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Sample records for elevation gain counterbalancing

  1. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Langley, J Adam; McKee, Karen L; Cahoon, Donald R; Cherry, Julia A; Megonigal, J Patrick

    2009-04-14

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO(2)] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO(2) (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr(-1) in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO(2) effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO(2), may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  2. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    PubMed Central

    Langley, J. Adam; McKee, Karen L.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cherry, Julia A.; Megonigal, J. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas. PMID:19325121

  3. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  4. Microfluidic flow counterbalanced capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ling; Dutta, Debashis

    2013-04-07

    Flow counterbalanced capillary electrophoresis (FCCE) offers a powerful approach to realizing difficult charge based separations in compact microchip devices with application of relatively small electrical voltages. The need for dynamically controlling the pressure-gradient in the FCCE column however presents a significant challenge in implementing this technique on the microchip platform. In this article, we report the use of a simple on-chip pumping unit that allows precise introduction of a periodic pressure-driven backflow into a microfluidic separation channel enabling an FCCE analysis. The backflow in our device was produced by fabricating a shallow segment (0.5 μm deep) downstream of the analysis column (5 μm deep) and applying an electric field across it. A mismatch in the electroosmotic transport rate at the interface of this segment was shown to yield a pressure-gradient that could reverse the flow of the analyte bands without inverting the direction of the electric field. Although such a pressure-gradient also led to additional band broadening in the system, overall, the separation resolution of our device was observed to improve with an increasing number of back-and-forth sample passes through the analysis channel. For our current design, the corresponding improvement in the effective separation length was as much as 52% of the actual distance travelled by the chosen FITC-labeled amino acid samples. The reported device is well suited for further miniaturization of the FCCE method to the nanofluidic length scale which likely would improve its performance, and is easily integrable to other analytical procedures on the microchip platform for lab-on-a-chip applications.

  5. The effects of elevated CO2 and eutrophication on surface elevation gain in a European salt marsh.

    PubMed

    Reef, Ruth; Spencer, Tom; Mӧller, Iris; Lovelock, Catherine E; Christie, Elizabeth K; McIvor, Anna L; Evans, Ben R; Tempest, James A

    2017-02-01

    Salt marshes can play a vital role in mitigating the effects of global environmental change by dissipating incident storm wave energy and, through accretion, tracking increasing water depths consequent upon sea level rise. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations and nutrient availability are two key variables that can affect the biological processes that contribute to marsh surface elevation gain. We measured the effects of CO2 concentrations and nutrient availability on surface elevation change in intact mixed-species blocks of UK salt marsh using six open-top chambers receiving CO2 -enriched (800 ppm) or ambient (400 ppm) air. We found more rapid surface elevation gain in elevated CO2 conditions: an average increase of 3.4 mm over the growing season relative to ambient CO2 . Boosted regression analysis to determine the relative influence of different parameters on elevation change identified that a 10% reduction in microbial activity in elevated CO2 -grown blocks had a positive influence on elevation. The biomass of Puccinellia maritima also had a positive influence on elevation, while other salt marsh species (e.g. Suaeda maritima) had no influence or a negative impact on elevation. Reduced rates of water use by the vegetation in the high CO2 treatment could be contributing to elevation gain, either directly through reduced soil shrinkage or indirectly by decreasing microbial respiration rates due to lower redox levels in the soil. Eutrophication did not influence elevation change in either CO2 treatment despite doubling aboveground biomass. The role of belowground processes (transpiration, root growth and decomposition) in the vertical adjustment of European salt marshes, which are primarily minerogenic in composition, could increase as atmospheric CO2 concentrations rise and should be considered in future wetland models for the region. Elevated CO2 conditions could enhance resilience in vulnerable systems such as those with low mineral sediment supply or where

  6. Counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Yang, Li-Farn

    1993-10-01

    The invention is a counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane. The apparatus for hoisting payloads comprises a crane having a lifting means, the lifting means comprising an end effector means and three suspension means or cables. One end of each cable attaches to a different winding means located on the lifting means, and the other end of each cable attaches to a different point on the end effector, such that the three cables have a theoretical point of convergence with this point corresponding to the center of mass of the payload. Three controls command rotation of the winding means to a predetermined position. Accordingly, the crane provides precise and autonomous positioning of the payload without human guidance. The crane further comprises a counter-balancing means. Two controls position the counter-balancing means to offset the overturning moment which arises during the lifting of heavy payloads.

  7. Counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Yang, Li-Farn

    1991-11-01

    The invention is a counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane. The apparatus for hoisting payloads comprises a crane having a lifting means, the lifting means comprising an end effector means and three suspension means or cables. One end of each cable attaches to a different winding means located on the lifting means, and the other end of each cable attaches to a different point on the end effector, such that the three cables have a theoretical point of convergence with this point corresponding to the center of mass of the payload. Three controls command rotation of the winding means to a predetermined position. Accordingly, the crane provides precise and autonomous positioning of the payload without human guidance. The crane further comprises a counter-balancing means. Two controls position the counter-balancing means to offset the overturning moment which arises during the lifting of heavy payloads.

  8. Counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Yang, Li-Farn (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane. The apparatus for hoisting payloads comprises a crane having a lifting means, the lifting means comprising an end effector means and three suspension means or cables. One end of each cable attaches to a different winding means located on the lifting means, and the other end of each cable attaches to a different point on the end effector, such that the three cables have a theoretical point of convergence with this point corresponding to the center of mass of the payload. Three controls command rotation of the winding means to a predetermined position. Accordingly, the crane provides precise and autonomous positioning of the payload without human guidance. The crane further comprises a counter-balancing means. Two controls position the counter-balancing means to offset the overturning moment which arises during the lifting of heavy payloads.

  9. The influence of the gait-related arm swing on elevation gain measured by sport watches

    PubMed Central

    Taube, Wolfgang; Neuhaus, Matthias; Wyss, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The elevation gain is an important contributor to the total workload in endurance sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the arm swing on elevation gain in three sport watches (Garmin® Forerunner 910XT, Polar® RS800CX and Suunto® Ambit2) on a flat 400 m outdoor track. Altogether, a total of 120 repetitions of 1,200 m were performed at self-selected speeds corresponding to strolling, walking, jogging and running. During the assessment two devices of each sport watch, one secured on the hip and one on the wrist, were worn by the participants. A small but significant (effect size = .39; p < .001) influence of the arm swing on elevation was revealed in all sport watches. Elevation indication errors recorded on the wrist were significantly larger than the ones recorded on the hip (4.0-7.4 vs. 1.2-5.7 m per 1,200 m; p < .05). Furthermore, when wearing the devices on the wrist, errors in elevation indication increased when gait speed increased. Users should be aware that wearing the devices on the hip can significantly decrease measurement errors. This might be especially relevant for activities with high dynamics, such as jogging and running. PMID:28149368

  10. The impact of early morning elevated CO sub 2 on foliar carbon gain

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.; Norby, R.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Predawn concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the boundary layer above vegetated landscapes can be as much as 200 {mu}L{sup {minus}1} higher than typical midday concentrations (330-360 {mu}l L{sup {minus}1}). This period of elevated CO{sub 2} lasts up to 3 hours after sunrise. Estimates of daily carbon gain from models of photosynthesis have often assumed constant CO{sub 2} concentrations. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance models were coupled and used to assess the importance of a diurnal variation in CO{sub 2} concentration. Daily carbon gain estimates based on a constant CO{sub 2} concentration equal to the afternoon average (1,200 to 1,600 h), were as much as 13% less than estimates based on the more realistic diurnal pattern including elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations in the morning. The largest discrepancies in calculated carbon gain (6-13%) occurred for simulated sunny days, and for foliage having a low carboxylation efficiency.

  11. Elevated objectively measured but not self-reported energy intake predicts future weight gain in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Durant, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Background Although obesity putatively occurs when individuals consume more calories than needed for metabolic needs, numerous risk factor studies have not observed significant positive relations between reported caloric intake and future weight gain, potentially because reported caloric intake is inaccurate. Objective The present study tested the hypothesis that objectively measured habitual energy intake, estimated with doubly labeled water, would show a stronger positive relation to future weight gain than self-reported caloric intake based on a widely used food frequency measure. Design 253 adolescents completed a doubly labeled water (DLW) assessment of energy intake (EI), a food frequency measure, and a resting metabolic rate (RMR) assessment at baseline, and had their body mass index (BMI) measured at baseline and at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Results Controlling for baseline RMR, elevated objectively measured EI, but not self-reported habitual caloric intake, predicted increases in BMI over a 2-year follow-up. On average, participants under-reported caloric intake by 35%. Conclusions Results provide support for the thesis that self-reported caloric intake has not predicted future weight gain because it is less accurate than objectively measured habitual caloric intake, suggesting that food frequency measures can lead to misleading findings. However, even objectively measured caloric intake showed only a moderate relation to future weight gain, implying that habitual caloric intake fluctuates over time and that it may be necessary to conduct serial assessments of habitual intake to better reflect the time-varying effects of caloric intake on weight gain. PMID:24930597

  12. Elevation of liver enzyme levels during psychopharmacological treatment is associated with weight gain.

    PubMed

    Himmerich, Hubertus; Kaufmann, Christian; Schuld, Andreas; Pollmächer, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Increased circulating levels of liver enzymes emerging during treatment with psychotropic drugs are frequently encountered and, in general, attributed to drug metabolism or toxic effects. Because obesity was shown to be associated with elevated liver enzyme levels in different non-psychiatric study samples, we hypothesized that drug-induced weight gain might be an additional causative factor. We tested this hypothesis in 67 inpatients who received psychopharmacological treatment across five weeks. Stepwise linear regression was used to predict changes in the serum levels of aspartate-amino transferase (ASAT) and alanine-amino transferase (ALAT) by changes in the body mass index (BMI), by changes in other biological parameters related to body weight (tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha], soluble TNF receptors [sTNF-R], interleukin-6 [IL-6], leptin plasma levels) and by the respective liver enzyme baseline level. BMI changes from baseline to endpoint were significantly associated with the changes in ALAT and ASAT levels across five weeks of treatment and with ALAT and ASAT levels at the end point of the study. The baseline levels of ALAT and ASAT also had a significant impact on these liver enzyme level changes, whereas all other variables had not. These results suggest that weight gain-associated metabolic changes occurring during treatment with psychotropic drugs have consistent and clinically relevant effects on the liver.

  13. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

  14. Caffeine prevents weight gain and cognitive impairment caused by a high-fat diet while elevating hippocampal BDNF.

    PubMed

    Moy, Gregory A; McNay, Ewan C

    2013-01-17

    Obesity, high-fat diets, and subsequent type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are associated with cognitive impairment. Moreover, T2DM increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and leads to abnormal elevation of brain beta-amyloid levels, one of the hallmarks of AD. The psychoactive alkaloid caffeine has been shown to have therapeutic potential in AD but the central impact of caffeine has not been well-studied in the context of a high-fat diet. Here we investigated the impact of caffeine administration on metabolism and cognitive performance, both in control rats and in rats placed on a high-fat diet. The effects of caffeine were significant: caffeine both (i) prevented the weight-gain associated with the high-fat diet and (ii) prevented cognitive impairment. Caffeine did not alter hippocampal metabolism or insulin signaling, likely because the high-fat-fed animals did not develop full-blown diabetes; however, caffeine did prevent or reverse a decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seen in high-fat-fed animals. These data confirm that caffeine may serve as a neuroprotective agent against cognitive impairment caused by obesity and/or a high-fat diet. Increased hippocampal BDNF following caffeine administration could explain, at least in part, the effects of caffeine on cognition and metabolism.

  15. Optimizing Leaf Stomatal Conductance for Maximum Carbon Gain Under Salt Stressed and Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, V.; Manzoni, S.; Marani, M.; Katul, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding how plants adapt to different stresses such as droughts, hypoxic or hyper-saline conditions is necessary to progress on the broader problem of how carbon and water exchange rates between the biosphere and atmosphere react to a changing climate. In this work, the effects of increased salinity on photosynthesis, stomatal and mesophyll conductances under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions are explored. A model based on stomatal optimization principles, according to which plants maximize carbon gain at a given water loss at the leaf scale, is generalized to include mesophyll conductance and its dependence on water salinity. The optimization problem is solved for both a non-linear and a linear biochemical demand function and both approaches are consistent with reported gas-exchange measurements in fresh water and in salt stressed conditions. It is shown here that an increase in salt stress causes an increase in the cost of water (and reduced stomatal conductance) for the plant as it does under water stress conditions. However, these reductions in photosynthetic rates observed under increased salt stress conditions cannot be attributed to limitation of CO2 diffusion alone since salt stress did reduce the photosynthetic capacity of plants by 30-40%.

  16. A seizure-induced gain-of-function in BK channels is associated with elevated firing activity in neocortical pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Shruti, Sonal; Clem, Roger L.; Barth, Alison L.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY A heritable gain-of-function in BK channel activity has been associated with spontaneous seizures in both rodents and humans. We find that chemoconvulsant-induced seizures induce a gain-of-function in BK channel current that is associated with abnormal, elevated network excitability. Action potential half-width, evoked firing rate, and spontaneous network activity in vitro were all altered 24 hrs following picrotoxin-induced seizures in layer 2/3 pyramidal cells in the neocortex of young mice (P13-P16). Action potential half-width and firing output could be normalized to control values by application of BK channel antagonists in vitro. Thus, both inherited and acquired BK channel gain-of-functions are linked to abnormal excitability. Because BK channel antagonists can reduce elevated firing activity in neocortical neurons, BK channels might serve as a new target for anticonvulsant therapy. PMID:18387812

  17. Proliferation of counterbalanced, CRT-based stereoscopic displays for virtual environment viewing and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolas, Mark T.; Lorimer, Eric R.; McDowall, Ian E.; Mead, R. X.

    1994-04-01

    Many researchers have felt that counterbalanced, stereoscopic immersive displays were an interim technology that would be supplanted as advances in LCDs and electronics made lightweight, head-mounted viewers popular. While there is still a long way to go in the development of truly practical head-mounted displays, it now seems clear that counterbalanced display will always play a significant role in the development, applications, and general dissemination of virtual environment tools. This paper hopes to explain the unexpected popularity of these devices, and to highlight features of these displays that have become apparent since the 1989 SPIE paper that described an early workable example of this genre. In addition, this paper describes the current state of this technology and the acceptance of counterbalanced displays in a wide range of applications since the original SPIE paper.

  18. Dietary linoleic acid elevates the endocannabinoids 2-AG and anandamide and promotes weight gain in mice fed a low fat diet.

    PubMed

    Alvheim, Anita Røyneberg; Torstensen, Bente E; Lin, Yu Hong; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Lock, Erik-Jan; Madsen, Lise; Frøyland, Livar; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Malde, Marian Kjellevold

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intake of linoleic acid (LNA, 18:2n-6) has increased dramatically during the 20th century and is associated with greater prevalence of obesity. The endocannabinoid system is involved in regulation of energy balance and a sustained hyperactivity of the endocannabinoid system may contribute to obesity. Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) is the precursor for 2-AG and anandamide (AEA), and we sought to determine if low fat diets (LFD) could be made obesogenic by increasing the endocannabinoid precursor pool of ARA, causing excessive endocannabinoid signaling leading to weight gain and a metabolic profile associated with obesity. Mice (C57BL/6j, 6 weeks of age) were fed 1 en% LNA and 8 en% LNA in low fat (12.5 en%) and medium fat diets (MFD, 35 en%) for 16 weeks. We found that increasing dietary LNA from 1 to 8 en% in LFD and MFD significantly increased ARA in phospholipids (ARA-PL), elevated 2-AG and AEA in liver, elevated plasma leptin, and resulted in larger adipocytes and more macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue. In LFD, dietary LNA of 8 en% increased feed efficiency and caused greater weight gain than in an isocaloric reduction to 1 en% LNA. Increasing dietary LNA from 1 to 8 en% elevates liver endocannabinoid levels and increases the risk of developing obesity. Thus a high dietary content of LNA (8 en%) increases the adipogenic properties of a low fat diet.

  19. mTOR signaling promotes stem cell activation via counterbalancing BMP-mediated suppression during hair regeneration.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhili; Lei, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xudong; Zhang, Huishan; Liu, Shuang; Chen, Qi; Hu, Huimin; Wang, Xinyue; Ning, Lina; Cao, Yujing; Zhao, Tongbiao; Zhou, Jiaxi; Chen, Ting; Duan, Enkui

    2015-02-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo cycles of degeneration (catagen), rest (telogen), and regeneration (anagen) phases. Anagen begins when the hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) obtain sufficient activation cues to overcome suppressive signals, mainly the BMP pathway, from their niche cells. Here, we unveil that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is activated in HFSCs, which coincides with the HFSC activation at the telogen-to-anagen transition. By using both an inducible conditional gene targeting strategy and a pharmacological inhibition method to ablate or inhibit mTOR signaling in adult skin epithelium before anagen initiation, we demonstrate that HFs that cannot respond to mTOR signaling display significantly delayed HFSC activation and extended telogen. Unexpectedly, BMP signaling activity is dramatically prolonged in mTOR signaling-deficient HFs. Through both gain- and loss-of-function studies in vitro, we show that mTORC1 signaling negatively affects BMP signaling, which serves as a main mechanism whereby mTORC1 signaling facilitates HFSC activation. Indeed, in vivo suppression of BMP by its antagonist Noggin rescues the HFSC activation defect in mTORC1-null skin. Our findings reveal a critical role for mTOR signaling in regulating stem cell activation through counterbalancing BMP-mediated repression during hair regeneration.

  20. Autoimmune vitiligo is associated with gain-of-function by a transcriptional regulator that elevates expression of HLA-A*02:01 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masahiro; Jin, Ying; Yorgov, Daniel; Santorico, Stephanie A; Hagman, James; Ferrara, Tracey M; Jones, Kenneth L; Cavalli, Giulio; Dinarello, Charles A; Spritz, Richard A

    2016-02-02

    HLA-A is a class I major histocompatibility complex receptor that presents peptide antigens on the surface of most cells. Vitiligo, an autoimmune disease in which skin melanocytes are destroyed by cognate T cells, is associated with variation in the HLA-A gene; specifically HLA-A*02:01, which presents multiple vitiligo melanocyte autoantigens. Refined genetic mapping localizes vitiligo risk in the HLA-A region to an SNP haplotype ∼20-kb downstream, spanning an ENCODE element with many characteristics of a transcriptional enhancer. Convergent CTCF insulator sites flanking the HLA-A gene promoter and the predicted transcriptional regulator, with apparent interaction between these sites, suggests this element regulates the HLA-A promoter. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects homozygous for the high-risk haplotype expressed 39% more HLA-A RNA than cells from subjects carrying nonhigh-risk haplotypes (P = 0.0048). Similarly, RNAseq analysis of 1,000 Genomes Project data showed more HLA-A mRNA expressed in subjects homozygous for the high-risk allele of lead SNP rs60131261 than subjects homozygous for the low-risk allele (P = 0.006). Reporter plasmid transfection and genomic run-on sequence analyses confirm that the HLA-A transcriptional regulator contains multiple bidirectional promoters, with greatest activity on the high-risk haplotype, although it does not behave as a classic enhancer. Vitiligo risk associated with the MHC class I region thus derives from combined quantitative and qualitative phenomena: a SNP haplotype in a transcriptional regulator that induces gain-of-function, elevating expression of HLA-A RNA in vivo, in strong linkage disequilibrium with an HLA-A allele that confers *02:01 specificity.

  1. Who's up first? Testing for order effects in structured interviews using a counterbalanced experimental design.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P S; Watanabe, H K; Richters, J E

    1999-12-01

    A growing body of research suggests that, apart from the wording of specific questions, various aspects of the interview process itself may affect the reliability of information provided by research participants. To examine whether the order of presentation of specific diagnostic modules affects the likelihood of subjects' yes/no responses within the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC), the authors used a counterbalanced design, presenting two DISC diagnostic modules to children and their parents in standard or reversed order. Results indicate that the order of module administration exerts effects on the total numbers of symptoms endorsed, level of impairment, and the likelihood of meeting diagnostic criteria, regardless of whether the information is provided by parent or child respondents. Future child and adult assessment measures should take these difficulties fully into account through novel approaches to instrument design and interview procedures.

  2. A method for simultaneously counterbalancing condition order and assignment of stimulus materials to conditions.

    PubMed

    Zeelenberg, René; Pecher, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Counterbalanced designs are frequently used in the behavioral sciences. Studies often counterbalance either the order in which conditions are presented in the experiment or the assignment of stimulus materials to conditions. Occasionally, researchers need to simultaneously counterbalance both condition order and stimulus assignment to conditions. Lewis (1989; Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 25:414-415, 1993) presented a method for constructing Latin squares that fulfill these requirements. The resulting Latin squares counterbalance immediate sequential effects, but not remote sequential effects. Here, we present a new method for generating Latin squares that simultaneously counterbalance both immediate and remote sequential effects and assignment of stimuli to conditions. An Appendix is provided to facilitate implementation of these Latin square designs.

  3. Moderating the interaction between procedural justice and decision frame: the counterbalancing effect of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoichiro

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the framing effect of decision making in contexts in which the issue of social justice matters as well as the moderating effects of personality traits on the relationship between justice and framing effects. The authors manipulated procedural justice and outcome valence of the decision frame within two vignettes and measured two personality traits (self-efficacy and anxiety) of participants. The results from 363 participants showed that the moderating effects of personality traits counterbalanced the interaction between justice and framing, such that for individuals with high self-efficacy/low trait anxiety, justice effects were larger in negative framing than in positive framing; those with the opposite disposition exhibited the opposite pattern. These effects were interpreted in terms of an attribution process as the information processing strategy. The aforementioned findings suggest that the justice and decision theories can be developed to account for the moderating effects of personality traits. Some limitations of this study and the direction of future research are also discussed.

  4. Test order in teacher-rated behavior assessments: Is counterbalancing necessary?

    PubMed

    Kooken, Janice; Welsh, Megan E; McCoach, D Betsy; Miller, Faith G; Chafouleas, Sandra M; Riley-Tillman, T Chris; Fabiano, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Counterbalancing treatment order in experimental research design is well established as an option to reduce threats to internal validity, but in educational and psychological research, the effect of varying the order of multiple tests to a single rater has not been examined and is rarely adhered to in practice. The current study examines the effect of test order on measures of student behavior by teachers as raters utilizing data from a behavior measure validation study. Using multilevel modeling to control for students nested within teachers, the effect of rating an earlier measure on the intercept or slope of a later behavior assessment was statistically significant in 22% of predictor main effects for the spring test period. Test order effects had potential for high stakes consequences with differences large enough to change risk classification. Results suggest that researchers and practitioners in classroom settings using multiple measures evaluate the potential impact of test order. Where possible, they should counterbalance when the risk of an order effect exists and report justification for the decision to not counterbalance. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Multiphase Tertiary erosion history and elevation gain of the High Plains of New Mexico and Texas: A signal of widespread mid-Tertiary lithospheric modification?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landman, R.; Flowers, R. M.; Kelley, S.

    2013-12-01

    The undeformed High Plains of North America are located over 1,000 km east of the nearest plate boundary but reach elevations of >2 km at their boundary with the southern Rocky Mountains. East of the mountain front elevations decrease gradually, but remain as high as 1 km in northern Texas. Despite the accumulation of extensive geological and geophysical datasets, there is no consensus on the mechanisms that caused high elevations in the region or on how these mechanisms may be linked to the history of deformation and volcanism in the neighboring Rocky Mountains. The timing of unroofing and uplift is key to differentiating between these mechanisms, but this too remains debated. A 350 km-long integrated apatite fission-track (AFT) and (U-Th)/He (AHe) east-west transect from the southern Rocky Mountains of New Mexico across the High Plains into northern Texas provides insight into the spatial and temporal variability of unroofing across this region during Cenozoic time. The southern Sangre de Cristo Range separates the High Plains of northern New Mexico from the Rio Grande Rift. At the western edge of the southern Sangre de Cristo Range, AFT and AHe data from Precambrian basement samples show an age-elevation relationship and indicate cooling and rapid unroofing through the shallow crust during the early Tertiary Laramide orogeny. At the eastern edge of the range, both AFT and AHe data record a late Tertiary cooling episode as young as mid-Miocene. Samples from Triassic sandstones on the High Plains 50 km east of the mountain front yield mid-Tertiary AFT and late Tertiary AHe dates. These data require post-depositional heating of samples to above ~110 °C, followed by at least 1.5 km of relatively rapid unroofing on the western High Plains between 17 Ma and the initiation of Ogallala Group deposition at ~12 Ma. This interval of unroofing predates the <10 Ma volcanism along the nearby Jemez lineament. The easternmost samples in the Texas Panhandle suggest that a

  6. Protein turnover and proliferation. Turnover kinetics associated with the elevation of 3T3-cell acid-proteinase activity and cessation of net protein gain.

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, T D; Minassian, I A; Roux, L

    1982-01-01

    1. At least 95% of the total protein of A31-3T3 cell cultures undergoes turnover. 2. First-order exponential kinetics were used to provide a crude approximation of averaged protein synthesis, Ks, degradation, Kd, and net accumulation, Ka, as cells ceased growth at near-confluent density in unchanged Dulbecco's medium containing 10% serum. The values of the relationship Ka = Ks - Kd were : 5%/h = 6%/h - 1%/h in growing cells, and 0%/h = 3%/h - 3%/h in steady-state resting cells. 3. As determined by comparison of the progress of protein synthesis and net protein accumulation, the time course of increase in protein degradation coincided with the onset of an increase in lysosomal proteinase activity and decrease in thymidine incorporation after approx. 2 days of exponential growth. 4. After acute serum deprivation, rapid increases in protein degradation of less than 1%/h could be superimposed on the prevailing degradation rate in either growing or resting cells. The results indicate that two proteolytic mechanisms can be distinguished on the basis of the kinetics of their alterations. A slow mechanism changes in relation to proliferative status and lysosomal enzyme elevation. A prompt mechanism, previously described by others, changes before changes in cell-cycle distribution or lysosomal proteinase activity. 5. When the serum concentration of growing cultures was decreased to 1% or 0.25%, then cessation of growth was accompanied by a lower steady-state protein turnover rate of 2.0%/h or 1.5%/h respectively. When growth ceased under conditions of overcrowded cultures, or severe nutrient insufficiency, protein turnover did not attain a final steady state, but declined continually into the death of the culture. PMID:6756389

  7. Elevating your elevator talk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  8. Implementation and integration of a counterbalanced CRT-based stereoscopic display for interactive viewpoint control in virtual environment applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdowall, I. E.; Bolas, M.; Pieper, S.; Fisher, S. S.; Humphries, J.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA-Ames Counterbalanced CRT-based Stereoscopic Viewer (CCSV), which is being used as a viewing device for biomechanical CAD environments, is uniquely suited for applications in which the user frequently moves between desk work and virtual environment viewing, or in which high resolution views of the virtual environment are required, or in which the viewing device must be shared among collaborators in a group setting. The CCSV hardware encompasses a dual-CRT-based stereoscopic viewer with wide-angle optics, a video electronics box, a dedicated microprocessor system monitoring joint angles in the linkage, and a host computer interpreting sensor values and running the application which renders the right and left views for reader CRTs.

  9. Implementation and integration of a counterbalanced CRT-based stereoscopic display for interactive viewpoint control in virtual-environment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowall, Ian E.; Bolas, Mark T.; Pieper, Steven D.; Fisher, Scott S.; Humphries, Jim

    1990-09-01

    This paper describes the implementation and integration of the Ames counterbalanced CRT-based stereoscopic viewer (CCSV). The CCSV was developed as a supplementary viewing device for the Virtual Interface Environment Workstation project at NASA Ames in order to provide higher resolution than is currently possible with LCD based head-mounted viewers. The CCSV is currently used as the viewing device for a biomechanical CAD environment which we feel is typical of the applications for which the CCSV is appropriate. The CCSV also interfaces to a remote stereo camera platform. The CCSV hardware consists of a counterbalanced kinematic linkage, dual-CRT based stereoscopic viewer with wide angle optics, video electronics box, dedicated microprocessor system monitoring joint angles in the linkage, host computer interpreting the sensor values and running the application which renders right and left views for the viewer's CRTs. CCSV software includes code resident on the microprocessor system, host computer device drivers to communicate with the microprocessor, a kinematic module to compute viewer position and orientation from sensor values, graphics routines to change the viewing geometry to match viewer optics and movements, and an interface to the application. As a viewing device, the CCSV approach is particularly well suited to applications in which 1) the user moves back and forth between virtual environment viewing and desk work, 2) high resolution views of the virtual environment are required or 3) the viewing device is to be shared among collaborators in a group setting. To capitalize on these strengths, planned improvements for future CCSVs include: defining an appropriate motion envelope for desk top applications, improving the feel of the kinematics within that envelope, improving realism of the display by adding color and increasing the spatial resolution, reducing lag, and developing interaction metaphors within the 3D environment.

  10. Assessing the impact of user-centered research on a clinical trial eHealth tool via counterbalanced research design

    PubMed Central

    Massett, Holly A; Mylks, Christy; McCormack, Lauren A; Kish-Doto, Julia; Hesse, Bradford W; Wang, Min Qi

    2010-01-01

    Objective Informatics applications have the potential to improve participation in clinical trials, but their design must be based on user-centered research. This research used a fully counterbalanced experimental design to investigate the effect of changes made to the original version of a website, http://BreastCancerTrials.org/, and confirm that the revised version addressed and reinforced patients' needs and expectations. Design Participants included women who had received a breast cancer diagnosis within the last 5 years (N=77). They were randomized into two groups: one group used and reviewed the original version first followed by the redesigned version, and the other group used and reviewed them in reverse order. Measurements The study used both quantitative and qualitative measures. During use, participants' click paths and general reactions were observed. After use, participants were asked to answer survey items and open-ended questions to indicate their reactions and which version they preferred and met their needs and expectations better. Results Overall, the revised version of the site was preferred and perceived to be clearer, easier to navigate, more trustworthy and credible, and more private and safe overall. However, users who viewed the original version last had similar attitudes toward both versions. Conclusion By applying research findings to the redesign of a website for clinical trial searching, it was possible to re-engineer the interface to better support patients' decisions to participate in clinical trials. The mechanisms of action in this case appeared to revolve around creating an environment that supported a sense of personal control and decisional autonomy. PMID:21169619

  11. Microbe-driven turnover offsets mineral-mediated storage of soil carbon under elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulman, Benjamin N.; Phillips, Richard P.; Oishi, A. Christopher; Shevliakova, Elena; Pacala, Stephen W.

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to changing environmental conditions represents a critical uncertainty in coupled carbon cycle-climate models. Much of this uncertainty arises from our limited understanding of the extent to which root-microbe interactions induce SOC losses (through accelerated decomposition or `priming') or indirectly promote SOC gains (via `protection' through interactions with mineral particles). We developed a new SOC model to examine priming and protection responses to rising atmospheric CO2. The model captured disparate SOC responses at two temperate free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. We show that stabilization of `new' carbon in protected SOC pools may equal or exceed microbial priming of `old' SOC in ecosystems with readily decomposable litter and high clay content (for example, Oak Ridge). In contrast, carbon losses induced through priming dominate the net SOC response in ecosystems with more resistant litters and lower clay content (for example, Duke). The SOC model was fully integrated into a global terrestrial carbon cycle model to run global simulations of elevated CO2 effects. Although protected carbon provides an important constraint on priming effects, priming nonetheless reduced SOC storage in the majority of terrestrial areas, partially counterbalancing SOC gains from enhanced ecosystem productivity.

  12. Longitudinal multilevel models of the big-fish-little-pond effect on academic self-concept: counterbalancing contrast and reflected-glory effects in Hong Kong schools.

    PubMed

    Marsh, H W; Kong, C K; Hau, K T

    2000-02-01

    Longitudinal multilevel path models (7,997 students, 44 high schools, 4 years) evaluated effects of school-average achievement and perceived school status on academic self-concept in Hong Kong, which has a collectivist culture with a highly achievement-segregated high school system. Consistent with a priori predictions based on the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE), higher school-average achievements led to lower academic self-concepts (contrast effect), whereas higher perceived school status had a counterbalancing positive effect on self-concept (reflected-glory, assimilation effect). The negative BFLPE is the net effect of counterbalancing influences, stronger negative contrast effects, and weaker positive assimilation effects so that controlling perceived school status led to purer--and even more negative--contrast effects. Attending a school where school-average achievement is high simultaneously resulted in a more demanding basis of comparison for one's own accomplishments (the stronger negative contrast effect) and a source of pride (the weaker positive assimilation effect).

  13. ELEVATING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Frederick, H.S.; Kinsella, M.A.

    1959-02-24

    An elevator is described, which is arranged for movement both in a horizontal and in a vertical direction so that the elevating mechanism may be employed for servicing equipment at separated points in a plant. In accordance with the present invention, the main elevator chassis is suspended from a monorail. The chassis, in turn supports a vertically moveable carriage, a sub- carriage vertically moveable on the carriage, and a turntable carried by the sub- carriage and moveable through an arc of 90 with the equipment attached thereto. In addition, the chassis supports all the means required to elevate or rotate the equipment.

  14. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate metabolism in synaptic growth, strength, and precision: neural and behavioral phenotype-specific counterbalancing effects between dnc phosphodiesterase and rut adenylyl cyclase mutations.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Atsushi; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2012-03-01

    Two classic learning mutants in Drosophila, rutabaga (rut) and dunce (dnc), are defective in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis and degradation, respectively, exhibiting a variety of neuronal and behavioral defects. We ask how the opposing effects of these mutations on cAMP levels modify subsets of phenotypes, and whether any specific phenotypes could be ameliorated by biochemical counter balancing effects in dnc rut double mutants. Our study at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) demonstrates that dnc mutations caused severe defects in nerve terminal morphology, characterized by unusually large synaptic boutons and aberrant innervation patterns. Interestingly, a counterbalancing effect led to rescue of the aberrant innervation patterns but the enlarged boutons in dnc rut double mutant remained as extreme as those in dnc. In contrast to dnc, rut mutations strongly affect synaptic transmission. Focal loose-patch recording data accumulated over 4 years suggest that synaptic currents in rut boutons were characterized by unusually large temporal dispersion and a seasonal variation in the amount of transmitter release, with diminished synaptic currents in summer months. Experiments with different rearing temperatures revealed that high temperature (29-30°C) decreased synaptic transmission in rut, but did not alter dnc and wild-type (WT). Importantly, the large temporal dispersion and abnormal temperature dependence of synaptic transmission, characteristic of rut, still persisted in dnc rut double mutants. To interpret these results in a proper perspective, we reviewed previously documented differential effects of dnc and rut mutations and their genetic interactions in double mutants on a variety of physiological and behavioral phenotypes. The cases of rescue in double mutants are associated with gradual developmental and maintenance processes whereas many behavioral and physiological manifestations on faster time scales could not be rescued. We discuss

  15. (In)Consistencies in Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: A Randomised, Repeated Measures, Counterbalanced and Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Froio de Araujo Dias, Gabriela; da Eira Silva, Vinicius; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Sale, Craig; Giannini Artioli, Guilherme; Gualano, Bruno; Saunders, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intervention studies do not account for high within-individual variation potentially compromising the magnitude of an effect. Repeat administration of a treatment allows quantification of individual responses and determination of the consistency of responses. We determined the consistency of metabolic and exercise responses following repeated administration of sodium bicarbonate (SB). Design and Methods 15 physically active males (age 25±4 y; body mass 76.0±7.3 kg; height 1.77±0.05 m) completed six cycling capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output (CCT110%) following ingestion of either 0.3 g∙kg-1BM of SB (4 trials) or placebo (PL, 2 trials). Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate were determined at baseline, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 5-min post-exercise. Total work done (TWD) was recorded as the exercise outcome. Results SB supplementation increased blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess prior to every trial (all p ≤ 0.001); absolute changes in pH, bicarbonate and base excess from baseline to pre-exercise were similar in all SB trials (all p > 0.05). Blood lactate was elevated following exercise in all trials (p ≤ 0.001), and was higher in some, but not all, SB trials compared to PL. TWD was not significantly improved with SB vs. PL in any trial (SB1: +3.6%; SB2 +0.3%; SB3: +2.1%; SB4: +6.7%; all p > 0.05), although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 93% likely improvement in SB4. Individual analysis showed ten participants improved in at least one SB trial above the normal variation of the test although five improved in none. Conclusions The mechanism for improved exercise with SB was consistently in place prior to exercise, although this only resulted in a likely improvement in one trial. SB does not consistently improve high intensity cycling capacity, with results suggesting that caution should be taken when interpreting the results from single trials as to the efficacy of SB supplementation. Trial Registration

  16. IR gain monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Bryan

    2013-10-01

    The gain of the IR channel of WFC3 will be measured using a series of internal flat fields. Using knowledge gained from ground testing and previous cycles, we propose to collect flat field ramps which will be used to create photon transfer curves and give a measure of the gain. This continues the strategy of last cycle's gain monitor, in proposal 13080.

  17. Antidepressants and Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Depression (major depressive disorder) Can antidepressants cause weight gain? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Weight gain is a possible side effect of nearly all antidepressants. ...

  18. IR Gain Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Bryan

    2012-10-01

    The gain of the IR channel of WFC3 will be measured using a series of internal flat fields. Using knowledge gained from ground testing and previous cycles, we propose to collect flat field ramps which will be used to create photon transfer curves and give a measure of the gain.

  19. Gaining Cyber Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Gaining Cyber Dominance Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University NETCOM G3/5/7 TREX January 2015...JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gaining Cyber Dominance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...2014) 4 GCD Overview January 2015 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University FY15 Initiatives Gaining Cyber Dominance Program • Army topology development

  20. A CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide as an efficient adjuvant counterbalancing the Th1/Th2 immune response in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Toshiyuki; Mori, Masaaki; Nakazawa, Masatoshi; Ichino, Motohide; Naruto, Takuya; Kobayashi, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Minami, Mutsuhiko; Yokota, Shumpei

    2005-11-16

    Adjuvants in vaccines are immune stimulants that play an important role in the induction of effective and appropriate immune responses to vaccine component(s). Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DPT) vaccine contains not only aluminum hydrate (alum) to enhance the immune response to the vaccine ingredients, but also, both for that purpose and as a principal ingredient, pertussis toxin (PT). However, both adjuvants strongly promote T helper (Th) 2 type immune responses. Th1 and Th2 type immune responses are counterbalanced in vivo, and a Th2-prone immune response is not effective against intracellular infections but promotes IgE production, which is related to allergic disease. In this study, we used the CpG motif contained in oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN), which has an adjuvant effect and also induces the Th1 response, as an adjuvant to this vaccine, and we investigated its adjuvanticity and its potential to modulate immune responses to DPT vaccine. Administration of DPT vaccine with CpG-ODN (DPT-alum/ODN) to mice significantly reduced the total IgE levels and increased the anti-PT specific IgG2a titer in serum, in comparison with ordinary DPT vaccine (DPT-alum). Moreover, we investigated the antibody response to orally administrated ovalbumin (OVA) after vaccine administration. In the DPT-alum/ODN-administered group, the OVA specific IgE production in serum greatly decreased in comparison with that in the DPT-alum-administered group. These data indicate that CpG-ODN was not useful only as an efficient vaccine adjuvant but also shifted the immune responses substantially toward Th1 and modulated the Th1/Th2 immune response in DPT vaccine. These data suggested new applications of CpG-ODN as adjuvants in DPT vaccine.

  1. The Acute Effects of Interval-Type Exercise on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Subjects: Importance of Interval Length. A Controlled, Counterbalanced, Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Ida; Solomon, Thomas P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Interval-type exercise is effective for improving glycemic control, but the optimal approach is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of the interval length on changes in postprandial glycemic control following a single exercise bout. Twelve subjects with type 2 diabetes completed a cross-over study with three 1-hour interventions performed in a non-randomized but counter-balanced order: 1) Interval walking consisting of repeated cycles of 3 min slow (aiming for 54% of Peak oxygen consumption rate [VO2peak]) and 3 min fast (aiming for 89% of VO2peak) walking (IW3); 2) Interval walking consisting of repeated cycles of 1 min slow and 1 min fast walking (IW1) and 3) No walking (CON). The exercise interventions were matched with regards to walking speed, and VO2 and heart rate was assessed throughout all interventions. A 4-hour liquid mixed meal tolerance test commenced 30 min after each intervention, with blood samples taken regularly. IW3 and IW1 resulted in comparable mean VO2 and heart rates. Overall mean postprandial blood glucose levels were lower after IW3 compared to CON (10.3±3.0 vs. 11.1±3.3 mmol/L; P < 0.05), with no significant differences between IW1 (10.5±2.8 mmol/L) and CON or IW3 and IW1 (P > 0.05 for both). Conversely blood glucose levels at specific time points during the MMTT differed significantly following both IW3 and IW1 as compared to CON. Our findings support the previously found blood glucose lowering effect of IW3 and suggest that reducing the interval length, while keeping the walking speed and time spend on fast and slow walking constant, does not result in additional improvements. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02257190 PMID:27695119

  2. No evidence of dehydration with moderate daily coffee intake: a counterbalanced cross-over study in a free-living population.

    PubMed

    Killer, Sophie C; Blannin, Andrew K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-01-01

    It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3-6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na(+) excretion was higher in C than W (p = 0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water.

  3. No Evidence of Dehydration with Moderate Daily Coffee Intake: A Counterbalanced Cross-Over Study in a Free-Living Population

    PubMed Central

    Killer, Sophie C.; Blannin, Andrew K.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2014-01-01

    It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3–6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na+ excretion was higher in C than W (p = 0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

  4. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to do so can have many causes. Metabolism slows down as you age . This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise. Drugs that can cause weight gain include: Birth ...

  5. Invention and Gain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Robert J.; Dixon, Stacey

    1989-01-01

    Gain analysis is applied to the invention of the sewing needle as well as different sewing implements and modes of sewing. The analysis includes a two-subject experiment. To validate the generality of gain heuristics and underlying switching processes, the invention of the assembly line is also analyzed. (TJH)

  6. Digital automatic gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  7. Indoor acoustic gain design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha-Abarca, Justo Andres

    2002-11-01

    The design of sound reinforcement systems includes many variables and usually some of these variables are discussed. There are criteria to optimize the performance of the sound reinforcement systems under indoor conditions. The equivalent acoustic distance, the necessary acoustic gain, and the potential acoustic gain are parameters which must be adjusted with respect to the loudspeaker array, electric power and directionality of loudspeakers, the room acoustics conditions, the distance and distribution of the audience, and the type of the original sources. The design and installation of front of the house and monitoring systems have individual criteria. This article is about this criteria and it proposes general considerations for the indoor acoustic gain design.

  8. Elevation changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A. S.; Marshall, G.A.; Carver, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Elevation changes, as well as horizontal displacements of the Earth's surface, are an expected consequence of dip-slip displacement on earthquake faults. the rock surrounding and overlying the fault is forced to stretch and bend to accommodate fault slip. Slip in the case of the April 25 mainshock is thought to have occurred on a gently inclined plane dipping to the northeast at a small angle (see article on preliminary seismological results in this issue).The associated fault-plane solution implies that rock overlying the fault plane (the hanging-wall block west and south of the epicenter) rose and shifted to the northeast. The map on the next page shows the location of the epicenter and approximate extent of uplift and subsidence derived from estimates of the geometry, location. and slip on the buried fault plane. 

  9. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Page Additional resources An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality: Biological Pollutants Help Your Child Gain Control Over ... exhaust, smoke, road dust and factory emissions. Outdoor air quality is also affected by pollen from plants, crops ...

  10. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This shift slows their metabolism, making it easier to gain weight. In addition, some people become less physically ...

  11. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sucking thus creating a "wink" when chewing or sucking. Is Monocular Elevation Deficiency associated with other diseases or developmental problems? There is no known association between Monocular Elevation ...

  12. Should I Gain Weight?

    MedlinePlus

    ... If you're having trouble with your body image, talk about how you feel with someone you like and trust who's been through it — maybe a parent, doctor, counselor, coach, or teacher. continue It's the Growth, Not the Gain No ...

  13. Helicopter high gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T. B.; Nunn, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    High gain control is explored through a design study of the CH-47B helicopter. The plans are designed to obtain the maximum bandwidth possible given the hardware constraints. Controls are designed with modal control theory to specific bandwidths and closed loop mode shapes. Comparisons are made to an earlier complementary filter approach. Bandwidth improvement by removal of limitations is explored in order to establish hardware and mechanization options. Improvements in the pitch axis control system and in the rate gyro sensor noise characteristics in all axes are discussed. The use of rotor state feedback is assessed.

  14. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  15. Bipolar Medications and Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar medications and weight gain Do all bipolar medications cause weight gain? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M. ... disorder can be treated with a number of medications. Some of these medications can increase your appetite ...

  16. Acting to gain information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  17. Leading Gainful Employment Metric Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina; MacPherson, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will address the importance of intercampus involvement in reporting of gainful employment student-level data that will be used in the calculation of gainful employment metrics by the U.S. Department of Education. The authors will discuss why building relationships within the institution is critical for effective gainful employment…

  18. Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-06

    08-2015 Publication Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna David A. Tonn Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St., Code 00L...Distribution A An antenna for mounting on a ground plane includes a dielectric substrate for mounting on the ground plane. A conductive patch...GAIN MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the

  19. Adaptive allocation of attentional gain.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Miranda; Serences, John T

    2009-09-23

    Humans are adept at distinguishing between stimuli that are very similar, an ability that is particularly crucial when the outcome is of serious consequence (e.g., for a surgeon or air-traffic controller). Traditionally, selective attention was thought to facilitate perception by increasing the gain of sensory neurons tuned to the defining features of a behaviorally relevant object (e.g., color, orientation, etc.). In contrast, recent mathematical models counterintuitively suggest that, in many cases, attentional gain should be applied to neurons that are tuned away from relevant features, especially when discriminating highly similar stimuli. Here we used psychophysical methods to critically evaluate these "ideal observer" models. The data demonstrate that attention enhances the gain of the most informative sensory neurons, even when these neurons are tuned away from the behaviorally relevant target feature. Moreover, the degree to which an individual adopted optimal attentional gain settings by the end of testing predicted success rates on a difficult visual discrimination task, as well as the amount of task improvement that occurred across repeated testing sessions (learning). Contrary to most traditional accounts, these observations suggest that the primary function of attentional gain is not to enhance the representation of target features per se, but instead to optimize performance on the current perceptual task. Additionally, individual differences in gain suggest that the operating characteristics of low-level attentional phenomena are not stable trait-like attributes and that variability in how attention is deployed may play an important role in determining perceptual abilities.

  20. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.

  1. The National Map - Elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, Dean; Evans, Gayla; Mauck, James; Hutchinson, John; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is the primary elevation data product produced and distributed by the USGS. The NED provides seamless raster elevation data of the conterminous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and the island territories. The NED is derived from diverse source data sets that are processed to a specification with a consistent resolution, coordinate system, elevation units, and horizontal and vertical datums. The NED is the logical result of the maturation of the long-standing USGS elevation program, which for many years concentrated on production of topographic map quadrangle-based digital elevation models. The NED serves as the elevation layer of The National Map, and provides basic elevation information for earth science studies and mapping applications in the United States. The NED is a multi-resolution dataset that is updated bimonthly to integrate newly available, improved elevation source data. NED data are available nationally at grid spacings of 1 arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, and at 1/3 and 1/9 arc-seconds (approximately 10 and 3 meters, respectively) for parts of the United States. Most of the NED for Alaska is available at 2-arc-second (about 60 meters) grid spacing, where only lower resolution source data exist. Part of Alaska is available at the 1/3-arc-second resolution, and plans are in development for a significant upgrade in elevation data coverage of the State over the next 5 years. Specifications for the NED include the following: *Coordinate system: Geographic (decimal degrees of latitude and longitude), *Horizontal datum: North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), *Vertical datum: North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) over the conterminous United States and varies in other areas, and *Elevation units: Decimal meters.

  2. House: Southeast/Front Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Rear Elevation, Southwest/Side Elevation, House ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    House: Southeast/Front Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Rear Elevation, Southwest/Side Elevation, House Plan - Driapsa Centennial Farm, Potts Hill European Community, 4511 Potts Hill Road, Bainbridge, Ross County, OH

  3. Sympathetic baroreflex gain in normotensive pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Usselman, Charlotte W.; Skow, Rachel J.; Matenchuk, Brittany A.; Chari, Radha S.; Julian, Colleen G.; Stickland, Michael K.; Davenport, Margie H.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is increased during normotensive pregnancy while mean arterial pressure is maintained or reduced, suggesting baroreflex resetting. We hypothesized spontaneous sympathetic baroreflex gain would be reduced in normotensive pregnant women relative to nonpregnant matched controls. Integrated muscle sympathetic burst incidence and total sympathetic activity (microneurography), blood pressure (Finometer), and R-R interval (ECG) were assessed at rest in 11 pregnant women (33 ± 1 wk gestation, 31 ± 1 yr, prepregnancy BMI: 23.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2) and 11 nonpregnant controls (29 ± 1 yr; BMI: 25.2 ± 1.7 kg/m2). Pregnant women had elevated baseline sympathetic burst incidence (43 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 2 bursts/100 heart beats, P = 0.01) and total sympathetic activity (1,811 ± 148 vs. 1,140 ± 55 au, P < 0.01) relative to controls. Both mean (88 ± 3 vs. 91 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.4) and diastolic (DBP) (72 ± 3 vs. 73 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.7) pressures were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively, indicating an upward resetting of the baroreflex set point with pregnancy. Baroreflex gain, calculated as the linear relationship between sympathetic burst incidence and DBP, was reduced in pregnant women relative to controls (−3.7 ± 0.5 vs. −5.4 ± 0.5 bursts·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1, P = 0.03), as was baroreflex gain calculated with total sympathetic activity (−294 ± 24 vs. −210 ± 24 au·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1; P = 0.03). Cardiovagal baroreflex gain (sequence method) was not different between nonpregnant controls and pregnant women (49 ± 8 vs. 36 ± 8 ms/mmHg; P = 0.2). However, sympathetic (burst incidence) and cardiovagal gains were negatively correlated in pregnant women (R = −0.7; P = 0.02). Together, these data indicate that the influence of the sympathetic nervous system over arterial blood pressure is reduced in normotensive pregnancy, in terms of both long-term and beat-to-beat regulation of arterial pressure

  4. Mars elevation distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.; Ablin, Karyn K.

    1991-01-01

    A Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of Mars was derived with both Mercator and Sinusoidal Equal-Area projections from the global topographic map of Mars (scale 1:15 million, contour interval 1 km). Elevations on the map are referred to Mars' topographic datum that is defined by the gravity field at a 6.1-millibar pressure surface with respect to the center of mass of Mars. The DTM has a resolution at the equator of 1/59.226 degrees (exactly 1 km) per pixel. By using the DTM, the volumetric distribution of Mars topography above and below the datum has previously been calculated. Three types of elevation distributions of Mars' topography were calculated from the same DTM: (1) the frequency distribution of elevations at the pixel resolution; (2) average elevations in increments of 6 degrees in both longitude and latitude; and (3) average elevations in 36 separate blocks, each covering 30 degrees of latitude and 60 degrees of longitude.

  5. High current gain transistor laser

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge. PMID:27282466

  6. Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

    2010-01-01

    Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996. PMID:20806055

  7. Factors Affecting Auditory Training Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Roberta M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine which of nine variables were most related to success in auditory training, using as Ss 43 students at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. Findings showed that the single largest contributing factor to postcourse gain was the entering English score. (PHR)

  8. location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch removed, south elevation, building section - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  9. Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top Plan, Base Plan; Fresnel Lens: Isometric, Elevation, Plan - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  10. Photomultiplier tube gain regulating system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved system for regulating the gain of a photomultiplier tube, and was designed for use with the photomultiplier tubes of a GeMSAEC fast analyzers. It has the following advantages over the prior system: noise is virtually eliminated; sample analysis can begin after 3 to 4 revolutions of the rotor; fluorescent and light scattering solutions can be used as a reference; and the reference solution can be in any cuvette on the rotor.

  11. National Elevation Dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2002-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey. NED is designed to provide National elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, perform edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data. NED has a resolution of one arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the island territories and a resolution of two arc-seconds for Alaska. NED data sources have a variety of elevation units, horizontal datums, and map projections. In the NED assembly process the elevation values are converted to decimal meters as a consistent unit of measure, NAD83 is consistently used as horizontal datum, and all the data are recast in a geographic projection. Older DEM's produced by methods that are now obsolete have been filtered during the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts that are commonly found in data produced by these methods. Artifact removal greatly improves the quality of the slope, shaded-relief, and synthetic drainage information that can be derived from the elevation data. Figure 2 illustrates the results of this artifact removal filtering. NED processing also includes steps to adjust values where adjacent DEM's do not match well, and to fill sliver areas of missing data between DEM's. These processing steps ensure that NED has no void areas and artificial discontinuities have been minimized. The artifact removal filtering process does not eliminate all of the artifacts. In areas where the only available DEM is produced by older methods, then "striping" may still occur.

  12. Elevated BP after AKI.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-yuan; Hsu, Raymond K; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP--defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit--during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization.

  13. Elevated BP after AKI

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Raymond K.; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D.; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP—defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit—during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization. PMID:26134154

  14. Storms as agents of wetland elevation change: their impact on surface and subsurface sediment processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Direct measures of the impact of major storms on wetland sediment elevation are rare. Recently developed techniques have enabled simultaneous, quantitative observations of surface and subsurface processes affecting sediment elevation. An analysis of ten wetland sites revealed the following patterns of sediment elevation change after storm passage: (1) elevation change equivalent to sediment accretion or erosion, (2) elevation loss in spite of sediment deposition, or in excess of erosion, and (3) elevation gain greater than the amount of sediment accretion. These observations suggest that storms influence sediment elevation not only by sediment deposition and erosion but also through subsurface processes of sediment compaction, root growth and decomposition, and water flux. Wetlands receiving a substantial deposit of sediment did not always realize an equivalent elevation gain. Some realized a net loss in elevation as a result of sediment compaction apparently caused by the weight of the sediment deposit or the tidal surge waters, or both. Sediment elevation collapsed in two mangrove forests with highly organic substrate when the storm killed the forest. In two marshes, elevation gain exceeded deposition apparently through increased sediment water storage or plant root growth via nutrient enrichment from storm sediment deposits. The elevation responses were either temporary or permanent on an ecological time scale (> 8 years). In one organic marsh substrate, compaction was followed by expansion, only to be compacted again by another storm. Thus the elevation response of coastal wetlands to major storms varied depending on local substrate conditions and degree of storm impact.

  15. 60. FORWARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR PIT WITH ELEVATOR IN RAISED POSITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. FORWARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR PIT WITH ELEVATOR IN RAISED POSITION AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE SHOWING ELEVATOR GUIDES, WIREWAYS, SHEAVES, HYDRAULIC OIL TANKS AND ELEVATOR LANDING PADS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  16. Stochastic Gain in Population Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, Arne; Röhl, Torsten; Schuster, Heinz Georg

    2004-07-01

    We introduce an extension of the usual replicator dynamics to adaptive learning rates. We show that a population with a dynamic learning rate can gain an increased average payoff in transient phases and can also exploit external noise, leading the system away from the Nash equilibrium, in a resonancelike fashion. The payoff versus noise curve resembles the signal to noise ratio curve in stochastic resonance. Seen in this broad context, we introduce another mechanism that exploits fluctuations in order to improve properties of the system. Such a mechanism could be of particular interest in economic systems.

  17. Scalar gain interpretation of large order filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Paul A. C.; Mook, D. Joseph

    1993-01-01

    A technique is developed which demonstrates how to interpret a large fully-populated filter gain matrix as a set of scalar gains. The inverse problem is also solved, namely, how to develop a large-order filter gain matrix from a specified set of scalar gains. Examples are given to illustrate the method.

  18. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chris J.; van der Slot, Peter J. M.; Boller, Klaus-J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  19. Elevated Synchrony in Parkinson's Disease Detected with Electroencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Swann, Nicole C.; de Hemptinne, Coralie; Aron, Adam R.; Ostrem, Jill L.; Knight, Robert T.; Starr, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Parkinson's disease (PD) can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Development of a biomarker for PD would reduce these challenges by providing an objective measure of disease. Emerging theories suggest PD is characterized by excessive synchronization in the beta frequency band (~20 Hz) throughout basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. Recently we showed with invasive electrocorticography (ECoG) that one robust measure of this synchronization is the coupling of beta phase to broadband gamma amplitude (i.e. phase amplitude coupling, PAC). Other recent work suggests that high frequency activity is detectable at the scalp using electroencephalography (EEG). Motivated by these findings, we tested whether beta-gamma PAC over sensorimotor cortex, recorded non-invasively with EEG, differs between PD patients Off and On medications, and healthy Control subjects. Methods Resting EEG was compared from 15 PD patients and 16 healthy control subjects. PD patients were tested On and Off medications on different days, in a counterbalanced order. For each dataset we calculated PAC and compared results across groups. Results PAC was elevated in the patients Off medications compared to On medications (p=0.008) and for patients Off medications compared to Controls (p=0.009). Interpretation Elevated PAC is detectable using scalp EEG in PD patients Off medications compared to On, and compared to healthy Controls. This suggests that EEG PAC may provide a non-invasive biomarker of the Parkinsonian state. This biomarker could be used as a control signal for closed-loop control of deep brain stimulation devices, for adjustment of dopaminergic treatment, and also has the potential to aid in diagnosis. PMID:26290353

  20. Weight gain attitudes among pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Simon, C; Nakashima, I; Andrews, D

    1993-07-01

    Maternal weight gain is the most important, manageable determinant of infant birth weight among adolescents. Negative attitudes toward weight gain may adversely affect maternal weight gain. We hypothesized that (a) negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain are more common among younger pregnant adolescents, and (b) negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain adversely affect adolescent maternal weight gain. The study subjects, 99, radially diverse, pregnant 13 through 18 year olds, completed the 18-item, Likert-format, Pregnancy and Weight Gain Attitude Scale. Responses to the questionnaire indicated that most (83.8%) of the adolescents we interviewed had a positive attitude toward pregnancy weight gain when they entered prenatal care. Univariate analyses revealed that attitudes toward weight gain were unrelated to the respondents' ages but inversely related to their prepregnant weights (-0.16; p = 0.06) and the severity of their symptoms of depression (r = -0.26; p = 0.004). Attitudes toward weight gain were also directly related to their family support (r = 0.17; p = 0.06). Weight gain was significantly related to 4 of the 18 scale items but not to the total attitude scale score. We conclude that (a) the developmental task of formulating a positive body image does not foster more negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain among younger adolescents; (b) negative weight gain attitudes are most common among heavier adolescents, depressed adolescents, and adolescents who do not perceive their families as supportive; and (c) negative weight gain attitudes could adversely affect pregnancy weight gain.

  1. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, J. F.; Malik, S. N.; Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Laflen, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Project is to evaluate proposed nonlinear fracture mechanics methods for application to combustor liners of aircraft gas turbine engines. During the first year of this program, proposed path-independent (P-I) integrals were reviewed for such applications. Several P-I integrals were implemented into a finite-element postprocessor which was developed and verified as part of the work. Alloy 718 was selected as the analog material for use in the forthcoming experimental work. A buttonhead, single-edge notch specimen was designed and verified for use in elevated-temperature strain control testing with significant inelastic strains. A crack mouth opening displacement measurement device was developed for further use.

  2. Elevated temperature envelope forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burg, Bruce M. (Inventor); Gane, David H. (Inventor); Starowski, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Elevated temperature envelope forming includes enclosing a part blank and form tool within an envelope sealed against the atmosphere, heat treating the combination while forming pressure holds the envelope and part against the form tool, and allowing part cool down to occur in an inert atmosphere with forming pressure removed. The forming pressure is provided by evacuating the envelope and may be aided by differential force applied between the envelope and the form tool.

  3. Information gains from cosmological probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandis, S.; Seehars, S.; Refregier, A.; Amara, A.; Nicola, A.

    2016-05-01

    In light of the growing number of cosmological observations, it is important to develop versatile tools to quantify the constraining power and consistency of cosmological probes. Originally motivated from information theory, we use the relative entropy to compute the information gained by Bayesian updates in units of bits. This measure quantifies both the improvement in precision and the `surprise', i.e. the tension arising from shifts in central values. Our starting point is a WMAP9 prior which we update with observations of the distance ladder, supernovae (SNe), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), and weak lensing as well as the 2015 Planck release. We consider the parameters of the flat ΛCDM concordance model and some of its extensions which include curvature and Dark Energy equation of state parameter w. We find that, relative to WMAP9 and within these model spaces, the probes that have provided the greatest gains are Planck (10 bits), followed by BAO surveys (5.1 bits) and SNe experiments (3.1 bits). The other cosmological probes, including weak lensing (1.7 bits) and {H0} measures (1.7 bits), have contributed information but at a lower level. Furthermore, we do not find any significant surprise when updating the constraints of WMAP9 with any of the other experiments, meaning that they are consistent with WMAP9. However, when we choose Planck15 as the prior, we find that, accounting for the full multi-dimensionality of the parameter space, the weak lensing measurements of CFHTLenS produce a large surprise of 4.4 bits which is statistically significant at the 8 σ level. We discuss how the relative entropy provides a versatile and robust framework to compare cosmological probes in the context of current and future surveys.

  4. Low gain and steerable vehicle antennas for communications with land mobile satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, K.

    1982-01-01

    Current development activities at JPL for ground mobile vehicle antennas to be used with the Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS) system are described. Both low gain and electronically steerable high gain type antennas are discussed in terms of their design concept and RF performance. For the low gain type, three classes of antennas are under various stages of development. These are the crossed-drooping dipole, quadrifilar helix, and microstrip patch designs. The antennas are intended to provide circularly-polarized radiation with a minimum of 3-dB gain in the angular region from 19 degrees to 60 deg from the horizon in elevation plane and with an omnidirectional pattern in azimuthal plane. For the electronically steerable high gain type, circularly-polarized microstrip patch phased arrays formed on a planar surface and on the surface of a truncated cone are under study. The arrays are intended to provide a minimum of 12 dB gain in the same angular region in elevation plane at all azimuthal angles. This coverage is accomplished by scanning the high gain pencil beam in both elevation and azimuthal directions. Both types of antennas are to transmit at 821-831 MHz band and to receive at 866-876 MHz band. They must be of low cost design and reasonably conformal to the vehicle.

  5. Aging yeast gain a competitive advantage on non-optimal carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Stephen; Pizza, Grazia; Walker, Rachael V; Houseley, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Animals, plants and fungi undergo an aging process with remarkable physiological and molecular similarities, suggesting that aging has long been a fact of life for eukaryotes and one to which our unicellular ancestors were subject. Key biochemical pathways that impact longevity evolved prior to multicellularity, and the interactions between these pathways and the aging process therefore emerged in ancient single-celled eukaryotes. Nevertheless, we do not fully understand how aging impacts the fitness of unicellular organisms, and whether such cells gain a benefit from modulating rather than simply suppressing the aging process. We hypothesized that age-related loss of fitness in single-celled eukaryotes may be counterbalanced, partly or wholly, by a transition from a specialist to a generalist life-history strategy that enhances adaptability to other environments. We tested this hypothesis in budding yeast using competition assays and found that while young cells are more successful in glucose, highly aged cells outcompete young cells on other carbon sources such as galactose. This occurs because aged yeast divide faster than young cells in galactose, reversing the normal association between age and fitness. The impact of aging on single-celled organisms is therefore complex and may be regulated in ways that anticipate changing nutrient availability. We propose that pathways connecting nutrient availability with aging arose in unicellular eukaryotes to capitalize on age-linked diversity in growth strategy and that individual cells in higher eukaryotes may similarly diversify during aging to the detriment of the organism as a whole.

  6. VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST GABLE ELEVATIONS AND NORTH ELEVATIONS OF ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST GABLE ELEVATIONS AND NORTH ELEVATIONS OF ENGINE HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND ECCENTRIC HOUSE IN REAR NOTE ROD LINES IN FOREGROUND RIGHT. - Golden Oil Company, Lot 410 Lease, Sheffield Field, Donaldson, Warren County, PA

  7. 21. Interior of elevator, view from upper elevator room. Lyon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Interior of elevator, view from upper elevator room. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  8. location plan, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, louver window detail, mechanical room door profile, partition profile - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Staff Bath House, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  9. first floor plan, building section, west elevation, south elevation, baseboard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    first floor plan, building section, west elevation, south elevation, baseboard profile, crown molding profile, window and door details - Cedar Pass Lodge, Cabin 22, 20681 South Dakota Highway 240, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  10. View to southwest showing facade (east elevation) and north elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to southwest showing facade (east elevation) and north elevation - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Service Building, Between Williamson Drive & Green Street, adjacent to northern driveway behind Medical Officer's Quarters C, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  11. 33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (right) Photographs taken by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  12. Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground Floor Plan, Section A-A - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  13. 3. A general elevation view looking west highlights the Elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. A general elevation view looking west highlights the Elevator and Silo Complex C, commonly known as the 'Landmark' (1940). - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  14. Review of High Gain FELs

    SciTech Connect

    Shintake, Tsumoru

    2007-01-19

    For understanding on basic radiation mechanism of the high-gain FEL based on SASE, the author presents electron-crystal interpretation of FEL radiation. In the electron-crystal, electrons are localized at regularly spaced multi-layers, which represents micro-bunching, whose spacing is equal to the radiation wavelength, and the multi-layers are perpendicular to beam axis, thus, diffracted wave creates Bragg's spots in forward and backward directions. Due to the Doppler's effect, frequency of the back-scattered wave is up-converted, generates forwardly focused X-ray. The Bragg's effect contributes focusing the X-ray beam into a spot, thus peak power becomes extremely higher by factor of typically 107. This is the FEL radiation. As well known, the total numbers of scattered photons in Bragg's spots is equal to the total elastic scattering photons from the atoms contained in the crystal. Therefore, total power in the FEL laser is same as the spontaneous radiation power from the undulator for the same beam parameter. The FEL radiation phenomenon is simple interference effect. In today's presentations, we use the laser pointer, and we frequently experience difficulty in pointing precisely or steadily in one place on the screen, since the laser spot is very small and does not spread. Exactly same to this, X-ray FEL is a highly focused beam, and pointing stability dominates productivity of experiment, thus we need special care on beam stability from linear accelerator.

  15. Detecting Elevated Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, H.L.; Elford, R.W.; Shumak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Reflotron dry chemistry reflectance photometer was studied as a case-finding method in physicians' offices. A total of 713 adult patients had their risk factor profiles determined along with fingerprick blood cholesterol measurements. Blood cholesterol levels were classified into three categories, (<5.2 mmol/L), 51%; borderline high (5.2 to 6.1 mmol/L), 28%; and high (≥6.2 mmol/L), 21%. The physicians' predictions from clinical risk factor profiles of which patients had elevated serum cholesterol levels were inaccurate. PMID:21229051

  16. Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B

    1993-10-01

    Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in

  17. Building C west elevation showing south elevation of Building B ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building C west elevation showing south elevation of Building B (on left) and north elevation of Building D (on right). The Germantown Dyeworks complex and smoke stack appear in the background. View looking east - Hinckley Knitting Mills, Building C, 21-35 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 3. Occident Terminal Elevator. Reinforced concrete. First total "electric" elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Occident Terminal Elevator. Reinforced concrete. First total "electric" elevator at Duluth. (Powered by electrical substation instead of steam generator). - Occident Terminal Elevator & Storage Annex, South side of second slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  19. Weight gain increases human aromatase expression in mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Zhao, Hong; Coon, John S; Ono, Masanori; Pearson, Elizabeth K; Bulun, Serdar E

    2012-05-15

    Adulthood weight gain predicts estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Because local estrogen excess in the breast likely contributes to cancer development, and aromatase is the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, we investigated the role of local aromatase expression in weight gain-associated breast cancer risk in a humanized aromatase (Arom(hum)) mouse model containing the coding region and the 5'-regulatory region of the human aromatase gene. Compared with littermates on normal chow, female Arom(hum) mice on a high fat diet gained more weight, and had a larger mammary gland mass with elevated total human aromatase mRNA levels via promoters I.4 and II associated with increased levels of their regulators TNFα and C/EBPβ. There was no difference in total human aromatase mRNA levels in gonadal white adipose tissue. Our data suggest that diet-induced weight gain preferentially stimulates local aromatase expression in the breast, which may lead to local estrogen excess and breast cancer risk.

  20. Nicotine Replacement: Effects on Postcessation Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Janet; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined nicotine replacement effects on postcessation weight gain in smoking cessation volunteers. Randomly assigned abstinent subjects to active nicotine or placebo gum conditions for 10 weeks. Analyses revealed strong evidence for gum effect on weight gain, with active gum users gaining mean total of 3.8 pounds compared with 7.8 pounds for…

  1. Is Weight Gain after Smoking Cessation Inevitable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talcott, Gerald W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied weight gain after smoking cessation in a naturalistic setting where all smokers quit and risk factors for postcessation weight gain were modified. Results showed no significant weight changes for smokers who quit. Suggests that an intensive program featuring dietary guidelines and increased physical activity can attenuate weight gain. (RJM)

  2. Digital Elevation Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    The Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) distributes digital cartographic/geographic data files produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Mapping Program. Digital cartographic data files may be grouped into four basic types. The first of these, called a Digital Line Graph (DLG), is the line map information in digital form. These data files include information on base data categories, such as transportation, hypsography, hydrography, and boundaries. The second type, called a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), consists of a sampled array of elevations for a number of ground positions at regularly spaced intervals. The third type is Land Use and Land Cover digital data which provides information on nine major classes of land use such as urban, agricultural, or forest as well as associated map data such as political units and Federal land ownership. The fourth type, the Geographic Names Information System, provides primary information for all known places, features, and areas in the United States identified by a proper name.

  3. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    Alloy 718 crack growth experiments were conducted to assess the ability of the selected path-independent (P-I) integrals to describe the elevated temperature crack growth behavior. These tests were performed on single edge notch (SEN) specimens under displacement control with multiple extensometers to monitor the specimen and crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD). The displacements in these tests were sufficiently high to induce bulk cyclic inelastic deformation of the specimen. Under these conditions, the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) parameter K does not correlate the crack growth data. The experimentally measured displacement gradients at the end of specimen gage length were used as the boundary conditions in elastic-plastic finite element method (FEM) analyses. These analyses were performed with a node release approach using CYANIDE, a GEAE FEM code, which included a gap element which is capable of efficiently simulating crack closure. Excellent correlation was obtained between the experimentally measured and predicted variation of stress and CMOD with crack length and the stress-CMOD loops for Alloy 718 tests conducted at 538 C. This confirmed the accuracy of the FEM crack growth simulation approach. The experimentally measured crack growth rate data correlated well the selected P-I integrals. These investigations have produced significant progress in developing P-I integrals as non-linear fracture mechanics parameters. The results suggest that this methodology has the potential of accurately describing elevated temperature crack growth behavior under the combined influence of thermal cycling and bulk elastic-inelastic deformation states.

  4. BDNF: no gain without pain?

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter A

    2014-12-26

    Injury to the adult nervous system promotes the expression and secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Because it promotes neuronal growth, survival and neurogenesis, BDNF may initiate compensatory processes that mitigate the deleterious effects of injury, disease or stress. Despite this, BDNF has been implicated in several injury-induced maladaptive processes including pain, spasticity and convulsive activity. This review will concentrate on the predominant role of BDNF in the initiation and maintenance of chronic and/or neuropathic pain at the spinal, peripheral and central levels. Within the spinal dorsal horn, the pattern of BDNF-induced changes in synaptic transmission across five different, identified neuronal phenotypes bears a striking resemblance to that produced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of peripheral nerves. The appearance of this "pain footprint" thus reflects multiple sensitizing actions of microglial-derived BDNF. These include changes in the chloride equilibrium potential, decreased excitatory synaptic drive to inhibitory neurons, complex changes in inhibitory (GABA/glycinergic) synaptic transmission, increases in excitatory synaptic drive to excitatory neurons and the appearance of oscillatory activity. BDNF effects are confined to changes in synaptic transmission as there is little change in the passive or active properties of neurons in the superficial dorsal horn. Actions of BDNF in the brain stem and periphery also contribute to the onset and persistence of chronic pain. In spite of its role in compensatory processes that facilitate the recovery of the nervous system from injury, the widespread maladaptive actions of BDNF mean that there is literally "no gain without pain".

  5. Gestational weight gain among Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain.

  6. Controlling gain one photon at a time.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gregory W; Rieke, Fred

    2013-05-14

    Adaptation is a salient property of sensory processing. All adaptational or gain control mechanisms face the challenge of obtaining a reliable estimate of the property of the input to be adapted to and obtaining this estimate sufficiently rapidly to be useful. Here, we explore how the primate retina balances the need to change gain rapidly and reliably when photons arrive rarely at individual rod photoreceptors. We find that the weakest backgrounds that decrease the gain of the retinal output signals are similar to those that increase human behavioral threshold, and identify a novel site of gain control in the retinal circuitry. Thus, surprisingly, the gain of retinal signals begins to decrease essentially as soon as background lights are detectable; under these conditions, gain control does not rely on a highly averaged estimate of the photon count, but instead signals from individual photon absorptions trigger changes in gain. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00467.001.

  7. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to extend the work performed in the base program (CR 182247) into the regime of time-dependent crack growth under isothermal and thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) loading, where creep deformation also influences the crack growth behavior. The investigation was performed in a two-year, six-task, combined experimental and analytical program. The path-independent integrals for application to time-dependent crack growth were critically reviewed. The crack growth was simulated using a finite element method. The path-independent integrals were computed from the results of finite-element analyses. The ability of these integrals to correlate experimental crack growth data were evaluated under various loading and temperature conditions. The results indicate that some of these integrals are viable parameters for crack growth prediction at elevated temperatures.

  8. Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    A three year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for non-proportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved undertanding were through several critical non-proportional loading experiments. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C.

  9. Transient gain analysis of gain-switched semiconductor lasers during pulse lasing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Ito, Takashi; Asahara, Akifumi; Nakamae, Hidekazu; Nakamura, Takahiro; Yoshita, Masahiro; Kim, Changsu; Zhang, Baoping; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Suemoto, Tohru; Akiyama, Hidefumi

    2015-12-10

    We analyzed the transient gain properties of three gain-switched semiconductor lasers with different materials and cavity structures during pulse lasing. All the semiconductor lasers were pumped with impulse optical pumping, and all the generated gain-switched output pulses were well described by exponential functions in their rise parts, wherein the transient gains were derived according to the rate-equation theoretical model. In spite of the different laser structures and materials, the results consistently demonstrated that a higher transient gain produces shorter output pulses, indicating the dominant role of higher transient gain in the generation of even shorter gain-switched pulses with semiconductor lasers.

  10. Microchannel plate modal gain variations with temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the modal gain of two high-gain curved-channel microchannel plates (MCPs) at various operating temperatures are presented. Both MCPs were fabricated from the Long Life glass with 12-micron diam channels on 15-micron centers. The modal gain was found to decrease with increasing temperature at a rate of -0.1 percent C. This reduction of gain with temperature is attributed primarily to an axial temperature gradient along each MCP channel creating a nonuniform electric field within the channel that lowers the effective output gain. A lowering of the secondary electron yield resulting from increased phonon scattering of secondary electrons released within the walls of the MCP channels was assessed, but was found to have a negligible contribution to the drop in gain with temperature.

  11. Optical antenna gain. I - Transmitting antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The gain of centrally obscured optical transmitting antennas is analyzed in detail. The calculations, resulting in near- and far-field antenna gain patterns, assume a circular antenna illuminated by a laser operating in the TEM-00 mode. A simple polynomial equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn that display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the beam in the far field as a function of antenna aperture size and its central obscuration. The results are presented in a series of graphs that allow the rapid and accurate evaluation of the antenna gain which may then be substituted into the conventional range equation.

  12. Optical antenna gain. 1: transmitting antennas.

    PubMed

    Klein, B J; Degnan, J J

    1974-09-01

    The gain of centrally obscured optical transmitting antennas is analyzed in detail. The calculations, resulting in near- and far-field antenna gain patterns, assume a circular antenna illuminated by a laser operating in the TEM(00) mode. A simple polynomial equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn that display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the beam in the far field as a function of antenna aperture size and its central obscuration. The results are presented in a series of graphs that allow the rapid and accurate evaluation of the antenna gain which may then be substituted into the conventional range equation.

  13. Gestational weight gain trajectories in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Lee-Baggley, Dayna; Stewart, Moira; Ryan, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify gestational weight gain trajectories, stratified by prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), of women with singleton pregnancies who received prenatal care in a primary care setting, and to compare these trajectories with the 2009 Institute of Medicine gestational weight gain recommendations. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Halifax, NS. Participants Women who received prenatal care at the Dalhousie Family Medicine clinics in Halifax from 2009 to 2013. Main outcome measures For each prenatal visit, gestational age and weight measurements were obtained. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the gestational weight gain trajectories. The upper limit of the guideline-recommended weekly gestational weight gain was compared with the 95% CI of the observed mean weekly gestational weight gain for each prepregnancy BMI category. Results A total of 280 women were included in the analyses. There was a significant interaction between prepregnancy BMI category and gestational weight gain over time (P < .001), with gestational weight gain being significantly lower among women with prepregnancy BMI of 30.0 kg/m2 or greater compared with those with BMI of 18.5 to less than 25.0 kg/m2 and 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2. When comparing women’s weight gain with the recommendations, women with prepregnancy BMI of 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2 had the most guideline discordance, deviating from the weight gain recommendations at 20 weeks’ gestation. Conclusion These results are relevant and of benefit to women and clinicians wishing to address excess gestational weight gain, and to researchers and policy makers developing interventions aimed at curbing gestational weight gain in primary care. Although our results showed women with prepregnancy BMI of 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2 gained the most excess, guideline-discordant weight, interventions should target all women planning or experiencing a pregnancy.

  14. Unstable resonators with a distributed focusing gain.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, T R

    1994-08-20

    The geometrical optics approximation is used to form a model of axisymmetric unstable resonators having distributed focus, gain, and loss. A tapered reflectivity feedback mirror is included. The rate equations for propagation through the focusing gain medium are derived. A unique grid is found for propagation without interpolation along eigenrays in each direction. Numerical examples show the effects of distributed gain and focus on the axial and transverse intensity distributions.

  15. Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    A 3 year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for nonproportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved understanding were through several critical nonproportional loading experiments. The direction of cracking observed on failed specimens was also recorded and used to guide the development of the theory. Cyclic deformation responses were permanently recorded digitally during each test. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C. In contrast to some other metals, loading path in nonproportional loading had little effect on fatigue lives. Strain rate had a small effect on fatigue lives at 649 C. Of the various correlating parameters the modified plastic work and octahedral shear stress were the most successful.

  16. Gain and loss mechanisms in fluorocarbon plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Caleb Timothy

    Understanding dominant reaction channels for important gas-phase species in fluorocarbon plasmas is crucial to the ability to control surface evolution and morphology. In order to accomplish this goal a modified GEC reference ICP reactor is used in tandem with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to measure the densities of stable species. Integrated absorption cross-sections are presented for all fundamental bands in the 650 cm-1 to 2000 cm-1 region for C3F6, C4F 8, C3F8, C2F6, C2F 4, and CF4. The results show that although the absorption profile changes significantly, the integrated absorption cross-sections, with the exception of CF4, do not change significantly as gas temperature increases from 25°C to 200°C. However, the internal temperature of the absorbing species can be estimated from the rotational band maximum in most cases. Species densities obtained with the aforementioned cross-sections are used with a novel analysis technique to quantify gain and loss rates as functions of residence time, pressure, and deposited power. CF4, C2F6, C3F8, and C4F 10, share related production channels, which increase in magnitude as the plasma pressure, deposited power, or surface temperature are raised. CF 2 is primarily produced through a combination of surface production (the magnitude also increases with temperature) and electron impact dissociation of C2F4, while it is predominantly lost in the large reactor to gas-phase addition to form C2F4. Time-resolved FTIR results are used to measure a cross-section of 1.8x10-14 cm3/s for the reaction between CF2 radicals creating C2F4. Finally, C2F4 originates through the electron impact dissociation of c- C4F8. The loss process for C2F4 is undetermined, but the results indicate that it could occur on reactor surfaces. Neither the density of fluorine nor the ion flux to the chuck surface changes substantially with wall temperature. We show that increases in the deposition rate in a heated chamber are due to an

  17. Measurement of Antenna Bore-Sight Gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The absolute or free-field gain of a simple antenna can be approximated using standard antenna theory formulae or for a more accurate prediction, numerical methods may be employed to solve for antenna parameters including gain. Both of these methods will result in relatively reasonable estimates but in practice antenna gain is usually verified and documented via measurements and calibration. In this paper, a relatively simple and low-cost, yet effective means of determining the bore-sight free-field gain of a VHF/UHF antenna is proposed by using the Brewster angle relationship.

  18. Error margin for antenna gain measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, V.

    2002-01-01

    The specification of measured antenna gain is incomplete without knowing the error of the measurement. Also, unless gain is measured many times for a single antenna or over many identical antennas, the uncertainty or error in a single measurement is only an estimate. In this paper, we will examine in detail a typical error budget for common antenna gain measurements. We will also compute the gain uncertainty for a specific UHF horn test that was recently performed on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) antenna range. The paper concludes with comments on these results and how they compare with the 'unofficial' JPL range standard of +/- ?.

  19. An improved empirical model for diversity gain on Earth-space propagation paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    An empirical model was generated to estimate diversity gain on Earth-space propagation paths as a function of Earth terminal separation distance, link frequency, elevation angle, and angle between the baseline and the path azimuth. The resulting model reproduces the entire experimental data set with an RMS error of 0.73 dB.

  20. Estimated Effect of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal of the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

  1. Root Cellar: Plan, Southeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Side Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Southwest/Side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Root Cellar: Plan, Southeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Side Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Southwest/Side Elevation - Driapsa Centennial Farm, Potts Hill European Community, 4511 Potts Hill Road, Bainbridge, Ross County, OH

  2. 180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating front elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating front elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing west - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  5. 35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  6. Correcting the Normalized Gain for Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay

    2010-01-01

    The normalized gain, "g", has been an important tool for the characterization of conceptual improvement in physics courses since its use in Hake's extensive study on conceptual learning in introductory physics. The normalized gain is calculated from the score on a pre-test administered before instruction and a post-test administered…

  7. Gain Shift Corrections at Chi-Nu

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Tristan Brooks; Devlin, Matthew James

    2016-08-30

    Ambient conditions have the potential to cause changes in liquid scintillator detector gain that vary with time and temperature. These gain shifts can lead to poor resolution in both energy as well as pulse shape discrimination. In order to correct for these shifts in the Chi-Nu high energy array, a laser system has been developed for calibration of the pulse height signals.

  8. 75 FR 43615 - Program Integrity: Gainful Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Education 34 CFR Part 668 Program Integrity: Gainful Employment; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... RIN 1840-AD04 Program Integrity: Gainful Employment AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education... against the education and training (and increased employment income) that higher education can provide....

  9. Physical and psychological consequences of weight gain.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, I

    1999-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are clearly associated with many serious conditions, including type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Excess weight also increases the risk of death. Recent evidence suggests that weight gain itself, even if persons remain within the "normal" weight range, also increases the risk of medical illnesses and premature death. Persons who gain 5.0 to 7.9 kg (11 to 17.3 lb) as adults are 1.9 times more likely to develop type II diabetes mellitus and 1.25 times more likely to develop coronary heart disease than those who lose weight or maintain a stable weight after age 18 years. Gaining 11 to 20 kg (24.2 to 44 lb) or more in adulthood increases the risk of ischemic stroke 1.69 to 2.52 times. The relationship between weight gain and breast cancer has been difficult to study, primarily because postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy can mask the effect of weight gain on cancer risk. Accordingly, weight gain in adulthood has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer only among women who have never used hormone replacement therapy. In addition to its adverse effects on disease outcomes, weight gain also impairs physical functioning, reduces quality of life, and is associated with poor mental health. These psychological and mental health consequences of weight gain can become an added burden for patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders.

  10. Complying with physician gain-sharing restrictions.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, P K

    1998-05-01

    Many IDSs are considering implementing gain-sharing programs as a way to motivate their physicians to provide high-quality, cost-effective services. Before embarking on such programs, however, IDSs need to understand the legal requirements associated with such programs to ensure that the gain-sharing arrangement is in compliance with Federal law.

  11. GaInNAs laser gain

    SciTech Connect

    CHOW,WENG W.; JONES,ERIC D.; MODINE,NORMAND A.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.

    2000-05-23

    The optical gain spectra for GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells are computed using a microscopic laser theory. From these spectra, the peak gain and carrier radiative decay rate as functions of carrier density are determined. These dependences allow the study of the lasing threshold current density of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well structures.

  12. Sudden Gains During Therapy of Social Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Schulz, Stefan M.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Moscovitch, David A.; Suvak, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the phenomenon of sudden gains in 107 participants with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who received either cognitive–behavioral group therapy or exposure group therapy without explicit cognitive interventions, which primarily used public speaking situations as exposure tasks. Twenty-two out of 967 session-to-session intervals met criteria for sudden gains, which most frequently occurred in Session 5. Individuals with sudden gains showed similar improvements in the 2 treatment groups. Although cognitive–behavioral therapy was associated with more cognitive changes than exposure therapy, cognitive changes did not precede sudden gains. In general, the results of this study question the clinical significance of sudden gains in social phobia treatment. PMID:16881776

  13. TCAD simulation of Low Gain Avalanche Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, Ranjeet; Jain, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Ranjan, Kirti

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, detailed simulation using Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) tool, Silvaco for non-irradiated and irradiated LGAD (Low Gain Avalanche Detector) devices has been carried out. The effects of different design parameters and proton irradiation on LGAD operation are discussed in detail. An already published effective two trap bulk damage model is used to simulate the radiation damage without implementing any acceptor removal term. The TCAD simulation for irradiated LGAD devices produce decreasing gain with increasing fluence, similar to the measurement results. The space charge density and electric field distribution are used to illustrate the possible reasons for the degradation of gain of the irradiated LGAD devices.

  14. Nonunity gain minimal-disturbance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Sabuncu, Metin; Andersen, Ulrik L.; Mista, Ladislav Jr.; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd

    2007-09-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optimal nonunity gain Gaussian scheme for partial measurement of an unknown coherent state that causes minimal disturbance of the state. The information gain and the state disturbance are quantified by the noise added to the measurement outcomes and to the output state, respectively. We derive the optimal trade-off relation between the two noises and we show that the tradeoff is saturated by nonunity gain teleportation. Optimal partial measurement is demonstrated experimentally using a linear optics scheme with feedforward.

  15. Frequency Dependence of APATS Antenna Gain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    ESD-TR-82-120 HTR-8354 3FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF APATS ANTENNA GAIN 0 By G. A. ROBERTSHAW MARCH 1982 Prepared for DEPUTY FOR SURVEILLANCE AND CONTROL...FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF APATS ANTENNA GAIN 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER MTR-8354 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) G. A. ROBERTSHAW F19628-81-C...employed, each channel will lose 1.76 dB of gain. * E.g., if "a" is aperture length in array azimuth plane, frequency dependence begins for 0 > srFl

  16. 1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1909. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  17. Optical properties of nanowire metamaterials with gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Joaquim; Adam, Jost; Rego, Davi; Esquerre, Vitaly; Bordo, Vladimir

    2016-11-01

    The transmittance, reflectance and absorption of a nanowire metamaterial with optical gain are numerically simulated and investigated. It is assumed that the metamaterial is represented by aligned silver nanowires embedded into a semiconductor matrix, made of either silicon or gallium phosphide. The gain in the matrix is modeled by adding a negative imaginary part to the dielectric function of the semiconductor. It is found that the optical coefficients of the metamaterial depend on the gain magnitude in a non-trivial way: they can both increase and decrease with gain depending on the lattice constant of the metamaterial. This peculiar behavior is explained by the field redistribution between the lossy metal nanowires and the amplifying matrix material. These findings are significant for a proper design of nanowire metamaterials with low optical losses for diverse applications.

  18. Experience matters: information acquisition optimizes probability gain.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jonathan D; McKenzie, Craig R M; Cottrell, Garrison W; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2010-07-01

    Deciding which piece of information to acquire or attend to is fundamental to perception, categorization, medical diagnosis, and scientific inference. Four statistical theories of the value of information-information gain, Kullback-Liebler distance, probability gain (error minimization), and impact-are equally consistent with extant data on human information acquisition. Three experiments, designed via computer optimization to be maximally informative, tested which of these theories best describes human information search. Experiment 1, which used natural sampling and experience-based learning to convey environmental probabilities, found that probability gain explained subjects' information search better than the other statistical theories or the probability-of-certainty heuristic. Experiments 1 and 2 found that subjects behaved differently when the standard method of verbally presented summary statistics (rather than experience-based learning) was used to convey environmental probabilities. Experiment 3 found that subjects' preference for probability gain is robust, suggesting that the other models contribute little to subjects' search behavior.

  19. Can Beta Blockers Cause Weight Gain?

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, ... can occur as a side effect of some beta blockers, especially the older ones, such as atenolol (Tenormin) ...

  20. Tradeoff on gain-flatness and gain-stabilization of erbium doped fiber amplifier with FBGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyin, Garidi; OuYang, Yunlun; Ma, Yu; Chang, Jinlong; Liu, Changxing; Yang, Jiuru

    2014-07-01

    It is a challenge to get gain-stabilization and gain-flatness of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) in C-band, simultaneously. In this article, we establish a gain-clamped EDFA model based uniform fiber grating-pair and optimize the reflectivity of grating by the designed targets. The tradeoff between stabilization and flatness can be obtained when an ideal reflectivity is adopted. The numerical results show that the gain-stabilization is controlled in +/-0.1dB and gain-flatness is less than +/-1.41dB in the range from 1535nm to 1565nm.

  1. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  2. 34 CFR 462.43 - How is educational gain measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Educational Gain? § 462.43 How is educational gain measured? (a)(1) Educational gain is measured by comparing... educational functioning level. To measure educational gain, the local eligible provider would compare...

  3. Central Gain Control in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Benjamin D.; Rodrigues, Paulo V.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders. PMID:25386157

  4. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P.

    1995-12-31

    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  5. Context-specific adaptation of saccade gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies established that vestibular reflexes can have two adapted states (e.g., gain) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. The present study examined this phenomenon of context-specific adaptationfor horizontal saccades, using a variety of contexts. Our overall goal was to assess the efficacy of different context cues in switching between adapted states. A standard double-step paradigm was used to adapt saccade gain. In each experiment, we asked for a simultaneous gain decrease in one context and gain increase in another context, and then determined if a change in the context would invoke switching between the adapted states. Horizontal eye position worked well as a context cue: saccades with the eyes deviated to the right could be made to have higher gains while saccades with the eyes deviated to the left could be made to have lower gains. Vertical eye position was less effective. This suggests that the more closely related a context cue is to the response being adapted, the more effective it is. Roll tilt of the head, and upright versus supine orientations, were somewhat effective in context switching; these paradigms contain orientation of gravity with respect to the head as part of the context.

  6. Determination of the STIS CCD Gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Allyssa; Monroe, TalaWanda R.; Lockwood, Sean A.

    2017-01-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) has been aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for almost 20 years. The STIS instrument team at Space Telescope Science Institute has continuously endeavored to provide high quality scientific data to the astronomical community, in part by monitoring the health and stability of the instrument. Because the change in gain value over time is a proxy for detector health, we measured the gain of the STIS CCD for amplifiers A, C and D using the mean-variance method, which has not been used to measure the CCD gain on STIS since before it was installed on HST. Here we present our methodology and results using data from the HST program 14424, which indicate a <3.5% change in the gain for amplifier D from when it was originally calculated pre-flight. We compare the various CCD gain measurements made over the history of STIS and discuss the extent to which the data and the different measurement techniques allow real changes to be distinguished from small systematic measurement errors. For the time being, we recommend the continued use of the currently adopted calibration pipeline values of 1.000 and 4.016 e-/DN for amplifier D at the nominal gain settings 1 and 4 e-/DN, respectively, as these are the values that were adopted when determining the other instrument calibrations.

  7. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  8. Area and mammalian elevational diversity.

    PubMed

    McCain, Christy M

    2007-01-01

    Elevational gradients hold enormous potential for understanding general properties of biodiversity. Like latitudinal gradients, the hypotheses for diversity patterns can be grouped into historical explanations, climatic drivers, and spatial hypotheses. The spatial hypotheses include the species-area effect and spatial constraint (mid-domain effect null models). I test these two spatial hypotheses using regional diversity patterns for mammals (non-volant small mammals and bats) along 34 elevational gradients spanning 24.4 degrees S-40.4 degrees N latitude. There was high variability in the fit to the species-area hypothesis and the mid-domain effect. Both hypotheses can be eliminated as primary drivers of elevational diversity. Area and spatial constraint both represent sources of error rather than mechanisms underlying these mammalian diversity patterns. Similar results are expected for other vertebrate taxa, plants, and invertebrates since they show comparable distributions of elevational diversity patterns to mammalian patterns.

  9. Space Elevator Base Leg Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, C.; Swan, P. A.

    While the Space Elevator stretches for 104,000 kilometers, the region of most concern, from the survival perspective, is 2,500 kms and below. The threats inside this dangerous arena include debris, spacecraft, meteorites, lightening, winds, rogue waves, aircraft, and intentional human acts. Two major questions will be addressed that will influence the overall systems architecture of a Space Elevator. While the deployment phase of the development of the Space Elevator will only have a single ribbon from the surface of the Earth to well beyond the Geosynchronous altitude, a mature Space Elevator must never allow a complete sever of the system. Design approaches, materials selections, international policy development and assembly must ensure that the integrity of the Space Elevator be maintained. The trade space analysis will address the probability of an individual ribbon being severed, the length of time to repair, and the potential for a catastrophic Space Elevator cut. The architecture proposed for the base leg portion will address two questions: Shall there be multiple base legs to 2,500 kms altitude? And Should the anchor be based on land or at sea?

  10. Mass Gains of the Antarctic Ice Sheet Exceed Losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Li, Jun; Robbins, John; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui; Brenner, Anita; Bromwich, David

    2012-01-01

    During 2003 to 2008, the mass gain of the Antarctic ice sheet from snow accumulation exceeded the mass loss from ice discharge by 49 Gt/yr (2.5% of input), as derived from ICESat laser measurements of elevation change. The net gain (86 Gt/yr) over the West Antarctic (WA) and East Antarctic ice sheets (WA and EA) is essentially unchanged from revised results for 1992 to 2001 from ERS radar altimetry. Imbalances in individual drainage systems (DS) are large (-68% to +103% of input), as are temporal changes (-39% to +44%). The recent 90 Gt/yr loss from three DS (Pine Island, Thwaites-Smith, and Marie-Bryd Coast) of WA exceeds the earlier 61 Gt/yr loss, consistent with reports of accelerating ice flow and dynamic thinning. Similarly, the recent 24 Gt/yr loss from three DS in the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) is consistent with glacier accelerations following breakup of the Larsen B and other ice shelves. In contrast, net increases in the five other DS of WA and AP and three of the 16 DS in East Antarctica (EA) exceed the increased losses. Alternate interpretations of the mass changes driven by accumulation variations are given using results from atmospheric-model re-analysis and a parameterization based on 5% change in accumulation per degree of observed surface temperature change. A slow increase in snowfall with climate waRMing, consistent with model predictions, may be offsetting increased dynamic losses.

  11. Leaf conductance and carbon gain under salt-stressed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, V.; Manzoni, S.; Marani, M.; Katul, G.

    2011-12-01

    Exposure of plants to salt stress is often accompanied by reductions in leaf photosynthesis and in stomatal and mesophyll conductances. To separate the effects of salt stress on these quantities, a model based on the hypothesis that carbon gain is maximized subject to a water loss cost is proposed. The optimization problem of adjusting stomatal aperture for maximizing carbon gain at a given water loss is solved for both a non-linear and a linear biochemical demand function. A key novel theoretical outcome of the optimality hypothesis is an explicit relationship between the stomatal and mesophyll conductances that can be evaluated against published measurements. The approaches here successfully describe gas-exchange measurements reported for olive trees (Olea europea L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleraceaL.) in fresh water and in salt-stressed conditions. Salt stress affected both stomatal and mesophyll conductances and photosynthetic efficiency of both species. The fresh water/salt water comparisons show that the photosynthetic capacity is directly reduced by 30%-40%, indicating that reductions in photosynthetic rates under increased salt stress are not due only to a limitation of CO2diffusion. An increase in salt stress causes an increase in the cost of water parameter (or marginal water use efficiency) exceeding 100%, analogous in magnitude to findings from extreme drought stress studies. The proposed leaf-level approach can be incorporated into physically based models of the soil-plant-atmosphere system to assess how saline conditions and elevated atmospheric CO2 jointly impact transpiration and photosynthesis.

  12. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema.

  13. CONDITIONS FOR CSR MICROBUNCHING GAIN SUPPRESSION

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Cheng Ying; Douglas, David R.; Li, Rui; Tennant, Christopher D.; di Mitri, Simone

    2016-05-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport arcs, may result in phase space degradation. On one hand, the CSR can perturb electron transverse motion in dispersive regions along the beamline, causing emittance growth. On the other hand, the CSR effect on the longitudinal beam dynamics could result in microbunching gain enhancement. For transport arcs, several schemes have been proposed* to suppress the CSR-induced emittance growth. Similarly, several scenarios have been introduced** to suppress CSR-induced microbunching gain, which however mostly aim for linac-based machines. In this paper we try to provide sufficient conditions for suppression of CSR-induced microbunching gain along a transport arc, analogous to*. Several example lattices are presented, with the relevant microbunching analyses carried out by our semi-analytical Vlasov solver***. The simulation results show that lattices satisfying the proposed conditions indeed have microbunching gain suppressed. We expect this analysis can shed light on lattice design approach that could suppress the CSR-induced microbunching gain.

  14. Gain and energy storage in holmium YLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, Mark E.; Deyst, John P.

    1991-01-01

    It is demonstrated that Q-switched holmium lasers are capable of high-gain and high-energy operation at 300 K. Small-signal gain coefficients of 0.50 and 0.12/cm have been measured in YLF and YAG, respectively. Small-signal gains of 0.50/cm are comparable to those achievable in Nd:YAG and are not typical of low-gain materials. This large gain in the Ho:YLF material is made possible by operating the amplifier in the ground state depletion mode. The amplifier performance data and associated analysis presented demonstrate that efficient energy storage is possible with very high excited state ion densities of the Ho 5I7 upper laser level. This is an important result since upconversion can limit the 5I7 population. Although upconversion was still present in this experiment, it was possible to achieve efficient energy storage, demonstrating that the problem is manageable even at high excitation densities in YLF.

  15. New night vision goggle gain definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobedov, Vyacheslav B.; Eppeldauer, George P.; Larason, Thomas C.

    2015-05-01

    A new definition is proposed for the calibration of Night Vision Goggle (NVG) gains. This definition is based on the measurement of radiometric input and output quantities of the NVG. While the old definition used the "equivalent fL" which is a non SI traceable luminance unit, the new definition utilizes the radiance quantities that are traceable to the SI units through NIST standards. The new NVG gain matches the previous one as a result of the application of a correction coefficient originating from the conversion of the radiance to luminance units. The new definition was tested at the NIST Night Vision Calibration Facility and the measurement results were compared to the data obtained with a Hoffman Test Set Model ANV-126. Comparing the radiometric quantities of the Hoffman Test Set and those measured by the NIST transfer standard radiometer, indicates that the observed differences up to 15% were due to the calibration and experimental errors of the ANV-126 Test Set. In view of different spectral characteristics of luminophores that can be utilized in the NVG design, the simulation of the NVG output for gain measurement was performed. The NVG output was simulated with a sphere-based source using different LEDs and the measured gain was compared to that obtained with the ANV-126 internal luminance meter. The NVG gain uncertainty analysis was performed for the Type A, B, and C goggles.

  16. Gain loss asymmetry for emerging stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpio, Krzysztof; Załuska–Kotur, Magdalena A.; Orłowski, Arkadiusz

    2007-03-01

    Stock indexes for some European emerging markets are analyzed using an investment-horizon approach. Austrian ATX index and Dow Jones have been studied and compared with several emerging European markets. The optimal investment horizons are plotted as a function of an absolute return value. Gain-loss asymmetry, originally found for American DJIA index, is observed for all analyzed data. It is shown, that this asymmetry has different character for emerging and for established markets. For established markets, gain curve lies typically above loss curve, whereas in the case of emerging markets the situation is just the opposite. We propose a measure quantifying the gain-loss asymmetry that clearly exhibits a difference between emerging and established markets.

  17. [Atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain].

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Beata R; Olajossy-Hilkesberger, Luiza; Marmurowska-Michałowska, Halina; Olajossy, Marcin; Landowski, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    Introduction of a new group of antipsychotic drugs, called atypical because of the proprieties differing them from classical neuroleptics, gave hope for the beginning of a new era in treatment of psychoses, including schizophrenia. Different mechanisms of action not only resulted in a broader spectrum of action and high efficacy but also in a relative lack of extrapiramidal symptoms. However, atypical neuroleptics are not totally free from adverse effects. Symptoms such as sedation, metabolic changes and weight gain, often very quick and severe - present also in the case of classical drugs, but put to the background by extrapiramidal symptoms--have become prominent. Weight gain is important both from the clinical and subjective point of view--as associated with serious somatic consequences and as a source of enormous mental distress. These problems are addressed in this review, with the focus on weight gain associated with the use of specific atypical neuroleptics.

  18. 2. 'Tunnel No 6 West End, Front Elevation, Sectional Elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 'Tunnel No 6 West End, Front Elevation, Sectional Elevation on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1910. Tunnel 6, which today would be Tunnel 20, was daylighted and no longer exists. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. Microstrip antenna gain enhancement with metamaterial radome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attachi, S.; Saleh, C.; Bouzouad, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a high gain patch antenna using multilayer FSS radome is proposed for millimeter-wave applications. The antenna operating frequency is 43.5 GHz. The antenna/radome system consists of one, two, three, or four layers of metasurfaces placed in the near-field region of a microstrip patch antenna. The antenna/radome system gain is improved by 9 dBi compared to the patch antenna alone, and the radiation pattern half-power beamwidth is reduces to 20° in both E- and H-planes.

  20. Gain vs phase in BOTDA setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Gil, Alexia; Angulo-Vinuesa, Xabier; Soto, Marcelo A.; Dominguez-Lopez, Alejandro; Martin-Lopez, Sonia; Thévenaz, Luc; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel

    2016-05-01

    We evaluate the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) determination error when using the Brillouin phase spectrum (BPS) instead of the Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) in BOTDA setups. We compare the error obtained in the BFS determination in both cases, both with theoretical arguments and experimental data. In comparison to the gain, for an equal SNR and linewidth, the phase generally provides a better fit of the BFS for smaller frequency spans. This result opens a possible way to reduce the measurement time of certain BOTDA systems by using the phase feature.

  1. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and

  2. Chronic clozapine treatment in female rats does not induce weight gain or metabolic abnormalities but enhances adiposity: implications for animal models of antipsychotic-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Cooper, G D; Harrold, J A; Halford, J C G; Goudie, A J

    2008-02-15

    The ability of clozapine to induce weight gain in female rats was investigated in three studies with progressively lowered doses of clozapine. In an initial preliminary high dose study, clozapine at 6 and 12 mg/kg (i.p., b.i.d.) was found to induce weight loss. In a subsequent intermediate dose study, we obtained no evidence for clozapine-induced weight gain despite using identical procedures and doses of clozapine (1-4 mg/kg, i.p., b.i.d.) with which we have observed olanzapine-induced weight gain, hyperphagia, enhanced adiposity and metabolic changes [Cooper G, Pickavance L, Wilding J, Halford J, Goudie A (2005). A parametric analysis of olanzapine-induced weight gain in female rats. Psychopharmacology; 181: 80-89.]. Instead, clozapine induced weight loss without alteration in food intake and muscle mass or changes in levels of glucose, insulin, leptin and prolactin. However, these intermediate doses of clozapine enhanced visceral adiposity and elevated levels of adiponectin. In a final study, low doses of clozapine (0.25-0.5 mg/kg, i.p, b.i.d.) induced weight loss. These data demonstrate that clozapine-induced weight gain can be much more difficult to observe in female rats than olanzapine-induced weight gain. Moreover, these findings contrast with clinical findings with clozapine, which induces substantial weight gain in humans. Clozapine-induced enhanced adiposity appears to be easier to observe in rats than weight gain. These findings, along with other preclinical studies, suggest that enhanced adiposity can be observed in the absence of antipsychotic-induced weight gain and hyperphagia, possibly reflecting a direct drug effect on adipocyte function independent of drug-induced hyperphagia [e.g. Minet-Ringuet J, Even P, Valet P, Carpene C, Visentin V, Prevot D, Daviaud D, Quignard-Boulange A, Tome D, de Beaurepaire R (2007). Alterations of lipid metabolism and gene expression in rat adipocytes during chronic olanzapine treatment. Molecular Psychiatry; 12: 562

  3. Barn: Loft Plan, Ground Floor Plan, Northwest/Side Elevation, Southeast/Front Elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Barn: Loft Plan, Ground Floor Plan, Northwest/Side Elevation, Southeast/Front Elevation, Southwest/Side Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation - Driapsa Centennial Farm, Potts Hill European Community, 4511 Potts Hill Road, Bainbridge, Ross County, OH

  4. Net Photorefractive Gain In Gallium Arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tsuen-Hsi; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1990-01-01

    Prerequisite includes applied electric field. Electric field applied to GaAs crystal in which two infrared beams interfere. Depending on quality of sample and experimental conditions, net photorefractive gain obtained. Results offer possibility of new developments in real-time optical processing of signals by use of near-infrared lasers of low power.

  5. Managing your weight gain during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... basis for a healthy pregnancy. For most pregnant women, the right amount of calories is: 1,800 calories per ... are already overweight when they get pregnant. Other women gain ... on eating the right foods and staying active. If you do not ...

  6. X chromosome gain in male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Oto, Enrico; Monti, Valentina; Cucchi, Maria C; Masetti, Riccardo; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Foschini, Maria P

    2015-12-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon disease whose molecular profile is not well known. X chromosome gain has been described as a marker of aggressive behavior in female breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the X chromosome in male breast cancer. Twenty cases of male breast invasive ductal carcinoma were retrieved and compared with 10 cases of gynecomastia. Cases were tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization to assess a cytogenetic profile for the X chromosome. The X chromosome status was compared with histopathologic features and stage at presentation. All MBC cases harbored an X chromosome gain (100%) in a variable percentage of neoplastic cells, ranging from 31% to 85% (mean, 59%). On the contrary, all cases of gynecomastia showed wild X chromosome asset. The patients' age at surgery and tumor grading showed a statistically significant correlation (P = .0188-.04), with the percentages of neoplastic cells showing an X chromosome gain. These data suggest that this X chromosome gain plays a role in the neoplastic transformation of male breast epithelial cells.

  7. 75 FR 63763 - Program Integrity: Gainful Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Part 668 RIN 1840-AD04 Program Integrity: Gainful Employment AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of public meeting sessions. SUMMARY: The Secretary...

  8. Weight Gain Through Self-Control Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulanick, Nancy; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Underweight subjects were assigned to either a self-reinforcement condition, a self-punishment condition, or to a discussion/reflection control condition. The subjects received one treatment session per week over a five-week period. After treatment, the self-reinforcement groups gained significantly more pounds (kilograms) than either of the other…

  9. Gain of a single gas electron multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a gaseous detector used in particle detection and is known for its high rate capability. Ever since its invention in 1997, GEM was applied in many areas and recently has been proposed to be installed in the CMS high η regions for upgrade at LHC, CERN. A complete understanding of the working and gain behaviour does not exist. GEM gain is influenced by charging up and this has been variedly interpreted in literature lacking consensus. I have attempted in this work through simulations and measurements to achieve a better understanding of single GEM gain and how it is affected by various factors. Specific experimental methods which evolved with subsequent measurements were employed to systematically study the charging up effect. Information from simulations was applied to characterize measurements thereby enabling the development of a model for charging up. Conductivity mechanism of the dielectric used in GEM was analyzed and the resistivity measured. Gain free of charging up effects was measured and this is appropriate for comparison with simulations.

  10. Body weight gain and deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rieu, Isabelle; Derost, Philippe; Ulla, Miguel; Marques, Ana; Debilly, Bérangère; De Chazeron, Ingrid; Chéreau, Isabelle; Lemaire, Jean Jacques; Boirie, Yves; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Durif, Franck

    2011-11-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical technique that has now been available for some 25 years. It is used in the treatment of various motor disorders, e.g. Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and dystonia, and neuropsychiatric illnesses, e.g. obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome. The surgical targets of DBS include the thalamic ventralis intermedius nucleus (Vim), the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and more recently the subthalamic nucleus (STN), currently considered as the reference target in the treatment of PD. In the last ten years, most studies in PD patients have described a rapid and marked weight gain in the months following DBS of the STN. This weight gain sometimes induces obesity and can have metabolic repercussions. The physiopathological mechanisms responsible for the weight gain are multifactorial (changes in energy metabolism and eating behaviour, reduction of motor complications, etc.). This review reports current knowledge concerning weight changes in patients treated by DBS with different surgical targets. It also describes the mechanisms responsible for weight gain and the health outcome for the patients.

  11. Sudden Gains during Therapy of Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Schultz, Stefan M.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Moscovitch, David A.; Suvak, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the phenomenon of sudden gains in 107 participants with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who received either cognitive-behavioral group therapy or exposure group therapy without explicit cognitive interventions, which primarily used public speaking situations as exposure tasks. Twenty-two out of 967…

  12. Optical gain by a simple photoisomerization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Gómez, Francisco; Del Monte, Francisco; Meerholz, Klaus

    2008-06-01

    Organic holographic materials are pursued as versatile and cheap data-storage materials. It is generally assumed that under steady-state conditions, only photorefractive holographic media exhibit a non-local response to a light-intensity pattern, which results in an asymmetric two-beam coupling or `gain', where intensity is transferred from one beam to the other as a measure of writing efficiency. Here, we demonstrate non-local holographic recording in a non-photorefractive material. We demonstrate that reversible photoisomerization gratings recorded in a non-photorefractive azo-based material exhibit large optical gain coefficients beyond 1,000cm-1, even for polarization gratings. The grating characteristics differ markedly from classical photorefractive features, but can be modelled by considering the influence of the Poynting vector on the photoisomerization. The external control of the Poynting vector enables manipulation of the gain coefficient, including its sign (the direction of energy exchange), a novel phenomenon we refer to as `gain steering'. A very high sensitivity of about 100cm2J-1 was achieved. This high sensitivity, combined with a high spatial resolution, suggests a great technical advantage for applications in image processing and phase conjugation.

  13. Gainful Employment: The Real Issue. Policy Memo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes a proposed piece of legislation or new rule can catalyze debate about a key issue. That seems to be the case for the "gainful employment" rule currently being proposed by the Department of Education (DOE). The rule addresses a very real problem: The large amounts of debt being taken on by some students, mainly those attending for-profit…

  14. Autonomous Exploration Using an Information Gain Metric

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    factors of the utility function, biasing the behavior toward either exploration or relocation. The simulated experiments demonstrate improved...also presented. 15. SUBJECT TERMS information gain, exploration, intelligent behaviors , simultaneous localization and mapping, SLAM, entropy 16...addition, the data collected over a variety of graph entropy scale values demonstrate the behavior of the algorithm when loop closures are

  15. Method and system for edge cladding of laser gain media

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Caird, John Allyn; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene

    2014-03-25

    A gain medium operable to amplify light at a gain wavelength and having reduced transverse ASE includes an input surface and an output surface opposing the input surface. The gain medium also includes a central region including gain material and extending between the input surface and the output surface along a longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The gain medium further includes an edge cladding region surrounding the central region and extending between the input surface and the output surface along the longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The edge cladding region includes the gain material and a dopant operable to absorb light at the gain wavelength.

  16. Association of gestational weight gain expectations with advice on actual weight gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine pregnant women's gestational weight gain expectations/advice from various sources (i.e., self, family/friends, physician) and the impact of these sources of expectations/advice on actual measured gestational weight gain. Pregnant women (n=230, 87.4% Caucasian, second pregnancy) in a cohor...

  17. 34 CFR 462.43 - How is educational gain measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How is educational gain measured? 462.43 Section 462.43... ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MEASURING EDUCATIONAL GAIN IN THE NATIONAL REPORTING SYSTEM FOR... Educational Gain? § 462.43 How is educational gain measured? (a)(1) Educational gain is measured by...

  18. Nitrogen narcosis and ethyl alcohol increase the gain of the vestibular ocular reflex.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, K; Fowler, B; Landolt, J; Porlier, G

    1989-03-01

    The effects of air, helium-oxygen (6.4 ATA), and ethyl alcohol (40% by volume at a dose of 1.5 ml/kg body weight) were examined on the gain, number of beats, and phase lag of the vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) by means of electronystagmography (n = 7). It was found that hyperbaric air and alcohol, both alone and in combination, produced approximately the same increase in the velocity of the slow phase component of the nystagmus, thereby elevating the gain of the system to unity. Hyperbaric helium-oxygen did not influence the gain. These findings suggest that nitrogen nacrosis differentially impairs the system controlling the VOR. It is proposed that this impairment may help to explain the disorientation sometimes associated with nitrogen narcosis.

  19. Observations of the uptake of carbonyl sulfide (COS) by trees under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval-Soto, L.; Kesselmeier, M.; Schmitt, V.; Wild, A.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-08-01

    Global change forces ecosystems to adapt to elevated atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2). We understand that carbonyl sulfide (COS), a trace gas which is involved in building up the stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer, is taken up by vegetation with the same triad of the enzymes which are metabolizing CO2, i.e. ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-Co) and carbonic anhydrase (CA). Therefore, we discuss a physiological/biochemical acclimation of these enzymes affecting the sink strength of vegetation for COS. We investigated the acclimation of two European tree species, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus ilex, grown inside chambers under elevated CO2, and determined the exchange characteristics and the content of CA after a 1-2 yr period of acclimation from 350 ppm to 800 ppm CO2. We demonstrate that a compensation point, by definition, does not exist. Instead, we propose to discuss a point of uptake affinity (PUA). The results indicate that such a PUA, the CA activity and the deposition velocities may change and may cause a decrease of the COS uptake by plant ecosystems, at least as long as the enzyme acclimation to CO2 is not surpassed by an increase of atmospheric COS. As a consequence, the atmospheric COS level may rise causing an increase of the radiative forcing in the troposphere. However, this increase is counterbalanced by the stronger input of this trace gas into the stratosphere causing a stronger energy reflection by the stratospheric sulfur aerosol into space (Brühl et al., 2012). These data are very preliminary but may trigger a discussion on COS uptake acclimation to foster measurements with modern analytical instruments.

  20. Gain scaling for multirate filter banks

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    Eliminating two trivial degrees of freedom corresponding to the lowpass DC response and the highpass Nyquist response in a two-channel multirate filter bank seems simple enough. Nonetheless, the ISO/IEC JPEG 2000 image coding standard manages to make this mundane task look totally mysterious. We reveal the true meaning behind JPEG 2000's arcane specifications for filter bank normalization and point out how the seemingly trivial matter of gain scaling leads to highly nontrivial issues concerning uniqueness of lifting factorizations.

  1. High gain feedback and telerobotic tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koditschek, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    Asymptotically stable linear time invariant systems are capable of tracking arbitrary reference signals with a bounded error proportional to the magnitude of the reference signal (and its derivatives). It is shown that a similar property holds for a general class of nonlinear dynamical systems which includes all robots. As in the linear case, the error bound may be made arbitrarily small by increasing the magnitude of the feedback gains which stabilize the system.

  2. Mispredicting the Hedonic Benefits of Segregated Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morewedge, Carey K.; Gilbert, Daniel T.; Keysar, Boaz; Berkovits, Michael J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    The hedonic benefit of a gain (e.g., receiving $100) may be increased by segregating it into smaller units that are distributed over time (e.g., receiving $50 on each of 2 days). However, if these units are too small (e.g., receiving 1 cent on each of 10,000 days), they may fall beneath the person's hedonic limen and have no hedonic benefit at…

  3. Optical antenna gain. II - Receiving antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J. J.; Klein, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    Expressions are developed for the gain of a centrally obscured, circular optical antenna used as the collecting and focusing optics in a laser receiver, involving losses due to (1) incoming light blockage by central obscuration, (2) energy spillover at the detector, and (3) the effect of local oscillator distribution in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. Numerical results are presented for direct detection and for three types of local oscillator distribution (uniform, Gaussian, and matched).

  4. The Comstar D/3 gain degradation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, T. C.; Hodge, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    The results of gain degradation measurements using the Comstar D/3 19.04 GHz beacon are reported. This experiment utilized 0.6 and 5 m aperture antennas aligned along the same propagation path to examine propagation effects which are related to the antenna aperture size. Sample data for clear air, scintillation in clear air, and precipitation fading are presented. Distributions of the received signal levels and variances for both antennas are also presented.

  5. Loss/gain-induced ultrathin antireflection coatings.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Li, Sucheng; Hou, Bo; Lai, Yun

    2016-06-28

    Tradional antireflection coatings composed of dielectric layers usually require the thickness to be larger than quarter wavelength. Here, we demonstrate that materials with permittivity or permeability dominated by imaginary parts, i.e. lossy or gain media, can realize non-resonant antireflection coatings in deep sub-wavelength scale. Interestingly, while the reflected waves are eliminated as in traditional dielectric antireflection coatings, the transmitted waves can be enhanced or reduced, depending on whether gain or lossy media are applied, respectively. We provide a unified theory for the design of such ultrathin antireflection coatings, showing that under different polarizations and incident angles, different types of ultrathin coatings should be applied. Especially, under transverse magnetic polarization, the requirement shows a switch between gain and lossy media at Brewster angle. As a proof of principle, by using conductive films as a special type of lossy antireflection coatings, we experimentally demonstrate the suppression of Fabry-Pérot resonances in a broad frequency range for microwaves. This valuable functionality can be applied to remove undesired resonant effects, such as the frequency-dependent side lobes induced by resonances in dielectric coverings of antennas. Our work provides a guide for the design of ultrathin antireflection coatings as well as their applications in broadband reflectionless devices.

  6. Loss/gain-induced ultrathin antireflection coatings

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Li, Sucheng; Hou, Bo; Lai, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Tradional antireflection coatings composed of dielectric layers usually require the thickness to be larger than quarter wavelength. Here, we demonstrate that materials with permittivity or permeability dominated by imaginary parts, i.e. lossy or gain media, can realize non-resonant antireflection coatings in deep sub-wavelength scale. Interestingly, while the reflected waves are eliminated as in traditional dielectric antireflection coatings, the transmitted waves can be enhanced or reduced, depending on whether gain or lossy media are applied, respectively. We provide a unified theory for the design of such ultrathin antireflection coatings, showing that under different polarizations and incident angles, different types of ultrathin coatings should be applied. Especially, under transverse magnetic polarization, the requirement shows a switch between gain and lossy media at Brewster angle. As a proof of principle, by using conductive films as a special type of lossy antireflection coatings, we experimentally demonstrate the suppression of Fabry-Pérot resonances in a broad frequency range for microwaves. This valuable functionality can be applied to remove undesired resonant effects, such as the frequency-dependent side lobes induced by resonances in dielectric coverings of antennas. Our work provides a guide for the design of ultrathin antireflection coatings as well as their applications in broadband reflectionless devices. PMID:27349750

  7. Optical antenna gain. 2: receiving antennas.

    PubMed

    Degnan, J J; Klein, B J

    1974-10-01

    Expressions are derived for the gain of a centrally obscured, circular optical antenna when used as the collecting and focusing optics in a laser receiver which include losses due to (1) blockage of the incoming light by the central obscuration, (2) the spillover of energy at the detector, and (3) the effect of local oscillator distribution in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. Numerical results are presented for direct detection and for three types of local oscillator distributions (uniform, Gaussian, and matched) in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. The results are presented in several graphs that allow the rapid evaluation of receiver gain for an arbitrary set of telescope and detector parameters. It is found that, for uniform illumination by the LO, the optimum SNR is obtained when the detector radius is approximately 0.74 times the Airy disk radius. The use of an optimized Gaussian (spot size = 0.46 times the Airy disk radius) improves the receiver gain by less than 1 dB. Theuse results are insensitive to the size of the central obscuration.

  8. Raman gains of ADP and KDP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Wang, Bo; Xu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Zheng-Ping; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Li-Song; Liu, Bao-An; Chai, Xiang-Xu

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the Raman gain coefficients of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are measured. By using a pump source of a 30-ps, 532-nm laser, the gain coefficients of ADP and KDP are 1.22 cm/GW, and 0.91 cm/GW, respectively. While for a 20-ps, 355-nm pump laser, the gain coefficients of these two crystals are similar, which are 1.95 cm/GW for ADP and 1.86 for KDP. The present results indicate that for ultra-violet frequency conversion, the problem of stimulated Raman scattering for ADP crystal will not be more serious than that for KDP crystal. Considering other advantages such the larger nonlinear optical coefficient, higher laser damage threshold, and lower noncritical phase-matching temperature, it can be anticipated that ADP will be a powerful competitor to KDP in large aperture, high energy third-harmonic generation or fourth-harmonic generation applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51323002 and 51402173), the Independent Innovation Foundation of Shandong University, China (Grant Nos. IIFSDU and 2012JC016), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, China (Grant No. NCET-10-0552), the Fund from the Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. 2014BB07), and the Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholar of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. JQ201218).

  9. Optical antenna gain. III - The effect of secondary element support struts on transmitter gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of a secondary-element spider support structure on optical antenna transmitter gain is analyzed. An expression describing the influence of the struts on the axial gain, in both the near and far fields, is derived as a function of the number of struts and their width. It is found that, for typical systems, the struts degrade the on-axis gain by less than 0.4 dB, and the first side-lobe level is not increased significantly. Contour plots have also been included to show the symmetry of the far-field distributions for three- and four-support members.

  10. Optical antenna gain. 3: The effect of secondary element support struts on transmitter gain.

    PubMed

    Klein, B J; Degnan, J J

    1976-04-01

    The effect of a secondary element spider support structure on optical antenna transmitter gain is analyzed. An expression describing the influence of the struts on the axial gain, in both the near and far fields, is derived as a function of the number of struts and their width. It is found that, for typical systems, the struts degrade the on-axis gain by less than 0.4 dB, and the first side-lobe level is not increased significantly. Contour plots have also been included to show the symmetry of the far-field distributions for three and four support members.

  11. Olanzapine depot exposure in male rats: Dose-dependent lipogenic effects without concomitant weight gain.

    PubMed

    Fernø, J; Ersland, K M; Duus, I H; González-García, I; Fossan, K O; Berge, R K; Steen, V M; Skrede, S

    2015-06-01

    Treatment with second-generation antipsychotic agents such as olanzapine frequently results in metabolic adverse effects, e.g. hyperphagia, weight gain and dyslipidaemia in patients of both genders. The molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic adverse effects are still largely unknown, and studies in rodents represent an important approach in their exploration. However, the validity of the rodent model is hampered by the fact that antipsychotics induce weight gain in female, but not male, rats. When administered orally, the short half-life of olanzapine in rats prevents stable plasma concentrations of the drug. We recently showed that a single intramuscular injection of long-acting olanzapine formulation yields clinically relevant plasma concentrations accompanied by several dysmetabolic features in the female rat. In the current study, we show that depot injections of 100-250 mg/kg olanzapine yielded clinically relevant plasma olanzapine concentrations also in male rats. In spite of transient hyperphagia, however, olanzapine resulted in weight loss rather than weight gain. The resultant negative feed efficiency was accompanied by a slight elevation of thermogenesis markers in brown adipose tissue for the highest olanzapine dose, but the olanzapine-related reduction in weight gain remains to be explained. In spite of the absence of weight gain, an olanzapine dose of 200mg/kg or above induced significantly elevated plasma cholesterol levels and pronounced activation of lipogenic gene expression in the liver. These results confirm that olanzapine stimulates lipogenic effects, independent of weight gain, and raise the possibility that endocrine factors may influence gender specificity of metabolic effects of antipsychotics in the rat.

  12. Interventions to reduce weight gain in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, Guy; Cohn, Tony; Remington, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Background Weight gain is common for people with schizophrenia and this has serious implications for health and well being. Objectives To determine the effects of both pharmacological (excluding medication switching) and non pharmacological strategies for reducing or preventing weight gain in people with schizophrenia. Search methods We searched key databases and the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s trials register (April 2006), reference sections within relevant papers, hand searched key journals, and contacted the first author of each relevant study and other experts to collect further information. Selection criteria We included all clinical randomised controlled trials comparing any pharmacological or non pharmacological intervention for weight gain (diet and exercise counselling) with standard care or other treatments for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data from studies. As weight is a continuous outcome measurement, weighted mean differences (WMD) of the change from baseline were calculated. The primary outcome measure was weight loss. Main results Twenty-three randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. Five trials assessed a cognitive/behavioural intervention and eighteen assessed a pharmacological adjunct. In terms of prevention, two cognitive/behavioural trials showed significant treatment effect (mean weight change) at end of treatment (n=104, 2 RCTs, WMD −3.38 kg CI −4.2 to −2.0). Pharmacological adjunct treatments were significant with a modest prevention of weight gain (n=274, 6 RCTs, WMD − 1.16 kg CI −1.9 to −0.4). In terms of treatments for weight loss, we found significantly greater weight reduction in the cognitive behavioural intervention group (n=129, 3 RCTs, WMD −1.69 kg CI −2.8 to −0.6) compared with standard care. Authors’ conclusions Modest weight loss can be achieved with selective

  13. Effects of Gain Changes on RPM Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lousteau, Angela L; York, Robbie Lynn; Livesay, Jake

    2012-03-01

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA's) Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) is to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system. The goal of this mission is to reduce the probability of these materials being fashioned into a weapon of mass destruction or radiological dispersal device that could be used against the United States or its international partners. This goal is achieved primarily through the installation and operation of radiation detection equipment at border crossings, airports, seaports, and other strategic locations around the world. In order to effectively detect the movement of radioactive material, the response of these radiation detectors to various materials in various configurations must be well characterized. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated two aspects of Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) settings, based on a preliminary investigation done by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL): source-to-detector distance effect on amplifier gain and optimized discriminator settings. This report discusses this investigation. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the ORNL testing. First, for increased distance between the source and the detector, thus illuminating the entire detector rather than just the center of the detector (as is done during detector alignments), an increase in gain may provide a 5-15% increase in sensitivity (Fig. 4). However, increasing the gain without adjusting the discriminator settings is not recommended as this makes the monitor more sensitive to electronic noise and temperature-induced fluctuations. Furthermore, if the discriminators are adjusted in relation to the increase in gain, thus appropriately discriminating against electronic noise, the sensitivity

  14. [Surgical dilemmas. Sinus floor elevation].

    PubMed

    ten Bruggenkate, C M; Schulten, E A J M; Zijderveld, S A

    2008-12-01

    Limited alveolar bone height prevents the placement of dental implants. Sinus floor elevation is an internal augmentation of the maxillary sinus that allows implants to be placed. The principle of this surgical procedure is the preparation of a 'top hinge door', that is raised together with the Schneiderian membrane in the cranial direction. The space which created under this lid is filled with a bone transplant. Autogenous bone is the standard transplant material, despite the fact that a second surgery site is necessary. Under certain circumstances bone substitutes can be used, with a longer healing phase. If sufficient alveolar bone height is available to secure implant stability, simultaneous implantation and sinus floor elevation are possible. Considering the significant anatomical variation in the region of the maxillary sinus, a sound knowledge of the anatomy is of great importance.

  15. Science on a space elevator

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.; Jorgensen, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe in-situ science stations mounted on a science-dedicated space elevator tether. The concept presented here involves a carbon nanotube ribbon that is constructed by an existing space elevator and then science sensors are stationed along the ribbon at differing altitudes. The finished ribbon can be moved across the earth to the position at which its scientific measurements are to be taken. The ability to station scientific, in-situ instrumentation at different altitudes for round-the-clock observations is a unique capability of the SE. The environments that the science packages sense range from the troposphere out beyond the magnetopause of the magnetosphere on the solar side of the earth. Therefore, the very end of the SE can sense the solar wind. The measurements at various points along its length include temperature, pressure, density, sampling, chemical analyses, wind speed, turbulence, free oxygen, electromagnetic radiation, cosmic rays, energetic particles and plasmas in the earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind. There exist some altitudes that are difficult to access with aircraft or balloons or rockets and so remain relatively unexplored. The space elevator solves these problems and opens these regions up to in-situ measurements. Without the need for propulsion, the SE provides a more benign and pristine environment for atmospheric measurements than available with powered aircraft. Moreover, replacing and upgrading instrumentation is expected to be very cost effective with the SE. Moving and stationing the science SE affords the opportunity to sense multiple regions of the atmosphere. The SE's geosynchronous, orbital motion through the magnetosphere, albeit nominally with Earth's magnetic field, will trace a plane through that region

  16. Counterbalancing Student Debt with "Asset Empowerment" and Economic Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William; Chan, Monnica; Poore, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Education provides one of the best opportunities for American children to build the capacity to climb up the economic ladder. It has even been called the "great equalizer" in American society. In today's tightened labor market, providing equal access to postsecondary education is more critical than ever. The Georgetown Center on…

  17. Theory of noise in high-gain surface plasmon-polariton amplifiers incorporating dipolar gain media.

    PubMed

    De Leon, Israel; Berini, Pierre

    2011-10-10

    A theoretical analysis of noise in high-gain surface plasmon-polariton amplifiers incorporating dipolar gain media is presented. An expression for the noise figure is obtained in terms of the spontaneous emission rate into the amplified surface plasmon-polariton taking into account the different energy decay channels experienced by dipoles in close proximity to the metallic surface. Two amplifier structures are examined: a single-interface between a metal and a gain medium and a thin metal film bounded by identical gain media on both sides. A realistic configuration is considered where the surface plasmon-polariton undergoing amplification has a Gaussian field profile in the plane of the metal and paraxial propagation along the amplifier's length. The noise figure of these plasmonic amplifiers is studied considering three prototypical gain media with different permittivities. It is shown that the noise figure exhibits a strong dependance on the real part of the permittivities of the metal and gain medium, and that its minimum value is 4/π(∼3.53 dB). The origin of this minimum value is discussed. It is also shown that amplifier configurations supporting strongly confined surface plasmon-polaritons suffer from a large noise figure, which follows from an enhanced spontaneous emission rate due to the Purcell effect.

  18. Gain results for low voltage FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, A.; Stuart, R.A.; Al-Shamma`a, A.

    1995-12-31

    We have designed and constructed a low voltage (130 kV) FEL system capable of operating in the microwave frequency range for which the electron beam current is cw (rather than pulsed) in time at a level of {approximately} 12 mA. The gain of this system has been measured as a function of the electron beam accelerating voltage and current level, and the input microwave frequency (8-10 GHz). The results are compared with the predictions of a simple theoretical model.

  19. Semiconductor radiation detector with internal gain

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan; Patt, Bradley E.; Vilkelis, Gintas

    2003-04-01

    An avalanche drift photodetector (ADP) incorporates extremely low capacitance of a silicon drift photodetector (SDP) and internal gain that mitigates the surface leakage current noise of an avalanche photodetector (APD). The ADP can be coupled with scintillators such as CsI(Tl), NaI(Tl), LSO or others to form large volume scintillation type gamma ray detectors for gamma ray spectroscopy, photon counting, gamma ray counting, etc. Arrays of the ADPs can be used to replace the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) used in conjunction with scintillation crystals in conventional gamma cameras for nuclear medical imaging.

  20. Neuronal Plasticity: Increasing the Gain in Pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Clifford J.; Salter, Michael W.

    2000-06-01

    We describe those sensations that are unpleasant, intense, or distressing as painful. Pain is not homogeneous, however, and comprises three categories: physiological, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain. Multiple mechanisms contribute, each of which is subject to or an expression of neural plasticity-the capacity of neurons to change their function, chemical profile, or structure. Here, we develop a conceptual framework for the contribution of plasticity in primary sensory and dorsal horn neurons to the pathogenesis of pain, identifying distinct forms of plasticity, which we term activation, modulation, and modification, that by increasing gain, elicit pain hypersensitivity.

  1. Gravity aided inertial navigation system (GAINS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jircitano, Albert; Dosch, Daniel E.

    The paper describes a new autonomous covert INS uniquely suited to underwater applications. Unlike the conventional INS, schuler and siderial errors are bounded without external navigation aids or active instrumentation of ground speed. As a result, the system exhibits excellent long-term navigation performance while maintaining the inherent covertness of the INS system. A conventional INS is integrated with a gravity gradiometer capable of measuring gravity field components independently of platform accelerations. This new integration scheme takes advantage of navigation system velocity error observability. Parametric performance results are presented for GAINS, varying gyro, gravimeter, gradiometer, depth sensor quality, and gravity field activity.

  2. Boreal feather mosses secrete chemical signals to gain nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Bay, Guillaume; Nahar, Nurun; Oubre, Matthieu; Whitehouse, Martin J; Wardle, David A; Zackrisson, Olle; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Rasmussen, Ulla

    2013-10-01

    The mechanistic basis of feather moss-cyanobacteria associations, a main driver of nitrogen (N) input into boreal forests, remains unknown. Here, we studied colonization by Nostoc sp. on two feather mosses that form these associations (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens) and two acrocarpous mosses that do not (Dicranum polysetum and Polytrichum commune). We also determined how N availability and moss reproductive stage affects colonization, and measured N transfer from cyanobacteria to mosses. The ability of mosses to induce differentiation of cyanobacterial hormogonia, and of hormogonia to then colonize mosses and re-establish a functional symbiosis was determined through microcosm experiments, microscopy and acetylene reduction assays. Nitrogen transfer between cyanobacteria and Pleurozium schreberi was monitored by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). All mosses induced hormogonia differentiation but only feather mosses were subsequently colonized. Colonization on Pleurozium schreberi was enhanced during the moss reproductive phase but impaired by elevated N. Transfer of N from cyanobacteria to their host moss was observed. Our results reveal that feather mosses likely secrete species-specific chemo-attractants when N-limited, which guide cyanobacteria towards them and from which they gain N. We conclude that this signalling is regulated by N demands of mosses, and serves as a control of N input into boreal forests.

  3. Development of the Exercise Motives and Gains Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strömmer, Sofia T.; Ingledew, David K.; Markland, David

    2015-01-01

    There are existing measures of exercise motives (what people want from exercise), but corresponding measures of gains (what people get) are needed, because motives and gains could influence each other and together influence other variables. An exercise motives and gains inventory (EMGI) was developed by creating gains scales to complement existing…

  4. IQ Gains in Argentina between 1964 and 1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, James R.; Rossi-Case, Lilia

    2012-01-01

    The literature on IQ gains in Latin America is sparse. We estimate gains on Raven's Progressive Matrices in the city of La Plata (Argentina) between 1964 and 1998. The gains are robust at the top of the curve as well as at the bottom. Therefore, they are contrary to the hypothesis that nutrition played a major role in recent Argentine IQ gains.…

  5. Microbes on mountainsides: Contrasting elevational patterns of bacterial and plant diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Jessica A.; Lamanna, Christine; Morlon, Hélène; Kerkhoff, Andrew J.; Enquist, Brian J.; Green, Jessica L.

    2008-01-01

    The study of elevational diversity gradients dates back to the foundation of biogeography. Although elevational patterns of plant and animal diversity have been studied for centuries, such patterns have not been reported for microorganisms and remain poorly understood. Here, in an effort to assess the generality of elevational diversity patterns, we examined soil bacterial and plant diversity along an elevation gradient. To gain insight into the forces that structure these patterns, we adopted a multifaceted approach to incorporate information about the structure, diversity, and spatial turnover of montane communities in a phylogenetic context. We found that observed patterns of plant and bacterial diversity were fundamentally different. While bacterial taxon richness and phylogenetic diversity decreased monotonically from the lowest to highest elevations, plants followed a unimodal pattern, with a peak in richness and phylogenetic diversity at mid-elevations. At all elevations bacterial communities had a tendency to be phylogenetically clustered, containing closely related taxa. In contrast, plant communities did not exhibit a uniform phylogenetic structure across the gradient: they became more overdispersed with increasing elevation, containing distantly related taxa. Finally, a metric of phylogenetic beta-diversity showed that bacterial lineages were not randomly distributed, but rather exhibited significant spatial structure across the gradient, whereas plant lineages did not exhibit a significant phylogenetic signal. Quantifying the influence of sample scale in intertaxonomic comparisons remains a challenge. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that the forces structuring microorganism and macroorganism communities along elevational gradients differ. PMID:18695215

  6. Gain control in the sonar of odontocetes.

    PubMed

    Ya Supin, Alexander; Nachtigall, Paul E

    2013-06-01

    The sonar of odontocetes processes echo-signals within a wide range of echo levels. The level of echoes varies widely by tens of decibels depending on the level of the emitted sonar pulse, the target strength, the distance to the target, and the sound absorption by the water media. The auditory system of odontocetes must be capable of effective perception, analysis, and discrimination of echo-signals within all this variability. The sonar of odontocetes has several mechanisms to compensate for the echo-level variation (gain control). To date, several mechanisms of the biosonar gain control have been revealed in odontocetes: (1) adjustment of emitted sonar pulse levels (the longer the distance to the target, the higher the level of the emitted pulse), (2) short-term variation of hearing sensitivity based on forward masking of the echo by the preceding self-heard emitted pulse and subsequent release from the masking, and (3) active long-term control of hearing sensitivity. Recent investigations with the use of the auditory evoked-potential technique have demonstrated that these mechanisms effectively minimize the variation of the response to the echo when either the emitted sonar pulse level, or the target distance, or both vary within a wide range. A short review of these data is presented herein.

  7. Brain Gain am Beispiel Österreich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschbacher, Christine; Gejguš, Mirko; Sablik, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    BrainGain is a common trend within the last ten years in Europe and all-over the world. Managers, key players and scientists are allowed to choose wherever they want to work in the world. As there is a lack of qualified individuals for companies and universities, BrainGain has become a necessity, and mostly - the higher educated individuals are moving away according to a better offer elsewhere in the world. Therefore, a lot of expats are moving around with their families. Many times, the lack of integration at the current place, country or city, is the critical success factor for staying or leaving. Furthermore, if the family does not feel happy in the current location, then the manager or scientist will move away or return home and the investment will be lost. Moreover, many students have received a good education in a state university, however afterwards they have not secured a satisfactory job in the country where they have studied, therefore they are moving away to utilise their know-how. Measures to retain the know-how include a common placement and a welcome-culture in the country, and also exchanges on an international level.

  8. Hybrid optical antenna with high directivity gain.

    PubMed

    Bonakdar, Alireza; Mohseni, Hooman

    2013-08-01

    Coupling of a far-field optical mode to electronic states of a quantum absorber or emitter is a crucial process in many applications, including infrared sensors, single molecule spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. In particular, achieving high quantum efficiency for a system with a deep subwavelength quantum absorber/emitter has remained desirable. In this Letter, a hybrid optical antenna based on coupling of a photonic nanojet to a metallo-dielectric antenna is proposed, which allows such efficient coupling. A quantum efficiency of about 50% is predicted for a semiconductor with volume of ~λ³/170. Despite the weak optical absorption coefficient of 2000 cm(-1) in the long infrared wavelength of ~8 μm, very strong far-field coupling has been achieved, as evidenced by an axial directivity gain of 16 dB, which is only 3 dB below of theoretical limit. Unlike the common phased array antenna, this structure does not require coherent sources to achieve a high directivity. The quantum efficiency and directivity gain are more than an order of magnitude higher than existing metallic, dielectric, or metallo-dielectric optical antenna.

  9. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOEpatents

    Barrett, David M.

    1996-01-01

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit.

  10. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOEpatents

    Barrett, D.M.

    1996-11-05

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit. 5 figs.

  11. Requiem for nutrition as the cause of IQ gains: Raven's gains in Britain 1938-2008.

    PubMed

    Flynn, James R

    2009-03-01

    The hypothesis that enhanced nutrition is mainly responsible for massive IQ gains over time borrows plausibility from the height gains of the 20th century. However, evidence shows that the two trends are largely independent. A detailed analysis of IQ trends on the Raven's Progressive Matrices tests in Britain dramatizes the poverty of the nutrition hypothesis. A multiple factor hypothesis that operates on three levels is offered as an alternative instrument of causal explanation. The Raven's data show that over the 65 years from circa 1942 to the present, taking ages 5-15 together, British school children have gained 14 IQ points for a rate of 0.216 points per year. However, since 1979, gains have declined with age and between the ages of 12-13 and 14-15, small gains turn into small losses. This is confirmed by Piagetian data and poses the possibility that the cognitive demands of teen-age subculture have been stagnant over perhaps the last 30 years.

  12. Two-dimensional gain cross-grating based on spatial modulation of active Raman gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Zhou, Feng-Xue; Guo, Hong-Ju; Niu, Yue-Ping; Gong, Shang-Qing

    2016-11-01

    Based on the spatial modulation of active Raman gain, a two-dimensional gain cross-grating is theoretically proposed. As the probe field propagates along the z direction and passes through the intersectant region of the two orthogonal standing-wave fields in the x-y plane, it can be effectively diffracted into the high-order directions, and the zero-order diffraction intensity is amplified at the same time. In comparison with the two-dimensional electromagnetically induced cross-grating based on electromagnetically induced transparency, the two-dimensional gain cross-grating has much higher diffraction intensities in the first-order and the high-order directions. Hence, it is more suitable to be utilized as all-optical switching and routing in optical networking and communication. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274112 and 11347133).

  13. Intelligent elevator management system using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, H. Sai; Karunamurthy, Vignesh; Kumar, R. Barath

    2015-03-01

    In the modern era, the increase in the number of shopping malls and industrial building has led to an exponential increase in the usage of elevator systems. Thus there is an increased need for an effective control system to manage the elevator system. This paper is aimed at introducing an effective method to control the movement of the elevators by considering various cases where in the location of the person is found and the elevators are controlled based on various conditions like Load, proximity etc... This method continuously monitors the weight limit of each elevator while also making use of image processing to determine the number of persons waiting for an elevator in respective floors. Canny edge detection technique is used to find out the number of persons waiting for an elevator. Hence the algorithm takes a lot of cases into account and locates the correct elevator to service the respective persons waiting in different floors.

  14. Multivariate temporal pattern analysis applied to the study of rat behavior in the elevated plus maze: methodological and conceptual highlights.

    PubMed

    Casarrubea, M; Magnusson, M S; Roy, V; Arabo, A; Sorbera, F; Santangelo, A; Faulisi, F; Crescimanno, G

    2014-08-30

    Aim of this article is to illustrate the application of a multivariate approach known as t-pattern analysis in the study of rat behavior in elevated plus maze. By means of this multivariate approach, significant relationships among behavioral events in the course of time can be described. Both quantitative and t-pattern analyses were utilized to analyze data obtained from fifteen male Wistar rats following a trial 1-trial 2 protocol. In trial 2, in comparison with the initial exposure, mean occurrences of behavioral elements performed in protected zones of the maze showed a significant increase counterbalanced by a significant decrease of mean occurrences of behavioral elements in unprotected zones. Multivariate t-pattern analysis, in trial 1, revealed the presence of 134 t-patterns of different composition. In trial 2, the temporal structure of behavior become more simple, being present only 32 different t-patterns. Behavioral strings and stripes (i.e. graphical representation of each t-pattern onset) of all t-patterns were presented both for trial 1 and trial 2 as well. Finally, percent distributions in the three zones of the maze show a clear-cut increase of t-patterns in closed arm and a significant reduction in the remaining zones. Results show that previous experience deeply modifies the temporal structure of rat behavior in the elevated plus maze. In addition, this article, by highlighting several conceptual, methodological and illustrative aspects on the utilization of t-pattern analysis, could represent a useful background to employ such a refined approach in the study of rat behavior in elevated plus maze.

  15. Gaining Public Support for RFI Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, D. G.

    2004-05-01

    Astronomy's access to radio spectrum depends to a great extent on international and national regulatory agencies. Such regulation is inherently a political process, so support for radio astronomy by the general public is vital to success. Educating the public about a subject perceived as so highly technical can be challenging. Success in advancing public understanding of the issue and gaining public support is based on two foundations: publicizing the societal value of astronomy; and explaining the interference problem in non-technical terms that draw upon the well-understood terminology of environmental protection. Effective communication can convince non-scientists that astronomical research is a vital and beneficial activity, and that unpolluted access to the radio spectrum is essential to making the new discoveries that are astronomy's contribution to humanity. Convinced of this, the public will support imposing the expense of engineering measures designed to protect radio astronomy, just as they support spending money to protect air, water and soil from pollution.

  16. Management of Antipsychotic-Related Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Maayan, Lawrence; Correll, Christoph U.

    2012-01-01

    Despite variations across individuals and agents, antipsychotics are associated with clearly documented weight gain and adverse metabolic effects. Although increased appetite/caloric intake and various receptors, hormones and peptides have been implicated, biological mechanisms contributing to the increase in weight and glucose and lipid abnormalities with antipsychotics are largely unknown. This has hampered the creation of antipsychotics that are free of cardiometabolic effects, even in antipsychotic-naïve/early-phase patients, as well as the development of strategies that can prevent or drastically diminish the adverse cardiometabolic effects. In general, three strategies can reduce the cardiometabolic risk of antipsychotics: 1) switching to a less orexigenenic/metabolically adverse antipsychotic, 2) adjunctive behavioral treatments and 3) adjunctive pharmacologic interventions. However each of these strategies has only been modestly effective. Among different behavioral interventions (N=14, n=746), group and individual treatment, dietary counseling and cognitive-behavioral therapy seem to be similarly effective. Among 15 different pharmacologic strategies (N=35 , n=1,629), only metformin, fenfluramine, sibutramine, topiramate and reboxetine were more effective than placebo, with the most evidence being available for metformin, yet without any head-to-head trials comparing individual pharmacologic interventions. Even in the most successful trials, however, the risk reduction was modest. Weight was not decreased to a pre-treatment level, and despite superiority compared to placebo, weight gain still often occurred, particularly in antipsychotic-naïve patients and when interventions were “preventively” co-initiated with antipsychotics. Future research should focus on combining treatment modalities or agents and on exploring novel mechanism-based interventions. PMID:20586697

  17. The oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussner, H G; Schwartz, I

    1941-01-01

    The two-dimensional problem of the oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator is treated in the manner that the wing is replaced by a plate with bends and stages and the airfoil section by a mean line consisting of one or more straights. The computed formulas and tables permit, on these premises, the prediction of the pressure distribution and of the aerodynamic reactions of oscillating elevators and tabs with any position of elevator hinge in respect to elevator leading edge.

  18. 76 FR 58436 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  19. 75 FR 5925 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  20. 75 FR 43479 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  1. 75 FR 34415 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  2. 76 FR 50446 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY..., FEMA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule that included an erroneous Base Flood Elevation...) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood...

  3. 76 FR 66887 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  4. 75 FR 23642 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for ] the reach described by the downstream and...

  5. 75 FR 78650 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1159] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table... regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the...

  6. 76 FR 59960 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  7. 76 FR 23528 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  8. 75 FR 59192 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  9. 76 FR 19007 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  10. 76 FR 73534 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  11. 76 FR 40670 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  12. 75 FR 5909 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  13. 76 FR 19005 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  14. 75 FR 59184 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  15. 76 FR 62006 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  16. 75 FR 59188 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  17. 76 FR 13569 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY..., FEMA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule that included erroneous Base Flood Elevation... Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in...

  18. 76 FR 43968 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  19. 75 FR 78647 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  20. 76 FR 46701 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  1. 75 FR 31368 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  2. Elevations and Distances in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in elevations and distances with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. The entire document consists of statistical charts depicting the nation's 50 largest cities, extreme and mean elevations, elevations of named summits over 14,000 feet…

  3. 46 CFR 183.540 - Elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Elevators. 183.540 Section 183.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 183.540 Elevators. Each elevator on a vessel must...

  4. 46 CFR 183.540 - Elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevators. 183.540 Section 183.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 183.540 Elevators. Each elevator on a vessel must...

  5. Focusing on Short-Term Achievement Gains Fails to Produce Long-Term Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissmer, David W.; Ober, David R.; Beekman, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The short-term emphasis engendered by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has focused research predominantly on unraveling the complexities and uncertainties in assessing short-term results, rather than developing methods and assessing results over the longer term. In this paper we focus on estimating long-term gains and address questions important to…

  6. [Unexplained, subclinical chronically elevated transaminases].

    PubMed

    Vital Durand, D; Lega, J-C; Fassier, T; Zenone, T; Durieu, I

    2013-08-01

    Unexplained, subclinical chronically elevated transaminases is mainly a marker of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, alcoholism and diabetes, which are very common situations but viral hepatitis and iatrogenic origin must also be considered. Before looking for hepatic or genetic rare diseases, it is worth considering hypertransaminasemia as a clue for muscular disease, particularly in paediatric settings, and creatine phosphokinase is a specific marker. Then, patient history, examination and appropriate biologic requests can permit the identification of less frequent disorders where isolated hypertransaminasemia is possibly the unique marker of the disease for a long while: hemochromatosis, celiac disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson's disease, α1-anti-trypsine deficiency, thyroid dysfunctions, Addison's disease. Liver biopsy should be performed only in patients with aspartate aminotransferases upper the normal range or alanine aminotransferases higher than twice the normal range after 6 months delay with dietetic corrections.

  7. Hurricane Katrina sediment slowed elevation loss in subsiding brackish marshes of the Mississippi River delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.; Cherry, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Although hurricanes can damage or destroy coastal wetlands, they may play a beneficial role in reinvigorating marshes by delivering sediments that raise soil elevations and stimulate organic matter production. Hurricane Katrina altered elevation dynamics of two subsiding brackish marshes in the Mississippi River deltaic plain by adding 3 to 8 cm of sediment to the soil surface in August 2005. Soil elevations at both sites subsequently declined due to continued subsidence, but net elevation gain was still positive at both Pearl River (+1.7 cm) and Big Branch (+0.7 cm) marshes two years after the hurricane. At Big Branch where storm sediments had higher organic matter and water contents, post-storm elevation loss was more rapid due to initial compaction of the storm layer in combination with root-zone collapse. In contrast, elevation loss was slower at Pearl River where the storm deposit (high sand content) did not compact and the root zone did not collapse. Vegetation at both sites fully recovered within one year, and accumulation of root matter at Big Branch increased 10-fold from 2005 to 2006, suggesting that the hurricane stimulated belowground productivity. Results of this study imply that hurricane sediment may benefit subsiding marshes by slowing elevation loss. However, long-term effects of hurricane sediment on elevation dynamics will depend not only on the amount of sediment deposited, but on sediment texture and resistance to compaction as well as on changes in organic matter accumulation in the years following the hurricane.

  8. Analysis of Gain-Switching Characteristics Including Strong Gain Saturation Effects in Low-Dimensional Semiconductor Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Yoshita, Masahiro; Ito, Takashi; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Kamide, Kenji; Ogawa, Tetsuo

    2012-09-01

    The effects of gain nonlinearities on gain-switched short-pulse-generation characteristics are analyzed via rate equations assuming a nonlinear-gain model including a gain saturation parameter gs to quantitatively describe the strong gain-saturation nonlinearity in low-dimensional semiconductor lasers at high carrier densities. It was found that the minimum pulse width and the delay time are mainly determined by gs rather than a differential gain coefficient g0 and a gain compression factor ɛ. By tracing the temporal evolution of carrier density, photon density, and material gain during gain switching, distinctly different effects of gs, ɛ, and cavity lifetime τp on pulse generation were clarified.

  9. Studies on pressure-gain combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsutomi, Yu

    Various aspects of the pressure-gain combustion engine are investigated analytically and experimentally in the current study. A lumped parameter model is developed to characterize the operation of a valveless pulse detonation engine. The model identified the function of flame quenching process through gas dynamic process. By adjusting fuel manifold pressure and geometries, the duration of the air buffer can be effectively varied. The parametric study with the lumped parameter model has shown that engine frequency of up to approximately 15 Hz is attainable. However, requirements for upstream air pressure increases significantly with higher engine frequency. The higher pressure requirement indicates pressure loss in the system and lower overall engine performance. The loss of performance due to the pressure loss is a critical issue for the integrated pressure-gain combustors. Two types of transitional methods are examined using entropy-based models. An accumulator based transition has obvious loss due to sudden area expansion, but it can be minimized by utilizing the gas dynamics in the combustion tube. An ejector type transition has potential to achieve performance beyond the limit specified by a single flow path Humphrey cycle. The performance of an ejector was discussed in terms of apparent entropy and mixed flow entropy. Through an ideal ejector, the apparent part of entropy increases due to the reduction in flow unsteadiness, but entropy of the mixed flow remains constant. The method is applied to a CFD simulation with a simple manifold for qualitative evaluation. The operation of the wave rotor constant volume combustion rig is experimentally examined. The rig has shown versatility of operation for wide range of conditions. Large pressure rise in the rotor channel and in a section of the exhaust duct are observed even with relatively large leakage gaps on the rotor. The simplified analysis indicated that inconsistent combustion is likely due to insufficient

  10. Antenna Gain Enhancement and Beamshaping using a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbitt, Christopher

    Dielectric and metamaterial lenses have been designed for gain enhancement and beam shaping. The motivation for this work came from a commercially available slotted waveguide antenna with a dielectric lens that shapes the beam and enhances the gain only in the azimuth plane. When two of these antennas, each with a dielectric lens, are stacked as an array to form the sum and difference patterns the elevation plane gain is low and the beam width too wide to be acceptable for radar applications. The objective of the present work is to design a diffractive optical element (DOE) lens for gain enhancement gain and beam shaping. As compared to other available lenses it is much thinner, lighter and easily machined. The DOE lens is made from rexolite which has a dielectric constant of 2.53. The DOE lens is composed of a series of zones which focus the light at a certain focal length. The phase is the same everywhere on each zone at the focal point. The phase difference between neighboring zones is 2pi, resulting in a constructive interference at the focus. These zones are able to focus the radiation from an antenna in order to enhance the gain and shape the beam. The design parameters include the lens diameter, number of zones, the center zone thickness for a particular frequency and refractive index of the dielectric material. A comprehensive study has been performed in CST Microwave Studio to illustrate the properties of the DOE lens. The focusing property for image formation is verified by a plane wave excitation. Lenses have been designed and tested at different frequencies and with varying design parameters. Gain enhancement and beam shaping are illustrated by modeling the DOE lens in CST and placing it in front of different antennas. This work presents lenses for 10GHz and 40GHz horn antennas, a 3GHz slotted waveguide antenna array, and a 10GHz microstrip patch arrays. Beam shaping and focusing is clearly illustrated for each type of antenna. It is seen that the size

  11. 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model specification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arundel, Samantha T.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Phillips, Lori A.; Roche, Brittany L.; Constance, Eric W.

    2015-10-21

    In January 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center began producing the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model data product. This new product was developed to provide high resolution bare-earth digital elevation models from light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data and other elevation data collected over the conterminous United States (lower 48 States), Hawaii, and potentially Alaska and the U.S. territories. The 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model consists of hydroflattened, topographic bare-earth raster digital elevation models, with a 1-meter x 1-meter cell size, and is available in 10,000-meter x 10,000-meter square blocks with a 6-meter overlap. This report details the specifications required for the production of the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model.

  12. Muscle cell depolarization induces a gain in surface GLUT4 via reduced endocytosis independently of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Wijesekara, Nadeeja; Tung, Amanda; Thong, Farah; Klip, Amira

    2006-06-01

    Contracting skeletal muscle increases glucose uptake to sustain energy demand. This is achieved through a gain in GLUT4 at the membrane, but the traffic mechanisms and regulatory signals involved are unknown. Muscle contraction is elicited by membrane depolarization followed by a rise in cytosolic Ca2+ and actomyosin activation, drawing on ATP stores. It is unknown whether one or more of these events triggers the rise in surface GLUT4. Here, we investigate the effect of membrane depolarization on GLUT4 cycling using GLUT4myc-expressing L6 myotubes devoid of sarcomeres and thus unable to contract. K+-induced membrane depolarization elevated surface GLUT4myc, and this effect was additive to that of insulin, was not prevented by inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or actin polymerization, and did not involve Akt activation. Instead, depolarization elevated cytosolic Ca2+, and the surface GLUT4myc elevation was prevented by dantrolene (an inhibitor of Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum) and by extracellular Ca2+ chelation. Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMKII) was not phosphorylated after 10 min of K+ depolarization, and the CaMK inhibitor KN62 did not prevent the gain in surface GLUT4myc. Interestingly, although 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was phosphorylated upon depolarization, lowering AMPKalpha via siRNA did not alter the surface GLUT4myc gain. Conversely, the latter response was abolished by the PKC inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I and calphostin C. Unlike insulin, K+ depolarization caused only a small increase in GLUT4myc exocytosis and a major reduction in its endocytosis. We propose that K+ depolarization reduces GLUT4 internalization through signals and mechanisms distinct from those engaged by insulin. Such a pathway(s) is largely independent of PI3K, Akt, AMPK, and CaMKII but may involve PKC.

  13. Effects of internal gain assumptions in building energy calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C.; Perkins, R.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of direct solar gains in buildings can be affected by operating profiles, such as schedules for internal gains, thermostat controls, and ventilation rates. Building energy analysis methods use various assumptions about these profiles. The effects of typical internal gain assumptions in energy calculations are described. Heating and cooling loads from simulations using the DOE 2.1 computer code are compared for various internal-gain inputs: typical hourly profiles, constant average profiles, and zero gain profiles. Prototype single-family-detached and multi-family-attached residential units are studied with various levels of insulation and infiltration. Small detached commercial buildings and attached zones in large commercial buildings are studied with various levels of internal gains. The results of this study indicate that calculations of annual heating and cooling loads are sensitive to internal gains, but in most cases are relatively insensitive to hourly variations in internal gains.

  14. Effects of internal gain assumptions in building energy calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, C.; Perkins, R.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of direct solar gains in buildings can be affected by operating profiles, such as schedules for internal gains, thermostat controls, and ventilation rates. Building energy analysis methods use various assumptions about these profiles. The effects of typical internal gain assumptions in energy calculations are described. Heating and cooling loads from simulations using the DOE 2.1 computer code are compared for various internal gain inputs: typical hourly profiles, constant average profiles, and zero gain profiles. Prototype single-family-detached and multifamily-attached residential units are studied with various levels of insulation and infiltration. Small detached commercial buildings and attached zones in large commercial buildings are studied with various levels of internal gains. The results indicate that calculations of annual heating and cooling loads are sensitive to internal gains, but in most cases are relatively insensitive to hourly variations in internal gains.

  15. Effects of internal gain assumptions in building energy calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, C.; Perkins, R.

    The utilization of direct solar gains in buildings can be affected by operating profiles, such as schedules for internal gains, thermostat controls, and ventilation rates. Building energy analysis methods use various assumptions about these profiles. The effects of typical internal gain assumptions in energy calculations. Heating and cooling loads from simulations using the Department of Energy 2.1 computer code are compared for various internal-gain inputs: typical hourly profiles, constant average profiles, and zero gain profiles. Prototype single-family-detached and multi-family-attached residential units are studied with various levels of insulation and infiltration. Small detached commercial buildings and attached zones in large commercial buildings are studied with various levels of internal gains. The results indicate that calculations of annual heating and cooling loads are sensitive to internal gains, but in most cases are relatively insensitive to hourly variations in internal gains.

  16. Permanency of Gains for Children's Problem Solving Processes and Subabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundsteen, Sara W.; Wilson, John A. R.

    1979-01-01

    Results of an investigation of the permanency of gains in problem solving, listening, and abstract thinking among fifth graders are reported. Findings indicate that the experimental group with listening training shows greatest gains. (MH)

  17. Robust Gain-Scheduled Fault Tolerant Control for a Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Gregory, Irene

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an application of robust gain-scheduled control concepts using a linear parameter-varying (LPV) control synthesis method to design fault tolerant controllers for a civil transport aircraft. To apply the robust LPV control synthesis method, the nonlinear dynamics must be represented by an LPV model, which is developed using the function substitution method over the entire flight envelope. The developed LPV model associated with the aerodynamic coefficient uncertainties represents nonlinear dynamics including those outside the equilibrium manifold. Passive and active fault tolerant controllers (FTC) are designed for the longitudinal dynamics of the Boeing 747-100/200 aircraft in the presence of elevator failure. Both FTC laws are evaluated in the full nonlinear aircraft simulation in the presence of the elevator fault and the results are compared to show pros and cons of each control law.

  18. Proprioceptive feedback determines visuomotor gain in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bartussek, Jan; Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory integration is a prerequisite for effective locomotor control in most animals. Especially, the impressive aerial performance of insects relies on rapid and precise integration of multiple sensory modalities that provide feedback on different time scales. In flies, continuous visual signalling from the compound eyes is fused with phasic proprioceptive feedback to ensure precise neural activation of wing steering muscles (WSM) within narrow temporal phase bands of the stroke cycle. This phase-locked activation relies on mechanoreceptors distributed over wings and gyroscopic halteres. Here we investigate visual steering performance of tethered flying fruit flies with reduced haltere and wing feedback signalling. Using a flight simulator, we evaluated visual object fixation behaviour, optomotor altitude control and saccadic escape reflexes. The behavioural assays show an antagonistic effect of wing and haltere signalling on visuomotor gain during flight. Compared with controls, suppression of haltere feedback attenuates while suppression of wing feedback enhances the animal’s wing steering range. Our results suggest that the generation of motor commands owing to visual perception is dynamically controlled by proprioception. We outline a potential physiological mechanism based on the biomechanical properties of WSM and sensory integration processes at the level of motoneurons. Collectively, the findings contribute to our general understanding how moving animals integrate sensory information with dynamically changing temporal structure. PMID:26909184

  19. GD SDR Automatic Gain Control Characterization Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2013-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) will provide experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The GD SDR platform and initial waveform were characterized on the ground before launch and the data will be compared to the data that will be collected during on-orbit operations. A desired function of the SDR is to estimate the received signal to noise ratio (SNR), which would enable experimenters to better determine on-orbit link conditions. The GD SDR does not have an SNR estimator, but it does have an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC). The AGCs can be used to estimate the SDR input power which can be converted into a SNR. Tests were conducted to characterize the AGC response to changes in SDR input power and temperature. This purpose of this paper is to describe the tests that were conducted, discuss the results showi ng how the AGCs relate to the SDR input power, and provide recommendations for AGC testing and characterization.

  20. GD SDR Automatic Gain Control Characterization Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2013-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) will provide experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The GD SDR platform and initial waveform were characterized on the ground before launch and the data will be compared to the data that will be collected during on-orbit operations. A desired function of the SDR is to estimate the received signal to noise ratio (SNR), which would enable experimenters to better determine on-orbit link conditions. The GD SDR does not have an SNR estimator, but it does have an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC). The AGCs can be used to estimate the SDR input power which can be converted into a SNR. Tests were conducted to characterize the AGC response to changes in SDR input power and temperature. This purpose of this paper is to describe the tests that were conducted, discuss the results showing how the AGCs relate to the SDR input power, and provide recommendations for AGC testing and characterization.

  1. Depression Risk Predicts Blunted Neural Responses to Gains and Enhanced Responses to Losses in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Luking, Katherine R.; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Maternal major depressive disorder (MDD) increases risk for MDD and predicts reduced reward responding in adolescent offspring. However, it is unclear whether alterations in neural response to reward can be detected in school-aged children at high risk prior to the typical increase in reward response observed in adolescence. Method To assess relationships between neural response to gain/loss feedback, MDD risk, and child depressive symptoms, forty-seven psychiatrically healthy 7–10-year-old children (16 at high-risk given maternal MDD) completed questionnaires and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) card-guessing game where candy was gained and lost. Results High-risk children showed both blunted response to gain and greater deactivation/reduced activation to loss within the ventral striatum and anterior insula. Within the striatum, risk-group differences in response to loss feedback were significantly larger than for gain, with greater deactivation to loss predicting risk-group status above and beyond blunted gain activation. Anhedonia was related to reduced deactivation to loss (i.e. reduced sensitivity to loss), while negative mood was related to enhanced deactivation to loss (i.e. enhanced sensitivity to loss) in the ventral striatum. Conclusion High-risk children showed blunted ventral striatal activation to gain feedback, but ventral striatal deactivation to loss was a stronger predictor of MDD risk. Further, relationships between response to loss and elevated depressive symptoms within the ventral striatum and cingulate differed depending on the type of depressive symptom. Together these results highlight the potentially important role of response to loss of reward in childhood risk for depression. PMID:27015724

  2. Assessment of learning gains in a flipped biochemistry classroom.

    PubMed

    Ojennus, Deanna Dahlke

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom has become an increasingly popular pedagogical approach to teaching and learning. In this study, learning gains were assessed in a flipped biochemistry course and compared to gains in a traditional lecture. Although measured learning gains were not significantly different between the two courses, student perception of learning gains did differ and indicates a higher level of satisfaction with the flipped lecture format.

  3. DSN 70-meter antenna X- and S-band calibration. Part 1: Gain measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, P. H.; Slobin, S. D.

    1989-01-01

    Aperture efficiency measurements made during 1988 on the three 70-m stations (DSS-14, DSS-43, and DSS-63) at X-band (8420 MHz) and S-band (2295 MHz) have been analyzed and reduced to yield best estimates of antenna gain versus elevation. The analysis has been carried out by fitting the gain data to a theoretical expression based on the Ruze formula. Newly derived flux density and source-size correction factors for the natural radio calibration sources used in the measurements have been used in the reduction of the data. Peak gains measured at the three stations were 74.18 (plus or minus 0.10) dBi at X-band, and 63.34 (plus or minus 0.03) dBi at S-band, with corresponding peak aperture efficiencies of 0.687 (plus or minus 0.015) and 0.762 (plus or minus 0.006), respectively. The values quoted assume no atmosphere is present, and the estimated absolute accuracy of the gain measurements is approximately plus or minus 0.2 dB at X-band and plus or minus 0.1 dB at S-band (1-sigma values).

  4. Biological determinants linking infant weight gain and child obesity: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Young, Bridget E; Johnson, Susan L; Krebs, Nancy F

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions. Excessive weight gain in infancy is associated with persistence of elevated weight status and later obesity. In this review, we make the case that weight gain in the first 6 mo is especially predictive of later obesity risk due to the metabolic programming that can occur early postpartum. The current state of knowledge regarding the biological determinants of excess infant weight gain is reviewed, with particular focus on infant feeding choice. Potential mechanisms by which different feeding approaches may program the metabolic profile of the infant, causing the link between early weight gain and later obesity are proposed. These mechanisms are likely highly complex and involve synergistic interactions between endocrine effects and factors that alter the inflammatory and oxidative stress status of the infant. Gaps in current knowledge are highlighted. These include a lack of data describing 1) what type of infant body fat distribution may impart risk and 2) how maternal metabolic dysfunction (obesity and/or diabetes) may affect milk composition and exert downstream effects on infant metabolism. Improved understanding and management of these early postnatal determinants of childhood obesity may have great impact on reducing its prevalence.

  5. Antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance and postprandial hormonal dysregulation independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Teff, Karen L; Rickels, Michael R; Grudziak, Joanna; Fuller, Carissa; Nguyen, Huong-Lan; Rickels, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Atypical antipsychotic (AAP) medications that have revolutionized the treatment of mental illness have become stigmatized by metabolic side effects, including obesity and diabetes. It remains controversial whether the defects are treatment induced or disease related. Although the mechanisms underlying these metabolic defects are not understood, it is assumed that the initiating pathophysiology is weight gain, secondary to centrally mediated increases in appetite. To determine if the AAPs have detrimental metabolic effects independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease, we administered olanzapine, aripiprazole, or placebo for 9 days to healthy subjects (n = 10, each group) under controlled in-patient conditions while maintaining activity levels. Prior to and after the interventions, we conducted a meal challenge and a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal. We found that olanzapine, an AAP highly associated with weight gain, causes significant elevations in postprandial insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and glucagon coincident with insulin resistance compared with placebo. Aripiprazole, an AAP considered metabolically sparing, induces insulin resistance but has no effect on postprandial hormones. Importantly, the metabolic changes occur in the absence of weight gain, increases in food intake and hunger, or psychiatric disease, suggesting that AAPs exert direct effects on tissues independent of mechanisms regulating eating behavior.

  6. Antipsychotic-Induced Insulin Resistance and Postprandial Hormonal Dysregulation Independent of Weight Gain or Psychiatric Disease

    PubMed Central

    Teff, Karen L.; Rickels, Michael R.; Grudziak, Joanna; Fuller, Carissa; Nguyen, Huong-Lan; Rickels, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic (AAP) medications that have revolutionized the treatment of mental illness have become stigmatized by metabolic side effects, including obesity and diabetes. It remains controversial whether the defects are treatment induced or disease related. Although the mechanisms underlying these metabolic defects are not understood, it is assumed that the initiating pathophysiology is weight gain, secondary to centrally mediated increases in appetite. To determine if the AAPs have detrimental metabolic effects independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease, we administered olanzapine, aripiprazole, or placebo for 9 days to healthy subjects (n = 10, each group) under controlled in-patient conditions while maintaining activity levels. Prior to and after the interventions, we conducted a meal challenge and a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal. We found that olanzapine, an AAP highly associated with weight gain, causes significant elevations in postprandial insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and glucagon coincident with insulin resistance compared with placebo. Aripiprazole, an AAP considered metabolically sparing, induces insulin resistance but has no effect on postprandial hormones. Importantly, the metabolic changes occur in the absence of weight gain, increases in food intake and hunger, or psychiatric disease, suggesting that AAPs exert direct effects on tissues independent of mechanisms regulating eating behavior. PMID:23835329

  7. Design gain characteristic of dual-pump fiber Raman amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xiaoming; Peng, Jiangde; Zhou, BingKun

    2001-10-01

    To design gain characteristic of dual-pump fiber Raman amplifier, an effect optimal model is investigated under different conditions, such as maximal gain and minimal gain ripper. Impact of pumps interaction, pump wavelength selection, signals interaction and signal saturation are discussed.

  8. Assessment of Learning Gains in a Flipped Biochemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojennus, Deanna Dahlke

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom has become an increasingly popular pedagogical approach to teaching and learning. In this study, learning gains were assessed in a flipped biochemistry course and compared to gains in a traditional lecture. Although measured learning gains were not significantly different between the two courses, student perception of…

  9. Who gains? Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of BMI gain upon college entry in women.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Lance O

    2014-11-01

    The present investigation examined P3 event-related electroencephalographic potentials and a short and selected list of addiction-related candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 84 female students, aged 18-20 yrs. The students were assigned to groups defined by the presence versus absence of a positive body mass index (BMI) change from the pre-college physical exam to the current day. Analyses revealed significantly greater P3 latencies and reduced P3 amplitudes during a response inhibition task among students who exhibited a BMI gain. BMI gain was also significantly associated with a ANKK1 SNP previously implicated in substance dependence risk. In logistic regression analyses, P3 latencies at the frontal electrode and this ANKK1 genotype correctly classified 71.1% of the students into the BMI groups. The present findings suggest that heritable indicators of impaired response inhibition can differentiate students who may be on a path toward an overweight or obese body mass.

  10. The space station tethered elevator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

  11. Muscle mass gain after resistance training is inversely correlated with trunk adiposity gain in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Orsatti, Fábio L; Nahas, Eliana A P; Orsatti, Cláudio L; de Oliveira, Erick P; Nahas-Neto, Jorge; da Mota, Gustavo R; Burini, Roberto C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in trunk adiposity (TA) over 9 months of resistance training (RT) and associate these changes with the hypertrophy of muscle mass (MM) in postmenopausal women (PW). The investigation used a sample that consisted of 22 PW (44-69 years old). The group was subjected to RT (60-80% of 1 repetition maximum) for the total body 3 d · wk(-1). Body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), follicle-stimulating hormone, E2 (Immulite system), and interleukin-6 (IL-6; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were assessed at the beginning and end of the experiment. After RT, only women who acquired up to 5% TA gained MM, whereas women who acquired >5% TA exhibited increased IL-6 and no MM gain (p < 0.05). The ΔMM was negatively associated with time of menopause (r = -0.45, p < 0.05) and positively associated with baseline IGF-1 (r = 0.47, p < 0.05). Only ΔLE (leg extension) was negatively associated with baseline IL-6 (p < 0.05). Trunk adiposity growth (ΔTF, kilograms) was positively correlated with changes in IL-6 (r = 0.68, p < 0.05). The MM gain was negatively correlated with ΔTF (r = -0.63, p < 0.05) and changes in IL-6 (r = -0.73, p < 0.05). After adjusting all of the confounding variables, only baseline IGF-1 (positively) and changes in IL-6 (negatively) influenced MM, and only the increase in TA influenced IL-6. Our study suggests that increased levels of TA during RT increase IL-6 concentrations, which is a significant negative predictor of MM gain in PW.

  12. Are videogame training gains specific or general?

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames (AVGs). Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor) is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the AVGs because the AVGs and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-AVGs to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in AVGs, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking (MOT), rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision). In non-AVGs, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g., Tetris). In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning). Thus, the “common demands” hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in AVGs, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements. PMID:24782722

  13. Are videogame training gains specific or general?

    PubMed

    Oei, Adam C; Patterson, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames (AVGs). Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor) is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the AVGs because the AVGs and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-AVGs to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in AVGs, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking (MOT), rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision). In non-AVGs, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g., Tetris). In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning). Thus, the "common demands" hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in AVGs, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements.

  14. Space elevator systems level analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  15. Defense of a space elevator

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low-cost access is to be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a defensive system of the SE. The primary scenario adopted for this analysis is the SE based on a floating platform in the ocean along the equator. A second possible scenario is the SE stationed on land (island or continent) on or near the equator. The SE will capture the imaginations of people around the world. It will become a symbol of power, capability, wealth and prestige for the country that builds it. As such, it will become a prime terrorist target. Moreover, the tremendous economic leverage afforded by the SE might motivate rogue nations to plot its destruction. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the requirements for defense of the SE. For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that the SE is to be deployed by the United States or one of its companies, and the resources of the US are available for its defense.

  16. Phase-preserved optical elevator

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

    2013-01-01

    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, (2010)]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping. PMID:23546046

  17. Loss restlessness and gain calmness: durable effects of losses and gains on choice switching.

    PubMed

    Yechiam, Eldad; Zahavi, Gal; Arditi, Eli

    2015-08-01

    While the traditional conceptualization of the effect of losses focuses on bias in the subjective weight of losses compared with respective gains, some accounts suggest more global task-related effects of losses. Based on a recent attentional theory, we predicted a positive after-effect of losses on choice switching in later tasks. In two experimental studies, we found increased choice switching rates in tasks with losses compared to tasks with no losses. Additionally, this heightened shifting behavior was maintained in subsequent tasks that do not include losses, a phenomenon we refer to as "loss restlessness." Conversely, gains were found to have an opposite "calming" effect on choice switching. Surprisingly, the loss restlessness phenomenon was observed following an all-losses payoff regime but not after a task with symmetric mixed gains and losses. This suggests that the unresolved mental account following an all-losses regime increases search behavior. Potential implications to macro level phenomena, such as the leverage effect, are discussed.

  18. Fundamental limitations to gain enhancement in periodic media and waveguides.

    PubMed

    Grgić, Jure; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Mørk, Jesper; Mortensen, N Asger

    2012-05-04

    A common strategy to compensate for losses in optical nanostructures is to add gain material in the system. By exploiting slow-light effects it is expected that the gain may be enhanced beyond its bulk value. Here we show that this route cannot be followed uncritically: inclusion of gain inevitably modifies the underlying dispersion law, and thereby may degrade the slow-light properties underlying the device operation and the anticipated gain enhancement itself. This degradation is generic; we demonstrate it for three different systems of current interest (coupled-resonator optical waveguides, Bragg stacks, and photonic crystal waveguides). Nevertheless, a small amount of added gain may be beneficial.

  19. Luminance-Chrominance Gain Equalizer Based on Bernstein Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chutchavong, Vanvisa; Sangaroon, Ornlarp; Benjangkaprasert, Chawalit; Janchitrapongvej, Kanok

    This paper presents a linear luminance-chrominance gain equalizer for correcting the linear chrominance gain distortion in the color TV transmission system. The proposed gain equalizer was implemented based on Bernstein polynomials. As it is known that the Bernstein filter has flexible parameters to adjust the circuit performance for the best results. In addition, the modulated 20T sine-squared pulse test signal is generated for testing the performance of the proposed gain equalizer, which can be measured all three types of the linear chrominance distortions. As the results, the proposed gain equalizer is also proved to be efficient in equalizing both the low gain and the high gain chrominance distortions without degrading its phase characteristics.

  20. ST Segment Elevation with Normal Coronaries

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Pooja; Sharma, Ashwini; Paul, Timir

    2016-01-01

    Noncardiac causes should be kept in the differential while evaluating ST elevation on EKG. Rarely abdominal pathologies like acute pancreatitis can present with ST elevation in the inferior leads. Once acute coronary syndrome is ruled out by emergent cardiac catheterization alternative diagnosis should be sorted. Abdominal pathologies, like acute pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis, can present with ST elevation in the inferior leads. Treating the underlying condition would result in resolution of these EKG changes. PMID:27403165

  1. On a lunar space elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, E. H.

    We consider a space elevator system for lunar surface access that consists of a space station in circumlunar orbit, a cable reaching down to some meters above the surface and a magnetically levitated vehicle driven by a linear motor. It accelerates the load to be lifted to the speed of the cable end. Loads to be delivered are either put on the vehicle and slowed down by it or they are slowed down by a sand braking technique in a mare terrain. It is technically possible to operate this transport system nearly without fuel supply from Earth. We calculate various steel cable dimensions for a static stress maximum of 1/5th of the tensile strength. The process of takeover is considered in detail. Five ways of eliminating the adverse large cable elongation due to the load are described. The touchdown process and behaviour of the cable after disconnection are analysed. The positive difference between the speed of the load at takeover and cable end can excite a large inplane swing motion. We propose to damp it by a dissipative pulley that hangs in a loop of wire leading to the ends of two beams mounted on the space station tangentially to the orbit, the pulley's core being connected with the load. Roll librations are damped by energy losses in the elastic beams; damping can be reinforced by viscous beam elements and/or controlled out-of-plane motions of the beams. We argue in favour of the possibility of fast deployment. The problems of vehicle vibrations and agglutination at sand braking blades are underlined and their combined experimental investigation is suggested.

  2. Modeling Root Exudation, Priming and Protection in Soil Carbon Responses to Elevated CO2 from Ecosystem to Global Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulman, B. N.; Phillips, R.; Shevliakova, E.; Oishi, A. C.; Pacala, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to changing environmental conditions represents a critical uncertainty in coupled carbon cycle-climate models. Much of this uncertainty arises from our limited understanding of the extent to which plants induce SOC losses (through accelerated decomposition or "priming") or promote SOC gains (via stabilization through physico-chemical protection). We developed a new SOC model, "Carbon, Organisms, Rhizosphere and Protection in the Soil Environment" (CORPSE), to examine the net effect of priming and protection in response to rising atmospheric CO2, and conducted simulations of rhizosphere priming effects at both ecosystem and global scales. At the ecosystem scale, the model successfully captured and explained disparate SOC responses at the Duke and Oak Ridge free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. We show that stabilization of "new" carbon in protected SOC pools may equal or exceed microbial priming of "old" SOC in ecosystems with readily decomposable litter (e.g. Oak Ridge). In contrast, carbon losses owing to priming dominate the net SOC response in ecosystems with more resistant litters (e.g. Duke). For global simulations, the model was fully integrated into the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model LM3. Globally, priming effects driven by enhanced root exudation and expansion of the rhizosphere reduced SOC storage in the majority of terrestrial areas, partially counterbalancing SOC gains from the enhanced ecosystem productivity driven by CO2 fertilization. Collectively, our results suggest that SOC stocks globally depend not only on temperature and moisture, but also on vegetation responses to environmental changes, and that protected C may provide an important constraint on priming effects.

  3. National requirements for improved elevation data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Gregory I.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Jason, Allyson L.; Maune, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of surveys, structured interviews, and workshops conducted to identify key national requirements for improved elevation data for the United States and its territories, including coastlines. Organizations also identified and reported the expected economic benefits that would be realized if their requirements for improved elevation were met (appendixes 1–3). This report describes the data collection methodology and summarizes the findings. Participating organizations included 34 Federal agencies, 50 States and two territories, and a sampling of local governments, tribes, and nongovernmental orgnizations. The nongovernmental organizations included The Nature Conservancy and a sampling of private sector businesses. These data were collected in 2010-2011 as part of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA), a study to identify program alternatives for better meeting the Nation’s elevation data needs. NEEA tasks included the collection of national elevation requirements; analysis of the benefits and costs of meeting these requirements; assessment of emerging elevation technologies, lifecycle data management needs, and costs for managing and distributing a national-scale dataset and derived products; and candidate national elevation program alternatives that balance costs and benefits in meeting the Nation’s elevation requirements. The NEEA was sponsored by the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP), a government coordination body with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as managing partner that includes the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), among the more than a dozen agencies and organizations. The term enhanced elevation data as used in this report refers broadly to three-dimensional measurements of land or

  4. Training Children in Pedestrian Safety: Distinguishing Gains in Knowledge from Gains in Safe Behavior

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian injuries contribute greatly to child morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that training within virtual pedestrian environments may improve children’s street crossing skills, but may not convey knowledge about safety in street environments. We hypothesized that (a) children will gain pedestrian safety knowledge via videos/software/internet websites, but not when trained by virtual pedestrian environment or other strategies; (b) pedestrian safety knowledge will be associated with safe pedestrian behavior both before and after training; and (c) increases in knowledge will be associated with increases in safe behavior among children trained individually at streetside locations, but not those trained by means of other strategies. We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating pedestrian safety training. We randomly assigned 240 children ages 7–8 to one of four training conditions: videos/software/internet, virtual reality (VR), individualized streetside instruction, or a no-contact control. Both virtual and field simulations of street crossing at 2-lane bi-directional mid-block locations assessed pedestrian behavior at baseline, post-training, and 6-month follow-up. Pedestrian knowledge was assessed orally on all three occasions. Children trained by videos/software/internet, and those trained individually, showed increased knowledge following training relative to children in the other groups (ps < 0.01). Correlations between pedestrian safety knowledge and pedestrian behavior were mostly non-significant. Correlations between change in knowledge and change in behavior from pre- to post-intervention also were non-significant, both for the full sample and within conditions. Children trained using videos/software/internet gained knowledge but did not change their behavior. Children trained individually gained in both knowledge and safer behavior. Children trained virtually gained in safer behavior but not knowledge. If VR is used

  5. Gain-of-Function Research: Ethical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Gain-of-function (GOF) research involves experimentation that aims or is expected to (and/or, perhaps, actually does) increase the transmissibility and/or virulence of pathogens. Such research, when conducted by responsible scientists, usually aims to improve understanding of disease causing agents, their interaction with human hosts, and/or their potential to cause pandemics. The ultimate objective of such research is to better inform public health and preparedness efforts and/or development of medical countermeasures. Despite these important potential benefits, GOF research (GOFR) can pose risks regarding biosecurity and biosafety. In 2014 the administration of US President Barack Obama called for a "pause" on funding (and relevant research with existing US Government funding) of GOF experiments involving influenza, SARS, and MERS viruses in particular. With announcement of this pause, the US Government launched a "deliberative process" regarding risks and benefits of GOFR to inform future funding decisions-and the US National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) was tasked with making recommendations to the US Government on this matter. As part of this deliberative process the National Institutes of Health commissioned this Ethical Analysis White Paper, requesting that it provide (1) review and summary of ethical literature on GOFR, (2) identification and analysis of existing ethical and decision-making frameworks relevant to (i) the evaluation of risks and benefits of GOFR, (ii) decision-making about the conduct of GOF studies, and (iii) the development of US policy regarding GOFR (especially with respect to funding of GOFR), and (3) development of an ethical and decision-making framework that may be considered by NSABB when analyzing information provided by GOFR risk-benefit assessment, and when crafting its final recommendations (especially regarding policy decisions about funding of GOFR in particular). The ethical and decision-making framework

  6. Childhood maltreatment and the risk of pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain.

    PubMed

    Diesel, Jill C; Bodnar, Lisa M; Day, Nancy L; Larkby, Cynthia A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate whether maternal history of childhood maltreatment was associated with pre-pregnancy obesity or excessive gestational weight gain. Pregnant women (n = 472) reported pre-pregnancy weight and height and gestational weight gain and were followed up to 16 years post-partum when they reported maltreatment on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). CTQ score ranged from no maltreatment (25) to severe maltreatment (125). Prenatal mental health modified the association between CTQ score and maternal weight (P < 0.15), and thus stratified models are presented. After adjusting for race, prenatal tobacco, marijuana and alcohol use, a one standard deviation (1 SD) increase in CTQ score was associated with a 45% increase in the risk of pre-pregnancy obesity among the 141 women with elevated anxiety (≥75th percentile on the State Trait Anxiety Inventory) [relative risk, RR (95% confidence interval, CI): 1.45 (1.12, 1.88)], but was not associated among less anxious (<75th percentile) women [RR (95% CI): 1.10 (0.81, 1.51)]. Risk of excessive gestational weight gain was higher [adjusted RR (95% CI): 1.21 (1.07, 1.37)] with every 1 SD increase in CTQ score for anxious women. No association was observed for less anxious women [adjusted RR (95% CI): 0.89 (0.78, 1.02)]. Prenatal depression similarly modified the association between maltreatment and weight gain. Factors such as psychological status and traumatic experiences in early childhood may contribute to pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain.

  7. Evaluation of Experimental Data from the Gains Balloon GPS Surface Reflection Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganoe, George G.; Johnson, Thomas A.; Somero, John Ryan

    2002-01-01

    The GPS Surface Reflection Instrument was integrated as an experiment on the GAINS (Global Airocean IN-situ System) 48-hour balloon mission flown in June 2002. The data collected by similar instruments in the past has been used to measure sea state from which ocean surface winds can be accurately estimated. The GPS signal has also been shown to be reflected from wetland areas and even from subsurface moisture. The current version of the instrument has been redesigned to be more compact, use less power, and withstand a greater variation in environmental conditions than previous versions. This instrument has also incorporated a new data collection mode to track 5 direct satellites (providing a continuous navigation solution) and multiplex the remaining 7 channels to track the reflected signal of the satellite tracked in channel 0. The new software mode has been shown to increase the signal to noise ratio of the collected data and enhance the science return of the instrument. During the GAINS balloon flight over the Northwest US, the instrument measured surface reflections as they were detected over the balloon's ground track. Since ground surface elevations in this area vary widely from the WGS-84 ellipsoid altitude, the instrument software has been modified to incorporate a surface altitude correction based on USGS 30-minute Digital Elevation Models. Information presented will include facts about instrument design goals, data collection methodologies and algorithms, and will focus on results of the science data analyses for the mission.

  8. Typical Mid Tower Elevation & Section, Typical Mid Tower Footing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Mid Tower Elevation & Section, Typical Mid Tower Footing Section & Elevation, South Tower Section & Elevation, and North Tower Sections & Elevation - Cape Arago Light Station Footbridge, Gregory Point, Charleston, Coos County, OR

  9. 24. 'HANGAR SHEDS ELEVATIONS DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. 'HANGAR SHEDS - ELEVATIONS - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Partial elevations, and details of sliding doors and ventilator flaps, as built. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/81, revision B, dated April 6, 1943. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. 76 FR 46715 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110...

  11. 77 FR 22551 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...) publishes proposed determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110...

  12. 76 FR 50443 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster...

  13. 76 FR 13570 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42...

  14. 76 FR 43966 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster...

  15. 76 FR 19018 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Docket ID FEMA-2011-0002 Proposed Flood...: Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE... general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach...

  16. 76 FR 46716 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster...

  17. 76 FR 13572 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) publishes proposed determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance...

  18. 77 FR 46994 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...) publishes proposed determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110...

  19. 76 FR 13571 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42...

  20. 77 FR 76998 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... (FEMA) publishes proposed determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance...

  1. 77 FR 67324 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... (FEMA) publishes proposed determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance...

  2. 77 FR 74142 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1100 and FEMA-B-1222] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Management Agency (FEMA) publishes proposed determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP),...

  3. 77 FR 67325 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...) publishes proposed determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110...

  4. 75 FR 5930 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

  5. 76 FR 70386 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... affected elevation ** Elevation in meters (MSL) Effective Modified Montgomery County, Alabama, and Incorporated Areas Audubon Ditch At the upstream side of +185 +184 City of Montgomery. Norman Bridge Road... None +196 City of Montgomery. (backwater effects from Baldwin confluence. Slough). At the...

  6. Insect Population Dynamics in Commercial Grain Elevators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data were collected in 1998-2002 from wheat stored in commercial grain elevators in south-central Kansas. Storage bins at these elevators had concrete walls and were typically 6-9 m in diameter and 30-35 m tall. A vacuum-probe sampler was used to collect ten 3-kg grain samples in the top 12 m of the...

  7. 76 FR 73537 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this proposed rule is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and......

  8. Elevated Ozone Alters Soybean-Virus Interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examine the effects of elevated O3 and elevated CO2, two major components of global change, on the interaction between soybean and Soybean Mosaic Virus (SMV) by measuring molecular, cellular, and physiological processes, in natural field conditions and in controlled environment. In natural field ...

  9. Who Gains? Genetic and Neurophysiological Correlates of BMI Gain Upon College Entry in Women

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Lance O.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation examined P3 event-related electroencephalographic potentials and a short and selected list of addiction-related candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 84 female students, aged 18–20 yrs. The students were assigned to groups defined by the presence versus absence of a positive body mass index (BMI) change from the pre-college physical exam to the current day. Analyses revealed significantly greater P3 latencies and reduced P3 amplitudes during a response inhibition task among students who exhibited a BMI gain. BMI gain was also significantly associated with a ANKK1 SNP previously implicated in substance dependence risk. In logistic regression analyses, P3 latencies at the frontal electrode and this ANKK1 genotype correctly classified 71.1% of the students into the BMI groups. The present findings suggest that heritable indicators of impaired response inhibition can differentiate students who may be on a path toward an overweight or obese body mass. PMID:25049133

  10. Changes in wetland sediment elevation following major storms: implications for estimating trends in relative sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Hurricanes can be important agents of geomorphic change in coastal marshes and mangrove forests. Hurricanes can cause large-scale redistribution of sediments within the coastal environment resulting in sedimentation, erosion, disruption of vegetated substrates, or some combination of these processes in coastal wetlands. It has been proposed that such sediment pulsing events are important at maintaining wetland sediment elevations in sediment-poor settings with high rates of relative sea-level rise, such as the Mississippi River Delta. But do these pulsing events result in a net gain in sediment elevation even when substantial amounts of sediment are deposited? Clearly sediment erosion and scour would result in a loss of elevation. But will a substantial sediment deposit on poorly consolidated sediments always result in a net gain in elevation? If the wetland vegetation is killed by wind, tidal surge, or the introduction of saline water, will there be a collapse of sediment elevation in the absence of root production and ongoing decomposition of root matter? During the past decade several wetlands where my colleagues and I have monitored sedimentation and elevation change have been struck by one to several hurricanes. This paper describes the range of sediment elevation responses to hurricane strikes, the suggested mechanisms driving those responses, the implications for estimating long-term trends in relative sea-level rise, and future research needs for improving our understanding of the role that major storms play in wetland sediment elevation dynamics. For many wetlands the change in sediment elevation was directly proportional to the amount of sediment deposited by the storm. But surprisingly, there was a loss of elevation in some wetlands with substantial sediment deposits. In these wetlands, the impact of the storm was either direct (sedimentation and compaction) or indirect (vegetation death), and the effect on sediment elevation was either permanent or

  11. Serotonin Affects Movement Gain Control in the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Joshua I.; Deng, Linna; Thompson, Christopher K.; Stevenson, Ian H.; Wang, Qining; Hornby, Thomas George; Heckman, Charles J.; Kording, Konrad P.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental challenge for the nervous system is to encode signals spanning many orders of magnitude with neurons of limited bandwidth. To meet this challenge, perceptual systems use gain control. However, whether the motor system uses an analogous mechanism is essentially unknown. Neuromodulators, such as serotonin, are prime candidates for gain control signals during force production. Serotonergic neurons project diffusely to motor pools, and, therefore, force production by one muscle should change the gain of others. Here we present behavioral and pharmaceutical evidence that serotonin modulates the input–output gain of motoneurons in humans. By selectively changing the efficacy of serotonin with drugs, we systematically modulated the amplitude of spinal reflexes. More importantly, force production in different limbs interacts systematically, as predicted by a spinal gain control mechanism. Psychophysics and pharmacology suggest that the motor system adopts gain control mechanisms, and serotonin is a primary driver for their implementation in force production. PMID:25232107

  12. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2014-01-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829

  13. The effects of neural gain on attention and learning

    PubMed Central

    Eldar, Eran; Cohen, Jonathan D.; Niv, Yael

    2013-01-01

    Attention is commonly thought to be manifest through local variations in neural gain. However, what would be the effects of brain-wide changes in gain? Here, we hypothesize that global fluctuations in gain modulate the breadth of attention, and thus, the degree to which processing is focused on aspects of the environment to which one is predisposed to attend. In accordance with this hypothesis, we show that measures of pupil diameter, which are thought to track levels of LC-NE activity and neural gain, are correlated with the degree to which learning is focused on stimulus dimensions that individual human participants are more predisposed to process. In support of our interpretation of this effect in terms of global changes in gain, we further show that the measured pupillary and behavioral variables are strongly correlated with global changes in the strength and clustering of functional connectivity, as brain-wide fluctuations of gain would predict. PMID:23770566

  14. Non-semantic contributions to "semantic" redundancy gain.

    PubMed

    Shepherdson, Peter; Miller, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Recently, two groups of researchers have reported redundancy gains (enhanced performance with multiple, redundant targets) in tasks requiring semantic categorization. Here we report two experiments aimed at determining whether the gains found by one of these groups resulted from some form of semantic coactivation. We asked undergraduate psychology students to complete choice RT tasks requiring the semantic categorization of visually presented words, and compared performance with redundant targets from the same semantic category to performance with redundant targets from different semantic categories. If the redundancy gains resulted from the combination of information at a semantic level, they should have been greater in the former than the latter situation. However, our results showed no significant differences in redundancy gain (for latency and accuracy) between same-category and different-category conditions, despite gains appearing in both conditions. Thus, we suggest that redundancy gain in the semantic categorization task may result entirely from statistical facilitation or combination of information at non-semantic levels.

  15. Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan, 1/2 Floor Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan - Jack's Mill Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  16. Use of a photonic crystal for optical amplifier gain control

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; El-Kady, Ihab

    2006-07-18

    An optical amplifier having a uniform gain profile uses a photonic crystal to tune the density-of-states of a gain medium so as to modify the light emission rate between atomic states. The density-of-states of the gain medium is tuned by selecting the size, shape, dielectric constant, and spacing of a plurality of microcavity defects in the photonic crystal. The optical amplifier is particularly useful for the regeneration of DWDM signals in long optical fibers.

  17. Spatial dynamics, thermalization, and gain clamping in a photon condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeling, Jonathan; Kirton, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We study theoretically the effects of pump-spot size and location on photon condensates. By exploring the inhomogeneous molecular excitation fraction, we make clear the relation between spatial equilibration, gain clamping, and thermalization in a photon condensate. This provides a simple understanding of several recent experimental results. We find that as thermalization breaks down, gain clamping is imperfect, leading to "transverse spatial hole burning" and multimode condensation. This opens the possibility of engineering the gain profile to control the condensate structure.

  18. Insulin sensitivity and regional fat gain in response to overfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, S. B.; Jensen, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Although insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes are associated with upper body fat distribution, it is unknown whether insulin resistance predisposes to upper body fat gain or whether upper body fat gain causes insulin resistance. Our objective was to determine whether insulin sensitivity predicts abdominal (subcutaneous and/or visceral) fat gain in normal weight adults. Twenty-eight (15 men) lean (BMI = 22.1±2.5 kg/m2), healthy adults underwent ~8 weeks of overfeeding to gain ~4 kg fat. Body composition was assessed before and after overfeeding using DXA and abdominal CT to measure total and regional (visceral, abdominal, and lower body subcutaneous) fat gain. We assessed insulin sensitivity with an IV glucose tolerance test and the 24h insulin area-under-the-curve(AUC). We found a wide range of insulin sensitivity and a relatively narrow range of body fat distribution in this normal weight cohort. Participants gained 3.8±1.7 kg of body fat (4.6±2.2 kg body weight). The baseline 24h AUC of insulin concentration was positively correlated with percent body fat (r=0.43, p<0.05). The contribution of leg fat gain to total fat gain ranged from 29–79%, while the contributions of abdominal subcutaneous fat and visceral fat gain to total fat gain ranged from 17–69% and −5–22%, respectively. Baseline insulin sensitivity, whether measured by an IVGTT or the 24h AUC insulin Si, did not predict upper body subcutaneous or visceral fat gain in response to overfeeding. We conclude that reduced insulin sensitivity is not an obligate precursor to upper body fat gain. PMID:21127472

  19. If there is dissipation the particle can gain energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egydio de Carvalho, R.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we summarize two different mechanisms to gain energy from the presence of dissipation in a time-dependent non-linear system. The particles can gain energy, in the average, from two different scenarios: i) for very week dissipation with the creation of an attractor with high velocity, and ii) in the opposite limit, for very strong dissipation, the particles can also gain energy from a boundary crisis. From the thermodynamic viewpoint both results are totally acceptable.

  20. Fluerics 42: Some Commonly Used Laminar Fluidic Gain Blocks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    programmable calculator . Outputs from this program and flows and staged gain. Also available is the net gain and the bandwidth at 90 deg of phase shift. Several examples of this program are given to cover multiple-stage gain blocks. As an example of the utility of the program, a step-by-step tradeoff study is presented for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology fluidic servovalve, for which an attempt is made to maximize bandwidth and minimize leakage

  1. Astronomers Gain Clues About Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-12-01

    An international team of astronomers has looked at something very big -- a distant galaxy -- to study the behavior of things very small -- atoms and molecules -- to gain vital clues about the fundamental nature of our entire Universe. The team used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to test whether the laws of nature have changed over vast spans of cosmic time. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for GBT gallery) "The fundamental constants of physics are expected to remain fixed across space and time; that's why they're called constants! Now, however, new theoretical models for the basic structure of matter indicate that they may change. We're testing these predictions." said Nissim Kanekar, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, New Mexico. So far, the scientists' measurements show no change in the constants. "We've put the most stringent limits yet on some changes in these constants, but that's not the end of the story," said Christopher Carilli, another NRAO astronomer. "This is the exciting frontier where astronomy meets particle physics," Carilli explained. The research can help answer fundamental questions about whether the basic components of matter are tiny particles or tiny vibrating strings, how many dimensions the Universe has, and the nature of "dark energy." The astronomers were looking for changes in two quantities: the ratio of the masses of the electron and the proton, and a number physicists call the fine structure constant, a combination of the electron charge, the speed of light and the Planck constant. These values, considered fundamental physical constants, once were "taken as time independent, with values given once and forever" said German particle physicist Christof Wetterich. However, Wetterich explained, "the viewpoint of modern particle theory has changed in recent years," with ideas such as

  2. Sudden gains in two psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    König, Julia; Karl, Regina; Rosner, Rita; Butollo, Willi

    2014-09-01

    We examined sudden, large, and stable shifts in symptoms from one therapy session to the next in two treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Shifts in a positive direction (sudden gains) have so far been more frequently analyzed than those in a negative direction (sudden losses). We analyzed data from 102 outpatients suffering from PTSD who received either a cognitive-behavioral or a Gestalt-based intervention. Sudden gains, at 22.5%, were more frequent than sudden losses (3.9% of patients). Participants who had experienced sudden gains had lower PTSD scores at posttreatment, but not at the 6-month follow-up. As sudden losses were so rare, they were not analyzed statistically. Sudden gains accounted for 52% of overall treatment gains or 26% of overall change in a positive direction. Among very successful patients, those with sudden gains were overrepresented, but in absolute terms, there were as many patients without sudden gains in this group. There was no connection between sudden gains and type of intervention or depressive symptoms. Sudden gains and sudden losses occurred in our sample of PTSD patients, but in the light of current results, their clinical importance seems to be limited.

  3. Absolute gain measurement by the image method under mismatched condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Baddour, Maurice F.

    1987-01-01

    Purcell's image method for measuring the absolute gain of an antenna is particularly attractive for small test antennas. The method is simple to use and utilizes only one antenna with a reflecting plane to provide an image for the receiving antenna. However, the method provides accurate results only if the antenna is matched to its waveguide. In this paper, a waveguide junction analysis is developed to determine the gain of an antenna under mismatched condition. Absolute gain measurements for two standard gain horn antennas have been carried out. Experimental results agree closely with published data.

  4. Impact of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains: Findings from an Independent Appraisal. Working Paper 2008-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

    2008-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal on the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly-effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

  5. Urinary F2-isoprostanes, obesity, and weight gain in the IRAS cohort.

    PubMed

    Il'yasova, Dora; Wang, Frances; Spasojevic, Ivan; Base, Karel; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Wagenknecht, Lynne E

    2012-09-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased F(2)-isoprostane (F(2)-IsoP) levels cross-sectionally. However, the prospective association may be inverse, based on our earlier finding that elevated urinary F(2)-IsoP levels predict lower risk of diabetes. This earlier finding led us to hypothesize that urinary F(2)-IsoPs reflect the intensity of oxidative metabolism and as such predict lower risk of both diabetes and weight gain. We examined cross-sectional relationships with obesity and prospective relationships with weight gain using the data from 299 participants of the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS), all of whom were free of diabetes at baseline. Four urinary F(2)-IsoPs were assayed in stored baseline urine samples using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: iPF(2α)-III, 2,3-dinor-iPF(2α)-III, iPF(2α)-VI, and 8,12-iso-iPF(2α)-VI (F(2)-IsoP 1-4, respectively). Baseline F(2)-IsoPs were positively associated with baseline measures of obesity; the strongest associations were found with two F(2)-IsoPs: odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for overall and abdominal obesity were 1.74 (1.26-2.40) and 1.63 (1.18-2.24) for F(2)-IsoP2 and 1.47 (1.12-1.94) and 1.64 (1.22-2.20) for F(2)-IsoP4. F(2)-IsoP2 showed the strongest and significant inverse association with weight gain during the 5-year follow-up period: increase in F(2)-IsoP2 equal to 1 s.d. was associated with 0.90 kg lower weight gain (P = 0.02) and the odds ratios for relative (≥5%) and absolute (≥5 kg) weight gain were 0.67 (0.47-0.96) and 0.57 (0.37-0.87), respectively. The other three F(2)-IsoPs were consistently inversely associated with weight gain, although not significantly, suggesting that different F(2)-IsoPs vary in their ability to detect the association with weight gain.

  6. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Fernanda Adame, Maria; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  7. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Adame, Maria Fernanda; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-02-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  8. Modest Visceral Fat Gain Causes Endothelial Dysfunction In Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H.; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Orban, Marek; Gami, Apoor; Davison, Diane; Singh, Prachi; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Huyber, Christine; Votruba, Susanne; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Jensen, Michael D.; Somers, Virend K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine the impact of fat gain and its distribution on endothelial function in lean healthy humans. Background Endothelial dysfunction has been identified as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Whether fat gain impairs endothelial function is unknown. Methods A randomized controlled study to assess the effects of fat gain on endothelial function. We recruited 43 normal weight healthy volunteers (mean age 29 years; 18 women). Subjects were assigned to gain weight (approximately 4 kg) (n=35) or to maintain weight (n=8). Endothelial function (brachial artery flow mediated dilation -FMD) was measured at baseline, after fat gain (8 weeks) and after weight loss (16 weeks) for fat-gainers and at baseline and follow-up (8 weeks) for weight-maintainers. Body composition was measured by DXA and abdominal CT scans. Results After an average weight gain of 4.1 kg, fat-gainers significantly increased their total, visceral and subcutaneous fat. Blood pressure and overnight polysomnography did not change after fat gain or loss. FMD remained unchanged in weight-maintainers. FMD decreased in fat-gainers (9.1 ± 3% vs. 7.8 ± 3.2%, p =0.003), but recovered to baseline when subjects shed the gained weight. There was a significant correlation between the decrease in FMD and the increase in visceral fat gain (rho = −0.42, p=0.004), but not with subcutaneous fat gain (rho = −0.22, p=0.15). Conclusions In normal weight healthy young subjects, modest fat gain results in impaired endothelial function, even in the absence of changes in blood pressure. Endothelial function recovers after weight loss. Increased visceral rather than subcutaneous fat predicts endothelial dysfunction. PMID:20705223

  9. Distribution of lifespan gain from primary prevention intervention

    PubMed Central

    Finegold, Judith A; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Cole, Graham D; Zaman, Saman; Maznyczka, Annette; Zaman, Sameer; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Ye, Siqin; Francis, Darrel P

    2016-01-01

    Objective When advising patients about possible initiation of primary prevention treatment, clinicians currently do not have information on expected impact on lifespan, nor how much this increment differs between individuals. Methods First, UK cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality data were used to calculate the mean lifespan gain from an intervention (such as a statin) that reduces cardiovascular mortality by 30%. Second, a new method was developed to calculate the probability distribution of lifespan gain. Third, we performed a survey in three UK cities on 11 days between May–June 2014 involving 396 participants (mean age 40 years, 55% male) to assess how individuals evaluate potential benefit from primary prevention therapies. Results Among numerous identical patients, the lifespan gain, from an intervention that reduces cardiovascular mortality by 30%, is concentrated within an unpredictable minority. For example, men aged 50 years with national average cardiovascular risk have mean lifespan gain of 7 months. However, 93% of these identical individuals gain no lifespan, while the remaining 7% gain a mean of 99 months. Many survey respondents preferred a chance of large lifespan gain to the equivalent life expectancy gain given as certainty. Indeed, 33% preferred a 2% probability of 10 years to fivefold more gain, expressed as certainty of 1 year. Conclusions People who gain lifespan from preventative therapy gain far more than the average for their risk stratum, even if perfectly defined. This may be important in patient decision-making. Looking beyond mortality reduction alone from preventative therapy, the benefits are likely to be even larger. PMID:27042321

  10. Higher daytime leaf temperatures contribute to lower freeze tolerance under elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Loveys, Beth R; Egerton, John J G; Ball, Marilyn C

    2006-06-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 adversely affects freezing tolerance in many evergreens, but the underlying mechanism(s) have been elusive. We compared effects of elevated CO2 with those of daytime warming on acclimation of snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora) to freezing temperatures under field conditions. Reduction in stomatal conductance g(c) under elevated CO2 was shown to cause leaf temperature to increase by up to 3 degrees C. In this study, this increase in leaf temperature was simulated under ambient CO2 conditions by using a free air temperature increase (FATI) system to warm snow gum leaves during daytime, thereby increasing the diurnal range in temperature without affecting temperature minima. Acclimation to freezing temperatures was assessed using measures of electrolyte leakage and photosynthetic efficiency of leaf discs exposed to different nadir temperatures. Here, we show that both elevated CO2 and daytime warming delayed acclimation to freezing temperatures for 2-3 weeks after which time freeze tolerance of the treated plants in both the FATI and open top chamber (OTC) experiments did not differ from control plants. Our results support the hypothesis that delayed development of freezing tolerance under elevated CO2 is because of higher daytime leaf temperatures under elevated CO2. Thus, potential gains in productivity in response to increasing atmospheric CO2 and prolonging the growing season may be reduced by an increase in freezing stress in frost-prone area.

  11. Carboxyhemoglobin elevation due to hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2007-07-01

    A critically ill man with drug-induced hemolytic anemia and hepatic failure was hospitalized at a private academic medical center in Seattle, Washington. Intravascular hemolysis with associated endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) production resulted in elevation of the patient's carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level to as high as 9.7%. Serial measurements of the patient's COHb level were obtained and compared with other conventional measures of hemolytic activity. With the availability of new non-invasive measurement technology to detect COHb elevations, emergency clinicians are likely to see COHb elevation as a manifestation of hemolytic anemia.

  12. US GeoData digital elevation models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Digital elevation model (DEM) data consist of a sampled array of regularly spaced elevation values referenced horizontally either to a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection or to a geographic coordinate system. The grid cells are spaced at regular intervals along south to north profiles that are ordered from west to east. the U.S> Geological Survey (USGS) produces five primary types of elevation data: 7.5-minute DEM, 30-minute DEM, 1-degree DEM, 7.5-minute Alaska DEM, and 15-minute Alaska DEM.

  13. US GeoData Digital Elevation Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Digital elevation model (DEM) data are arrays of regularly spaced elevation values referenced horizontally either to a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection or to a geographic coordinate system. The grid cells are spaced at regular intervals along south to north profiles that are ordered from west to east. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produces five primary types of elevation data: 7.5-minute DEM, 30-minute DEM, 1-degree DEM, 7.5-minute Alaska DEM, and 15-minute Alaska DEM.

  14. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....910 Section 416.910 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 416.910 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means work that—...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1202-1 - Deduction for capital gains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... asset has been held. Nevertheless, the net short-term capital gain or loss and the net long-term capital... exceeds the net short-term capital loss, 50 percent of the amount of the excess is allowable as a... under section 1202 in the case of an estate or trust, any long-term or short-term capital gains...

  16. Problems with IQ Gains: The Huge Vocabulary Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Despite Kaufman, Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Wechsler subtest Similarities are tests whose gains call for special explanation. The spread of "scientific spectacles" is the key, but its explanatory potential has been exhausted. Three trends force us to look elsewhere: (a) gains on Wechsler subtests such as Picture Arrangement,…

  17. Optimal deployment of attentional gain during fine discriminations.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Miranda; Byers, Anna; Serences, John T

    2012-05-30

    Most models assume that top-down attention enhances the gain of sensory neurons tuned to behaviorally relevant stimuli (on-target gain). However, theoretical work suggests that when targets and distracters are highly similar, attention should enhance the gain of neurons that are tuned away from the target, because these neurons better discriminate neighboring features (off-target gain). While it is established that off-target neurons support difficult fine discriminations, it is unclear if top-down attentional gain can be optimally applied to informative off-target sensory neurons or if gain is always applied to on-target neurons, regardless of task demands. To test the optimality of attentional gain in human visual cortex, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an encoding model to estimate the response profile across a set of hypothetical orientation-selective channels during a difficult discrimination task. The results suggest that top-down attention can adaptively modulate off-target neural populations, but only when the discriminanda are precisely specified in advance. Furthermore, logistic regression revealed that activation levels in off-target orientation channels predicted behavioral accuracy on a trial-by-trial basis. Overall, these data suggest that attention does not only increase the gain of sensory-evoked responses, but may bias population response profiles in an optimal manner that respects both the tuning properties of sensory neurons and the physical characteristics of the stimulus array.

  18. Optimal deployment of attentional gain during fine discriminations

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Miranda; Byers, Anna; Serences, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Most models assume that top-down attention enhances the gain of sensory neurons tuned to behaviorally-relevant stimuli (on-target gain). However, theoretical work suggests that when targets and distracters are highly similar, attention should enhance the gain of neurons that are tuned away from the target, because these neurons better discriminate neighboring features (off-target gain). While it is established that off-target neurons support difficult fine discriminations, it is unclear if top-down attentional gain can be optimally applied to informative off-target sensory neurons or if gain is always applied to on-target neurons, irrespective of task demands. To test the optimality of attentional gain in human visual cortex, we used fMRI and an encoding model to estimate the response profile across a set of hypothetical orientation-selective channels during a difficult discrimination task. The results suggest that top-down attention can adaptively modulate off-target neural populations, but only when the discriminanda are precisely specified in advance. Furthermore, logistic regression revealed that activation levels in off-target orientation channels predicted behavioral accuracy on a trial-by-trial basis. Overall, these data suggest that attention does not always increase the gain of sensory-evoked responses, but instead may bias population response profiles in an optimal manner that respects both the tuning properties of sensory neurons and the physical characteristics of the stimulus array. PMID:22649250

  19. Optimal gains for a single polar orbiting satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banfield, Don; Ingersoll, A. P.; Keppenne, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Gains are the spatial weighting of an observation in its neighborhood versus the local values of a model prediction. They are the key to data assimilation, as they are the direct measure of how the data are used to guide the model. As derived in the broad context of data assimilation by Kalman and in the context of meteorology, for example, by Rutherford, the optimal gains are functions of the prediction error covariances between the observation and analysis points. Kalman introduced a very powerful technique that allows one to calculate these optimal gains at the time of each observation. Unfortunately, this technique is both computationally expensive and often numerically unstable for dynamical systems of the magnitude of meteorological models, and thus is unsuited for use in PMIRR data assimilation. However, the optimal gains as calculated by a Kalman filter do reach a steady state for regular observing patterns like that of a satellite. In this steady state, the gains are constants in time, and thus could conceivably be computed off-line. These steady-state Kalman gains (i.e., Wiener gains) would yield optimal performance without the computational burden of true Kalman filtering. We proposed to use this type of constant-in-time Wiener gain for the assimilation of data from PMIRR and Mars Observer.

  20. A variable-gain output feedback control design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim; Moerder, Daniel D.; Broussard, John R.; Taylor, Deborah B.

    1989-01-01

    A digital control system design technique is developed in which the control system gain matrix varies with the plant operating point parameters. The design technique is obtained by formulating the problem as an optimal stochastic output feedback control law with variable gains. This approach provides a control theory framework within which the operating range of a control law can be significantly extended. Furthermore, the approach avoids the major shortcomings of the conventional gain-scheduling techniques. The optimal variable gain output feedback control problem is solved by embedding the Multi-Configuration Control (MCC) problem, previously solved at ICS. An algorithm to compute the optimal variable gain output feedback control gain matrices is developed. The algorithm is a modified version of the MCC algorithm improved so as to handle the large dimensionality which arises particularly in variable-gain control problems. The design methodology developed is applied to a reconfigurable aircraft control problem. A variable-gain output feedback control problem was formulated to design a flight control law for an AFTI F-16 aircraft which can automatically reconfigure its control strategy to accommodate failures in the horizontal tail control surface. Simulations of the closed-loop reconfigurable system show that the approach produces a control design which can accommodate such failures with relative ease. The technique can be applied to many other problems including sensor failure accommodation, mode switching control laws and super agility.

  1. Sustaining Student Gains from Online On-Demand Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaha, Steven H.; Glassett, Kelly; Copas, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    A multi-State, quasi-experimental study was conducted as a longitudinal, two-year follow-up of participation in an online, on-demand professional development (PD) program. The purpose was to ascertain whether student gains were sustained in a second year of PD participation. Data verified gains in Year 1 versus Pre-PD baseline, with continued…

  2. Validity of Sudden Gains in Acute Phase Treatment of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the validity of sudden gains identified with T. Z. Tang and R. J. DeRubeis's (1999) method in 2 clinical data sets that involved treatment of major depressive disorder (N=227). Sudden gains replicated among self- and clinician reports of depressive symptoms and predicted better psychosocial functioning at the acute phase…

  3. Behavioral Treatment Approaches to Prevent Weight Gain Following Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstead, Olga A.

    Personality and physiological, cognitive, and environmental factors have all been suggested as critical variables in smoking cessation and relapse. Weight gain and the fear of weight gain after smoking cessation may also prevent many smokers from quitting. A sample of 45 adult smokers participated in a study in which three levels of preventive…

  4. Investigating the wavelength dependency of dot gain in color print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namedanian, Mahziar; Gooran, Sasan; Nyström, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    By separating the optical dot gain from the physical dot gain, it is possible to study different behaviors of color inks on different papers. In this study we are investigating the dependency of dot gain and wavelength in color print. Microscopic images have been used to separate optical and physical dot gain from each other. The optical behavior of primary color inks in different absorbing wavelength bands has been studied. It has been illustrated that the light scattering in the paper is wavelength independent, and therefore the Point Spread Function which indicates the probability of light scattering of the paper does not change in visible wavelengths (380 nm -700 nm). We have shown that it is possible to separate two printed color inks on one specific wavelength, due to the filtering behavior of the color inks. By considering the fact that light scattering in the paper is wavelength independent, it was possible to separately analyze the dot gain of each color.

  5. Insulin therapy and type 2 diabetes: management of weight gain.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Samy I

    2009-10-01

    The potential for insulin-related weight gain in patients with type 2 diabetes presents a therapeutic dilemma and frequently leads to delays in the initiation of insulin therapy. It also poses considerable challenges when treatment is intensified. Addressing insulin-related weight gain is highly relevant to the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular consequences in this high-risk population with type 2 diabetes. In addition to lifestyle changes (eg, diet and exercise) and available medical interventions to minimize the risk of weight gain with insulin treatment, familiarity with the weight gain patterns of different insulins may help deal with this problem. The use of basal insulin analogs may offer advantages over conventional human insulin preparations in terms of more physiologic time-action profiles, reduced risk of hypoglycemia, and reduced weight gain.

  6. Slow-light-enhanced gain in active photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Ek, Sara; Lunnemann, Per; Chen, Yaohui; Semenova, Elizaveta; Yvind, Kresten; Mork, Jesper

    2014-09-30

    Passive photonic crystals have been shown to exhibit a multitude of interesting phenomena, including slow-light propagation in line-defect waveguides. It was suggested that by incorporating an active material in the waveguide, slow light could be used to enhance the effective gain of the material, which would have interesting application prospects, for example enabling ultra-compact optical amplifiers for integration in photonic chips. Here we experimentally investigate the gain of a photonic crystal membrane structure with embedded quantum wells. We find that by solely changing the photonic crystal structural parameters, the maximum value of the gain coefficient can be increased compared with a ridge waveguide structure and at the same time the spectral position of the peak gain be controlled. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with theory and show that gain values similar to those realized in state-of-the-art semiconductor optical amplifiers should be attainable in compact photonic integrated amplifiers.

  7. Aircraft nonlinear optimal control using fuzzy gain scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusyirwan, I. F.; Kung, Z. Y.

    2016-10-01

    Fuzzy gain scheduling is a common solution for nonlinear flight control. The highly nonlinear region of flight dynamics is determined throughout the examination of eigenvalues and the irregular pattern of root locus plots that show the nonlinear characteristic. By using the optimal control for command tracking, the pitch rate stability augmented system is constructed and the longitudinal flight control system is established. The outputs of optimal control for 21 linear systems are fed into the fuzzy gain scheduler. This research explores the capability in using both optimal control and fuzzy gain scheduling to improve the efficiency in finding the optimal control gains and to achieve Level 1 flying qualities. The numerical simulation work is carried out to determine the effectiveness and performance of the entire flight control system. The simulation results show that the fuzzy gain scheduling technique is able to perform in real time to find near optimal control law in various flying conditions.

  8. Slow-light-enhanced gain in active photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ek, Sara; Lunnemann, Per; Chen, Yaohui; Semenova, Elizaveta; Yvind, Kresten; Mork, Jesper

    2014-09-01

    Passive photonic crystals have been shown to exhibit a multitude of interesting phenomena, including slow-light propagation in line-defect waveguides. It was suggested that by incorporating an active material in the waveguide, slow light could be used to enhance the effective gain of the material, which would have interesting application prospects, for example enabling ultra-compact optical amplifiers for integration in photonic chips. Here we experimentally investigate the gain of a photonic crystal membrane structure with embedded quantum wells. We find that by solely changing the photonic crystal structural parameters, the maximum value of the gain coefficient can be increased compared with a ridge waveguide structure and at the same time the spectral position of the peak gain be controlled. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with theory and show that gain values similar to those realized in state-of-the-art semiconductor optical amplifiers should be attainable in compact photonic integrated amplifiers.

  9. Adaptive gain and filtering circuit for a sound reproduction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); O'Connell, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Adaptive compressive gain and level dependent spectral shaping circuitry for a hearing aid include a microphone to produce an input signal and a plurality of channels connected to a common circuit output. Each channel has a preset frequency response. Each channel includes a filter with a preset frequency response to receive the input signal and to produce a filtered signal, a channel amplifier to amplify the filtered signal to produce a channel output signal, a threshold register to establish a channel threshold level, and a gain circuit. The gain circuit increases the gain of the channel amplifier when the channel output signal falls below the channel threshold level and decreases the gain of the channel amplifier when the channel output signal rises above the channel threshold level. A transducer produces sound in response to the signal passed by the common circuit output.

  10. Relationship Between Optimal Gain and Coherence Zone in Flight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracio, Bruno Jorge Correia; Pais, Ana Rita Valente; vanPaassen, M. M.; Mulder, Max; Kely, Lon C.; Houck, Jacob A.

    2011-01-01

    In motion simulation the inertial information generated by the motion platform is most of the times different from the visual information in the simulator displays. This occurs due to the physical limits of the motion platform. However, for small motions that are within the physical limits of the motion platform, one-to-one motion, i.e. visual information equal to inertial information, is possible. It has been shown in previous studies that one-to-one motion is often judged as too strong, causing researchers to lower the inertial amplitude. When trying to measure the optimal inertial gain for a visual amplitude, we found a zone of optimal gains instead of a single value. Such result seems related with the coherence zones that have been measured in flight simulation studies. However, the optimal gain results were never directly related with the coherence zones. In this study we investigated whether the optimal gain measurements are the same as the coherence zone measurements. We also try to infer if the results obtained from the two measurements can be used to differentiate between simulators with different configurations. An experiment was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center which used both the Cockpit Motion Facility and the Visual Motion Simulator. The results show that the inertial gains obtained with the optimal gain are different than the ones obtained with the coherence zone measurements. The optimal gain is within the coherence zone.The point of mean optimal gain was lower and further away from the one-to-one line than the point of mean coherence. The zone width obtained for the coherence zone measurements was dependent on the visual amplitude and frequency. For the optimal gain, the zone width remained constant when the visual amplitude and frequency were varied. We found no effect of the simulator configuration in both the coherence zone and optimal gain measurements.

  11. Atmospheric deposition to high-elevation forests

    SciTech Connect

    Lovett, G.M.; Weathers, K.C.; Lindberg, S.E. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1994-06-01

    Three important phenomena characterize atmospheric deposition to high-elevation forests: (1) multiple deposition mechanisms (wet, dry, and cloud deposition), (2) high rates of deposition, and (3) high spatial variability. The high rates of deposition are caused by changes in meteorological conditions with elevation, especially increasing wind speed and cloud immersion frequency. The high spatial variability of deposition is a result of the regulation of cloud and dry deposition rates by microclimatic and canopy structure conditions, which can be extremely heterogeneous in mountain landscapes. Spruce-fir forests are often [open quotes]hot spots[close quotes] of deposition when viewed in a landscape or regional context because of their elevation, exposure, and evergreen canopy. In this talk we will consider atmospheric depositions to high-elevation forests in both the northeastern and southeastern U.S., using field data and geographic information systems to illustrate deposition patterns.

  12. Moral elevation reduces prejudice against gay men.

    PubMed

    Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men.

  13. D-Dimer elevation and adverse outcomes.

    PubMed

    Halaby, Rim; Popma, Christopher J; Cohen, Ander; Chi, Gerald; Zacarkim, Marcelo Rodrigues; Romero, Gonzalo; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Hull, Russell; Hernandez, Adrian; Mentz, Robert; Harrington, Robert; Lip, Gregory; Peacock, Frank; Welker, James; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Daaboul, Yazan; Korjian, Serge; Gibson, C Michael

    2015-01-01

    D-Dimer is a biomarker of fibrin formation and degradation. While a D-dimer within normal limits is used to rule out the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism among patients with a low clinical probability of venous thromboembolism (VTE), the prognostic association of an elevated D-dimer with adverse outcomes has received far less emphasis. An elevated D-dimer is independently associated with an increased risk for incident VTE, recurrent VTE, and mortality. An elevated D-dimer is an independent correlate of increased mortality and subsequent VTE across a broad variety of disease states. Therefore, medically ill subjects in whom the D-dimer is elevated constitute a high risk subgroup in which the prospective evaluation of the efficacy and safety of antithrombotic therapy is warranted.

  14. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  15. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  16. Baseline glucocorticoids are drivers of body mass gain in a diving seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hennin, Holly; Berlin, Alicia; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Life-history trade-offs are influenced by variation in individual state, with individuals in better condition often completing life-history stages with greater success. Although resource accrual significantly impacts key life-history decisions such as the timing of reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving resource accumulation. Baseline corticosterone (CORT, the primary avian glucocorticoid) mediates daily and seasonal energetics, responds to changes in food availability, and has been linked to foraging behavior, making it a strong potential driver of individual variation in resource accrual and deposition. Working with a captive colony of white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca deglandi), we aimed to causally determine whether variation in baseline CORT drives individual body mass gains mediated through fattening rate (plasma triglycerides corrected for body mass). We implanted individuals with each of three treatment pellets to elevate CORT within a baseline range in a randomized order: control, low dose of CORT, high dose of CORT, then blood sampled and recorded body mass over a two-week period to track changes in baseline CORT, body mass, and fattening rates. The high CORT treatment significantly elevated levels of plasma hormone for a short period of time within the biologically relevant, baseline range for this species, but importantly did not inhibit the function of the HPA (hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal) axis. Furthermore, an elevation in baseline CORT resulted in a consistent increase in body mass throughout the trial period compared to controls. This is some of the first empirical evidence demonstrating that elevations of baseline CORT within a biologically relevant range have a causal, direct, and positive influence on changes in body mass.

  17. The Expanding Burden of Elevated Blood Pressure in China: Evidence From Jiangxi Province, 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Junxiu; Liu, Shiwei; Zhou, Haiming; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Liu, Jie; Li, Yichong; Tang, Ji; Zhou, Chunlian; Huang, Jiuling

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Elevated blood pressure (BP) as a risk factor accounts for the biggest burden of disease worldwide and in China. This study aimed to estimate attributed mortality and life expectancy (LE) to elevated BP in Jiangxi province between 2007 and 2010. BP and mortality data (2007 and 2010 inclusive) were obtained from the National Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance Survey and Disease Surveillance Points system, respectively. Population-attributable fraction used in comparative risk assessment of the Global Burden of Disease study 2010 were followed to quantify the attributed mortality to elevated BP, subsequently life table methods were applied to estimate its effects on LE. Uncertainty analysis was conducted to get 95% uncertainty intervals (95% uncertainty interval [UI]) for each outcome. There are 35,482 (95% UI: 31,389–39,928) and 47,842 (42,323–53,837) deaths in Jiangxi province were caused by elevated BP in 2007 and 2010, respectively. 2.24 (1.87–2.65) years of LE would be gained if all the attributed deaths were eliminated in 2007, and increased to 3.04 (2.52–3.48) in 2010. If the mean value of elevated BP in 2010 was decreased by 5 and 10 mm Hg, 5324 (4710–5991) and 11,422 (10,104–12,853) deaths would be avoided, with 0.41 (0.37–0.48) and 0.85 (0.71–1.09) years of LE gained, respectively. The deaths attributable to elevated BP in Jiangxi province has increased by 35% from 2007 to 2010, with 0.8 years of LE loss, suggesting the necessity to take actions to control BP in Chinese population. PMID:26426647

  18. Elevator Illusion and Gaze Direction in Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Hargens, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A luminous visual target in a dark hypergravity (Gz greater than 1) environment appears to be elevated above its true physical position. This "elevator illusion" has been attributed to changes in oculomotor control caused by increased stimulation of the otolith organs. Data relating the magnitude of the illusion to the magnitude of the changes in oculomotor control have been lacking. The present study provides such data.

  19. National Enhanced Elevation Assessment at a glance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Gregory I.

    2012-01-01

    Elevation data are essential for hazards mitigation, conservation, infrastructure development, national security, and many other applications. Under the leadership of the U.S. Geological Survey and the member States of the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP), Federal agencies, State agencies, and others work together to acquire high-quality elevation data for the United States and its territories. New elevation data are acquired using modern technology to replace elevation data that are, on average, more than 30 years old. Through the efforts of the NDEP, a project-by-project data acquisition approach resulted in improved, publicly available data for 28 percent of the conterminous United States and 15 percent of Alaska over the past 15 years. Although the program operates efficiently, the rate of data collection and the typical project specifications are currently insufficient to address the needs of government, the private sector, and other organizations. The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment was conducted to (1) document national-level requirements for improved elevation data, (2) estimate the benefits and costs of meeting those requirements, and (3) evaluate multiple national-level program-implementation scenarios. The assessment was sponsored by the NDEP's member agencies. The study participants came from 34 Federal agencies, agencies from all 50 States, selected local government and Tribal offices, and private and not-for-profit organizations. A total of 602 mission-critical activities were identified that need significantly more accurate data than are currently available. The results of the assessment indicate that a national-level enhanced-elevation-data program has the potential to generate from $1.2 billion to $13 billion in new benefits annually.

  20. Gain-switched pulses from InGaAs ridge-quantum-well lasers limited by intrinsic dynamical gain suppression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Yoshita, Masahiro; Ito, Takashi; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki

    2013-03-25

    Gain-switched pulses of InGaAs double-quantum-well lasers fabricated from identical epitaxial laser wafers were measured under both current injection and optical pumping conditions. The shortest output pulse widths were nearly identical (about 40 ps) both for current injection and optical pumping; this result attributed the dominant pulse-width limitation factor to the intrinsic gain properties of the lasers. We quantitatively compared the experimental results with theoretical calculations based on rate equations incorporating gain nonlinearities. Close consistency between the experimental data and the calculations was obtained only when we assumed a dynamically suppressed gain value deviated from the steady-state gain value supported by standard microscopic theories.

  1. Gain Scheduling for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Sara J.; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Medina, Edgar A.; Proud, Ryan W.; Whitley, Ryan J.

    2011-01-01

    One of NASAs challenges for the Orion vehicle is the control system design for the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV), which is required to abort safely at any time during the atmospheric ascent portion of ight. The focus of this paper is the gain design and scheduling process for a controller that covers the wide range of vehicle configurations and flight conditions experienced during the full envelope of potential abort trajectories from the pad to exo-atmospheric flight. Several factors are taken into account in the automation process for tuning the gains including the abort effectors, the environmental changes and the autopilot modes. Gain scheduling is accomplished using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) approach for the decoupled, simplified linear model throughout the operational envelope in time, altitude and Mach number. The derived gains are then implemented into the full linear model for controller requirement validation. Finally, the gains are tested and evaluated in a non-linear simulation using the vehicles ight software to ensure performance requirements are met. An overview of the LAV controller design and a description of the linear plant models are presented. Examples of the most significant challenges with the automation of the gain tuning process are then discussed. In conclusion, the paper will consider the lessons learned through out the process, especially in regards to automation, and examine the usefulness of the gain scheduling tool and process developed as applicable to non-Orion vehicles.

  2. Modifiable predictors associated with having a gestational weight gain goal.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Alison; Guthrie, Lauren B; Platek, Deborah; Stuebe, Alison; Herring, Sharon J; Oken, Emily

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this paper was to determine predictors of having a weight gain goal in early pregnancy. In 2008, we administered a 48-item survey to 249 pregnant women attending obstetric visits. We examined predictors of women having a goal concordant or discordant with 1990 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines, vs. no goal, using binary and multinomial logistic regression. Of the 292 respondents, 116 (40%) had no gestational weight gain goal, 112 (39%) had a concordant goal and 61 (21%) had a goal discordant with IOM guidelines. Predictors of a guideline-concordant goal, vs. no goal, included sugar sweetened beverage consumption < vs. ≥ 1 serving per week (OR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.1, 5.7), physical activity ≥ vs. <2.5 h per week (OR = 3.6, 95%CI: 1.7, 7.5), agreeing that 'I tried to keep weight down not to look pregnant' (OR = 14.3, 95%CI: 1.4, 140.5). Other predictors only of having a discordant goal (vs. no goal) included agreeing that 'as long as I am eating well, I don't care how much I gain' (OR = 0.3, 95%CI: 0.2, 0.8) and agreeing that 'if I gain too much weight one month, I try to keep from gaining the next' (OR = 4.1, 95%CI: 1.6, 10.4). Women whose doctors recommended weight gains consistent with IOM guidelines were more likely to have a concordant goal (vs. no goal) (OR = 5.3, 95%CI: 1.5, 18.6). Engaging in healthy behaviors and having health providers offer IOM weight gain recommendations may increase the likelihood of having a concordant gestational weight gain goal, which, in turn, is predictive of actual weight gains that fall within IOM guidelines.

  3. LPV Controller Interpolation for Improved Gain-Scheduling Control Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Fen; Kim, SungWan

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new gain-scheduling control design approach is proposed by combining LPV (linear parameter-varying) control theory with interpolation techniques. The improvement of gain-scheduled controllers can be achieved from local synthesis of Lyapunov functions and continuous construction of a global Lyapunov function by interpolation. It has been shown that this combined LPV control design scheme is capable of improving closed-loop performance derived from local performance improvement. The gain of the LPV controller will also change continuously across parameter space. The advantages of the newly proposed LPV control is demonstrated through a detailed AMB controller design example.

  4. Achieving improved cycle efficiency via pressure gain combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmen, R.S.; Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.; Norton, T.S.; Rogers, W.A.

    1995-04-01

    As part of the Department of Energy`s Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Program, an investigation is being performed to evaluate ``pressure gain`` combustion systems for gas turbine applications. This paper presents experimental pressure gain and pollutant emission data from such combustion systems. Numerical predictions for certain combustor geometries are also presented. It is reported that for suitable aerovalved pulse combustor geometries studied experimentally, an overall combustor pressure gain of nearly 1 percent can be achieved. It is also shown that for one combustion system operating under typical gas turbine conditions, NO{sub x} and CO emmissions, are about 30 ppmv and 8 ppmv, respectively.

  5. Symmetry breaking and multipeaked solitons in inhomogeneous gain landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Vysloukh, Victor A.; Konotop, Vladimir V.

    2011-04-15

    We address one-dimensional soliton formation in a cubic nonlinear medium with two-photon absorption and transversally inhomogeneous gain landscape consisting of a single or several amplifying channels. Existence of the solitons requires certain threshold gain while the properties of solitons strongly depend on whether the number of the amplifying channels is odd or even. In the former case, an increase of the gain leads to symmetry breaking, which occurs through the pitchfork bifurcation, and to emergence of a single or several coexisting stable asymmetric modes. In the case of an even number of amplifying channels, we have found only asymmetric stable states.

  6. Fresnel reflection from a cavity with net roundtrip gain

    SciTech Connect

    Mansuripur, Tobias S.; Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-03-24

    A planewave incident on an active etalon with net roundtrip gain may be expected to diverge in field amplitude, yet applying the Fresnel formalism to Maxwell's equations admits a convergent solution. We describe this solution mathematically and provide additional insight by demonstrating the response of such a cavity to an incident beam of light. Cavities with net roundtrip gain have often been overlooked in the literature, and a clear understanding of their behavior yields insight to negative refraction in nonmagnetic media, a duality between loss and gain, amplified total internal reflection, and the negative-index lens.

  7. Macroscopic magnetic structures with balanced gain and loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. M.; Kottos, T.; Shapiro, B.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate magnetic nanostructures with balanced gain and loss and show that such configurations can result in a new type of dynamics for magnetization. Using the simplest possible setup consisting of two coupled ferromagnetic films, one with loss and another one with a balanced amount of gain, we demonstrate the existence of an exceptional point where both the eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors become degenerate. This point corresponds to a particular value of the gain and loss parameter α =αc . For α <αc the frequency spectrum is real, indicating stable dynamics, while for α >αc it is complex, signaling unstable dynamics which is, however, stabilized by nonlinearity.

  8. Elevational Distribution and Extinction Risk in Birds

    PubMed Central

    White, Rachel L.; Bennett, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Mountainous regions are hotspots of terrestrial biodiversity. Unlike islands, which have been the focus of extensive research on extinction dynamics, fewer studies have examined mountain ranges even though they face increasing threats from human pressures – notably habitat conversion and climate change. Limits to the taxonomic and geographical extent and resolution of previously available information have precluded an explicit assessment of the relative role of elevational distribution in determining extinction risk. We use a new global species-level avian database to quantify the influence of elevational distribution (range, maximum and midpoint) on extinction risk in birds at the global scale. We also tested this relationship within biogeographic realms, higher taxonomic levels, and across phylogenetic contrasts. Potential confounding variables (i.e. phylogenetic, distributional, morphological, life history and niche breadth) were also tested and controlled for. We show that the three measures of elevational distribution are strong negative predictors of avian extinction risk, with elevational range comparable and complementary to that of geographical range size. Extinction risk was also found to be positively associated with body weight, development and adult survival, but negatively associated with reproduction and niche breadth. The robust and consistent findings from this study demonstrate the importance of elevational distribution as a key driver of variation in extinction dynamics in birds. Our results also highlight elevational distribution as a missing criterion in current schemes for quantifying extinction risk and setting species conservation priorities in birds. Further research is recommended to test for generality across non-avian taxa, which will require an advance in our knowledge of species’ current elevational ranges and increased efforts to digitise and centralise such data. PMID:25849620

  9. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    PubMed

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo.

  10. Nucleus accumbens response to gains in reputation for the self relative to gains for others predicts social media use.

    PubMed

    Meshi, Dar; Morawetz, Carmen; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2013-01-01

    Our reputation is important to us; we've experienced natural selection to care about our reputation. Recently, the neural processing of gains in reputation (positive social feedback concerning one's character) has been shown to occur in the human ventral striatum. It is still unclear, however, how individual differences in the processing of gains in reputation may lead to individual differences in real-world behavior. For example, in the real-world, one way that people currently maintain their reputation is by using social media websites, like Facebook. Furthermore, Facebook use consists of a social comparison component, where users observe others' behavior and can compare it to their own. Therefore, we hypothesized a relationship between the way the brain processes specifically self-relevant gains in reputation and one's degree of Facebook use. We recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants received gains in reputation, observed the gains in reputation of another person, or received monetary reward. We demonstrate that across participants, when responding to gains in reputation for the self, relative to observing gains for others, reward-related activity in the left nucleus accumbens predicts Facebook use. However, nucleus accumbens activity in response to monetary reward did not predict Facebook use. Finally, a control step-wise regression analysis showed that Facebook use primarily explains our results in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results demonstrate how individual sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to the receipt of self-relevant social information leads to differences in real-world behavior.

  11. Nucleus accumbens response to gains in reputation for the self relative to gains for others predicts social media use

    PubMed Central

    Meshi, Dar; Morawetz, Carmen; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2013-01-01

    Our reputation is important to us; we've experienced natural selection to care about our reputation. Recently, the neural processing of gains in reputation (positive social feedback concerning one's character) has been shown to occur in the human ventral striatum. It is still unclear, however, how individual differences in the processing of gains in reputation may lead to individual differences in real-world behavior. For example, in the real-world, one way that people currently maintain their reputation is by using social media websites, like Facebook. Furthermore, Facebook use consists of a social comparison component, where users observe others' behavior and can compare it to their own. Therefore, we hypothesized a relationship between the way the brain processes specifically self-relevant gains in reputation and one's degree of Facebook use. We recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants received gains in reputation, observed the gains in reputation of another person, or received monetary reward. We demonstrate that across participants, when responding to gains in reputation for the self, relative to observing gains for others, reward-related activity in the left nucleus accumbens predicts Facebook use. However, nucleus accumbens activity in response to monetary reward did not predict Facebook use. Finally, a control step-wise regression analysis showed that Facebook use primarily explains our results in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results demonstrate how individual sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to the receipt of self-relevant social information leads to differences in real-world behavior. PMID:24009567

  12. Ionic leakage underlies a gain-of-function effect of dominant disease mutations affecting diverse P-type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Maki; Desai, Bela S; Cook, Boaz

    2014-02-01

    Type II P-type ATPases (PAIIs) constitute a family of conserved proteins that actively generate ionic gradients across membranes. Mutations in genes encoding PAIIs can cause heritable dominant diseases, with suggested etiology of haploinsufficiency. Using a Drosophila melanogaster genetic screen, we identified a dominant mutation altering the PAII member sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA). This mutation conferred temperature-sensitive uncoordination in a gain-of-function manner. We established that this gain-of-function phenotype is linked to dominant disease-causing mutations affecting various human PAIIs. We further found that heterologous expression of mutant PAIIs elicited ion leakage that was exacerbated at elevated temperatures. Therefore, these dominant mutations result in ionic leakage and render PAIIs susceptible to deleterious effects from elevated temperatures. Accordingly, it was recently reported that missense mutations affecting the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase can elicit ionic leakage. We propose that ionic leakage is a pervasive gain-of-function mechanism that can underlie a variety of dominant PAII-related diseases.

  13. Review of health and productivity gains from better IEQ

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2000-08-01

    The available scientific data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. While there is considerable uncertainty in the estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., the estimated potential annual savings and productivity gains are $6 to $14 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $2 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $30 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $20 to $160 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  14. Menopause Weight Gain: Stop the Middle Age Spread

    MedlinePlus

    ... al. Diet and adipose tissue distributions: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases. 2016;26:185. Greenberg JA, et al. Chocolate-candy consumption and three-year weight gain among postmenopausal U.S. ...

  15. Gas gain stabilisation in the ATLAS TRT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindur, B.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonov, A.; Arslan, O.; Baker, O. K.; Banas, E.; Bault, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Bendotti, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bertelsen, H.; Bingul, A.; Bocci, A.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Brock, I.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Catinaccio, A.; Celebi, E.; Cetin, S. A.; Choi, K.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.; Davis, D.; Degeorge, C.; Derendarz, D.; Desch, K.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dittus, F.; Dixon, N.; Dressnandt, N.; Dubinin, F. A.; Evans, H.; Farthouat, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Froidevaux, D.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gecse, Z.; Godlewski, J.; Grefe, C.; Gurbuz, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hance, M.; Haney, B.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, P. H.; Hawkins, A. D.; Heim, S.; Holway, K.; Kantserov, V. A.; Katounine, S.; Kayumov, F.; Keener, P. T.; Kisielewski, B.; Klopov, N. V.; Konovalov, S. P.; Koperny, S.; Korotkova, N. A.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kramarenko, V.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Kruse, M.; Kudin, L. G.; Lichard, P.; Loginov, A.; Martinez, N. Lorenzo; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lytken, E.; Maleev, V. P.; Maevskiy, A. S.; Manjarres Ramos, J.; Mashinistov, R. Y.; Meyer, C.; Mialkovski, V.; Mistry, K.; Mitsou, V. A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Newcomer, F. M.; Novodvorski, E. G.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olszowska, J.; Ostrowicz, W.; Palacino, G.; Patrichev, S.; Penwell, J.; Perez-Gomez, F.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; RØhne, O.; Reilly, M. B.; Rembser, C.; Ricken, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Ryjov, V.; Sasmaz, U.; Schaepe, S.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Shmeleva, A. P.; Shulga, E.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smirnov, S.; Smirnov, Yu.; Smirnova, L. N.; Soldatov, E.; Sulin, V. V.; Tartarelli, G.; Taylor, W.; Thomson, E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tipton, P.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Vasquez, J.; Vasilyeva, L. F.; Vlazlo, O.; Weinert, B.; Williams, H. H.; Wong, V.; Zhukov, K. I.; Zieminska, D.

    2016-04-01

    The ATLAS (one of two general purpose detectors at the LHC) Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three tracking subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector. It is a large straw-based detector and contains about 350,000 electronics channels. The performance of the TRT as tracking and particularly particle identification detector strongly depends on stability of the operation parameters with most important parameter being the gas gain which must be kept constant across the detector volume. The gas gain in the straws can vary significantly with atmospheric pressure, temperature, and gas mixture composition changes. This paper presents a concept of the gas gain stabilisation in the TRT and describes in detail the Gas Gain Stabilisation System (GGSS) integrated into the Detector Control System (DCS). Operation stability of the GGSS during Run-1 is demonstrated.

  16. Compulsive eating and weight gain related to dopamine agonist use.

    PubMed

    Nirenberg, Melissa J; Waters, Cheryl

    2006-04-01

    Dopamine agonists have been implicated in causing compulsive behaviors in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These have included gambling, hypersexuality, hobbyism, and other repetitive, purposeless behaviors ("punding"). In this report, we describe 7 patients in whom compulsive eating developed in the context of pramipexole use. All of the affected patients had significant, undesired weight gain; 4 had other comorbid compulsive behaviors. In the 5 patients who lowered the dose of pramipexole or discontinued dopamine agonist treatment, the behavior remitted and no further weight gain occurred. Physicians should be aware that compulsive eating resulting in significant weight gain may occur in PD as a side-effect of dopamine agonist medications such as pramipexole. Given the known risks of the associated weight gain and obesity, further investigation is warranted.

  17. Rehabilitation Gain: A New Criterion for an Old Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawryluk, Alex

    1974-01-01

    A measure of rehabilitation success focusing on hours per week gainfully occupied, weekly earnings, work status, economic dependency, and psychological well being, was administered to 186 persons who had been receiving rehabilitative services 1 year earlier. (GW)

  18. Circadian Timing of Food Intake Contributes to Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Arble, Deanna M.; Bass, Joseph; Laposky, Aaron D.; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of body weight regulation have focused almost entirely on caloric intake and energy expenditure. However, a number of recent studies in animals linking energy regulation and the circadian clock at the molecular, physiological and behavioral levels raise the possibility that the timing of food intake itself may play a significant role in weight gain. The present study focused on the role of the circadian phase of food consumption in weight gain. We provide evidence that nocturnal mice fed a high fat diet only during the 12 hour light phase gain significantly more weight than mice fed only during the 12 hour dark phase. A better understanding of the role of the circadian system for weight gain could have important implications for developing new therapeutic strategies for combating the obesity epidemic facing the human population today. PMID:19730426

  19. Circadian timing of food intake contributes to weight gain.

    PubMed

    Arble, Deanna M; Bass, Joseph; Laposky, Aaron D; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W

    2009-11-01

    Studies of body weight regulation have focused almost entirely on caloric intake and energy expenditure. However, a number of recent studies in animals linking energy regulation and the circadian clock at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels raise the possibility that the timing of food intake itself may play a significant role in weight gain. The present study focused on the role of the circadian phase of food consumption in weight gain. We provide evidence that nocturnal mice fed a high-fat diet only during the 12-h light phase gain significantly more weight than mice fed only during the 12-h dark phase. A better understanding of the role of the circadian system for weight gain could have important implications for developing new therapeutic strategies for combating the obesity epidemic facing the human population today.

  20. Context-specific adaptation of saccade gain in parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard A.; Roberts, Dale C.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies established that vestibular reflexes can have two adapted states (e.g., gains) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. Our earlier work demonstrated this phenomenon of context-specific adaptation for saccadic eye movements: we asked for gain decrease in one context state and gain increase in another context state, and then determined if a change in the context state would invoke switching between the adapted states. Horizontal and vertical eye position and head orientation could serve, to varying degrees, as cues for switching between two different saccade gains. In the present study, we asked whether gravity magnitude could serve as a context cue: saccade adaptation was performed during parabolic flight, which provides alternating levels of gravitoinertial force (0 g and 1.8 g). Results were less robust than those from ground experiments, but established that different saccade magnitudes could be associated with different gravity levels.

  1. Perspective methods for the generation of COIL gain medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagidullin, Marsel V.; Nikolaev, Valery D.; Svistun, Michael I.; Khvatov, Nikolay A.

    2007-04-01

    An ejector nozzle bank powered by centrifugal bubbling SOG is considered like highly efficient gain generating system for COIL. A high potential recovered pressure ~100 torr of the gain medium flow with a small signal gain higher than 1% cm -1 and low oxygen plenum pressure has been demonstrated. A centrifugal bubbling SOG is an efficient source of oxygen at high pressure with high depletion of the BHP in the single burn dawn. A high 0 II(1Δ) yield and chlorine utilization higher than 90% have been obtained at chlorine gas loading up to 6 mmole/s per 1 cm2 of the bubbler surface. The ejector COIL powered by centrifugal bubbling SOG demonstrated ~25% of chemical efficiency with specific power 6 kJ per 1 litre of the BHP in the single burn dawn. The combination of centrifugal bubble SOG with ejector nozzle bank can be considered as a promising gain medium flow generation system for COIL.

  2. Fluerics 42: Some commonly used laminar fluidic gain blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drzewiecki, T. M.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents data and operating experience information on many commonly used laminar gain blocks from two to eight stages. In addition, as an aid to design, a short computer program is presented, suitable for use with a pocket programmable calculator. Outputs from this program are individual stage data including nominal supply pressures and flows and staged gain. Also available is the net gain and the bandwidth at 90 deg of phase shift. Several examples of this program are given to cover multiple-stage gain blocks. As an example of the utility of the program, a step-by-step tradeoff study is presented for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology fluidic servovalve, for which an attempt is made to maximize bandwidth and minimize leakage flow.

  3. Gain spectroscopy of a type-II VECSEL chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, C.; Stein, M.; Berger, C.; Möller, C.; Fuchs, C.; Ruiz Perez, A.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V.; Stolz, W.; Koch, S. W.; Koch, M.

    2016-12-01

    Using optical pump-white light probe spectroscopy, the gain dynamics is investigated for a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser chip, which is based on a type-II heterostructure. The active region of the chip consists of a GaAs/(GaIn)As/Ga(AsSb)/(GaIn)As/GaAs multiple quantum well. For this structure, a fully microscopic theory predicts a modal room temperature gain at a wavelength of 1170 nm, which is confirmed by the experimental spectra. The results show a gain buildup on the type-II chip that is delayed relative to that of a type-I chip. This slower gain dynamics is attributed to a diminished cooling rate arising from the reduced electron-hole scattering.

  4. Public health significance of elevated homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Selhub, Jacob

    2008-06-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfur amino acid whose metabolism stands at the intersection of two pathways: remethylation, which requires folic acid and vitamin B12 coenzymes; and transsulfuration, which requires pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, the vitamin B6 coenzyme. Data from a number of laboratories suggest that mild elevations of homocysteine in plasma are a risk factor for occlusive vascular disease. In the Framingham studies, we have shown that plasma homocysteine concentration is inversely related to the intake and plasma levels of folate and vitamin B6 as well as vitamin B12 plasma levels. Almost two-thirds of the prevalence of high homocysteine is attributable to low vitamin status or intake. Elevated homocysteine concentrations in plasma are a risk factor for prevalence of extracranial carotid-artery stenosis > or = 25% in both men and women. Prospectively elevated plasma homocysteine is associated with increased total and cardiovascular mortality, increased incidence of stroke, increased incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease, increased incidence of bone fracture, and higher prevalence of chronic heart failure. It was also shown that elevated plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for preeclampsia and maybe neural tube defects (NTD). This multitude of relationships between elevated plasma homocysteine and diseases that afflict the elderly, pregnant women, and the embryo points to the existence ofa common denominator which may be responsible for these diseases. Whether this denominator is homocysteine itself or homocysteine is merely a marker, remains to be determined.

  5. Design and Deployment of a Space Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Bradley C.

    2000-11-01

    The space elevator was first proposed in the 1960s as a method of getting into space. The initial studies of a space elevator outlined the basic concept of a cable strung between Earth and space but concluded that no material available at the time had the required properties to feasibly construct such a cable. With the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991 it is now possible to realistically discuss the construction of a space elevator. Although currently produced only in small quantities, carbon nanotubes appear to have the strength-to-mass ratio required for this endeavor. However, fabrication of the cable required is only one of the challenges in construction of a space elevator. Powering the climbers, surviving micrometeor impacts, lightning strikes and low-Earth-orbit debris collisions are some of the problems that are now as important to consider as the production of the carbon nanotube cable. We consider various aspects of a space elevator and find each of the problems that this endeavor will encounter can be solved with current or near-future technology.

  6. Increased epigenetic alterations at the promoters of transcriptional regulators following inadequate maternal gestational weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Tomoko; Yamada, Takahiro; Abe, Kosei; Okamura, Kohji; Kamura, Hiromi; Akaishi, Rina; Minakami, Hisanori; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Hata, Kenichiro

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications are thought to serve as a memory of exposure to in utero environments. However, few human studies have investigated the associations between maternal nutritional conditions during pregnancy and epigenetic alterations in offspring. In this study, we report genome-wide methylation profiles for 33 postpartum placentas from pregnancies of normal and foetal growth restriction with various extents of maternal gestational weight gain. Epigenetic alterations accumulate in the placenta under adverse in utero environments, as shown by application of Smirnov-Grubbs’ outlier test. Moreover, hypermethylation occurs frequently at the promoter regions of transcriptional regulator genes, including polycomb targets and zinc-finger genes, as shown by annotations of the genomic and functional features of loci with altered DNA methylation. Aberrant epigenetic modifications at such developmental regulator loci, if occurring in foetuses as well, will elevate the risk of developing various diseases, including metabolic and mental disorders, later in life. PMID:26415774

  7. Effects of flavangenol on autonomic nerve activities and dietary body weight gain in rats.

    PubMed

    Tanida, Mamoru; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Shen, Jiao; Horii, Yuko; Beppu, Yoshinori; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Nagai, Katsuya

    2009-11-01

    In a previous report, evidence was presented that flavangenol supplementation has an anti-ischemic effects in rats. In the study presented here, we examined the autonomic effects of intraduodenal (ID) injection of flavangenol in urethane-anesthetized rats and found that it increased sympathetic nerve activity innervating brown adipose tissue (BAT-SNA) in a dose-dependent manner, while it suppressed gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA). In addition, intra-oral (IO) injection of flavangenol elevated brown adipose tissue temperature (BAT-T). Furthermore, flavangenol drinking for 15 d reduced body weight gain in rats fed a high-fat diet. These results thus suggest that flavangenol supplementation exerts its reducing action on body weight through changes in autonomic neurotransmission.

  8. Recent Progress in High-Gain FEL Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z.; /SLAC

    2005-09-30

    High-gain free electron lasers (FEL) are being developed as extremely bright x-ray sources of a next-generation radiation facility. In this paper, we review the basic theory and the recent progress in understanding the startup, the exponential growth and the saturation of the high-gain process, emphasizing the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). We will also discuss how the FEL performance may be affected by various errors and wakefield effects in the undulator.

  9. Computer simulation of space station computer steered high gain antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    The mathematical modeling and programming of a complete simulation program for a space station computer-steered high gain antenna are described. The program provides for reading input data cards, numerically integrating up to 50 first order differential equations, and monitoring up to 48 variables on printed output and on plots. The program system consists of a high gain antenna, an antenna gimbal control system, an on board computer, and the environment in which all are to operate.

  10. Fiber cavity ring down and gain amplification effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Susana; Magalhães, Regina; Pérez-Herrera, Rosa Ana; Lopez-Amo, Manuel; Marques, M. B.; Frazão, O.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) placed inside the fiber ring of a cavity ring down (CRD) configuration is studied. The limitations and advantages of this configuration are discussed, and the study of the ring-down time as a function of the current applied and gain to the EDFA is also presented. In this case, the power fluctuations in the output signal are strongly dependent on the cavity ring-down time with the EDFA gain.

  11. Identifying the mechanisms of intron gain: progress and trends

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Continued improvements in Next-Generation DNA/RNA sequencing coupled with advances in gene annotation have provided researchers access to a plethora of annotated genomes. Subsequent analyses of orthologous gene structures have identified numerous intron gain and loss events that have occurred both recently and in the very distant past. This research has afforded exceptional insight into the temporal and lineage-specific rates of intron gain and loss among various species throughout evolution. Numerous studies have also attempted to identify the molecular mechanisms of intron gain and loss. However, even after considerable effort, very little is known about these processes. In particular, the mechanism(s) of intron gain have proven exceptionally enigmatic and remain topics of considerable debate. Currently, there exists no definitive consensus as to what mechanism(s) may generate introns. Because many introns are known to affect gene expression, it is necessary to understand the molecular process(es) by which introns may be gained. Here we review the seven most commonly purported mechanisms of intron gain and, when possible, summarize molecular evidence for or against the occurrence of each of these mechanisms. Furthermore, we catalogue indirect evidence that supports the occurrence of each mechanism. Finally, because these proposed mechanisms fail to explain the mechanistic origin of many recently gained introns, we also look at trends that may aid researchers in identifying other potential mechanism(s) of intron gain. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Eugene Koonin, Scott Roy (nominated by W. Ford Doolittle), and John Logsdon. PMID:22963364

  12. Regional Vicarious Gain Adjustment for Coastal VIIRS Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    varying complexity of CDOM, sedimentary, and chlorophyll components Time series data .sets were used to develop a vicarious gain adjustment (VGA) at...of CDOM, sedimentary, and chlorophyll components. Time series data sets were used to develop a vicarious gain adjustment (VGA) at this site, which...reflectance) to geophysical data products ( chlorophyll a and others). The quality of calibration and subsequent validation activities and conversion

  13. High gain amplifiers: Power oscillations and harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dattoli, G.; Ottaviani, P. L.; Pagnutti, S.

    2007-08-01

    We discuss the power oscillations in saturated high gain free electron laser amplifiers and show that the relevant period can be written in terms of the gain length. We use simple arguments following from the solution of the pendulum equation in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Nontrivial effects due to nonlinear harmonic generation and inhomogeneous broadening are discussed too, as well as the saturated dynamics of short pulses.

  14. Gain Coupling of Class A Semiconductor Lasers (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TP-2010-1250 GAIN COUPLING OF CLASS A SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS (POSTPRINT) Chris Hessenius, Mahmoud Fallahi, and Jerome Moloney...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62204F 6. AUTHOR(S) Chris Hessenius, Mahmoud Fallahi, and Jerome Moloney (University of Arizona) Nathan Terry and Robert...98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 Gain coupling of class A semiconductor lasers Chris Hessenius,1,* Nathan Terry,2 Mahmoud Fallahi,1 Jerome

  15. Pharmacological management of atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Trino; ElFakih, Yamily; Uzcátegui, Euderruh; Sandia, Ignacio; Tálamo, Eduardo; Araujo de Baptista, Enma; Beaulieu, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Excessive bodyweight gain was reported during the 1950s as an adverse effect of typical antipsychotic drug treatment, but the magnitude of bodyweight gain was found to be higher with the atypical antipsychotic drugs that were introduced after 1990. Clozapine and olanzapine produce the greatest bodyweight gain, ziprasidone and aripiprazole have a neutral influence, and quetiapine and risperidone cause an intermediate effect. In the CATIE study, the percentage of patients with bodyweight gain of >7% compared with baseline differed significantly between the antipsychotic drugs, i.e. 30%, 16%, 14%, 12% and 7% for olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, perphenazine (a typical antipsychotic) and ziprasidone, respectively (p<0.001). Appetite stimulation is probably a key cause of bodyweight gain, but genetic polymorphisms modify the bodyweight response during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. In addition to nutritional advice, programmed physical activity, cognitive-behavioural training and atypical antipsychotic switching, pharmacological adjunctive treatments have been assessed to counteract excessive bodyweight gain. In some clinical trials, nizatidine, amantadine, reboxetine, topiramate, sibutramine and metformin proved effective in preventing or reversing atypical antipsychotic-induced bodyweight gain; however, the results are inconclusive since few randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials have been conducted. Indeed, most studies were short-term trials without adequate statistical power and, in the case of metformin, nizatidine and sibutramine, the results are contradictory. The tolerability profile of these agents is adequate. More studies are needed before formal recommendations on the use of these drugs can be made. Meanwhile, clinicians are advised to use any of these adjunctive treatments according to their individual pharmacological and tolerability profiles, and the patient's personal and family history of bodyweight gain and metabolic dysfunction.

  16. Gain compression effect on the modulation dynamics of an optically injection-locked semiconductor laser using gain lever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarraute, J.-M.; Schires, K.; LaRochelle, S.; Grillot, F.

    2016-03-01

    The modulation response of an optically-injected gain lever semiconductor laser is studied and calculations show that a gain-lever laser operating under medium to strong optical injection provides a unique and robust configuration for ultra large bandwidth enhancement. Modulation bandwidths above nine times the relaxation oscillation frequency of the free-running laser can be reached using injection-locking conditions that are reasonable for practical applications. The impact of the gain compression on the modulation dynamic is discussed for the first time. This work is of prime importance for the development of directly-modulated broadband optical sources for high-speed operation at 40 Gbps and beyond.

  17. A Brief Motivational Intervention for Preventing Medication-Associated Weight Gain Among Youth with Bipolar Disorder: Treatment Development and Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Mantz, Michael B.; Bailey, Bridget; Douaihy, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Bipolar disorder (BP) in youth is an impairing psychiatric disorder associated with high rates of relapse and recurrence. High rates of psychiatric and medical co-morbidities account for additional illness burden in pediatric BP. The elevated risk of overweight and obesity in this population is of particular concern. One of the likely etiologies for weight gain in youth with BP is use of mood-stabilizing medications. Although these medications can be effective for mood stabilization, excessive weight gain is a common side effect. Obesity is associated with a host of medical problems and is also correlated with worse psychiatric outcomes in BP, rendering the prevention of weight gain in this population particularly clinically relevant. In this article, we describe the rationale and development of a brief motivational intervention for preventing weight gain among youth with BP initiating mood-stabilizing pharmacological treatment and then present a case example illustrating the principles of the intervention. PMID:21663430

  18. Ice elevation change from Swath Processing of CryoSat SARIn Mode Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foresta, Luca; Gourmelen, Noel; Shepherd, Andrew; Muir, Alan; Nienow, Pete

    2015-04-01

    Reference and repeat-observations of Glacier and Ice Sheet Margin (GISM) topography are critical to identify changes in ice elevation, provide estimates of mass gain or loss and thus quantify the contribution of the cryosphere to sea level rise (e.g. McMillan et al., 2014). The Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL) onboard the ESA radar altimetry CryoSat (CS) mission has collected ice elevation measurements since 2010. The corresponding SARIn mode of operation, activated over GISM areas, provides high spatial resolution in the along-track direction while resolving the angular origin of echoes (i.e. across-track). The current ESA SARIn processor calculates the elevation of the Point Of Closest Approach (POCA) within each waveform and maps of elevation change in Antarctica and Greenland have been produced using the regular CS height product (McMillan et al., 2014; Helm et al., 2014). Data from the CS-SARIn mode has also been used to produce measurements of ice elevation beyond the POCA, also known as swath elevation (Hawley et al. 2009; Gray et al., 2013; ESA-STSE CryoTop project). Here we use the swath processing approach to generate maps of ice elevation change from selected regions around the margins of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. We discuss the impact of the swath processing on the spatial resolution and precision of the resulting ice elevation field and compare our results to current dh/dt estimates. References: ESA STSE CryoTop project - http://www.stse-cryotop.org/ Gray L., Burgess D., Copland L., Cullen R., Galin N., Hawley R. and Helm V. Interferometric swath processing of Cryosat data for glacial ice topography. The Cryosphere, 7(6):1857-1867, December 2013. Hawley R.L., Shepherd A., Cullen R., Helm V. and WIngham D.J. Ice-sheet elevations from across-track processing of airborne interferometric radar altimetry. Geophysical Research Letters, 36(22):L22501, November 2009. Helm V., Humbert A. and Miller H. Elevation and elevation

  19. 5. VIEW OF SECOND ELEVATOR WITH WOODFRAME HEADHOUSE AND ASPHALTIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SECOND ELEVATOR WITH WOOD-FRAME HEADHOUSE AND ASPHALTIC SIDING, LOOKING WEST. - Lockport DuPage Farmer's Elevator Company Grain Elevator, South of Romeoville Road, Lockport, Will County, IL

  20. 2. GLF, north elevation. Visible from left to right ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GLF, north elevation. Visible from left to right - elevator C, and B, feed mill in foreground, and former molasses storage tanks. - Cooperative Grange League Federation Elevator, 385 Ganson Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  1. Dieting: proxy or cause of future weight gain?

    PubMed

    Lowe, M R

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between dieting and body mass has a long and controversial history. This paper aims to help resolve this issue by making two key distinctions. The first is between dieting as a cause of weight gain/regain and as a proxy risk factor for identifying non-obese individuals prone to weight gain for reasons other than dieting. The second is between the body mass that is attained following one or more weight loss/regain cycles and the body mass that might have been reached had dieting never been undertaken. Evidence is reviewed on the relation between recent diet-induced weight loss and sustained weight loss (weight suppression), on the one hand, and weight regain, on the other hand. Furthermore, the reason that a history of dieting in non-obese individuals reflects a susceptibility to future weight gain is explained. It is concluded that (i) diet-induced weight loss hastens weight regain but a history of weight loss diets does not cause weight gain beyond that which would occur in the absence of dieting, and (ii) weight loss dieting in non-obese individuals does not cause future weight gain but is simply a proxy risk factor reflecting a personal vulnerability to weight gain and living in an obesogenic environment.

  2. Modeling surface plasmon-polariton gain in planar metallic structures.

    PubMed

    De Leon, Israel; Berini, Pierre

    2009-10-26

    Amplification of the single-interface and long-range surface plasmon-polariton modes is studied in planar metallic structures incorporating gain media formed by Rhodamine 6G dye molecules in solution. We employ a theoretical model that accounts for the nonuniformity of the gain medium close to the metal surface due to position-dependent dipole lifetime and pump irradiance. The results of this model are used as a baseline for a comparative study against two simplified models: one neglects the position-dependent dipole lifetime while the other assumes a uniform gain medium. The discrepancies between the models are explained in terms of the mode overlap with the gain distribution near the metal. For the cases under analysis, the simplified models estimate the required pump irradiance with deviation factors that vary from 1.45 at the lossless conditions to 8 for gains near saturation. The relevance of describing properly the amount o gain interacting with the SPP mode and the role played by the dipole quantum efficiency are discussed.

  3. Weight gain prevention and smoking cessation: cautionary findings.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, S M; Tunstall, C D; Vila, K L; Duffy, J

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Weight gain is a consistent sequela of smoking cessation. A successful intervention might attract smokers who fear weight gain. If the gain causes smoking relapse, such an intervention might reduce smoking relapse risk. METHODS. Using a sample of 158 smokers who completed a 2-week smoking treatment program, we compared an innovative weight gain prevention intervention with both a nonspecific treatment and standard treatment. Subjects were assessed on weight and smoking behavior and followed for 1 year. RESULTS. A disturbing, unexpected finding was that subjects in both the innovative and nonspecific conditions had a higher risk of smoking relapse than did standard treatment subjects. Some differences were observed between abstinent and smoking subjects in weight gain by treatment condition. CONCLUSIONS. Both active interventions may have been so complicated that they detracted from nonsmoking. Also, caloric restriction may increase the reinforcing value of nicotine, a psychoactive drug, thereby increasing smoking relapse risk. The magnitude of weight gain after smoking cessation may not merit interventions that increase smoking risk. Perhaps attitudinal modifications are the most appropriate. PMID:1585959

  4. Intestinal Microbiota and Weight-Gain in Preterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Arboleya, Silvia; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Solís, Gonzalo; Suárez, Marta; Fernández, Nuria; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of the gut microbiota on weight-gain and its relationship with childhood undernutrition and growth has been reported. Thus, the gut microbiota constitutes a potential therapeutic target for preventing growth impairment. However, our knowledge in this area is limited. In this study we aimed at evaluating the relationship among early microbiota, growth, and development in preterm infants. To this end we assessed the levels of specific microorganisms by qPCR, and those of short chain fatty acids by mean of gas-chromatography, in feces from 63 preterm newborns and determined their weight-gain during the first months. The statistical analyses performed indicate an influence of the intestinal microbiota in weight-gain, with the levels of some microorganisms showing a significant association with the weight-gain of the infant. The levels of specific microbial groups during the first days of life were found to affect weight gain by the age of 1 month. Moreover, clustering of the infants on the basis of the microbiota composition at 1 month of age rendered groups which showed differences in weight z-scores. Our results suggest an association between the gut microbiota composition and weight-gain in preterm infants at early life and point out potential microbial targets for favoring growth and maturation in these infants. PMID:28228752

  5. Streamflow gain and loss of selected streams in northern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freiwald, David A.

    1987-01-01

    This map shows streamflow gain and loss measurements (seepage runs) on the Crooked, Osage, and Spavinaw Creeks, and Illinois, Kings, Mulberry, Spring, and Strawberry Rivers during the low-flow conditions from September 1982 to October 1984. Data indicated that streamflow gains and losses resulted from differences in lithology of the predominately carbonate rocks and from the presence of faults. The Kings and Strawberry Rivers and Osage Creek were gaining streams throughout their length, however wastewater discharges precluded an accurate determination on Osage Creek. Crooked and Spavinaw Creeks and the Illinois, Spring, and Mulberry Rivers generally were gaining streams throughout most of their lengths although short losing reaches were identified. The largest gains in streamflow generally occurred were Mississippian formation predominated near the streams. Faults that intersected the stream channels primarily were responsible for streamflow losses. The specific conductance of water increased in the stream reaches that had the most significant streamflow gains. The specific conductance of water in tributaries was generally higher than that in larger streams. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Intestinal Microbiota and Weight-Gain in Preterm Neonates.

    PubMed

    Arboleya, Silvia; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Solís, Gonzalo; Suárez, Marta; Fernández, Nuria; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of the gut microbiota on weight-gain and its relationship with childhood undernutrition and growth has been reported. Thus, the gut microbiota constitutes a potential therapeutic target for preventing growth impairment. However, our knowledge in this area is limited. In this study we aimed at evaluating the relationship among early microbiota, growth, and development in preterm infants. To this end we assessed the levels of specific microorganisms by qPCR, and those of short chain fatty acids by mean of gas-chromatography, in feces from 63 preterm newborns and determined their weight-gain during the first months. The statistical analyses performed indicate an influence of the intestinal microbiota in weight-gain, with the levels of some microorganisms showing a significant association with the weight-gain of the infant. The levels of specific microbial groups during the first days of life were found to affect weight gain by the age of 1 month. Moreover, clustering of the infants on the basis of the microbiota composition at 1 month of age rendered groups which showed differences in weight z-scores. Our results suggest an association between the gut microbiota composition and weight-gain in preterm infants at early life and point out potential microbial targets for favoring growth and maturation in these infants.

  7. Characterization of ultrasound elevation beamwidth artifacts for prostate brachytherapy needle insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Peikari, Mohammad; Chen, Thomas Kuriran; Lasso, Anras; Heffter, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor; Burdette, Everette C.

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: Ultrasound elevation beamwidth leads to image artifacts and uncertainties in localizing objects (such as a surgical needle) in ultrasound images. The authors examined the clinical significance of errors caused by elevation beamwidth artifacts and imaging parameters in needle insertion procedures. Methods: Beveled prostate brachytherapy needles were inserted through all holes of a grid template under real-time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. The needle tip position as indicated by the TRUS image was compared to their observed physical location. A new device was developed to measure the ultrasound elevation beamwidth. Results: Imaging parameters of the TRUS scanner have direct impact on the localization error ranging from 0.5 up to 4 mm. The smallest localization error was observed laterally close to the center of the grid template and axially within the beam's focal zone. Largest localization error occurs laterally around both sides of the grid template and axially within the beam's far field. The authors also found that the localization errors vary with both lateral and elevation offsets. Conclusions: The authors found properly adjusting the TRUS imaging settings to lower the ultrasound gain and power effectively minimized the appearance of elevation beamwidth artifacts and in turn reduced the localization errors of the needle tip.

  8. Effects of high CO2 levels on dynamic photosynthesis: carbon gain, mechanisms, and environmental interactions.

    PubMed

    Tomimatsu, Hajime; Tang, Yanhong

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the photosynthetic responses of terrestrial plants to environments with high levels of CO2 is essential to address the ecological effects of elevated atmospheric CO2. Most photosynthetic models used for global carbon issues are based on steady-state photosynthesis, whereby photosynthesis is measured under constant environmental conditions; however, terrestrial plant photosynthesis under natural conditions is highly dynamic, and photosynthetic rates change in response to rapid changes in environmental factors. To predict future contributions of photosynthesis to the global carbon cycle, it is necessary to understand the dynamic nature of photosynthesis in relation to high CO2 levels. In this review, we summarize the current body of knowledge on the photosynthetic response to changes in light intensity under experimentally elevated CO2 conditions. We found that short-term exposure to high CO2 enhances photosynthetic rate, reduces photosynthetic induction time, and reduces post-illumination CO2 burst, resulting in increased leaf carbon gain during dynamic photosynthesis. However, long-term exposure to high CO2 during plant growth has varying effects on dynamic photosynthesis. High levels of CO2 increase the carbon gain in photosynthetic induction in some species, but have no significant effects in other species. Some studies have shown that high CO2 levels reduce the biochemical limitation on RuBP regeneration and Rubisco activation during photosynthetic induction, whereas the effects of high levels of CO2 on stomatal conductance differ among species. Few studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on effects of high levels of CO2 on dynamic photosynthesis. We identified several knowledge gaps that should be addressed to aid future predictions of photosynthesis in high-CO2 environments.

  9. Scientific return of a lunar elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eubanks, T. M.; Radley, C. F.

    2016-11-01

    The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing the capabilities of robotic and human explorers. These missions use planetary scale tethers, strings many thousands of kilometers long stabilized either by rotation or by gravitational gradients. These systems promise major reduction in transport costs versus chemical rockets, in a rapid timeframe, for a modest investment. Science will thus benefit as well as commercial activities.

  10. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Detail design activities are reported for a program to develop an advanced composites elevator for the Boeing 727 commercial transport. Design activities include discussion of the full scale ground test and flight test activities, the ancillary test programs, sustaining efforts, weight status, and the production status. Prior to flight testing of the advanced composites elevator, ground, flight flutter, and stability and control test plans were reviewed and approved by the FAA. Both the ground test and the flight test were conducted according to the approved plan, and were witnessed by the FAA. Three and one half shipsets have now been fabricated without any significant difficulty being encountered. Two elevator system shipsets were weighed, and results validated the 26% predicted weight reduction. The program is on schedule.

  11. Short communication: Effects of dairy calf hutch elevation on heat reduction, carbon dioxide concentration, air circulation, and respiratory rates.

    PubMed

    Moore, D A; Duprau, J L; Wenz, J R

    2012-07-01

    Heat stress affects dairy calf welfare and can result in morbidity, mortality, and lower weight gain. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effects of elevating the back of plastic calf hutches on measures of ventilation and heat stress. A total of 15 calves housed in individual hutches were enrolled, with each calf hutch serving as its own control. Heat, humidity, carbon dioxide, and wind speed were measured inside each hutch and the observations were compared with external measurements over two 24-h periods; 1 period without and 1 with hutch elevation. Respiratory rates were measured in the morning and afternoon as an indicator of the degree of heat stress experienced by calves with and without elevation of the hutch. When the hutch was elevated, internal hutch temperatures were cooler than external temperatures, hutch carbon dioxide levels were lower and respiratory rates were lower, particularly comparing the afternoon observation periods.

  12. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamber, J. L.; Griggs, J. A.; Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Gogineni, S. P.; Howat, I.; Mouginot, J.; Paden, J.; Palmer, S.; Rignot, E.; Steinhage, D.

    2013-03-01

    We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2012. Around 420 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with roughly 70% of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non-glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM) over the entire island including across the glaciated-ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice thickness was determined where an ice shelf exists from a combination of surface elevation and radar soundings. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings for significant sectors of the ice sheet. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±10 m to about ±300 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new datasets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes in ice dynamics most marked. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land-ice mask would raise mean sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  13. Precipitation, Elevation and Relief in the Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, A. M.; Nesbitt, S. W.; Gemperline, J.

    2011-12-01

    TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite precipitation radar data indicate that near-surface precipitation rates vary as a function of elevation in distinct ways in different mountain ranges across the tropics. Regional maximum precipitation rates are found at very low elevation in India's Western Ghats, Hawaii, and Eastern Australia. In New Guinea, the Northern Andes, and Taiwan, the locally maximum precipitation rates occur at moderate elevations (~1000 m). Regional maximum precipitation rates occur at very high elevation (>2000 m) in the African Rift Valley and Mexico's Sierra Madre Occidental. We present a simple model to explain the occurrence of these different relationships between precipitation and elevation as a function of large-scale atmospheric conditions, including those related to flow, moisture, and lower-tropospheric static stability. Additionally, we note that spatial variability in precipitation corresponds with spatial variability in ridge-valley relief in several tropical mountain ranges. We examine topography derived from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data and precipitation patterns in swaths cutting perpendicular to the strike of these mountain ranges. Ridge-valley relief is defined as the standard deviation of topographic elevation parallel to the strike of the range. Ridge-valley relief varies systematically across several mountain ranges in concert with annual average precipitation. Where precipitation rates are high, ridge-valley relief is diminished and where precipitation rates are low, ridge-valley relief is maximized. The correspondence of precipitation and relief suggest a dynamic interaction between orographic precipitation and topographic development and confirms the predictions of an idealized numerical model of the co-evolution of precipitation and topography.

  14. Forest succession at elevated CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2002-02-01

    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response.

  15. Weight gain in smokers after quitting cigarettes: meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Amanda; Lycett, Deborah; Lahmek, Pierre; Aveyard, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe weight gain and its variation in smokers who achieve prolonged abstinence for up to 12 months and who quit without treatment or use drugs to assist cessation. Design Meta-analysis. Data sources We searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and trials listed in Cochrane reviews of smoking cessation interventions (nicotine replacement therapy, nicotinic partial agonists, antidepressants, and exercise) for randomised trials of first line treatments (nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline) and exercise that reported weight change. We also searched CENTRAL for trials of interventions for weight gain after cessation. Review methods Trials were included if they recorded weight change from baseline to follow-up in abstinent smokers. We used a random effects inverse variance model to calculate the mean and 95% confidence intervals and the mean of the standard deviation for weight change from baseline to one, two, three, six, and 12 months after quitting. We explored subgroup differences using random effects meta-regression. Results 62 studies were included. In untreated quitters, mean weight gain was 1.12 kg (95% confidence interval 0.76 to 1.47), 2.26 kg (1.98 to 2.54), 2.85 kg (2.42 to 3.28), 4.23 kg (3.69 to 4.77), and 4.67 kg (3.96 to 5.38) at one, two, three, six, and 12 months after quitting, respectively. Using the means and weighted standard deviations, we calculated that at 12 months after cessation, 16%, 37%, 34%, and 13% of untreated quitters lost weight, and gained less than 5 kg, gained 5-10 kg, and gained more than 10 kg, respectively. Estimates of weight gain were similar for people using different pharmacotherapies to support cessation. Estimates were also similar between people especially concerned about weight gain and those not concerned. Conclusion Smoking cessation is associated with a mean increase of 4-5 kg in body weight after 12 months of abstinence, and most weight gain occurs within three

  16. site plan, floor plan, southeast and east elevations, detail showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    site plan, floor plan, southeast and east elevations, detail showing original front entrance, interior detail showing fireplace in elevation - Neiman House, 1930 Providence Road, Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, NC

  17. MTR, TRA603. WEST ELEVATION. HOOD VENT. FREIGHT ELEVATOR. SECTION THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. WEST ELEVATION. HOOD VENT. FREIGHT ELEVATOR. SECTION THROUGH SECOND AND THIRD FLOORS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-8, 7/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100567, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. CryoSat-2 swath interferometric altimetry for mapping polar land ice terrain and elevation change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourmelen, N.; Escorihuela, M. J.; Foresta, L.; Shepherd, A.; Muir, A.; Hogg, A. E.; Roca, M.; Nagler, T.; Baker, S.; Drinkwater, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reference and repeat-observations of Glacier and Ice Sheet Margin (GISM) topography are critical to identify changes in ice thickness, provide estimates of mass gain or loss and thus quantify the contribution of the cryosphere to sea level change. The lack of such sustained observations was identified in the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) Cryosphere Theme Report as a major shortcoming. Conventional altimetry measurements over GISMs exist, but coverage has been sparse and characterized by coarse ground resolution. Additionally, and more importantly, they proved ineffective in the presence of steep slopes, a typical feature of GISM areas. Since the majority of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass loss is estimated to lie within 100 km from the coast, but only about 10% is surveyed, there is the need for more robust and dense observations of GISMs, in both time and space. The ESA Altimetry mission CryoSat aims at gaining better insight into the evolution of the Cryosphere. CryoSat's revolutionary design features a Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL), with two antennas for interferometry. The corresponding SAR Interferometer (SARIn) mode of operation increases spatial resolution while resolving the angular origin of off-nadir echoes occurring over sloping terrain. The SARIn mode is activated over GISMs and the elevation for the Point Of Closest Approach (POCA) is a standard product of the CryoSat mission. Here we present, through a wide range of examples in Polar settings, a new approach for more comprehensively exploiting the SARIn mode of CryoSat and produce ice elevation and elevation change with enhanced spatial resolution compared to standard CryoSat elevation products. In this so-called CryoSat Swath SARIn (CSSARIn) approach, the signal beyond the POCA is analysed, leading to between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude more elevation measurements than conventional approaches, and providing elevation where conventional POCA fails. We will

  19. Evaluation of Experimental Data from the GAINS Balloon GPS Surface Reflection Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gance, George G.; Johnson, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The GPS Surface Reflection Instrument was integrated as an experiment on the GAINS (Global Airocean IN-situ System) 48-hour balloon mission flown in September 2001. The data collected by similar instruments in the past has been used to measure sea state from which ocean surface winds can be accurately estimated. The GPS signal has also been shown to be reflected from wetland areas and even from subsurface moisture. The current version of the instrument has been redesigned to be more compact, use less power, and withstand a greater variation in environmental conditions than previous versions. This instrument has also incorporated a new data collection mode to track 5 direct satellites (providing a continuous navigation solution) and multiplex the remaining 7 channels to track the reflected signal of the satellite tracked in channel 0. The new software mode has been shown to increase the signal to noise ratio of the collected data and enhance the science return of the instrument. During the 48-hour flight over the Northwest US, the instrument will measure surface reflections that can be detected over the balloon's ground track. Since ground surface elevations in this area vary widely from the WGS-84 ellipsoid altitude, the instrument software has been modified to incorporate a surface altitude correction based on USGS 30-minute Digital Elevation Models. Information presented will include facts about instrument design goals, data collection methodologies and algorithms, and results of the science data analyses for the 48-hour mission.

  20. Exercise during pregnancy and its association with gestational weight gain.

    PubMed

    Harris, Shericka T; Liu, Jihong; Wilcox, Sara; Moran, Robert; Gallagher, Alexa

    2015-03-01

    We examined the association between exercise during pregnancy and meeting gestational weight gain recommendations. Data came from the 2009 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (n = 856). Women reported their participation in exercise/sports activities before and during pregnancy, including the number of months and types of exercise. We developed an exercise index (EI), the product of the number of months spent in exercise and average metabolic equivalents for specific exercise. The 2009 Institute of Medicine's guideline was used to categorize gestational weight gain into three classes: inadequate, adequate, and excessive. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to adjust for confounders. Over 46 % of women exceeded the recommended weight gain during pregnancy. Nearly one third (31.9 %) of women reported exercising ≥3 times a week at any time during pregnancy. Compared to women who did not report this level of exercise during pregnancy, exercising women were more likely to meet gestational weight gain recommendations (32.7 vs. 18.7 %) and had a lower odds of excessive gestational weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.43, 95 % confidence interval 0.24-0.78]. Women with an EI above the median value of those women who exercised or women who exercised ≥3 times a week for 6-9 months during pregnancy had lower odds of excessive gestational weight gain (AOR for EI 0.20, 0.08-0.49; AOR for months 0.26, 0.12-0.56, respectively). Our findings support the need to promote or increase exercise during pregnancy to reduce the high proportion of women who are gaining excessive weight.

  1. Global Patterns of Protein Domain Gain and Loss in Superkingdoms

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Kyung Mo; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Domains are modules within proteins that can fold and function independently and are evolutionarily conserved. Here we compared the usage and distribution of protein domain families in the free-living proteomes of Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya and reconstructed species phylogenies while tracing the history of domain emergence and loss in proteomes. We show that both gains and losses of domains occurred frequently during proteome evolution. The rate of domain discovery increased approximately linearly in evolutionary time. Remarkably, gains generally outnumbered losses and the gain-to-loss ratios were much higher in akaryotes compared to eukaryotes. Functional annotations of domain families revealed that both Archaea and Bacteria gained and lost metabolic capabilities during the course of evolution while Eukarya acquired a number of diverse molecular functions including those involved in extracellular processes, immunological mechanisms, and cell regulation. Results also highlighted significant contemporary sharing of informational enzymes between Archaea and Eukarya and metabolic enzymes between Bacteria and Eukarya. Finally, the analysis provided useful insights into the evolution of species. The archaeal superkingdom appeared first in evolution by gradual loss of ancestral domains, bacterial lineages were the first to gain superkingdom-specific domains, and eukaryotes (likely) originated when an expanding proto-eukaryotic stem lineage gained organelles through endosymbiosis of already diversified bacterial lineages. The evolutionary dynamics of domain families in proteomes and the increasing number of domain gains is predicted to redefine the persistence strategies of organisms in superkingdoms, influence the make up of molecular functions, and enhance organismal complexity by the generation of new domain architectures. This dynamics highlights ongoing secondary evolutionary adaptations in akaryotic microbes, especially Archaea. PMID:24499935

  2. DSS 43 antenna gain analysis for Voyager Uranus encounter: 8.45-GHz radio science data correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slobin, S. D.; Imbriale, W. A.

    1987-01-01

    A malfunction of the Deep Space Network (DSN) 64-meter antenna in Australia forced the antenna to operate with a mispositioned subreflector during the Voyager Uranus encounter period (January 24, 1986). Because of changing main reflector shape and quadripod position as a function of elevation angle, the antenna gain and pointing were not as expected, and the 8.45 GHz received signal level changed during the pass. The study described here used the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) analysis to determine actual antenna gain and pointing during that period in an attempt to reconstruct the radio science data. It is found that the 1.4 dB of signal variation can be accounted for by antenna geometry changes and pointing error. Suggested modifications to the values measured during the pass are presented. Additionally, an extremely useful tool for the analysis of gravity deformed reflectors was developed for use in future antenna design and analysis projects.

  3. Climatic change at high elevation sites

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Henry F. Diaz

    1998-07-23

    A Workshop on climatic change at high elevation sites was held September 11-15, 1995 in Wengen, Switzerland. The meeting was sponsored by both U.S. (Department of Energy, National Science Foundation and National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) and European (Swiss National Science Foundation, European Science Foundation, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) agencies. The goals of the workshop were to (1) focus the attention of the world climate community on the existence of unique high elevation geophysical records around the world, (2) highlight the value of these observing sites for climate change detection efforts and to help insure the continued support of governments and of relevant institutions in the maintenance of these high elevation data gathering efforts, (3) discuss and evaluate climatic trends that may be present in these records, and to compare the information with available paleoenvironmental records of glaciers, tree-rings and varved sediments from the alpine zones, and (4) discuss and evaluate information about elevational differences in current and projected greenhouse-gas induced climatic changes in coupled General Circulation Models.

  4. 76 FR 3531 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  5. Elevation correction factor for absolute pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, Joseph W.; Sorrells, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    With the arrival of highly accurate multi-port pressure measurement systems, conditions that previously did not affect overall system accuracy must now be scrutinized closely. Errors caused by elevation differences between pressure sensing elements and model pressure taps can be quantified and corrected. With multi-port pressure measurement systems, the sensing elements are connected to pressure taps that may be many feet away. The measurement system may be at a different elevation than the pressure taps due to laboratory space or test article constraints. This difference produces a pressure gradient that is inversely proportional to height within the interface tube. The pressure at the bottom of the tube will be higher than the pressure at the top due to the weight of the tube's column of air. Tubes with higher pressures will exhibit larger absolute errors due to the higher air density. The above effect is well documented but has generally been taken into account with large elevations only. With error analysis techniques, the loss in accuracy from elevation can be easily quantified. Correction factors can be applied to maintain the high accuracies of new pressure measurement systems.

  6. 77 FR 46972 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  7. 77 FR 3625 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  8. 75 FR 23608 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  9. 75 FR 5894 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  10. 75 FR 78926 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  11. 75 FR 59095 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  12. 77 FR 76929 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  13. 77 FR 74610 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  14. 75 FR 78617 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  15. 76 FR 50443 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In proposed rule document 2011-16640 appearing on pages 39063 through 39067 in the issue...

  16. 77 FR 6980 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  17. 75 FR 77762 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  18. 78 FR 33991 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  19. 77 FR 41323 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  20. 78 FR 6745 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  1. 78 FR 27 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  2. 76 FR 61279 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In rule document 2011-15507, beginning on page 36373, in the issue of Wednesday June 22, 2011,...

  3. 75 FR 23600 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  4. 76 FR 61295 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In proposed rule document 2011-21709 appearing on pages 53082-53086 in the issue of August...

  5. 77 FR 18766 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations... located on the stream reach between the referenced locations above. Please refer to the revised...

  6. 75 FR 23595 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  7. 75 FR 34381 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  8. 78 FR 6743 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  9. 77 FR 46980 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  10. 76 FR 12308 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In proposed rule document 2011-2281 beginning on page 5769 in the issue of Wednesday, February...

  11. 75 FR 3885 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations... locations above. Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located at the community...

  12. 77 FR 6976 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  13. 78 FR 5738 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  14. 75 FR 43418 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  15. Troponin elevation after black widow spider envenomation.

    PubMed

    Bush, Sean P; Davy, J Veeran

    2015-09-01

    Black widow spider envenomation generally results in self-limiting pain that can be treated in the emergency department (ED) with analgesics and benzodiazepines, usually with no further intervention. Occasionally, a patient has to be admitted or treated with antivenom for refractory pain or a venom-induced complication. We present the case of an 84-year-old man who presented to our ED with chest pain and dyspnea after being bitten on the foot by a western black widow spider (Lactrodectus hesperus). His initial cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was elevated at 0.07 ng/ml and continued to rise to a peak of 0.17 ng/ml. He also had rhabdomyolysis, another uncommon complication of black widow envenomation. An elevated cTnI generally signifies myocardial injury and is rarely seen after black widow envenomation. We discuss the possible etiologies for an elevated cardiac biomarker, in this context, and review potentially serious complications of widow spider envenomation presenting with chest symptoms and an elevated cardiac biomarker.

  16. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  19. 77 FR 49367 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the ] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  2. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  3. Patterns of intron gain and conservation in eukaryotic genes

    PubMed Central

    Carmel, Liran; Rogozin, Igor B; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2007-01-01

    Background: The presence of introns in protein-coding genes is a universal feature of eukaryotic genome organization, and the genes of multicellular eukaryotes, typically, contain multiple introns, a substantial fraction of which share position in distant taxa, such as plants and animals. Depending on the methods and data sets used, researchers have reached opposite conclusions on the causes of the high fraction of shared introns in orthologous genes from distant eukaryotes. Some studies conclude that shared intron positions reflect, almost entirely, a remarkable evolutionary conservation, whereas others attribute it to parallel gain of introns. To resolve these contradictions, it is crucial to analyze the evolution of introns by using a model that minimally relies on arbitrary assumptions. Results: We developed a probabilistic model of evolution that allows for variability of intron gain and loss rates over branches of the phylogenetic tree, individual genes, and individual sites. Applying this model to an extended set of conserved eukaryotic genes, we find that parallel gain, on average, accounts for only ~8% of the shared intron positions. However, the distribution of parallel gains over the phylogenetic tree of eukaryotes is highly non-uniform. There are, practically, no parallel gains in closely related lineages, whereas for distant lineages, such as animals and plants, parallel gains appear to contribute up to 20% of the shared intron positions. In accord with these findings, we estimated that ancestral introns have a high probability to be retained in extant genomes, and conversely, that a substantial fraction of extant introns have retained their positions since the early stages of eukaryotic evolution. In addition, the density of sites that are available for intron insertion is estimated to be, approximately, one in seven basepairs. Conclusion: We obtained robust estimates of the contribution of parallel gain to the observed sharing of intron positions

  4. Dieting and restrained eating as prospective predictors of weight gain.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Doshi, Sapna D; Katterman, Shawn N; Feig, Emily H

    2013-09-02

    Research in normal weight individuals paradoxically suggests that measures of attempted eating restriction might represent robust predictors of weight gain. This review examined the extent to which measures of dieting (e.g., self-reported weight loss dieting in the past year) and dietary restraint (e.g., the Cognitive Restraint scale from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) have prospectively predicted weight change. We located and reviewed 25 prospective studies containing 40 relevant comparisons. Studies were limited to those in which participants were non-obese (with a mean BMI between 18.5 and 30) and averaged at least 12 years old. Neither measure predicted future weight loss. Fifteen of the 20 comparisons (75%) that examined measures of dieting significantly predicted future weight gain whereas only 1 of 20 (5%) that examined restrained eating measures did so. Two plausible explanations for these findings are that: (1) dieters and restrained eaters do not differ in terms of an underlying proneness toward weight gain, but restrained eating represents a more effective means of preventing it; and (2) normal weight individuals who diet do so because they are resisting a powerful predisposition toward weight gain which dieting ultimately fails to prevent. Recent dieting in non-obese individuals may be a valuable proxy of susceptibility to weight gain. This easily assessed characteristic could identify individuals for whom obesity prevention interventions would be particularly appropriate.

  5. Direct and Indirect Approaches to Increasing Conceptual Survey Gains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Patrick B.; Pearl, Charles; Kuo, H. Vincent

    2010-10-01

    Conceptual surveys like the FCI and CSEM are common, and course reforms often have the goal of improving student gains on these surveys. There exist various approaches to improving said gains, and there is occasionally concern that such methods "teach to the test" excessively. To our knowledge, however, there has been little direct experimentation on whether teaching to the test, even intentionally, has the expected result. In this paper, we report on a simple two-semester experiment involving ˜900 students where we tried two different approaches to improving CSEM gains in an introductory E&M class. In the first trial, we gave students many of the questions from the CSEM as Peer Instruction-style clicker questions in lecture. In the second, we redeveloped parts of our Studio physics curriculum to target CSEM concepts without replicating CSEM questions. Comparing the CSEM gains in the experimental sections to the previous year's sections, we find that the first trial resulted in significant (˜0.20) shifts in normalized gains on the relevant questions, while the second trial resulted in minimal or no shifts.

  6. Obesity and diabetes genetic variants associated with gestational weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Stuebe, Alison M.; Lyon, Helen; Herring, Amy; Ghosh, Joyee; Wise, Alison; North, Kari E.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether genetic variants associated with diabetes and obesity predict gestational weight gain. Study Design 960 participants in the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition cohorts were genotyped for 27 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with diabetes and obesity. Results Among white and black women (n=960), KCNQ1 risk allele carriage was directly associated with weight gain (p < 0.01). In Bayesian hierarchical models among white women (N=628), we found posterior odds ratios > 3 for inclusion of TCF2 and THADA SNPs in our models. Among black women (n=332), we found associations between risk allele carriage and weight gain for the THADA and INSIG2 SNPs. In Bayesian variable selection models, we found an interaction between the TSPAN8 risk allele and pre-gravid obesity, with lower weight gain among obese risk allele carriers. Conclusion We found evidence that diabetes and obesity risk alleles interact with maternal pre-gravid BMI to predict gestational weight gain. PMID:20816152

  7. Weight gain in freshman college students and perceived health

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, Paul; Hanck, Christoph; Neisingh, Marjolein; Prak, Dennis; Groen, Henk; Faas, Marijke M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We determined body weight increase in first year Dutch college students. We had the objective to determine whether the awareness of the unhealthy lifestyle raised concerns and willingness to change habits. Methods Body weight, heartbeat, BMI, body fat percentages, and blood pressure values were collected from 1095 students. Comprehensive statistical analysis was performed on the data. Results The students had a mean weight gain of 1.1 kg and an average BMI gain of 0.35. Members of a student corps gained significantly more weight (1.6 ± 3.1 kg) than non-members (1.0 ± 2.5 kg), while students who are living independently gained an average of 0.5 kg more than students living with their parents (p < 0.05). Approximately 40% of the students changed their eating patterns and 30.7% of the students consumed more alcohol. Conclusions Students experienced hindrance in physical exercise and mental well-being. Students with a high BMI without irregular eating habits were willing to change their lifestyle. However, students who had irregular lifestyles exhibited the lowest willingness to change their eating behaviors and to lose weight. Our study provides insight into means by which adolescents at high risk for weight gain can be approached to improve experienced quality of life. PMID:26844076

  8. ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain.

    PubMed

    Soci, C; Zhang, A; Xiang, B; Dayeh, S A; Aplin, D P R; Park, J; Bao, X Y; Lo, Y H; Wang, D

    2007-04-01

    ZnO nanowire (NW) visible-blind UV photodetectors with internal photoconductive gain as high as G approximately 108 have been fabricated and characterized. The photoconduction mechanism in these devices has been elucidated by means of time-resolved measurements spanning a wide temporal domain, from 10-9 to 102 s, revealing the coexistence of fast (tau approximately 20 ns) and slow (tau approximately 10 s) components of the carrier relaxation dynamics. The extremely high photoconductive gain is attributed to the presence of oxygen-related hole-trap states at the NW surface, which prevents charge-carrier recombination and prolongs the photocarrier lifetime, as evidenced by the sensitivity of the photocurrrent to ambient conditions. Surprisingly, this mechanism appears to be effective even at the shortest time scale investigated of t < 1 ns. Despite the slow relaxation time, the extremely high internal gain of ZnO NW photodetectors results in gain-bandwidth products (GB) higher than approximately 10 GHz. The high gain and low power consumption of NW photodetectors promise a new generation of phototransistors for applications such as sensing, imaging, and intrachip optical interconnects.

  9. Food groups and weight gain in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Ibe, Y; Takahashi, Y; Sone, H

    2014-06-01

    Identifying subjects at high risk of weight gain according to consumption of food groups is important for individualizing nutritional education, but prospective studies of this issue have been few. We determined whether intake of specific food groups could predict future weight gain. We evaluated data from health checkups on 1236 Japanese men aged 28 to 87 years in 2005 and 2006. Dietary intake was assessed by a 24-h dietary recall at baseline. Weight change was measured after 1 year. Weight increased in 44.7% (n = 553) of participants. Multivariate regression analysis involving many food groups showed a significant association between sugar intake and weight gain after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), total energy intake, alcohol, smoking and regular physical exercise (β = 0.22, P = 0.04). The effect of intake of 'fats and oils' was significant when adjusted for age and BMI, however, it became insignificant after adjustment for age, BMI and total energy intake. Intake of sugar, which was evaluated as a food group, was predictive of subsequent weight gain among Japanese men, even after adjustment for many confounders. This corroborates the evidence so far concerning the links between sugar intake and weight gain. Further long-term research is required to give robust recommendation to the public.

  10. Hitchhiking selection is driving intron gain in a pathogenic fungus.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Patrick C; Torriani, Stefano F F; Croll, Daniel; Stukenbrock, Eva H; McDonald, Bruce A

    2014-07-01

    The variability of intron density among eukaryotes is puzzling and still debated. Most previous studies have been limited because of the near absence of intron presence-absence polymorphism (IPAP) within species or because comparisons could be made only between distantly related species. We conducted population genetic analyses on eight loci showing IPAP to investigate the effect of natural selection on intron dynamics in a global collection of the panmictic fungal plant pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici and its very close relatives. Five of these loci likely represent recent intron gains because their absence is fixed among the closest relatives of Z. tritici, and three likely represent recent intron losses because their presence is fixed among the close relatives. We analyzed signatures of selection by comparing allele frequencies, nucleotide diversities, and rates of recombination and found compelling evidence that at least two out of the five intron-gain loci, a SWIM zinc-finger gene and a sugar transporter, are under directional selection favoring alleles that gained the intron. Our results suggest that the intron-present alleles of these loci are sweeping to fixation, providing a genetic hitchhiking mechanism to explain rapid intron gain in Z. tritici. The overall findings are consistent with the hypothesis that intron gains are more likely to be driven by selection while intron losses are more likely to be due to neutral processes such as genetic drift.

  11. Neural Net Gains Estimation Based on an Equivalent Model

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar Cruz, Karen Alicia; Medel Juárez, José de Jesús; Fernández Muñoz, José Luis; Esmeralda Vigueras Velázquez, Midory

    2016-01-01

    A model of an Equivalent Artificial Neural Net (EANN) describes the gains set, viewed as parameters in a layer, and this consideration is a reproducible process, applicable to a neuron in a neural net (NN). The EANN helps to estimate the NN gains or parameters, so we propose two methods to determine them. The first considers a fuzzy inference combined with the traditional Kalman filter, obtaining the equivalent model and estimating in a fuzzy sense the gains matrix A and the proper gain K into the traditional filter identification. The second develops a direct estimation in state space, describing an EANN using the expected value and the recursive description of the gains estimation. Finally, a comparison of both descriptions is performed; highlighting the analytical method describes the neural net coefficients in a direct form, whereas the other technique requires selecting into the Knowledge Base (KB) the factors based on the functional error and the reference signal built with the past information of the system. PMID:27366146

  12. Neural Net Gains Estimation Based on an Equivalent Model.

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cruz, Karen Alicia; Medel Juárez, José de Jesús; Fernández Muñoz, José Luis; Esmeralda Vigueras Velázquez, Midory

    2016-01-01

    A model of an Equivalent Artificial Neural Net (EANN) describes the gains set, viewed as parameters in a layer, and this consideration is a reproducible process, applicable to a neuron in a neural net (NN). The EANN helps to estimate the NN gains or parameters, so we propose two methods to determine them. The first considers a fuzzy inference combined with the traditional Kalman filter, obtaining the equivalent model and estimating in a fuzzy sense the gains matrix A and the proper gain K into the traditional filter identification. The second develops a direct estimation in state space, describing an EANN using the expected value and the recursive description of the gains estimation. Finally, a comparison of both descriptions is performed; highlighting the analytical method describes the neural net coefficients in a direct form, whereas the other technique requires selecting into the Knowledge Base (KB) the factors based on the functional error and the reference signal built with the past information of the system.

  13. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, J. A.; Bamber, J. L.; Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Dowdesewell, J. A.; Gogineni, S. P.; Howat, I.; Mouginot, J.; Paden, J.; Palmer, S.; Rignot, E.; Steinhage, D.

    2012-11-01

    We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2011. Around 344 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with the majority of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM) over the entire island including across the glaciated/ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice shelf thickness was determined where a floating tongue exists, in particular in the north. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings near the ice sheet margin and 2.5 km in the interior. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±6 m to about ±200 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new data sets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes most marked. We use the new bed and surface DEMs to calculate the hydraulic potential for subglacial flow and present the large scale pattern of water routing. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land/ice mask would raise eustatic sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  14. Hurricane Wilma's impact on overall soil elevation and zones within the soil profile in a mangrove forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whelan, K.R.T.; Smith, T. J.; Anderson, G.H.; Ouellette, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Soil elevation affects tidal inundation period, inundation frequency, and overall hydroperiod, all of which are important ecological factors affecting species recruitment, composition, and survival in wetlands. Hurricanes can dramatically affect a site's soil elevation. We assessed the impact of Hurricane Wilma (2005) on soil elevation at a mangrove forest location along the Shark River in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Using multiple depth surface elevation tables (SETs) and marker horizons we measured soil accretion, erosion, and soil elevation. We partitioned the effect of Hurricane Wilma's storm deposit into four constituent soil zones: surface (accretion) zone, shallow zone (0–0.35 m), middle zone (0.35–4 m), and deep zone (4–6 m). We report expansion and contraction of each soil zone. Hurricane Wilma deposited 37.0 (± 3.0 SE) mm of material; however, the absolute soil elevation change was + 42.8 mm due to expansion in the shallow soil zone. One year post-hurricane, the soil profile had lost 10.0 mm in soil elevation, with 8.5 mm of the loss due to erosion. The remaining soil elevation loss was due to compaction from shallow subsidence. We found prolific growth of new fine rootlets (209 ± 34 SE g m−2) in the storm deposited material suggesting that deposits may become more stable in the near future (i.e., erosion rate will decrease). Surficial erosion and belowground processes both played an important role in determining the overall soil elevation. Expansion and contraction in the shallow soil zone may be due to hydrology, and in the middle and bottom soil zones due to shallow subsidence. Findings thus far indicate that soil elevation has made substantial gains compared to site specific relative sea-level rise, but data trends suggest that belowground processes, which differ by soil zone, may come to dominate the long term ecological impact of storm deposit.

  15. Scientific reasoning and FCI gains for a Community College population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diff, Karim; Tache, N.

    2007-05-01

    In a recent paper (AJP, 73:1172, (2005)), Coletta and Phillips have found positive correlations between pre-instruction scores and normalized gains on the FCI, as well as between scores on the Lawson classroom test of scientific reasoning and normalized FCI gains. This poster presents results from a similar study conducted with a community college population. Students from seven different physics classes taught by three different instructors were tested during the fall semester. Students were further grouped in three different levels of physics ( applied physics, algebra-based physics, calculus-based physics). In addition to analyzing the correlations between the FCI gains and the scores on the Lawson test, we discuss the interactive engagement techniques used by the instructors and the most significant differences between the performances of the three groups of students.

  16. Note: Non-gain microchannel plate gated framing camera

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Houzhi; Peng Xiang; Liu Jinyuan; Niu Lihong; Peng Wenda; Niu Hanben; Long Jinghua

    2011-05-15

    An x-ray framing camera using a non-gain microchannel plate (MCP) is reported in this article. The advantage of the non-gain MCP is the less transit time spread. The non-gain MCP gated framing camera has four microstrip line cathodes with 6 mm in width. The time domain reflectometry curves of the four microstrip lines are measured, which show that the characteristic impedance of each microstrip line is about 17 {Omega}. While the photocathode is driven by the gating electrical pulse with width of 125 ps and amplitude of -1.48 kV with -400 V bias, the measured exposure time of this camera is about 72 ps.

  17. Note: Non-gain microchannel plate gated framing camera.

    PubMed

    Cai, Houzhi; Liu, Jinyuan; Peng, Xiang; Niu, Lihong; Peng, Wenda; Niu, Hanben; Long, Jinghua

    2011-05-01

    An x-ray framing camera using a non-gain microchannel plate (MCP) is reported in this article. The advantage of the non-gain MCP is the less transit time spread. The non-gain MCP gated framing camera has four microstrip line cathodes with 6 mm in width. The time domain reflectometry curves of the four microstrip lines are measured, which show that the characteristic impedance of each microstrip line is about 17 Ω. While the photocathode is driven by the gating electrical pulse with width of 125 ps and amplitude of -1.48 kV with -400 V bias, the measured exposure time of this camera is about 72 ps.

  18. Gains in fluid ability performance and their relationship to cortisol.

    PubMed

    Kelly, K S; Hayslip, B

    2000-01-01

    The present analyses examined the relationship between cortisol and performance gains in crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) ability, as well as the relationship to measures of everyday cognitive functioning in a sample of 73 older adults. The analyses were part of a larger study examining the impact of anxiety-reduction training on everyday tasks. Cortisol was assessed via urine sampling. Results indicated that there was a significant negative correlation between cortisol and performance gains for Gf, replicating earlier findings reported by our laboratory. These findings also extend the relationship to cortisol measured in urine; previous analyses were conducted using serum-based cortisol. Cortisol was also significantly related to performance gains in some measures of everyday cognitive functioning.

  19. Use of the variable gain settings on SPOT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, P.S.

    1989-01-01

    Often the brightness or digital number (DN) range of satellite image data is less than optimal and uses only a portion of the available values (0 to 255) because the range of reflectance values is small. Most imaging systems have been designed with only two gain settings, normal and high. The SPOT High Resolution Visible (HRV) imaging system has the capability to collect image data using one of eight different gain settings. With the proper procedure this allows the brightness or reflectance resolution, which is directly related to the range of DN values recorded, to be optimized for any given site as compared to using a single set of gain settings everywhere. -from Author

  20. Characteristics of current filamentation in high gain photoconductive semiconductor switching

    SciTech Connect

    Zutavern, F J; Loubriel, G M; O'Malley, M W; Helgeson, W D; McLaughlin, D L; Denison, G J

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of current filamentation are reported for high gain photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS). Infrared photoluminescence is used to monitor carrier recombination radiation during fast initiation of high gain switching in large (1.5 cm gap) lateral GaAs PCSS. Spatial modulation of the optical trigger, a 200--300 ps pulse width laser, is examined. Effects on the location and number of current filaments, rise time, and delay to high gain switching, minimum trigger energy, and degradation of switch contacts are presented. Implications of these measurements for the theoretical understanding and practical development of these switches are discussed. Efforts to increase current density and reduce switch size and optical trigger energy requirements are described. Results from contact development and device lifetime testing are presented and the impact of these results on practical device applications is discussed.

  1. Information Gain Based Dimensionality Selection for Classifying Text Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2013-06-01

    Selecting the optimal dimensions for various knowledge extraction applications is an essential component of data mining. Dimensionality selection techniques are utilized in classification applications to increase the classification accuracy and reduce the computational complexity. In text classification, where the dimensionality of the dataset is extremely high, dimensionality selection is even more important. This paper presents a novel, genetic algorithm based methodology, for dimensionality selection in text mining applications that utilizes information gain. The presented methodology uses information gain of each dimension to change the mutation probability of chromosomes dynamically. Since the information gain is calculated a priori, the computational complexity is not affected. The presented method was tested on a specific text classification problem and compared with conventional genetic algorithm based dimensionality selection. The results show an improvement of 3% in the true positives and 1.6% in the true negatives over conventional dimensionality selection methods.

  2. Gain spectrum in gated x-ray MCPs

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrala, George A; Oertel, John A; Archuleta, Thomas N; Holder, Joe

    2009-01-01

    The gain spectrum in a gated multichannel intensifier output depends on the gain and spatial averaging. The spectrum affects the minimum signal that can be detected as well as the signal to noise in the detected images. We will present data on the gain-spectrum for the GXD detector, a gated x-ray detector to be used at the National Ignition Facility. The data was recorded on a cooled CCD detector, with an x-ray gating time of approximately 75 ps, selected from a range of 0.2 and 1 ns electrical pulse width determined by pulse forming modules were also used. The detector was characterized at the TRIDENT laser facility, using a 2.4 ns long x-ray at 4.75 keV. The x-rays were generated by the interaction of the focused Trident laser beam with a Titanium target.

  3. Optofluidic lasers with a single molecular layer of gain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiushu; Ritt, Michael; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; Sun, Yuze; Fan, Xudong

    2014-12-21

    We achieve optofluidic lasers with a single molecular layer of gain, in which green fluorescent protein, dye-labeled bovine serum albumin, and dye-labeled DNA, are used as the gain medium and attached to the surface of a ring resonator via surface immobilization biochemical methods. It is estimated that the surface density of the gain molecules is on the order of 10(12) cm(-2), sufficient for lasing under pulsed optical excitation. It is further shown that the optofluidic laser can be tuned by energy transfer mechanisms through biomolecular interactions. This work not only opens a door to novel photonic devices that can be controlled at the level of a single molecular layer but also provides a promising sensing platform to analyze biochemical processes at the solid-liquid interface.

  4. Measuring Student Gains in Understanding the Process of Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rector, Travis A.; Krok, M.; Young, M.

    2011-05-01

    We have developed a "Research-Based Science Education" (RBSE) curriculum in which undergraduate non-science majors participate in authentic astrophysical research in the "astro 101" setting. The primary goal of the RBSE curriculum is to develop a student's understanding of the nature of scientific research; i.e. that science is not just a body of knowledge but a process by which knowledge is gained. The RBSE curriculum is now being tested at seven partner institutions. To measure student gains in understanding the process of scientific research we use a modified concept mapping methodology. We will present the methodology, identified student misconceptions about the process of science, and initial results on measured student gains. This work is supported through NSF DUE-CCLI grant 0920293.

  5. Short-Term Moderately Elevated Intraocular Pressure Is Associated With Elevated Scotopic Electroretinogram Responses

    PubMed Central

    Choh, Vivian; Gurdita, Akshay; Tan, Bingyao; Prasad, Ratna C.; Bizheva, Kostadinka; Joos, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Moderately elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma. Some patients suffer glaucoma despite clinically measured normal IOPs. Fluctuations in IOP may have a significant role since IOPs are higher during sleep and inversion activities. Controlled transient elevations of IOPs in rats over time lead to optic nerve structural changes that are similar to the early changes observed in constant chronic models of glaucoma. Because early intervention decreases glaucoma progression, this study was done to determine if early physiological changes to the retina could be detected with noninvasive electrophysiological and optical imaging tests during moderately elevated IOP. Methods Intraocular pressures were raised to moderately high levels (35 mm Hg) in one eye of Sprague-Dawley rats while the other (control) eye was untreated. One group of rats underwent scotopic threshold response (STR) and electroretinogram (ERG) testing, while another 3 groups underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, Western blot, or histologic evaluation. Results The amplitudes of the STR and ERG responses in eyes with moderately elevated IOPs were enhanced compared to the values before IOP elevation, and compared to untreated contralateral eyes. Structural changes to the optic nerve also occurred during IOP elevation. Conclusions Although ischemic IOP elevations are well-known to globally reduce components of the scotopic ERG, acute elevation in rats to levels often observed in untreated glaucoma patients caused an increase in these parameters. Further exploration of these phenomena may be helpful in better understanding the mechanisms mediating early retinal changes during fluctuating or chronically elevated IOP. PMID:27100161

  6. Derivation of sideband gain ratio for Herschel/HIFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kester, Do; Higgins, Ronan; Teyssier, David

    2017-03-01

    Context. Heterodyne mixers are commonly used for high-resolution spectroscopy at radio telescopes. When used as a double sideband system, the accurate flux calibration of spectral lines acquired by those detectors is highly dependent on the system gains in the respective mixer sidebands via the so-called sideband gain ratio (SBR). As such, the SBR was one of the main contributors to the calibration uncertainty budget of the Herschel/HIFI instrument. Aims: We want to determine the HIFI instrument sideband gain ratio for all bands on a fine frequency grid and within an accuracy of a few percent. Methods: We introduce a novel technique involving in-orbit HIFI data that is bootstrapped onto standard methods involving laboratory data measurements of the SBR. We deconvolved the astronomical data to provide a proxy of the expected signal at every frequency channel, and extracted the sideband gain ratios from the residuals of that process. Results: We determine the HIFI sideband gain ratio to an accuracy varying between 1 and 4%, with degraded accuracy in higher frequency ranges, and at places where the reliability of the technique is lower. These figures were incorporated into the HIFI data processing pipeline and improved the overall flux uncertainty of the legacy data from this instrument. Conclusions: We demonstrate that a modified sideband deconvolution algorithm, using astronomical data in combination with gas cell measurements, can be used to generate an accurate and fine-granularity picture of the sideband gain ratio behaviour of a heterodyne receiver. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  7. Gain Control Network Conditions in Early Sensory Coding

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Eduardo; Nowotny, Thomas; Levi, Rafael; Smith, Brian H.; Huerta, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    Gain control is essential for the proper function of any sensory system. However, the precise mechanisms for achieving effective gain control in the brain are unknown. Based on our understanding of the existence and strength of connections in the insect olfactory system, we analyze the conditions that lead to controlled gain in a randomly connected network of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We consider two scenarios for the variation of input into the system. In the first case, the intensity of the sensory input controls the input currents to a fixed proportion of neurons of the excitatory and inhibitory populations. In the second case, increasing intensity of the sensory stimulus will both, recruit an increasing number of neurons that receive input and change the input current that they receive. Using a mean field approximation for the network activity we derive relationships between the parameters of the network that ensure that the overall level of activity of the excitatory population remains unchanged for increasing intensity of the external stimulation. We find that, first, the main parameters that regulate network gain are the probabilities of connections from the inhibitory population to the excitatory population and of the connections within the inhibitory population. Second, we show that strict gain control is not achievable in a random network in the second case, when the input recruits an increasing number of neurons. Finally, we confirm that the gain control conditions derived from the mean field approximation are valid in simulations of firing rate models and Hodgkin-Huxley conductance based models. PMID:23874176

  8. Coding gains and error rates from the Big Viterbi Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onyszchuk, I. M.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype hardware Big Viterbi Decoder (BVD) was completed for an experiment with the Galileo Spacecraft. Searches for new convolutional codes, studies of Viterbi decoder hardware designs and architectures, mathematical formulations, and decompositions of the deBruijn graph into identical and hierarchical subgraphs, and very large scale integration (VLSI) chip design are just a few examples of tasks completed for this project. The BVD bit error rates (BER), measured from hardware and software simulations, are plotted as a function of bit signal to noise ratio E sub b/N sub 0 on the additive white Gaussian noise channel. Using the constraint length 15, rate 1/4, experimental convolutional code for the Galileo mission, the BVD gains 1.5 dB over the NASA standard (7,1/2) Maximum Likelihood Convolution Decoder (MCD) at a BER of 0.005. At this BER, the same gain results when the (255,233) NASA standard Reed-Solomon decoder is used, which yields a word error rate of 2.1 x 10(exp -8) and a BER of 1.4 x 10(exp -9). The (15, 1/6) code to be used by the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF)/Cassini Missions yields 1.7 dB of coding gain. These gains are measured with respect to symbols input to the BVD and increase with decreasing BER. Also, 8-bit input symbol quantization makes the BVD resistant to demodulated signal-level variations which may cause higher bandwidth than the NASA (7,1/2) code, these gains are offset by about 0.1 dB of expected additional receiver losses. Coding gains of several decibels are possible by compressing all spacecraft data.

  9. Weight Gain following Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A PET Study.

    PubMed

    Sauleau, Paul; Drapier, Sophie; Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Jannin, Pierre; Robert, Gabriel; Le Jeune, Florence; Vérin, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET four months before and four months after the start of GPi-DBS in 19 PD patients. Dopaminergic medication was included in the analysis to control for its possible influence on brain metabolism. Body mass index increased significantly by 0.66 ± 1.3 kg/m2 (p = 0.040). There were correlations between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in premotor areas, including the left and right superior gyri (Brodmann area, BA 6), left superior gyrus (BA 8), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right middle gyrus, BAs 9 and 46), and the left and right somatosensory association cortices (BA 7). However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in limbic and associative areas. Additionally, there was a trend toward a correlation between reduced dyskinesia and weight gain (r = 0.428, p = 0.067). These findings suggest that, unlike STN-DBS, motor improvement is the major contributing factor for weight gain following GPi-DBS PD, confirming the motor selectivity of this target.

  10. Weight Gain following Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A PET Study

    PubMed Central

    Sauleau, Paul; Drapier, Sophie; Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Jannin, Pierre; Robert, Gabriel; Le Jeune, Florence; Vérin, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET four months before and four months after the start of GPi-DBS in 19 PD patients. Dopaminergic medication was included in the analysis to control for its possible influence on brain metabolism. Body mass index increased significantly by 0.66 ± 1.3 kg/m2 (p = 0.040). There were correlations between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in premotor areas, including the left and right superior gyri (Brodmann area, BA 6), left superior gyrus (BA 8), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right middle gyrus, BAs 9 and 46), and the left and right somatosensory association cortices (BA 7). However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in limbic and associative areas. Additionally, there was a trend toward a correlation between reduced dyskinesia and weight gain (r = 0.428, p = 0.067). These findings suggest that, unlike STN-DBS, motor improvement is the major contributing factor for weight gain following GPi-DBS PD, confirming the motor selectivity of this target. PMID:27070317

  11. Caustic Singularities Of High-Gain, Dual-Shaped Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galindo, Victor; Veruttipong, Thavath W.; Imbriale, William A.; Rengarajan, Sambiam

    1991-01-01

    Report presents study of some sources of error in analysis, by geometric theory of diffraction (GTD), of performance of high-gain, dual-shaped antenna reflector. Study probes into underlying analytic causes of singularity, with view toward devising and testing practical methods to avoid problems caused by singularity. Hybrid physical optics (PO) approach used to study near-field spillover or noise-temperature characteristics of high-gain relector antenna efficiently and accurately. Report illustrates this approach and underlying principles by presenting numerical results, for both offset and symmetrical reflector systems, computed by GTD, PO, and PO/GO methods.

  12. Pseudotumor Cerebri and Implanon: Is Rapid Weight Gain the Trigger?

    PubMed Central

    Kassen, Nirusha; Wells, Cait-lynn; Moodley, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between pseudotumor cerebri and contraceptive drugs is controversial. Its association with Implanon, an implantable single-rod contraceptive containing etonogestrel (a progestogen) has not been reported but is the subject of many medico-legal cases. The authors present two case reports of patients using Implanon and who subsequently developed pseudotumor cerebri. Rapid weight gain rather than direct hormonal influence is probably the trigger. Headaches, visual obscurations, and rapid weight gain in patients using Implanon should alert one to the probable diagnosis of pseudotumor cerebri. PMID:27928370

  13. Pseudotumor Cerebri and Implanon: Is Rapid Weight Gain the Trigger?

    PubMed

    Kassen, Nirusha; Wells, Cait-Lynn; Moodley, Anand

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between pseudotumor cerebri and contraceptive drugs is controversial. Its association with Implanon, an implantable single-rod contraceptive containing etonogestrel (a progestogen) has not been reported but is the subject of many medico-legal cases. The authors present two case reports of patients using Implanon and who subsequently developed pseudotumor cerebri. Rapid weight gain rather than direct hormonal influence is probably the trigger. Headaches, visual obscurations, and rapid weight gain in patients using Implanon should alert one to the probable diagnosis of pseudotumor cerebri.

  14. Effective gain measurements in chromium-doped forsterite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petricevic, V.; Seas, A.; Alfano, R. R.

    1991-01-01

    Effective gain cross section in tetravalent chromium-doped forsterite laser crystal was measured over the 1180-1330 nm spectral range. The experiment was performed using two collinear laser beams in a pump-and-probe arrangement. The peak-gain cross section from this measurement is estimated to be 1.9 x 10 to the -19th sq cm at 1215 nm, which is comparable to the value of about 2 x 10 to the -19th sq cm predicted by fluorescence linewidth and lifetime measurements. These results indicate that excited-state absorption is not a major loss mechanism in tetravalent chromium-doped forsterite.

  15. High gain multigap avalanche detectors for Cerenkov ring imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, R.S.; Lavender, W.M.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Williams, S.H.

    1980-10-01

    We report on a continuing study of multigap parallel plate avalanche chambers, primarily as photoelectron detectors for use with Cerenkov ring imaging counters. By suitable control of the fields in successive gaps and by introducing screens to reduce photon feedback to the cathode the gain many be increased considerably. We have obtained gains in excess of 6 x 10/sup 7/ for photoelectrons with a good pulse height spectrum and expect to increase this further. We discuss the use of resistive anodes to give avalanche positions in two dimensions by charge division.

  16. Use solar energy for remote antenna gain measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, A.

    1988-06-01

    A new method for solar antenna gain measurements is proposed which is independent of the effective input system temperature. The method is based on the difference between two power measurements, the Dp factor, and requires little equipment. A spectrum analyzer that has an average noise-measurement mode calibrated in power/bandwidth (dBm/Hz) is connected to the output of a radar receiver's front-end low-noise amplifier (LNA), where it detects the system's noise levels. No other equipment is required, assuming that the RF loss between the LNA and the antenna terminal and the gain of the LNA are known. An example of calculations is given.

  17. Limits to the information gain from lidar measurements.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, Aniceto

    2015-04-15

    Measurements over the return signal are an integral part of lidar remote sensing by which we gather information about the characteristics of specific targets. But how much information is gained by performing a given lidar measurement? By defining Shannon's mutual information of a lidar observation, here we consider the bits of information content on the measurement and describe mathematically the capacity of lidar estimates to represent a corresponding property in the target. For heterodyne Doppler lidars in particular, we have found simple analytical formulas that consider the information gain in mean-frequency estimates.

  18. Gain-switched holmium-doped fibre laser.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ka S; Ottaway, David; Munch, Jesper; Lancaster, David G; Bennetts, Shayne; Jackson, Stuart D

    2009-11-09

    We demonstrate the first gain-switched, singly doped, single-mode holmium-doped silicate glass fibre laser that operates at 2.106 microm. Using a gain-switched 1.909-microm thulium-doped fibre laser as the pump source, output pulses of energy 3.2 microJ and pulse duration of 150 ns were generated at 80 kHz and slope efficiency of 44%. Pulse stacking within the holmium-doped fibre laser resulted in significantly shorter 70 ns pulses.

  19. Photonic band-edge micro lasers with quantum dot gain.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Masahiro; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Tandaechanurat, Aniwat; Ota, Yasutomo; Kumagai, Naoto; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2009-01-19

    We demonstrate optically pumped continuous-wave photonic band-edge microlasers on a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab. Lasing was observed at a photonic band-edge, where the group velocity was significantly small near the K point of the band structure having a triangular lattice. Lasing was achieved by using a quantum dot gain material, which resulted in a significant decrease in the laser threshold, compared with photonic band-edge lasers using quantum well gain material. Extremely low laser thresholds of approximately 80 nW at 6 K was achieved. Lasing was observed in a defect-free photonic crystal as small as approximately 7 microm square.

  20. Gain-Compensating Circuit For NDE and Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushnick, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    High-frequency gain-compensating circuit designed for general use in nondestructive evaluation and ultrasonic measurements. Controls gain of ultrasonic receiver as function of time to aid in measuring attenuation of samples with high losses; for example, human skin and graphite/epoxy composites. Features high signal-to-noise ratio, large signal bandwidth and large dynamic range. Control bandwidth of 5 MHz ensures accuracy of control signal. Currently being used for retrieval of more information from ultrasonic signals sent through composite materials that have high losses, and to measure skin-burn depth in humans.