the soil ecosystem. Previous studies of microbial diversity along elevational gradients were often limited by confounding variables such as vegetation, pH, and nutrients. Here, we utilised a transect in the Pyrenees established to minimise variation in such parameters, to examine prokaryotic, fungal, protist and metazoan communities throughout three consecutive years. We aimed to determine the influences of climate and environmental parameters on soil microbial community structure; as well as on the relationships between those microbial communities. Further, functional diversity of heterotrophic bacteria was determined using Biolog. Prokaryotic and fungal community structure, but not alpha-diversity, correlated significantly with elevation. However, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and pH appeared to affect prokaryotic and protist communities more strongly. Both community structure and physicochemical parameters varied considerably between years, illustrating the value of long-term monitoring of the dynamic processes controlling the soil ecosystem. Our study also illustrates both the challenges and strengths of using microbial communities as indicators of potential impacts of climate change.

  5. Vegetation and Cold Trapping Modulating Elevation-dependent Distribution of Trace Metals in Soils of a High Mountain in Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Bing, Haijian; Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Jun; Li, Rui; Luo, Ji; Yu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals adsorbed onto fine particles can be transported long distances and ultimately deposited in Polar Regions via the cold condensation effect. This study indicated the possible sources of silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and zinc (Zn) in soils on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga, eastern Tibetan Plateau, and deciphered the effects of vegetation and mountain cold condensation on their distributions with elevation. The metal concentrations in the soils were comparable to other mountains worldwide except the remarkably high concentrations of Cd. Trace metals with high enrichment in the soils were influenced from anthropogenic contributions. Spatially, the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the surface horizons decreased from 2000 to 3700 m a.s.l., and then increased with elevation, whereas other metals were notably enriched in the mid-elevation area (approximately 3000 m a.s.l.). After normalization for soil organic carbon, high concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were observed above the timberline. Our results indicated the importance of vegetation in trace metal accumulation in an alpine ecosystem and highlighted the mountain cold trapping effect on trace metal deposition sourced from long-range atmospheric transport. PMID:27052807

  6. Vegetation and Cold Trapping Modulating Elevation-dependent Distribution of Trace Metals in Soils of a High Mountain in Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bing, Haijian; Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Jun; Li, Rui; Luo, Ji; Yu, Dong

    2016-04-01

    Trace metals adsorbed onto fine particles can be transported long distances and ultimately deposited in Polar Regions via the cold condensation effect. This study indicated the possible sources of silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and zinc (Zn) in soils on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga, eastern Tibetan Plateau, and deciphered the effects of vegetation and mountain cold condensation on their distributions with elevation. The metal concentrations in the soils were comparable to other mountains worldwide except the remarkably high concentrations of Cd. Trace metals with high enrichment in the soils were influenced from anthropogenic contributions. Spatially, the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the surface horizons decreased from 2000 to 3700 m a.s.l., and then increased with elevation, whereas other metals were notably enriched in the mid-elevation area (approximately 3000 m a.s.l.). After normalization for soil organic carbon, high concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were observed above the timberline. Our results indicated the importance of vegetation in trace metal accumulation in an alpine ecosystem and highlighted the mountain cold trapping effect on trace metal deposition sourced from long-range atmospheric transport.

  7. Multi-targeted metagenetic analysis of the influence of climate and environmental parameters on soil microbial communities along an elevational gradient.

    PubMed

    Lanzén, Anders; Epelde, Lur; Blanco, Fernando; Martín, Iker; Artetxe, Unai; Garbisu, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Mountain elevation gradients are invaluable sites for understanding the effects of climate change on ecosystem function, community structure and distribution. However, relatively little is known about the impact on soil microbial communities, in spite of their importance for the functioning of the soil ecosystem. Previous studies of microbial diversity along elevational gradients were often limited by confounding variables such as vegetation, pH, and nutrients. Here, we utilised a transect in the Pyrenees established to minimise variation in such parameters, to examine prokaryotic, fungal, protist and metazoan communities throughout three consecutive years. We aimed to determine the influences of climate and environmental parameters on soil microbial community structure; as well as on the relationships between those microbial communities. Further, functional diversity of heterotrophic bacteria was determined using Biolog. Prokaryotic and fungal community structure, but not alpha-diversity, correlated significantly with elevation. However, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and pH appeared to affect prokaryotic and protist communities more strongly. Both community structure and physicochemical parameters varied considerably between years, illustrating the value of long-term monitoring of the dynamic processes controlling the soil ecosystem. Our study also illustrates both the challenges and strengths of using microbial communities as indicators of potential impacts of climate change. PMID:27321429

  8. Atmospheric inorganic nitrogen in dry deposition to a typical red soil agro-ecosystem in southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Zhou, Jing; Yang, Hao

    2010-06-01

    Atmospheric dry deposition is an important pathway of nitrogen (N) sources input to agro-ecosystems. With the knowledge of increasing agricultural effects by dry N deposition, researchers have paid great attention to this topic. Characteristics of dry N deposition were estimated by a big-leaf resistance analogy model and the Auto-Meteorological Experiment Station (AMES) in a typical red soil agro-ecosystem in southeastern China for two years (2005-2006). Monthly dry deposition velocities (V(d)) were in the range of 0.16-0.36, 0.07-0.17 and 0.07-0.24 cm s(-1) for NH(3), NO(2) and aerosol particles (aerosol NH(4)(+) or NO(3)(-)), respectively, and the V(d) were higher in spring and winter than in summer and autumn. Monthly dry N deposition concentration (C(a)) and inferred deposition flux (F(d)) were in the range of 63.38-261.10, 47.21-278.92, 1.56-7.15, 47.21-278.92 microg N m(-3) and of 1.31-8.60, 0.38-3.67, 0-0.08, 0.01-0.23 kg N ha(-2) for NH(3), NO(2), aerosol NH(4)(+) and aerosol NO(3)(-), respectively. During the study period (2005-2006), the total dry N deposition was 70.55 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) which equivalent to 1.53.8 kg (urea) ha(-1) yr(-1) or 415.0 kg (ammonium bicarbonate) ha(-1) yr(-1) applied in the red soil agro-ecosystems. In addition, the annual mean N depositions, mean sum of the monthly N depositions were 69.44, 1.12, 53.95 and 16.60 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) for gaseous N, aerosol N, ammonia N and oxidized N, making up 98.42%, 1.58%, 53.95% and 16.60% of the total dry deposition N (70.50 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)).

  9. Effects of elevated CO2 concentrations and fly ash amended soils on trace element accumulation and translocation among roots, stems and seeds of Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J H; Klumpp, A; Fangmeier, A; Pignata, M L

    2011-03-15

    The carbon dioxide (CO(2)) levels of the global atmosphere and the emissions of heavy metals have risen in recent decades, and these increases are expected to produce an impact on crops and thereby affect yield and food safety. In this study, the effects of elevated CO(2) and fly ash amended soils on trace element accumulation and translocation in the root, stem and seed compartments in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] were evaluated. Soybean plants grown in fly ash (FA) amended soil (0, 1, 10, 15, and 25% FA) at two CO(2) regimes (400 and 600 ppm) in controlled environmental chambers were analyzed at the maturity stage for their trace element contents. The concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in roots, stems and seeds in soybeans were investigated and their potential risk to the health of consumers was estimated. The results showed that high levels of CO(2) and lower concentrations of FA in soils were associated with an increase in biomass. For all the elements analyzed except Pb, their accumulation in soybean plants was higher at elevated CO(2) than at ambient concentrations. In most treatments, the highest concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb were found in the roots, with a strong combined effect of elevated CO(2) and 1% of FA amended soils on Pb accumulation (above maximum permitted levels) and translocation to seeds being observed. In relation to non-carcinogenic risks, target hazard quotients (TQHs) were significant in a Chinese individual for Mn, Fe and Pb. Also, the increased health risk due to the added effects of the trace elements studied was significant for Chinese consumers. According to these results, soybean plants grown for human consumption under future conditions of elevated CO(2) and FA amended soils may represent a toxicological hazard. Therefore, more research should be carried out with respect to food consumption (plants and animals) under these conditions and their consequences for human health.

  10. Fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 mediate growth of Lolium mutiforum and Phytolacca americana, metal uptake, and metal bioavailability in metal-contaminated soil: evidence from DGT measurement.

    PubMed

    Song, Ningning; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong; Guo, Junkang; Ju, Xuehai; Smith, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 may mediate plant growth and uptake of heavy metals, but little evidence from Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) measurement has been obtained to characterize the process. Lolium mutiforum and Phytolacca americana were grown at ambient and elevated CO2 on naturally Cd and Pb contaminated soils inoculated with and without Trichoderma asperellum strain C3 or Penicillium chrysogenum strain D4, to investigate plant growth, metal uptake, and metal bioavailability responses. Fungal inoculation increased plant biomass and shoot/root Cd and Pb concentrations. Elevated CO2 significantly increased plants biomass, but decreased Cd and Pb concentrations in shoot/root to various extents, leading to a metal dilution phenomenon. Total Cd and Pb uptake by plants, and DGT-measured Cd and Pb concentrations in rhizosphere soils, were higher in all fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 treatments than control treatments, with the combined treatments having more influence than either treatment alone. Metal dilution phenomenon occurred because the increase in DGT-measured bioavailable metal pools in plant rhizosphere due to elevated CO2 was unable to match the increase in requirement for plant uptake of metals due to plant biomass increase.

  11. Effects of Elevated [CO2] and Low Soil Moisture on the Physiological Responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L.) Seedlings to Light

    PubMed Central

    Danyagri, Gabriel; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2]) and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol−1) and elevated (784 µmol mol−1) [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M) regimes, at high light (100%) and low light (30%) in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE), maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax), rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J), triose phosphate utilization (TPU)), leaf respiration (Rd), light compensation point (LCP) and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx). A and gs did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the Ci/Ca in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable. PMID:24146894

  12. Effects of elevated [CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light.

    PubMed

    Danyagri, Gabriel; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2]) and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol(-1)) and elevated (784 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M) regimes, at high light (100%) and low light (30%) in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g s), instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE), maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax), rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J), triose phosphate utilization (TPU)), leaf respiration (R d), light compensation point (LCP) and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx). A and g s did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the C i/C a in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable. PMID:24146894

  13. Coevolution of nonlinear trends in vegetation, soils, and topography with elevation and slope aspect: A case study in the sky islands of southern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Jon D.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Breshears, David D.; Brooks, Paul D.; Chorover, Jon; Durcik, Matej; Harman, Ciaran J.; Huxman, Travis E.; Lohse, Kathleen A.; Lybrand, Rebecca; Meixner, Tom; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Papuga, Shirley A.; Rasmussen, Craig; Schaap, Marcel; Swetnam, Tyson L.; Troch, Peter A.

    2013-06-01

    among vegetation dynamics, pedogenesis, and topographic development affect the "critical zone"—the living filter for Earth's hydrologic, biogeochemical, and rock/sediment cycles. Assessing the importance of such feedbacks, which may be particularly pronounced in water-limited systems, remains a fundamental interdisciplinary challenge. The sky islands of southern Arizona offer an unusually well-defined natural experiment involving such feedbacks because mean annual precipitation varies by a factor of five over distances of approximately 10 km in areas of similar rock type (granite) and tectonic history. Here we compile high-resolution, spatially distributed data for Effective Energy and Mass Transfer (EEMT: the energy available to drive bedrock weathering), above-ground biomass, soil thickness, hillslope-scale topographic relief, and drainage density in two such mountain ranges (Santa Catalina: SCM; Pinaleño: PM). Strong correlations exist among vegetation-soil-topography variables, which vary nonlinearly with elevation, such that warm, dry, low-elevation portions of these ranges are characterized by relatively low above-ground biomass, thin soils, minimal soil organic matter, steep slopes, and high drainage densities; conversely, cooler, wetter, higher elevations have systematically higher biomass, thicker organic-rich soils, gentler slopes, and lower drainage densities. To test if eco-pedo-geomorphic feedbacks drive this pattern, we developed a landscape evolution model that couples pedogenesis and topographic development over geologic time scales, with rates explicitly dependent on vegetation density. The model self-organizes into states similar to those observed in SCM and PM. Our results highlight the potential importance of eco-pedo-geomorphic feedbacks, mediated by soil thickness, in water-limited systems.

  14. Effects of elevated [CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light.

    PubMed

    Danyagri, Gabriel; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2]) and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol(-1)) and elevated (784 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M) regimes, at high light (100%) and low light (30%) in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g s), instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE), maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax), rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J), triose phosphate utilization (TPU)), leaf respiration (R d), light compensation point (LCP) and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx). A and g s did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the C i/C a in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable.

  15. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition on fatty acid molecular and isotope composition of above- and belowground tree biomass and forest soil fractions.

    PubMed

    Griepentrog, Marco; Eglinton, Timothy I; Hagedorn, Frank; Schmidt, Michael W I; Wiesenberg, Guido L B

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and reactive nitrogen (N) concentrations have been increasing due to human activities and impact the global carbon (C) cycle by affecting plant photosynthesis and decomposition processes in soil. Large amounts of C are stored in plants and soils, but the mechanisms behind the stabilization of plant- and microbial-derived organic matter (OM) in soils are still under debate and it is not clear how N deposition affects soil OM dynamics. Here, we studied the effects of 4 years of elevated (13C-depleted) CO2 and N deposition in forest ecosystems established in open-top chambers on composition and turnover of fatty acids (FAs) in plants and soils. FAs served as biomarkers for plant- and microbial-derived OM in soil density fractions. We analyzed above- and belowground plant biomass of beech and spruce trees as well as soil density fractions for the total organic C and FA molecular and isotope (δ13C) composition. FAs did not accumulate relative to total organic C in fine mineral fractions, showing that FAs are not effectively stabilized by association with soil minerals. The δ13C values of FAs in plant biomass increased under high N deposition. However, the N effect was only apparent under elevated CO2 suggesting a N limitation of the system. In soil fractions, only isotope compositions of short-chain FAs (C16+18) were affected. Fractions of 'new' (experimental-derived) FAs were calculated using isotope depletion in elevated CO2 plots and decreased from free light to fine mineral fractions. 'New' FAs were higher in short-chain compared to long-chain FAs (C20-30), indicating a faster turnover of short-chain compared to long-chain FAs. Increased N deposition did not significantly affect the quantity of 'new' FAs in soil fractions, but showed a tendency of increased amounts of 'old' (pre-experimental) C suggesting that decomposition of 'old' C is retarded by high N inputs.

  16. Effects of Elevated CO2 and Warming on Plant Productivity, Soil Moisture, and Plant Water-Relations in a Semi-Arid Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, K. E.; Blumenthal, D. M.; Pendall, E.; Williams, D. G.; LeCain, D. R.; Morgan, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    In a mixed-grass prairie near Cheyenne, WY, we conducted a 7-year climate change experiment with factorial manipulations of air temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (dubbed the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment experiment; PHACE). Carbon dioxide treatments were ambient (~390 ppm) and elevated (~600 ppm), implemented with Free-Air CO2Enrichment (FACE) technology. Temperature treatments were ambient and warmed (+1.5°C during the day and +3°C at night), maintained by a Temperature Free-Air Controlled Enhancement (T-FACE) system. Using the first three years of data, Morgan et al. (2009) reported that elevated CO2 stimulated plant production, regardless of the temperature treatment and especially in years when ambient soil moisture was low, likely due in part to the positive effect of CO2 on soil moisture that is mediated by plant physiological responses to elevated CO2 (e.g. reduced stomatal conductance). Here, we report the effects of elevated CO2, warming, and interannual weather variability (and their interactions) on plant productivity and soil moisture using the full 7-year dataset. Preliminary analyses show: 1) evidence of a persistent effect of both CO2 and warming on soil moisture (positive and negative, respectively) and indications that the effect of each treatment on soil moisture varied with soil depth and with time within the growing season, and 2) evidence that effects of both CO2 and warming on productivity are temporally dynamic, due to a combination of interannual weather variability, shifts in plant community composition, and diverse responses of different plant functional types and species to the treatments. Finally, to identify how plant physiological processes mediated the impact of CO2 and warming on plant productivity and soil moisture, we will briefly describe the response of plant traits to the treatments (e.g. leaf gas-exchange, leaf drought tolerance, depth of water uptake from soil). Collectively, our results suggest that decadal

  17. Residential lead-based-paint hazard remediation and soil lead abatement: their impact among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, A; Beiser, A; Bellinger, D; Copenhafer, D; Weitzman, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This prospective study describes the impact of residential lead-based-paint hazard remediations on children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. METHODS: Changes in blood lead levels were observed following paint hazard remediation alone and in combination with soil abatement. RESULTS: After adjustment for the confounding variables paint hazard remediation alone was associated with a blood lead increase of 6.5 micrograms/dL (P = 0.5), and paint hazard remediation combined with soil abatement was associated with an increase of 0.9 microgram/dL (P = 36). CONCLUSIONS: Lead-based-paint hazard remediation as performed in this study, is not an effective secondary prevention strategy among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. PMID:9357358

  18. Effect of pest controlling neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium Jacquin) leaf extracts on emission of green house gases and inorganic-N content in urea-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, F A; Dendooven, L

    2009-07-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as 'mata-raton', are used to control pests of maize. Their application, however, is known to affect soil microorganisms. We investigated if these extracts affected emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), important greenhouse gases, and dynamics of soil inorganic N. Soil was treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin, used as chemical control. The soil was amended with or without urea and incubated at 40% and 100% water holding capacity (WHC). Concentrations of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) and emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O were monitored for 7d. Treating urea-amended soil with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the emission of CO2 significantly compared to the untreated soil with the largest decrease found in the latter. Oxidation of CH4 was inhibited by extracts of neem in the unamended soil, and by neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin in the urea-amended soil compared to the untreated soil. Neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the N2O emission from the unamended soil incubated at 40%WHC compared to the untreated soil. Extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin had no significant effect on dynamics of NH4(+), NO2(-) and NO(3)(-). It was found that emission of CO2 and oxidation of CH4 was inhibited in the urea-amended soil treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin, but ammonification, N2O emission and nitrification were not affected.

  19. Daily and seasonal changes in soil amino acid composition in a semiarid grassland exposed to elevated CO2 and warming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil amino acids are often an important source of nitrogen (N) for plants, and anticipated global changes, including climate warming and rising atmospheric CO2 levels, have the potential to alter plant and microbial production and consumption of this N source in soils. We determined soil amino acid ...

  20. Response of forest seedling/soil microcosms to elevated CO{sub 2} and soil temperature, water, and light: Carbon and nitrogen mineralization and allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, M.L.; Perry, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    Soils from 500-year-old old-growth Douglas-fir forests in the western Oregon Cascade Mtns. (945m and 1325m sites) were {open_quotes}incubated{close_quotes} for 32 weeks in controlled-environment chambers. Objectives were (1) to determine the interacting effects of soil temperature and atmospheric CO{sub 2} on N availability in soils, growth of Douglas-fir seedlings, and resulting C & N fluxes among trees, soils, and the atmosphere, and (2) to model these interactions with a version of Fregro linked with the GEM soil-decomposition model. The experiment was a split-plot with a factorial treatment combination containing two leves each of atmospheric CO{sub 2} (350/700 ppm), soil temperature (13.8/17.7{degrees}C), soil C & N (1325m soils had 2.3x more C and 1.25x more N than 945m soils), and vegetation (+/-seedlings). Each wholeplot (chamber) treatment (CO{sub 2} x temperature) was replicated three times. Photosynthetic photon flux density, soil temperature, and volume of added water were determined for each pot and analyzed as covariates. Responses measured include differences in soil C & N mineralization and total soil C & N in the presence/absence of seedlings, the extent to which subsequent seedling growth offsets potential {open_quote}system{close_quote} losses of C & N, and allocation of C & N to foliage and fine roots. Previously reported early results (ESA, 1994) suggest that (1) as hypothesized, soil temperatures is the main driver of changes in both N mineralization and biomass production in seedling microcosms, (2) allocation is primarily influenced by atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, and (3) a soil type x soil temperature x CO{sub 2} interaction influences seedling growth.

  1. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature on the soil profile methane distribution and diffusion in rice-wheat rotation system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Zhaozhi; Zhang, Man; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Xuhui; Pan, Genxing; Zou, Jianwen; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the impacts of climate change on soil profile concentrations and diffusion effluxes of methane in a rice-wheat annual rotation ecosystem in Southeastern China. We initiated a field experiment with four treatments: ambient conditions (CKs), CO2 concentration elevated to ~500 μmol/mol (FACE), temperature elevated by ca. 2°C (T) and combined elevation of CO2 concentration and temperature (FACE+T). A multilevel sampling probe was designed to collect the soil gas at four different depths, namely, 7 cm, 15 cm, 30 cm and 50 cm. Methane concentrations were higher during the rice season and decreased with depth, while lower during the wheat season and increased with depth. Compared to CK, mean methane concentration was increased by 42%, 57% and 71% under the FACE, FACE+T and T treatments, respectively, at the 7 cm depth during the rice season (p<0.05). Mean methane diffusion effluxes to the 7 cm depth were positive in the rice season and negative in the wheat season, resulting in the paddy field being a source and weak sink, respectively. Moreover, mean methane diffusion effluxes in the rice season were 0.94, 1.19 and 1.42 mg C/(m2·hr) in the FACE, FACE+T and T treatments, respectively, being clearly higher than that in the CK. The results indicated that elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature could significantly increase soil profile methane concentrations and their effluxes from a rice-wheat field annual rotation ecosystem (p<0.05).

  2. Warming and the dependence of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) establishment on summer soil moisture within and above its current elevation range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyes, Andrew B.; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2013-01-01

    Continued changes in climate are projected to alter the geographic distributions of plant species, in part by affecting where individuals can establish from seed. We tested the hypothesis that warming promotes uphill redistribution of subalpine tree populations by reducing cold limitation at high elevation and enhancing drought stress at low elevation. We seeded limber pine (Pinus flexilis) into plots with combinations of infrared heating and water addition treatments, at sites positioned in lower subalpine forest, the treeline ecotone, and alpine tundra. In 2010, first-year seedlings were assessed for physiological performance and survival over the snow-free growing season. Seedlings emerged in midsummer, about 5–8 weeks after snowmelt. Low temperature was not observed to limit seedling photosynthesis or respiration between emergence and October, and thus experimental warming did not appear to reduce cold limitation at high elevation. Instead, gas exchange and water potential from all sites indicated a prevailing effect of summer moisture stress on photosynthesis and carbon balance. Infrared heaters raised soil growing degree days (base 5 °C, p p 3 m-3 consistently corresponded with moderate and severe indications of drought stress in midday stem water potential, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and respiration. Seedling survival was greater in watered plots than in heated plots (p = 0.01), and negatively related to soil growing degree days and duration of exposure to θ 3 m-3 in a stepwise linear regression model (p < 0.0001). We concluded that seasonal moisture stress and high soil surface temperature imposed a strong limitation to limber pine seedling establishment across a broad elevation gradient, including at treeline, and that these limitations are likely to be enhanced by further climate warming.

  3. Inorganic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černý, Radovan

    The separation of compounds by inorganic/organic boundary is of less importance for the structure determination by diffraction methods. More important for the diffraction is how the atoms build up larger building units and the crystal itself. A molecular/non-molecular boundary is therefore relevant for the choice of a structure determination method. Non-molecular compounds - also called extended solids - are constructed by bonds that extend "infinitely" in three dimensions through a crystal. These non-molecular crystals usually crystallize with higher symmetries, and atoms often occupy special Wyckoff positions. A review of actual methodology is given first, and then highlights and pitfalls of structure determination from powder diffraction, its problems and their solutions are shown and discussed using selected examples.

  4. THE FATE AND RETENTION OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC 15N-NITROGEN IN AN OLD-GROWTH FOREST SOIL IN WESTERN OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forests in the Pacific northwestern region of North America receive very little nitrogen through atmospheric deposition and thus can provide insights into how the nitrogen cycle functioned before heavy atmospheric deposition of inorganic nitrogen began in other regions. Our obje...

  5. Changes in the flux of carbon between plants and soil microorganisms at elevated CO{sub 2}: Physiological processes with ecosystem-level implications. Progress report, [August 15, 1994--August 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, D.R.; Pregitzer, K.S.

    1995-05-15

    This report presents the details of a research program that investigated the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide on terrestrial ecosystems. This report focused on the effects of plant carbon allocation, microbial activity, soil changes, and nitrogen dynamics.

  6. The effect of heat waves, elevated [CO2 ] and low soil water availability on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Bauweraerts, Ingvar; Wertin, Timothy M; Ameye, Maarten; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy

    2013-02-01

    The frequency and intensity of heat waves are predicted to increase. This study investigates whether heat waves would have the same impact as a constant increase in temperature with the same heat sum, and whether there would be any interactive effects of elevated [CO2 ] and soil moisture content. We grew Quercus rubra seedlings in treatment chambers maintained at either ambient or elevated [CO2 ] (380 or 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) ) with temperature treatments of ambient, ambient +3 °C, moderate heat wave (+6 °C every other week) or severe heat wave (+12 °C every fourth week) temperatures. Averaged over a 4-week period, and the entire growing season, the three elevated temperature treatments had the same average temperature and heat sum. Half the seedlings were watered to a soil water content near field capacity, half to about 50% of this value. Foliar gas exchange measurements were performed morning and afternoon (9:00 and 15:00 hours) before, during and after an applied heat wave in August 2010. Biomass accumulation was measured after five heat wave cycles. Under ambient [CO2 ] and well-watered conditions, biomass accumulation was highest in the +3 °C treatment, intermediate in the +6 °C heat wave and lowest in the +12 °C heat wave treatment. This response was mitigated by elevated [CO2 ]. Low soil moisture significantly decreased net photosynthesis (Anet ) and biomass in all [CO2 ] and temperature treatments. The +12 °C heat wave reduced afternoon Anet by 23% in ambient [CO2 ]. Although this reduction was relatively greater under elevated [CO2 ], Anet values during this heat wave were still 34% higher than under ambient [CO2 ]. We concluded that heat waves affected biomass growth differently than the same amount of heat applied uniformly over the growing season, and that the plant response to heat waves also depends on [CO2 ] and soil moisture conditions.

  7. Short-term effect of elevated temperature on the abundance and diversity of bacterial and archaeal amoA genes in Antarctic Soils.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiwon; Jung, Jaejoon; Park, Minsuk; Hyun, Seunghun; Park, Woojun

    2013-09-28

    Global warming will have far-reaching effects on our ecosystem. However, its effects on Antarctic soils have been poorly explored. To assess the effects of warming on microbial abundance and community composition, we sampled Antarctic soils from the King George Island in the Antarctic Peninsula and incubated these soils at elevated temperatures of 5°C and 8°C for 14 days. The reduction in total organic carbon and increase in soil respiration were attributed to the increased proliferation of Bacteria, Fungi, and Archaea. Interestingly, bacterial ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes were predominant over archaeal amoA, unlike in many other environments reported previously. Phylogenetic analyses of bacterial and archaeal amoA communities via clone libraries revealed that the diversity of amoA genes in Antarctic ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotic communities were temperature-insensitive. Interestingly, our data also showed that the amoA of Antarctic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities differed from previously described amoA sequences of cultured isolates and clone library sequences, suggesting the presence of novel Antarctic-specific AOB communities. Denitrification-related genes were significantly reduced under warming conditions, whereas the abundance of amoA and nifH increased. Barcoded pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene revealed that Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the major phyla in Antarctic soils and the effect of short-term warming on the bacterial community was not apparent.

  8. Compartmentalized and contrasted response of ectomycorrhizal and soil fungal communities of Scots pine forests along elevation gradients in France and Spain.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Ana; Santamaría-Pérez, Blanca; Rabasa, Sonia G; Coince, Aurore; Marçais, Benoit; Buée, Marc

    2015-08-01

    Fungi are principal actors of forest soils implied in many ecosystem services and the mediation of tree's responses. Forecasting fungal responses to environmental changes is necessary for maintaining forest productivity, although our partial understanding of how abiotic and biotic factors affect fungal communities is restricting the predictions. We examined fungal communities of Pinus sylvestris along elevation gradients to check potential responses to climate change-associated factors. Fungi of roots and soils were analysed at a regional scale, by using a high-throughput sequencing approach. Overall soil fungal richness increased with pH, whereas it did not vary with climate. However, when representative sub-assemblages, i.e. Ascomycetes/Basidiomycetes, and families were analysed, they differentially answered to climatic and edaphic variables. This response was dependent on where they settled, i.e. soil versus roots, and/or on their lifestyle, i.e. mycorrhizal or not, suggesting different potential functional weights within the community. Our results revealed a highly compartmentalized and contrasted response of fungal communities in forest soils. The different response of fungal sub-assemblages indicated a range of possible selective direct and indirect (i.e. via host) impacts of climatic variations on these communities, of unknown functional consequences, that helps in understanding potential fungal responses under future global change scenarios. PMID:25953485

  9. Persistence of legacy soil P and elevated background water P concentrations in Water Conservation Area 2A, a northern Everglades wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juston, John M.; Kadlec, Robert H.; DeBusk, William F.; Jerauld, Mike J.; DeBusk, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    Upstream source control and Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs) have reduced phosphorus (P) loads to Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA-2A), a northern Everglades wetland, by three quarters since year 2000. Nevertheless, large storages of P remain in enriched peat soils and it is unclear how legacy stores will impact spatial and temporal scales of recovery. We remeasured soil P enrichment along a well-studied eutrophication gradient in WCA-2A and applied a profile modeling approach with uncertainty analysis to assess changes in longitudinal soil P gradients 13 years after load reductions. We then analyzed existing internal water P data, using a novel data screening approach, for evidence of lowest possible water P concentrations independent from inflows. We interpret such water P limits as evidence of the strength of internal loading at a location. Results indicate that soil P enrichment persists in the ˜7.5 km long "impacted" zone, with no significant evidence of net advancement or recession, while a large pool of labile P in the flocculent layer consolidated and diminished. There is indeed evidence, both spatial and temporal, that this extensive zone of enriched soil P continues to elevate lowest achievable water P concentrations. The corresponding gradient of elevated water P limits is both receding and diminishing since load reductions, thus providing further evidence toward recovery. However, results also suggest that these "transitory P limits" due to internal loading are likely to persist for decades above water quality targets. These results advance our understanding of recovery in impacted wetlands and are relevant to Everglades restoration.

  10. [Recovery of three tropical forest covers from mid-elevation sites in Costa Rica: oligochaetes, litter and soil analysis].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Molina, Junior Pastor; Cordero Solórzano, Roberto A

    2012-12-01

    In Costa Rica, the region of Rio Macho is a highly fragmented landscape with imminent risk of landslides. This area, which provides important environmental services, has been partially recovered to its original forest through intentional reforestation with exotic species or natural regeneration after abandonment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioindicator potential of oligochaete presence as well as some litter and soil characteristics. The ecosystem recovery of the two common restoration modes was measured within three different forest covers. For this, some substrate characteristics were analyzed and compared in a-50 years old secondary forest, a 13 years tacotal, and a 35 years cypress (Cupressus lusitanica) plantation. The three sites studied differed in density, biomass and average mass of oligochaetes, and in some litter (depth, nitrogen, phosphorus and C/N ratio of litter), and soil variables (soil water content (CA), pH, phosphorus, cation exchange capacity, and magnesium). The forest registered the lowest density of earthworms and soil pH, and the highest soil CA and phosphorus. CA was inversely related to the oligochaete density across sites. Besides, there were positive correlations between C/N and C/P ratios from the litter and soil pH, and inverse correlations of litter depth, litter N and P concentrations with soil P. Discriminant Analysis (AD) performed with all soil and litter variables, produced a sharp classification of the three forest cover types. AD suggests that site differences were mostly determined by soil CA and litter nitrogen concentration. Considering all the evaluated parameters, our results suggest in the first place, that oligochaetes are sensitive to changes in some soil and litter characteristics. Secondly, aside from the striking oligochaete differences between the old secondary forest and the other two sites, some soil and litter traits resulted good indicators of the present recovery of the three forest covers. In

  11. Effect of herbicide concentration and organic and inorganic nutrient amendment on the mineralization of mecoprop, 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T in soil and aquifer samples.

    PubMed

    de Lipthay, Julia R; Sørensen, Sebastian R; Aamand, Jens

    2007-07-01

    The impact of the herbicide concentration (0.10-10,000 microg kg(-1)) and addition of organic and inorganic nutrients on mecoprop, 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T mineralization in aquifer and soil samples was studied in laboratory experiments. Generally, 2,4-D was most rapidly mineralized followed by mecoprop and 2,4,5-T. A shift from non-growth to growth-linked mineralization kinetics was observed in aquifer sediment with 2,4-D concentrations >0.10 microg kg(-1) and mecoprop concentrations >10.0 microg kg(-1). The shift was apparent at higher herbicide concentrations in soil coinciding with a lower bioavailable fraction and a higher herbicide sorption to soil. Herbicide addition did not affect the bacterial density, although 2,4-D and mecoprop applied at 10,000 microg kg(-1) stimulated growth of specific degraders. Generally, nutrient amendments did not stimulate mineralization at the lowest herbicide concentrations. In contrast, the mineralization rate of higher herbicide concentrations was significantly stimulated by the amendment of inorganic nutrients.

  12. Genotypic variation for condensed tannin production in trembling aspen (POPULUS TREMULOIDES, salicaceae) under elevated CO2 and in high- and low-fertility soil.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, J L; Curtis, P S; Zak, D R; Pregitzer, K S

    1999-08-01

    The carbon/nutrient balance hypothesis suggests that leaf carbon to nitrogen ratios influence the synthesis of secondary compounds such as condensed tannins. We studied the effects of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide on carbon to nitrogen ratios and tannin production. Six genotypes of Populus tremuloides were grown under elevated and ambient CO(2) partial pressure and high- and low-fertility soil in field open-top chambers in northern lower Michigan, USA. During the second year of exposure, leaves were harvested three times (June, August, and September) and analyzed for condensed tannin concentration. The carbon/nutrient balance hypothesis was supported overall, with significantly greater leaf tannin concentration at high CO(2) and low soil fertility compared to ambient CO(2) and high soil fertility. However, some genotypes increased tannin concentration at elevated compared to ambient CO(2), while others showed no CO(2) response. Performance of lepidopteran leaf miner (Phyllonorycter tremuloidiella) larvae feeding on these plants varied across genotypes, CO(2), and fertility treatments. These results suggest that with rising atmospheric CO(2), plant secondary compound production may vary within species. This could have consequences for plant-herbivore and plant-microbe interactions and for the evolutionary response of this species to global climate change.

  13. Soil fungal cellobiohydrolase I gene (cbhI) composition and expression in a loblolly pine plantation under conditions of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Weber, Carolyn F; Balasch, Monica Moya; Gossage, Zachary; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2012-06-01

    The simultaneous increase of atmospheric CO(2) and nitrogen (N) deposition to terrestrial ecosystems is predicted to alter plant productivity and, consequently, to change the amount and quality of above- and belowground carbon entering forest soils. It is not known how such changes will impact the composition and function of soil fungal communities that play a key role in degrading complex carbon. We sequenced the fungal cellobiohydrolase I gene (cbhI) from soil DNA and cDNA to compare the richness and composition of resident and expressed cbhI genes at a U.S. Department of Energy free air-carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) site (NC), which had been exposed to elevated atmospheric CO(2) and/or N fertilization treatment for several years. Our results provide evidence that the richness and composition of the cellulolytic fungi surveyed in this study were distinct in the DNA- and cDNA-based gene surveys and were dominated by Basidiomycota that have low or no representation in public databases. The surveys did not detect differences in richness or phylum-level composition of cbhI-containing, cellulolytic fungi that correlated with elevated CO(2) or N fertilization at the time of sampling.

  14. Soil vulnerability to erosion assessed with remote sensing, digital elevation models and a fuzzy logic Multi-Criteria Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez-Pastor, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Gómez, I.; Koch, M.

    2009-04-01

    Soil vulnerability is the capacity of one or more of the ecological functions of the soil system to be harmed. Soil vulnerability is related with the sensitivity of the soil system to degradation processes like erosion, desertification or salinization. Vegetation plays a crucial role in soil vulnerability because is a source of organic matter and a protection against rain, wind and other erosive agents. A soil covered by a dense and vigorous vegetation is more resistant against erosion. Another important factor that determines soil vulnerability is the topography. Slope and aspect have a great influence on vegetation distribution and losses of soil due to erosive processes. A key problem with traditional erosion models (USLE; RUSLE, etc.) is that input parameters are obtained locally or with large intervals of time. This technical problem greatly limits the update of soil erosion maps and their modification according to landscape changes (land use change, forest fires, etc.). To solve this technical difficulties, remote sensing and GIS techniques has been employed to compute input parameters of erosion models or develop new methodological approaches for soil vulnerability and erosion assessment. This work presents a methodological approach to assess soil vulnerability using remote sensing and GIS techniques to estimate input variables and to develop calculations in a spatial basis. Input variables include information about vegetation status and topography. The main advantage of this approach is that input variables can be updated fast to reflect landscape changes and the phenological status of vegetation that substantially could affect soil vulnerability. Soil vulnerability is assessed with a fuzzy logic model. Fuzzy logic emanates from Fuzzy Sets theory developed by Zadeh (1965) as a way to express and operate with membership degrees of the elements in a set. Fuzzy logic works well with continuous variables and with data uncertainties, and thus is very suitable to

  15. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  16. Shifts in bryophyte carbon isotope ratio across an elevation × soil age matrix on Mauna Loa, Hawaii: do bryophytes behave like vascular plants?

    PubMed

    Waite, Mashuri; Sack, Lawren

    2011-05-01

    The carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) of vascular plant leaf tissue is determined by isotope discrimination, primarily mediated by stomatal and mesophyll diffusion resistances and by photosynthetic rate. These effects lead to predictable trends in leaf δ(13)C across natural gradients of elevation, irradiance and nutrient supply. Less is known about shifts in δ(13)C for bryophytes at landscape scale, as bryophytes lack stomata in the dominant gametophyte phase, and thus lack active control over CO(2) diffusion. Twelve bryophyte species were sampled across a matrix of elevation and soil ages on Mauna Loa, Hawaii Island. We tested hypotheses based on previous findings for vascular plants, which tend to have less negative δ(13)C at higher elevations or irradiances, and for leaves with higher leaf mass per area (LMA). Across the matrix, bryophytes spanned the range of δ(13)C values typical of C(3) vascular plants. Bryophytes were remarkably similar to vascular plants in exhibiting less negative δ(13)C with increasing elevation, and with lower overstory cover; additionally δ(13)C was related to bryophyte canopy projected mass per area, a trait analogous to LMA in vascular plants, also correlated negatively with overstory cover. The similarity of responses of δ(13)C in bryophytes and vascular plants to environmental factors, despite differing morphologies and diffusion pathways, points to a strong direct role of photosynthetic rate in determining δ(13)C variation at the landscape scale.

  17. Fine root biomass, necromass and chemistry during seven years of elevated aluminium concentrations in the soil solution of a middle-aged Picea abies stand.

    PubMed

    Eldhuset, Toril D; Lange, Holger; de Wit, Helene A

    2006-10-01

    Toxic effects of aluminium (Al) on Picea abies (L.) Karst. (Norway spruce) trees are well documented in laboratory-scale experiments, but field-based evidence is scarce. This paper presents results on fine root growth and chemistry from a field manipulation experiment in a P. abies stand that was 45 years old when the experiment started in 1996. Different amounts of dissolved aluminium were added as AlCl3 by means of periodic irrigation during the growing season in the period 1997-2002. Potentially toxic concentrations of Al in the soil solution were obtained. Fine roots were studied from direct cores (1996) and sequential root ingrowth cores (1999, 2001, 2002) in the mineral soil (0-40 cm). We tested two hypotheses: (1) elevated concentration of Al in the root zone leads to significant changes in root biomass, partitioning into fine, coarse, living or dead fractions, and distribution with depth; (2) elevated Al concentration leads to a noticeable uptake of Al and reduced uptake of Ca and Mg; this results in Ca and Mg depletion in roots. Hypothesis 1 was only marginally supported, as just a few significant treatment effects on biomass were found. Hypothesis 2 was supported in part; Al addition led to increased root concentrations of Al in 1999 and 2002 and reduced Mg/Al in 1999. Comparison of roots from subsequent root samplings showed a decrease in Al and S over time. The results illustrated that 7 years of elevated Al(tot) concentrations in the soil solution up to 200 microM are not likely to affect root growth. We also discuss possible improvements of the experimental approach.

  18. Dynamics of plant nutrients, utilization and uptake, and soil microbial community in crops under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In natural settings such as under field conditions, the plant available soil nutrients in conjunction with other environmental factors such as, solar radiation, temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration determine crop adaptation and productivity. Therefore, crop...

  19. Elevated CO2 and O3 effects on ectomycorrhizal fungal root tip communities in consideration of a post-agricultural soil nutrient gradient legacy.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Carrie; Lilleskov, Erik A

    2014-11-01

    Despite the critical role of EMF in nutrient and carbon (C) dynamics, combined effects of global atmospheric pollutants on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are unclear. Here, we present research on EMF root-level community responses to elevated CO2 and O3. We discovered that belowground EMF community richness and similarity were both negatively affected by CO2 and O3, but the effects of CO2 and O3 on EMF communities were contingent on a site soil pH and cation availability gradient. These results contrast with our previous work showing a strong direct effect of CO2 and O3 on sporocarp community dynamics and production. We discuss the possible role of carbon demand and allocation by EMF taxa in the discrepancy of these results. EMF communities were structured by a legacy of spatially defined soil properties, changing atmospheric chemistry and temporal dynamics. It is therefore necessary to understand global change impacts across multiple environmental gradients and spatiotemporal scales.

  20. Aeolian controls of soil geochemistry and weathering fluxes in high-elevation ecosystems of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Corey R.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Kettterer, Michael E.; Neff, Jason C.

    2013-01-01

    When dust inputs are large or have persisted for long periods of time, the signature of dust additions are often apparent in soils. The of dust will be greatest where the geochemical composition of dust is distinct from local sources of soil parent material. In this study the influence of dust accretion on soil geochemistry is quantified for two different soils from the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, USA. At both study sites, dust is enriched in several trace elements relative to local rock, especially Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Mass-balance calculations that do not explicitly account for dust inputs indicate the accumulation of some elements in soil beyond what can be explained by weathering of local rock. Most observed elemental enrichments are explained by accounting for the long-term accretion of dust, based on modern isotopic and geochemical estimates. One notable exception is Pb, which based on mass-balance calculations and isotopic measurements may have an additional source at one of the study sites. These results suggest that dust is a major factor influencing the development of soil in these settings and is also an important control of soil weathering fluxes. After accounting for dust inputs in mass-balance calculations, Si weathering fluxes from San Juan Mountain soils are within the range observed for other temperate systems. Comparing dust inputs with mass-balanced based flux estimates suggests dust could account for as much as 50–80% of total long-term chemical weathering fluxes. These results support the notion that dust inputs may sustain chemical weathering fluxes even in relatively young continental settings. Given the widespread input of far-traveled dust, the weathering of dust is likely and important and underappreciated aspect of the global weathering engine.

  1. Aeolian controls of soil geochemistry and weathering fluxes in high-elevation ecosystems of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Corey R.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Neff, Jason C.

    2013-04-01

    When dust inputs are large or have persisted for long periods of time, the signature of dust additions are often apparent in soils. The of dust will be greatest where the geochemical composition of dust is distinct from local sources of soil parent material. In this study the influence of dust accretion on soil geochemistry is quantified for two different soils from the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, USA. At both study sites, dust is enriched in several trace elements relative to local rock, especially Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Mass-balance calculations that do not explicitly account for dust inputs indicate the accumulation of some elements in soil beyond what can be explained by weathering of local rock. Most observed elemental enrichments are explained by accounting for the long-term accretion of dust, based on modern isotopic and geochemical estimates. One notable exception is Pb, which based on mass-balance calculations and isotopic measurements may have an additional source at one of the study sites. These results suggest that dust is a major factor influencing the development of soil in these settings and is also an important control of soil weathering fluxes. After accounting for dust inputs in mass-balance calculations, Si weathering fluxes from San Juan Mountain soils are within the range observed for other temperate systems. Comparing dust inputs with mass-balanced based flux estimates suggests dust could account for as much as 50-80% of total long-term chemical weathering fluxes. These results support the notion that dust inputs may sustain chemical weathering fluxes even in relatively young continental settings. Given the widespread input of far-traveled dust, the weathering of dust is likely and important and underappreciated aspect of the global weathering engine.